Science.gov

Sample records for flood protection levees

  1. The influence of woody plants on the seepage of flood protection levees: Experiences from a test site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammeranner, W.; Meixner, H.; Florineth, F.

    2009-04-01

    The past flood events have once more drawn the attention to the stability and maintenance of flood protection levees. The attention has also been focused on the relationship between vegetation and the structural integrity of dikes. Current standards regard dense turf to be safest vegetation cover for dikes. Many guidelines ban woody vegetation from dikes and levees to provide structural integrity, visual inspection and unhindered flood-fight access. The refusal of woody plants is mainly based on the argument that root penetration of woody plants facilitates water movement along their path. Within the frame of a research project carried out by the Institute of Soil Bioengineering and Landscape Construction (University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna), focusing on woody plants on levees, the effects of small to medium growing woody (shrubby) plants on the seepage are tested. Data are drawn from two natural-scaled research levees. The homogenous levees consist of a mineral silt-sand-gravel and have a fill height of 2.7 m and a slope inclination of 2:3. The tests investigate the impact of woody plants (living brush mattress - transversal) in comparison to compact turf (jute netting mulch seeding). Measured plant parameters, characterising the vegetation structures were shoot lengths, shoot diameters, and above ground biomass. Root growth is investigated in an extra plot area allowing excavation of the plants. Percolation is monitored using seepage monitoring pipes, soil moisture sensors and soil temperature probes, which were build into the embankment during construction. The proposed contribution discusses the effects of woody plants (shrubs) on seepage of flood protection levees. Methodology of research and results after three initial seepage tests are presented.

  2. Evaluation of levee setbacks for flood-loss reduction, Middle Mississippi River, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierauer, Jennifer; Pinter, Nicholas; Remo, Jonathan W. F.

    2012-07-01

    SummaryOne-dimensional hydraulic modeling and flood-loss modeling were used to test the effectiveness of levee setbacks for flood-loss reduction along the Middle Mississippi River (MMR). Four levee scenarios were assessed: (1) the present-day levee configuration, (2) a 1000 m levee setback, (3) a 1500 m levee setback, and (4) an optimized setback configuration. Flood losses were estimated using FEMA's Hazus-MH (Hazards US Multi-Hazard) loss-estimation software on a structure-by-structure basis for a range of floods from the 2- to the 500-year events. These flood-loss estimates were combined with a levee-reliability model to calculate probability-weighted damage estimates. In the simplest case, the levee setback scenarios tested here reduced flood losses compared to current conditions for large, infrequent flooding events but increased flood losses for smaller, more frequent flood events. These increases occurred because levee protection was removed for some of the existing structures. When combined with buyouts of unprotected structures, levee setbacks reduced flood losses for all recurrence intervals. The "optimized" levee setback scenario, involving a levee configuration manually planned to protect existing high-value infrastructure, reduced damages with or without buyouts. This research shows that levee setbacks in combination with buyouts are an economically viable approach for flood-risk reduction along the study reach and likely elsewhere where levees are widely employed for flood control. Designing a levee setback around existing high-value infrastructure can maximize the benefit of the setback while simultaneously minimizing the costs. The optimized levee setback scenario analyzed here produced payback periods (costs divided by benefits) of less than 12 years. With many aging levees failing current inspections across the US, and flood losses spiraling up over time, levee setbacks are a viable solution for reducing flood exposure and flood levels.

  3. Climate and floods still govern California levee breaks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Florsheim, J.L.; Dettinger, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    Even in heavily engineered river systems, climate still governs flood variability and thus still drives many levee breaks and geomorphic changes. We assemble a 155-year record of levee breaks for a major California river system to find that breaks occurred in 25% of years during the 20th Century. A relation between levee breaks and river discharge is present that sets a discharge threshold above which most levee breaks occurred. That threshold corresponds to small floods with recurrence intervals of ???2-3 years. Statistical analysis illustrates that levee breaks and peak discharges cycle (broadly) on a 12-15 year time scale, in time with warm-wet storm patterns in California, but more slowly or more quickly than ENSO and PDO climate phenomena, respectively. Notably, these variations and thresholds persist through the 20th Century, suggesting that historical flood-control effects have not reduced the occurrence or frequency of levee breaks. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Levee Scour Protection for Storm Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, E.; Sustainable; Resiliency in Levee Scour Protection

    2011-12-01

    Earnest Johnson, Firat Y. Testik *, Nadarajah Ravichandran Civil Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA * Contact author ftestik@clemson.edu Levee failure due to scouring has been a prominent occurrence among intense storm surges and waves, giving rise to the implementation of various scour protection measures over the years. This study is to investigate the levee scour and to compare different scour protection measures on a model-levee system in a laboratory wave tank. The protection measures that are tested and compared for their effectiveness in this study include turf reinforcement mats, woven geotextiles, and core-locs. This is an ongoing research effort and experiments are currently being conducted with model levees constructed based upon the United States Army Corps of Engineers' levee design and construction guidelines under various simulated storm conditions. Parameters such as wave elevations, deformation time history of the floodwall, and the scour depth are measured in each test. The finding of this research will be translated to provide effective scour protection measures for robust levee designs.

  5. 76 FR 6809 - Rehabilitation Assistance for Levees and other Flood Control Works, DAP 9524.3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Rehabilitation Assistance for Levees and other Flood Control... Rehabilitation Assistance for Levees and other Flood Control Works. DATES: Comments must be received by March 10... certain levees and other flood control works under the provisions of the Robert T. Stafford...

  6. Floodplain restoration with flood control: fish habitat value of levee borrow pits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Earthen flood control levees are often built using soil excavated from borrow pits lying parallel to and riverward of the finished levee. After construction, these pits can provide valuable floodplain habitats, and their value is well established along corridors of larger rivers. However, levee bo...

  7. 44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mapping of areas protected by levee systems. 65.10 Section 65.10 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL...

  8. Flood protection for the Kansas City bannister federal complex

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, J.J.; Williams, R.H.; Betzen, G.A.

    1995-08-01

    The Bannister Federal Complex is bordered on the east by the Blue River and on the south by Indian Creek. After a flood in 1961 and several near-miss floods, flood protection has been installed. The protection consists of 2,916 feet of concrete flood walls, 8,769 feet of levee, five rolling gates, four stoplog gaps, one hinged pedestrian gate, and one sandbag gap. The flood walls are over 14 feet tall. Construction was started on August 3, 1992 and was completed in early 1995. Architectural treatment was incorporated in the flood walls as well as landscaping to enhance the appearance of the flood protection.

  9. Evidence of an emerging levee failure mechanism causing disastrous floods in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlandini, Stefano; Moretti, Giovanni; Albertson, John D.

    2015-10-01

    A levee failure occurred along the Secchia River, Northern Italy, on 19 January 2014, resulting in flood damage in excess of $500 million. In response to this failure, immediate surveillance of other levees in the region led to the identification of a second breach developing on the neighboring Panaro River, where rapid mitigation efforts were successful in averting a full levee failure. The paired breach events that occurred along the Secchia and Panaro Rivers provided an excellent window on an emerging levee failure mechanism. In the Secchia River, by combining the information content of photographs taken from helicopters in the early stage of breach development and 10 cm resolution aerial photographs taken in 2010 and 2012, animal burrows were found to exist in the precise levee location where the breach originated. In the Panaro River, internal erosion was observed to occur at a location where a crested porcupine den was known to exist and this erosion led to the collapse of the levee top. This paper uses detailed numerical modeling of rainfall, river flow, and variably saturated flow in the levee to explore the hydraulic and geotechnical mechanisms that were triggered along the Secchia and Panaro Rivers by activities of burrowing animals leading to levee failures. As habitats become more fragmented and constrained along river corridors, it is possible that this failure mechanism could become more prevalent and, therefore, will demand greater attention in both the design and maintenance of earthen hydraulic structures as well as in wildlife management.

  10. Counter measures applied on levee system: Effects on flood map and probability of failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tekle, Shewandagn; Mazzoleni, Maurizio; Dottori, Francesco; Brandimarte, Luigia

    2014-05-01

    Historical records have shown that people living in the flood plain areas surrounded by levees are increased over the time around the world.. However, the effectiveness of different counter measures on increasing levee efficiency, and their environmental and economical consequences on the urbanized flood prone area, are not yet well exploited. The present research proposes a methodology to investigate the effects of two different counter measures on the estimation of the probability of levee failure due to overtopping and the consequent flood extent. The case study was performed in 98km-braided reach of Po River, Italy, between the cross-sections of Cremona and Borgoforte. The adopted methodology was divided into four core categories. Firstly, reliability analysis, expressed in terms of fragility curve, of the levee system in case of overtopping was performed using the geotechnical and geometrical data of the levee considering the grass cover quality as a stochastic variable to account the uncertainties associated to it. In order to estimate the fragility curves for all sections, a Monte Carlo framework was introduced. Secondly, 1D hydrodynamic model was implemented to estimate the water level in the river in case of a synthetic flood event of 200year return period. The information of the water level was used as hydraulic load into the previous fragility curves. Then, a levee breach modeli was introduced to address the uncertainties related to the location, size and development of the breaches. Finally, a 2D hydrodynamic model CA2D_S,based on the cellular automata approach in semi-inertial formulation for flux computation, was implementd. CA2D - SCENARI (CA2D_S) is a version of the CA2D model specifically designed to simulate levee breach scenarios in low land areas. The previous methodological steps were repeated for each countermeasure scenario and the results from CA2D, expressed in terms of flood extent, were compared and analyzed. The analysis showed that different counter measures can reduce the probability of failure of the levee system and prevent flooding locally.

  11. Monitoring of levees, bridges, pipelines, and other critical infrastructure during the 2011 flooding in the Mississippi River Basin: Chapter J in 2011 floods of the central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Densmore, Brenda K.; Burton, Bethany L.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Cannia, James C.; Huizinga, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    During the 2011 Mississippi River Basin flood, the U.S. Geological Survey evaluated aspects of critical river infrastructure at the request of and in support of local, State, and Federal Agencies. Geotechnical and hydrographic data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey at numerous locations were able to provide needed information about 2011 flood effects to those managing the critical infrastructure. These data were collected and processed in a short time frame to provide managers the ability to make a timely evaluation of the safety of the infrastructure and, when needed, to take action to secure and protect critical infrastructure. Critical infrastructure surveyed by the U.S. Geological Survey included levees, bridges, pipeline crossings, power plant intakes and outlets, and an electrical transmission tower. Capacitively coupled resistivity data collected along the flood-protection levees surrounding the Omaha Public Power District Nebraska City power plant (Missouri River Levee Unit R573), mapped the near-subsurface electrical properties of the levee and the materials immediately below it. The near-subsurface maps provided a better understanding of the levee construction and the nature of the lithology beneath the levee. Comparison of the capacitively coupled resistivity surveys and soil borings indicated that low-resistivity value material composing the levee generally is associated with lean clay and silt to about 2 to 4 meters below the surface, overlying a more resistive layer associated with sand deposits. In general, the resistivity structure becomes more resistive to the south and the southern survey sections correlate well with the borehole data that indicate thinner clay and silt at the surface and thicker sand sequences at depth in these sections. With the resistivity data Omaha Public Power District could focus monitoring efforts on areas with higher resistivity values (coarser-grained deposits or more loosely compacted section), which typically are more prone to erosion or scour. Data collected from multibeam echosounder hydrographic surveys at selected bridges aided State agencies in evaluating the structural integrity of the bridges during the flood, by assessing the amount of scour present around piers and abutments. Hydrographic surveys of the riverbed detected scour depths ranging from zero (no scour) to approximately 5.8 meters in some areas adjacent to North Dakota bridge piers, zero to approximately 6 meters near bridge piers in Nebraska, and zero to approximately 10.4 meters near bridge piers in Missouri. Substructural support elements of some bridge piers in North Dakota, Nebraska, and Missouri that usually are buried were exposed to moving water and sediment. At five Missouri bridge piers the depth of scour left less than 1.8 meters of bed material between the bottom of the scour hole and bedrock. State agencies used this information along with bridge design and construction information to determine if reported scour depths would have a substantial effect on the stability of the structure. Multibeam echosounder hydrographic surveys of the riverbed near pipeline crossings did not detect exposed pipelines. However, analysis of the USGS survey data by pipeline companies aided in their evaluation of pipeline safety and led one company to further investigate the safety of their line and assisted another company in getting one offline pipeline back into operation. Multibeam echosounder hydrographic surveys of the banks, riverbed, and underwater infrastructure at Omaha Public Power District power plants documented the bed and scour conditions. These datasets were used by Omaha Public Power District to evaluate the effects that the flood had on operation, specifically to evaluate if scour during the peak of the flood or sediment deposition during the flood recession would affect the water intake structures. Hydrographic surveys at an Omaha Public Power District electrical transmission tower documented scour so that they could evaluate the structural integrity of the tower as well as have the informati

  12. 33 CFR 385.37 - Flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flood protection. 385.37 Section... Flood protection. (a) General. In accordance with section 601 of WRDA 2000, flood protection, consistent...) Existing flood protection. Each Project Implementation Report shall include appropriate analyses,...

  13. 33 CFR 385.37 - Flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Flood protection. 385.37 Section... Flood protection. (a) General. In accordance with section 601 of WRDA 2000, flood protection, consistent...) Existing flood protection. Each Project Implementation Report shall include appropriate analyses,...

  14. 33 CFR 385.37 - Flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Flood protection. 385.37 Section... Flood protection. (a) General. In accordance with section 601 of WRDA 2000, flood protection, consistent...) Existing flood protection. Each Project Implementation Report shall include appropriate analyses,...

  15. 33 CFR 385.37 - Flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Flood protection. 385.37 Section... Flood protection. (a) General. In accordance with section 601 of WRDA 2000, flood protection, consistent...) Existing flood protection. Each Project Implementation Report shall include appropriate analyses,...

  16. Elemental chemistry of sand-boil discharge used to trace variable pathways of seepage beneath levees during the 2011 Mississippi River flood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water samples were collected from the Mississippi River, from sand boils near the toe of the levee on the Mississippi side of the river, and from actively flowing relief wells shortly after peak stage of the 2011 Mississippi River flood. Two distinct pathways for seepage under the levee were identif...

  17. Development of Floating Wave Barriers for Cost Effective Protection of Irrigation Pond Levees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The earth levees commonly used for irrigation reservoirs are subjected to significant embankment erosion due to wind-generated waves. Large seasonal fluctuations in water level make vegetative bank protection impractical, and other stabilization methods, such as the use of stone or discarded tires, ...

  18. Geophysical applications for levee assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chlaib, Hussein Khalefa

    Levees are important engineering structures that build along the rivers to protect the human lives and shield the communities as well as agriculture lands from the high water level events. Animal burrows, subsurface cavities, and low density (high permeability) zones are weakness features within the levee body that increase its risk of failure. To prevent such failure, continuous monitoring of the structure integrity and early detection of the weakness features must be conducted. Application of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Capacitively Coupled Resistivity (CCR) methods were found to be very effective in assessing the levees and detect zones of weakness within the levee body. GPR was implemented using multi-frequency antennas (200, 400, and 900 MHz) with survey cart/wheel and survey vehicle. The (CCR) method was applied by using a single transmitter and three receivers. Studying the capability and the effectiveness of these methods in levee monitoring, subsurface weakness feature detection, and studying the structure integrity of levees were the main tasks of this dissertation. A set of laboratory experiments was conducted at the Geophysics Laboratory of the University of Arkansas at Little Rock (UALR) to analyze the polarity change in GPR signals in the presence of subsurface voids and water-filled cavities. Also three full scale field expeditions at the Big Dam Bridge (BDB) Levee, Lollie Levee, and Helena Levee in Arkansas were conducted using the GPR technique. This technique was effective in detecting empty, water, and clay filled cavities as well as small scale animal burrows (small rodents). The geophysical work at BDB and Lollie Levees expressed intensive subsurface anomalies which might decrease their integrity while the Helena Levee shows less subsurface anomalies. The compaction of levee material is a key factor affecting piping phenomenon. The structural integrity of the levee partially depends on the density/compaction of the soil layers. A reduction in density or compaction of part of the levee body may create a zone of weakness during a flood. The Energy Variation Method (EVM) was used to detect the changes in electromagnetic (EM) energy reflected from the layers as a measure of the variation in density. Synthetic modeling was conducted to simulate a cross-section of a levee body to study the ground penetrating radar (GPR) signal behavior as it propagates in the model. EVM was calculated from the reflected signal to predict the changes in density (compaction). Comprehensive fieldwork was conducted to collect a 2,500 meter profile along part of the Helena Levee, Helena-West Helena, AR, for possible density variations in the soil using EVM of GPR signals. EVM is clearly capable of detecting changes in the dielectric constant. The association of these changes to the variation in density/compaction allows the EVM method to directly delineate these variations. Using such a robust method will definitely improve the assessment process as applied to levee structure. CCR data was collected to study the electrical resistivity distribution within the levee and its usefulness in levee's assessment. CCR was less effective to detect the animal burrows and other small anomalies due to nature of the method in its limitation of detecting very small features.

  19. National Levee Database: monitoring, vulnerability assessment and management in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbetta, Silvia; Camici, Stefania; Maccioni, Pamela; Moramarco, Tommaso

    2015-04-01

    A properly designed and constructed levees system can often be an effective device for repelling floodwaters and provide barriers against inundation to protect urbanized and industrial areas. However, the delineation of flooding-prone areas and the related hydraulic hazard mapping taking account of uncertainty (Apel et al., 2008) are usually developed with a scarce consideration of the possible occurrence of levee failures along river channels (Mazzoleni et al., 2014). Indeed, it is well known that flooding is frequently the result of levee failures that can be triggered by several factors, as: (1) overtopping, (2) scouring of the foundation, (3) seepage/piping of levee body/foundation, and (4) sliding of the foundation. Among these failure mechanisms that are influenced by the levee's geometrical configuration, hydraulic conditions (e.g. river level and seepage), and material properties (e.g. permeability, cohesion, porosity, compaction), the piping caused by seepage (ICOLD, http://www.icold-cigb.org) is considered one of the most dominant levee failure mechanisms (Colleselli F., 1994; Wallingford H. R., 2003). The difficulty of estimating the hydraulic parameters to properly describe the seepage line within the body and foundation of the levee implies that the study of the critical flood wave routing is typically carried out by assuming that the levee system is undamaged during the flood event. In this context, implementing and making operational a National Levee Database (NLD), effectively structured and continuously updated, becomes fundamental to have a searchable inventory of information about levees available as a key resource supporting decisions and actions affecting levee safety. The ItaliaN LEvee Database (INLED) has been recently developed by the Research Institute for Geo-Hydrological Protection (IRPI) for the Civil Protection Department of the Presidency of Council of Ministers. INLED has the main focus of collecting comprehensive information about Italian levees and historical breach failures to be exploited in the framework of an operational procedure addressed to the seepage vulnerability assessment of river reaches where the levee system is an important structural measure against flooding. For its structure, INLED is a dynamic geospatial database with ongoing efforts to add levee data from authorities with the charge of hydraulic risk mitigation. In particular, the database is aimed to provide the available information about: i) location and condition of levees; ii) morphological and geometrical properties; iii) photographic documentation; iv) historical levee failures; v) assessment of vulnerability to overtopping and seepage carried out through a procedure based on simple vulnerability indexes (Camici et al. 2014); vi) management, control and maintenance; vii)flood hazard maps developed by assuming the levee system undamaged/damaged during the flood event. Currently, INLED contains data of levees that are mostly located in the Tiber basin, Central Italy. References Apel H., Merz B. & Thieken A.H. Quantification of uncertainties in flood risk assessments. Int J River Basin Manag 2008, 6, (2), 149-162. Camici S,, Barbetta S., Moramarco T., Levee body vulnerability to seepage: the case study of the levee failure along the Foenna stream on 1st January 2006 (central Italy)", Journal of Flood Risk Management, in press. Colleselli F. Geotechnical problems related to river and channel embankments. Rotterdam, the Netherlands: Springer, 1994. H. R.Wallingford Consultants (HRWC). Risk assessment for flood and coastal defence for strategic planning: high level methodology technical report, London, 2003. Mazzoleni M., Bacchi B., Barontini S., Di Baldassarre G., Pilotti M. & Ranzi R. Flooding hazard mapping in floodplain areas affected by piping breaches in the Po River, Italy. J Hydrol Eng 2014, 19, (4), 717-731.

  20. Levee being built in Fargo, ND

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The city of Fargo, ND builds levees in preparation for rising flood waters. The height of the levees are built based on flood predictions, made by the National Weather Service using USGS streamflow information. ...

  1. Levee and sandbag efforts in Fargo, ND

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The city of Fargo, ND builds levees and prepares sandbags in preparation for rising flood waters. The height of the levees are built based on flood predictions, made by the National Weather Service using USGS streamflow information. ...

  2. Large-scale flooding analysis in the suburbs of Tokyo Metropolis caused by levee breach of the Tone River using a 2D hydrodynamic model.

    PubMed

    Hai, Pham T; Magome, J; Yorozuya, A; Inomata, H; Fukami, K; Takeuchi, K

    2010-01-01

    In order to assess the effects of climate change on flood disasters in urban areas, we applied a two dimensional finite element hydrodynamic model (2D-FEM) to simulate flood processes for the case analysis of levee breach caused by Kathleen Typhoon on 16 September 1947 in Kurihashi reach of Tone River, upstream of Tokyo area. The purpose is to use the model to simulate flood inundation processes under the present topography and land-use conditions with impending extreme flood scenarios due to climate change for mega-urban areas like Tokyo. Simulation used 100?m resolution topographic data (in PWRI), which was derived from original LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data, and levee breach hydrographic data in 1947. In this paper, we will describe the application of the model with calibration approach and techniques when applying for such fine spatial resolution in urban environments. The fine unstructured triangular FEM mesh of the model appeared to be the most capable of introducing of constructions like roads/levees in simulations. Model results can be used to generate flood mapping, subsequently uploaded to Google Earth interface, making the modeling and presentation process much comprehensible to the general public. PMID:20962401

  3. 44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., potential, and magnitude of debris, sediment, and ice accumulation. It must be also shown that the levee... (especially in constricted areas); expected wind and wave action; ice loading; impact of debris; slope..., compressibility of embankment soils, compressibility of foundation soils, age of the levee system,...

  4. 44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., potential, and magnitude of debris, sediment, and ice accumulation. It must be also shown that the levee... (especially in constricted areas); expected wind and wave action; ice loading; impact of debris; slope..., compressibility of embankment soils, compressibility of foundation soils, age of the levee system,...

  5. 44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., potential, and magnitude of debris, sediment, and ice accumulation. It must be also shown that the levee... (especially in constricted areas); expected wind and wave action; ice loading; impact of debris; slope..., compressibility of embankment soils, compressibility of foundation soils, age of the levee system,...

  6. Development of Floating Wave Barriers for Cost Effective Protection of Irrigation and Catfish Pond Levees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozeren, Y.; Wren, D. G.; Alonso, C. V.

    2007-12-01

    Earth levees for catfish ponds and irrigation water storage experience significant embankment erosion due to wind generated waves. Large seasonal fluctuations in water level make vegetative bank protection impractical, and other stabilization methods such as the use of old tires or riprap are not acceptable due to ecological and economic concerns. The goal of the present work is to define configurations and construction techniques for inexpensive floating breakwaters made of polyethylene irrigation tubing. Based on wave characteristics measured in an irrigation pond near Lonoke, Arkansas, a laboratory scale wave generating flume was designed, constructed, and used to test multiple wave barrier configurations for regular waves in deep and transitional water depths. Wave transmission characteristics were investigated for the following breakwater arrangements: (1) fully restrained, (2) vertically restrained with a single mooring line, (3) horizontally restrained with a rigid arm hinged at one end, and (4) horizontally restrained with piles at both sides of the breakwater. The test results show that cylindrical pipes can be used effectively as floating breakwaters and that wave transmission characteristics strongly depend on the draft of the breakwater and the mooring configuration. The use of multiple small cylinders instead of a single large one can reduce cost while maintaining the same level of wave attenuation. The wave characteristics measured in the field and the results of laboratory testing resulted in a final design that is to be tested at the prototype scale in an irrigation pond.

  7. 33 CFR 385.37 - Flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flood protection. 385.37 Section 385.37 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROGRAMMATIC REGULATIONS FOR THE COMPREHENSIVE EVERGLADES RESTORATION PLAN Ensuring Protection...

  8. Levee Monitoring with Radar Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Cathleen E.

    2012-01-01

    Topics in this presentation are: 1. Overview of radar remote sensing 2. Surface change detection with Differential Interferometric Radar Processing 3. Study of the Sacramento - San Joaquin levees 4. Mississippi River Levees during the Spring 2011 floods.

  9. On mechanisms triggering the levees failure along the Foenna stream on 1st January 2006 and which caused the flooding in the urban area of Sinalunga, Tuscany Region (Italy). A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camici, Stefania; Moramarco, Tommaso; Brocca, Luca; Melone, Florisa; Lapenna, Vincenzo; Perrone, Angela; Loperte, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    On 1st January 2006, during an ordinary flood event, a levee failure along the Foenna stream caused the flooding in the urban area of Sinalunga, a small town located in Tuscany region (Italy). The event was monitored by a public agency with the responsibility for the control and maintenance of the natural channel networks. Long time before of flooding, people living in the surrounding area of the stream blamed the presence of wild animals and of numerous burrows along the levees. Although the numerous actions of maintenance along the levees mainly for removing the burrows, a levee seepage occurred during that flood. The presence of an outflow located on the downstream face, almost 2 m below the levee top, caused the spurt of brown water denoting the presence of sediment erosion. On the upstream face of levee, a little hole of about 30 cm at the same height of the outflow was discovered. Although the agency workers tried to close the hole by using appropriate blankets, in short time the top of the levee subsided and the overtopping flow caused a trapezoidal breach typical for an earth-fill embankment. The formation of breach was so fast that in a little more of one hour the urban area near to the Foenna stream was flooded causing high economic damages. Mechanisms triggered the levees failure are the object of this work. The analysis of the event has been first addressed to assess the state of-fact of levees conditions along the Foenna stream, thus to understand how much the activity of wild animals, in particular that of porcupine, may have affected the hydraulic safety of the embankment. At the purpose, after the event, topographical surveys of cross sections have been done along with tomographic surveys by geoelectric technique for investigating the possible presence, besides of burrows, also of tunnels dug into the levees by animals. Then, the analysis of hydrometeorological conditions of the event has allowed to better understand the evolution of the flood and if its magnitude was able to affect the hydraulic holding of levees. Finally, the seepage vulnerability of these levees has been also assessed to address their hydraulic safety applying two models based on a steady and unsteady infiltration, respectively. Based on the obtained results, the following findings can be drawn. 1) The levees failure near the Sinalunga urban area is certainly due to the presence of the porcupine burrow at middle height of upstream face of levee that has addressed the flow into the embankment and then triggered the seepage phenomenon. 2) The works of the maintenance finalized to the closure of the burrows carried out before of the flood event were necessary but not sufficient to prevent the failure of levees. 3) To prevent the failure due to burrows presence, the levees maintenance should have been addressed through both the closure of burrows and the capture of wild animals; if this action had been done for the Foenna stream then the probability of failure would have been truly low. This last aspect has been also inferred through geoelectrical tomography surveys that showed the possible presence of at least two tunnels along both faces of levees, so emphasizing as the various closure of burrows made in the past by maintenance agency were totally useless. 4) The seepage vulnerability analysis has shown that levees might be to risk of failure for floods whose durations are consistent with the ones might occur in the Foenna basin. However, for this particular event the levees failure can be only ascribed to wild animals activity, seeing that the seepage was caused by a burrow hole.

  10. 44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... stability against loading conditions for Case IV as defined in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) manual... shall be addressed in the analyses include: Depth of flooding, duration of flooding, embankment geometry..., the extent of the flooded area, and, if the average depth is greater than one foot, the...

  11. Floods

    MedlinePLUS

    ... when a levee is breached, or when a dam breaks. Flash floods, which can develop quickly, often have a dangerous wall of roaring water. The wall carries rocks, mud, and rubble ... downstream from a dam. Although there are no guarantees of safety during ...

  12. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Flood plain management... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.8 Flood plain management and protection. (a) Periodic inundation of lands along waterways has not discouraged development of flood hazards areas. Major floods cause loss of...

  13. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Flood plain management... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.8 Flood plain management and protection. (a) Periodic inundation of lands along waterways has not discouraged development of flood hazards areas. Major floods cause loss of...

  14. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flood plain management... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.8 Flood plain management and protection. (a) Periodic inundation of lands along waterways has not discouraged development of flood hazards areas. Major floods cause loss of...

  15. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Flood plain management... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.8 Flood plain management and protection. (a) Periodic inundation of lands along waterways has not discouraged development of flood hazards areas. Major floods cause loss of...

  16. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Flood plain management... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.8 Flood plain management and protection. (a) Periodic inundation of lands along waterways has not discouraged development of flood hazards areas. Major floods cause loss of...

  17. Flood protection diversification to reduce probabilities of extreme losses.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qian; Lambert, James H; Karvetski, Christopher W; Keisler, Jeffrey M; Linkov, Igor

    2012-11-01

    Recent catastrophic losses because of floods require developing resilient approaches to flood risk protection. This article assesses how diversification of a system of coastal protections might decrease the probabilities of extreme flood losses. The study compares the performance of portfolios each consisting of four types of flood protection assets in a large region of dike rings. A parametric analysis suggests conditions in which diversifications of the types of included flood protection assets decrease extreme flood losses. Increased return periods of extreme losses are associated with portfolios where the asset types have low correlations of economic risk. The effort highlights the importance of understanding correlations across asset types in planning for large-scale flood protection. It allows explicit integration of climate change scenarios in developing flood mitigation strategy. PMID:22817779

  18. 25 CFR 286.9 - Environmental and flood disaster protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental and flood disaster protection. 286.9... BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM § 286.9 Environmental and flood disaster protection. Grant funds will not be advanced until there is assurance of compliance with any applicable provisions of the Flood...

  19. 25 CFR 286.9 - Environmental and flood disaster protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Environmental and flood disaster protection. 286.9... BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM § 286.9 Environmental and flood disaster protection. Grant funds will not be advanced until there is assurance of compliance with any applicable provisions of the Flood...

  20. 24 CFR 574.640 - Flood insurance protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... National Flood Insurance Program and the regulations thereunder (44 CFR parts 59 through 79); or (2) Less... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Flood insurance protection. 574.640... Requirements § 574.640 Flood insurance protection. No property to be assisted under this part may be located...

  1. 24 CFR 574.640 - Flood insurance protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... National Flood Insurance Program and the regulations thereunder (44 CFR parts 59 through 79); or (2) Less... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Flood insurance protection. 574.640... Requirements § 574.640 Flood insurance protection. No property to be assisted under this part may be located...

  2. 25 CFR 286.9 - Environmental and flood disaster protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Environmental and flood disaster protection. 286.9... BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM § 286.9 Environmental and flood disaster protection. Grant funds will not be advanced until there is assurance of compliance with any applicable provisions of the Flood...

  3. 24 CFR 574.640 - Flood insurance protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... National Flood Insurance Program and the regulations thereunder (44 CFR parts 59 through 79); or (2) Less... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flood insurance protection. 574.640... Requirements § 574.640 Flood insurance protection. No property to be assisted under this part may be located...

  4. 24 CFR 574.640 - Flood insurance protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... National Flood Insurance Program and the regulations thereunder (44 CFR parts 59 through 79); or (2) Less... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Flood insurance protection. 574.640... Requirements § 574.640 Flood insurance protection. No property to be assisted under this part may be located...

  5. 25 CFR 286.9 - Environmental and flood disaster protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Environmental and flood disaster protection. 286.9... BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM § 286.9 Environmental and flood disaster protection. Grant funds will not be advanced until there is assurance of compliance with any applicable provisions of the Flood...

  6. 24 CFR 574.640 - Flood insurance protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... National Flood Insurance Program and the regulations thereunder (44 CFR parts 59 through 79); or (2) Less... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Flood insurance protection. 574.640... Requirements § 574.640 Flood insurance protection. No property to be assisted under this part may be located...

  7. 25 CFR 286.9 - Environmental and flood disaster protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Environmental and flood disaster protection. 286.9 Section... BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM § 286.9 Environmental and flood disaster protection. Grant funds will not be advanced until there is assurance of compliance with any applicable provisions of the Flood...

  8. Screening of Earthen Levees Using Synthetic Aperture Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aanstoos, J. V.; O'Hara, C.; Prasad, S.; Dabbiru, L.; Nobrega, R.; Lee, M.

    2009-12-01

    Earthen levees protect large areas of populated and cultivated land in the US from flooding. As shown recently with hurricanes Katrina and Ike and the recent floods in the Midwest, the potential loss of life and property associated with the catastrophic failure of levees can be extremely large. Over the entire US, there are over 100,000 miles of levee structures of varying designs and conditions. Currently, there are limited processes in place to prioritize the monitoring of large numbers of dam and levee structures. Levee managers and federal agencies need to assess levee health rapidly with robust techniques that identify, classify and prioritize levee vulnerabilities with lower costs than traditional soil-boring programs, which can cost many of millions of dollars and provide information about the subsurface only in the immediate vicinity of a small-diameter borehole. This paper reports preliminary results of a project studying the use of airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) as an aid to the levee screening process. The SAR sensor being studied is the NASA UAVSAR (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle SAR), a fully polarimetric L-band SAR which is specifically designed to acquire airborne repeat track SAR data for differential interferometric measurements. The instrument is capable of sub-meter ground sample distance. NASA has imaged with this instrument 230 km of levees along the lower Mississippi River for use in this study. SAR interferometric mode is capable of identifying vertical displacements on the order of a few millimeters. Its multipolarization measurements can penetrate soil to as much as one meter depth. Thus it is valuable in detecting changes in levees that will be key inputs to a levee vulnerability classification system. Once vulnerable levee reaches have been identified, further actions such as more detailed examination or repairs can be focused on these higher-priority sections. We report on the use of various feature detection algorithms being applied to the polarimetry data, including entropy-anisotropy decomposition and methods based on the Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM). The features detected are compared with various ground truth data including soil type maps, soil conductivity measurements, and on site visual inspections.

  9. FLOPROS: an evolving global database of flood protection standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scussolini, P.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Jongman, B.; Bouwer, L. M.; Winsemius, H. C.; de Moel, H.; Ward, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    With the projected changes in climate, population and socioeconomic activity located in flood-prone areas, the global assessment of the flood risk is essential to inform climate change policy and disaster risk management. Whilst global flood risk models exist for this purpose, the accuracy of their results is greatly limited by the lack of information on the current standard of protection to floods, with studies either neglecting this aspect or resorting to crude assumptions. Here we present a first global database of FLOod PROtection Standards, FLOPROS, which comprises information in the form of the flood return period associated with protection measures, at different spatial scales. FLOPROS comprises three layers of information, and combines them into one consistent database. The Design layer contains empirical information about the actual standard of existing protection already in place, while the Policy layer and the Model layer are proxies for such protection standards, and serve to increase the spatial coverage of the database. The Policy layer contains information on protection standards from policy regulations; and the Model layer uses a validated modeling approach to calculate protection standards. Based on this first version of FLOPROS, we suggest a number of strategies to further extend and increase the resolution of the database. Moreover, as the database is intended to be continually updated, while flood protection standards are changing with new interventions, FLOPROS requires input from the flood risk community. We therefore invite researchers and practitioners to contribute information to this evolving database by corresponding to the authors.

  10. Radar remote sensing for levee health assessment in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, P.; Jones, C. E.; Dudas, J.; Bawden, G. W.; Deverel, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Levees and dikes form extensive flood protection infrastructure that often also serve critical water conveyance functions. We have studied the use of radar remote sensing for providing health assessment of levees, focusing on California's levee system. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, which lies directly east of San Francisco Bay, is an area comprised of tidal marshland and reclaimed land in the form of ~60 islands surrounded by 1700 km of levees. Improved knowledge of subsidence across the region is needed to maintain the integrity of the Delta levee system, which protects the integrity and quality of the state's primary water supply. The western Delta is particularly critical because levee failure in this area would rapidly draw water of high salinity content into the channels conveying the fresh water supply. Here we report on a study that uses radar interferometry to measure the spatially and temporally varied levee movement and subsidence in the area, focusing particularly on Sherman Island, the westernmost island of the Delta. We use data from NASA's L-band (23.79 cm) Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) collected at 6-week average interval from July 2009 through the current day. We show preliminary results for localized movement on and near the levees and for island-scale subsidence and discuss the techniques used for these measurements and how they could contribute to emergency response.

  11. 33 CFR 203.51 - Levee owner's manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection...-303, the Corps will provide a levee owner's manual to the non-Federal sponsor of all flood control... Maintenance Manual specified by 33 CFR 208.10(a)(10) will fulfill the requirement of providing a levee...

  12. 33 CFR 203.51 - Levee owner's manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection...-303, the Corps will provide a levee owner's manual to the non-Federal sponsor of all flood control... Maintenance Manual specified by 33 CFR 208.10(a)(10) will fulfill the requirement of providing a levee...

  13. 33 CFR 203.51 - Levee owner's manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection...-303, the Corps will provide a levee owner's manual to the non-Federal sponsor of all flood control... Maintenance Manual specified by 33 CFR 208.10(a)(10) will fulfill the requirement of providing a levee...

  14. 33 CFR 203.51 - Levee owner's manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection...-303, the Corps will provide a levee owner's manual to the non-Federal sponsor of all flood control... Maintenance Manual specified by 33 CFR 208.10(a)(10) will fulfill the requirement of providing a levee...

  15. 33 CFR 203.51 - Levee owner's manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection...-303, the Corps will provide a levee owner's manual to the non-Federal sponsor of all flood control... Maintenance Manual specified by 33 CFR 208.10(a)(10) will fulfill the requirement of providing a levee...

  16. Geotechnical reconnaissance of the Mississippi River Delta flood-protection system after Hurricane Katrina: Chapter 3C in Science and the storms-the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luna, Ronaldo; Summers, David; Hoffman, David; Rogers, J. David; Sevi, Adam; Witt, Emitt C.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the post-Hurricane Katrina conditions of the flood-protection system of levees and floodwalls that failed in the environs of the Mississippi River Delta and New Orleans, La. Damage conditions and suggested mechanisms of failure are presented from the geotechnical point of view.

  17. Substation flood protection: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Gacek, D.B.; McGovern, L.L.

    1999-11-01

    On July 18, 1996, the City of Naperville, Illinois encountered a substantial storm event ranging from nine to fourteen inches of rainfall across town in less than twelve hours, with the majority falling over a four-hour period. The watershed containing the City`s Westside substation encountered the most significant rainfall totals, resulting in a flood crest in the substation area of approximately thirteen inches of water. The station is a 138 kV substation, and the flooding of this station caused a power loss to approximately 60% of the City`s customers for more than eight hours. The water level posed no threat to yard equipment, however, within the substation control building, flood water shorted out control circuits and damaged transmission line relay systems. Crews worked round-the-clock for most of a week to return all transmission lines and transformers to normal service. The 15 kV switchgear ultimately had to be replaced due to recurring control circuit problems. Once the station was restored and the cleanup efforts underway, the City embarked on an evaluation to determine what condition or conditions allowed the flooding to occur, and what could be done in the future to avoid this problem to ensure that the customers of Naperville would not experience another service outage of this magnitude due to flooding.

  18. Effects of river reach discretization on the estimation of the probability of levee failure owing to piping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzoleni, Maurizio; Brandimarte, Luigia; Barontini, Stefano; Ranzi, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    Over the centuries many societies have preferred to settle down nearby floodplains area and take advantage of the favorable environmental conditions. Due to changing hydro-meteorological conditions, over time, levee systems along rivers have been raised to protect urbanized area and reduce the impact of floods. As expressed by the so called "levee paradox", many societies might to tend to trust these levee protection systems due to an induced sense of safety and, as a consequence, invest even more in urban developing in levee protected flood prone areas. As a result, considering also the increasing number of population around the world, people living in floodplains is growing. However, human settlements in floodplains are not totally safe and have been continuously endangered by the risk of flooding. In fact, failures of levee system in case of flood event have also produced the most devastating disasters of the last two centuries due to the exposure of the developed floodprone areas to risk. In those cases, property damage is certain, but loss of life can vary dramatically with the extent of the inundation area, the size of the population at risk, and the amount of warning time available. The aim of this study is to propose an innovative methodology to estimate the reliability of a general river levee system in case of piping, considering different sources of uncertainty, and analyze the influence of different discretization of the river reach in sub-reaches in the evaluation of the probability of failure. The reliability analysis, expressed in terms of fragility curve, was performed evaluating the probability of failure, conditioned by a given hydraulic load in case of a certain levee failure mechanism, using a Monte Carlo and First Order Reliability Method. Knowing the information about fragility curve for each discrete levee reach, different fragility indexes were introduced. Using the previous information was then possible to classify the river into sub-reaches having different classes of reliability. This methodology was then applied to the Po River where the probability of failure in case of synthetic 100-year return period flood event was additionally calculated. The results of this study pointed out how the fragility classes assessed for the Po are in agreement with the historical observations. Moreover, the choice in the discretization criteria may affect the resulting probability of failure along the river reach. Classifying different levee reaches into different classes of fragility can be then used in a generic river reach where levee geometry is known. Furthermore, the proposed fragility analysis can support probabilistic flood risk mapping, monitoring and planning of maintenance works of levee systems. This study is part of the FP7 European Project KULTURisk.

  19. 75 FR 7522 - United States Section; Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Flood...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... Environmental Impact Statement, Flood Control Improvements and Partial Levee Relocation, Presidio Flood Control... EIS) for flood control improvements to the Presidio Flood Control Project, Presidio, Texas (Presidio... Impact Statement, Flood Control Improvements and Partial Levee Relocation, USIBWC Presidio Flood...

  20. Information support systems for cultural heritage protection against flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedvedova, K.; Pergl, R.

    2015-08-01

    The goal of this paper is to present use of different kind of software applications to create complex support system for protection of cultural heritage against flooding. The project is very complex and it tries to cover the whole area of the problem from prevention to liquidation of aftermath effects. We used GIS for mapping the risk areas, ontology systems for vulnerability assessment application and the BORM method (Business Object Relation Modelling) for flood protection system planning guide. Those modern technologies helped us to gather a lot of information in one place and provide the knowledge to the broad audience.

  1. Protecting Coastal Areas from Flooding by Injecting Solids into the Subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germanovich, L. N.; Murdoch, L.

    2008-12-01

    Subsidence and sea level rise conspire to increase the risk of flooding in coastal cities throughout the world, and these processes were key contributors to the devastation of New Orleans by hurricane Katrina. Constructing levees and placing fill to raise ground elevations are currently the main options for reducing flooding risks in coastal areas, and both of these options have drawbacks. We suggest that hydromechanical injection of solid compounds suspended in liquid can be used to lift the ground surface and thereby expand the options for protecting such coastal cities as New Orleans, Venice, and Shanghai from flooding. These techniques are broadly related to hydraulic fracturing and compensation grouting, where solid compounds are injected as slurries and cause upward displacements at the ground surface. The equipment and logistics required for hydromechanical solid injection and ground lifting are readily available from current geotechnical and petroleum operations. Hydraulic fractures are routinely created in the upper tens of meters of sediments, where they are filled with a wide range of different proppants for environmental applications. At shallow depths, many of these fractures are sub-parallel to the ground surface and lift their overburden by a few mm to cm, although lifting is not the objective of these fractures. Much larger, vertical displacements, of the order of several meters, could be created in low-cohesion sediments over areas as large as square kilometers. This would be achieved as a result of multiple injections. Injecting solid particulates provides the benefits of a permanent displacement supported by the solids. We have demonstrated that hydraulic fractures will lift the ground surface at shallow depths in Texas near the Sabine River, where the geological setting is generally similar to that of New Orleans (and where, incidentally, hurricane Rita landed in 2005). In these regions, the soft surficial sediments are underlain by relatively stiff Pleistocene deposits, which create in-situ stress conditions favorable for sub-horizontal orientation of hydraulic fractures. Based on the poroelastic effect, these conditions can further be improved by subsurface manipulations of pore fluid. Also, there are many geological examples of natural, sub- horizontal hydraulic fractures. These include multiple igneous sills (e.g., Henry Mountains, Utah) and sand- filled sills intruded into sedimentary formations (e.g., Shetland-Faroe Islands). Techniques that are currently used, or planned, for protecting coastal cities from flood are typically based on the concept of a barrier to the seawater (e.g., levees or water gates). However, the failure of any barrier to flood waters can be catastrophic when the city it protects is below sea level. Hydromechanical injection of solid compounds could permanently lift elevations above a Category 5 hurricane surge, so the risk of a catastrophic failure and subsequent flooding becomes insignificant. We envision that the hydromechanical method can be used in combination with other strategies. For example, in some areas it may be efficient to let most of a city retreat and only lift localized regions of particularly high value, such as airports, port facilities, refineries, historical areas, military bases, etc. In other cases, the protecting equipment itself may begin subsiding (e.g., massive, metal water gates on a soft-sediment foundation). Then, hydromechanical injections could be used to lift the region supporting this equipment.

  2. Changes in Benefits of Flood Protection Standard under Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, W. H.; Koirala, S.; Yamazaki, D.; Hirabayashi, Y.; Kanae, S.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding potential risk of river flooding under future climate scenarios might be helpful for developing risk management strategies (including mitigation, adaptation). Such analyses are typically performed at the macro scales (e.g., regional, global) where the climate model output could support (e.g., Hirabayashi et al., 2013, Arnell and Gosling, 2014). To understand the potential benefits of infrastructure upgrading as part of climate adaptation strategies, it is also informative to understand the potential impact of different flood protection standards (in terms of return periods) on global river flooding under climate change. In this study, we use a baseline period (forced by observed hydroclimate conditions) and CMIP5 model output (historic and future periods) to drive a global river routing model called CaMa-Flood (Yamazaki et al., 2011) and simulate the river water depth at a spatial resolution of 15 min x 15 min. From the simulated results of baseline period, we use the annual maxima river water depth to fit the Gumbel distribution and prepare the return period-flood risk relationship (involving population and GDP). From the simulated results of CMIP5 model, we also used the annual maxima river water depth to obtain the Gumbel distribution and then estimate the exceedance probability (historic and future periods). We apply the return period-flood risk relationship (above) to the exceedance probability and evaluate the potential risk of river flooding and changes in the benefits of flood protection standard (e.g., 100-year flood of the baseline period) from the past into the future (represented by the representative concentration pathways). In this presentation, we show our preliminary results. References: Arnell, N.W, Gosling, S., N., 2014. The impact of climate change on river flood risk at the global scale. Climatic Change 122: 127-140, doi: 10.1007/s10584-014-1084-5. Hirabayashi et al., 2013. Global flood risk under climate change. Nature Climate Change 3: 816-821, doi: 10.1038/nclimate1911. Yamazaki et al., 2011. A physically based description of floodplain inundation dynamics in a global river routing model. Water Resources Research 47, W04501, doi: 10.1029/2010wr009726.

  3. Capacitively coupled resistivity survey of the levee surrounding the Omaha Public Power District Nebraska City Power Plant, June 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Bethany L.; Cannia, James C.

    2011-01-01

    This report is a release of digital data from a capacitively coupled resistivity survey conducted on June 13, 2011, on the flood-protection levees surrounding the Omaha Public Power District Nebraska City power plant. The U.S. Geological Survey Crustal Geophysics and Geochemistry Science Center and the Nebraska Water Science Center performed the survey in response to a flood on the Missouri River. A single line of resistivity profiling was completed along the center line of the section of levee 573 that surrounds the power plant.

  4. Structural master plan of flood mitigation measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidari, A.

    2009-01-01

    Flood protection is one of the practical methods in damage reduction. Although it not possible to be completely protected from flood disaster but major part of damages can be reduced by mitigation plans. In this paper, the optimum flood mitigation master plan is determined by economic evaluation in trading off between the construction costs and expected value of damage reduction as the benefits. Size of the certain mitigation alternative is also be obtained by risk analysis by accepting possibility of flood overtopping. Different flood mitigation alternatives are investigated from various aspects in the Dez and Karun river floodplain areas as a case study in south west of IRAN. The results show that detention dam and flood diversion are the best alternatives of flood mitigation methods as well as enforcing the flood control purpose of upstream multipurpose reservoirs. Dyke and levees are not mostly justifiable because of negative impact on down stream by enhancing routed flood peak discharge magnitude and flood damages as well.

  5. 44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... anticipated start and completion dates for each element, as well as significant milestones and dates; (C... features; (B) Identify anticipated start and completion dates for each element, as well as significant... process of restoring a flood protection system that was: (i) Constructed using Federal funds;...

  6. 44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... anticipated start and completion dates for each element, as well as significant milestones and dates; (C... features; (B) Identify anticipated start and completion dates for each element, as well as significant... process of restoring a flood protection system that was: (i) Constructed using Federal funds;...

  7. When the levee breaks - public policy and holistic risk management - lessons from Katrina for coastal cities faced with rising storm surge flood risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muir-Wood, R.

    2009-04-01

    In a period of accelerating sea level rise and increased tropical cyclone intensities, extreme 100 year coastal flood levels are rising rapidly along a number of tropical and subtropical coastlines. Meanwhile, whether from natural megadelta consolidation, post glacial rebound or overpumping of shallow aquifers, many coastal cities are sinking even faster than mean sea level is rising. Without significant investment in continually improved flood defence inevitably this means the risk of catastrophic flooding is rising, for many cities quite steeply. The experience of Hurricane Katrina and New Orleans may become seen as iconic for 21st Century catastrophe risk as more and more coastal cities are subject to similar calamities. The story of New Orleans also highlights many aspects of catastrophe risk management failures before and after extreme events. The city of New Orleans had already been flooded three times by storm surges in the 100 years before Katrina. After each flood, investments were made in improved flood defences but these investments dwindled through time as there appeared to be a reduced imperative to divert money to support abstract risk reduction. Meanwhile land subsidence and rising sea levels and storm surges meant that risk levels continued to rise, until the inevitable time when the city once again was flooded. As the city increasingly sinks below mean sea level the impact of each flood has become increasingly catastrophic, both in terms of areas flooded, property damage and casualties. While a major program of investment in improved flood defences has once again followed the catastrophic 2005 flood, Federal government agencies have given no assurance that levels of flood risk will be maintained below some designated threshold long term. Therefore another cycle of rising flood risk has now started that will inevitably eventually to lead to the city becoming reflooded. This cycle can only end with the eventual abandonment of much of the city area - an outcome that is deemed politically unacceptable. The loss consequences of rising levels of risk, improvements or degradation in flood defences and the potential outcomes of different catastrophic storm surges can only be explored in a Catastrophe loss model.

  8. 33 CFR 208.10 - Local flood protection works; maintenance and operation of structures and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Local flood protection works; maintenance and operation of structures and facilities. 208.10 Section 208.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.10 Local flood protection works;...

  9. Tiger Dams Reinforce Baton Rouge Levees

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Tiger Dams line the Baton Rouge Mississippi River levee during the 2011 Flood.  Previously used to prevent oil from reaching Louisiana's coast during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, these Tiger Dams are filled with water and reinforced with sandbags to give the Baton Rouge Mississippi Riv...

  10. Levee Health Monitoring With Radar Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. E.; Bawden, G. W.; Deverel, S. J.; Dudas, J.; Hensley, S.; Yun, S.

    2012-12-01

    Remote sensing offers the potential to augment current levee monitoring programs by providing rapid and consistent data collection over large areas irrespective of the ground accessibility of the sites of interest, at repeat intervals that are difficult or costly to maintain with ground-based surveys, and in rapid response to emergency situations. While synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has long been used for subsidence measurements over large areas, applying this technique directly to regional levee monitoring is a new endeavor, mainly because it requires both a wide imaging swath and fine spatial resolution to resolve individual levees within the scene, a combination that has not historically been available. Application of SAR remote sensing directly to levee monitoring has only been attempted in a few pilot studies. Here we describe how SAR remote sensing can be used to assess levee conditions, such as seepage, drawing from the results of two levee studies: one of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta levees in California that has been ongoing since July 2009 and a second that covered the levees near Vicksburg, Mississippi, during the spring 2011 floods. These studies have both used data acquired with NASA's UAVSAR L-band synthetic aperture radar, which has the spatial resolution needed for this application (1.7 m single-look), sufficiently wide imaging swath (22 km), and the longer wavelength (L-band, 0.238 m) required to maintain phase coherence between repeat collections over levees, an essential requirement for applying differential interferometry (DInSAR) to a time series of repeated collections for levee deformation measurement. We report the development and demonstration of new techniques that employ SAR polarimetry and differential interferometry to successfully assess levee health through the quantitative measurement of deformation on and near levees and through detection of areas experiencing seepage. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta levee study, which covers the entire network of more than 1100 miles of levees in the area, has used several sets of in situ data to validate the results. This type of levee health status information acquired with radar remote sensing could provide a cost-effective method to significantly improve the spatial and temporal coverage of levee systems and identify areas of concern for targeted levee maintenance, repair, and emergency response in the future. Our results show, for example, that during an emergency, when time is of the essence, SAR remote sensing offers the potential of rapidly providing levee status information that is effectively impossible to obtain over large areas using conventional monitoring, e.g., through high precision measurements of subcentimeter-scale levee movement prior to failure. The research described here was carried out in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  11. Flood Risk and Global Change: Future Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra-Llobet, A.

    2014-12-01

    Global flood risk is increasing in response to population growth in flood-prone areas, human encroachment into natural flood paths (exacerbating flooding in areas formerly out of harm's way), and climate change (which alters variables driving floods). How will societies respond to and manage flood risk in coming decades? Analysis of flood policy evolution in the EU and US demonstrates that changes occurred in steps, in direct response to disasters. After the flood produced by the collapse of Tous Dam in 1982, Spain initiated a systematic assessment of areas of greatest flood risk and civil protection response. The devastating floods on the Elbe and elsewhere in central Europe in 2002 motivated adoption of the EU Floods Directive (2007), which requires member states to develop systematic flood risk maps (now due) and flood risk management plans (due in 2015). The flooding of New Orleans by Hurricane Katrina in 2005 resulted in a nationwide levee-safety assessment and improvements in communicating risk, but overall less fundamental change in US flood management than manifest in the EU since 2007. In the developing world, large (and increasing) concentrations of populations in low-lying floodplains, deltas, and coasts are increasingly vulnerable, and governments mostly ill-equipped to implement fundamental changes in land use to prevent future increases in exposure, nor to develop responses to the current threats. Even in the developed world, there is surprisingly little research on how well residents of flood-prone lands understand their true risk, especially when they are 'protected' by '100-year' levees. Looking ahead, researchers and decision makers should prioritize improvements in flood risk perception, river-basin-scale assessment of flood runoff processes (under current and future climate and land-use conditions) and flood management alternatives, and bridging the disconnect between national and international floodplain management policies and local land-use decisions.

  12. Flooding

    MedlinePLUS

    ... flooding Prepare for flooding For communities, companies, or water and wastewater facilities: Suggested activities to help facilities ... con monxido de carbono. Limit contact with flood water. Flood water may have high levels of raw ...

  13. Flooding

    MedlinePLUS

    ... flooding Prepare for flooding For communities, companies, or water and wastewater facilities: Suggested activities to help facilities ... con monóxido de carbono. Limit contact with flood water. Flood water may have high levels of raw ...

  14. 44 CFR 61.12 - Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rates based on a flood... EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.12 Rates based on a flood protection system...

  15. Mapping Flood Protection Benefits from Restored Wetlands at the Urban-Suburban Interface

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urbanization exacerbates flooding by increasing runoff and decreasing surface water storage. Restoring wetlands can enhance flood protection while providing a suite of co-benefits such as temperature regulation and access to open space. Spatial modeling of the delivery of flood p...

  16. 44 CFR 61.12 - Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rates based on a flood... EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.12 Rates based on a flood protection system...

  17. 44 CFR 61.12 - Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Rates based on a flood... EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.12 Rates based on a flood protection system...

  18. The impact of different soil bioengineering techniques on the surface erosion of levees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammeranner, W.; Meixner, H.; Florineth, F.

    2009-04-01

    The recent flood events have once more drawn attention to the stability and maintenance of river levees. Subsequently, the attention has also been focused on the prevention of erosion by hydraulic forces in case of flooding or overtopping. Vegetation can limit the soil detaching capacity of flowing water, by their retarding effects on runoff and velocity as well as the physical protection of the levee surface. At low discharge intensity vegetation stands rigid and unsubmerged, reducing velocity below required for soil particle entrainment (Coppin and Richards, 1990). At higher discharge capacities flexible vegetation tend to lay down, dissipating energy and providing resistance to scour (Henderson and Shields, 1984). Roots increase the shear strength of the soil (Schiechtl, 1980) and can create a fibrous mat that resists detachment of the surrounding soil matrix (Henderson and Shields, 1984). The erosive capacity of surface water flow is dependant to type and pattern of vegetation. The denser the vegetation, the better the soil surface is protected against erosion. Sets of regulations regard compact turf to be the best vegetation cover for river levees. A contentious issue are woody plants, and many guidelines (DIN 19712, 1997; FEMA, 2005; USACE, 2000) ban woody vegetation from levees for several reasons. So, the planting of woody plants is not an accepted policy by any agency. Within the frame of a research project carried out by the Institute of Soil Bioengineering and Landscape Construction (University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna), focusing on woody plants on levees, the effects of small to medium growing woody (shrubby) plants on erosion while hydraulic forces (overtopping) are tested. Data are drawn from two natural-scaled research levees. The homogenous levees consist of a mineral silt-sand-gravel and have a fill height of 2.7 m and a slope inclination of 2:3. The tests investigate erosion resistance with respect to four different vegetation covers. The types of soil bioengineering techniques tested were (1) dormant cuttings; (2) living brush mattress (longitudinal); (3) living brush mattress (transversal) and (4) jute netting mulch seeding. The dormant cuttings and living branches tested originated from the Purple-willow (Salix purpurea L.). Measured plant parameters, characterising the vegetation structures were shoot lengths, shoot diameters, and above ground biomass. Root growth is investigated in an extra plot area allowing excavation of the plants. The proposed contribution discusses the effects of different soil bioengineering techniques using woody plants (shrubs) on surface erosion of river levees. Methodology of research and results after an initial overtopping test are presented. Despite of the cutting plantation all techniques gave adequate erosion protection.

  19. Natural levee formation along a large and regulated river: The Danube in the National Park Donau-Auen, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klasz, Gerhard; Reckendorfer, Walter; Gabriel, Hannes; Baumgartner, Christian; Schmalfuss, Roland; Gutknecht, Dieter

    2014-06-01

    We investigated overbank deposition and natural levee formation along the Danube east of Vienna based on airborne laserscan data (ALS) combined with historical information. The analyses of equally spaced cross sections, hypsographic curves and point elevations revealed the significance of the distance from the river bank, the floodplain width and the floodplain flow situation (inflow/outflow sections) for the spatial variability of sediment deposition. Deposition was high near the banks (natural levee formation), in wide floodplain sections and in inflow areas. The overall pattern was modified by the presence of side-channels and the micro-relief of the floodplain. From the derived sedimentation rates (averaged for the past 120 years over the reach) of about 11.0 mm yr- 1 at the natural levee and about 0.3 mm yr- 1 at the flood protection dyke, we can estimate an overbank deposit rate of 416,000 m3 yr- 1 for the entire free-flowing reach (between river-km 1921 and 1880), that is, between 18 and 20% of the annual transported suspended load. An analysis of historical cross sections showed that there was no natural levee along the riverbanks shortly after the regulation, about 100 years ago. We thus assume that natural levee formation is a consequence of the Danube regulation in the late 19th century. Under natural conditions overbank deposition was balanced and limited by side erosion and lateral channel migration. After stabilization of the banks the overbank deposits were not eroded, and distinct natural levees formed. These levees will develop and grow further and affect flood protection and floodplain ecology. We discuss the interplay between floodplain deposition and lateral bank migration under the concept of dynamic equilibrium.

  20. Using geophysics to characterize levee stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, Laura M.

    Shallow slough slides have occurred along the river side slope of Mississippi River Levees for over sixty years. Shallow slough slides also occur along smaller levees that protect tributaries of the Mississippi River. This investigation takes place along a section of the Coldwater River Levee, a tributary levee of the Mississippi River. Field observation, soil samples, and geophysical data were collected at two field sites located on the border of Tate and Tunica County, MS. The first site consists of a developed shallow slough slide that had occurred that has not yet been repaired and the second site is a potential slide area. Electromagnetic induction and electrical resistivity tomography were the geophysical methods used to define subsurface conditions that make a levee vulnerable to failure. These electrical methods are sensitive to the electrical conductivity of the soil and therefore depend upon: soil moisture, clay content, pore size distribution as well as larger scale structures at depth such as cracks and fissures. These same physical properties of the soil are also important to assessing the vulnerability of a levee to slough slides. Soil tests and field observations were also implemented in this investigation to describe and classify the soil composition of the levee material. The problem of slough slide occurrence can potentially be reduced if vulnerabilities are located with the help of geophysical techniques.

  1. The use of airborne geophysics for levee classification and assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, Joseph B.

    2011-12-01

    This research is the first known application into using airborne geophysical methods to evaluate and classify levees. This research is an important step toward developing new technologies and methods to rapidly screen and evaluate earthen flood control levees for safety against flooding. An investigation of airborne geophysical methods was conducted on levees in the lower Rio Grande Valley and involved electromagnetic induction, magnetometer, and LiDAR surveys of the levee system. Airborne EM signatures were analyzed by geologic mapping of floodplain depositional environments, examination of published soils data, and drilling of borings. A geographic information system was developed to manage the various data sets and evaluate historic land use changes and development of the flood control systems to better understand the signatures using airborne methods. This research presents information about the historic basis for evaluating and classifying levees, which is based primarily on the federal perspective and flood control experiences in the lower Mississippi River Valley, where national floodplain engineering methods and standards were developed. This research examines the evolution of today's flood control policy, and the development of engineering assessment procedures, and the application of geophysical methods to provide critical information about levee failure mechanisms and assessment of flood control systems. This research demonstrates that topographic base maps and Sengpiel sections showing the results of electrical conductivity or resistivity surveys at different frequencies along the levee corridor provide accurate and valuable information to determine the composition of floodplain soils and the foundation stratigraphy to assess modes of levee failure, to aid in the placement of borings to obtain material properties of the levee and foundation, and to determine the extent of levee reaches with similar properties for the engineering analysis. The main purpose for segmenting the levee system is for identifying reaches with similar geotechnical properties for an engineering evaluation and to identify areas where anomalous conditions may occur. Airborne geophysical methods offer added benefits and improvements over traditional engineering methods to evaluate levees based solely on evenly spaced borings along the levee right-of-way, where zones of weakness may be missed. The volume of earth being measured by multiple frequency airborne EM techniques corresponds primarily to the foundation of the levee instead of the body of the levee in smaller levees. Ideally, airborne methods would be supplemented with high resolution ground based EM methods to better define anomalous conditions. Data derived from airborne sur-veys are used in a levee screening process developed during this research to rank levees for the most efficient use of limited maintenance resources and subsequently target reaches for focused studies using traditional engineering methods. Airborne EM surveys show that local variations in electrical conductivity occur, and usually corre-spond to abrupt geologic boundaries in the levee foundation associated with different types of depositional environments (i.e., abandoned channel, abandoned course, point bar, flood basin, crevasse splay, chute, etc.).

  2. Woody Vegetation on Levees? - Research Experiences and Design Suggestions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammeranner, Walter

    2013-04-01

    Recent flood events in Austria have reawakened practical and scientific interest in the stability of levees. One focus amongst others has been taken on the relationship between vegetation and levee stability with special reference to the role of woody plants. The effects of woody plants are undoubtedly manifold: On the one hand they can potentially have a negative influence and endanger levees, which is why many guidelines ban woody vegetation to preserve stability, visual inspection and unhindered flood-fight access. On the other hand woody vegetation can have several positive impacts on soil stability and which effects prevail depends largely on types and characteristics of plants. This shows how controversially woody plants on levees can be discussed and the strong need for further research in this field. In order to obtain new insights and widen horizons for this controversial issue, a research project carried out by the Institute of Soil Bioengineering and Landscape Construction - at the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna - was launched. This project deals with several aspects of effects of woody plants have on levees and focuses particularly on shrubby woody plants. The examined vegetation type is a dense stand of willows - Purple-Willows (Salix purpurea L.) - commonly used for stabilization of river embankments. The proposed contribution discusses the gained results with reference to levee stability and existing levee vegetation guidelines and gives design suggestions for compatible woody vegetation on levees.

  3. Game theory and risk-based leveed river system planning with noncooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Rui; Lund, Jay R.; Madani, Kaveh

    2016-01-01

    Optimal risk-based levee designs are usually developed for economic efficiency. However, in river systems with multiple levees, the planning and maintenance of different levees are controlled by different agencies or groups. For example, along many rivers, levees on opposite riverbanks constitute a simple leveed river system with each levee designed and controlled separately. Collaborative planning of the two levees can be economically optimal for the whole system. Independent and self-interested landholders on opposite riversides often are willing to separately determine their individual optimal levee plans, resulting in a less efficient leveed river system from an overall society-wide perspective (the tragedy of commons). We apply game theory to simple leveed river system planning where landholders on each riverside independently determine their optimal risk-based levee plans. Outcomes from noncooperative games are analyzed and compared with the overall economically optimal outcome, which minimizes net flood cost system-wide. The system-wide economically optimal solution generally transfers residual flood risk to the lower-valued side of the river, but is often impractical without compensating for flood risk transfer to improve outcomes for all individuals involved. Such compensation can be determined and implemented with landholders' agreements on collaboration to develop an economically optimal plan. By examining iterative multiple-shot noncooperative games with reversible and irreversible decisions, the costs of myopia for the future in making levee planning decisions show the significance of considering the externalities and evolution path of dynamic water resource problems to improve decision-making.

  4. The Protection of China's Ancient Cities from Flood Damage.

    PubMed

    Qingzhou, W

    1989-09-01

    Over many centuries, the repeated and serious flooding of many of China's ancient cities has led to the development of various measures to mitigate the impact of floods. These have included structural measures, such as the construction of walls, dams and dykes, with tree planting for soil consolidation; installation of drainage systems and water storage capacity; the raising of settlement levels and the strengthening of building materials. Non-structural measures include warning systems and planning for emergency evacuation. Urban planning and architectural design have evolved to reduce flood damage, and government officials have been appointed with specific responsibilities for managing the flood control systems. In view of the serious consequences of modern neglect of these well-tried methods, this paper examines China's historical experience of flooding and demonstrates its continuing relevance for today. A brief historical survey is followed by a detailed discussion of various flood prevention measures. The paper is illustrated by city plans from ancient local chronicles. PMID:20958678

  5. Tree growth and recruitment in a leveed floodplain forest in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, Hugo K.W.; King, Sammy L.; Keim, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    Flooding is a defining disturbance in floodplain forests affecting seed germination, seedling establishment, and tree growth. Globally, flood control, including artificial levees, dams, and channelization has altered flood regimes in floodplains. However, a paucity of data are available in regards to the long-term effects of levees on stand establishment and tree growth in floodplain forests. In this study, we used dendrochronological techniques to reconstruct tree recruitment and tree growth over a 90-year period at three stands within a ring levee in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (MAV) and to evaluate whether recruitment patterns and tree growth changed following levee construction. We hypothesized that: (1) sugarberry is increasing in dominance and overcup oak (Quercus lyrata) is becoming less dominant since the levee, and that changes in hydrology are playing a greater role than canopy disturbance in these changes in species dominance; and (2) that overcup oak growth has declined following construction of the levee and cessation of overbank flooding whereas that of sugarberry has increased. Recruitment patterns shifted from flood-tolerant overcup oak to flood-intolerant sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) after levee construction. None of the 122 sugarberry trees cored in this study established prior to the levee, but it was the most common species established after the levee. The mechanisms behind the compositional change are unknown, however, the cosmopolitan distribution of overcup oak during the pre-levee period and sugarberry during the post-levee period, the lack of sugarberry establishment in the pre-levee period, and the confinement of overcup oak regeneration to the lowest areas in each stand after harvest in the post-levee period indicate that species-specific responses to flooding and light availability are forcing recruitment patterns. Overcup oak growth was also affected by levee construction, but in contrast to our hypothesis, growth actually increased for several decades before declining during a drought in the late 1990s. We interpret this result as removal of flood stress following levee construction. This finding emphasizes the fact that flooding can be stressful to trees regardless of their flood tolerance and that growth in floodplain trees can be sustained provided adequate soil moisture is present, regardless of the source of soil moisture. However, future research efforts should focus on the long-term effect of hydrologic modification on stand development and on how hydrologic modifications, such as elimination of surface flooding and groundwater declines, affect the vulnerability of floodplain forests to drought.

  6. Game Theory and Risk-Based Levee System Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, R.; Lund, J. R.; Madani, K.

    2014-12-01

    Risk-based analysis has been developed for optimal levee design for economic efficiency. Along many rivers, two levees on opposite riverbanks act as a simple levee system. Being rational and self-interested, land owners on each river bank would tend to independently optimize their levees with risk-based analysis, resulting in a Pareto-inefficient levee system design from the social planner's perspective. Game theory is applied in this study to analyze decision making process in a simple levee system in which the land owners on each river bank develop their design strategies using risk-based economic optimization. For each land owner, the annual expected total cost includes expected annual damage cost and annualized construction cost. The non-cooperative Nash equilibrium is identified and compared to the social planner's optimal distribution of flood risk and damage cost throughout the system which results in the minimum total flood cost for the system. The social planner's optimal solution is not feasible without appropriate level of compensation for the transferred flood risk to guarantee and improve conditions for all parties. Therefore, cooperative game theory is then employed to develop an economically optimal design that can be implemented in practice. By examining the game in the reversible and irreversible decision making modes, the cost of decision making myopia is calculated to underline the significance of considering the externalities and evolution path of dynamic water resource problems for optimal decision making.

  7. Citizens' Perceptions of Flood Hazard Adjustments: An Application of the Protective Action Decision Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terpstra, Teun; Lindell, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Although research indicates that adoption of flood preparations among Europeans is low, only a few studies have attempted to explain citizens' preparedness behavior. This article applies the Protective Action Decision Model (PADM) to explain flood preparedness intentions in the Netherlands. Survey data ("N" = 1,115) showed that…

  8. Citizens' Perceptions of Flood Hazard Adjustments: An Application of the Protective Action Decision Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terpstra, Teun; Lindell, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Although research indicates that adoption of flood preparations among Europeans is low, only a few studies have attempted to explain citizens' preparedness behavior. This article applies the Protective Action Decision Model (PADM) to explain flood preparedness intentions in the Netherlands. Survey data ("N" = 1,115) showed that

  9. Flooding and Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, flooding is the nation's most common natural disaster. Some floods develop slowly during an extended period of rain or in a warming trend following a heavy snow. Flash floods can occur quickly, without any visible sign of rain. Catastrophic floods are associated with burst dams and levees,…

  10. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact for completion of flood protection works, Bannister Road Federal Complex, Kansas City, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-18

    The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to provide partial funding to the Corps of Engineers (COE) for the completion of the flood protection works at the Bannister Road Federal Complex in Kansas City, Missouri. The DOE Kansas City Plant is a major tenant of the Complex. COE has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) for the project which includes the construction of levees, floodwalls, and drainage ditches. DOE has adopted the EA prepared by COE (DOE/EA-0509), this report. Based on the analyses in this EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, 42 USC 4321 et seq. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  11. Health protection and risks for rescuers in cases of floods.

    PubMed

    Janev Holcer, Nataa; Jeli?i?, Pavle; Grba Bujevi?, Maja; Vaani?, Damir

    2015-03-01

    Floods can pose a number of safety and health hazards for flood-affected populations and rescuers and bring risk of injuries, infections, and diseases due to exposure to pathogenic microorganisms and different biological and chemical contaminants. The risk factors and possible health consequences for the rescuers involved in evacuation and rescuing operations during the May 2014 flood crisis in Croatia are shown, as well as measures for the prevention of injuries and illnesses. In cases of extreme floods, divers play a particularly important role in rescuing and first-response activities. Rescuing in contaminated floodwaters means that the used equipment such as diving suits should be disinfected afterwards. The need for securing the implementation of minimal health and safety measures for involved rescuers is paramount. Data regarding injuries and disease occurrences among rescuers are relatively scarce, indicating the need for medical surveillance systems that would monitor and record all injuries and disease occurrences among rescuers in order to ensure sound epidemiological data. The harmful effects of flooding can be reduced by legislation, improvement of flood forecasting, establishing early warning systems, and appropriate planning and education. PMID:25741935

  12. Flooding and Flood Management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, K.N.; Fallon, J.D.; Lorenz, D.L.; Stark, J.R.; Menard, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Floods result in great human disasters globally and nationally, causing an average of $4 billion of damages each year in the United States. Minnesota has its share of floods and flood damages, and the state has awarded nearly $278 million to local units of government for flood mitigation projects through its Flood Hazard Mitigation Grant Program. Since 1995, flood mitigation in the Red River Valley has exceeded $146 million. Considerable local and state funding has been provided to manage and mitigate problems of excess stormwater in urban areas, flooding of farmlands, and flood damages at road crossings. The cumulative costs involved with floods and flood mitigation in Minnesota are not known precisely, but it is safe to conclude that flood mitigation is a costly business. This chapter begins with a description of floods in Minneosta to provide examples and contrasts across the state. Background material is presented to provide a basic understanding of floods and flood processes, predication, and management and mitigation. Methods of analyzing and characterizing floods are presented because they affect how we respond to flooding and can influence relevant practices. The understanding and perceptions of floods and flooding commonly differ among those who work in flood forecasting, flood protection, or water resource mamnagement and citizens and businesses affected by floods. These differences can become magnified following a major flood, pointing to the need for better understanding of flooding as well as common language to describe flood risks and the uncertainty associated with determining such risks. Expectations of accurate and timely flood forecasts and our ability to control floods do not always match reality. Striving for clarity is important in formulating policies that can help avoid recurring flood damages and costs.

  13. GIS-enabled Spatial Analysis and Modeling of Geotechnical Soil Properties for Seismic Risk Assessment of Levee Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadi, Mustafa M. H.

    Flood protection systems are complex, interconnected engineered systems, where failure at one location means the failure of the entire system. Earthen levees, the systems' major component, are at risk from many causes of failure including seepage, erosion and instability due to seismic loading, yet there are currently no guidelines available for the seismic design of levees. Levees stretch for long distances and are formed through various geologic processes and human activities over time, however information regarding soil properties is collected only at limited point locations and varies significantly both laterally and with depth. Levee vulnerability analyses are currently performed only at locations with known soil properties. Prediction of levee performance in locations where no soil data is available becomes a limitation for system risk assessment studies. A simplified methodology is proposed to predict soil variability in riverine geologic environments for the seismic risk assessment of earthen levee systems. A key step in this methodology is to provide a continuous characterization of soil conditions throughout the system. The proposed model correlates soil properties to preselected regional variables and is implemented, using geostatistical kriging, in a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) environment. GIS was crucial in this research and proved to be the appropriate platform for input, manipulation, analysis, and output presentation of spatial and non-spatial data. Correlation relationships between soil strength parameters and geological and river geometry factors are presented for a pilot study area in California. Global observations that apply across the study area included the increasing trend of shear strength, Su. with increasing distance from the river, and decreasing trend of Su with increasing river Sinuosity Index levels. Only local trends were observed in the relation of friction angle, ?, with Sinuosity Index, as well as in the relation of Su and ? with geological formations. The proposed methodology also includes steps for seismic response analysis of levee segments, and flood scenarios in protected areas. Since seismic response of earthen structures is controlled primarily by input ground motions, a methodology for selecting ground motions based on their mean period, Tm, for liquefaction triggering assessment of levees is also developed.

  14. Design of flood protection for transportation alignments on alluvial fans

    SciTech Connect

    French, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    The method of floodplain delineation on alluvial fans developed for the national flood insurance program is modified to provide estimates of peak flood flows at transportation alignments crossing an alluvial fan. The modified methodology divides the total alignment length into drainage design segments and estimates the peak flows that drainage structures would be required to convey as a function of the length of the drainage design segment, the return period of the event, and the location of the alignment on the alluvial fan. An example of the application of the methodology is provided. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Bayesian estimation of levee breach progression in natural rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanda, M.; D'Oria, M.; Mignosa, P.

    2013-12-01

    During severe flood events, sometime, levee breaches occur in a river reach causing the flooding of the surrounding area. Most levee failures are not instantaneous but they gradually evolve over a period of time: the initial breach progressively increases its depth and enlarges its width. After the failure takes place, even if its location can be known, the breach progression is hard to be recovered. However, if one or more sites monitored with level gauges are located downstream the failure site, the breach time evolution leaves an imprint in these water levels. The knowledge of the breach progression can be useful to better understand the effective dynamics of the failure and to evaluate the breach flood wave in order to simulate the flooding process for forensic purposes among others. In this work an inverse methodology to estimate the progression of an occurred levee breach in a natural river using water level data available at monitored stations downstream the failure is presented. The methodology is based on a Bayesian approach to the inverse problem coupled with geostatistical models to describe the structure of the unknown breach time evolution. The methodology requires a forward hydraulic model of the considered river reach able to accurately reproduce not only the flow routing processes but also the levee breach in terms of progression and outflow discharge. In this work, a 1D forward model (USACE HEC-RAS river analysis system) that solves the unsteady flow De Saint Venant equations has been used. A simplified description of both the depth and the width time evolution of the levee breach has been considered. The methodology has been tested by means of synthetic examples of several levee breaches considering different stressing flood waves and different locations of the observed water levels used as input for the inverse procedure. The results highlight the reliability of the procedure in estimating the progression of the levee breach and consequently the volume of water released. Further studies will be conducted considering more complex descriptions of the levee breaches and the flow field using also 2D flooding models.

  16. 44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... shall revise the FIRM, in accordance with 44 CFR Part 67, and shall remove the flood control restoration... restoration project must complete restoration or meet the requirements of 44 CFR 61.12 within a specified... defined in 44 CFR 59.1, including areas that would be subject to coastal high hazards as a result of...

  17. 44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... shall revise the FIRM, in accordance with 44 CFR Part 67, and shall remove the flood control restoration... restoration project must complete restoration or meet the requirements of 44 CFR 61.12 within a specified... defined in 44 CFR 59.1, including areas that would be subject to coastal high hazards as a result of...

  18. 44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... shall revise the FIRM, in accordance with 44 CFR Part 67, and shall remove the flood control restoration... restoration project must complete restoration or meet the requirements of 44 CFR 61.12 within a specified... defined in 44 CFR 59.1, including areas that would be subject to coastal high hazards as a result of...

  19. Flooding

    MedlinePLUS

    ... health problems. The key to mold control is moisture control. After the flood, remove standing water and ... based paint hazards Asbestos: Anyone working on demolition, removal, and cleanup of building debris needs be aware ...

  20. Towards modelling flood protection investment as a coupled human and natural system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, P. E.; O'Donnell, G.

    2014-01-01

    Due to a number of recent high-profile flood events and the apparent threat from global warming, governments and their agencies are under pressure to make proactive investments to protect people living in floodplains. However, adopting a proactive approach as a universal strategy is not affordable. It has been argued that delaying expensive and essentially irreversible capital decisions could be a prudent strategy in situations with high future uncertainty. This paper firstly uses Monte Carlo simulation to explore the performance of proactive and reactive investment strategies using a rational cost-benefit approach in a natural system with varying levels of persistence/interannual variability in annual maximum floods. It is found that, as persistence increases, there is a change in investment strategy optimality from proactive to reactive. This could have implications for investment strategies under the increasingly variable climate that is expected with global warming. As part of the emerging holistic approaches to flood risk management, there is increasing emphasis on stakeholder participation in determining where and when flood protection investments are made, and so flood risk management is becoming more people-centred. As a consequence, multiple actors are involved in the decision-making process, and the social sciences are assuming an increasingly important role in flood risk management. There is a need for modelling approaches which can couple the natural and human system elements. It is proposed that coupled human and natural system (CHANS) modelling could play an important role in understanding the motivations, actions and influence of citizens and institutions and how these impact on the effective delivery of flood protection investment. A framework for using agent-based modelling of human activities leading to flood investments is outlined, and some of the challenges associated with implementation are discussed.

  1. Historical Channel Change on the Upper Gila River, Arizona and New Mexico in Response to Anthropogenic Modifications and Extreme Floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klawon, J. E.; Levish, D. R.

    2003-12-01

    Over the past century, the majority of alluvial reaches along the upper Gila River in Arizona and New Mexico have been leveed in an attempt to protect adjacent property from flood damage. In addition, the demand for irrigation has prompted the construction of diversion dams in these alluvial reaches to divert water for agriculture. Detailed geomorphic mapping and investigation of historical channel change along the upper Gila River reveals that many channel modifications are catalysts for major channel change and can result in catastrophic property loss rather than safeguarding valuable farmland. Channel widths were measured every kilometer for approximately 160 km from Safford Valley, Arizona through Cliff-Gila Valley, New Mexico for eight decades to develop a quantitative analysis of channel change. An overall pattern of channel narrowing and widening coincides with periods of few large floods and periods of multiple large floods, respectively. Furthermore, reaches along the upper Gila River with greater channel modifications have experienced more variation in channel width than reaches with fewer modifications. Although the average width of the upper Gila River is very similar to the width of the 1935 channel, the lateral position of the channel is very different in many reaches. Many channel changes in recent decades are unprecedented in previous historical aerial photography and reveal that the upper Gila River is currently eroding stream banks that are several hundred years to thousands of years old. These changes are consistently associated with artificial channel constrictions, such as levees, bank protection, and bridges, that have been built and rebuilt following large floods and that have accelerated natural channel narrowing during periods of few large floods. Examples of geomorphic responses due to channel modifications along the upper Gila River include lateral erosion upstream of levees and diversion dams, redirection of flow over diversion dams into opposite banks, breaching of levees during floods and resultant erosion behind levees, channel widening downstream of levees, aggradation in leveed reaches, and lateral migration associated with straightened tributary channels.

  2. Flood Management and Protection from the Social Point of View: Case Study from Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manukalo, V.; Gerasymenko, H.

    2012-12-01

    Defining Issue According to the statistics presented by the Ministry of Emergencies of Ukraine, river floods have imposed the most severe damages to the sectors of economy and the human communities in Ukraine. But, an adaptability and a vulnerability of Ukrainian society to floods are still poorly understood. Results Presentation In the response to increasing flood losses in the country between 1998 and 2008, the State Hydrometeorological Service of Ukraine, which is subordinate to the Ministry of Emergencies, in the cooperation with the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine have carried out the research study focusing on public views on the problem of river floods for Ukraine. Aims of this study were: a) exploring the main sources of information on water-related hazards and the level of knowledge useful in a flood crisis situation in different groups of peoples; b) learning what the various population groups think of the most significant causes and consequences of flood damages and the role of various central/governmental/ and local authorities in an elaboration and implementation of mitigation measures. Public attitudes towards various prevention and mitigation strategies, as well as sources of emerging conflict were also revealed. The results of study have given a possibility to compare points of view of population groups which: a) living in the low- and high- flood risk areas; b) living in the urban and rural areas; c) having the different levels of education. The responses from 2550 residents have been analyzed and summarized. Among the most important findings of this study can be indicated following: a) on the one hand, the level of knowledge of some aspects of flood problem (impact of climate variation and change, adaptation measures) of the general public should be improved, on the other hand, the most of peoples understand that floods are the significant economical and ecological problem; b) views of the public on the problem differ very much with regard to their regions of residence (low- or high- flood risk areas, cities or villages), education level; c) a lot of peoples don't know distribution of duties between governmental bodies on central and local levels in the field of flood management and protection; d) the most of peoples don't know which Ukrainian governmental bodies are responsible for the elaboration of National adaptation strategy to the expected climate change; e) many recipient estimate as inefficient activities of Ukrainian authorities on local, national and international levels as well as a public participation in the flood management and protection policy. The results of this study have been rather unexpected for Ukrainian central and local governmental bodies responsible for flood management and protection policies. This underlines the importance of having the alternative flood risk management and protection policies studied not only from aspects of technical and economic rational, but also from that of social acceptability, before any decision is made. Practical Application Results of study have been used in preparation of: a) the State Program on the protection against floods in the Dniester, Prut and Siret river basins; b) of the "National Action Plan for Adaptation to Climate Change for period 2011-2015".

  3. Developing a Graphical User Interface to Automate the Estimation and Prediction of Risk Values for Flood Protective Structures using Artificial Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, M.; Helal, A.; Gabr, M.

    2014-12-01

    In this project, we focus on providing a computer-automated platform for a better assessment of the potential failures and retrofit measures of flood-protecting earth structures, e.g., dams and levees. Such structures play an important role during extreme flooding events as well as during normal operating conditions. Furthermore, they are part of other civil infrastructures such as water storage and hydropower generation. Hence, there is a clear need for accurate evaluation of stability and functionality levels during their service lifetime so that the rehabilitation and maintenance costs are effectively guided. Among condition assessment approaches based on the factor of safety, the limit states (LS) approach utilizes numerical modeling to quantify the probability of potential failures. The parameters for LS numerical modeling include i) geometry and side slopes of the embankment, ii) loading conditions in terms of rate of rising and duration of high water levels in the reservoir, and iii) cycles of rising and falling water levels simulating the effect of consecutive storms throughout the service life of the structure. Sample data regarding the correlations of these parameters are available through previous research studies. We have unified these criteria and extended the risk assessment in term of loss of life through the implementation of a graphical user interface to automate input parameters that divides data into training and testing sets, and then feeds them into Artificial Neural Network (ANN) tool through MATLAB programming. The ANN modeling allows us to predict risk values of flood protective structures based on user feedback quickly and easily. In future, we expect to fine-tune the software by adding extensive data on variations of parameters.

  4. Effects of rock riprap design parameters on flood protection costs for uranium tailings impoundments

    SciTech Connect

    Ecker, R.M.

    1984-07-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is studying the problem of long-term protection of earthen covers on decommissioned uranium tailings impoundments. The major erosive forces acting on these covers will be river flooding and overland flow from rainfall-runoff. For impoundments adjacent to rivers, overbank flooding presents the greater potential for significant erosion. To protect the earthen covers against flood erosion, rock riprap armoring will be placed over the cover surface. Because of the large size rock usually required for riprap, the quarrying, transport, and placement of the rock could be a significant part of the decommissioning cost. This report examines the sensitivity of riprap protection costs to certain design parameters at tailings impoundments. The parameters include flood discharge, riprap materials, impoundment side slopes, and an added safety factor. Two decommissioned tailings impoundments are used as case studies for the evaluation. These are the Grand Junction, Colorado, impoundment located adjacent to the Colorado River and the Slickrock, Colorado, impoundment located adjacent to the Dolores River. The evaluation considers only the cost of riprap protection against flood erosion. The study results show that embankment side slope and rock specific gravity can have optimum values or ranges at a specific site. For both case study sites the optimum side slope is about 5H:1V. Of the rock sources considered at Grand Junction, the optimum specific gravity would be about 2.50; however, an optimum rock specific gravity for the Slickrock site could not be determined. Other results indicate that the arbitrary safety factor usually added in riprap design can lead to large increases in protection costs. 22 references, 19 figures, 15 tables.

  5. Based on GIS technology flood disaster assessment study of Fuhe River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Dingding; Zhao, Xinyu; Chen, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Flood protection of Fuhe river basin has been payed high attention after Changkai-levee crevasse in 2010. This paper constructions a model of flood disaster lose calculation considering flood disaster and social economic developing based on GIS. Firstly social economic indexes have been selected according to characteristics of the urban and the rural. Secondly a mathematical model of flood routing using Finite Volume Method has been made in spacial information grids, the data of inundated depth and flood duration can be extracted from the grids. In the end ,wo calculate the loss by flood disaster losses calculation process model. This paper solves the stacking problem of flood characteristic and administrative boundaries effectively, which makes a development on accuracy of flood disaster assessment.

  6. Fragility analysis of flood protection structures in earthquake and flood prone areas around Cologne, Germany for multi-hazard risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagunov, Sergey; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Munoz Jimenez, Cristina; Parolai, Stefano; Fleming, Kevin; Merz, Bruno; Zschau, Jochen

    2013-04-01

    The work presents a methodology for fragility analyses of fluvial earthen dikes in earthquake and flood prone areas. Fragility estimates are being integrated into the multi-hazard (earthquake-flood) risk analysis being undertaken within the framework of the EU FP7 project MATRIX (New Multi-Hazard and Multi-Risk Assessment Methods for Europe) for the city of Cologne, Germany. Scenarios of probable cascading events due to the earthquake-triggered failure of flood protection dikes and the subsequent inundation of surroundings are analyzed for the area between the gauges Andernach and Dsseldorf along the Rhine River. Along this river stretch, urban areas are partly protected by earthen dikes, which may be prone to failure during exceptional floods and/or earthquakes. The seismic fragility of the dikes is considered in terms of liquefaction potential (factor of safety), estimated by the use of the simplified procedure of Seed and Idriss. It is assumed that initiation of liquefaction at any point throughout the earthen dikes' body corresponds to the failure of the dike and, therefore, this should be taken into account for the flood risk calculations. The estimated damage potential of such structures is presented as a two-dimensional surface (as a function of seismic hazard and water level). Uncertainties in geometrical and geotechnical dike parameters are considered within the framework of Monte Carlo simulations. Taking into consideration the spatial configuration of the existing flood protection system within the area under consideration, seismic hazard curves (in terms of PGA) are calculated for sites along the river segment of interest at intervals of 1 km. The obtained estimates are used to calculate the flood risk when considering the temporal coincidence of seismic and flood events. Changes in flood risk for the considered hazard cascade scenarios are quantified and compared to the single-hazard scenarios.

  7. Multiscale numerical modeling of levee breach processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kees, C. E.; Farthing, M. W.; Akkerman, I.; Bazilevs, Y.

    2010-12-01

    One of the dominant failure modes of levees during flood and storm surge events is erosion-based breach formation due to high velocity flow over the back (land-side) slope. Modeling the breaching process numerically is challenging due to both physical and geometric complexity that develops and evolves during the overtopping event. The surface water flows are aerated and sediment-laden mixtures in the supercritical and turbulent regimes. The air/water free surface may undergo perturbations on the same order as the depth or even topological change (breaking). Likewise the soil/fluid interface is characterized by evolving headcuts, which are essentially moving discontinuities in the soil surface elevation. The most widely used models of levee breaching are nevertheless based on depth-integrated models of flow, sediment transport, and bed morphology. In this work our objective is to explore models with less restrictive modeling assumptions, which have become computationally tractable due to advances in both numerical methods and high-performance computing hardware. In particular, we present formulations of fully three-dimensional flow, transport, and morphological evolution for overtopping and breaching processes and apply recently developed finite element and level set methods to solve the governing equations for relevant test problems.

  8. Strategic floodplain reconnection for the Lower Tisza River, Hungary: Opportunities for flood-height reduction and floodplain-wetland reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guida, Ross J.; Swanson, Taylor L.; Remo, Jonathan W. F.; Kiss, Timea

    2015-02-01

    During the late 19th Century, the Tisza River's vast floodplain-wetland system was largely disconnected by levees, facilitating "reclamation" for agriculture and resulting in an estimated loss of over 90% of historical wetlands. While levees have been successful in preventing catastrophic flooding for a century, Lower Tisza flood stage records have been set repeatedly during the last 15 years. The decrease in the Tisza's current floodway carrying capacity has reduced the flood-protection level of the Tisza's aging levee system. Recently in Hungary, "Room for the River" policies have gained more prominence. To explore the possibilities of a room for the river approach along the Lower Tisza, we assess eight potential floodplain-reconnection scenarios between Csongrád, Hungary and the Hungary-Serbia border. A novel framework using hydrodynamic and geospatial modeling was used to perform planning-level evaluations of the tradeoffs between floodplain-reconnection scenarios and enhancement of the existing levee system. The scenarios evaluated include levee removal and levee setbacks to strategically reconnect significant historical wetlands while reducing flood levels. Scenario costs and human population impacts are also assessed. Impacts of reconnecting the Lower Tisza floodplain are compared to heightening levees, the prevailing strategy over the previous century. From a purely construction-cost perspective, heightening Lower Tisza levees is potentially the most cost-effective and politically expedient solution (i.e., impacts the least number of people). However, levee-heightening does not solve the long-term problem of reduced flood conveyance, which has been attributed to aggradation and increased floodplain roughness, nor does it result in wetland reconnection or enhancement of other floodplain ecosystem services. The suite of reconnection options we evaluate provides engineers, planners, and decision makers a framework from which they can further evaluate potential flood-risk reduction options. At least three of the eight reconnection scenarios (setting the western levee back, 1500-m, and 2000-m setbacks) along the Lower Tisza demonstrate that floodplain-wetland reconnection is possible while achieving the objectives of minimizing impacts on human populations and reducing flood heights.

  9. Classification of Soil Moisture on Vegetated Earthen Levees Using X and L Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahrooghy, M.; Aanstoos, J. V.; Hasan, K.; Nobrega, R. A.; Younan, N. H.

    2011-12-01

    Earthen levees protect large areas of land in the US from flooding. Timely inspection and repairs can reduce the potential for catastrophic failures. Changes in spatial and temporal patterns of soil moisture can reveal signs of instability and help identify zones of weakness. Since analytical and empirical models have shown a relationship between SAR backscatter and soil moisture, we are using SAR to classify soil moisture on levees. Estimation of soil moisture from SAR is challenging when the surface has any significant vegetation. For the levee application, the soil is typically covered with a uniform layer of grass. Our methodology is based on a supervised soil moisture classification using a back propagation neural network with four classes of low, medium, high, and very high soil moisture. Our methodology consists of the following steps: 1) segmentation of the levee area from background and exclusion of tree-covered areas; 2) extracting the backscattering and texture features such as GLCM (Grey-Level Co-occurrence Matrix) and wavelet features; 3) training the back propagation neural network classifier; and 4) testing the area of interest and validation of the results using ground truth data. Two sources of SAR imagery are tested with this method: (1) fully polarimetric L-band data from NASA's UAVSAR; and (2) dual-polarimetric X-band data from the German TerraSAR-X satellite. The study area is a 4 km stretch of levee along the lower Mississippi River in the United States. Field data collected simultaneously with image acquisition are utilized for training and validation. Preliminary results show classification accuracies of about 50% for the UAVSAR image and 30% for the TerraSAR-X image in vegetated areas. The figure below shows a soil moisture classification using UAVSAR on April 28, 2011.

  10. Flood Protection Decision Making Within a Coupled Human and Natural System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, Greg; O'Connell, Enda

    2013-04-01

    Due to the perceived threat from climate change, prediction under changing climatic and hydrological conditions has become a dominant theme of hydrological research. Much of this research has been climate model-centric, in which GCM/RCM climate projections have been used to drive hydrological system models to explore potential impacts that should inform adaptation decision-making. However, adaptation fundamentally involves how humans may respond to increasing flood and drought hazards by changing their strategies, activities and behaviours which are coupled in complex ways to the natural systems within which they live and work. Humans are major agents of change in hydrological systems, and representing human activities and behaviours in coupled human and natural hydrological system models is needed to gain insight into the complex interactions that take place, and to inform adaptation decision-making. Governments and their agencies are under pressure to make proactive investments to protect people living in floodplains from the perceived increasing flood hazard. However, adopting this as a universal strategy everywhere is not affordable, particularly in times of economic stringency and given uncertainty about future climatic conditions. It has been suggested that the assumption of stationarity, which has traditionally been invoked in making hydrological risk assessments, is no longer tenable. However, before the assumption of hydrologic nonstationarity is accepted, the ability to cope with the uncertain impacts of global warming on water management via the operational assumption of hydrologic stationarity should be carefully examined. Much can be learned by focussing on natural climate variability and its inherent changes in assessing alternative adaptation strategies. A stationary stochastic multisite flood hazard model has been developed that can exhibit increasing variability/persistence in annual maximum floods, starting with the traditional assumption of independence. This has been coupled to an agent based model of how various stakeholders interact in determining where and when flood protection investments are made in a hypothetical region with multiple sites at risk from flood hazard. Monte Carlo simulation is used to explore how government agencies with finite resources might best invest in flood protection infrastructure in a highly variable climate with a high degree of future uncertainty. Insight is provided into whether proactive or reactive strategies are to be preferred in an increasingly variable climate.

  11. Geomorphic changes on the Mississippi River flood plain at Miller City, Illinois, as a result of the flood of 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Oberg, Kevin A.

    1997-01-01

    During the 1993 floods on the upper Mississippi and Missouri rivers, the most dramatic changes to floodplains occurred at levee-break complexes where large discharges were concentrated through narrow breaks in levees. Scour and deposition associated with levee breaks adversely affected large areas of formerly productive bottomland. This case study of the levee-break complex at Miller City, Illinois, documents the geomorphic effects of a typical levee-break complex.

  12. After the flood is before the next flood - post event review of the Central European Floods of June 2013. Insights, recommendations and next steps for future flood prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szoenyi, Michael; Mechler, Reinhard; McCallum, Ian

    2015-04-01

    In early June 2013, severe flooding hit Central and Eastern Europe, causing extensive damage, in particular along the Danube and Elbe main watersheds. The situation was particularly severe in Eastern Germany, Austria, Hungary and the Czech Republic. Based on the Post Event Review Capability (PERC) approach, developed by Zurich Insurance's Flood Resilience Program to provide independent review of large flood events, we examine what has worked well (best practice) and opportunities for further improvement. The PERC overall aims to thoroughly examine aspects of flood resilience, flood risk management and catastrophe intervention in order to help build back better after events and learn for future events. As our research from post event analyses shows a lot of losses are in fact avoidable by taking the right measures pre-event and these measures are economically - efficient with a return of 4 Euro on losses saved for every Euro invested in prevention on average (Wharton/IIASA flood resilience alliance paper on cost benefit analysis, Mechler et al. 2014) and up to 10 Euros for certain countries. For the 2013 flood events we provide analysis on the following aspects and in general identify a number of factors that worked in terms of reducing the loss and risk burden. 1. Understanding risk factors of the Central European Floods 2013 We review the precursors leading up to the floods in June, with an extremely wet May 2013 and an atypical V-b weather pattern that brought immense precipitation in a very short period to the watersheds of Elbe, Donau and partially the Rhine in the D-A-CH countries and researched what happened during the flood and why. Key questions we asked revolve around which protection and risk reduction approaches worked well and which did not, and why. 2. Insights and recommendations from the post event review The PERC identified a number of risk factors, which need attention if risk is to be reduced over time. • Yet another "100-year flood" - risk perception and understanding of risk in the population. • Residual risk and the levee shadow effect - why the population "felt safe." • What is the overload case and how to implement it in flood protection systems? • Decision-making for the future under uncertainty - how to design to acceptable flood protection levels if we haven't seen yet what's physically possible. 3. How to protect - practical examples Finally, we outline practical examples for reducing the loss burden and risk over time. • "Flood protection hierarchy" - from location choice under a hazard perspective to mobile flood protection. • Risk-based approach and identification of critical infrastructure. • Integrated flood risk management in theory and practical application. • Role of insurance.

  13. The Impact of Corps Flood Control Reservoirs in the June 2008 Upper Mississippi Flood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charley, W. J.; Stiman, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers is responsible for a multitude of flood control project on the Mississippi River and its tributaries, including levees that protect land from flooding, and dams to help regulate river flows. The first six months of 2008 were the wettest on record in the upper Mississippi Basin. During the first 2 weeks of June, rainfall over the Midwest ranged from 6 to as much as 16 inches, overwhelming the flood protection system, causing massive flooding and damage. Most severely impacted were the States of Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, and Wisconsin. In Iowa, flooding occurred on almost every river in the state. On the Iowa River, record flooding occurred from Marshalltown, Iowa, downstream to its confluence with the Mississippi River. At several locations, flooding exceeded the 500-year event. The flooding affected agriculture, transportation, and infrastructure, including homes, businesses, levees, and other water-control structures. It has been estimated that there was at least 7 billion dollars in damages. While the flooding in Iowa was extraordinary, Corps of Engineers flood control reservoirs helped limit damage and prevent loss of life, even though some reservoirs were filled beyond their design capacity. Coralville Reservoir on the Iowa River, for example, filled to 135% of its design flood storage capacity, with stage a record five feet over the crest of the spillway. In spite of this, the maximum reservoir release was limited to 39,500 cfs, while a peak inflow of 57,000 cfs was observed. CWMS, the Corps Water Management System, is used to help regulate Corps reservoirs, as well as track and evaluate flooding and flooding potential. CWMS is a comprehensive data acquisition and hydrologic modeling system for short-term decision support of water control operations in real time. It encompasses data collection, validation and transformation, data storage, visualization, real time model simulation for decision-making support, and data dissemination. The system uses precipitation and flow data, collected in real-time, along with forecasted flow from the National Weather Service to model and optimize reservoir operations and forecast downstream flows and stages, providing communities accurate and timely information to aid their flood-fighting. This involves integrating several simulation modeling programs, including HEC-HMS to forecast flows, HEC-ResSim to model reservoir operations and HEC-RAS to compute forecasted stage hydrographs. An inundation boundary and depth map of water in the flood plain can be calculated from the HEC-RAS results using ArcInfo. By varying future precipitation and releases, engineers can evaluate different "What if?" scenarios. The effectiveness of this tool and Corps reservoirs are examined.

  14. Protection from annual flooding is correlated with increased cholera prevalence in Bangladesh: a zero-inflated regression analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Alteration of natural or historical aquatic flows can have unintended consequences for regions where waterborne diseases are endemic and where the epidemiologic implications of such change are poorly understood. The implementation of flood protection measures for a portion of an intensely monitored population in Matlab, Bangladesh, allows us to examine whether cholera outcomes respond positively or negatively to measures designed to control river flooding. Methods Using a zero inflated negative binomial model, we examine how selected covariates can simultaneously account for household clusters reporting no cholera from those with positive counts as well as distinguishing residential areas with low counts from areas with high cholera counts. Our goal is to examine how residence within or outside a flood protected area interacts with the probability of cholera presence and the effect of flood protection on the magnitude of cholera prevalence. Results In Matlab, living in a household that is protected from annual monsoon flooding appears to have no significant effect on whether the household experiences cholera, net of other covariates. However, counter-intuitively, among households where cholera is reported, living within the flood protected region significantly increases the number of cholera cases. Conclusions The construction of dams or other water impoundment strategies for economic or social motives can have profound and unanticipated consequences for waterborne disease. Our results indicate that the construction of a flood control structure in rural Bangladesh is correlated with an increase in cholera cases for residents protected from annual monsoon flooding. Such a finding requires attention from both the health community and from governments and non-governmental organizations involved in ongoing water management schemes. PMID:20307294

  15. An assessment of two methods for identifying undocumented levees using remotely sensed data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czuba, Christiana R.; Williams, Byron K.; Westman, Jack; LeClaire, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Many undocumented and commonly unmaintained levees exist in the landscape complicating flood forecasting, risk management, and emergency response. This report describes a pilot study completed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to assess two methods to identify undocumented levees by using remotely sensed, high-resolution topographic data. For the first method, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers examined hillshades computed from a digital elevation model that was derived from light detection and ranging (lidar) to visually identify potential levees and then used detailed site visits to assess the validity of the identifications. For the second method, the U.S. Geological Survey applied a wavelet transform to a lidar-derived digital elevation model to identify potential levees. The hillshade method was applied to Delano, Minnesota, and the wavelet-transform method was applied to Delano and Springfield, Minnesota. Both methods were successful in identifying levees but also identified other features that required interpretation to differentiate from levees such as constructed barriers, high banks, and bluffs. Both methods are complementary to each other, and a potential conjunctive method for testing in the future includes (1) use of the wavelet-transform method to rapidly identify slope-break features in high-resolution topographic data, (2) further examination of topographic data using hillshades and aerial photographs to classify features and map potential levees, and (3) a verification check of each identified potential levee with local officials and field visits.

  16. Mississippi River Flooding 2011: Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This USGS aerial photo mosaic shows a series of levee breaks on the Missouri River during the 1993 flood, which were caused by overtopping. USGS scientists will use measurements from the intentionally breached levee at Birds Point in 2011 to compare with the 1993 levee breach measurements to underst...

  17. Application of InSAR to detection of localized subsidence and its effects on flood protection infrastructure in the New Orleans area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Cathleen; Blom, Ronald; Latini, Daniele

    2014-05-01

    The vulnerability of the United States Gulf of Mexico coast to inundation has received increasing attention in the years since hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Flood protection is a challenge throughout the area, but the population density and cumulative effect of historic subsidence makes it particularly difficult in the New Orleans area. Analysis of historical and continuing geodetic measurements identifies a surprising degree of complexity in subsidence (Dokka 2011), including regions that are subsiding at rates faster than those considered during planning for hurricane protection and for coastal restoration projects. Improved measurements are possible through combining traditional single point, precise geodetic data with interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) observations for to obtain geographically dense constraints on surface deformation. The Gulf Coast environment is very challenging for InSAR techniques, especially with systems not designed for interferometry. We are applying pair-wise InSAR to longer wavelength (L-band, 24 cm) synthetic aperture radar data acquired with the airborne UAVSAR instrument (http://uavsar.jpl.nasa.gov/) to detect localized change impacting flood protection infrastructure in the New Orleans area during the period from 2009 - 2013. Because aircraft motion creates large-scale image artifacts across the scene, we focus on localized areas on and near flood protection infrastructure to identify anomalous change relative to the surrounding area indicative of subsidence, structural deformation, and/or seepage (Jones et al., 2011) to identify areas where problems exist. C-band and particularly X-band radar returns decorrelate over short time periods in rural or less urbanized areas and are more sensitive to atmospheric affects, necessitating more elaborate analysis techniques or, at least, a strict limit on the temporal baseline. The new generation of spaceborne X-band SAR acquisitions ensure relatively high frequency of acquisition, a dramatic increase of persistent scatter density in urban areas, and improved measurement of very small displacements (Crosetto et al., 2010). We compare the L-band UAVSAR results with permanent scatterer (PS-InSAR) and Short Baseline Subsets (SBAS) interferometric analyses of a stack composed by 28 TerraSAR X-band images acquired over the same period, to determine the influence of different radar frequencies and analyses techniques. Our applications goal is to demonstrate a technique to inform targeted ground surveys, identify areas of persistent subsidence, and improve overall monitoring and planning in flood risk areas. Dokka, 2011, The role of deep processes in late 20th century subsidence of New Orleans and coastal areas of southern Louisiana and Mississippi: J. Geophys. Res., 116, B06403, doi:10.1029/2010JB008008. Jones, C. E., G. Bawden, S. Deverel, J. Dudas, S. Hensley, Study of movement and seepage along levees using DINSAR and the airborne UAVSAR instrument, Proc. SPIE 8536, SAR Image Analysis, Modeling, and Techniques XII, 85360E (November 21, 2012); doi:10.1117/12.976885. Crosetto, M., Monserrat, O., Iglesias, R., & Crippa, B. (2010). Persistent Scatterer Interferometry: Potential, limits and initial C-and X-band comparison. Photogrammetric engineering and remote sensing, 76(9), 1061-1069. Acknowledgments: This research was carried out in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  18. Perspectives on screening winter-flood-tolerant woody species in the riparian protection forests of the three gorges reservoir.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Yong; Chan, Zhulong

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of riparian protection forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is an ideal measure to cope with the eco-environmental problems of the water-level fluctuation zone (WLFZ). Thus, the information for screening winter-flood-tolerant woody plant species is useful for the recovery and re-establishment of the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. Therefore, we discussed the possibilities of constructing and popularizing riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ from several aspects, including the woody plant species distribution in the WLFZ, the survival rate analyses of suitable candidate woody species under controlled flooding conditions, the survival rate investigation of some woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, and the physiological responses of some woody plant species during the recovery stage after winter floods. The results of woody species investigation showed that most woody plant species that existed as annual seedlings in the TGR WLFZ are not suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests. However, arbor species (e.g., Salix matsudana, Populuscanadensis, Morus alba, Pterocarya stenoptera, Taxodium ascendens, and Metasequoia glyptostroboides) and shrub species (e.g., Salix variegata, Distylium chinensis, Lycium chinense, Myricaria laxiflora, and Rosa multiflora) might be considered suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ by survival rate analyses under controlled winter flooding conditions, and survival rate investigations of woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, respectively. Physiological analyses showed that P.canadensis, M. alba, L. chinense, and S. variegata could develop specific self-repairing mechanisms to stimulate biomass accumulation and carbohydrate synthesis via the increases in chlorophyll pigments and photosynthesis during recovery after winter floods. Our results suggested these woody plant species could endure the winter flooding stress and recover well, and be used as candidate for the construction of riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. PMID:25265326

  19. Perspectives on Screening Winter-Flood-Tolerant Woody Species in the Riparian Protection Forests of the Three Gorges Reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Yong; Chan, Zhulong

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of riparian protection forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is an ideal measure to cope with the eco-environmental problems of the water-level fluctuation zone (WLFZ). Thus, the information for screening winter-flood-tolerant woody plant species is useful for the recovery and re-establishment of the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. Therefore, we discussed the possibilities of constructing and popularizing riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ from several aspects, including the woody plant species distribution in the WLFZ, the survival rate analyses of suitable candidate woody species under controlled flooding conditions, the survival rate investigation of some woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, and the physiological responses of some woody plant species during the recovery stage after winter floods. The results of woody species investigation showed that most woody plant species that existed as annual seedlings in the TGR WLFZ are not suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests. However, arbor species (e.g., Salix matsudana, Populus×canadensis, Morus alba, Pterocarya stenoptera, Taxodium ascendens, and Metasequoia glyptostroboides) and shrub species (e.g., Salix variegata, Distylium chinensis, Lycium chinense, Myricaria laxiflora, and Rosa multiflora) might be considered suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ by survival rate analyses under controlled winter flooding conditions, and survival rate investigations of woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, respectively. Physiological analyses showed that P.×canadensis, M. alba, L. chinense, and S. variegata could develop specific self-repairing mechanisms to stimulate biomass accumulation and carbohydrate synthesis via the increases in chlorophyll pigments and photosynthesis during recovery after winter floods. Our results suggested these woody plant species could endure the winter flooding stress and recover well, and be used as candidate for the construction of riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. PMID:25265326

  20. Cost estimates for flood resilience and protection strategies in New York City.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Jeroen C J H; Botzen, W J Wouter; de Moel, Hans; Bowman, Malcolm

    2013-08-01

    In the aftermaths of Hurricanes Irene, in 2011, and Sandy, in 2012, New York City has come to recognize the critical need to better prepare for future storm surges and to anticipate future trends, such as climate change and socio-economic developments. The research presented in this report assesses the costs of six different flood management strategies to anticipate long-term challenges the City will face. The proposed strategies vary from increasing resilience by upgrading building codes and introducing small scale protection measures, to creating green infrastructure as buffer zones and large protective engineering works such as storm surge barriers. The initial investment costs of alternative strategies vary between $11.6 and $23.8 bn, maximally. We show that a hybrid solution, combining protection of critical infrastructure and resilience measures that can be upgraded over time, is less expensive. However, with increasing risk in the future, storm surge barriers may become cost-effective, as they can provide protection to the largest areas in both New York and New Jersey. PMID:23915111

  1. Decentralised flood protection in low mountain areas - the Upper Floeha case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, Christian; Blscher, Jens; Ramelow, Mike; Schulte, Achim; Wenzel, Robert

    2010-05-01

    In the German-Czech border regions throughout the Ore Mountains storm runoff frequently causes severe damage in headwater areas as well as in lower reaches. The fact, that settlements along smaller tributaries (second order rivers) and towns near the receiving water (first order rivers) are affected simultaneously, requires the consideration of measures distributed throughout the entire drainage area. The concept of decentralised flood protection includes a large number of different measures, which are suitable for the application in low mountain ranges, e.g. small, decentralised retarding basins, river revitalisation, reforestation of floodplains or landuse changes. The presented study is part of the Interreg IIIA research project "DINGHO". Its aim is to show, how decentralised measures can contribute to an improvement of flood protection in low mountain areas using the example of the Upper Floeha watershed. On this background the investigations focus on headwater areas as well as downstream settlements. The study area extends between the town of Olbernhau (Free State of Saxony, Germany) and the large Rauschenbach reservoir, including two main tributaries (Natzschung and Schweinitz), and covers an area of 228 km. The geomorphology of the study area is characterised by plateau-like headwater areas with gentle slopes (above ~700 m a.s.l.) and steep and strongly dissected lower reaches. In a first step the local potentials for the implementation of decentralised measures were investigated on the basis of GIS analyses and field surveys. The second step included the assessment of the efficiency of the decentralised measures by the application of rainfall-runoff-models. Depending on the type of measures two different software packages were used: the model systems NASIM for measures along river courses and WaSiM-ETH for the watershed-wide retention (landuse changes). Potentials for water retention in small, decentralised retarding basins can be found especially in higher regions with more gentle slopes. Steep valleys in lower reaches are less suitable for such basins due to their steep gradient and the consequential limitation of storage capacities. Along most of the rivers potentials for an afforestation of the valley bottoms in order to increase the surface roughness were identified, but the hydrological effects depend on the shape of the valleys and their gradients. However potentials for river revitalisation are strongly limited. In addition, some areas can be reforested, since they have recently recovered from the SO2 pollution which affected the area until the late 1980s and caused serious forest decline. The modelling results indicate, that small retarding basins would lead to a reduction of peak discharges of a 100-year return period of up to 45 % at some tributaries and 10 % downstream in Olbernhau. By contrast local effects of the floodplain afforestation remain very low, whereas in Olbernhau a peak reduction of 4.2 % can be achieved. If only the Floeha floodplain with a wide valley and a low gradient is considered for the afforestation, the flood peaks were reduced by 3.5 % in the model. By reforestation of declined forests peak discharge can be reduced by about 13 %. On the whole the results show, that a significant improvement of flood protection in the Upper Floeha watershed can be achieved through the application of decentralised measures. The reduction of flood peaks includes the Floeha river itself, tributaries and headwater areas. However as far as measures along the rivers are concerned, the extent of the hydrological effects strongly depends on the retention potentials in subareas with more gentle valley gradients, i.e. in higher regions of the study area or along the Floeha valley.

  2. Flood Propagation in the Middle-Lower Reach of the River Po for Different Scenarios of Floodplain Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellarin, A.; di Baldassarre, G.; Brath, A.

    2009-04-01

    The River Po is the longest Italian river, and the largest river in terms of streamflow. The middle-lower Po flows East some 350km in the Pianura Padana, a very important agricultural region and industrial heart of northern Italy. For this portion of the river, the riverbed consists of a stable main channel 200-500m wide and two lateral banks (the overall width varies from 200m to 5km) confined by two continuous artificial levees. The lateral banks are densely cultivated, and cultivations are protected against frequent flooding by a system of minor artificial levees. This sub-system of levees impacts significantly the hydraulic behaviour of the middle-lower Po during major flood events. This study utilizes a quasi-2D hydraulic numerical model. The model has been developed on the basis of laser-scanning DTM (resolution: 2m, topographic survey: 2005) and calibrated using the information available for the significant flood event of October 2000. The study aims at investigating the effects of the adoption of different floodplain management strategies (e.g., raising, lowering or removal of the sub-system of levees) on flood hazard along the river reach.

  3. Operational tools to help stakeholders to protect and alert municipalities facing uncertainties and changes in karst flash floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrell Estupina, V.; Raynaud, F.; Bourgeois, N.; Kong-A-Siou, L.; Collet, L.; Haziza, E.; Servat, E.

    2015-06-01

    Flash floods are often responsible for many deaths and involve many material damages. Regarding Mediterranean karst aquifers, the complexity of connections, between surface and groundwater, as well as weather non-stationarity patterns, increase difficulties in understanding the basins behaviour and thus warning and protecting people. Furthermore, given the recent changes in land use and extreme rainfall events, knowledge of the past floods is no longer sufficient to manage flood risks. Therefore the worst realistic flood that could occur should be considered. Physical and processes-based hydrological models are considered among the best ways to forecast floods under diverse conditions. However, they rarely match with the stakeholders' needs. In fact, the forecasting services, the municipalities, and the civil security have difficulties in running and interpreting data-consuming models in real-time, above all if data are uncertain or non-existent. To face these social and technical difficulties and help stakeholders, this study develops two operational tools derived from these models. These tools aim at planning real-time decisions given little, changing, and uncertain information available, which are: (i) a hydrological graphical tool (abacus) to estimate flood peak discharge from the karst past state and the forecasted but uncertain intense rainfall; (ii) a GIS-based method (MARE) to estimate the potential flooded pathways and areas, accounting for runoff and karst contributions and considering land use changes. Then, outputs of these tools are confronted to past and recent floods and municipalities observations, and the impacts of uncertainties and changes on planning decisions are discussed. The use of these tools on the recent 2014 events demonstrated their reliability and interest for stakeholders. This study was realized on French Mediterranean basins, in close collaboration with the Flood Forecasting Services (SPC Med-Ouest, SCHAPI, municipalities).

  4. 77 FR 9637 - Process for Requesting a Variance From Vegetation Standards for Levees and Floodwalls; Additional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ..., channels, or shore-line or river-bank protection systems such as revetments, sand dunes, and barrier islands. b. New federally authorized cost-shared levee projects shall be designed to meet the...

  5. Agricultural aircraft and thermal imaging - from detecting sand boils at the levee to irrigation management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal imaging has many potential uses from aerial platforms. A thermal imaging camera was brought into service to detect potential leakage and sand boils at the Mississippi River levee during the flood period of April and May, 2011. This camera was mounted on an agricultural aircraft and operated ...

  6. A theoretical and field-based study on the formation and shape of fluvial levees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmonds, D. A.; Hajek, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    The natural levees that form on channel margins are important features because they influence sediment transfer between channel and floodplain, and modulate the floodplain accretion rate. Despite this importance, we do not have basic models that predict levee formation or shape. Here we present a coupled theoretical and field-based study on formation and shape of levees. We developed a 1D morphodynamic channel-floodplain model for levee growth. Our model starts from the simplifying assumption of a straight channel and floodplain, each with a uniform width. The model solves conservation of mass for water and sediment along a cross-section perpendicular to the channel and is coupled to an analytical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations that solves for the downstream flood velocity and accounts for turbulent momentum exchange between the channel and floodplain. Model results predict that the necessary conditions for levee formation depend non-linearly on the ratio of channel depth to floodplain depth, and the floodplain Rouse number. If the necessary conditions for levee formation are met, the shape of the levee is controlled by the Peclet-Rouse number. Wider levees form in advection-dominated floodplains (high Peclet number) with easily suspendable grains (low floodplain Rouse number). Diffusion has two important effects on levee width. Firstly, increasing the diffusivity directly increases diffusive sediment transport into the floodplain, which increases levee width. Secondly, increasing diffusivity causes additional turbulent diffusion of momentum from the main channel to the floodplain, which increases the width of the shear layer. A wider shear layer increases the near-channel downstream velocity, which creates more suspended transport and wider levees. We compare our model predictions to levees on reaches of the White River and Muscatatuck River, Indiana, USA. We chose these rivers because the sediment load of the White River is ~5% silt, whereas it is ~80% silt for the Muscatatuck River. Consistent with model predictions, we find that levees on the coarser-grained White River are narrower and much less prevalent compared to the Muscatatuck.

  7. Flooding in Downtown Minot, N.D.

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    As the Souris River flooded during the early summer of 2011, it overcame levees in the city of Minot, N.D., causing about 11,000 people to evacuate their homes.The record-breaking flood crested on July 25 at over 26,000 cubic feet persecond (cfs) and 24 feet - nearly 13 feet over flood s...

  8. Flooding in Downtown Minot, N.D.

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    As the Souris River flooded during the early summer of 2011, it overcame levees in the city of Minot, N.D., causing about 11,000 people to evacuate their homes. The record-breaking flood crested on July 25 at over 26,000 cubic feet per second (cfs) and 24 feet - nearly 13 feet over flood s...

  9. An analytical approach for levee underseepage analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meehan, Christopher L.; Benjasupattananan, Sittinan

    2012-11-01

    SummaryLevee underseepage analyses are commonly performed to assess the risk of erosion and piping of levee foundation soils. They are also commonly used to estimate the quantity of seepage that is expected to pass beneath a levee over time, and to assess the risk of excessively high pore pressures at various points in the foundation. A variety of approaches have historically been utilized to perform steady-state underseepage analyses in levees, including flow-nets, closed-form analytical solutions, and numerical techniques such as finite difference or finite element analyses. This paper provides a derivation of a series of closed-form "blanket theory" analytical equations that can be used to perform a levee underseepage analysis. This derivation starts from a generic confined flow analytical solution, of the type that is common in groundwater flow analyses. The solution is then extended to simulate semiconfined flow beneath a levee in a shallow aquifer. Equations are presented for calculating total head and seepage quantity values for different model boundary conditions. A typical example problem is used to compare the analytical equations that are derived with the analytical equations that are presented in the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) levee design manual. The results provide validation for both the equations that are presented and the conventional USACE analytical design approach. Using the results from the example problem, general guidance and suggestions are provided for designers that use closed-form analytical approaches for modeling levee underseepage.

  10. Numerical modeling of the lateral widening of levee breach by overtopping in a flume with 180 bend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, S.-T.; Wang, D.-W.; Yu, M.-H.; Liang, Y.-J.

    2014-01-01

    Floods caused by levee breaching pose disastrous risks to the lower reaches and the flood flow zones of rivers. Thus, a comprehensive assessment of flow and sediment transport during floods must be performed to mitigate flood disasters. Given that the flow state becomes relatively more complex and the range of the submerged area becomes more extensive after a levee breach, this paper established a flow and sediment model by using two-dimensional shallow water equations (SWEs) to explore the breach development process and the flow and sediment transport in a curved bed after a levee breach due to overtopping. A three-element weighted essentially non-oscillatory Roe scheme was adopted for the discretization of SWEs. In addition, a non-equilibrium total-load sediment transport model was established to simulate the scour depth development process of the breach. A stable equilibrium of the breach was established based on flow shear force and soil shear strength. The lateral widening of the breach was simulated by the scouring-collapse lateral widening mode. These simulations, together with the levee breach experiment conducted in the laboratory, demonstrate the validity of the flow and sediment transport process established in this paper. The effects of water head in and out of the watercourse, the flow rate, the levee sediment grading, and other variables during levee breaching were also analyzed. The mathematical model calculation provided a number of physical quantities, such as flow rate and flow state at the breach, that are difficult to measure by using the current laboratory facilities. The results of this research provide fundamental data for developing measures that can reduce casualties and asset loss due to floods caused by levee breaching.

  11. California Levee Risk, Now and in the Future:Identifying Research and Tool Development Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Newmark, R L; Hanemann, M; Farber, D

    2006-11-28

    The Center for Catastrophic Risk Management (CCRM) and the California Center for Environmental Law and Policy (CCELP) at UC Berkeley and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) joined together to cosponsor a workshop to define research requirements to mitigate the hazards facing the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Levee system. The Workshop was intended to provide a forum to (1) Report assessments of current vulnerabilities facing the levees, such as structural failure, seismic loading, flooding, terrorism; (2) Consider longer term challenges such as climate change, sea level rise; and (3) Define research requirements to fill gaps in knowledge and reduce uncertainties in hazard assessments.

  12. Socio-economic Evaluation Of Different Alternatives For Flood Protection Within The Rivierenland-project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boot, S. P.; van Ast, J. A.

    The Netherlands have a tradition of protecting land against flooding from the main rivers Rhine, Meuse and Scheldt by means of an extensive system of dikes. In recent years, however, this approach to protection has been increasingly questioned with re- gard to its sustainability and cost-effectiveness. The argument is that although the continued elevation of dikes may be technically feasible, there are several disadvan- tages to this approach. Firstly, a vast network of dikes requires a very high degree of organisation of water management, in which mistakes can not be afforded. Such a high degree of organisation may not always be maintainable in the future, due to changed economic or political circumstances. Secondly, it may not be the most cost- effective system for maintaining safety in the long term. Thirdly, it may not be the most desirable approach in terms of sustainability. One of the alternatives to contin- ued dike-elevation is the concept 'room for the river' ('ruimte voor de rivier'), which aims to give more space to rivers in the horizontal in stead of the vertical dimen- sion. This approach would reduce the risk of flooding, defined as the product of the probability and the consequences of flooding. In order to explore the long term con- sequences of both alternatives ('dike elevation' and 'room for the river'), the ministry of Verkeer en Waterstaat (Public Works, Transport and Water Management) started the 'Rivierenland'-project. The comparison of the alternatives mentioned was based on a fictitious project to adjust a region of The Netherlands, between the rivers Rhine and Meuse, to the concept of 'room for water'. The consequence of this adjustment would be that safety within that region would no longer be safeguarded by dikes, but by adjusting daily life to the 'demands of the water'. Part of the 'Rivierenland'-project was an analysis of the socio-economic costs and benefits of the alternative approaches. Within this analysis, a study was performed to identify the requirements an economic evaluation of the project-alternatives would have to meet to do justice to the specific characteristics of the project. These specific characteristics were its mere size (both in spatial and in financial terms), the duration and complexity of the decision-making process, and uncertainty about the effects of the alternatives. Requirements for the method to be used were an integrated analysis of the effects and the taking into account of both the short and the long term effects (over a hundred years) of the alternatives. As a result of these characteristics and requirements, the decision-making process in- volves considerations of intra- and intergenerational equity, the discount factor to be used, transparency of the decision-making process to the public and the possibility to adapt the results of the economic evaluation to changing insights and opinions.

  13. Managing floodplain-forest restoration in European river landscapes combining ecological and flood-protection issues.

    PubMed

    Leyer, Ilona; Mosner, Eva; Lehmann, Boris

    2012-01-01

    Throughout Europe the demands for improved flood protection on the one hand and the requirements to maintain and enhance floodplain forests on the other are perceived as conflicting goals in river-basin management, revealing the urgent need for strategies to combine both issues. We developed an interdisciplinary approach for floodplain-forest restoration identifying sites suitable for reforestations from both an ecological and hydraulic point of view. In the ecological module, habitat-distribution models are developed providing information on ecologically suitable sites. In the hydraulic module, a two-dimensional hydrodynamic-numerical model (2D-HN model) delivers the requested hydraulic information. The output of the two models is intersected. Subsequently, in an iterative procedure, the potential of plantings without exceeding critical water levels can be identified by hydraulic evaluation using the 2D-HN-model. The approach is exemplified using two reforestation scenarios at the Elbe River, Germany, showing considerable potential for softwood forest establishment without negative hydraulic effects. The approach reported here provides a solution for a severe conflict in river-basin management that hampers the reestablishment of the strongly threatened floodplain forests in Europe. Alternative measures to enhance floodplain-forest regeneration feasible under certain preconditions are discussed in the context of the current state of European large rivers. PMID:22471087

  14. Delivery of Ecosystem Benefits at the Urban-Suburban Interface: A Case Study of Flood Protection in the Woonasquatucket River Watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urbanization exacerbates flooding by increasing surface runoff and decreasing surface roughness. Restoring wetlands can enhance flood protection while providing a suite of co-benefits such as temperature regulation and access to open space. Spatial modeling of the delivery of flo...

  15. Effects of Removal of Riparian Vegetation on Levee Stability on the Sacramento River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollen, N.; Shields, F. D.

    2007-12-01

    A new policy of the US Army Corps of Engineers requires that all levee vegetation be removed from federal levees in California. This directive requires levees to be cleared of all vegetation to preserve channel capacity and allow access for inspection and repair. The case for leaving vegetation in place on levees has largely been an environmental one, with concerns regarding removal of habitat and aesthetics. However, stability factors should also be considered. A previous study by Shields and Gray (1992) investigated the effects of vegetation on sandy levee integrity along the Sacramento River, just one such river that is affected by this vegetation-removal policy. Their study showed that even low root concentrations allowed for more stable bank conditions under worst-case conditions for bank stability. In the years since this initial study, modeling of root-reinforcement and streambank stability has improved greatly. This study used geotechnical data collected along the Sacramento River to model the effects of woody and herbaceous vegetation on levee stability using the Bank Stability and Toe Erosion Model developed at the National Sedimentation Laboratory and the root-reinforcement model, RipRoot. Model runs were carried out for a 4 m high levee with 2H: 1V and 3H: 1V slopes, and vegetation growing at different locations on the levee. Levee material was assumed to be a homogeneous, sandy soil, with very low cohesion (0.84 kPa). Three hydrologic conditions were modeled: baseflow conditions, peak of hydrograph, and the most critical bank condition during the receding limb of a hydrograph. Roots were assumed to grow perpendicular to the soil surface, with the additional cohesion due to roots only being added to soil layers in which the roots extended beyond the potential shear surface in that layer. Values for root-reinforcement were calculated using the RipRoot model, using typical root densities, depths and tensile strength measurements for different riparian species measured at sites across the USA. Values of 3, 15, and 20 kPa were added to the banks to represent young saplings, bunch grasses and mature trees respectively. Results showed that the levees were stable without the reinforcing effect of vegetation under all conditions, except under drawdown conditions which are the most critical. In those cases, root-reinforcement increased levee- stability significantly. A 2H: 1V levee had a factor of safety of 0.33 under these conditions without vegetation and a 3H: 1V levee a value of 0.54 (values <1 are unstable). With the addition of vegetation to the levee sides, factor of safety values increased to >1 under all conditions. Reinforcement added by mature trees and bunch grasses provided highest factor of safety values of up to 8.16 and 5.13 for 2H: 1V and 3H: 1V slopes respectively. The findings suggest that root-reinforcement of levees should be taken into account before complete removal of vegetation is carried out along rivers such as the Sacramento River. In cases where levees are composed of largely uncohesive materials, root-reinforcement provides significant support to the soil matrix, whilst additionally reducing shear stresses acting on the soil from flowing water and protecting the levee from rainfall impact and runoff. In deciding the case for removal of levee vegetation, these positive influences of vegetation should be weighted carefully against the desire for increased channel capacity and any possible negative influences of plant roots on levee integrity.

  16. Geomorphic Response to Global Warming in the Anthropocene: Levee Breaches in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florsheim, J. L.; Dettinger, M.; Malamud-Roam, F.; Ingram, B.; Mount, J.

    2006-12-01

    Geomorphic processes in rivers are likely to be influenced by global warming through alterations of flood, erosion, and sedimentation processes and rates. In California's Sierra Nevada, warming scenarios imply future increases in magnitudes and durations (and changes in timing) of floods as snow packs diminish and rainfall runoff increasingly dominates flow into the Central Valley fluvial system. Geomorphic processes are likely to differ from processes that dominated during the Holocene due to the influence both of projected global warming and land use alterations including levee construction that narrows and separates Sacramento-San Joaquin Rivers and tributaries from floodplains and flow regulation downstream of numerous large dams. Whereas Holocene floods induced overbank flow and avulsion processes that led to vertical floodplain accretion and variability of stages in aggrading multiple-channel systems, modern floods largely transport flow and sediment within incised channels confined by levees. Because the scenarios of warming are developed at coarse scales, only an understanding of the relations between large-scale hydrology and climate on the one hand, and the incidence of levee breaches on the other, will make it possible to project likely geomorphic responses to future warming and flooding. A historical record of catastrophic levee breaks on the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers has been developed to allow analyses of these connections. In the current work, we develop statistical relations between historical levee break events and flow discharge, as well as with climatic phenomena such as El Nino and La Nina phases of the ENSO cycle, positive and negative phases of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and seasonal propensities towards "pineapple-express" storms. Preliminary results suggest strong relations between levee breaches and discharge, but poor relations to ENSO. Further investigation of these data will provide insight to help inform models and river management policy that addresses rates and magnitudes of erosion and sedimentation.

  17. Integrating adaptive behaviour in large-scale flood risk assessments: an Agent-Based Modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haer, Toon; Aerts, Jeroen

    2015-04-01

    Between 1998 and 2009, Europe suffered over 213 major damaging floods, causing 1126 deaths, displacing around half a million people. In this period, floods caused at least 52 billion euro in insured economic losses making floods the most costly natural hazard faced in Europe. In many low-lying areas, the main strategy to cope with floods is to reduce the risk of the hazard through flood defence structures, like dikes and levees. However, it is suggested that part of the responsibility for flood protection needs to shift to households and businesses in areas at risk, and that governments and insurers can effectively stimulate the implementation of individual protective measures. However, adaptive behaviour towards flood risk reduction and the interaction between the government, insurers, and individuals has hardly been studied in large-scale flood risk assessments. In this study, an European Agent-Based Model is developed including agent representatives for the administrative stakeholders of European Member states, insurers and reinsurers markets, and individuals following complex behaviour models. The Agent-Based Modelling approach allows for an in-depth analysis of the interaction between heterogeneous autonomous agents and the resulting (non-)adaptive behaviour. Existing flood damage models are part of the European Agent-Based Model to allow for a dynamic response of both the agents and the environment to changing flood risk and protective efforts. By following an Agent-Based Modelling approach this study is a first contribution to overcome the limitations of traditional large-scale flood risk models in which the influence of individual adaptive behaviour towards flood risk reduction is often lacking.

  18. 75 FR 18238 - United States Section; Final Environmental Impact Statement, Flood Control Improvements and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ..., overtopping, piping/sand boils, under-seepage, and severe surface and slope erosion. The flooding also... under-seepage), the existing levee is insufficient to contain a 25-year design flood. Therefore,...

  19. Floods and Flash Flooding

    MedlinePLUS

    Floods and flash flooding Now is the time to determine your area’s flood risk. If you are not sure whether you ... If you are in a floodplain, consider buying flood insurance. Do not drive around barricades. If your ...

  20. 11-14 November 2012 Umbria Region (Central Italy) flood event: from prediction to management for civil protection purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berni, Nicola; Pandolfo, Claudia; Stelluti, Marco; Zauri, Renato; Ponziani, Francesco; Francioni, Marco; Governatori Leonardi, Federico; Formica, Alessandro; Natazzi, Loredana; Costantini, Sandro

    2013-04-01

    Following laws and regulations concerning extreme natural events management, the Italian national hydrometeorological early warning system is composed by 21 regional offices (Functional Centres - CF). Umbria Region CF is located in Central Italy and provides early warning, monitoring and decision support systems (DSS) when significant flood/landslide events occur. The alert system is based on hydrometric and rainfall thresholds with detailed procedures for the management of critical events in which different roles of authorities and institutions involved are defined. For the real time flood forecasting system, at the CF several operational hydrological and hydraulic models were developed and implemented for a "dynamic" hazard/risk scenario assessment for Civil Protection DSS, useful also for the development of Flood Risk Management Plans according to the European "Floods Directive" 2007/60. In the period 11th-14th November 2012, a significant flood event occurred in Umbria (as well as Tuscany and northern Lazio). The territory was interested by intense and persistent rainfall; the hydro-meteorological monitoring network recorded locally rainfall depth over 300 mm in 72 hours and, generally, values greater than the seasonal averages all over the region. In the most affected area the recorded rainfall depths correspond to centenarian return period: one-third of the annual mean precipitation occurred in 2-3 days. Almost all rivers in Umbria have been involved, exceeding hydrometric thresholds, and several ones overflowed. Furthermore, in some cases, so high water levels have never been recorded by the hydrometric network. As in the major flood events occurred in the last years, dams (Montedoglio and Corbara dams along Tiber River and Casanuova dam along Chiascio River) and other hydraulic works for flood defense (e.g. along Chiani stream) played a very important mitigation role, storing high water volumes and avoiding the overlap of peak discharges downstream. During the event many emergency interventions were necessary. There were no casualties among the population, but many landslides and flooding occurred causing over 240 million Euros of damages (to hydraulic works, infrastructures, public and commercial facilities, residential buildings, agriculture, etc.) enough to induce the Regional Administration to request declaration of state of emergency to the National Government. The day before the beginning of the event (10th November) QPFs values were high enough to activate "Attention" Phase of Regional Civil Protection System and CF, during the critical phases, provided 24h decision support activities, also through the official web site (www.cfumbria.it), very useful for monitoring and data/info dissemination from the national to the municipality level. The thresholds presented good agreement with direct territorial presidiums observations and the alert system has been tested. The purpose of this work is to highlight what worked well and what did not, in order to improve the early warning and DSS for Civil Protection purposes.

  1. Lessons from Katrina: Flood Management Technology Strategies for the US.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, Gerald

    2006-04-01

    Coastal and riverine flooding and hurricane-driven storms have long plagued those in the United States who live or work on or near the shoreline or the rivers edge. The devastation wrought by Hurricane Katrina brought the challenge of protecting against such events to the political and technical forefront. The predicted impacts of global warming strongly suggest that our floodplains and coastlines could be at greatly increased risk. This presentation will review the development of the U.S. program for providing structural protection, discuss the effectiveness of employing levees, dams, floodways, beach nourishment and storm barriers in this struggle, highlight the changes over the last two decades that have gradually shifted the focus from a structural-only approach to one that includes the non-structural approaches such as wise land use, wetland restoration, relocations, insurance, floodproofing, and emergency warning and evacuation. Using post-Katrina planning as an example, it will explore what new approaches can be taken. Should New Orleans take a 'levees only' approach to its protection? or should attention to New Orleans be part of a coastal Louisiana integrated flood damage reduction and coastal restoration strategy. The nation needs to make changes in its water resources policies and investment strategy to deal with the new threat that it now faces.

  2. Flood protection effect of the existing and projected reservoirs in the Amur River basin: evaluation by the hydrological modeling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motovilov, Y.; Danilov-Danilyan, V.; Dod, E.; Kalugin, A.

    2015-06-01

    Hydrological modeling system was developed as a tool addressed supporting flood risk management by the existing and projected reservoirs in the Amur River basin. The system includes the physically-based semi-distributed model of runoff generation ECOMAG coupled with a hydrodynamic MIKE-11 model to simulate channel flow in the main river. The case study was carried out for the middle part of the Amur River where large reservoirs are located on the Zeya and Bureya Rivers. The models were calibrated and validated using streamflow measuruments at the different gauges of the main river and its tributaries. Numerical experiments were carried out to assess the effect of the existing Zeya and Bureya reservoirs regulation on 850 km stretch of the middle Amur River stage. It was shown that in the absence of the reservoirs, the water levels downstream of the Zeya and Bureya Rivers would be 0.5-1.5 m higher than the levels measured during the disastrous flood of 2013. Similar experiments were carried out to assess possible flood protection effect of new projected reservoirs on the Zeya and Bureya Rivers.

  3. Numerical Modeling of the Effect of Woody Vegetation on Seepage in Levees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tracy, F. T.; Corcoran, M. K.

    2011-12-01

    A remarkable number and diversity of levees exist in the United States. One controversial and complicated concern is the effect of woody vegetation on the performance of levees. Some really appreciate the trees on levees because they are beautiful and great for the environment and habitat. However, others do not like trees on levees because they can cause defects and get in the way of doing maintenance, especially during the time of floods. This poster will focus on two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) numerical modeling of seepage in levees to determine the effect of woody vegetation on piping and internal erosion of the foundation of the levee. The finite element method is the modeling tool that is used. The approach in the overall modeling study was to select several levees around the country for further analysis. Then for each levee, trees were placed at different locations on the levee. A given root zone from a tree was modeled in three ways: (1) a 6 ft X 5 ft constant hydraulic conductivity zone where the original hydraulic conductivity of the zone was varied from 0.01 to 100.0 times its original value, (2) a randomly generated macropore heterogeneous zone where the hydraulic conductivity was varied from 0.01 to 100.0 times its original value for each finite element in the zone, and (3) a defect in actual root shapes embedded into the root zone where the hydraulic conductivity of the defect was chosen to be 100.0 times that of its original value without the defect. Both steady-state and transient flow simulations were done. Output from the models consisted of equipotentials, velocities, pore pressures, and isosurfaces of potential. From these data, the likelihood of the initiation of sand boils and internal erosion of the levee foundation was determined. Data generated with and without the presence of trees were compared to see possible helpful or detrimental effects of the woody vegetation. A 3-D finite element model was generated by taking a 2-D mesh of a levee cross section consisting of triangular elements (approximately 60,000 elements in one case) and extruding it several times into the third dimension. The 3-D root zone (6 ft X 6 ft X 5 ft) was placed in the middle of this 3-D model just beyond the toe of the levee for the case studied. The macropore model had in its 3-D root zone prism elements of approximately one inch in size in each dimension, and the saturated hydraulic conductivity of each tiny element was randomly varied from 0.01 to 100.0 times its original value. This led to 3-D models having millions of nodes (3,000,000 for one example) and elements (6,000,000 for the same example) and ill-conditioned linear systems of equations to solve. Running this model required the use of high performance, parallel computing. The defects in the roots were also taken to be one inch in width for the 2-D simulations, and having a one inch X one inch horizontal cross section in the 3-D models. The poster will illustrate this modeling experience and provide results of the study. It will show (1) examples of levees, (2) sn example of a 2-D finite element model of a levee cross section, (3) an example of a 3-D macropore root zone, (3) an example of a root embedded in a root zone with a defect, and (4) graphical output results from the 2-D and 3-D models.

  4. 44 CFR 61.12 - Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood... Risk Analysis Division, Mitigation Directorate, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington DC, and... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rates based on a...

  5. 44 CFR 61.12 - Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood... Risk Analysis Division, Mitigation Directorate, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington DC, and... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rates based on a...

  6. Media Covering Flooding in Downtown Minot, N.D.

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    As the Souris River flooded during the early summer of 2011, it overcame levees in the city of Minot, N.D., causing about 11,000 people to evacuate their homes. The record-breaking flood crested on July 25 at over 26,000 cubic feet per second (cfs) and 24 feet - nearly 13 feet over flood s...

  7. Flooded Downtown Minot, N.D. Near the Police Station

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    As the Souris River flooded during the early summer of 2011, it overcame levees in the city of Minot, N.D., causing about 11,000 people to evacuate their homes. The record-breaking flood crested on July 25 at over 26,000 cubic feet per second (cfs) and 24 feet - nearly 13 feet over flood s...

  8. Downtown Minot Flooding as Seen From Broadway Bridge

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    As the Souris River flooded during the early summer of 2011, it overcame levees in the city of Minot, N.D., causing about 11,000 people to evacuate their homes. The record-breaking flood crested on July 25 at over 26,000 cubic feet per second (cfs) and 24 feet - nearly 13 feet over flood s...

  9. Flooded Homes in Downtown Minot, N.D.

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    As the Souris River flooded during the early summer of 2011, it overcame levees in the city of Minot, N.D., causing about 11,000 people to evacuate their homes. The record-breaking flood crested on July 25 at over 26,000 cubic feet per second (cfs) and 24 feet - nearly 13 feet over flood s...

  10. Wetland Along Levee in Southern Paraguay

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Wetland between levee and Tebicuary river. The Ñeembucú Region is typified by extensive grasslands and wetlands. Near 26°34’52’’S, 56°49’18’’W. (Portion of text from: Guyra Paraguay 2004, Annotated Checklist of the Birds of Paraguay, Paraguay...

  11. Wetland Along Levee in Southern Paraguay

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Wetland between levee and Tebicuary river. The eembuc Region is typified by extensive grasslands and wetlands. Near 263452S, 564918W. (Portion of text from: Guyra Paraguay 2004, Annotated Checklist of the Birds of Paraguay, Paraguay...

  12. Floods and Societies: Dynamic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Baldassarre, G.; Viglione, A.; Carr, G.; Kuil, L., Jr.; Brandimarte, L.; Bloeschl, G.

    2014-12-01

    There is growing concern that future flood losses and fatalities might increase significantly in many regions of the world because of rapid urbanization in deltas and floodplains, in addition to sea level rise and climate change. To better anticipate long-term trajectories of future flood risk, there is a need to treat floodplains and deltas as fully coupled human-physical systems. Here we propose a novel approach to explore the long-term behavior emerging from the mutual interactions and feedbacks between physical and social systems. The implementation of our modeling framework shows that green societies, which cope with flooding by resettling out of floodplains, are more resilient to increasing flood frequency than technological societies, which deal with flooding by building levees. Also, we show that when coupled dynamics are accounted for, flood-poor periods could (paradoxically) be more dangerous than flood-rich periods.

  13. Mississippi River Flooding 2011: Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Inflow/outflow of the levee breach near New Madrid, MO. USGS scientists are measuring the amount of water spilling into the New Madrid floodway as a result of the recent intentional breaching of the Birds Point Levee in Missouri in support of the Corps of Engineers operation. When flooding happens, ...

  14. Exploring high-end climate change scenarios for flood protection of the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazeleger, W.; Katsman, C.; Sterl, A.; Beersma, J.

    2009-04-01

    Sea level rise, changing storm frequency and intensity, and increased river discharge resulting from climate change pose a particular threat to low-lying countries like the Netherlands and create many new challenges for them. With these threats and challenges in mind, the Dutch cabinet established a special committee, the Delta Committee, charged with the development of effective planning-, management- and adaptation strategies for climate proofing the Netherlands. At the request of the Dutch Delta Committee, an international scientific assessment has been carried out to explore high-end climate change scenarios for flood protection of the Netherlands. Upper-bound values and longer-term projections (up to 2200) of climate-induced sea level rise, changing storm surge conditions, and peak discharge of the river Rhine have been considered. The assessment builds on a review of recent studies, model projections and expert opinions. For the scenarios for sea level rise, thermal expansion of the ocean, the shrinking of small glaciers, the Greenland and the Antarctic Ice Sheets, and changes in terrestrial water storage are considered separately, along with their uncertainties. Except for the contribution of the Antarctic Ice Sheet all contributions are assumed to depend (at least in part) on the rise in global mean atmospheric temperature rise. To arrive at a projection for local sea level, elastic and gravity effects of elastic deformation of the Earth's crust arising from mass redistribution due to the melting of land-based ice masses, local expansion differences with respect to the global mean (dominated by ocean circulation changes) and local land movement were accounted for. Depending on the adopted impact of the elastic and gravity effects, a high-end projection for local sea level rise of 0.50 - 1.15 m and 0.05 - 1.25 m is projected for the Dutch coast for 2100. For 2200 these ranges are 1.5 - 4 m and 0.5 - 4.0 m. Besides sea level rise, the height of storm surges and wind waves is extremely important for a low-lying country like the Netherlands. By law, coastal defense has to withstand a water level that occurs only once every 10,000 years. In the assessment for the Delta Committee, this aspect has been addressed by first investigating projected changes in the wind climate on the North Sea from global and regional climate model simulations. In a second step these winds are used to drive storm surge and wind wave models. The results point to changes being small compared to the uncertainty in present-day 10,000 year return values. Finally, the effects of climate change on the discharge of the river Rhine were considered using hydrological models. It was found that average winter flow will increase while summer flows will be reduced to a magnitude depending on the assumed climate change scenario. Peak discharges that are currently being considered very high will become normal. Finally, it was concluded that the current hydraulic properties of the Rhine limit the potential increase of the design discharge substantially.

  15. Personal protective equipment, hygiene behaviours and occupational risk of illness after July 2011 flood in Copenhagen, Denmark.

    PubMed

    Wjcik, O P; Holt, J; Kjerulf, A; Mller, L; Ethelberg, S; Mlbak, K

    2013-08-01

    Incidence of various diseases can increase following a flood. We aimed to identify professionals in Copenhagen who became ill after contact with 2 July 2011 floodwater/sediment and determine risks and protective factors associated with illness. We conducted a cohort study of employees engaged in post-flood management activities. Participants completed a questionnaire collecting information about demographics, floodwater/sediment exposure, compliance with standard precautions, and symptoms of illness. Overall, 257 professionals participated, with 56 (22%) cases. Risk of illness was associated with not washing hands after floodwater/sediment contact [relative risk (RR) 2?45], exposure to floodwater at work and home (RR 2?35), smoking (RR 1?92), direct contact with floodwater (RR 1?86), and eating/drinking when in contact with floodwater (RR 1?77). Professionals need to follow standard precautions when in contact with floodwater/sediment, especially proper hand hygiene after personal protective equipment use and before eating/drinking and smoking. PMID:22989427

  16. Comparing multistate expected damages, option price and cumulative prospect measures for valuing flood protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrow, Scott; Scott, Michael

    2013-05-01

    Floods are risky events ranging from small to catastrophic. Although expected flood damages are frequently used for economic policy analysis, alternative measures such as option price (OP) and cumulative prospect value exist. The empirical magnitude of these measures whose theoretical preference is ambiguous is investigated using case study data from Baltimore City. The outcome for the base case OP measure increases mean willingness to pay over the expected damage value by about 3%, a value which is increased with greater risk aversion, reduced by increased wealth, and only slightly altered by higher limits of integration. The base measure based on cumulative prospect theory is about 46% less than expected damages with estimates declining when alternative parameters are used. The method of aggregation is shown to be important in the cumulative prospect case which can lead to an estimate up to 41% larger than expected damages. Expected damages remain a plausible and the most easily computed measure for analysts.

  17. Risk to life due to flooding in post-Katrina New Orleans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, A.; Jonkman, S. N.; Van Ledden, M.

    2015-01-01

    Since the catastrophic flooding of New Orleans due to Hurricane Katrina in 2005, the city's hurricane protection system has been improved to provide protection against a hurricane load with a 1/100 per year exceedance frequency. This paper investigates the risk to life in post-Katrina New Orleans. In a flood risk analysis the probabilities and consequences of various flood scenarios have been analyzed for the central area of the city (the metro bowl) to give a preliminary estimate of the risk to life in the post-Katrina situation. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model has been used to simulate flood characteristics of various breaches. The model for estimation of fatality rates is based on the loss of life data for Hurricane Katrina. Results indicate that - depending on the flood scenario - the estimated loss of life in case of flooding ranges from about 100 to nearly 500, with the highest life loss due to breaching of the river levees leading to large flood depths. The probability and consequence estimates are combined to determine the individual risk and societal risk for New Orleans. When compared to risks of other large-scale engineering systems (e.g., other flood prone areas, dams and the nuclear sector) and acceptable risk criteria found in literature, the risks for the metro bowl are found to be relatively high. Thus, despite major improvements to the flood protection system, the flood risk to life of post-Katrina New Orleans is still expected to be significant. Indicative effects of reduction strategies on the risk level are discussed as a basis for further evaluation and discussion.

  18. Experimental analysis of the levees safety based on geophysical monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, Enzo; Valeria, Giampaolo; Mario, Votta; Lapenna, Vincenzo; Moramarco, Tommaso; Aricò, Costanza; Camici, S.; Morbidelli, Renato; Sinagra, M.; Tucciarelli, T.

    2010-05-01

    Several flood events brought river levees into the focus of attention for some disasters due to their collapse. This phenomena is quite complex to investigate, because of different factors that can affect the stability of levees, among them the non uniformity of material properties, which influencing the permeability of the embankment, might induce high percolation velocity of flux thus triggering the unstability. Thus, to apply a fast and integrate investigation methods with a non-destructive characteristics should have a large interest, if they are able to furnish ready and usable information necessary to hydrogeological models. In order to achieve this goal, the University of Perugia (Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering) and the National Research Council (IRPI and IMAA research institutes) developed a collaborating project on the study of the internal structure of the river embankment by carrying out experiments in laboratory. The purpose of this study is to show the preliminary results of the experimental investigation. The laboratory embankment was built using material coming from a real levee and gathered inside a 1.5m x 1.2m plexiglas box. The box has two compartments: a water reservoir at one hand where a constant water head was reached after some time and a soil simulating the presence of levee. We perform a geoelectrical multichannel acquisition system with three parallel profiles characterized by 16 mini-electrodes connected to georesistivimeter Syscal Pro. An automatic acquisition protocol has been performed to obtain time slice electrical tomographies during the experiments. The geophysical results show the effect of the water table inside the embankment during the wetting and emptying. In order to assess the capability of the geophysical monitoring for addressing the soil parameters estimate, the resistivity results are investigated by using two analytical and one hydraulic numerical models. The analytical models represent a linear solution of Laplace's equation where Dupuit hypothesis holds (the vertical gradients of the flow velocity in the medium are neglected). In particular, the Marchi and Supino solutions are investigated here by assuming the upstream water level variations in the river negligible with respect to the ones inside the groundwater under the steady state condition. Two different seepage fronts are calculated and compared with the ones inferred from the resistivity maps. The experimental data have been also compared with the results computed by a numerical code. The governing equation for the unsaturated-saturated medium is the continuity equation written in terms of the piezometric head unknown while the Brooks-Corey law relates the water content and the relative hydraulic conductivity to the piezometric head. The numerical model is a time splitting technique and the solution is obtained by solving consecutively a convective and a diffusive component. The medium has been discretized in space using a generally unstructured triangular mesh. The governing equations are discretized using the edge centred mixed hybrid finite element scheme. The computational domain is schematized as 1D network of cells located at the middle point of each edge and linked by fictitious channels and the storage capacity is concentrated in the cells. A linear variation of unknown is assumed inside each triangle. The positive outcomes of hydraulic model application have certainly had benefit from the information coming from the geophysical monitoring. Based on these preliminary results it was noticeable as the geophysical monitoring can be conveniently adopted for addressing the levee safety control and to provide information on soil parameters.

  19. Insights from socio-hydrology modelling on dealing with flood risk: roles of collective memory, risk-taking attitude and trust (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viglione, A.; Di Baldassarre, G.; Brandimarte, L.; Kuil, L.; Carr, G.; Salinas, J.; Scolobig, A.

    2013-12-01

    The risk coping culture of a community plays a major role in decision making in urban flood plains. While flood awareness is not necessarily linked to being prepared to face flooding at an individual level, the connection at the community level seems to be stronger through creating policy and initiating protection works. In this work we analyse, in a conceptual way, the interplay of community risk coping culture, flooding damage and economic growth. We particularly focus on three aspects: (i) collective memory, i.e., the capacity of the community to keep the awareness of flooding high; (ii) risk-taking attitude, i.e., the amount of risk a community is collectively willing to expose themselves to; and (iii) trust of people in risk protection measures. We use a dynamic model that represents the feedbacks between the hydrological and social system components. The model results indicate that, on one hand, by under perceiving the risk of flooding (because of short collective memory and too much trust in flood protection structures) in combination with a high risk-attitude, community survival is severely limited because of destruction caused by flooding. On the other hand, high perceived risk (long memory and lack of trust in flood protection structures) relative to the actual risk leads to lost economic opportunities and recession. There are many optimal scenarios for survival and economic growth, but greater certainty of survival plus economic growth can be achieved by ensuring community has accurate risk perception (memory neither too long nor too short and trust in flood protection neither too great nor too low) combined with a low to moderate risk-taking attitude. Interestingly, the model gives rise to situations in which the development of the community in the floodplain is path dependent, i.e., the history of flooding may lead to its growth or recession. Schematic of human adjustments to flooding: (a) settling away from the river; (b) raising levees/dikes.

  20. Cibola High Levee Pond annual report 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, Gordon A.; Carpenter, Jeanette; Marsh, Paul C.

    2005-01-01

    This represents the fourth and last annual report of a five year study investigating the early life ecology of the bonytail and razorback sucker at Cibola High Levee Pond. The work in 2004 included: telemetry studies, collection of physical water quality measurements, zooplankton samples, netting fish, the collection of scale samples for aging, predator/prey tank tests and a preliminary analysis of the data base.

  1. Mesoscale connectivity through a natural levee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, A. E.; Keim, R. F.

    2013-02-01

    Natural levees are potentially locally important zones of lateral seepage between stream channels and floodplain backswamps, because their relatively coarser soils provide pathways of high hydraulic conductivity in an otherwise low conductivity system. Therefore, understanding the rates and mechanisms of subsurface exchange of water and solutes through natural levees may be necessary for understanding biogeochemical cycling in floodplains. We measured imposed hydraulic gradients and solute tracers in 19 shallow monitoring wells within a 580 m3 volume of natural levee in the Atchafalaya Basin, Louisiana. We modeled residence time distributions of pressure and tracers using a simple linear system to quantify spatially variable transport velocities and infer dominant flow mechanisms at a mesoscale. The spatial mean velocity of pressure transport was faster than the mean velocity of tracer transport by two orders of magnitude (1.7 10-2 and 4.6 10-4 m s-1, respectively), and the variance of pressure velocities was less than the variance of tracer velocities by seven orders of magnitude (1.4 104 min2 and 7.9 1011 min2, respectively). Higher spatial variability of tracer velocities compared to pressure velocities indicates different functioning mechanisms of mass versus energy transport and suggests preferential flow. Effective hydraulic conductivities, which ranged in magnitude from 10-1 to 103 m d-1, were higher than would be predicted by soil texture. We conclude that, in this fine-grained system, preferential flow paths control water and solute exchange through natural levees. These findings are important for future studies of water and solute cycling in riverine wetlands, and rates of exchange may be particularly useful for modeling water and nutrient budgets in similar systems.

  2. Utilizing Radar Remote Sensing to Assess the Water Extent along River Levees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laygo, K.; Madson, A.; O'Connell, K.; Jones, C. E.; Holt, B.

    2012-12-01

    Every spring, precipitation and snowmelt in the central U.S. leads to high water levels in the Mississippi River and its tributaries, with concurrent flooding and levee damage a near-yearly event. In the spring of 2011, historic water levels led to extensive flooding from Mississippi County, Missouri, to southern Louisiana, necessitating the opening of three major spillways, including the Morganza Spillway north of New Orleans, which diverts water from the Mississippi River through the Atchafalaya Basin of central Louisiana and had not been used since 1973. There is value to NOAA, the agency responsible for flood prediction, and the Army Corp. of Engineers, the agency responsible for flood control, in the application of remote sensing to flood mapping and soil moisture mapping, both along the main rivers and levee systems. We plan to use high resolution radar (NASA UAVSAR - Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar), with a particular focus on increased soil moisture mapping in order to determine how quickly and accurately areas of increased soil moisture content associated with levee seepage and sandboils can be delineated. We have several UAVSAR data sets collected along the Mississippi River during June 2009, April and June 2011, which we have analyzed for soil moisture detection algorithm development during the Spring 2012 term. Our goal for part 2 of the study is to develop an algorithm to detect areas of increased soil moisture, and to finalize flood map end products for decision makers based on an easily applied algorithm that utilizes a standard analysis package for water extent measurement along waterways, which will be usable by non-experts with widely available software.River Gage Datat; As mentioned in the section above, river gage data was utilized to help determine the best UAVSAR datset to use for algorithm and processing methodology creation. The table below shows river gage readings with their corresponding UAVSAR flight ID. The datasets of greatest interest are UAVSAR flights in which the river level was over flood stage for an extended amount of time. The flood river data below was provided by the USACE online river gage database.

  3. Risk to life due to flooding in post-Katrina New Orleans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, A.; Jonkman, S. N.; Van Ledden, M.

    2014-01-01

    After the catastrophic flooding of New Orleans due to hurricane Katrina in the year 2005, the city's hurricane protection system has been improved to provide protection against a hurricane load with a 1/100 per year exceedance frequency. This paper investigates the risk to life in post-Katrina New Orleans. In a risk-based approach the probabilities and consequences of various flood scenarios have been analyzed for the central area of the city (the metro bowl) to give a preliminary estimate of the risk to life in the post-Katrina situation. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model has been used to simulate flood characteristics of various breaches. The model for estimation of fatality rates is based on the loss of life data for Hurricane Katrina. Results indicate that - depending on the flood scenario - the estimated loss of life in case of flooding ranges from about 100 to nearly 500, with the highest life loss due to breaching of the river levees leading to large flood depths. The probability and consequence estimates are combined to determine the individual risk and societal risk for New Orleans. When compared to risks of other large scale engineering systems (e.g. other flood prone areas, dams and the nuclear sector) and acceptable risk criteria found in literature, the risks for the metro bowl are found to be relatively high. Thus, despite major improvements to the flood protection system, the flood risk of post-Katrina New Orleans is still expected to be significant. Effects of reduction strategies on the risk level are discussed as a basis for further evaluation.

  4. Istsos, Sensor Observation Management System: a Real Case Application of Hydro-Meteorological Data for Flood Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannata, M.; Antonovic, M.; Molinari, M.; Pozzoni, M.

    2013-01-01

    istSOS (Istituto scienze della Terra Sensor Observation Service) is an implementation of the Sensor Observation Service standard from Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The development of istSOS started in 2009 in order to provide a simple implementation of the Sensor Observation Service (SOS) standard for the management, provision and integration of hydro-meteorological data collected in Canton Ticino (Southern Switzerland). istSOS is entirely written in Python and is based on reliable open source software like PostgreSQL/PostGIS and Apache/mod_wsgi. The authors during this presentation want to illustrate the latest software enhancements together with a real case in a production environment. Latest software enhancement includes the development of a RESTful service and of a Web-based graphical user interface that allows hydrologists a better interaction with measurements. This includes the ability of new services creation, addition of new sensors and relative metadata, visualization and manipulation of stored observations, registration of new measures and setting of system properties like observable properties and data quality codes. The study will show a real case application of the system for the provision of data to interregional partners and to a hydrological model for lake level forecasting and flooding hazard assessment. The hydrological model uses a combination of WPS (Web Processing Service) and SOS for the generation of model input data. This system is linked with a dedicated geo-portal used by the civil protection for the management, alert and protection of population and assets of the Locarno area (Verbano Lake flooding). Practical considerations and technical issues will be presented and discussed.

  5. One health and force health protection during foreign humanitarian assistance operations: 2010 Pakistan flood relief.

    PubMed

    Burke, Ronald L

    2013-01-01

    Restrictions on the number of troops that could enter Pakistan in support of the 2010 flood relief efforts limited the type and number of deployed medical personnel. Although this created the potential for mission gaps, the assigned personnel were able to perform additional functions beyond those normally associated with their particular health specialty to help close these gaps, which was largely made possible due to prior cross-training and predeployment refresher training. Given the rapid and unpredictable nature of disaster response, future foreign humanitarian assistance operations may face similar issues with assigned personnel. Promotion of the One Health concept through instruction and training will help to increase awareness among US Army Medical Department personnel about the roles and functions of health specialties, facilitate the identification of critical gaps during deployments, and provide personnel with the knowledge and skills needed to address them. PMID:23277449

  6. A reflection about the social and technological aspects in flood risk management - the case of the Italian Civil Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llasat, M. Del Carmen; Siccardi, F.

    2010-01-01

    The right of a person to be protected from natural hazards is a characteristic of the social and economical development of the society. This paper is a contribution to the reflection about the role of Civil Protection organizations in a modern society. The paper is based in the inaugural conference made by the authors on the 9th Plinius Conference on Mediterranean Storms. Two major issues are considered. The first one is sociological; the Civil Protection organizations and the responsible administration of the land use planning should be perceived as reliable as possible, in order to get consensus on the restrictions they pose, temporary or definitely, on the individual free use of the territory as well as in the entire warning system. The second one is technological: in order to be reliable they have to issue timely alert and warning to the population at large, but such alarms should be as "true" as possible. With this aim, the paper summarizes the historical evolution of the risk assessment, starting from the original concept of "hazard", introducing the concepts of "scenario of event" and "scenario of risk" and ending with a discussion about the uncertainties and limits of the most advanced and efficient tools to predict, to forecast and to observe the ground effects affecting people and their properties. The discussion is centred in the case of heavy rains and flood events in the North-West of Mediterranean Region.

  7. A methodology for urban flood resilience assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhomme, Serge; Serre, Damien; Diab, Youssef; Laganier, Richard

    2010-05-01

    In Europe, river floods have been increasing in frequency and severity [Szllsi-Nagy and Zevenbergen, 2005]. Moreover, climate change is expected to exacerbate the frequency and intensity of hydro meteorological disaster [IPCC, 2007]. Despite efforts made to maintain the flood defense assets, we often observe levee failures leading to finally increase flood risk in protected area. Furthermore, flood forecasting models, although benefiting continuous improvements, remain partly inaccurate due to uncertainties arising all along data calculation processes. In the same time, the year 2007 marks a turning point in history: half of the world population now lives in cities (UN-Habitat, 2007). Moreover, the total urban population is expected to double from two to four billion over the next 30 to 35 years (United Nations, 2006). This growing rate is equivalent to the creation of a new city of one million inhabitants every week, and this during the next four decades [Flood resilience Group]. So, this quick urban development coupled with technical failures and climate change have increased flood risk and corresponding challenges to urban flood risk management [Ashley et al., 2007], [Nie et al., 2009]. These circumstances oblige to manage flood risk by integrating new concepts like urban resilience. In recent years, resilience has become a central concept for risk management. This concept has emerged because a more resilient system is less vulnerable to risk and, therefore, more sustainable [Serre et al., 2010]. But urban flood resilience is a concept that has not yet been directly assessed. Therefore, when decision makers decide to use the resilience concept to manage urban flood, they have no tool to help them. That is why this paper proposes a methodology to assess urban flood resilience in order to make this concept operational. Networks affect the well-being of the people and the smooth functioning of services and, more generally, of economical activities. Yet, multiple networks that innervate the city are particularly sensitive to flooding, through their structures and geographic constraints. Because societal functions are highly dependent on networked systems and the operability of these systems can be vulnerable to disasters, there is a need to understand how networked systems are resilient. That is why, considering that networks can be regarded as the "flood gateway" [Lhomme et al., 2009], we will focus on the resilience assessment of these critical networks before urban resilience assessment. The first part of this paper introduce resilience concept to well understand the importance of this concept to manage flood risk and of assessing this resilience. In a second part, this paper presents the use of safety methods to model network system dysfunctions during flood and then to produce resilience indicators. Finally it presents use of graph theory to assess adaptive capacity of these networks. These researches are the first steps toward the development of a GIS tool to optimize preparedness and recovery after a flood event.

  8. An Inverse Methodology to Estimate the Flow Released from a Levee Breach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Oria, M.; Mignosa, P.; Tanda, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    When a levee breach occurs a remarkable volume of water is released causing the inundation of an extended area. To accurately reproduce the flooding resulting from the failure, the discharge over time leaving the river must be known. This flow rate is conditioned by many factors such as: 1. the river water levels in proximity of the failure; 2. the geometry of the breach and its evolution in time; 3. the water level of the flooded area that can produce backwater effects and thus reduce the leaving flow rate or in some case reverse the flow; and 4. the provisional works aimed at fixing the failure. However, from a practical point of view, many of the previous data are hardly known and usually the only available information is the position and the finally geometry of the breach and sometimes its opening time. But, if gauging stations are located in proximity of the failure, the water levels observed upstream and mainly downstream the levee breach are affected by the discharge leaving or eventually re-entering the river. In this work, a Bayesian inverse methodology to estimate the discharge time series leaving a levee breach based on the water levels recorded downstream and/or upstream the failure site is proposed. Prior information, in forms of geostatistical functions, regularizes the solution. The required simulation of the forward problem, able to reproduce the river flow routing and the discharge leaving the breach, has been accomplished by means of the 1D HEC-RAS model. The Uniform Later Flow boundary condition of HEC-RAS has been used to simulate the flow leaving/entering the river across the breach. Synthetic examples with and without the above mentioned back water effects and provisional works has been used to test the procedure. Different levee breaches modeled by means of a lateral weir with movable gates has been simulated to collect the synthetic level data then used in the inverse procedure. The methodology was able to accurately reproduce the flow released by the levee breaches in all cases. The procedure has been also tested on a real case study of the tragically famous inundation of the Polesine Region (Italy) occurred in 1951 and caused by three contiguous levee breaches of the Po river. The estimated discharge leaving the breaches and consequently the total volume of water released is in accordance with other literature studies.

  9. A New Approach to Monitoring Coastal Marshes for Persistent Flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalcic, M. T.; Underwood, L. W.; Fletcher, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    Many areas in coastal Louisiana are below sea level and protected from flooding by a system of natural and man-made levees. Flooding is common when the levees are overtopped by storm surge or rising rivers. Many levees in this region are further stressed by erosion and subsidence. The floodwaters can become constricted by levees and trapped, causing prolonged inundation. Vegetative communities in coastal regions, from fresh swamp forest to saline marsh, can be negatively affected by inundation and changes in salinity. As saltwater persists, it can have a toxic effect upon marsh vegetation causing die off and conversion to open water types, destroying valuable species habitats. The length of time the water persists and the average annual salinity are important variables in modeling habitat switching (cover type change). Marsh type habitat switching affects fish, shellfish, and wildlife inhabitants, and can affect the regional ecosystem and economy. There are numerous restoration and revitalization projects underway in the coastal region, and their effects on the entire ecosystem need to be understood. For these reasons, monitoring persistent saltwater intrusion and inundation is important. For this study, persistent flooding in Louisiana coastal marshes was mapped using MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) time series of a Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). The time series data were derived for 2000 through 2009, including flooding due to Hurricane Rita in 2005 and Hurricane Ike in 2008. Using the NDWI, duration and extent of flooding can be inferred. The Time Series Product Tool (TSPT), developed at NASA SSC, is a suite of software developed in MATLAB® that enables improved-quality time series images to be computed using advanced temporal processing techniques. This software has been used to compute time series for monitoring temporal changes in environmental phenomena, (e.g. NDVI times series from MODIS), and was modified and used to compute the NDWI indices and also the Normalized Difference Soil Index (NDSI). Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) water levels from various hydrologic monitoring stations and aerial photography were used to optimize thresholds for MODIS-derived time series of NDWI and to validate resulting flood maps. In most of the profiles produced for post-hurricane assessment, the increase in the NDWI index (from storm surge) is accompanied by a decrease in the vegetation index (NDVI) and then a period of declining water. The NDSI index represents non-green or dead vegetation and increases after the hurricane's destruction of the marsh vegetation. Behavior of these indices over time is indicative of which areas remain flooded, which areas recover to their former levels of vegetative vigor, and which areas are stressed or in transition. Tracking these indices over time shows the recovery rate of vegetation and the relative behavior to inundation persistence. The results from this study demonstrated that identification of persistent marsh flooding, utilizing the tools developed in this study, provided an approximate 70-80 percent accuracy rate when compared to the actual days flooded at the CRMS stations.

  10. A New Approach to Monitoring Coastal Marshes for Persistent Flooding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalcic, M. T.; Undersood, Lauren W.; Fletcher, Rose

    2012-01-01

    Many areas in coastal Louisiana are below sea level and protected from flooding by a system of natural and man-made levees. Flooding is common when the levees are overtopped by storm surge or rising rivers. Many levees in this region are further stressed by erosion and subsidence. The floodwaters can become constricted by levees and trapped, causing prolonged inundation. Vegetative communities in coastal regions, from fresh swamp forest to saline marsh, can be negatively affected by inundation and changes in salinity. As saltwater persists, it can have a toxic effect upon marsh vegetation causing die off and conversion to open water types, destroying valuable species habitats. The length of time the water persists and the average annual salinity are important variables in modeling habitat switching (cover type change). Marsh type habitat switching affects fish, shellfish, and wildlife inhabitants, and can affect the regional ecosystem and economy. There are numerous restoration and revitalization projects underway in the coastal region, and their effects on the entire ecosystem need to be understood. For these reasons, monitoring persistent saltwater intrusion and inundation is important. For this study, persistent flooding in Louisiana coastal marshes was mapped using MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) time series of a Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). The time series data were derived for 2000 through 2009, including flooding due to Hurricane Rita in 2005 and Hurricane Ike in 2008. Using the NDWI, duration and extent of flooding can be inferred. The Time Series Product Tool (TSPT), developed at NASA SSC, is a suite of software developed in MATLAB(R) that enables improved-quality time series images to be computed using advanced temporal processing techniques. This software has been used to compute time series for monitoring temporal changes in environmental phenomena, (e.g. NDVI times series from MODIS), and was modified and used to compute the NDWI indices and also the Normalized Difference Soil Index (NDSI). Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) water levels from various hydrologic monitoring stations and aerial photography were used to optimize thresholds for MODIS-derived time series of NDWI and to validate resulting flood maps. In most of the profiles produced for post-hurricane assessment, the increase in the NDWI index (from storm surge) is accompanied by a decrease in the vegetation index (NDVI) and then a period of declining water. The NDSI index represents non-green or dead vegetation and increases after the hurricane s destruction of the marsh vegetation. Behavior of these indices over time is indicative of which areas remain flooded, which areas recover to their former levels of vegetative vigor, and which areas are stressed or in transition. Tracking these indices over time shows the recovery rate of vegetation and the relative behavior to inundation persistence. The results from this study demonstrated that identification of persistent marsh flooding, utilizing the tools developed in this study, provided an approximate 70-80 percent accuracy rate when compared to the actual days flooded at the CRMS stations.

  11. Toward a model for leveed lava flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baloga, Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Many lava flows have two distinct volumetric components during emplacement. First, there is a component actively flowing in accordance with Newtonian or other constitutive relations. Second, there may be an inactive, stationary component that is no longer participating in the forward movement of the flow. Such passive components may take the form of flow-confining levees, solidified lateral margins, overspilling, plating, small ponds and sidestreams, or a lava tube. To describe the conservation of flow volume for the active component, governing equations are given and discussed.

  12. Flood trends and river engineering on the Mississippi River system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pinter, N.; Jemberie, A.A.; Remo, J.W.F.; Heine, R.A.; Ickes, B.S.

    2008-01-01

    Along >4000 km of the Mississippi River system, we document that climate, land-use change, and river engineering have contributed to statistically significant increases in flooding over the past 100-150 years. Trends were tested using a database of >8 million hydrological measurements. A geospatial database of historical engineering construction was used to quantify the response of flood levels to each unit of engineering infrastructure. Significant climate- and/or land use-driven increases in flow were detected, but the largest and most pervasive contributors to increased flooding on the Mississippi River system were wing dikes and related navigational structures, followed by progressive levee construction. In the area of the 2008 Upper Mississippi flood, for example, about 2 m of the flood crest is linked to navigational and flood-control engineering. Systemwide, large increases in flood levels were documented at locations and at times of wing-dike and levee construction. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. Quantifying flood risks in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Jongejan, R B; Maaskant, B

    2015-02-01

    The Flood Risk in the Netherlands project (Dutch acronym: VNK2) is a large-scale probabilistic risk assessment for all major levee systems in the Netherlands. This article provides an overview of the methods and techniques used in the VNK2 project. It also discusses two examples that illustrate the potential of quantitative flood risk assessments such as VNK2 to improve flood risk management processes: (i) informing political debates about the risks of flooding and the effectiveness of risk management actions, and (ii) (re)directing research efforts towards important sources of uncertainty. PMID:25565553

  14. USGS Scientist Interviewed by Media in Flooded Minot

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS hydrologist Chris Laveau is interviewed by media from the Broadway Bridge in downtown Minot, N.D. Dikes on the right of the photograph help control flooding in the downtown area. As the Souris River flooded during the early summer of 2011, it overcame levees in the city of Minot, N.D., causing...

  15. Relationship between canal and levee density and coastal land loss in Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.E.

    1987-12-01

    Nearly 1% of Louisiana's coastal land becomes water each year. This land loss affects everything from wildlife, fisheries, and recreation to the economy and culture. A part of this loss results from natural, unmanageable factors, but manageable factors are also responsible. This report discusses one of the manageable factors: canals and their dredged-material levees. In coastal Louisiana wetlands, canals are constructed primarily to facilitate navigation and oil and gas recovery. The density of canals in this region is now about equal to the natural network of bayous and creeks. The primary effect of these canals and associated levees is to alter the process of flooding and drainage. The influence of canals and their levees on coastal Louisiana erosion rates are modified by local geologic, hydrologic, and biologic interactions. The empirical relationship between canals and erosion is, however, clear; land loss is directly related to canal density. Comparisons with mosquito ditches, which are smaller analogues of canals, reveal similar patterns of wetland changes and suggest management options.

  16. Battle of Inches: The Spring 2011 Flood along the Ohio River and Upper Mississippi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanbali, F.; Brunner, G. W.; Hanbali, F. U.; Astifan, B. M.

    2011-12-01

    Sustained rainfall over the Ohio River Basin in Spring 2011, with records that yielded the wettest April in over a hundred years, led to one of the largest flood events in that region in the last century. Simultaneous heavy rains and runoff within the upper Mississippi River Basin further challenged the flood mitigation efforts by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) and its partner agencies. In coordination with the National Weather Service (NWS) and relying on daily flow forecasts by the regional NWS River Forecast Centers, the USACE used its river hydraulics analysis computer program (HEC-RAS) to predict flood stages along the entire Ohio River and a significant section of the Mississippi River around the Ohio River confluence. Informed by the hydrologic and hydraulic analysis tools, the flood mitigation efforts entailed significant curbing of releases from flood control dams and navigation projects, as well as crucial decisions to activate major floodway bypasses, prevent levee failures, and protect urban centers. This presentation will review the Spring 2011 Flood and the use of the National Weather Service forecast products along with the USACE river hydraulics analysis models as real-time decision support tools in an event that was deemed to be a "Battle of Inches".

  17. Optimal and centralized reservoir management for drought and flood protection via Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming on the Upper Seine-Aube River system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiavico, Mattia; Raso, Luciano; Dorchies, David; Malaterre, Pierre-Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Seine river region is an extremely important logistic and economic junction for France and Europe. The hydraulic protection of most part of the region relies on four controlled reservoirs, managed by EPTB Seine-Grands Lacs. Presently, reservoirs operation is not centrally coordinated, and release rules are based on empirical filling curves. In this study, we analyze how a centralized release policy can face flood and drought risks, optimizing water system efficiency. The optimal and centralized decisional problem is solved by Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming (SDDP) method, minimizing an operational indicator for each planning objective. SDDP allows us to include into the system: 1) the hydrological discharge, specifically a stochastic semi-distributed auto-regressive model, 2) the hydraulic transfer model, represented by a linear lag and route model, and 3) reservoirs and diversions. The novelty of this study lies on the combination of reservoir and hydraulic models in SDDP for flood and drought protection problems. The study case covers the Seine basin until the confluence with Aube River: this system includes two reservoirs, the city of Troyes, and the Nuclear power plant of Nogent-Sur-Seine. The conflict between the interests of flood protection, drought protection, water use and ecology leads to analyze the environmental system in a Multi-Objective perspective.

  18. Assessment of the effectiveness of flood adaptation strategies for HCMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasage, R.; Veldkamp, T. I. E.; de Moel, H.; Van, T. C.; Phi, H. L.; Vellinga, P.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

    2014-06-01

    Coastal cities are vulnerable to flooding, and flood risk to coastal cities will increase due to sea-level rise. Moreover, Asian cities in particular are subject to considerable population growth and associated urban developments, increasing this risk even more. Empirical data on vulnerability and the cost and benefits of flood risk reduction measures are therefore paramount for sustainable development of these cities. This paper presents an approach to explore the impacts of sea-level rise and socio-economic developments on flood risk for the flood-prone District 4 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and to develop and evaluate the effects of different adaptation strategies (new levees, dry- and wet proofing of buildings and elevating roads and buildings). A flood damage model was developed to simulate current and future flood risk using the results from a household survey to establish stage-damage curves for residential buildings. The model has been used to assess the effects of several participatory developed adaptation strategies to reduce flood risk, expressed in expected annual damage (EAD). Adaptation strategies were evaluated assuming combinations of both sea-level scenarios and land-use scenarios. Together with information on costs of these strategies, we calculated the benefit-cost ratio and net present value for the adaptation strategies until 2100, taking into account depreciation rates of 2.5% and 5%. The results of this modelling study indicate that the current flood risk in District 4 is USD 0.31 million per year, increasing up to USD 0.78 million per year in 2100. The net present value and benefit-cost ratios using a discount rate of 5 % range from USD -107 to -1.5 million, and from 0.086 to 0.796 for the different strategies. Using a discount rate of 2.5% leads to an increase in both net present value and benefit-cost ratio. The adaptation strategies wet-proofing and dry-proofing generate the best results using these economic indicators. The information on different strategies will be used by the government of Ho Chi Minh City to determine a new flood protection strategy. Future research should focus on gathering empirical data right after a flood on the occurring damage, as this appears to be the most uncertain factor in the risk assessment.

  19. USGS Scientist is Interviewed by Media at the Flooded Souris River

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS hydrologist Brent Hanson is interviewed by media at the flooded Souris River in Foxholm, N.D., about 30 miles northwest of Minot. A flooded road can be seen in the background. As the Souris River flooded during the early summer of 2011, it overcame levees in the city of Minot, N.D., causing ab...

  20. USGS Streamgage Flooded by Souris River

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The USGS Souris River at Foxholm, N.D. streamgage (center of photo) is half inundated by water about 30 miles northwest of Minot. This water channel, normally only about 30 feet wide, runs through a wildlife preserve. As the Souris River flooded during the early summer of 2011, it overcame levees i...

  1. The Central European Flood in June 2013: Experiences from a Near-Real Time Disaster Analysis in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröter, Kai; Khazai, Bijan; Mühr, Bernhard; Elmer, Florian; Bessel, Tina; Möhrle, Stella; Dittrich, André; Kreibich, Heidi; Fohringer, Joachim; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Trieselmann, Werner; Kunz, Michael; Merz, Bruno

    2014-05-01

    The central European flood in June 2013 once again revealed that complete flood protection is not possible. Inundations caused severe damage to buildings, infrastructure and agricultural lands. Official estimates of total damage in Germany amount to approx. 8bn € which is lower than the damage caused by the August 2002 flood - the most expensive natural hazard experienced so far in Germany. Repeated and long lasting precipitation in combination with extremely adverse preconditions induced a large scale flood event. In Germany, particularly the catchment areas of the Danube and Elbe were affected. The June 2013 flood has been the most severe flood event in terms of spatial extent and magnitude of flood peaks in Germany during the last 60 years. Large scale inundation occurred as a consequence of levee breaches near Deggendorf (Danube), Groß Rosenau and Fischbeck (Elbe). The flood has had a great impact on people, transportation and the economy. In many areas more than 50,000 thousand people were evacuated. Electrical grid and local water supply utilities failed during the floods. Furthermore, traffic was disrupted in the interregional transportation network including federal highways and long distance railways. CEDIM analysed and assessed the flood event within its current research activity on near real time forensic disaster analysis (CEDIM FDA: www.cedim.de). This contribution gives an overview about the CEDIM FDA analyses' results. It describes the key hydro-meteorological factors that triggered this extraordinary event and draws comparisons to major flood events in August 2002 and July 1954. Further, it shows the outcomes of a rapid initial impact assessment on the district level using social, economic and institutional indicators which are supplemented with information on the number of people evacuated and transportation disruptions and combined with the magnitude of the event.

  2. Optimized Radar Remote Sensing for Levee Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Cathleen E.

    2013-01-01

    Radar remote sensing offers great potential for high resolution monitoring of ground surface changes over large areas at one time to detect movement on and near levees and for location of seepage through levees. Our NASA-funded projects to monitor levees in the Sacramento Delta and the Mississippi River have developed and demonstrated methods to use radar remote sensing to measure quantities relevant to levee health and of great value to emergency response. The DHS-funded project will enable us is to define how to optimally monitor levees in this new way and set the stage for transition to using satellite SAR (synthetic aperture radar) imaging for better temporal and spatial coverage at lower cost to the end users.

  3. Hydrologic effects of area B flood control plan on urbanization of Dade County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kohout, F.A.; Hartwell, J.H.

    1967-01-01

    Swampy low land (Area B) that fringes the Everglades west of Metropolitan Miami, Florida (Area A) probably will be urbanized in the future. Area B will be protected from flooding by huge pumps that will pump water westward from Area B over a levee system into Conservation Area 3B. The total capacity of the pumps will be about 13,400 cubic feet per second which is sufficient to lower water levels 2 inches per day in the 203 square miles of Area B. As this capacity is about equal to the highest gravity-flow discharge to the ocean through existing canals of the Miami area, a great potential. will exist, not only for control of floods, but also for beneficial control and management of a major segment of the water resources in southeastern Florida.

  4. Application of ground penetrating radar in detecting the hazards and risks of termites and ants in soil levees.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiuhao; Henderson, Gregg; Mao, Lixin; Evans, Ahmad

    2009-08-01

    A ground penetrating radar (GPR) technique was used to detect Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus) and red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) hazards and risks (targets) in a soil levee at the London Avenue Canal in New Orleans, LA. To make this assessment, GPR signal scans were examined for features produced by termite or ant activities and potential sources of food and shelter such as nests, tree roots, and voids (tunnels). The total scanned length of the soil levee was 4,125 m. The average velocity and effective depth of the radar penetration was 0.080 m/ns and 0.61 m, respectively. Four hundred twenty-seven targets were identified. Tree roots (38), voids (31), fire ant nests (209), and metal objects (149) were detected, but no Formosan termite carton nests were identified. The lack of identified termite nests may be related to drowning events at the time to the flood. Based on the target density (TD), the two new floodwall and levee sections that were rebuilt or reinforced after they were destroyed by Hurricane Katrina in 2005 were determined to be at low potential risk from termites and ants. A merging target density (MTD) method indicated a high potential risk near one of the breached sections still remains. Foraging and nesting activity of Formosan subterranean termites and red imported fire ants may be a contributory factor to the levee failure at the London Avenue Canal. PMID:19689906

  5. 76 FR 72961 - Flood Hazard Determinations (Including Flood Elevation Determinations)-Change in Notification and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Flood Hazard Determinations (Including Flood Elevation Determinations)--Change in Notification and Appeal Procedures AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, the Federal...

  6. The assessment of river basin and flood management from early twentieth century to the present on the lower Siret River (Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salit, F.; Beltrando, B.; Zaharia, L.

    2012-04-01

    The river basin management and flood depends on the politico-historical, economic and environmental context in which it is thought. There is a similar evolution in Romania, where political developments have had as much impact on flood management than hydro-climatic events. The aim of this work is to understand of management systems in a diachronic logic in Romania from the beginning of the 20th century to the Communist period and to accession to the European Union. This work focuses on the lower Siret River. The Siret catchment is one of the last major tributaries of the Danube River east of the Carpathians and the most important of Romania in terms of flow and drainage area. To study the assessment of river basin management, a GIS was constructed using a series of Romanian and Russian topographic maps extending over the period 1916-1990 and Google earth images from 2009 and 2010. The study of the current period was enhanced by field observations (records of existing dykes, testimonials ...) from 2010-2011. Finally, this study is based on the technical literature for the regularization of rivers and the various reports made over this period. Three periods were identified: the major floods of 1970 and 2005 marked a turning point in the logical management of river basin and especially in the fight against flood. From the beginning of the period to 1970, dyke protection was sporadic: they are intended primarily to protect the villages directly threatened by recurrent flood. In 1970 a major flood (3500 m3/s) occurred on the lower Siret and other minor floods in succession from 1970 to 1975. By 1976 a national plan was drawn up to fight against the harmful effects of water. The entire sector of the lower Siret River and its major tributaries is arranged, a network of levees protects not only the villages but also all economic assets in this sector, namely the agricultural land, the main wealth of the region. In 2005 an exceptionally large flood (4650 m3/s) affected the lower Siret River, making a dozen victims on the sector and millions of lei of damage. This flood has highlighted the faults and defects of the previous protection system: brittleness of levees, channelization of sections of the river ... In the context of accession to the European Union and the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive and the EU Flood Risk Management Directive, new arrangement plans are being studied: reorganization of the network of dykes, application of the principle of cost/benefit for the localization of dykes.

  7. The President`s Floodplan Management Action Plan: Formulating a watershed and ecosystem approach to flood hazard mitigation and resource protection

    SciTech Connect

    McShane, J.

    1995-12-01

    The Great Midwest Flood of 1993 focused the attention of the Nation on the human and environmental costs associated with decades of efforts to control flooding, unwise land-use decisions, and the loss and degradation of the natural resources and functions of floodplains. The disaster can also be attributed to the single purpose decision-making process and fragmented planning at all levels of government, inconsistent statutory madates, and conflicting jurisdictional responsibilities. The Executive Office of the President established a Floodplain Management Review Committee to determine the major causes and consequences of the flood and to evaluate the performance of existing floodplain management and related watershed programs. The report, Sharing the Challenge: Floodplain Management into the 21st Century, included 90 recommendations to improve floodplain management and water resources planning including the need for a more comprehensive, coordinated approach to floodplain and watershed management. Preparation of the 1994 document A Unified National Program for Floodplain Management commenced prior to the Midwest Flood of 1993 and was completed, coincidentally, concurrently with the Review Committee`s report Sharing the Challenge. Both reports urge the formulation of a more comprehensive, watershed approach to managing human activities and protecting natural systems to ensure the long term viability of riparian ecosystems and the sustainable development of riverine communities. Both reports recognize that effective floodplain management will reduce the financial burdens placed upon all levels of government to compensate property owners and governments for flood losses caused by unwise land use decisions by individuals, as well as governments. This paper focuses on the fundamental changes in Federal floodplain management policies and programs that are emerging that will affect how as a Nation manage and use our floodplain resources into the 21st Century.

  8. Cibola High Levee Pond Annual Report 2003. Interim Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, G.A.; Carpenter, J.; Marsh, P.C.; Minckley, C.O.

    2003-01-01

    Bonytail and razorback sucker have once again spawned and produced swim-up larvae in Cibola High Levee Pond (CHLP). CHLP continues to support annual recruitment of bonytail while recent razorback sucker recruitment remains elusive. Thus far, razorbacks have experienced intermittent years of spawning success. Both native species were observed spawning on, or near, the riprap on the river levee. Razorbacks spawned from late January until mid-March over gravel and large cobble along the levee toe (2-3 m depth) and bonytail spawned along the levee shoreline during mid-April. Razorback suckers rapidly fin during the reproductive act, which flushes fines from the substrate and leaves gravel relatively clean. Bonytail on the other hand, appear to spawn over or on substrate that has been disturbed by beaver activity. Substrate scour or disturbance appears to be an important factor in spawning site selectiona?|

  9. Three-dimensional imaging, change detection, and stability assessment during the centerline trench levee seepage experiment using terrestrial light detection and ranging technology, Twitchell Island, California, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bawden, Gerald W.; Howle, James; Bond, Sandra; Shriro, Michelle; Buck, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A full scale field seepage test was conducted on a north-south trending levee segment of a now bypassed old meander belt on Twitchell Island, California, to understand the effects of live and decaying root systems on levee seepage and slope stability. The field test in May 2012 was centered on a north-south trench with two segments: a shorter control segment and a longer seepage test segment. The complete length of the trench area measured 40.4 meters (m) near the levee centerline with mature trees located on the waterside and landside of the levee flanks. The levee was instrumented with piezometers and tensiometers to measure positive and negative porewater pressures across the levee after the trench was flooded with water and held at a constant hydraulic head during the seepage test—the results from this component of the experiment are not discussed in this report. We collected more than one billion three-dimensional light detection and ranging (lidar) data points before, during, and after the centerline seepage test to assess centimeter-scale stability of the two trees and the levee crown. During the seepage test, the waterside tree toppled (rotated 20.7 degrees) into the water. The landside tree rotated away from the levee by 5 centimeters (cm) at a height of 2 m on the tree. The paved surface of the levee crown had three regions that showed subsidence on the waterside of the trench—discussed as the northern, central, and southern features. The northern feature is an elongate region that subsided 2.1 cm over an area with an average width of 1.35 m that extends 15.8 m parallel to the trench from the northern end of the trench to just north of the trench midpoint, and is associated with a crack 1 cm in height that formed during the seepage test on the trench wall. The central subsidence feature is a semicircular region on the waterside of the trench that subsided by as much as 6.2 cm over an area 3.4 m wide and 11.2 m long. The southern feature is an elongate region that has a maximum subsidence of 3.5 cm over an area 0.75 m wide and 8.1 m long and is associated with a number of small fractures in the pavement that are predominately north-south-trending and parallel to the trench. We determined that there was no significant motion of the levee flank during the last week of the seepage test. We also determined biomorphic parameters for the landside tree, such as the 3D positioning on the levee, tree height, levee parallel/perpendicular cross sectional area, and canopy centroid. These biomorphic parameters were requested to support a University of California Berkeley team studying seepage and stability on the levee. A gridded, 2-cm bare-earth digital elevation model of the levee crown and the landside levee flank from the final terrestrial lidar (T-Lidar) survey provided detailed topographic data for future assessment. Because the T-Lidar was not integrated into the project design, other than an initial courtesy dataset to help characterize the levee surface, our ability to contribute to the overall science goals of the seepage test was limited. Therefore, our analysis focused on developing data collection and processing methodology necessary to align ultra high-resolution T-Lidar data (with an average spot spacing 2–3 millimeters on the levee crown) from several instrument setup locations to detect, measure, and characterize dynamic centimeter-scale deformation and surface changes during the seepage test.

  10. Sulforhodamine B interacts with albumin to lower surface tension and protect against ventilation injury of flooded alveoli.

    PubMed

    Kharge, Angana Banerjee; Wu, You; Perlman, Carrie E

    2015-02-01

    In the acute respiratory distress syndrome, alveolar flooding by proteinaceous edema liquid impairs gas exchange. Mechanical ventilation is used as a supportive therapy. In regions of the edematous lung, alveolar flooding is heterogeneous, and stress is concentrated in aerated alveoli. Ventilation exacerbates stress concentrations and injuriously overexpands aerated alveoli. Injury degree is proportional to surface tension, T. Lowering T directly lessens injury. Furthermore, as heterogeneous flooding causes the stress concentrations, promoting equitable liquid distribution between alveoli should, indirectly, lessen injury. We present a new theoretical analysis suggesting that liquid is trapped in discrete alveoli by a pressure barrier that is proportional to T. Experimentally, we identify two rhodamine dyes, sulforhodamine B and rhodamine WT, as surface active in albumin solution and investigate whether the dyes lessen ventilation injury. In the isolated rat lung, we micropuncture a surface alveolus, instill albumin solution, and obtain an area with heterogeneous alveolar flooding. We demonstrate that rhodamine dye addition lowers T, reduces ventilation-induced injury, and facilitates liquid escape from flooded alveoli. In vitro we show that rhodamine dye is directly surface active in albumin solution. We identify sulforhodamine B as a potential new therapeutic agent for the treatment of the acute respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:25414246

  11. Study of Extreme Hydrometeorological Events under Consideration of Climate Change in terms of Flood Protection Design Standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, B.-Z.

    2012-04-01

    A study of Trend and Shift on annual maximum daily data over 500 raingauges with data length of 80 years or longer in the Ohio River Basin U.S. demonstrated a significant increase in variance of the data over time. The area-average increase in standard deviation is 23% for the recent 40 years (1959 - 1998) in comparison with the earlier 40-60 years (1919 or earlier - 1958). This implies that more and more extreme hydrometeorological events such as extreme rainfalls and droughts could be observed in the future years. The centurial flood disaster of August 8-10 2009 in the mid-southern Taiwan caused by Morakot Typhoon and the extraordinary drought lasting from winter 2009 to early summer 2010 wreaking havoc of a vast area of south-west China mainland were two good examples of the extremes. This variation could attribute to climate change. It challenges the hydrologic frequency analysis. Thus, exploration of a robust and reliable approach to precipitation frequency analysis becomes an imminent issue in hydrologic design studies. This paper introduces a novel hydrometeorological approach, the Regional L-moments method (RLM), to rainfall frequency analysis. There are two fatal weaknesses in FA: 1) There is no analytical way to derive a theoretical distribution to best fit the data; 2) The theoretical true value of a frequency such as 50-y or 100-y is unknown forever. The RLM, which is developed based on the order statistics and the concept of hydrometeorological homogeneity, demonstrates unbiasedness of parameter estimates and robust to outliers, and reduces the uncertainties of frequency estimates as well via the real data in Ohio River Basin of the U.S. and in the Taihu Lake Basin of China. Further study indicated that the variation of the frequency estimates such as 10-year, 100-year, 500-year, etc. is not normal as suggested in current textbooks. Actually, the frequency estimates vary asymmetrically from positive skew to negative skew when estimates go through from common frequencies to rare frequencies. Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) is defined as the greatest depth of precipitation for a given duration meteorologically possible for a design watershed or a given storm area at a particular location at a particular time of year, with no allowance made for long-term climate trends (WMO, 2009). The PMP has been widely used by many hydrologists to determine the probable maximum flood (PMF) critical to the design of a variety of hydrological structures and other high profile infrastructures such as nuclear power-generation station with respect to flood-protection, for which a high level safety is required. What is the impact of climate change on PMP estimation? Actually, in the definition of PMP, there is "no allowance made for long-term climate trends" (WMO, 2009). However, when people are talking about impact of climate change on PMP estimation, two things may be taken into account practically: (1) To affect the precipitable water as a result of increase of SST; (2) Effect on the selection of the transposed storm because more extreme storms would occur due to climate change and more potential candidates to be used for storm transposition. The occurrence of a severe rainfall storm could alter the PMP estimates. A good example is the lashing of the Typhoon Morakot of 8 - 10 Aug. 2009 on Taiwan Island that set up new rainfall picture. What is the effect of topography on rainfall is another big issue in PMP estimation. Many observations of precipitation in mountainous areas show a general increase in precipitation with elevation. Practically, the effect of topography on rainfall should be taken into account in PMP estimation and implemented by the storm separation technique. The Step-Duration-Orographic-Intensification-Factor (SDOIF) Method, which was developed based on statistics analysis of extreme rainfalls in the storm area, can practically be used as storm separation technique to decouple the Morakot storm rainfalls into two components, convergence component and orographic component. Then, the convergence co

  12. Shallow (0-10) seismic investigation of a distressed earthen levee, New Orleans, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzo, J. M.; Hicks, J.; Vera, E. E.

    2009-12-01

    Both deep- and near-surface hydrogeologic processes can contribute to the structural failure of artificial earthen levees. Recently, seismic geophysical methods have attempted to develop a proxy for engineering shear strength, by mapping changes in the transmission velocity of shear waves. High fluid content may indicate both weak, under-compacted materials and/or organic-rich sediments. In the absence of electromagnetic methods, Vp/Vs ratios can be used as good indicators of variations in the fluid (water, and air or gas) saturation. Cone penetration borehole tests measure the resistance of soils to penetration of the cone tip and its frictional sliding that can be correlated to sediment types and their physical properties. A distressed section of an artificial earthen levee, suitable for seismic investigation, lies ~15 km S of the city of New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. Open curvilinear fissures, 10 cm wide, 30 cm deep, and up to 100 m in length, exist along the crest at two sites. Between September 2007 and February 2008 we collect horizontally (SH) polarized shear and compressional wave (P) data in pseudo-walkaway tests for the upper 100 m of the subsurface along the protected (west) side of the earthen levee, within 30 m of its crest. One profile lies parallel and adjacent to the damaged levee crest and, for reference, two profiles lie nearby adjacent to undamaged portions of the artificial earthen levee. In the first ~30 m of sediment below the lower delta plain of the Greater New Orleans area, a complex and dynamic interaction of freshwater and marine sedimentary environments juxtaposes a diverse set of facies. We combine of Vp and Vs velocity maps, sedimentary environment interpretations, and cone-penetration-derived sediment/soil and laboratory-derived physical properties to locate possible zones of high fluid concentration, (and perhaps seepage), weak engineering materials, and natural foundation soil shear strength. Under the distressed portion of the earthen levee, shear modulus minima in a constructed profile, correlate with zones of estimated high saturation porosity (80%) high organic content and undercomapcted clay-rich sediments. We interpret that despite nominal full soil saturation, small in-situ intergaranular, free gas maintains Vp values low (~140 m/s). However, Vp/Vs ratios increase to values > 14 within gas-free sands of the underlying St. Bernard delta lobe complex (2000 -4000 yr) at shallow depths (~ 5m).

  13. Channelization and levee construction in Illinois: Review and implications for management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattingly, Rosanna L.; Herricks, Edwin E.; Johnston, Douglas M.

    1993-11-01

    The environmental impact of loss of natural stream and riparian habitat is of concern throughout the United States and Europe. Environmental impacts related to such activities as channelization of and levee construction along streams and rivers are particularly apparent in the Midwestern United States. The objective of the research presented here was to delineate the extent, relative degree of impact, and implications for management of channelization and levee construction along watercourses located in the state of Illinois. According to records maintained through the Illinois Streams Information System data base (Illinois Department of Conservation), nearly 25% of surface water resources in the state have been modified directly by channelization and/or levee construction. Reviews of agency records, elaboration of case histories, interviews with agency personnel, and inspections of impacted sites indicated that these alterations have occurred without the benefit of effective mitigation. Although permit records may provide suggestions for mitigation to be incorporated in the design of a particular project, permits issued generally do not require even minimal instream habitat and bank stabilization efforts in conjunction with channel alteration. Information derived from policy and case study analyses suggests that institutional constraints, rather than lack of particular understanding about mitigation, provide major barriers to protecting the state's surface water resources in terms of regulatory review, policy interpretation and implementation, and project evaluation. Recommendations for environmental management efforts regarding these and similar channel alterations are elaborated from these findings.

  14. Technology tames midwest floods

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    Millions glued to television sets across the nation watched as record breaking floods on the giant Missouri and Mississippi rivers rampaged through the Midwest. The summer saw heavy, unprecedented storms, pelting unrelenting rainfall on Minnesota, Nebraska, Iowa, Kansas, Illinois, and Missouri. During June and July heavy rains fell 39 out of 54 days. Tributary reservoirs in Kansas, Missouri, and Iowa filled. Tens of thousands of volunteers worked round the clock piling sandbags into makeshift levees. The Missouri and Mississippi, sometimes destroying and washing away everything in their paths, crested at all time highs. The same satellite transmitting technology that let television viewers see storm fronts moving across the Midwest creating the disaster is also responsible for saving untold lives and mitigating flood losses estimated at more than $6 billion in the Missouri River Basin alone. A network of hundreds of automated Satellite Data Collection Platforms (DCPs) interfaced with self-reporting gauges, used to measure such crucial data as rainfall and river levels, to provide fast, reliable realtime weather and flood data.

  15. Modeling flood dynamics along the superelevated channel belt of the Yellow River over the last 3000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yunzhen; Overeem, Irina; Kettner, Albert J.; Gao, Shu; Syvitski, James P. M.

    2015-07-01

    The Yellow River, China, experienced >1000 levee breaches during the last 3000 years. A reduced-complexity model is developed in this study to explore the effects of climate change and human activity on flood levels, levee breaches, and river avulsions. The model integrates yearly morphological change along a channel belt with daily river fluxes and hourly evolution of levee breaches. Model sensitivity analysis reveals that under natural conditions, superelevation of the channel belt dominates flood frequency. When there is significant human-accelerated basin erosion and breach repair, the dominant factors shift to a combination of mean annual precipitation, superelevation, critical shear stress of weak channel banks, and the time interval between breach initiation and its repair. The effect of precipitation on flood frequency is amplified by land use changes in the hinterland, particularly in the erodible Loess Plateau. Uncertainty analysis estimates the most likely values of the dominant factors for six historical periods between 850 B.C. and A.D. 1839, which are used to quantitatively reconstruct flood dynamics. During 850 B.C. to A.D. 1839, when the sediment load increased fourfold, the breach recurrence interval was shortened from more than 500 years to less than 6 years, and the breach outflow rate increased ~27 times. River management practices during A.D. 1579 to A.D. 1839 focused on levees and triggered a severe positive feedback of increased levee heights and flood hazard exacerbation. Raising the levee heights proved to be ineffective for sustainable flood management.

  16. Rethinking the relationship between flood risk perception and flood management.

    PubMed

    Birkholz, S; Muro, M; Jeffrey, P; Smith, H M

    2014-04-15

    Although flood risk perceptions and their concomitant motivations for behaviour have long been recognised as significant features of community resilience in the face of flooding events, there has, for some time now, been a poorly appreciated fissure in the accompanying literature. Specifically, rationalist and constructivist paradigms in the broader domain of risk perception provide different (though not always conflicting) contexts for interpreting evidence and developing theory. This contribution reviews the major constructs that have been applied to understanding flood risk perceptions and contextualises these within broader conceptual developments around risk perception theory and contemporary thinking around flood risk management. We argue that there is a need to re-examine and re-invigorate flood risk perception research, in a manner that is comprehensively underpinned by more constructivist thinking around flood risk management as well as by developments in broader risk perception research. We draw attention to an historical over-emphasis on the cognitive perceptions of those at risk to the detriment of a richer understanding of a wider range of flood risk perceptions such as those of policy-makers or of tax-payers who live outside flood affected areas as well as the linkages between these perspectives and protective measures such as state-supported flood insurance schemes. Conclusions challenge existing understandings of the relationship between risk perception and flood management, particularly where the latter relates to communication strategies and the extent to which those at risk from flooding feel responsible for taking protective actions. PMID:24530580

  17. Mississippi River Flooding 2011: Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS National Flood Specialist answers questions for CNN at the Birds Point-NewMadrid Floodway. USGS scientists are measuring the amount of water spilling into the New Madrid floodway as a result of the recent intentional breaching of the Birds Point Levee in Missouri in support of the Corps of Engi...

  18. Mississippi River Flooding 2011: Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Inflow breach at Birds Point-New Madrid floodway. USGS scientists are measuring the amount of water spilling into the New Madrid floodway as a result of the recent intentional breaching of the Birds Point Levee in Missouri in support of the Corps of Engineers operation. When flooding happens, USGS f...

  19. Mississippi River Flooding 2011: Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Inflow breach at Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway. USGS scientists are measuring the amount of water spilling into the New Madrid floodway as a result of the recent intentional breaching of the Birds Point Levee in Missouri in support of the Corps of Engineers operation. When flooding happens, USGS f...

  20. Mississippi River Flooding 2011: Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS field crew inside the Birds Point-New Madrid floodway. USGS scientists are measuring the amount of water spilling into the New Madrid floodway as a result of the recent intentional breaching of the Birds Point Levee in Missouri in support of the Corps of Engineers operation. When flooding happe...

  1. Mississippi River Flooding 2011: Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS Nation Flood Specialist takes a CNN crew on a measurement run at the Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway. USGS scientists are measuring the amount of water spilling into the New Madrid floodway as a result of the recent intentional breaching of the Birds Point Levee in Missouri in support of the Co...

  2. Mississippi River Flooding 2011: Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Inflow Breech at Birds Point-New Madrid floodway. USGS scientists are measuring the amount of water spilling into the New Madrid floodway as a result of the recent intentional breaching of the Birds Point Levee in Missouri in support of the Corps of Engineers operation. When flooding happens, USGS f...

  3. Mississippi River Flooding 2011: Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS scientists are measuring the amount of water spilling into the New Madrid floodway as a result of the recent intentional breaching of the Birds Point Levee in Missouri in support of the Corps of Engineers operation. When flooding happens, USGS field crews are among the first to respond. During ...

  4. Mississippi River Flooding 2011: Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    National Guard checkpoint at Birds Point-New Madrid floodway. USGS scientists are measuring the amount of water spilling into the New Madrid floodway as a result of the recent intentional breaching of the Birds Point Levee in Missouri in support of the Corps of Engineers operation. When flooding hap...

  5. Scientists Measure Streamflow near Flooded Minot, N.D.

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS scientists measure streamflow on a tributary of the Souris River in Foxholm, N.D., about 30 miles northwest of Minot. The team is using an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ACDP) to measure streamflow. As the Souris River flooded during the early summer of 2011, it overcame levees in the city...

  6. Three dimensional numerical modeling of flow and pollutant transport in a flooding area of 2008 US Midwest Flood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper presents the development and application of a three-dimensional numerical model for simulating the flow field and pollutant transport in a flood zone near the confluence of the Mississippi River and Iowa River in Oakville, Iowa. Due to a levee breaching along the Iowa River during the US ...

  7. 25 CFR 256.24 - Will I need flood insurance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Will I need flood insurance? 256.24 Section 256.24 Indians... need flood insurance? You will need flood insurance if your dwelling is located in an area identified as having special flood hazards under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Pub. L. 93-234,...

  8. 25 CFR 256.24 - Will I need flood insurance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Will I need flood insurance? 256.24 Section 256.24... Will I need flood insurance? You will need flood insurance if your dwelling is located in an area identified as having special flood hazards under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Pub. L....

  9. 25 CFR 256.24 - Will I need flood insurance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Will I need flood insurance? 256.24 Section 256.24... Will I need flood insurance? You will need flood insurance if your dwelling is located in an area identified as having special flood hazards under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Pub. L....

  10. 25 CFR 256.24 - Will I need flood insurance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Will I need flood insurance? 256.24 Section 256.24... Will I need flood insurance? You will need flood insurance if your dwelling is located in an area identified as having special flood hazards under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Pub. L....

  11. 25 CFR 256.24 - Will I need flood insurance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Will I need flood insurance? 256.24 Section 256.24... Will I need flood insurance? You will need flood insurance if your dwelling is located in an area identified as having special flood hazards under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Pub. L....

  12. Anthropogenic impact on flood-risk: a large-scale assessment for planning controlled inundation strategies along the River Po

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domeneghetti, Alessio; Castellarin, Attilio; Brath, Armando

    2013-04-01

    The European Flood Directive (2007/60/EC) has fostered the development of innovative and sustainable approaches and methodologies for flood-risk mitigation and management. Furthermore, concerning flood-risk mitigation, the increasing awareness of how the anthropogenic pressures (e.g. demographic and land-use dynamics, uncontrolled urban and industrial expansion on flood-prone area) could strongly increase potential flood damages and losses has triggered a paradigm shift from "defending the territory against flooding" (e.g. by means of levee system strengthening and heightening) to "living with floods" (e.g. promoting compatible land-uses or adopting controlled flooding strategies of areas located outside the main embankments). The assessment of how socio-economic dynamics may influence flood-risk represents a fundamental skill that should be considered for planning a sustainable industrial and urban development of flood-prone areas, reducing their vulnerability and therefore minimizing socio-economic and ecological losses due to large flood events. These aspects, which are of fundamental importance for Institutions and public bodies in charge of Flood Directive requirements, need to be considered through a holistic approach at river basin scale. This study focuses on the evaluation of large-scale flood-risk mitigation strategies for the middle-lower reach of River Po (~350km), the longest Italian river and the largest in terms of streamflow. Due to the social and economical importance of the Po River floodplain (almost 40% of the total national gross product results from this area), our study aims at investigating the potential of combining simplified vulnerability indices with a quasi-2D model for the definition of sustainable and robust flood-risk mitigation strategies. Referring to past (1954) and recent (2006) land-use data sets (e.g. CORINE) we propose simplified vulnerability indices for assessing potential flood-risk of industrial and urbanized flood prone areas taking into account altimetry and population density, and we analyze the modification of flood-risk occurred during last decades due to the demographic dynamics of the River Po floodplains. Flood hazard associated to a high magnitude event (i.e. return period of about 500 year) was estimated by means of a quasi-2D hydraulic model set up for the middle-lower portion of the Po River and for its major tributaries. The results of the study highlight how coupling a large-scale numerical model with the proposed flood-vulnerability indices could be a useful tool for decision-makers when they are called to define sustainable spatial development plans for the study area, or when they need to identify priorities in the organization of civil protection actions during a major flood event that could include the necessity of controlled flooding of flood-prone areas located outside the main embankment system.

  13. Watershed basin management and agriculture practices: an application case for flooding areas in Piemonte.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, G.; Franzi, L.; Valvassore, U.

    2009-04-01

    Watershed basin management in Piemonte (Italy) is a challenging issue that forces the local Authorities to a careful land planning in the frame of a sustainable economy. Different and contrasting objectives should be taken into account and balanced in order to find the best or the most "reasonable" choice under many constraints. Frequently the need for flood risk reduction and the demand for economical exploitation of floodplain areas represent the most conflicting aspects that influence watershed management politics. Actually, flood plains have been the preferred places for socio-economical activities, due to the availability of water, fertility of soil and the easiness of agricultural soil exploitation. Sometimes the bed and planform profile adjustments of a river, as a consequence of natural processes, can impede some anthropogenic activities in agriculture, such as the erosion of areas used for crops, the impossibility of water diversion, the deposition of pollutants on the ground, with effects on the economy and on the social life of local communities. In these cases watershed basin management should either balance the opposite demands, as the protection of economic activities (that implies generally canalized rivers and levees construction) and the need of favouring the river morphological stability, allowing the flooding in the inundation areas. In the paper a case study in Piemonte region (Tortona irrigation district) is shown and discussed. The effects of the Scrivia river planform adjustment on water diversion and soil erodibility force the local community and the authority of the irrigation district to ask for flood protection and river bed excavation. A mathematical model is also applied to study the effects of local river channel excavation on flood risk. Some countermeasures are also suggested to properly balance the opposite needs in the frame of a watershed basin management.

  14. 76 FR 70745 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; National Flood...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ...; Comment Request; National Flood Insurance Program--Mortgage Portfolio Protection Program AGENCY: Federal... comments concerning the National Flood Insurance Program Mortgage Portfolio Protection program, which is an... mortgage loan portfolios into compliance with the flood insurance purchase requirements. To participate...

  15. Cartographic evidence of the disastrous ice flood of 1809 and its aftermath (Danube River, Slovakia).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pit, P.

    2009-04-01

    The 18th and early 19th century river maps are important data sources for studying past landscapes. This is not only as a result of improved surveying techniques, but also because they depict landscape during probably the most important climatic and land-use changes since the Middle Ages. In this phase of the increased river activity during the last onset of the so-called Little Ice Age period, several major flood events occured. Local manuscript maps, which often depict the channel in major detail, help us to obtain a better understanding of their geomorphic and other impacts. The catastrophic ice flood, which occured on the Middle Danube river at the end of January 1809 was undoubtedly the most disastrous event of its kind in Slovakia, although it also hit a number of settlements in Lower Austria and Hungary. Several people drowned and the flood also resulted in great damage to settlements and livestock. Devastating effects of this flood particularly as to the towns of Bratislava and Komrno/Komrom were comparable with effects of disastrous floods of February 1830 in Vienna (Austria), March 1838 in Buda/Pest (Hungary) or 1845 flood in Prague (Czech Republic), respectively. In case of the present Slovakian capital Bratislava, on January 29, 1809, two ice barriers suddenly rose the water up to 10 m above the zero level and the river quickly overflowed its banks inundating the low-lying parts of the town. The flood blacked out communications with neighbouring regions. Record-breaking height of water led to breaches of the important right-bank embankment (constructed in 1770s). Through several openings water flooded the right bank, almost completely destroying the adjacent village of Petralka/Engerau. The damage to Vienna highway levee was so massive that it only could be repaired 16 years later, in 1825-6 (although this was also due to Napoleonic wars). The flood also reactivated the Chorvtske rameno anabranch, 33 years after its abandonment. A number of local manuscript maps depict the river before and after this event. Combined with written literary reports, the maps allow us to describe the course, the devastating effects and the aftermath consequences of the 1809 flood precisely, particularly as to the territory of the city of Bratislava itself. Moreover, many of these maps comprise a wealth of information about flood in their detailed explanatory legends and remarks. The most important maps and plans are those currently deposited in the National Archives of Hungary (= maps from the collection of former Governing Council, the central supervisory authority of the Habsburgs for the Hungarian Kingdom), in the Municipial Archives of Bratislava and the Slovak National Archives, respectively. Effects of the 1809 ice flood, as evidenced by historical maps and plans, can be generally summarised as follows: a) direct destruction (by ice floes) or collapse of houses, bridges, buildings, boat mills, groynes and bank revetments b) heavy lateral erosion of the river channel during this single event (then referred to as damage to banks") c) breaches of protective dikes d) formation of new water bodies - temporary lakes - created by spilled water on the landside of levees e) reactivation of upstream entrances of some side channels f) pronounced changes of flooplain configuration g) damage to floodplain forest. This research was supported by the Slovak Scientific Grant agency VEGA (Project N. 1/0362/09).

  16. Effectiveness of water infrastructure for river flood management - Part 1: Flood hazard assessment using hydrological models in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusyev, M. A.; Kwak, Y.; Khairul, M. I.; Arifuzzaman, M. B.; Magome, J.; Sawano, H.; Takeuchi, K.

    2015-06-01

    This study introduces a flood hazard assessment part of the global flood risk assessment (Part 2) conducted with a distributed hydrological Block-wise TOP (BTOP) model and a GIS-based Flood Inundation Depth (FID) model. In this study, the 20 km grid BTOP model was developed with globally available data on and applied for the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM) river basin. The BTOP model was calibrated with observed river discharges in Bangladesh and was applied for climate change impact assessment to produce flood discharges at each BTOP cell under present and future climates. For Bangladesh, the cumulative flood inundation maps were produced using the FID model with the BTOP simulated flood discharges and allowed us to consider levee effectiveness for reduction of flood inundation. For the climate change impacts, the flood hazard increased both in flood discharge and inundation area for the 50- and 100-year floods. From these preliminary results, the proposed methodology can partly overcome the limitation of the data unavailability and produces flood~maps that can be used for the nationwide flood risk assessment, which is presented in Part 2 of this study.

  17. Analyses of water, core material, and elutriate samples collected near New Orleans, Louisiana (Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, and vicinity hurricane protection project)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leone, Harold L.

    1976-01-01

    When a hurricane approaches the New Orleans, Louisiana area, the accompanying tides and heavy rainfall increase the level of water in Lake Borgne, Mississippi Sound, and Lake Pontchartrain and pose a major threat of water damage to the populated areas. During Hurricane Betsy (1965), for example, the level of Lake Pontchartrain rose as much as 13 feet. Nineteen core-material-sampling sites were chosen by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers as possible borrow areas for fill material to be used in levee construction for flood protection around Lake Pontchartrain. Twenty-three receiving-water sites were also selected to represent the water that will contact the proposed levees. Selected nutrients, metals, pesticides, and other organic constituents were analyzed from bed-material and native-water samples as well as upon elutriate samples of specific core material-receiving water systems. The results of these analyses are presented without interpretation. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. Floods n' Dams: A Watershed Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Andrew; Etches, John

    1996-01-01

    Describes an activity meant to illustrate flooding in a watershed as it impinges on human activities. Shows how flood protection can be provided using the natural holding capacity of basins elsewhere in the water system to reduce the impact on the settled flood plain. The activity works well with intermediate and senior level students but can be…

  19. 13 CFR 120.170 - Flood insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flood insurance. 120.170 Section... to All Business Loans Requirements Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.170 Flood insurance. Under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Sec. 205(b) of Pub. L. 93-234; 87 Stat. 983 (42...

  20. 13 CFR 120.170 - Flood insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flood insurance. 120.170 Section... to All Business Loans Requirements Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.170 Flood insurance. Under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Sec. 205(b) of Pub. L. 93-234; 87 Stat. 983 (42...

  1. 13 CFR 120.170 - Flood insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flood insurance. 120.170 Section... to All Business Loans Requirements Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.170 Flood insurance. Under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Sec. 205(b) of Pub. L. 93-234; 87 Stat. 983 (42...

  2. 13 CFR 120.170 - Flood insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flood insurance. 120.170 Section... to All Business Loans Requirements Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.170 Flood insurance. Under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Sec. 205(b) of Pub. L. 93-234; 87 Stat. 983 (42...

  3. 13 CFR 120.170 - Flood insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flood insurance. 120.170 Section... to All Business Loans Requirements Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.170 Flood insurance. Under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Sec. 205(b) of Pub. L. 93-234; 87 Stat. 983 (42...

  4. Floods n' Dams: A Watershed Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Andrew; Etches, John

    1996-01-01

    Describes an activity meant to illustrate flooding in a watershed as it impinges on human activities. Shows how flood protection can be provided using the natural holding capacity of basins elsewhere in the water system to reduce the impact on the settled flood plain. The activity works well with intermediate and senior level students but can be

  5. New Orleans and Hurricane Katrina. IV: Orleans East Bank (Metro) protected basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seed, R.B.; Bea, R.G.; Athanasopoulos-Zekkos, A.; Boutwell, G.P.; Bray, J.D.; Cheung, C.; Cobos-Roa, D.; Cohen-Waeber, J.; Collins, B.D.; Harder, L.F., Jr.; Kayen, R.E.; Pestana, J.M.; Riemer, M.F.; Rogers, J.D.; Storesund, R.; Vera-Grunauer, X.; Wartman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses damage caused by Hurricane Katrina to the main Orleans East Bank protected basin. This basin represented the heart of New Orleans, and contained the main downtown area, the historic French Quarter, the Garden District, and the sprawling Lakefront and Canal Districts. Nearly half of the loss of life during this hurricane, and a similar fraction of the overall damages, occurred in this heavily populated basin. There are a number of important geotechnical lessons, as well as geo-forensic lessons, associated with the flooding of this basin. These include the difficulties associated with the creation and operation of regional-scale flood protection systems requiring federal and local cooperation and funding over prolonged periods of time. There are also a number of engineering and policy lessons regarding (1) the accuracy and reliability of current analytical methods; (2) the shortcomings and potential dangers involved in decisions that reduced short-term capital outlays in exchange for increased risk of potential system failures; (3) the difficulties associated with integrating local issues with a flood risk reduction project; and (4) the need to design and maintain levees as systems; with each of the many individual project elements being required to mesh seamlessly. These lessons are of interest and importance for similar flood protection systems throughout numerous other regions of the United States and the world. ?? 2008 ACSE.

  6. Flood inundation map library, Fort Kent, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lombard, Pamela J.

    2012-01-01

    Severe flooding occurred in northern Maine from April 28 to May 1, 2008, and damage was extensive in the town of Fort Kent (Lombard, 2010). Aroostook County was declared a Federal disaster area on May 9, 2008. The extent of flooding on both the Fish and St. John Rivers during this event showed that the current Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Study (FIS) and Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) (Federal Emergency Management Agency, 1979) were out of date. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study to develop a flood inundation map library showing the areas and depths for a range of flood stages from bankfull to the flood of record for Fort Kent to complement an updated FIS (Federal Emergency Management Agency, in press). Hydrologic analyses that support the maps include computer models with and without the levee and with various depths of backwater on the Fish River. This fact sheet describes the methods used to develop the maps and describes how the maps can be accessed.

  7. Methodology for Establishment of Integrated Flood Analysis System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, B.; Sanders, B. F.; Kim, K.; Han, K.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    Flood risk management efforts face considerable uncertainty in flood hazard delineation as a consequence of changing climatic conditions including shifts in precipitation, soil moisture, and land uses. These changes can confound efforts to characterize flood impacts over decadal time scales and thus raise questions about the true benefits and drawbacks of alternative flood management projects including those of a structural and non-structural nature. Here we report an integrated flood analysis system that is designed to bring climate change information into flood risk context and characterize flood hazards in both rural and urban areas. Distributed rainfall-runoff model, one-dimensional (1D) NWS-FLDWAV model, 1D Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) and two-dimensional (2D) BreZo model are coupled. Distributed model using the multi-directional flow allocation and real time updating is used for rainfall-runoff analysis in ungauged watershed and its outputs are taken as boundary conditions to the FLDWAV model which was employed for 1D river hydraulic routing and predicting the overflow discharge at levees which were overtopped. In addition, SWMM is chosen to analyze storm sewer flow in urban areas and BreZo is used to estimate the inundation zones, depths and velocities due to the surcharge flow at sewer system or overflow at levees on the land surface. The overflow at FLDWAV or surcharged flow at SWMM becomes point sources in BreZo. Applications in Korea and California are presented.

  8. CONSEQUENCES OF HUMAN-ALTERED FLOODS: LEVEES, FLOODS, AND FLOODPLAIN FORESTS ALONG THE WISCONSIN RIVER. (R826600)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  9. Manage Short-term Flood Events and Long-term Water Needs via Reservoir Operation: A Risk Analysis Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, W.; Hsu, N.; Wei, C.; Cheng, W.

    2010-12-01

    This study proposes a methodology to assess the risk of the water shortage during a drought period and the risk of the downstream over-levee flows during a flood period based on the reservoir operation rules for flood control. These rules are defined by upper limits (or flood control storage zone).Through a Monte Carlo simulation, a series of hydrographs are generated to represent the reservoir inflow during a flood period based on historic typhoon events. This series of generated hydrographs are then applied to a reservoir flood operation simulation model. The simulation model calculates the water levels of reservoir at the end of a flood period and the reservoir release during the typhoon the events. Reservoir release is used to calculate the water level at downstream control locations for evaluation of a short-term over-levee risk. The ending water level of the reservoir is used as the initial condition for a water distribution optimization model that evaluates drought conditions for long-term water supply. By applying risk analysis, an assessment is made on the risk of both the water shortage during a drought and over-levee flows during flooding seasons. Based on the results of the risk analysis, we evaluate the relationship among upper-limit sets, shortage risk, and over-levee risk and also provide reservoir operation suggestions based on the risk evaluation.

  10. Flood marks of the 1813 flood in the Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miklanek, Pavol; Pekrov, Pavla; Halmov, Dana; Pramuk, Branislav; Ba?ov Mitkov, Veronika

    2014-05-01

    In August 2013, 200 years have passed since the greatest and most destructive floods known in the Slovak river basins. The flood affected almost the entire territory of Slovakia, northeastern Moravia, south of Poland. River basins of Vh (Orava, Kysuca), Poprad, Nitra, Hron, Torysa, Hornd, upper and middle Vistula, Odra have been most affected. The aim of this paper is to map the flood marks documenting this catastrophic flood in Slovakia. Flood marks and registrations on the 1813 flood in the Vh river basin are characterized by great diversity and are written in Bernolk modification of Slovak, in Latin, German and Hungarian. Their descriptions are stored in municipal chronicles and Slovak and Hungarian state archives. The flood in 1813 devastated the entire Vh valley, as well as its tributaries. Following flood marks were known in the Vah river basin: Doln Lehota village in the Orava river basin, historical map from 1817 covering the Su?any village and showing three different cross-sections of the Vh river during the 1813 flood, flood mark in the city of Tren?n, Flood mark in the gate of the Brunovce mansion, cross preserved at the old linden tree at Drahovce, and some records in written documents, e.g. Cifer village. The second part of the study deals with flood marks mapping in the Hron, Hnilec and Poprad River basins, and Vistula River basin in Krakow. On the basis of literary documents and the actual measurement, we summarize the peak flow rates achieved during the floods in 1813 in the profile Hron: Bansk Bystrica. According to recent situation the 1813 flood peak was approximately by 1.22 m higher, than the flood in 1974. Also in the Poprad basin is the August 1813 flood referred as the most devastating flood in last 400 years. The position of the flood mark is known, but the building was unfortunately removed later. The water level in 1813 was much higher than the water level during the recent flood in June 2010. In Cracow the water level was by 38 cm lower in May 2010 than during the 1813 flood, but by 5 cm higher than in 1903, and also higher than all the other catastrophic floods that hit Cracow during the last 200 years. The analysis of documentary information is a contribution to the growing pool of material on pre-instrumental floods in Central and Eastern Europe. The long-term flood records may reduce uncertainty in hydrological analyses and contribute to reducing losses of human lives and property. Some historical cases may be used as analogues of the recent floods and very well documented recent events are important for complex understanding of similar past floods Acknowledgement This work was supported by the Science and Technology Assistance Agency under contract No. APVV-0015-10. The paper was prepared during the "Centre of excellence for integrated flood protection of land" (ITMS 26240120004) project implementation supported by the Research & Development Operational Programme funded by the ERDF.

  11. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions...

  12. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions...

  13. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions...

  14. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions...

  15. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions...

  16. Mathematical modeling of flooding due to river bank failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viero, Daniele Pietro; D'Alpaos, Andrea; Carniello, Luca; Defina, Andrea

    2013-09-01

    Modeling of flooding events resulting from bank overflooding and levee breaching is of relevant social and environmental interest. Two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic models integrating the shallow water equations turn out to be very effective tools for the purpose at hand. Many of the available models also use 1D channel elements, fully coupled to the 2D model, to simulate the flow of small channels dissecting the urban and rural areas, and 1D elements, referred to as 1D-links, to efficiently model the flow over levees, road and rail embankments, bunds, the flow through control gates, either free or submerged, and the operation of other hydraulic structures. In this work we propose a physically-based 1D-link to model breach formation and evolution in fluvial levees, and levee failure due to either piping or overtopping. The proposed 1D-link is then embedded in a 1D-2D hydrodynamic model, thus accounting for critical feedbacks between breach formation and changes in the hydrodynamic flow field. The breach model also includes the possibility of simulating breach closure, an important feature particularly in the view of hydraulic risk assessment and management of the emergency. The model is applied to five different case studies and the results of the numerical simulations compare favorably with field observations displaying a good agreement in terms of urban and rural flooded areas, water levels within the channel, final breach widths, and water volumes flowed through the breach.

  17. Simulating the long-term development of levee-basin topography on tidal marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temmerman, Stijn; Govers, Gerard; Meire, Patrick; Wartel, Stanislas

    2004-11-01

    Although natural levees and lower basins are typical geomorphic features along tidal marsh creeks, long-term sedimentation and elevation changes in tidal marshes were traditionally studied using 0-dimensional point models without considering spatial variations. In this study, the long-term evolution of the surface elevation of tidal marsh levees and adjacent basins was studied by applying a 0-dimensional, time-stepping model (MARSED) using spatially differentiated model parameter values for levees and basins. Firstly, the model was calibrated using field data on short-term (<1 year) spatio-temporal variations in sedimentation rates measured along four levee-basin transects within tidal marshes along the Scheldt estuary (SW Netherlands-Belgium). Secondly, the long-term (10-100 years) elevation change of the levees and basins was simulated, starting from a historically known marsh elevation. Predicted elevations were successfully validated against the present-day observed topography along each of the studied levee-basin transects. The model simulations show that the elevation difference between levees and basins tends to an equilibrium. Once levees grow 20 to 30 cm higher than the adjacent basins, the positive influence of the proximity of a tidal creek on the sedimentation rate on the levees is compensated by the negative influence on the sedimentation rate of the higher surface elevation on the levees. Once this sedimentological, geomorphic equilibrium condition is attained, both levees and basins accumulate at the same rate, which is in equilibrium with the rate of mean high water level (MHWL) rise. Finally, additional simulations show that the equilibrium elevation difference between levees and basins is mainly determined by the rate of mean sea-level rise and the incoming sediment concentration. A faster sea-level rise will result not only in a lower equilibrium elevation of the marsh surface relative to MHWL but also in a more pronounced elevation difference between levees and adjacent basins. On the other hand, higher incoming sediment concentrations will result in higher equilibrium elevations. Significantly larger elevation differences between levees and basins are only obtained for increased differences in incoming sediment concentrations between levees and basins. This study demonstrates that the long-term response of tidal marsh surfaces to different scenarios of changing sea-level and incoming sediment concentrations is not uniform in space, but that spatial variability in tidal marsh morphodynamics is important and that natural levees and inner basins will react in different ways.

  18. Flood management along the Lower Mississippi and Rhine Rivers (The Netherlands) and the continuum of geomorphic adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Paul F.; Middelkoop, Hans; Stouthamer, Esther

    2008-10-01

    Flood management alters fundamental fluvial processes that have geomorphic consequences for rivers and floodplains. The Lower Mississippi and Rhine Rivers (The Netherlands) are two important examples of intensively regulated large rivers. Understanding the magnitude and direction of change caused by flood management requires a long-term perspective. This is particularly true of large lowland fluvial systems because of substantial lag-times required for adjustment to be manifest in the floodplain geomorphology. This study is a historical analysis and synthesis of the impacts of flood management on the Lower Mississippi and Rhine Rivers (The Netherlands), and investigates the interrelations of flood management with floodplain geomorphology. Although flood management varies between the Rhine and Mississippi on many accounts, the actual techniques of flood (and river) management are somewhat similar, and primarily include dikes, groynes, cutoffs, and bank protection. The implementation and history of these specific types of activities, however, varies considerably. Historical flood management along the Lower Mississippi can be characterized as abrupt, with the major options imposed within about five decades, while historical flood management along the Rhine River in The Netherlands is characterized as incremental and adaptive, with the major options imposed over about eight centuries. Conversely, modern flood management plans are implemented much more promptly along the Dutch Rhine than the Lower Mississippi. Changes to the Lower Mississippi include channel adjustment (width and incision) caused by meander bend cutoffs. The majority of the knickpoint incision in response to cutoffs occurred by 1963. Channel adjustment in some reaches is likely constrained by the presence of resistant alluvium and lithology. Floodplain geomorphic changes include the creation of new oxbow lakes within an embanked floodplain. Embanked floodplain sedimentation of oxbow lakes created from the 1928 Mississippi River & Tributaries Act have rapidly infilled, with 67% of the lake area converted to wetlands. In comparison, older oxbow lakes located outside of the embanked floodplain have undergone much lower amounts of infilling, averaging 37% of oxbow lake area converted to wetlands. The floodplain geomorphology is further modified by numerous large floodplain borrow pits and the selective removal of fine-grained deposits, primarily created for dike (levee) construction and maintenance. The Dutch Rhine has been managed for flooding for over eight centuries and exhibits specific types of humanized embanked floodplain geomorphology that require a greater period of adjustment. Dike breaches create ponds (wielen) and sandy splay-like deposits, which represent distinctive anthro-geomorphic environments along the margins of embanked floodplains. Channel stabilization by groynes and dikes has resulted in the formation of new floodplains along Rhine distributaries. The trapping of flood sediments within the embanked floodplain has resulted in aggradation that has reduced the inundation capacity of the embanked floodplain. This geomorphic alteration reduced the effectiveness of the existing flood management infrastructure and has stimulated a change towards a new flood management approach designed to "work with the river". The major conclusions are placed within a conceptual model, and illustrate that; 1. in many instances specific flood management options were constrained by the type of floodplain deposit; 2. geomorphic adjustment to flood management occurs along a time-space continuum; 3. flood management initiates positive feedbacks with unintended geomorphic consequences that require further management options to minimize flood risk.

  19. Flood producing mechanism identification in Otava river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlask, T.

    2009-04-01

    Variability of flood causes is strongly determined by geographic environment of catchment area. Identification of unique flood characteristics such as seasonality, precipitation pattern, or typical interference of flood peaks at river confluences could be very useful for flood forecasting and control. Analysis of historical flood causes is proved method to get this knowledge. Paper describes compilation and analysis of Flood Archive (database of flood events), which was developed for application in the scope of flood protection of Otava river basin (2780 km2). Otava river basin is situated in southwest part of the Czech Republic and includes north-western part of umava mountain (Bhmer Wald). Archive consists of detail description of 72 flood events (including meteorological causes and hydrological response) that occurred between 1890 and 2006 with peak flow in closing profile at Psek exceeding threshold given as 10-year return period for 1890-1961 and 1-year return period for 1961-2006). Flood formation mechanism in Otava river basin was described using this Archive. The most important features of flood formation mechanism in Otava river basin were described and explained in relation to geographical environment. Predominance of summer floods was found in Otava river basin, and its increase with increasing return period was observed. On the other hand there were only 4 out of 72 flood events with dominant snowmelt contribution to the runoff. Expected difference was found between weather causes of winter and summer floods. Winter floods are generally the consequence of strong western circulation with crossing frontal systems bringing rain precipitation on snow. While summer floods are caused mostly by cyclonic precipitation of stable low pressure formation in Central European area. Different air circulation type results in different wind ward effect of precipitation and consequently different runoff response. Analysis results were used to create complex categorization of floods. It recognizes 9 categories of floods with typical characteristics of air circulation, precipitation pattern as well as runoff response in the Otava river basin.

  20. Floods in Colombia (2009-2011): rethinking our response to climatic variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canon Barriga, J. E.

    2011-12-01

    The alternating El Nio-La Nia events of 2009-2011 are clear examples of the extreme weather variability that we can expect from climate-change conditions around the world. This presentation will discuss the impact that such events have had already in Colombia and will suggest ways to deal with similar events in the future. In less than a year the country passed from a dry El Nio (in which the system of reservoirs for water supply and hydropower dropped to critical levels) to a wet La Nia (in which a heavy, sustained rainy period caused landslides and major floods in most of the floodplains and main cities and put the reservoirs to work at their maximum capacity). As a result of the rains, several levees, bridges and roads across the country failed or collapsed, prompting the government to declare a state of emergency and to propose an ambitious plan for the reconstruction of the country's infrastructure in the following years. Many of the effects of these floods, which occur seasonally at lower scales, were magnified by the increasing human occupation of wetlands and floodplains due to different economic interests and by decades of transformation of forested areas in the mountains for pastures and cattle-growing. We drawn several lessons from these alternate occurrence of weather extremes: 1) reservoirs, for instance, may not be resilient to the occurrence of a single period of severe dryness and have a limited capacity to control floods during seasons of heavy rain; 2) alternating weather extremes may leave governments with limited time to respond within the regular seasonal cycle and solutions may be delayed and unreliable (as the PDO enters in a negative phase in the coming years, La Nia events and wetter than normal conditions in the country are likely to become more frequent, extending the rainy season cycle); 3) several years of deforestation in the cordillera have increased erosive processes and sediment loads making the rivers more difficult to predict or forecast; 4) levees and invasive channel works create a false sense of security and require better local specifications and studies (i.e., of discharge, sediment loads and geomorphological evolution in a non-stationary framework), as well as maintenance, constant monitoring and law enforcement to protect floodplain areas; 5) mountain reforestation is essential to mitigate these impacts, along with river-friendly solutions, including the relocation of communities and incentives for changes in the vocational use of land toward practices that harmonize with the ecosystems and with the seasonal nature of floods. These lessons would likely also apply to other countries in tropical regions characterized by similar weather patterns and levels of social development.

  1. Flood Risk and Flood hazard maps - Visualisation of hydrological risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spachinger, Karl; Dorner, Wolfgang; Metzka, Rudolf; Serrhini, Kamal; Fuchs, Sven

    2008-11-01

    Hydrological models are an important basis of flood forecasting and early warning systems. They provide significant data on hydrological risks. In combination with other modelling techniques, such as hydrodynamic models, they can be used to assess the extent and impact of hydrological events. The new European Flood Directive forces all member states to evaluate flood risk on a catchment scale, to compile maps of flood hazard and flood risk for prone areas, and to inform on a local level about these risks. Flood hazard and flood risk maps are important tools to communicate flood risk to different target groups. They provide compiled information to relevant public bodies such as water management authorities, municipalities, or civil protection agencies, but also to the broader public. For almost each section of a river basin, run-off and water levels can be defined based on the likelihood of annual recurrence, using a combination of hydrological and hydrodynamic models, supplemented by an analysis of historical records and mappings. In combination with data related to the vulnerability of a region risk maps can be derived. The project RISKCATCH addressed these issues of hydrological risk and vulnerability assessment focusing on the flood risk management process. Flood hazard maps and flood risk maps were compiled for Austrian and German test sites taking into account existing national and international guidelines. These maps were evaluated by eye-tracking using experimental graphic semiology. Sets of small-scale as well as large-scale risk maps were presented to test persons in order to (1) study reading behaviour as well as understanding and (2) deduce the most attractive components that are essential for target-oriented risk communication. A cognitive survey asking for negative and positive aspects and complexity of each single map complemented the experimental graphic semiology. The results indicate how risk maps can be improved to fit the needs of different user groups. Recommendations were developed of how to provide stakeholder-oriented information on hydrological risks.

  2. Urban sprawl and flooding in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rantz, S.E.

    1970-01-01

    The floods of January 1969 in south-coastal California provide a timely example of the effect of urban sprawl on flood damage. Despite recordbreaking, or near recordbreaking, stream discharges, damage was minimal in the older developed areas that are protected against inundation and debris damage by carefully planned flood-control facilities, including debris basins and flood-conveyance channels. By contrast, heavy damage occurred in areas of more recent urban sprawl, where the hazards of inundation and debris or landslide damage have not been taken into consideration, and where the improvement and development of drainage or flood-control facilities have not kept pace with expanding urbanization.

  3. Crowdsourcing detailed flood data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walliman, Nicholas; Ogden, Ray; Amouzad*, Shahrzhad

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decade the average annual loss across the European Union due to flooding has been 4.5bn Euros, but increasingly intense rainfall, as well as population growth, urbanisation and the rising costs of asset replacements, may see this rise to 23bn Euros a year by 2050. Equally disturbing are the profound social costs to individuals, families and communities which in addition to loss of lives include: loss of livelihoods, decreased purchasing and production power, relocation and migration, adverse psychosocial effects, and hindrance of economic growth and development. Flood prediction, management and defence strategies rely on the availability of accurate information and flood modelling. Whilst automated data gathering (by measurement and satellite) of the extent of flooding is already advanced it is least reliable in urban and physically complex geographies where often the need for precise estimation is most acute. Crowdsourced data of actual flood events is a potentially critical component of this allowing improved accuracy in situations and identifying the effects of local landscape and topography where the height of a simple kerb, or discontinuity in a boundary wall can have profound importance. Mobile 'App' based data acquisition using crowdsourcing in critical areas can combine camera records with GPS positional data and time, as well as descriptive data relating to the event. This will automatically produce a dataset, managed in ArcView GIS, with the potential for follow up calls to get more information through structured scripts for each strand. Through this local residents can provide highly detailed information that can be reflected in sophisticated flood protection models and be core to framing urban resilience strategies and optimising the effectiveness of investment. This paper will describe this pioneering approach that will develop flood event data in support of systems that will advance existing approaches such as developed in the in the UK in the more generalised RASP project (DEFRA and the Environment Agency), and in line with the expressed needs of the ABI (Association of British Insurers) and National Flood Forum. The detailed data produced will also support improved flood risk assessment for the provision of affordable insurance.

  4. Flood-carrying capacities and changes in channels of the Lower Puyallup, White, and Carbon Rivers in western Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prych, E.A.

    1988-01-01

    The flood-carrying capacity of the Puyallup River 's leveed channel from its mouth to the city of Puyallup exceeds the 100-yr-flood discharge at most locations. Upstream from the city of Puyallup the flood-carrying capacity also is less than the 100-yr flood at many locations. In King County the flood-carrying capacity would be greater than the 100-year flood nearly everywhere if the levees were in a good state of repair. The flood-carrying capacity of the leveed Carbon River channel is less than the 100-yr flood at numerous locations. Changes between 1976-77 and 1984 in average channel cross-section elevations for the Puyallup and Carbon Rivers were less than 1 ft at more than one-half of 90 surveyed cross sections and were more than 2 ft at only 5 of them. Changes in average elevations for the White River downstream of the inflow from Lake Tapps rose approximately 2 ft or more at 5 of the 10 surveyed cross sections, but decreased 2 ft or more at nearly one-half of 29 cross sections upstream of the reach. Differences between computed 100-yr floodwater-surface elevations for 1976-77 and 1984 channels are similar to changes in average cross-section elevations. Dense growths of streambank vegetation could increase 100-yr floodwater surface elevations by 1.2 ft. (USGS)

  5. An integrated modeling approach to predict flooding on urban basin.

    PubMed

    Dey, Ashis Kumar; Kamioka, Seiji

    2007-01-01

    Correct prediction of flood extents in urban catchments has become a challenging issue. The traditional urban drainage models that consider only the sewerage-network are able to simulate the drainage system correctly until there is no overflow from the network inlet or manhole. When such overflows exist due to insufficient drainage capacity of downstream pipes or channels, it becomes difficult to reproduce the actual flood extents using these traditional one-phase simulation techniques. On the other hand, the traditional 2D models that simulate the surface flooding resulting from rainfall and/or levee break do not consider the sewerage network. As a result, the correct flooding situation is rarely addressed from those available traditional 1D and 2D models. This paper presents an integrated model that simultaneously simulates the sewerage network, river network and 2D mesh network to get correct flood extents. The model has been successfully applied into the Tenpaku basin (Nagoya, Japan), which experienced severe flooding with a maximum flood depth more than 1.5 m on September 11, 2000 when heavy rainfall, 580 mm in 28 hrs (return period > 100 yr), occurred over the catchments. Close agreements between the simulated flood depths and observed data ensure that the present integrated modeling approach is able to reproduce the urban flooding situation accurately, which rarely can be obtained through the traditional 1D and 2D modeling approaches. PMID:17425068

  6. Uncorrected land-use planning highlighted by flooding: the Alba case study (Piedmont, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luino, F.; Turconi, L.; Petrea, C.; Nigrelli, G.

    2012-07-01

    Alba is a town of over 30 000 inhabitants located along the Tanaro River (Piedmont, northwestern Italy) and is famous for its wine and white truffles. Many important industries and companies are based in Alba, including the famous confectionery group Ferrero. The town suffered considerably from a flood that occurred on 5-6 November 1994. Forty-eight percent of the urban area was inundated, causing severe damage and killing nine people. After the flood, the Alba area was analysed in detail to determine the reasons for its vulnerability. Information on serious floods in this area since 1800 was gathered from official records, state technical office reports, unpublished documents in the municipal archives, and articles published in local and national newspapers. Maps, plans and aerial photographs (since 1954) were examined to reconstruct Alba's urban development over the last two centuries and the planform changes of the Tanaro River. The results were compared with the effects of the November 1994 flood, which was mapped from aerial photographs taken immediately after the flood, field surveys and eyewitness reports. The territory of Alba was subdivided into six categories: residential; public service; industrial, commercial and hotels; sports areas, utilities and standards (public gardens, parks, athletics grounds, private and public sport clubs); aggregate plants and dumps; and agriculture and riverine strip. The six categories were then grouped into three classes with different flooding-vulnerability levels according to various parameters. Using GIS, the three river corridors along the Tanaro identified by the Autorità di Bacino del Fiume Po were overlaid on the three classes to produce a final map of the risk areas. This study shows that the historic floods and their dynamics have not been duly considered in the land-use planning of Alba. The zones that were most heavily damaged in the 1994 flood were those that were frequently affected in the past and sites of more recent urbanisation. Despite recurrent severe flooding of the Tanaro River and its tributaries, areas along the riverbed and its paleochannels have been increasingly used for infrastructure and building (e.g., roads, a municipal dump, a prison, natural aggregate plants, a nomad camp), which has often interfered with the natural spread of the floodwaters. Since the 1994 flood, many remedial projects have been completed along the Tanaro and its tributaries, including levees, bank protection, concrete walls and floodway channels. In spite of these costly projects, some areas remain at high risk for flooding. The method used, which considered historical data, river corridors identified by hydraulic calculations, geomorphological aspects and land-use planning, can indicate with good accuracy flood-prone areas and in consequence to be an useful tool for the coherent planning of urban expansion and the mitigation of flood risk.

  7. Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler Used to Measure Historic Flooding

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS scientists use an acoustic doppler current profiler to monitor streamflow during the historic flooding in Fargo, ND. This information provides critical information used to estimate flood dangers and helps protect lives and property....

  8. USGS Crews Measure Historic Flooding in Fargo, ND

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS scientists Chris Laveau and Joel Galloway measure streamflow during historical flooding in Fargo, ND. This information is critical for developing flood forecasts to help protect lives and property. ...

  9. USGS Crews Measure Historic Flooding in Fargo, ND

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS scientists continue to monitor streamflow during the historic flooding taking place in Fargo, ND. This information provides critical information used to estimate flood dangers and helps protect lives and property....

  10. USGS Crews Measure Historic Flooding in Fargo, ND

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS scientists Chris Laveau and Joel Galloway measure streamflow during historical flooding in Fargo, ND. This information is critical for developing flood forecasts to help protect lives and property....

  11. Balancing Play, Meaning and Reality: The Design Philosophy of LEVEE PATROLLER

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harteveld, Casper; Guimaraes, Rui; Mayer, Igor S.; Bidarra, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Most serious games have been developed without a proper and comprehensive design theory. To contribute to the development of such a theory, this article presents the underlying design philosophy of LEVEE PATROLLER, a game to train levee patrollers in the Netherlands. This philosophy stipulates that the design of a digital serious game is a

  12. Documenting Tragedy and Resilience: The Importance of Spike Lee's "When the Levees Broke"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Kevin Michael; Blakes, Tifani; McKay, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    Spike Lee's documentary, "When the Levees Broke," provides an informative, enduring, and alternative presentation surrounding the human and man-made debacle associated with Hurricane Katrina. Levees centers the voices of survivors and others involved in the weeks during and after the hurricane, historicizes residents' understandings and reactions,…

  13. Documenting Tragedy and Resilience: The Importance of Spike Lee's "When the Levees Broke"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Kevin Michael; Blakes, Tifani; McKay, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    Spike Lee's documentary, "When the Levees Broke," provides an informative, enduring, and alternative presentation surrounding the human and man-made debacle associated with Hurricane Katrina. Levees centers the voices of survivors and others involved in the weeks during and after the hurricane, historicizes residents' understandings and reactions,

  14. Study of Movement and Seepage Along Levees Using DINSAR and the Airborne UAVSAR Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Cathleen E.; Bawden, Gerald; Deverel, Steven; Dudas, Joel; Hensley, Scott

    2012-01-01

    We have studied the utility of high resolution SAR (synthetic aperture radar) for levee monitoring using UAVSAR (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar) data collected along the dikes and levees in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and along the lower Mississippi River. Our study has focused on detecting and tracking changes that are indicative of potential problem spots, namely deformation of the levees, subsidence along the levee toe, and seepage through the levees, making use of polarimetric and interferometric SAR techniques. Here was present some results of those studies, which show that high resolution, low noise SAR imaging could supplement more traditional ground-based monitoring methods by providing early indicators of seepage and deformation.

  15. Flooded Place

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    26 July 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a portion of a flood-carved canyon within the larger Kasei Valles system on Mars. This canyon is the result of the very last flood event that poured through the Kasei valleys, long ago.

    Location near: 21.1oN, 72.6oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Northern Spring

  16. Assessment of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.

    2013-12-01

    Flood is one of the most significant natural hazards in Japan. The Tokyo metropolitan area has been affected by several large flood disasters. Therefore, investigating potential flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area is important for development of adaptation strategy for future climate change. We aim to develop a method for evaluating flood risk in Tokyo Metropolitan area by considering effect of historical land use and land cover change, socio-economic change, and climatic change. Ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism in Japan published 'Statistics of flood', which contains data for flood causes, number of damaged houses, area of wetted surface, and total amount of damage for each flood at small municipal level. By using these flood data, we estimated damage by inundation inside a levee for each prefecture based on a statistical method. On the basis of estimated damage, we developed flood risk curves in the Tokyo metropolitan area, representing relationship between damage and exceedance probability of flood for the period 1976-2008 for each prefecture. Based on the flood risk curve, we attempted evaluate potential flood risk in the Tokyo metropolitan area and clarify the cause for regional difference of flood risk. By analyzing flood risk curves, we found out regional differences of flood risk. We identified high flood risk in Tokyo and Saitama prefecture. On the other hand, flood risk was relatively low in Ibaraki and Chiba prefecture. We found that these regional differences of flood risk can be attributed to spatial distribution of entire property value and ratio of damaged housing units in each prefecture.We also attempted to evaluate influence of climate change on potential flood risk by considering variation of precipitation amount and precipitation intensity in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Results shows that we can evaluate potential impact of precipitation change on flood risk with high accuracy by using our methodology. Acknowledgments This study is conducted as part of the research subject "Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change in Water Hazard Assessed Using Regional Climate Scenarios in the Tokyo Region' (National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention; PI: Koji Dairaku) of Research Program on Climate Change Adaptation (RECCA) and was supported by the SOUSEI Program, funded by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Government of Japan

  17. The Global Flood Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, P.; Huddelston, M.; Michel, G.; Thompson, S.; Heynert, K.; Pickering, C.; Abbott Donnelly, I.; Fewtrell, T.; Galy, H.; Sperna Weiland, F.; Winsemius, H.; Weerts, A.; Nixon, S.; Davies, P.; Schiferli, D.

    2012-04-01

    Recently, a Global Flood Model (GFM) initiative has been proposed by Willis, UK Met Office, Esri, Deltares and IBM. The idea is to create a global community platform that enables better understanding of the complexities of flood risk assessment to better support the decisions, education and communication needed to mitigate flood risk. The GFM will provide tools for assessing the risk of floods, for devising mitigation strategies such as land-use changes and infrastructure improvements, and for enabling effective pre- and post-flood event response. The GFM combines humanitarian and commercial motives. It will benefit: - The public, seeking to preserve personal safety and property; - State and local governments, seeking to safeguard economic activity, and improve resilience; - NGOs, similarly seeking to respond proactively to flood events; - The insurance sector, seeking to understand and price flood risk; - Large corporations, seeking to protect global operations and supply chains. The GFM is an integrated and transparent set of modules, each composed of models and data. For each module, there are two core elements: a live "reference version" (a worked example) and a framework of specifications, which will allow development of alternative versions. In the future, users will be able to work with the reference version or substitute their own models and data. If these meet the specification for the relevant module, they will interoperate with the rest of the GFM. Some "crowd-sourced" modules could even be accredited and published to the wider GFM community. Our intent is to build on existing public, private and academic work, improve local adoption, and stimulate the development of multiple - but compatible - alternatives, so strengthening mankind's ability to manage flood impacts. The GFM is being developed and managed by a non-profit organization created for the purpose. The business model will be inspired from open source software (eg Linux): - for non-profit usage, the core specifications and reference version of the GFM will be licensed free. - for commercial use, users (such as software companies, engineering companies and business or risk management consultancies) will pay an annual fee, contributing to upkeep and maintenance. The GFM demonstrator will be shown and discussed. The initiative is seeking active involvement of the academic community.

  18. Floods in Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Follansbee, Robert; Sawyer, Leon R.

    1948-01-01

    The first records of floods in Colorado antedated the settlement of the State by about 30 years. These were records of floods on the Arkansas and Republican Rivers in 1826. Other floods noted by traders, hunters and emigrants, some of whom were on their way to the Far West, occurred in 1844 on the Arkansas River, and by inference on the South Platte River. Other early floods were those on the Purgatoire, the Lower Arkansas, and the San Juan Rivers about 1859. The most serious flood since settlement began was that on the Arkansas River during June 1921, which caused the loss of about 100 lives and an estimated property loss of $19,000,000. Many floods of lesser magnitude have occurred, and some of these have caused loss of life and very considerable property damage. Topography is the chief factor in determining the location of storms and resulting floods. These occur most frequently on the eastern slope of the Front Range. In the mountains farther west precipitation is insufficient to cause floods except during periods of melting snow, in June. In the southwestern part of the State, where precipitation during periods of melting snow is insufficient to cause floods, the severest floods yet experienced resulted from heavy rains in September 1909 and October 1911. In the eastern foothills region, usually below an altitude of about 7,500 feet and extending for a distance of about 50 miles east of the mountains, is a zone subject to rainfalls of great intensity known as cloudbursts. These cloudbursts are of short duration and are confined to very small areas. At times the intensity is so great as to make breathing difficult for those exposed to a storm. The areas of intense rainfall are so small that Weather Bureau precipitation stations have not been located in them. Local residents, being cloudburst conscious, frequently measure the rainfall in receptacles in their yards, and such records constitute the only source of information regarding the intensity. A flood resulting from a cloudburst rises so quickly that it is usually described as a 'wall of water.' It has a peak duration of only a few minutes, followed by a rapid subsidence. Nearly 90 cloudburst floods in Colorado are described in varying detail in this report. The earliest recorded cloudburst--called at that time a waterspout--occurred in Golden Gate Gulch, July 14, 1872. The 'wall of water' was described as a 'perpendicular breast of 10 or 12 feet.' A cloudburst flood on Kiowa Creek in May 1878 caused the loss of a standard-gage locomotive, and although search was made by means of long metallic rods, the locomotive was never recovered, as bedrock was about 50 feet below the creek bed. All available information relative to floods in Colorado, beginning with the flood of 1826 on the Arkansas River, is presented in this report, although for many of the earlier floods estimates of discharge are lacking. Floods throughout a large part of the State have occurred in 1844, June 1864, June 1884, May 1894, and June 1921. The highest floods of record were on the larger streams and occurred as follows: South Platte River, June 1921; Rio Grande, June 1927; Colorado River, June and July 1884; San Juan River, October 1911. The greatest floods on the plains streams occurred during May and June 1935 and were caused by cloudbursts. Ranchers living in the vicinity noted rainfalls as high as 24 inches in a 13-hour period, measurements being made in a stock tank. The effect of settlement on channel capacities can be clearly traced. When settlement began, and with it the beginning of the livestock industry, the plains were thickly covered with a luxuriant growth of grasses. With the development of the livestock industry the grass cover was grazed so closely that it afforded little protection against erosion during the violent rains and resulting floods. The intensive grazing packed the soil so hard as to increase greatly the percentage of rainfall that entered the streams. This co

  19. Urban flood risk assessment using sewer flooding databases.

    PubMed

    Caradot, Nicolas; Granger, Damien; Chapgier, Jean; Cherqui, Frdric; Chocat, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable water management is a global challenge for the 21st century. One key aspect remains protection against urban flooding. The main objective is to ensure or maintain an adequate level of service for all inhabitants. However, level of service is still difficult to assess and the high-risk locations difficult to identify. In this article, we propose a methodology, which (i) allows water managers to measure the service provided by the urban drainage system with regard to protection against urban flooding; and (ii) helps stakeholders to determine effective strategies for improving the service provided. One key aspect of this work is to use a database of sewer flood event records to assess flood risk. Our methodology helps urban water managers to assess the risk of sewer flooding; this approach does not seek to predict flooding but rather to inform decision makers on the current level of risk and on actions which need to be taken to reduce the risk. This work is based on a comprehensive definition of risk, including territorial vulnerability and perceptions of urban water stakeholders. This paper presents the results and the methodological contributions from implementing the methodology on two case studies: the cities of Lyon and Mulhouse. PMID:22097068

  20. From flood management systems to flood resilient systems: integration of flood resilient technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salagnac, J.-L.; Diez, J.; Tourbier, J.

    2012-04-01

    Flooding has always been a major risk world-wide. Humans chose to live and develop settlements close to water (rivers, seas) due to the resources water brings, i.e. food, energy, capacity to economically transport persons and goods, and recreation. However, the risk from flooding, including pluvial flooding, often offsets these huge advantages. Floods sometimes have terrible consequences from both a human and economic point of view. The permanence and growth of urban areas in flood-prone zones despite these risks is a clear indication of the choices of concerned human groups. The observed growing concentration of population along the sea shore, the increase of urban population worldwide, the exponential growth of the world population and possibly climate change are factors that confirm flood will remain a major issue for the next decades. Flood management systems are designed and implemented to cope with such situations. In spite of frequent events, lessons look to be difficult to draw out and progresses are rather slow. The list of potential triggers to improve flood management systems is nevertheless well established: information, education, awareness raising, alert, prevention, protection, feedback from events, ... Many disciplines are concerned which cover a wide range of soft and hard sciences. A huge amount of both printed and electronic literature is available. Regulations are abundant. In spite of all these potentially favourable elements, similar questions spring up after each new significant event: • Was the event forecast precise enough? • Was the alert system efficient? • Why were buildings built in identified flood prone areas? • Why did the concerned population not follow instructions? • Why did the dike break? • What should we do to avoid it happens again? • What about damages evaluation, wastes and debris evacuation, infrastructures and buildings repair, activity recovery, temporary relocation of inhabitants, health concerns, insurance concerns, water-resistant materials, vulnerability assessment ? Flood resilient system (FReS) concept has been proposed as a new framework to address flood situations. Such systems intend to better approach such situations from a holistic point of view. FReS encompass ecologic, spatial, structural, social, disaster relief and flood risk aspects. FReS design and implementation conditions have been addressed by the FP7 SMARTeST (Smart Resilience Technology, Systems and Tools) project. The focus of this Project on the use of available and innovative communication, forecasting and flood protection technologies leads to an original contribution which highlights both the scope and the limits of this technology driven approach. These reflexions contribute to the elaboration of guidelines for the design of FReS.

  1. Levee crest elevation profiles derived from airborne lidar-based high resolution digital elevation models in south Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palaseanu-Lovejoy, Monica; Thatcher, Cindy A.; Barras, John A.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the feasibility of using airborne lidar surveys to derive high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) and develop an automated procedure to extract levee longitudinal elevation profiles for both federal levees in Atchafalaya Basin and local levees in Lafourche Parish. Generally, the use of traditional manual surveying methods to map levees is a costly and time consuming process that typically produces cross-levee profiles every few hundred meters, at best. The purpose of our paper is to describe and test methods for extracting levee crest elevations in an efficient, comprehensive manner using high resolution lidar generated DEMs. In addition, the vertical uncertainty in the elevation data and its effect on the resultant estimate of levee crest heights is addressed in an assessment of whether the federal levees in our study meet the USACE minimum height design criteria.

  2. Terrestrial Lidar Datasets of New Orleans, Louisiana, Levee Failures from Hurricane Katrina, August 29, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, Brian D.; Kayen, Robert; Minasian, Diane; Reiss, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina made landfall with the northern Gulf Coast on August 29, 2005, as one of the strongest hurricanes on record. The storm damage incurred in Louisiana included a number of levee failures that led to the inundation of approximately 85 percent of the metropolitan New Orleans area. Whereas extreme levels of storm damage were expected from such an event, the catastrophic failure of the New Orleans levees prompted a quick mobilization of engineering experts to assess why and how particular levees failed. As part of this mobilization, civil engineering members of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) performed terrestrial lidar topographic surveys at major levee failures in the New Orleans area. The focus of the terrestrial lidar effort was to obtain precise measurements of the ground surface to map soil displacements at each levee site, the nonuniformity of levee height freeboard, depth of erosion where scour occurred, and distress in structures at incipient failure. In total, we investigated eight sites in the New Orleans region, including both earth and concrete floodwall levee breaks. The datasets extend from the 17th Street Canal in the Orleans East Bank area to the intersection of the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway (GIWW) with the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet (MRGO) in the New Orleans East area. The lidar scan data consists of electronic files containing millions of surveyed points. These points characterize the topography of each levee's postfailure or incipient condition and are available for download through online hyperlinks. The data serve as a permanent archive of the catastrophic damage of Hurricane Katrina on the levee systems of New Orleans. Complete details of the data collection, processing, and georeferencing methodologies are provided in this report to assist in the visualization and analysis of the data by future users.

  3. Late Pleistocene channel-levee development on Monterey submarine fan, central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Normark, W.R.

    1999-01-01

    Much of the modern upper (proximal) Monterey fan is a channel-levee complex, the Upper Turbidite Sequence (UTS), that was deeply eroded after the channel breached a volcanic ridge to reach a deeper base level. Ages of sediment samples collected with the ALVIN submersible from the deepest outcrop within the channel-levee system, 390 m below the adjacent western levee crest, indicate that the UTS deposits accumulated at ???1 m ka-1 during the last 500 ka. Neogene and Early Pleistocene sediment accumulation on the fan prior to the UTS was much slower (<0.03 m ka-1), and underlying turbidite systems(?) had substantially different morphologic expression(s).

  4. Assessment of floodplain vulnerability during extreme Mississippi River flood 2011.

    PubMed

    Goodwell, Allison E; Zhu, Zhenduo; Dutta, Debsunder; Greenberg, Jonathan A; Kumar, Praveen; Garcia, Marcelo H; Rhoads, Bruce L; Holmes, Robert R; Parker, Gary; Berretta, David P; Jacobson, Robert B

    2014-01-01

    Regional change in the variability and magnitude of flooding could be a major consequence of future global climate change. Extreme floods have the capacity to rapidly transform landscapes and expose landscape vulnerabilities through highly variable spatial patterns of inundation, erosion, and deposition. We use the historic activation of the Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway during the Mississippi and Ohio River Flooding of 2011 as a scientifically unique stress experiment to analyze indicators of floodplain vulnerability. We use pre- and postflood airborne Light Detection and Ranging data sets to locate erosional and depositional hotspots over the 540 km(2) agricultural Floodway. While riparian vegetation between the river and the main levee breach likely prevented widespread deposition, localized scour and deposition occurred near the levee breaches. Eroded gullies nearly 1 km in length were observed at a low ridge of a relict meander scar of the Mississippi River. Our flow modeling and spatial mapping analysis attributes this vulnerability to a combination of erodible soils, flow acceleration associated with legacy fluvial landforms, and a lack of woody vegetation to anchor soil and enhance flow resistance. Results from this study could guide future mitigation and adaptation measures in cases of extreme flooding. PMID:24512322

  5. Assessment of floodplain vulnerability during extreme Mississippi River flood 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodwell, Allison E.; Zhu, Zhenduo; Dutta, Debsunder; Greenberg, Jonathan A.; Kumar, Praveen; Garcia, Marcelo H.; Rhoads, Bruce L.; Holmes, Jr., Robert R.; Parker, Gary; Berretta, David P.; Jacobson, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Regional change in the variability and magnitude of flooding could be a major consequence of future global climate change. Extreme floods have the capacity to rapidly transform landscapes and expose landscape vulnerabilities through highly variable spatial patterns of inundation, erosion, and deposition. We use the historic activation of the Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway during the Mississippi and Ohio River Flooding of 2011 as a scientifically unique stress experiment to analyze indicators of floodplain vulnerability. We use pre- and postflood airborne Light Detection and Ranging data sets to locate erosional and depositional hotspots over the 540 km2 agricultural Floodway. While riparian vegetation between the river and the main levee breach likely prevented widespread deposition, localized scour and deposition occurred near the levee breaches. Eroded gullies nearly 1 km in length were observed at a low ridge of a relict meander scar of the Mississippi River. Our flow modeling and spatial mapping analysis attributes this vulnerability to a combination of erodible soils, flow acceleration associated with legacy fluvial landforms, and a lack of woody vegetation to anchor soil and enhance flow resistance. Results from this study could guide future mitigation and adaptation measures in cases of extreme flooding.

  6. 33 CFR 209.300 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.300 Flood control regulations. (a) Regulations for the operation and maintenance of local flood protection works approved by the Secretary of the Army under...

  7. 33 CFR 209.300 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.300 Flood control regulations. (a) Regulations for the operation and maintenance of local flood protection works approved by the Secretary of the Army under...

  8. 33 CFR 209.300 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.300 Flood control regulations. (a) Regulations for the operation and maintenance of local flood protection works approved by the Secretary of the Army under...

  9. 33 CFR 209.300 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.300 Flood control regulations. (a) Regulations for the operation and maintenance of local flood protection works approved by the Secretary of the Army under...

  10. 33 CFR 209.300 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.300 Flood control regulations. (a) Regulations for the operation and maintenance of local flood protection works approved by the Secretary of the Army under...

  11. Perception of floods as an important aspect of quality of life and territorial changes in flood areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemešová, Kamila; Andráško, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    The quality of life in many municipalities in the Czech Republic is affected by coming floods. Since 1997 when a great part of Moravia was affected by an extreme flood situation, much closer attention is paid to floods and flood protection. Flood management is based, besides others, on European flood legislation but it still does not reflect the social perception of flood situations as a common part of the evaluation of flood risk. However, this very perception strongly influences future implementation of flood measures, territorial and social development of the municipality and indirectly the quality of life in the municipality. One of the main problems in flood issue is the financing of anti-flood measures. In view of the fact that financial resources in environmental sphere are limited, preventive anti-flood measures, that can eliminate the impacts of future floods and are not so expensive, assume more importance. Such kind of measures is often suggested for local needs. The necessity to research the social perception of flood in this context is supported by some studies pointing out a still insufficient use of preventive anti-flood measures in the Czech Republic in spite of several extreme floods in the past 20 years. This paper aims at presenting the results of a research which has been done in a model area affected by floods. The aim of this research was to point out the main factors that influence the life in the municipality after flood (including suggested anti-flood measures) and the possibilities and willingness of the inhabitants to change them. The research results have subsequently been supplemented with the same evaluation by the members of local administrations who are important players in post-flood development of the municipality and in dealings with citizens about the suggested anti-flood measures.

  12. Future flood losses in major coastal cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallegatte, Stephane; Green, Colin; Nicholls, Robert J.; Corfee-Morlot, Jan

    2013-09-01

    Flood exposure is increasing in coastal cities owing to growing populations and assets, the changing climate, and subsidence. Here we provide a quantification of present and future flood losses in the 136 largest coastal cities. Using a new database of urban protection and different assumptions on adaptation, we account for existing and future flood defences. Average global flood losses in 2005 are estimated to be approximately US$6billion per year, increasing to US$52billion by 2050 with projected socio-economic change alone. With climate change and subsidence, present protection will need to be upgraded to avoid unacceptable losses of US$1trillion or more per year. Even if adaptation investments maintain constant flood probability, subsidence and sea-level rise will increase global flood losses to US$60-63billion per year in 2050. To maintain present flood risk, adaptation will need to reduce flood probabilities below present values. In this case, the magnitude of losses when floods do occur would increase, often by more than 50%, making it critical to also prepare for larger disasters than we experience today. The analysis identifies the cities that seem most vulnerable to these trends, that is, where the largest increase in losses can be expected.

  13. Decreasing flood risk perception in Porto Alegre - Brazil and its influence on water resource management decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allasia, D. G.; Tassi, R.; Bemfica, D.; Goldenfum, J. A.

    2015-06-01

    Porto Alegre is the capital and largest city in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul in Southern Brazil with approximately 1.5 million inhabitants. The city lies on the eastern bank of the Guaiba Lake, formed by the convergence of five rivers and leading to the Lagoa dos Patos, a giant freshwater lagoon navigable by even the largest of ships. This river junction has become an important alluvial port as well as a chief industrial and commercial centre. However, this strategic location resulted in severe damage because of its exposure to flooding from the river system, affecting the city in the years 1873, 1928, 1936, 1941 and 1967. In order to reduce flood risk, a complex system of levees and pump stations was implemented during 1960s and 1970s. Since its construction, not a single large flood event occurred. However, in recent years, the levees in the downtown region of Porto Alegre were severally criticized by city planners and population. Several projects have been proposed to demolish the Mauá Wall due to the false perception of lack of flood risk. Similar opinions and reactions against flood infrastructure have been observed in other cities in Brazil, such as Itajaí and Blumenau, with disastrous consequences. This paper illustrates how the perception of flood risk in Porto Alegre has changed over recent years as a result of flood infrastructure, and how such changes in perceptions can influence water management decisions.

  14. The August 2002 flood in Prague

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marešová, I.; Mareš, K.; Vogel, T.

    2003-04-01

    In August 2002 the Czech Republic was struck by the largest flood in its history with the destruction of more than 1000 houses, tens of km of roads and dozens of bridges. The reconstruction of the country will take more than 2 years. The catastrophic flood was caused by two rainfall events following rapidly one after the other. Saturated basins and full river channels after the first rainstorm caused the highest water stages and discharges ever recorded in a number of river profiles in the country. In Prague two floods coincided, with run-off from the Vltava river cascade meeting the flood wave from the Berounka river. The floods in the Czech Republic and in Prague are still being assessed. The water level of this flood surpassed the flood marks from the last century by 70 - 100 cm. At the present time the value of the discharge in Prague is evaluated as 5200 {m^3 s-1}, whereas {Q100} is considered to be 3700 {m3s-1}. The Vltava in Prague is a trained river, protected by embankments ({Q50} and {Q20}) and protective dykes ({Q100} and {Q20}). In addition, a significant role in the flood protection of Prague was played by the manipulation of the dams of the Vltava river cascade, and by a new element - mobile walls protecting the historically valuable Old Town of Prague on the right bank of the Vltava. A conception for improving the flood protection of Prague was ready in the form of a design at the end of the {20th} century. It was ready for use in 2000, when the way in which it should be built was also checked. The calculation for the level of the mobile wall was based on mathematical modeling of the course of a hundred year flood in Prague. However, the mobile walls were constructed 50 cm higher than the calculated flood levels. During the flood, the water levels reached about 20 cm, and in some places only about 5 cm, below the top of the mobile walls, but the mobile walls were not overtopped. Mobile walls were not used on the left bank of the Prague city center. This is the location of the Lesser Town of Prague and Kampa, in particular, which lies below Prague Castle, the most picturesque part of Prague, with historical buildings from the {14 - 19th} century. Flood protection by mobile walls in this part of the city continues to be a topic of discussion among proponents of different opinions. Although the building structures were not protected, there was no damage to them or to their stability. Greater damage was caused to the interiors of the buildings. Unfortunately, the barriers in Karlín and Holesovice, residential areas from the {18th} and {19th} century, originally built for workers, were very seriously destroyed. The flood water level there was about 3 meters above ground level. Three houses collapsed during the flood, and dozens of houses are still not habitable because of their endangered stability. As a consequence of the flood, Prague encountered a range of other problems: a flooded waste water treatment plant, areas flooded through the sewerage system, flooded theatres, archives, and serious flooding at the zoo. A problem arose due to suffusion behind the mobile walls which led to the destruction of the roads where public trams and private cars operate. This problem, together with the flooded underground railway network, caused very serious problems and the near collapse of the traffic network in Prague.

  15. Flood risk changes over centuries in Rome: an empirical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Saccà, Smeralda; Tito Aronica, Giuseppe; Grimaldi, Salvatore; Crisci, Massimiliano

    2015-04-01

    Over centuries, the development of the historical city of Rome -close to one of the largest Italian rivers, the Tiber- has been intertwined with the magnitude and frequency of flooding events. The ancient Rome mostly developed on the (seven) hills, while the Tiber's floodplain was mainly exploited for agricultural purposes. A few small communities did settle in the riparian areas of the Tiber, but they had a relatively peaceful relationships with the frequent occurrence of flooding events. Nowadays, numerous people live in modern districts in the Tiber's floodplain, unaware of their exposure to potentially catastrophic flooding. The main goal of this research is to explore the dynamics of changing flood risk over the centuries between these two extreme pictures of the ancient and contemporary Rome. To this end, we carried out a socio-hydrological study by exploiting long time series of physical (flooding, river morphology) and social (urbanization, population dynamics) processes together with information about human interactions with the environment (flood defense structures). This empirical analysis showed how human and physical systems have been co-evolving over time, while being abruptly altered by the occurrence of extreme events. For instance, a large flooding event occurred in 1870 and contributed to the constructions of levees, which in turn facilitated the development of new urban areas in the Tiber's floodplain, while changed the societal memory of floods as well as the communities' perception of risk. This research work was also used to test the hypotheses of recent-developed models conceptualizing the interplay between floods and societies and simulating the long-term behavior of coupled human-water systems. The outcomes of this test provided interesting insights about the dynamics of flood risk, which are expected to support a better anticipation of future changes.

  16. Implementing the EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC) in Austria: Flood Risk Management Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhold, Clemens

    2013-04-01

    he Directive 2007/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2007 on the assessment and management of flood risks (EFD) aims at the reduction of the adverse consequences for human health, the environment, cultural heritage and economic activity associated with floods in the Community. This task is to be achieved based on three process steps (1) preliminary flood risk assessment (finalised by the end of 2011), (2) flood hazard maps and flood risk maps (due 2013) and (3) flood risk management plans (due 2015). Currently, an interdisciplinary national working group is defining the methodological framework for flood risk management plans in Austria supported by a constant exchange with international bodies and experts. Referring to the EFD the components of the flood risk management plan are (excerpt): 1. conclusions of the preliminary flood risk assessment 2. flood hazard maps and flood risk maps and the conclusions that can be drawn from those maps 3. a description of the appropriate objectives of flood risk management 4. a summary of measures and their prioritisation aiming to achieve the appropriate objectives of flood risk management The poster refers to some of the major challenges in this process, such as the legal provisions, coordination of administrative units, definition of public relations, etc. The implementation of the EFD requires the harmonisation of legal instruments of various disciplines (e.g. water management, spatial planning, civil protection) enabling a coordinated - and ideally binding - practice of flood risk management. This process is highly influenced by the administrative organisation in Austria - federal, provincial and municipality level. The Austrian approach meets this organisational framework by structuring the development of the flood risk management plan into 3 time-steps: (a) federal blueprint, (b) provincial editing and (c) federal finishing as well as reporting to the European Commission. Each time-step addresses different administrative levels and spatial scales accompanied by the active involvement of interested parties.

  17. Flood risks and willingness to purchase flood insurance.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karlinger, M.R.; Attanasi, E.D.

    1980-01-01

    Computer simulation experiments were conducted to determine the effects of alternative sources of uncertainty on the willingness to pay for flood insurance. Two alternative insurance protection schemes were investigated: coinsurance and fixed coverage. The question investigated is to what extent does the insurance scheme influence how purchasers respond to risks? Floods were assumed to be log normally distributed and the effects on the purchase of insurance of uncertainties in the parameters of the distribution were explored using response surface analysis. Results indicate that fixed coverage insurance provisions shift most of the uncertainty in the physical parameters governing natural disaster occurrences away from the insuree and onto the insurer. The results also show that the form of the damage function has little effect on the demand for flood insurance.- Authors

  18. Subsidence and its Impact on the Quality of Geospatial Data Used in the Planning and Building of Hurricane Protection for New Orleans and Southeast Louisiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokka, R. K.; Cavell, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    A state-wide digital elevation model (DEM; www.atlas.lsu.edu) based on 1999-2002 LiDAR data is widely used in assessing present and future flooding potential in New Orleans and southeast Louisiana due to storm surge. Although the data were acquired during a time when official vertical controls had been deemed unreliable due to subsidence, the DEM continues to be used for operational modeling and planning. To test its viability, an accuracy assessment of the DEM was performed in 2007 using a statewide real-time kinematic GPS system based on NOAA-sanctioned continuously operating reference stations. Sampling was focused on built structures, i.e., levees, floodwall, and roads, features considered to control surge flow in the low-lying coast. Over 100,000 points were measured and compared to 5X5 m DEM pixels. The vertical accuracy of test points was determined to be +/-10cm (0.3 ft). It is claimed that 90% of the DEM is to accurate to +/-15 cm (0.5 ft).The study had the added benefit of providing a snapshot of the progress being made in augmenting the regional hurricane protection system following the 2005 storms. The study shows that only 40 percent of DEM samples pass the accuracy test, i.e., are +/- 0.8 ft of the true elevation. Where the DEM is too low, it is likely due to: levee augmentation, floodwalls are too narrow to be detected by LiDAR, new levees, and a "levee crown bias", i.e., sampled DEM pixel includes levee slope areas. Where the DEM is too high, the causes can be traced to two factors, inaccurate vertical controls established prior to LiDAR acquisition, and to a lesser degree, post-acquisition subsidence. The DEM south and east of New Orleans overestimates levee elevations by 0-1 m. We conclude, therefore that the state-wide digital elevation model (DEM) is unreliable and inadequate to support present-day surge modeling.

  19. Root Development of Salix purpurea L. on Heavily Compacted Levee Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammeranner, W.

    2012-04-01

    The effect of woody vegetation on levee stability is discussed controversially. On the one hand woody plants improve slope stability, prevent erosion failures and may aid in levee stability. On the other hand it is believed that woody vegetation has negative impacts which are largely related to the rooting system. Hence, root penetration can facilitate water movement - seepage or piping - as well as living and decaying roots can lead to voids and threaten the structural integrity of levees. In general root architecture is known for many plant species, but specific root characteristics and their interaction with soils are influenced by many factors, and therefore poorly understood. Consequently the current research investigates the rooting performance of woody vegetation by singling out a special type of vegetation which is often used within soil bioengineering techniques at river embankments. This vegetation type is a dense stand of shrubby willows (Salix purpurea L.), implemented with brush mattresses. The data is collected from a test site constructed in 2007, 5 km northeast of Vienna, Austria. Part of the test site is a research levee built true to natural scale. The fill material of the levee is a mineral silt-sand-gravel compound classified as silty sand, which was compacted to a dry density of 1.86 g/cm3. The planting of vegetation was applied directly to the compacted levee body using only a thin layer (2-4 cm) of humus topsoil. In 2009 the studies were supplemented with a lysimeter-like setup consisting of a total of 20 containers. The lysimeters were filled homogenously with the same soil as the levees and were consolidated to the same degree of compaction. They were planted similar to the research levees. Within the investigations a comprehensive annual vegetation monitoring program was carried out. Measured aboveground parameters were shoot diameter, shoot length, biomass and leaf area index (LAI). Monitored rooting parameters - examined by excavation - were rooting depth and root mass, complemented with several further rooting parameters obtained from the lysimeters and analyzed by WinRhizo. The proposed contribution will present the results of the vegetation monitoring program. Gained results will be discussed with reference to levee stability.

  20. Flood-inundation map and water-surface profiles for floods of selected recurrence intervals, Consumnes River and Deer Creek, Sacramento County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guay, Joel R.; Harmon, Jerry G.; McPherson, Kelly R.

    1998-01-01

    The damage caused by the January 1997 floods along the Cosumnes River and Deer Creek generated new interest in planning and managing land use in the study area. The 1997 floodflow peak, the highest on record and considered to be a 150-year flood, caused levee failures at 24 locations. In order to provide a technical basis for floodplain management practices, the U.S. Goelogical Survey, in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency, completed a flood-inundation map of the Cosumnes River and Deer Creek drainage from Dillard Road bridge to State Highway 99. Flood frequency was estimated from streamflow records for the Cosumnes River at Michigan Bar and Deer Creek near Sloughhouse. Cross sections along a study reach, where the two rivers generally flow parallel to one another, were used with a step-backwater model (WSPRO) to estimate the water-surface profile for floods of selected recurrence intervals. A flood-inundation map was developed to show flood boundaries for the 100-year flood. Water-surface profiles were developed for the 5-, 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year floods.

  1. Flood Inundation Mapper

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A powerful new tool for flood response and mitigation are digital geospatial flood-inundation maps that show flood water extent and depth on the land surface. Because floods are the leading cause of natural-disaster losses, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is actively involved in the development of...

  2. Flood risk and flood management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plate, Erich J.

    2002-10-01

    Risk management has been established as a well defined procedure for handling risks due to natural, environmental or man made hazards, of which floods are representative. Risk management has been discussed in many previous papers giving different meanings to the term—a result of the fact that risk management actually takes place on three different levels of actions: the operational level, which is associated with operating an existing system, a project planning level, which is used when a new, or a revision of an existing project is planned, and a project design level, which is embedded into the second level and describes the process of reaching an optimal solution for the project. The first two levels will be briefly described in the paper. It will be emphasized that the transition from the first to the second level is a dynamic process. As the value system of a nation changes, and as the natural boundary conditions are modified by human actions or global changes, an existing system will be found not meeting the demands of the present society, and actions on the second level are initiated. The decisions for change depend on the changes in options available for handling a flood situation, as well as on the changes in risk perception and attitudes towards risk. On the third level, the actual cost of a design are evaluated and compared with the benefits obtained from the planned project. In particular, on this level the residual risk is considered, i.e. the risk which remains even after a project is completed and fully operational.

  3. Time scales of change in chemical and biological parameters after engineered levee breaches adjacent to Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Wood, Tamara M.; Parcheso, Francis; Cameron, Jason M.; Asbill, Jessica R.; Carlson, Rick A.; Fend, Steven V.

    2012-01-01

    Eight sampling trips were coordinated after engineered levee breaches hydrologically reconnected both Upper Klamath Lake and Agency Lake, Oregon, to adjacent wetlands. The reconnection, by a series of explosive blasts, was coordinated by The Nature Conservancy to reclaim wetlands that had for approximately seven decades been leveed for crop production. Sets of nonmetallic porewater profilers (U.S. Patent 8,051,727 B1; November 8, 2011; http://www.uspto.gov/web/patents/patog/ week45/OG/html/1372-2/US08051727-20111108.html.) were deployed during these trips in November 2007, June 2008, May 2009, July 2009, May 2010, August 2010, June 2011, and July 2011 (table 1). Deployments temporally spanned the annual cyanophyte bloom of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and spatially involved three lake and four wetland sites. Spatial and temporal variation in solute benthic flux was determined by the field team, using the profilers, over an approximately 4-year period beginning 3 days after the levee breaches. The highest flux to the water column of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was detected in the newly flooded wetland, contrasting negative or insignificant DOC fluxes at adjacent lake sites. Over the multiyear study, DOC benthic fluxes dissipated in the reconnected wetlands, converging to values similar to those for established wetlands and to the adjacent lake (table 2). In contrast to DOC, benthic sources of soluble reactive phosphorus, ammonium, dissolved iron and manganese from within the reconnected wetlands were consistently elevated (that is, significant in magnitude relative to riverine and established-wetland sources) indicating a multi-year time scale for certain chemical changes after the levee breaches (table 2). Colonization of the reconnected wetlands by aquatic benthic invertebrates during the study trended toward the assemblages in established wetlands, providing further evidence of a multiyear transition of this area to permanent aquatic habitat (table 3). Both the lake and wetland benthic environments substantively contribute to macro- and micronutrients in the water column. Wetland areas undergoing restoration, and those being used for water storage, function very differently relatively to the established wetland within the Upper Klamath Lake National Wildlife Refuge, adjacent Upper Klamath Lake. Developing long-term management strategies for water quality in the Upper Klamath Basin requires recognition of the multi-year time scales associated with restoring wetlands that provide natural, seasonal ecosystem function and services.

  4. Technical Note: Stability of a Levee Made of Bottom Sediments From a Dam Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko?, Karolina; Zawisza, Eugeniusz

    2015-02-01

    Stability analysis of a levee made of the bottom sediments from Czorsztyn-Niedzica Reservoir is presented in the paper. These sediments were classified as silty sands and, based on the authors' own research, their geotechnical parameters were beneficial, so the possibility of using this material for the hydraulic embankments was considered. Stability and filtration calculations were carried out for a levee that had the same top width - 3 m, slope inclinations 1:2 and different heights: 4, 6 and 8 m. Two methods were used: analytical and numerical. Calculations were carried out without and with a steady and unsteady seepage filtration. Based on the analysis carried out it was stated that the levee made of the bottom sediments is stable even at the height of 8.0 m, although because of the seepage on the downstream side it is recommended to use a drainage at the toe of the slope.

  5. 100-Year Flood-It's All About Chance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, Jr., Robert R.; Dinicola, Karen

    2010-01-01

    In the 1960's, the United States government decided to use the 1-percent annual exceedance probability (AEP) flood as the basis for the National Flood Insurance Program. The 1-percent AEP flood was thought to be a fair balance between protecting the public and overly stringent regulation. Because the 1-percent AEP flood has a 1 in 100 chance of being equaled or exceeded in any 1 year, and it has an average recurrence interval of 100 years, it often is referred to as the '100-year flood'. The term '100-year flood' is part of the national lexicon, but is often a source of confusion by those not familiar with flood science and statistics. This poster is an attempt to explain the concept, probabilistic nature, and inherent uncertainties of the '100-year flood' to the layman.

  6. Geophysical characterization of the Lollie Levee near Conway, Arkansas, using capacitively coupled resistivity, coring, and direct push logging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillip, Jonathan A.; Payne, Jason D.

    2011-01-01

    A geophysical characterization of Lollie Levee near Conway, Arkansas, was conducted in February 2011. A capacitively coupled resistivity survey (using Geometric's OhmMapper) was completed along the top and toe of the 6.7-mile levee. Two-dimensional inversions were conducted on the geophysical data. As a quality-control measure, cores and direct push logs were taken at approximately 1-mile intervals along the levee. The capacitively coupled resistivity survey, the coring, and the direct push logs were used to characterize the geologic materials. Comparison of the cores and the direct push log data, along with published resistivity values, indicates that resistivity values of 200 Ohm-meters or greater represent relatively clean sand, with decreasing resistivity values occurring with increasing silt and clay content. The cores indicated that the levee is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of sand, silt, and clay. The capacitively coupled resistivity sections confirm that the levee is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of high and low resistivity materials and show that the composition of the levee varies spatially. The geologic materials underlying the levee vary spatially as a result of the geologic processes that deposited them. In general, the naturally deposited geologic materials underlying the levee contain a greater amount of low resistivity materials in the southern extent of the levee.

  7. Total flavonoid of Litsea coreana leve exerts anti-oxidative effects and alleviates focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Shuying; Tong, Xuhui; Li, Jun; Huang, Cheng; Hu, Chengmu; Jiao, Hao; Gu, Yuchen

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we hypothesized that total flavonoid of Litsea coreana leve (TFLC) protects against focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. TFLC (25, 50, 100 mg/kg) was administered orally to a rat model of focal ischemia/reperfusion injury, while the free radical scavenging agent, edaravone, was used as a positive control drug. Results of neurological deficit scoring, 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining, hematoxylin-eosin staining and biochemical tests showed that TFLC at different doses significantly alleviated cerebral ischemia-induced neurological deficits and histopathological changes, and reduced infarct volume. Moreover, it suppressed the increase in the levels of nitrates plus nitrites, malondialdehyde and lactate dehydrogenase, and it diminished the reduction in gluta-thione, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in-jury. Compared with edaravone, the protective effects of TFLC at low and medium doses (25, 50 mg/kg) against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury were weaker, while the protective effects at high dose (100 mg/kg) were similar. Our experimental findings suggest that TFLC exerts neuroprotective effects against focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats, and that the effects may be asso-ciated with its antioxidant activities. PMID:25206640

  8. Hydrodynamic Modeling of Flood Dynamics and Restoration Potential of Lower Missouri River Floodplains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, G. A.

    2012-12-01

    Lower Missouri River floodplains have the potential to provide multiple ecosystem services including agricultural production, floodwater storage, nutrient processing, and provision of habitats. In this research, a 2-dimensional hydrodynamic model of a representative looped floodplain bottom of approximately 20 km is utilized to explore how floodplain inundation contributes to ecosystem benefits and costs. High resolution 2-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling provides insights into the way velocities, flood stages, residence times, and transported constituents (sediment, nutrients, and fish larvae, for example) are affected by levee geometry, floodplain vegetation patterns, and flood magnitude and duration. The utility of 2-dimensional numerical hydraulic models to represent the channel and floodplain are demonstrated at a scale relevant to understanding processes that control channel/floodplain dynamics. The sensitivity of model response to alternative land use scenarios, including levee setbacks and variable overbank roughness, is quantified using hydraulic parameters such as velocity, water level, conveyance, and residence time. The 2-dimensional models are calibrated to existing 1-dimensional modeling solutions and field measurements of water surface from 1993 and 2007 for the 2-year, 5-year, and 10-year recurrence intervals. Calibration runs with current levee configurations are matched to approximately 0.1 meters. Simulations of alternative land use scenarios demonstrate the tradeoffs between ecological restoration and flood risk reductions. Levee setbacks with low hydraulic roughness associated with traditional row crop agriculture on the floodplains have the greatest potential for flood stage reductions, while native plant communities with higher roughness can negate the effects of the setbacks by increasing water levels due to enhanced frictional resistance. Residence times, which are presumed to be related to ecosystem services, demonstrate increasingly complex flow paths as levees are setback. Model results indicate that high end-member roughness values on connected floodplains decrease residence time relative to lower roughness characterizations, suggesting compatibility between floodplain restoration and traditional agricultural practices. The 2-dimensional representation of channels and floodplains captures the spatial heterogeneities in water levels and inundation patterns, demonstrating the importance of preferential pathways and ecological hotspots in restoration design. Spatially variable roughness patterns representing a mix of vegetation communities are modeled to explore design scenarios that optimize flood risk reduction, ecological, and agricultural objectives. Evidence of floodwave attenuation is negligible for floods of approximately the 10-year recurrence interval for all land use scenarios because of the small scale of the study domain relative to the contributing area.

  9. Creating Flood Inundation Maps Using 1D Hydrologic Model and GIS for Lower Meric River Basin, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonmez, O.; Dogan, E.; Demir, I.

    2012-12-01

    In Turkey, one of the areas facing the danger of flooding is Lower Meric River basin, the part between Edirne and Enos, Turkey. Despite being in the flood zone, the region is used widely as an agricultural and settlement land. The State Hydraulic Works (DSI) has built levees to prevent flood damages on the Lower Evros River Basin. However, having floods in the region reaching areas behind levees, clearly showed the need for reviewing and updating the cross-sections of the critical areas in the river bed. In this study, determination of floodplains for various stream-flow values in any cross sections of the river is aimed. The study area is divided into two sections (Study Area 1 & Study Area 2). Available stream flow gauging station data, which is located in study areas, are used in model. Model created using HEC-RAS, is calibrated with 2006 flood which occurred in the study area. After calibration, floodplain maps are created for 1000 m3/s flows from 1000 to6000 m3/s flows for Study Area1. For Study Area 2, floodplain maps are created for 2, 5, 10, 50, 100 years return periods. The models can illustrate the extent of flooding under different conditions allowing residents in the area to see how predicted flood levels could affect their property, and help them make informed decisions.

  10. Flood mapping from Sentinel-1 and Landsat-8 data: a case study from river Evros, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyriou, Aggeliki; Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos

    2015-10-01

    Floods are suddenly and temporary natural events, affecting areas which are not normally covered by water. The influence of floods plays a significant role both in society and the natural environment, therefore flood mapping is crucial. Remote sensing data can be used to develop flood map in an efficient and effective way. This work is focused on expansion of water bodies overtopping natural levees of the river Evros, invading the surroundings areas and converting them in flooded. Different techniques of flood mapping were used using data from active and passive remote sensing sensors like Sentinlel-1 and Landsat-8 respectively. Space borne pairs obtained from Sentinel-1 were processed in this study. Each pair included an image during the flood, which is called "crisis image" and another one before the event, which is called "archived image". Both images covering the same area were processed producing a map, which shows the spread of the flood. Multispectral data From Landsat-8 were also processed in order to detect and map the flooded areas. Different image processing techniques were applied and the results were compared to the respective results of the radar data processing.

  11. Experimental modelling of outburst flood - bed interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrivick, J. L.; Xie, Z.; Sleigh, A.; Hubbard, M.

    2009-04-01

    Outburst floods are a sudden release and advancing wave of water and sediment, with a peak discharge that is often several orders of magnitude greater than perennial flows. Common outburst floods from natural sources include those from glacial and moraine-impounded lakes, freshwater dyke and levee bursts, volcanic debris dams, landslides, avalanches, coastal bay-bars, and those from tree or vegetation dams. Outburst flood hazards are regularly incorporated into risk assessments for urban, coastal and mountainous areas, for example. Outburst flood hazards are primarily due to direct impacts, caused by a frontal surge wave, from debris within a flow body, and from the mass and consistency of the flows. A number of secondary impacts also pose hazards, including widespread deposition of sediment and blocked tributary streams. It is rapid landscape change, which is achieved the mobilization and redistribution of sediment that causes one of the greatest hazards due to outburst floods. The aim of this project is therefore to parameterise hydrodynamic - sedimentary interactions in experimental outburst floods. Specifically, this project applies laboratory flume modelling, which offers a hitherto untapped opportunity for examining complex interactions between water and sediment within outburst floods. The experimental set-up is of a tradition lock-gate design with a straight 4 m long tank. Hydraulics are scaled at 1:20 froude scale and the following controls on frontal wave flow-bed interactions and hence on rapid landscape change are being investigated: 1. Pre-existing mobile sediment effects, fixed bed roughness effects, sediment concentration effects, mobile bed effects. An emphasis is being maintained on examining the downstream temporal and spatial change in physical character of the water / sediment frontal wave. Facilities are state-of-the-art with a fully-automated laser bed-profiler to measure bed elevation after a run, Seatek arrays to measure transient flow depths, 0.5 Hz Ultrasonic Velocimeter Profiling to measure within-flow velocities, and Ultrasonic High-Concentration Meter (UHCM) to measure sediment concentrations, for example, all at increments of space and time. These instruments can only be used without a mobile sediment bed and some could be rendered as a source of error because they are intrusive to the flow. Digital video and automated still photography is therefore also important for recording hydraulic and bedform changes through time in flows with freely-moving sediment. This paper will report initial results.

  12. Level-I Trauma Center Effects on Return-to-Work Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prada, Sergio I.; Salkever, David; MacKenzie, Ellen J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Injury is the leading cause of death for persons aged 1-44 years in the United States. Injuries have a substantial economic cost. For that reason, regional systems of trauma care in which the more acutely injured patients are transported to Level-I (L-I) trauma centers (TCs) has been widely advocated. However, the cost of TC care is…

  13. 76 FR 78015 - Revised Analysis and Mapping Procedures for Non-Accredited Levees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Revised Analysis and Mapping Procedures for Non-Accredited... Management Agency (FEMA) is accepting comments on the proposed solution for Revised Analysis and Mapping Procedures for Non-Accredited Levees. This document proposes a revised procedure for the analysis and...

  14. The use of seismic tomograms for the identification of internal problems with earthen dams and levees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    According to the National Inventory of dams (NID, 2009), out of the 84,134 dams in the US, more than 87% (73,423) are earthen dams. The majority of these earthen dams are past or approaching their design life expectancy of 50 years. According to the National committee on Levee Safety (NCLS, 2009),...

  15. Level-I Trauma Center Effects on Return-to-Work Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prada, Sergio I.; Salkever, David; MacKenzie, Ellen J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Injury is the leading cause of death for persons aged 1-44 years in the United States. Injuries have a substantial economic cost. For that reason, regional systems of trauma care in which the more acutely injured patients are transported to Level-I (L-I) trauma centers (TCs) has been widely advocated. However, the cost of TC care is

  16. Grain-size segregation and levee formation in geophysical mass flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.G.; Kokelaar, B.P.; Iverson, R.M.; Logan, M.; LaHusen, R.G.; Gray, J.M.N.T.

    2012-01-01

    Data from large-scale debris-flow experiments are combined with modeling of particle-size segregation to explain the formation of lateral levees enriched in coarse grains. The experimental flows consisted of 10 m3 of water-saturated sand and gravel, which traveled ~80 m down a steeply inclined flume before forming an elongated leveed deposit 10 m long on a nearly horizontal runout surface. We measured the surface velocity field and observed the sequence of deposition by seeding tracers onto the flow surface and tracking them in video footage. Levees formed by progressive downslope accretion approximately 3.5 m behind the flow front, which advanced steadily at ~2 m s-1 during most of the runout. Segregation was measured by placing ~600 coarse tracer pebbles on the bed, which, when entrained into the flow, segregated upwards at ~67.5 cm s-1. When excavated from the deposit these were distributed in a horseshoe-shaped pattern that became increasingly elevated closer to the deposit termination. Although there was clear evidence for inverse grading during the flow, transect sampling revealed that the resulting leveed deposit was strongly graded laterally, with only weak vertical grading. We construct an empirical, three-dimensional velocity field resembling the experimental observations, and use this with a particle-size segregation model to predict the segregation and transport of material through the flow. We infer that coarse material segregates to the flow surface and is transported to the flow front by shear. Within the flow head, coarse material is overridden, then recirculates in spiral trajectories due to size-segregation, before being advected to the flow edges and deposited to form coarse-particle-enriched levees.

  17. The Var turbidite system (Ligurian Sea, northwestern Mediterranean)morphology, sediment supply, construction of turbidite levee and sediment waves: implications for hydrocarbon reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migeon, Sbastien; Mulder, Thierry; Savoye, Bruno; Sage, Franoise

    2006-12-01

    The Var turbidite system is a small sandy system located in the Ligurian Basin. It was deposited during the Pliocene-Quaternary in a flat-floored basin formed during the Messinian salinity crisis. The system was fed through time by the Var and Paillon canyons that connect directly to the Var and Paillon rivers. It is still active during the present sea-level highstand. Two main mechanisms are responsible for gravity-flow triggering in the Var turbidite system: (1) mass-wasting events affect mainly the upper part of the continental slope, in areas where volumes of fresh sediment delivered by rivers are highest, and result from the under-consolidation state of slope sediments and earthquakes, and (2) high-magnitude river floods resulting from melting of snow and convective rainfall during fall and spring seasons, and generating hyperpycnal turbidity currents at river mouths when the density of freshwater transporting suspended particles exceeds that of ambient seawater. Failure- and flood-induced gravity flows are involved through time in the construction of the Var Sedimentary Ridge, the prominent right-hand levee of the Var system, and sediment waves. Processes of construction of both the Var Ridge and sediment waves are closely connected. Sandy deposits are thick and abundant in the eastern (downchannel) part of the ridge. Their distribution is highly constrained by the strong difference of depositional processes across the sediment waves, potentially resulting through time in the individualization of large and interconnected sand bodies.

  18. Souris River Flooding

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Souris River flooding many homes in Minot, ND. The Souris River went over the large dikes along 5th Ave and Edwards Ave in Minot, ND. Photo taken by USGS personnel during a FEMA Flood Inundation Mapping Project....

  19. FLOOD EVENT MAPPING IMAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    OSEI flood products (FLD) include multichannel color composite imagery and single-channel grayscale imagery of enlarged river areas or increased sediment flow. Typically, these events are displayed by comparison to imagery taken when flooding was not occurring.

  20. Flood fatality hazard and flood damage hazard: combining multiple hazard characteristics into meaningful maps for spatial planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruijn, K. M.; Klijn, F.; van de Pas, B.; Slager, C. T. J.

    2015-01-01

    For comprehensive flood risk management, accurate information on flood hazards is crucial. While in the past an estimate of potential flood consequences in large areas was often sufficient to make decisions on flood protection, there currently is an increasing demand to have detailed hazard maps available to be able to consider other risk reducing measures as well. Hazard maps are a prerequisite for spatial planning, but can also support emergency management, the design of flood mitigation measures, and the setting of insurance policies. The increase in flood risks due to population growth and economic development in hazardous areas in the past shows that sensible spatial planning is crucial to prevent risks increasing further. Assigning the least hazardous locations for development or adapting developments to the actual hazard requires comprehensive flood hazard maps. Since flood hazard is a multi-dimensional phenomenon, many different maps could be relevant. Having large numbers of maps to take into account does, however, not make planning easier. To support flood risk management planning we therefore introduce a new approach in which all relevant flood hazard parameters can be combined into two comprehensive maps of flood damage hazard respectively flood fatality hazard.

  1. Flood fatality hazard and flood damage hazard: combining multiple hazard characteristics into meaningful maps for spatial planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruijn, K. M.; Klijn, F.; van de Pas, B.; Slager, C. T. J.

    2015-06-01

    For comprehensive flood risk management, accurate information on flood hazards is crucial. While in the past an estimate of potential flood consequences in large areas was often sufficient to make decisions on flood protection, there is currently an increasing demand to have detailed hazard maps available to be able to consider other risk-reducing measures as well. Hazard maps are a prerequisite for spatial planning, but can also support emergency management, the design of flood mitigation measures, and the setting of insurance policies. The increase in flood risks due to population growth and economic development in hazardous areas in the past shows that sensible spatial planning is crucial to prevent risks increasing further. Assigning the least hazardous locations for development or adapting developments to the actual hazard requires comprehensive flood hazard maps. Since flood hazard is a multi-dimensional phenomenon, many different maps could be relevant. Having large numbers of maps to take into account does not, however, make planning easier. To support flood risk management planning we therefore introduce a new approach in which all relevant flood hazard parameters can be combined into two comprehensive maps of flood damage hazard and flood fatality hazard.

  2. Flooding and schools: experiences in Hull in 2007.

    PubMed

    Convery, Ian; Carroll, Bob; Balogh, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Hull, a city in the East Riding of Yorkshire, United Kingdom, suffered severe flooding in June 2007, affecting some 8,600 households and most schools. Despite the potential for damage in such disasters, no studies of the effects of floods on teachers and schools in the UK appear to have been published previously. This study analysed the impacts of the floods on teachers in Hull in two stages: first through correspondence with Hull City Council and a mailed questionnaire to 91 head teachers of primary, secondary, and special schools; and second, through in-depth interviews with head teachers from six flooded schools, representing different degrees of flood experience, and a questionnaire completed by eight teachers from the same schools. The findings reveal the importance and the complexity of the role of the school in the wider community in a time of crisis. The study highlights issues concerning preparedness for floods, support for schools, and flood protection for schools. PMID:25231793

  3. Flood Aftermath, Boulder, Colo.

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This flooded culvert is located on Monarch Road just east of the Diagonal Highway in Boulder, Colo. Numerous rivers flooded during a significant September 2013 rain event along Colorado's Front Range, damaging or destroying several USGS streamgages. In response, USGS field crews measured flood...

  4. 2011 Spring Flood

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A camp lies flooded on the edge of the Florida Gas Canal. Rising floodwaters during the 2011 flood have inundated many hunting camps and residences. Flooded even before the additional water from the Morganza Spillway arrived, these camps were built on land that is usually well above the water level ...

  5. Spatio-temporal clustering of cholera: The impact of flood control in Matlab, Bangladesh, 19832003

    PubMed Central

    Carrel, Margaret A.; Emch, Michael; Streatfield, Peter K.; Yunus, Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    Introducing flood control to an area of endemic waterborne diseases could have significant impacts on spatio-temporal occurrence of cholera. Using 21-years of data from Bangladesh, we conducted cluster analysis to explore changes in spatial and temporal distribution of cholera incidence since construction of flood control structures. Striking changes in temporal cluster patterns emerged, including a shift from dry season to rainy season clusters following flood protection and delayed clustering inside the protected areas. Spatial differences in pre-flood protection and post-protection cholera clusters are weaker. Changes in spatio-temporal cholera clustering, associated with implementation of flood protection strategies, could affect local cholera prevention efforts. PMID:19217821

  6. Biogeochemical and metabolic responses to the flood pulse in a semiarid floodplain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valett, H.M.; Baker, M.A.; Morrice, J.A.; Crawford, C.S.; Molles, M.C., Jr.; Dahm, C. N.; Moyer, D.L.; Thibault, J.R.; Ellis, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    Flood pulse inundation of riparian forests alters rates of nutrient retention and organic matter processing in the aquatic ecosystems formed in the forest interior. Along the Middle Rio Grande (New Mexico, USA), impoundment and levee construction have created riparian forests that differ in their inter-flood intervals (IFIs) because some floodplains are still regularly inundated by the flood pulse (i.e., connected), while other floodplains remain isolated from flooding (i.e., disconnected). This research investigates how ecosystem responses to the flood pulse relate to forest IFI by quantifying nutrient and organic matter dynamics in the Rio Grande floodplain during three years of experimental flooding of the disconnected floodplain and during a single year of natural flooding of the connected floodplain. Surface and subsurface conditions in paired sites (control, flood) established in the two floodplain types were monitored to address metabolic and biogeochemical responses. Compared to dry controls, rates of respiration in the flooded sites increased by up to three orders of magnitude during the flood pulse. In the disconnected forest, month-long experimental floods produced widespread anoxia of four-week duration during each of the three years of flooding. In contrast, water in the connected floodplain remained well oxygenated (3-8 ppm). Material budgets for experimental floods showed the disconnected floodplain to be a sink for inorganic nitrogen and suspended solids, but a potential source of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Compared to the main stem of the Rio Grande, flood-water on the connected floodplain contained less nitrate, but comparable concentrations of DOC, phosphate-phosphorus, and ammonium-nitrogen. Results suggest that floodplain IFI drives metabolic and biogeochemical responses during the flood pulse. Impoundment and fragmentation have altered floodplains from a mosaic of patches with variable IFI to a bimodal distribution. Relatively predictable flooding occurs in the connected forest, while inundation of the disconnected forest occurs only as the result of managed application of water. In semiarid floodplains, water is scarce except during the flood pulse. Ecosystem responses to the flood pulse are related to the IFI and other measures of flooding history that help describe spatial variation in ecosystem function.

  7. Flood routing in channels with flood plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizanur Rashid, R. S. M.; Hanif Chaudhry, M.

    1995-09-01

    Experimental data on unsteady flows in a channel with flood plains obtained in a laboratory test facility are presented. Flood flow at the upstream end of the channel was produced by an electrically actuated butterfly valve in the supply pipe. Water level variations were recorded at nine stations along the channel using capacitance probes and a computerized data acquisition system. Tests were conducted for various initial conditions, and duration and peak of the flood wave. Complete data for two tests are presented which may be used to verify numerical models. A one-dimensional numerical model was developed to simulate flood flow. The model solves the St. Venant equations by using the Preissmann four-point implicit finite-difference scheme. The suitability of two procedures for approximating the channel cross-section is investigated: (1) the flow velocity over the flood plains is negligible, the flood plain acts as storage only and does not contribute to the momentum (the flood plains and the main channel are separated by a vertical line at their interface and the division line is not included in the wetted perimeter); (2) the entire channel section contributes to momentum flux, the entire channel section has uniform average flow velocity and the non-uniform velocity is taken into consideration by a momentum coefficient. Although comparisons between the computed and experimental results are satisfactory in both cases, Approximation (1) gives better results than Approximation (2).

  8. Sand boils induced by the 1993 Mississippi River flood: Could they one day be misinterpreted as earthquake-induced liquefaction?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, Y.; Craven, J.; Schweig, E.S.; Obermeier, S.F.

    1996-01-01

    In areas that are seismically active but lacking clear surficial faulting, many paleoearthquake studies depend on the interpretation of ancient liquefaction features (sand blows) as indicators of prehistoric seismicity. Sand blows, however, can be mimicked by nonseismic sand boils formed by water seeping beneath levees during floods. We examined sand boils induced by the Mississippi River flood of 1993 in order to compare their characteristics with sand blows of the New Madrid earthquakes of 1811-1812. We found a number of criteria that allow a distinction between the two types of deposits. (1) Earthquake-induced liquefaction deposits are broadly distributed about an epicentral area, whereas flood-induced sand boils are limited to a narrow band along a river's levee. (2) The conduits of most earthquake-induced sand blows are planar dikes, whereas the conduits of flood-induced sand boils are most commonly tubular. (3) Depression of the preearthquake ground surface is usual for sand blows, not for sand boils. (4) Flood-induced sand boils tend to be better sorted and much finer than sand-blow deposits. (5) Source beds for earthquake-induced deposits occur at a wide range of depths, whereas the source bed for sand boils is always near surface. (6) Materials removed from the walls surrounding the vent of a sand blow are seen inside sand blows, but are rarely seen inside sand boils. In general, flood-induced sand boils examined are interpreted to represent a less-energetic genesis than earthquake-induced liquefaction.

  9. Ground-water flow beneath levee 35A from conservation area 2B, Broward County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swayze, L.J.

    1988-01-01

    Conservation Area 2B is an area of recharge for the surficial aquifer system in Broward County. Water stored in the conservation area provides the hydraulic potential for downward flow to the high permeability zone of the Biscayne aquifer. A 5.64 ft head differential (average for the period of record) between water levels in Conservation Area 2B and water levels in the adjacent levee 35A borrow canal causes water to leak into the canal at an average rate of about 0.0022 cu ft per sec per lineal foot of canal and accounts for a loss of 0.013 foot per day of surface water from Conservation Area 2B. Amounts of canal leakage and underflow are constantly changing and are dependent upon the head differential between Conservation Area 2B and the levee 35A borrow canal. (Author 's abstract)

  10. The European flood risk directive: challenges for research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostert, E.; Junier, S. J.

    2009-07-01

    In recent years, flood management has shifted from protection against floods to managing the risks of floods. In Europe, this shift is reflected in the Flood risk directive of October 2007 (2007/60/EC; FRD). The FRD requires EU Member States to undertake a preliminary assessment of flood risks and, for areas with a significant flood risk, to prepare flood hazard and flood risk maps and flood risk management plans. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the FRD and discuss the challenges that the FRD poses to research. These challenges include the issue how to define and measure ''flood risk'', the selection of alternatives to be assessed, coping with uncertainty, risk communication, nurturing trust and promoting collaboration. These research challenges cannot be addressed properly within any single discipline and without involving the flood risk managers and other stakeholders. The paper therefore concludes that there is a large need for interdisciplinary and participatory research. This constitutes in fact the biggest research challenge.

  11. Validation of a Global Hydrodynamic Flood Inundation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, P. D.; Smith, A.; Sampson, C. C.; Alfieri, L.; Neal, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    In this work we present first validation results for a hyper-resolution global flood inundation model. We use a true hydrodynamic model (LISFLOOD-FP) to simulate flood inundation at 1km resolution globally and then use downscaling algorithms to determine flood extent and depth at 90m spatial resolution. Terrain data are taken from a custom version of the SRTM data set that has been processed specifically for hydrodynamic modelling. Return periods of flood flows along the entire global river network are determined using: (1) empirical relationships between catchment characteristics and index flood magnitude in different hydroclimatic zones derived from global runoff data; and (2) an index flood growth curve, also empirically derived. Bankful return period flow is then used to set channel width and depth, and flood defence impacts are modelled using empirical relationships between GDP, urbanization and defence standard of protection. The results of these simulations are global flood hazard maps for a number of different return period events from 1 in 5 to 1 in 1000 years. We compare these predictions to flood hazard maps developed by national government agencies in the UK and Germany using similar methods but employing detailed local data, and to observed flood extent at a number of sites including St. Louis, USA and Bangkok in Thailand. Results show that global flood hazard models can have considerable skill given careful treatment to overcome errors in the publicly available data that are used as their input.

  12. Raising risk preparedness by flood risk communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maidl, E.; Buchecker, M.

    2015-07-01

    During the last decade, most European countries have produced hazard maps of natural hazards, but little is known about how to communicate these maps most efficiently to the public. In October 2011, Zurich's local authorities informed owners of buildings located in the urban flood hazard zone about potential flood damage, the probability of flood events and protection measures. The campaign was based on the assumptions that informing citizens increases their risk awareness and that citizens who are aware of risks are more likely to undertake actions to protect themselves and their property. This study is intended as a contribution to better understand the factors that influence flood risk preparedness, with a special focus on the effects of such a one-way risk communication strategy. We conducted a standardized mail survey of 1500 property owners in the hazard zones in Zurich (response rate main survey: 34 %). The questionnaire included items to measure respondents' risk awareness, risk preparedness, flood experience, information-seeking behaviour, knowledge about flood risk, evaluation of the information material, risk acceptance, attachment to the property and trust in local authorities. Data about the type of property and socio-demographic variables were also collected. Multivariate data analysis revealed that the average level of risk awareness and preparedness was low, but the results confirmed that the campaign had a statistically significant effect on the level of preparedness. The main influencing factors on the intention to prepare for a flood were the extent to which respondents evaluated the information material positively as well as their risk awareness. Respondents who had never taken any previous interest in floods were less likely to read the material. For future campaigns, we therefore recommend repeated communication that is tailored to the information needs of the target population.

  13. Raising risk preparedness through flood risk communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maidl, E.; Buchecker, M.

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, most European countries have produced risk maps of natural hazards, but little is known about how to communicate these maps most effectively to the public. In October 2011, Zurich's local authorities informed owners of buildings located in the urban flood hazard area about potential flood damage, the probability of flood events and protection measures. The campaign was based on the assumptions that informing citizens increases their risk awareness and that citizens who are aware of risks are more likely to undertake appropriate actions to protect themselves and their property. This study is intended as a contribution to a better understanding the factors influencing flood risk preparedness, with a special focus on the effects of such a one-way risk communication strategy. We conducted a standardized mail survey of 1500 property owners in the hazard areas in Zurich. The questionnaire comprised items measuring respondents' risk awareness, risk preparedness, flood experience, information seeking behaviour, knowledge about flood risk, evaluation of the information material, risk acceptance, kind of property owned, attachment to the property, trust in local authorities, and socio-demographic variables. Multivariate data analysis revealed that the average level of risk awareness and preparedness was low, but our results confirmed that the campaign had a statistically significant effect on the level of preparedness. The main factors influencing the respondents' intention to prepare for a flood were the extent to which they evaluated the information material positively and their risk awareness. Those who had never taken any interest in floods previously were less likely to read the material. For future campaigns, we therefore recommend repeated communication of relevant information tailored to the needs of the target population.

  14. 33 CFR 209.220 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.220 Flood control regulations. (a) Local protection.... Regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Army for the maintenance and operation of local...

  15. 33 CFR 209.220 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.220 Flood control regulations. (a) Local protection.... Regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Army for the maintenance and operation of local...

  16. 33 CFR 209.220 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.220 Flood control regulations. (a) Local protection.... Regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Army for the maintenance and operation of local...

  17. 24 CFR 570.605 - National Flood Insurance Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... accordance with 24 CFR part 91), section 202(a) of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (42 U.S.C. 4106) and the regulations in 44 CFR parts 59 through 79 apply to funds provided under this part 570. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false National Flood Insurance...

  18. 24 CFR 570.605 - National Flood Insurance Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... accordance with 24 CFR part 91), section 202(a) of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (42 U.S.C. 4106) and the regulations in 44 CFR parts 59 through 79 apply to funds provided under this part 570. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false National Flood Insurance...

  19. 33 CFR 209.220 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.220 Flood control regulations. (a) Local protection.... Regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Army for the maintenance and operation of local...

  20. 24 CFR 570.605 - National Flood Insurance Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... accordance with 24 CFR part 91), section 202(a) of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (42 U.S.C. 4106) and the regulations in 44 CFR parts 59 through 79 apply to funds provided under this part 570. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true National Flood Insurance...

  1. 24 CFR 570.605 - National Flood Insurance Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... accordance with 24 CFR part 91), section 202(a) of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (42 U.S.C. 4106) and the regulations in 44 CFR parts 59 through 79 apply to funds provided under this part 570. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true National Flood Insurance...

  2. 33 CFR 209.220 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.220 Flood control regulations. (a) Local protection.... Regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Army for the maintenance and operation of local...

  3. 24 CFR 570.605 - National Flood Insurance Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... accordance with 24 CFR part 91), section 202(a) of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (42 U.S.C. 4106) and the regulations in 44 CFR parts 59 through 79 apply to funds provided under this part 570. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false National Flood Insurance...

  4. Early-season flooding for insect pest control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Wisconsin, there is much interest in the spring flood as a means to not only reduce pest populations, but also to facilitate marsh sanitation and provide frost protection. A large-scale field study was undertaken in 2011 to examine how a 30-40 hour spring flood (late May) would affect key insect ...

  5. Sugarcane Response to Month and Duration of Preharvest Flood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some Florida growers apply 1-day floods about 3 weeks prior to harvest to prevent fires that may ignite on organic soils during preharvest burning of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.). Extending these flood durations could improve sugarcane insect control, freeze protection, soil conservation, and reduce u...

  6. Global River Flood Exposure Assessment Under Climate Change: How Many Asians Are Affected By Flood in the Future?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Y.; Iwami, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Physical exposure assessment in this study shows a methodological possibility to be used as a preliminary case study based on a global approach for flood risk assessment consisting of hazard, exposure, and vulnerability. The purpose of this preliminary study is to estimate potential flood inundation areas as a hazard (both present and future condition), and flood exposure change over the Asia region with consideration of climate change impacts. A flood hazard was characterized by inundation area at the high-resolution of 500 m, location (lowland around rivers), and probability (floods with the 50-year return period). This study introduced a new approach to moderate the global flood hazard and the exposure calculation with significant limitations of current models for continental-scale flood risk assessment by using the flood inundation depth (FID) model based on Manning's steady, uniform flow resistance formula in extreme case during 25-year simulations based on the global BTOP distributed hydrological model using precipitations from the MRI-AGCM 3.2S with SRES A1B emissions scenarios for present-day (daily data from 1980 to 2004), and end-of-the-21st century (daily data from 2075 to 2099). It effectively simplified the complexity between hydrological and topological variables in a flood risk-prone area with assumption of the effects of natural or artificial levees. Exposure was obtained by combining the hazards at the same resolution to identify affected population by calculating with urbanization ratio and population change ratio of Asian countries from a distributed data of global population (Landscan by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory). As a result of the physical exposure assessment from present to the end-of-the-21st century, potential hazards area and affected population are projected to increase 4.2 % (approximately 75,900 km2) and 3.4 % (approximately 35.1 million people) respectively, because Asian population increases about 43% in the future. We found that Bangladesh was listed at the top as the most high risk country in the Asian region: the largest vulnerable population of the river floods by the impact of climate change. For the flood risk assessment, it is important to understand the characteristic of correlation between hazard and exposure among the Asian countries.

  7. Production and decomposition of forest litter fall on the Apalachicola River flood plain, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elder, J.F.; Cairns, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of litter fall (leaves and other particulate organic material) and leaf decomposition were made on the Apalachicola River flood plain in 1979-80. Litter fall was collected monthly in five different forest types in swamp and levee areas. Leaves from 42 species of trees and other plants accounted for 58 percent of total litter fall. The remaining 42 percent was nonleaf material. Average litter fall was 800 grams per square meter per year in the flood plain. Tupelo (Nyssa), baldcypress (Taxodium), and ash (Fraxinus), all swamp-adapted trees, produce over 50 percent of the leaf fall. Common levee species such as sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) and diamond-leaf oak (Quercus laurifolia) are also major contributors to total flood-plain litter fall. Annual flooding of the river provides an important mechanism for mobilization of the litter-fall products. Leaf decomposition rates were greatly reduced in dry environments. Carbon loss was nearly linear over a 6-month period, but nitrogen and phosphorus loss was exponential and nearly complete within 1 month. (USGS)

  8. Hydraulic analyses of water-surface profiles in the vicinity of the Coamo Dam and Highway 52 Bridge, southern Puerto Rico; flood analyses as related to the flood of October 7, 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, K.G.; Quinones-Marquez, Ferdinand; Gonzalez, Ralph

    1987-01-01

    The magnitude, frequency and extent of the flood of October 7, 1985 at the Rio Coamo in the vicinity of the Coamo Dam and Highway 52 bridge in southern Puerto Rico, were investigated. The observed flood profiles were used to calibrate a step-backwater model. The calibrated model was then used to investigate several alternative flow conditions in the vicinity of the bridge. The peak discharge of the flood at the Highway 52 bridge was 72,000 cu ft/sec. This peak discharge was determined from the peak computed at a reach in the vicinity of the Banos de Coamo, about 1.2 mi upstream from the bridge. The computed discharge at the Banos de Coamo of 66,000 cu ft/sec was adjusted to the dam and bridge location by multiplying it by the ratio of the drainage areas raised to the 0.83 power. The flood had a recurrence interval of about 100 yr, exceeding all previously known floods at the site. The flood overtopped the spillway and levee of the Coamo Dam just upstream of Highway 52. The flow over the spillway was 54,000 cu ft/sec. Flow over the levee was about 18,000 cu ft/sec. About 10,000 cu ft/sec of the flow over the levee returned to the main channel at the base of the embankment at the northeast approach to the bridge. The remaining 8,000 cu ft/sec flowed south through the underpass on Highway 153. The embankment and shoulder on the northern span of the bridge were eroded with the eventual collapse of the approach slab. (Author 's abstract)

  9. Fine-grained linings of leveed channels facilitate runout of granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokelaar, B. P.; Graham, R. L.; Gray, J. M. N. T.; Vallance, J. W.

    2014-01-01

    Catastrophic dense granular flows, such as occur in rock avalanches, debris flows and pyroclastic flows, move as fully shearing mixtures that have approximately 60 vol.% solids and tend to segregate to form coarse-grained fronts and leveed channels. Levees restrict spreading of unconfined flows and form as coarse particles that become concentrated in the top of the flow are transported to the front and then advect to the sides in the flow head. Channels from which most material has drained away down slope are commonly lined with fine-grained deposit, widely thought to remain from the tail of the waning flow. We show how segregation in experimental dense flows of carborundum or sand (300-425 μm) mixed with spherical fine ballotini (150-250 μm), on rough slopes of 27-29°, produces fine-grained channel linings that are deposited with the levees, into which they grade laterally. Maximum runout distance is attained with mixtures containing 30-40% sand, just sufficient to segregate and form levees that are adequately robust to restrict the spreading attributable to the low-friction fines. Resin impregnation and serial sectioning of deliberately arrested experimental flows shows how fines-lined levees form from the flow head; the flows create their own stable ‘conduit’ entirely from the front, which in a geophysical context can play an important mechanistic role in facilitating runout. The flow self-organization ensures that low-friction fines at the base of the segregated channel flow shear over fine-grained substrate in the channel, thus reducing frictional energy losses. We propose that in pyroclastic flows and debris flows, which have considerable mobility attributable to pore-fluid pressures, such fine-grained flow-contact zones form similarly and not only reduce frictional energy losses but also reduce flow-substrate permeability so as to enhance pore-fluid pressure retention. Thus the granular flow self-organization that produces fine-grained channel linings can be an important factor in facilitating long runout of catastrophic geophysical flows on the low slopes (few degrees) of depositional fans and aprons around mountains and volcanoes.

  10. Impact Assessment of Large Scale Floods Using Imaging Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, D.; Goodwell, A. E.; Umar, M.; Greenberg, J.; Kumar, P.; Darmody, R.; Garvey, J. E.; Jacobson, R. B.; Berretta, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Lower Mississippi River experienced an extreme flood event during April-May 2011 due to springtime snowmelt and excessive rainfall. In order to protect the city of Cairo the US Army Corps of Engineers breached a two mile long levee on the Birds Point New Madrid (BPNM) floodway inundating about 527 sq. kms of farmland. The entire operation was coordinated with a number of data collection activities in terms of stage and discharge measurements at inflow and outflow points and various other locations in the floodway. Subsequently LiDAR, Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) flights and soil sample were collected after the floodwaters receded. IKONOS and Worldview 2 images show large plumes of sediments originating in the O'Bryan's ridge of the BPNM floodway and extending to more than 20 km downstream. We postulate imaging spectroscopy will enable us to identify various surface constituents and help us in characterizing a flooding event of such a large spatial extent in extensive detail. This has not been explored before. In this study we have used AVIRIS remote sensing data to explore and quantify the landscape characteristics of the floodway using different indices and spectral signatures of materials. Atmospherically corrected surface reflectance values were obtained from the AVIRIS at sensor radiance values using ATCOR 4 incorporating the MODTRAN radiative transfer model. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and moisture stress index values computed from the AVIRIS data shows strong signals of high moisture stress and very low NDVI values in the zones of heavy scouring such as O Bryan's ridge and it is possible to spatially map those locations even in absence of topographic data. This is further substantiated by the available post flood topographic LiDAR data. Laboratory physical and chemical characterization of soil samples and their GIS analyses indicate soils most vulnerable to erosion were along a straight flow path from the breach point to its discharge point at the southern end of the floodway. Physical and chemical analyses of soil are used in conjunction with imaging spectroscopy data for characterizing the soil cover of the landscape using statistical techniques. We have used the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) classifier algorithm on the AVIRIS data together with USGS spectral library and LOPEX (Leaf Optical Properties EXperiment) databases and obtained good classification results. The SAM classification algorithm was able to classify woody vegetation accurately and also pick up spectral signatures of cultivated crops such as corn and soy fairly accurately. The algorithm also helped to exactly map the spatial extent of some very typical soil spectra near O'Bryan's ridge obtained through endmember collection, possibly explaining the deposition in the floodway as floodwaters receded. Some of the historic meanders of Mississippi were also highlighted in different indices and classifications from the AVIRIS data showing evolutionary history between topography and vegetation dynamics.

  11. 24 CFR 1000.38 - What flood insurance requirements are applicable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What flood insurance requirements..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES General § 1000.38 What flood insurance requirements are applicable? Under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, as amended (42...

  12. 24 CFR 1000.38 - What flood insurance requirements are applicable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What flood insurance requirements..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES General § 1000.38 What flood insurance requirements are applicable? Under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, as amended (42...

  13. 13 CFR 120.172 - Flood-plain and wetlands management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Flood-plain and wetlands management. (a) All loans must conform to requirements of Executive Orders 11988, “Flood Plain Management” (3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 117) and 11990, “Protection of Wetlands” (3 CFR... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flood-plain and...

  14. 24 CFR 1000.38 - What flood insurance requirements are applicable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What flood insurance requirements..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES General § 1000.38 What flood insurance requirements are applicable? Under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, as amended (42...

  15. 13 CFR 120.172 - Flood-plain and wetlands management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Flood-plain and wetlands management. (a) All loans must conform to requirements of Executive Orders 11988, “Flood Plain Management” (3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 117) and 11990, “Protection of Wetlands” (3 CFR... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flood-plain and...

  16. 13 CFR 120.172 - Flood-plain and wetlands management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Flood-plain and wetlands management. (a) All loans must conform to requirements of Executive Orders 11988, “Flood Plain Management” (3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 117) and 11990, “Protection of Wetlands” (3 CFR... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flood-plain and...

  17. 24 CFR 1000.38 - What flood insurance requirements are applicable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What flood insurance requirements..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES General § 1000.38 What flood insurance requirements are applicable? Under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, as amended (42...

  18. 24 CFR 1000.38 - What flood insurance requirements are applicable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What flood insurance requirements..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES General § 1000.38 What flood insurance requirements are applicable? Under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, as amended (42...

  19. 13 CFR 120.172 - Flood-plain and wetlands management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Flood-plain and wetlands management. (a) All loans must conform to requirements of Executive Orders 11988, “Flood Plain Management” (3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 117) and 11990, “Protection of Wetlands” (3 CFR... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flood-plain and...

  20. 33 CFR 203.50 - Nonstructural alternatives to rehabilitation of flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... adherence to, Executive Order 11988, Floodplain Management, 3 CFR 117 (1977 Compilation), or as it may be...: (i) Lead to significantly increased flood protection expenses or flood fighting expenses for public... nearby flood control works; or, (iii) Lead to increased risk of loss of life or property during...

  1. Origin and architecture of deep-water levee deposits: Insight from the ancient rock record and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Zishann

    Although levee deposits make up a significant part of modern and ancient deep-marine slope systems, details of their internal lithological composition and stratal architecture remain poorly documented. At the Castle Creek study area, strata of the Neoproterozoic Isaac Formation (Windermere Supergroup) crop out superbly in a kilometre-scale section through a sinuous deep-water channel-levee system (ICC3). Levee deposits near the outer bend of the channel consist of sandstone-rich (sandstone-to-mudstone ratio of 68:42), medium- to thick-bedded turbidites interstratified with thinly-bedded turbidites. Structureless sandstone (T a), planar laminated sandstone (Tb), non-climbing ripple cross-stratified sandstone (Tc) and massive and laminated siltstone (Td) are common. Thick beds generally thicken and then thin and fine laterally over about 300 m. Thin-bedded strata, in contrast, thin and fine negligibly over similar distances. In the distal part of the outer-bend levee (up to 700 m laterally away from the channel) strata consist predominantly of thin-bedded Tcd turbidites with a much lower sandstone-to-mudstone ratio (35:65). On the opposite side of the channel, inner-bend levee deposits are mudstone-rich, locally as low as 15:85, and consist mostly of thin-bedded, Tcd turbidites, although thicker-bedded, Ta-d turbidites are more common in the lower part of the section. Lateral thinning and fining of beds is more rapid than their outer-bend counterpart. Levee deposits of ICC3 comprise three stacked decametre-scale upward-thinning and -fining successions. Each is interpreted to record a depositional history consisting of lateral channel migration, levee deposition, channel filling, and distal levee deposition. During the early stage of increasing levee relief it is proposed that the termini of individual beds progressively backstep towards the channel margin resulting in an overall lateral thinning of the stratal profile. This interpretation notably contrasts the common assumption that levee morphology is the result of the vertical stacking of beds that dip. In addition to field studies, laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the depositional threshold of non-climbing ripple cross-stratification, which is common in levee strata of ICC3. It was determined that non-climbing ripples form when bed aggradation rates are less than 0.015 cm/sec, and most probably in flows made up of poorly sorted sediment.

  2. Alabama district flood plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedgecock, T. Scott; Pearman, J. Leroy; Stricklin, Victor E.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this flood plan is to outline and record advance planning for flood emergencies, so that all personnel will know the general plan and have a ready-reference for necessary information. This will ensure that during any flood event, regardless of the extent or magnitude, the resources of the District can be mobilized into a maximum data collection operation with a mimimum of effort.

  3. Flood frequency in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childers, J.M.

    1970-01-01

    Records of peak discharge at 183 sites were used to study flood frequency in Alaska. The vast size of Alaska, its great ranges of physiography, and the lack of data for much of the State precluded a comprehensive analysis of all flood determinants. Peak stream discharges, where gaging-station records were available, were analyzed for 2-year, 5-year, 10-year, 25-year, and 50-year average-recurrence intervals. A regional analysis of the flood characteristics by multiple-regression methods gave a set of equations that can be used to estimate floods of selected recurrence intervals up to 50 years for any site on any stream in Alaska. The equations relate floods to drainage-basin characteristics. The study indicates that in Alaska the 50-year flood can be estimated from 10-year gaging- station records with a standard error of 22 percent whereas the 50-year flood can be estimated from the regression equation with a standard error of 53 percent. Also, maximum known floods at more than 500 gaging stations and miscellaneous sites in Alaska were related to drainage-area size. An envelope curve of 500 cubic feet per second per square mile covered all but 2 floods in the State.

  4. RASOR flood modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckers, Joost; Buckman, Lora; Bachmann, Daniel; Visser, Martijn; Tollenaar, Daniel; Vatvani, Deepak; Kramer, Nienke; Goorden, Neeltje

    2015-04-01

    Decision making in disaster management requires fast access to reliable and relevant information. We believe that online information and services will become increasingly important in disaster management. Within the EU FP7 project RASOR (Rapid Risk Assessment and Spatialisation of Risk) an online platform is being developed for rapid multi-hazard risk analyses to support disaster management anywhere in the world. The platform will provide access to a plethora of GIS data that are relevant to risk assessment. It will also enable the user to run numerical flood models to simulate historical and newly defined flooding scenarios. The results of these models are maps of flood extent, flood depths and flow velocities. The RASOR platform will enable to overlay historical event flood maps with observations and Earth Observation (EO) imagery to fill in gaps and assess the accuracy of the flood models. New flooding scenarios can be defined by the user and simulated to investigate the potential impact of future floods. A series of flood models have been developed within RASOR for selected case study areas around the globe that are subject to very different flood hazards: • The city of Bandung in Indonesia, which is prone to fluvial flooding induced by heavy rainfall. The flood hazard is exacerbated by land subsidence. • The port of Cilacap on the south coast of Java, subject to tsunami hazard from submarine earthquakes in the Sunda trench. • The area south of city of Rotterdam in the Netherlands, prone to coastal and/or riverine flooding. • The island of Santorini in Greece, which is subject to tsunamis induced by landslides. Flood models have been developed for each of these case studies using mostly EO data, augmented by local data where necessary. Particular use was made of the new TanDEM-X (TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurement) product from the German Aerospace centre (DLR) and EADS Astrium. The presentation will describe the flood models and the flooding scenarios that can be defined by the RASOR end user to support risk management in each area. Ongoing work for three more case studies (Haiti, Po valley in Italy and Jakarta, Indonesia) will also be discussed.

  5. 78 FR 29768 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, 42 U.S.C. 4104, and 44 CFR 67.4(a). These... satisfies the data requirements outlined in 44 CFR 67.6(b) is considered an appeal. Comments unrelated to....com/Community.aspx?cid=274&sid=5 . City of Bangs City Hall, 109 South 1st Street, Bangs, TX...

  6. SeCom - Serious Community 2.0 prevent flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komma, Juergen; Breuer, Roman; Sewilam, Hani; Concia, Francesca; Aliprandi, Bruno; Siegmund, Sabine; Goossens, Jannis

    2013-04-01

    There is a significant need for raising the awareness and building the capacity of water professionals in different water sectors cross Europe. There is also a need for qualified graduates to implement the EU Flood Risk Directive (FRD). The main aim of this work is to prepare and build the capacity of both groups in flood risk management through identifying synergies, sharing knowledge, and strengthen partnerships between universities and different stakeholders(mainly water professionals). The specific objectives are to develop; a) Development of a dynamic and active tool that allows all target-groups/users to assess their knowledge about flood risk management. b) Development of an innovative, active and problem-based learning methodology for flood risk education and training. c)Development of flood related Vocational Education & Training (VET) modules for water professionals (involving the students to gain practical experience). This will include some modules for undergraduate students on flood risk management and protection.

  7. Health Vulnerability of Households in Flooded Communities and Their Adaptation Measures: Case Study in Northeastern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Srikuta, Phatcharee; Inmuong, Uraiwan; Inmuong, Yanyong; Bradshaw, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Floods adversely affect community well-being and health. This study aims to assess the present health vulnerability of households to floods in a rural flood-prone area of northeastern Thailand, as well as their adaptation measures. The participants were the representatives of 312 randomly selected households, and data were collected using an interview questionnaire. Health vulnerability was assessed in terms of flood exposure, flood sensitivity, and flood adaptive capacity. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. The results showed that 47.1% of the households had a low level of health vulnerability to flooding, while in 21.2% the level was high. Households had been adapting themselves to cope with the health impacts from flood. Their coping practices included special arrangements for the protection of property, food management, the provision of water supply and waste disposal, the elimination of sources of vector-borne diseases, family health care, the protection of family livelihood, and communication and transportation. PMID:25633112

  8. Potential flood and debris hazards at Cottonwood Cove, Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Clark County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moosburner, Otto

    1981-01-01

    At Cottonwood Cove, Nevada, most of the existing dikes at the recreation sites are effective in diverting and routing floodflows, up to and including the 100-year flood, away from people and facilities. The dikes across Ranger Residence Wash and Access Road Wash at the mouth divert floods up to the 50-year recurrence interval away from residential areas. Flow and debris damage in protected areas will be relatively minor minor for floods including the 100-year flood, whereas damage caused by sediment deposition at the mouths of the washes near Lake Mohave could be significant for floods equal to or less than the 100-year flood. The extreme flood, a flood meteorologically and hydrologically possible but so rare as to preclude a frequency estimate, could cause great damage and possible loss of life. The present dikes would be topped or breached by such flooding. (USGS)

  9. Flooding and forest succession in a modified stretch along the upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yin, Yao

    1998-01-01

    This research examines the effect of a rare flood on floodplain forest regeneration in a 102-km stretch of the Mississippi River beginning 21 km above the mouth of the Ohio River. The river has been restricted by levees and navigation structures and subjected to sediment dredging to maintain a stable navigation channel. Because the bank erosion-accretion process has been slowed or eliminated, cottonwood (Populus spp.) and willow (Salix spp.) communities regenerate poorly in the modified river environment. An unusually large flood in 1993 destroyed the entire ground vegetation layer, killing 77.2% of the saplings and 32.2% of the trees. The flood created an alternative mechanism for cottonwood and willow to regenerate under canopy openings, enabling the community type composition of the present-day forest to be sustained for the next 50 years. Over time, however, the forest will likely exhibit considerable compositional fluctuation.

  10. Holocene flood plain soil formation in the lower Mississippi River Valley: Implications for the interpretation of alluvial paleosols

    SciTech Connect

    Aslan, A. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Autin, W.J. )

    1992-01-01

    Holocene Mississippi River flood soils representing different depositional environments and ages were sampled along three east-west transects between Vicksburg, MS and Baton Rouge, LA. Flood plain soil development is primarily controlled by episodic flood plain sedimentation and ground water table fluctuations as evidenced by relatively thick cumulative soil profiles with abundant mottles, nodules, and slickensides. Within flood plain deposits of similar age, profile, development is best expressed in moderately-drained silty and sandy soils in natural levee and point bar ridge environmental that occur within and adjacent to meander belts. Soils in natural levee and point bar ridge environments greater than 3 ka generally are acidic and have better-developed Bt horizons and brighter mottles than their younger counterparts. In addition to being acidic and brightly mottled, older back swamp soils have larger and more abundant slickensides and iron nodules. This study suggests that alluvial paleosols formed in aggradational settings may be better suited for interpreting flood plain depositional histories and paleohydrology than climate. Parameters such as solum thickness and clay and carbonate accumulations, routinely used to estimate relative time and climatic effects on soil development in Quaternary studies of stable geomorphic surfaces, may not be applicable to ancient alluvial deposits that reflect continuous sediment aggradation.

  11. The Thames Gateway: planning policy and flood risk scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldridge, Jillian; Horn, Diane

    2010-05-01

    The Thames Gateway, currently Europe's largest regeneration project, presents a valuable case study area in which to examine the interrelated issues of planning policy, flood risk and insurance loss potential. The region is typified by a significant exposure to flooding due to its location, which as developments proceed, could result in increased areas of vulnerability with consequential insurance loss and hotspots of risk. With 160,000 new homes planned by 2016, positive use of planning policy is fundamental in minimising potential flood risk as well as ensuring long term economic and social goals can be met. This project focuses on several planning scenarios within the Gateway for the areas of Barking and Medway, and models flood risk using a commercial flood model to develop the flood risk under alternative planning policy scenarios. The two areas chosen demonstrate major regeneration and redevelopment sites located on Thames tidal floodplain. The areas are protected by flood defences although are both downstream of the Thames Barrier. However, it is expected that defences will be maintained and upgraded over the next several years, particularly in the Medway, which is currently protected to a lower level than most other areas in the Thames Gateway. The progress of development is more advanced in Barking with the major regeneration site, Barking Riverside, hosting 2000 new homes. The study sites have been chosen based on their location and proximity to the Thames and allow for an analysis of planning policy and its influence in minimising risk into the future. The reflected change in flood risk due to both the planned developments and flood defences will help to understand change in risk over time and the intricacies expected with delivering planning policy in a multi-governed area subject to conflicting objectives. Flood risk for both sites are modelled using a commercial flood model to estimate flood risk based on several flood scenarios for both current and future developments. Alternative planning approaches are also used to determine the potential risk faced under a range policy conditions, from using fewer brownfield sites to implementing PPS25 (Planning Policy Statement 25: Flood Risk and Development) to varying degrees. Building vulnerability is assessed for all scenarios using vulnerability curves, and insurance loss calculated for each scenario output. The flood model outputs for the study areas gives an initial indication of present flood risk. The results will be of use to planners and insurers in understanding future flood risk scenarios in urban regeneration areas.

  12. Flood Finder: Mobile-based automated water level estimation and mapping during floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pongsiriyaporn, B.; Jariyavajee, C.; Laoharawee, N.; Narkthong, N.; Pitichat, T.; Goldin, S. E.

    2014-02-01

    Every year, Southeast Asia faces numerous flooding disasters, resulting in very high human and economic loss. Responding to a sudden flood is difficult due to the lack of accurate and up-to- date information about the incoming water status. We have developed a mobile application called Flood Finder to solve this problem. Flood Finder allows smartphone users to measure, share and search for water level information at specified locations. The application uses image processing to compute the water level from a photo taken by users. The photo must be of a known reference object with a standard size. These water levels are more reliable and consistent than human estimates since they are derived from an algorithmic measuring function. Flood Finder uploads water level readings to the server, where they can be searched and mapped by other users via the mobile phone app or standard browsers. Given the widespread availability of smartphones in Asia, Flood Finder can provide more accurate and up-to-date information for better preparation for a flood disaster as well as life safety and property protection.

  13. European Flood Awareness System - now operational

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alionte Eklund, Cristina.; Hazlinger, Michal; Sprokkereef, Eric; Garcia Padilla, Mercedes; Garcia, Rafael J.; Thielen, Jutta; Salamon, Peter; Pappenberger, Florian

    2013-04-01

    The European Commission's Communication "Towards a Stronger European Union Disaster Response" adopted and endorsed by the Council in 2010, underpins the importance of strengthening concerted actions for natural disasters including floods, which are amongst the costliest natural disasters in the EU. The European Flood Awareness System (EFAS) contributes in the case of major flood events. to better protection of the European Citizen, the environment, property and cultural heritage. The disastrous floods in Elbe and Danube rivers in 2002 confronted the European Commission with non-coherent flood warning information from different sources and of variable quality, complicating planning and organisation of aid. Thus, the Commission initiated the development of a European Flood Awareness System (EFAS) which is now going operational. EFAS has been developed and tested at the Joint Research Centre, the Commission's in house science service, in close collaboration with the National hydrological and meteorological services, European Civil Protection through the Monitoring and Information Centre (MIC) and other research institutes. EFAS provides Pan-European overview maps of flood probabilities up to 10 days in advance as well as detailed forecasts at stations where the National services are providing real time data. More than 30 hydrological services and civil protection services in Europe are part of the EFAS network. Since 2011, EFAS is part of the COPERNICUS Emergency Management Service, (EMS) and is now an operational service since 2012. The Operational EFAS is being executed by several consortia dealing with different operational aspects: • EFAS Hydrological data collection centre —REDIAM and ELIMCO- will be collecting historic and realtime discharge and water levels data in support to EFAS • EFAS Meteorological data collection centre —outsourced but running onsite of JRC Ispra. Will be collecting historic and realtime meteorological data in support to EFAS • EFAS Computational centre - European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts - will be running the forecasts, post-processing and operating the EFAS-Information System platform • EFAS Dissemination centre—Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute and Rijkswaterstaat Waterdienst (the Netherlands)—analyse the results on a daily basis, assess the situation, and disseminate information to the EFAS partners The European Commission is responsible for contract management. The Joint Research Centre further provides support for EFAS through research and development. Aims of EFAS operational • added value early flood forecasting products to hydrological services • unique overview products of ongoing and forecast floods in Europe more than 3 days in advance • create a European network of operational hydrological services

  14. Modeling and analysis of the vertical roots distribution in levees - a case study of the third Rhone correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianetta, Ivan; Schwarz, Massimiliano; Glenz, Christian; Lammeranner, Walter

    2013-04-01

    In recent years the effects of roots on river banks and levees have been the subject of major discussions. The main issue about the presence of woody vegetation on levees is related to the possibility that roots increase internal erosion processes and the superimposed load of large trees compromise the integrity of these structures. However, ecologists and landscape managers argue that eliminating the natural vegetation from the riverbanks also means eliminating biotopes, strengthening anthropisation of the landscape, as well as limiting recreations areas. In the context of the third correction of the Rhone in Switzerland, the discussion on new levee geometries and the implementation of woody vegetation on them, lead to a detailed analysis of this issue for this specific case. The objective of this study was to describe quantitatively the processes and factors that influence the root distribution on levees and test modeling approaches for the simulation of vertical root distribution with laboratory and field data. An extension of an eco-hydrological analytic model that considers climatic and pedological condition for the quantification of vertical root distribution was validated with data provided by the University of Vienna (BOKU) of willows' roots (Salix purpurea) grown under controlled conditions. Furthermore, root distribution data of four transversal sections of a levee near Visp (canton Wallis, Switzerland) was used to validate the model. The positions of the levee's sections were chosen based on the species and dimensions of the woody vegetation. The dominant species present in the sections were birch (Betula pendula) and poplar (Populus nigra). For each section a grid of 50x50 cm was created to count and measure the roots. The results show that vertical distribution of root density under controlled growing conditions has an exponential form, decreasing with increasing soil depth, and can be well described by the eco-hydrological model. Vice versa, field data of vertical roots distribution show a non-exponential function and cannot fully be described by the model. A compacted layer of stones at about 2 m depth is considered as limiting factor for the rooting depth on the analyzed levee. The collected data and the knowledge gained from quantitative analysis represent the starting point for a discussion on new levee geometries and the development of new strategies for the implementation of woody vegetation on levees. A long term monitoring project for the analysis of the effectiveness of new implementation strategies of vegetation on levees, is considered an important prospective for future studies on this topic.

  15. Sedimentary record of Warta river floods in summer 2010 and winter 2011 nearby Poznan, W Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skolasi?ska, Katarzyna; Szczuci?ski, Witold; Mitr?ga, Marta; Rotnicka, Joanna; Jagodzi?ski, Robert; Lorenc, Stanis?aw

    2013-04-01

    The Warta River valley nearby Pozna? (W Poland) represents a meandering lowland river changed during the last 150 years by hydro-engineering works. Floods represent a major natural hazard in the region. However, historical records are not complete - particularly for former rural areas. Thus, sedimentary record may potentially offer additional insights into the flooding history. The big floods in the summer 2010 (the largest during the last 31 years) and winter 2011 offered opportunity to study their sedimentary record. The particular purposes were to identify sedimentary characteristics of summer and winter floods, interpret various phases of particular floods in the record, and assess impact of early post-depositional changes of the flood deposits. The surveys were conducted in six areas just after the floods and were repeated after several months, one and two years. The deposits spatial extent, thickness, surface bedforms and sediment type were assessed in the field. Sediment samples were further investigated for grain size distribution, organic matter content, roundness and sand grains surface features (SEM). The sandy flood deposits mostly build natural levee, side bars (<5 m from the channel bank) or crevasse splays (<40 m). They were up to 10-15 cm thick for the summer and 30-35 cm for the winter flood. The sands were mostly fine grained, well sorted and fine skewed. Their structures were massive with rare cases of climbing ripple lamination and planar cross laminations (only in crevasse splays). Vertical grain size changes in levee deposits revealed pensymmetric and/or reverse grading interpreted as effect of changing velocity during the rising water level. The sand grains were similar to the river channel sands and dominated by polished and sub-rounded quartz grains with preserved dissolution and dulled surface microfeatures. Further from the channel bank (few to few hundreds of meters) only discontinuous up to few mm thick organic rich mud layer was left, which after the summer flood was covered by algal mats. However the mud and mats were quickly reworked by new vegetation. The follow up surveys revealed that the preservation potential of flood deposits is low to moderate (only for sandy deposits). The studied cases proved that in the engineered river channels the major record of floods may be preserved in the levees next to river channel, but not on the flooding terraces. The record of winter flood is composed of slightly coarser and thicker deposits, and it may be due to bigger capacity of sediment transport by the colder water and lower surface friction due to reduced plant cover. The vertical grain size distribution changes may be interpreted in terms of duration and variations during the particular floods. The study was supported by National Science Centre grant No. NN 304 105240.

  16. Discover Floods Educators Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Now available as a Download! This valuable resource helps educators teach students about both the risks and benefits of flooding through a series of engaging, hands-on activities. Acknowledging the different roles that floods play in both natural and urban communities, the book helps young people gain a global understanding of this common--and

  17. 2011 Spring Flood

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Left to Right: Bill Stiles, Dan Kroes USGS Hydrologist Dan Kroes shows Congressional staffers the difference in turbidity levels of the water in Bayou Sorrel. As the record flood waters of the 2011 flood inundate the Atchafalaya Basin, they begin to flush out the stagnant swamp water, or

  18. Flooded Wild Rice River

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Wild Rice River at Great Bend North Dakota, streamflow 1,890 cubic feet per second. Photograph taken during spring 2010 flooding looking downstream of the bridge which was clogged with debris. The river also had flooded over the road approaching the bridge....

  19. Discover Floods Educators Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Now available as a Download! This valuable resource helps educators teach students about both the risks and benefits of flooding through a series of engaging, hands-on activities. Acknowledging the different roles that floods play in both natural and urban communities, the book helps young people gain a global understanding of this common--and…

  20. Glacier generated floods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walder, J.S.; Fountain, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    Destructive floods result from drainage of glacier-dammed lakes and sudden release of water stored within glaciers. There is a good basis - both empirical and theoretical - for predicting the magnitude of floods from ice-dammed lakes, although some aspects of flood initiation need to be better understood. In contrast, an understanding of floods resulting from release of internally stored water remains elusive, owing to lack of knowledge of how and where water is stored and to inadequate understanding of the complex physics of the temporally and spatially variable subglacial drainage system.Destructive floods result from drainage of glacier-dammed lakes and sudden release of water stored within glaciers. There is a good basis - both empirical and theoretical - for predicting the magnitude of floods from ice-dammed lakes, although some aspects of flood initiation need to be better understood. In contrast, an understanding of floods resulting from release of internally stored water remains elusive, owing to lack of knowledge of how and where water is stored and to inadequate understanding of the complex physics of the temporally and spatially variable subglacial drainage system.

  1. Flood Crest Reaches Vicksburg

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This is the Mississippi River at Vicksburg, Mississippi, as the crest from the earlier flooding moves through. In late 2015/early 2016 unusually large rainfall in the Upper Mississippi River Valley led to significant flooding in Arkansas, Illinois, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and Tennessee. U...

  2. Submarine fan and channel levee deposits in the Lower Cretaceous Bogota trough, Colombian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimpirev, Christo; Sarmiento, Gustavo

    1993-08-01

    Bogota trough in the Cordillera Oriental of Colombia was an elongate NE/SW oriented Lower Cretaceous basin. It was one of the main depocentres in the northern Andes during earliest Cretaceous time. Six lithofacies and three facies associations are recognised, based on four detailed stratigraphic sections situated in the western portion of the trough. Sedimentation in the basin comprised channel levee, fan lobe and outer fan-basin plain (?) depositional environments. Channel-levee complexes without a well-developed fan-growth pattern were more proximal to the sediment supply. In more distal settings, the migrating channels evolved into suprafan lobes. Their sediments were covered by outer fan-basin plain (?) deposits at a time of retrogradation of the fan system. The evolution in the basin continued with progradation and development of depositional lobes and channel-fill middle fan environments. The western portion of the trough was situated near to the zone of convergence between the Nazca and the South American plates and the main sediment supply derived from the Paleo-central Cordillera, which in early Cretaceous time consisted of an uplifted Jurassic plutonic arc. This active margin defined the coexistence of small sand-rich radial fans and channel-levee complexes. In the eastern portion of the basin main source area, the stable Guayana shield determined the existence of a larger fan system of a hybrid type between radial and elongate fans. Despite the differences between the two fan systems in eastern and western portions of the trough, the observed retrogradational and progradational sequences are similar.

  3. Climate change and non-stationary flood risk for the upper Truckee River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condon, L. E.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Pruitt, T.

    2015-01-01

    Future flood frequency for the upper Truckee River basin (UTRB) is assessed using non-stationary extreme value models and design-life risk methodology. Historical floods are simulated at two UTRB gauge locations, Farad and Reno, using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model and non-stationary Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) models. The non-stationary GEV models are fit to the cool season (November-April) monthly maximum flows using historical monthly precipitation totals and average temperature. Future cool season flood distributions are subsequently calculated using downscaled projections of precipitation and temperature from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP-5) archive. The resulting exceedance probabilities are combined to calculate the probability of a flood of a given magnitude occurring over a specific time period (referred to as flood risk) using recent developments in design-life risk methodologies. This paper provides the first end-to-end analysis using non-stationary GEV methods coupled with contemporary downscaled climate projections to demonstrate the evolution of a flood risk profile over typical design life periods of existing infrastructure that are vulnerable to flooding (e.g., dams, levees, bridges and sewers). Results show that flood risk increases significantly over the analysis period (from 1950 through 2099). This highlights the potential to underestimate flood risk using traditional methodologies that do not account for time-varying risk. Although model parameters for the non-stationary method are sensitive to small changes in input parameters, analysis shows that the changes in risk over time are robust. Overall, flood risk at both locations (Farad and Reno) is projected to increase 10-20% between the historical period 1950 to 1999 and the future period 2000 to 2050 and 30-50% between the same historical period and a future period of 2050 to 2099.

  4. Automated determination of flood risk through fragility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meij, Raymond; Lopez de la Cruz, Juliana

    2013-04-01

    Climate change causes an increase in flood risk due to higher water levels in rivers, seas and oceans. It is crucial to understand the effect of the changing water levels on the flood risk to properly manage the effects of climate changes. Practically all existing flood risk models assume a level at which an embankment will no longer preform its water retaining function and fail. In reality, the situation is much more complex. A flood protection embankment can breach many meters before the water reaches the top of the embankment, but it can sometimes also withstand higher water tables without breaching. This paper presents a scientific method for risk assessment and -management that properly takes the strength of the embankment into account. The paper focusses on the determination of the chance of failure of the embankment, given changing water conditions due to climate change. Examples show how this tool can efficiently be used for flood risk management. Flood protection embankments can fail through many different failure mechanisms. The most obvious one is through insufficient height which causes overflow, erosion and finally breach. Other relevant failure mechanisms are, amongst others, macro instability, backwards internal erosion, suffusion and micro instability. The level at which an embankment overtops is easy to determine and therefor usually set equal to the level at which the embankment fails. Recent studies in the Netherlands show, however, that the other failure mechanisms are often dominant, depending on the subsoil conditions. Ignoring these mechanisms give a far too optimistic risk assessment and therefore, these mechanisms must be taken into account. This paper shows an automated methodology to properly represent the strength of flood protection embankments through fragility. A fragility curve is a graph in which the chance of failure of the embankment is plotted against the water level in the river. This database driven methodology uses GIS data to make a representation of the embankment and automatically determines the chances of failure for every relevant failure mechanism at every river water level. When the source database is updated, the fragility curve for the embankment can directly be updated as well to easily adapt to changes. Multiplying this fragility curve with the probability density function of the outside water level directly results in the chance of failure of the flood protection embankment. Scenario studies for different climate changes can easily be performed and be presented in a clear, visual way to the decision maker.

  5. Channel, floodplain, and wetland responses to floods and overbank sedimentation, 1846-2006, Halfway Creek Marsh, Upper Mississippi Valley, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, F.A.; Knox, J.C.; Schubauer-Berigan, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    Conversion of upland forest and prairie vegetation to agricultural land uses, following Euro-American settlement in the Upper Mississippi River System, led to accelerated runoff and soil erosion that subsequently transformed channels, floodplains, and wetlands on bottomlands. Halfway Creek Marsh, at the junction of Halfway Creek and the Mississippi River on Wisconsin's western border, is representative of such historical transformation. This marsh became the focus of a 2005-2006 investigation by scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, the University of Wisconsin- Madison, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, who used an understanding of the historical transformation to help managers identify possible restoration alternatives for Halfway Creek Marsh. Field-scale topographic surveys and sediment cores provided data for reconstructing patterns and rates of historical overbank sedimentation in the marsh. Information culled from historical maps, aerial photographs, General Land Offi ce Survey notes, and other historical documents helped establish the timing of anthropogenic disturbances and document changes in channel patterns. Major human disturbances, in addition to agricultural land uses, included railroad and road building, construction of artifi cial levees, drainage alterations, and repeated dam failures associated with large floods. A volume of approximately 1,400,000 m3, involving up to 2 m of sandy historical overbank deposition, is stored through the upper and lower marshes and along the adjacent margins of Halfway Creek and its principal tributary, Sand Lake Coulee. The estimated overbank sedimentation rate for the entire marsh is ??3,000 m3 yr-1 for the recent period 1994-2006. In spite of reduced surface runoff and soil erosion in recent years, this recent sedimentation rate still exceeds by ??4 times the early settlement (1846-1885) rate of 700 m3 yr-1, when anthropogenic acceleration of upland surface runoff and soil erosion was beginning. The highest rate of historical bottomland sedimentation occurred from 1919 to 1936, when the estimated overbank sedimentation rate was 20,400 m3 yr- 1. This rate exceeded by nearly 30 times the 1846-1886 rate. Artifi cial levees were constructed along the upper reach of Halfway Creek in the marsh during the early twentieth century to restrict fl ooding on the adjacent bottomlands. Anomalously high overbank sedimentation rates subsequently occurred on the fl oodplain between the levees, which also facilitated more effi cient transport of sediment into the lower marsh bottomland. Although overbank sedimentation rates dropped after 1936, corresponding to the widespread adoption of soil-conservation and agricultural best-management practices, the continuation of anomalously high overbank sedimentation between the levees led to increased bank heights and development of a relatively deep channel. The deep cross-section morphology is commonly mistaken as evidence of channel incision; however, this morphology actually resulted from excessive overbank sedimentation. The historical metamorphosis of the Halfway Creek channel and riparian wetlands underscores the importance of understanding the long-term history of channel and fl oodplain evolution when restoration of channels and riparian wetlands are under consideration. Sedimentation patterns and channel morphology for Halfway Creek Marsh probably are representative of other anthropogenically altered riparian wetlands in the Upper Mississippi River System and similar landscapes elsewhere.

  6. Estimating insured residential losses from large flood scenarios on the Tone River, Japan - a data integration approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, T.; McAneney, K. J.; Chen, K.

    2011-12-01

    Flooding on the Tone River, which drains the largest catchment area in Japan and is now home to 12 million people, poses significant risk to the Greater Tokyo Area. In April 2010, an expert panel in Japan, the Central Disaster Prevention Council, examined the potential for large-scale flooding and outlined possible mitigation measures in the Greater Tokyo Area. One of the scenarios considered closely mimics the pattern of flooding that occurred with the passage of Typhoon Kathleen in 1947 and would potentially flood some 680 000 households above floor level. Building upon that report, this study presents a Geographical Information System (GIS)-based data integration approach to estimate the insurance losses for residential buildings and contents as just one component of the potential financial cost. Using a range of publicly available data - census information, location reference data, insurance market information and flood water elevation data - this analysis finds that insurance losses for residential property alone could reach approximately 1 trillion JPY (US 12.5 billion). Total insurance losses, including commercial and industrial lines of business, are likely to be at least double this figure with total economic costs being much greater again. The results are sensitive to the flood scenario assumed, position of levee failures, local flood depths and extents, population and building heights. The Average Recurrence Interval (ARI) of the rainfall following Typhoon Kathleen has been estimated to be on the order of 200 yr; however, at this juncture it is not possible to put an ARI on the modelled loss since we cannot know the relative or joint probability of the different flooding scenarios. It is possible that more than one of these scenarios could occur simultaneously or that levee failure at one point might lower water levels downstream and avoid a failure at all other points. In addition to insurance applications, spatial analyses like that presented here have implications for emergency management, the cost-benefit of mitigation efforts and land-use planning.

  7. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid/vapor traffic that produce increased contact area and lead to substantial increases in separation efficiency – which translates to a 10% increase in energy efficiency on a BTU/bbl basis. The Flooding Predictor™ operates on the principle that between five to sixty minutes in advance of a flooding event, certain column variables experience an oscillation, a pre-flood pattern. The pattern recognition system of the Flooding Predictor™ utilizes the mathematical first derivative of certain column variables to identify the column’s pre-flood pattern(s). This pattern is a very brief, highly repeatable, simultaneous movement among the derivative values of certain column variables. While all column variables experience negligible random noise generated from the natural frequency of the process, subtle pre-flood patterns are revealed among sub-sets of the derivative values of column variables as the column approaches its hydraulic limit. The sub-set of column variables that comprise the pre-flood pattern is identified empirically through in a two-step process. First, 2ndpoint’s proprietary off-line analysis tool is used to mine historical data for pre-flood patterns. Second, the column is flood-tested to fine-tune the pattern recognition for commissioning. Then the Flooding Predictor™ is implemented as closed-loop advanced control strategy on the plant’s distributed control system (DCS), thus automating control of the column at its hydraulic limit.

  8. 78 FR 21143 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  9. 78 FR 5821 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  10. 78 FR 52953 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  11. 78 FR 52954 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  12. 78 FR 5820 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  13. 78 FR 43905 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  14. 78 FR 45938 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  15. 78 FR 9406 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  16. 78 FR 64521 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  17. 78 FR 14316 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  18. 78 FR 14576 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  19. 78 FR 36220 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  20. 78 FR 29761 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  1. 78 FR 36219 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  2. 78 FR 48884 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  3. 78 FR 29763 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  4. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for La Lima, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of La Lima that would be inundated by Rio Chamelecon with a discharge of 500 cubic meters per second, the approximate capacity of the river channel through the city of La Lima. The 50-year flood (2,400 cubic meters per second), the original design flow to be mapped, would inundate the entire area surveyed for this municipality. Because water-surface elevations of the 50-year flood could not be mapped properly without substantially expanding the area of the survey, the available data were used instead to estimate the channel capacity of Rio Chamelecon in La Lima by trial-and-error runs of different flows in a numerical model and to estimate the increase in height of levees needed to contain flows of 1,000 and 2,400 cubic meters per second. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of La Lima as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for various discharges on Rio Chamelecon at La Lima were determined using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area and ground surveys at three bridges. Top-of-levee or top-of-channel-bank elevations and locations at the cross sections were critical to estimating the channel capacity of Rio Chamelecon. These elevations and locations are provided along with the water-surface elevations for the 500-cubic-meter-per-second flow of Rio Chamelecon. Also, water-surface elevations of the 1,000 and 2,400 cubic-meter-per-second flows are provided, assuming that the existing levees are raised to contained the flows.

  5. Floodplain sediment from a 100-year-recurrence flood in 2005 of the Ping River in northern Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, S. H.; Ziegler, A. D.

    2008-07-01

    The tropical storm, floodwater, and the floodplain-sediment layer of a 100-year recurrence flood are examined to better understand characteristics of large monsoon floods on medium-sized rivers in northern Thailand. Storms producing large floods in northern Thailand occur early or late in the summer rainy season (May October). These storms are associated with tropical depressions evolving from typhoons in the South China Sea that travel westward across the Indochina Peninsula. In late September, 2005, the tropical depression from Typhoon Damrey swept across northern Thailand delivering 100 200 mm/day at stations in mountainous areas. Peak flow from the 6355-km2 drainage area of the Ping River upstream of the city of Chiang Mai was 867 m3s-1 (river-gage of height 4.93 m) and flow greater than 600 m3s-1 lasted for 2.5 days. Parts of the city of Chiang Mai and some parts of the floodplain in the intermontane Chiang Mai basin were flooded up to 1-km distant from the main channel. Suspended-sediment concentrations in the floodwater were measured and estimated to be 1000 1300 mg l-1. The mass of dry sediment (32.4 kg m-2), measured over a 0.32-km2 area of the floodplain is relatively high compared to reports from European and North American river floods. Average wet sediment thickness over the area was 3.3 cm. Sediment thicker than 8 cm covered 16 per cent of the area, and sediment thicker than 4 cm covered 44 per cent of the area. High suspended-sediment concentration in the floodwater, flow to the floodplain through a gap in the levee afforded by the mouth of a tributary stream as well as flow over levees, and floodwater depths of 1.2 m explain the relatively large amount of sediment in the measured area. Grain-size analyses and examination of the flood layer showed about 15-cm thickness of massive fine-sandy silt on the levee within 15-m of the main channel, sediment thicker than 6 cm within 200 m of the main channel containing a basal coarse silt, and massive clayey silt beyond 200 m. The massive clayey silt would not be discernable as a separate layer in section of similar deposits. The fine-sand content of the levee sediment and the basal coarse silt of sediment within 200 m of the main channel are sedimentological features that may be useful in identifying flood layers in a stratigraphic section of floodplain deposits.

  6. Validation of a global hydrodynamic flood inundation model against high resolution observation data of urban flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Paul; Sampson, Chris; Smith, Andy; Neal, Jeff

    2015-04-01

    In this work we present further validation results for a hyper-resolution global flood inundation model. We use a true hydrodynamic model that uses highly efficient numerical algorithms (LISFLOOD-FP) to simulate flood inundation at ~1km resolution globally and then use downscaling algorithms to determine flood extent and water depth at 3 seconds of arc spatial resolution (~90m at the equator). The global model has ~150 million cells and requires ~180 hours of CPU time for a 10 year simulation period. Terrain data are taken from a custom version of the SRTM data set that has been processed specifically for hydrodynamic modelling. Return periods of flood flows along the entire global river network are determined using: (1) empirical relationships between catchment characteristics and index flood magnitude in different hydroclimatic zones derived from global runoff data; and (2) an index flood growth curve, also empirically derived. Bankful return period flow is then used to set channel width and depth, and flood defence impacts are modelled using empirical relationships between GDP, urbanization and defence standard of protection. The results of these simulations are global flood hazard maps for a number of different return period events from 1 in 5 to 1 in 1000 years. This method has already been show to compare well to return period flood hazard maps derived from models built with high resolution and accuracy local data (Sampson et al., submitted), yet the output from the global flood model has not yet been compared to real flood observations. Whilst the spatial resolution of the global model is high given the size of the model domain, ~1km resolution is still coarse compared to the models typically used to simulate urban flooding and the data typically used to validate these (~25m or less). Comparison of the global model to real-world observations or urban flooding therefore represents an exceptionally stringent test of model skill. In this paper we therefore compare predictions from the global model to high resolution observations for two major urban flood events that occurred in the UK over the last decade: Carlisle in 2005 and Tewkesbury in 2007. In the case of Carlisle the validation data consist of ~150 post-flood observations of maximum water level with a vertical accuracy of ~10-15cm. For Tewkesbury we have available a series of remotely sensed images of the flood development and recession obtained from a variety of airborne and satellite platforms. For each site we estimate use official estimates of the return period of each event to select the appropriate global flood hazard map and compare this to the high resolution observations using appropriate performance metrics. We then benchmark the performance of the global model against simulations of these floods obtained using bespoke local models driven by ground gauged boundary conditions and with terrain derived from ~1m resolution airborne LiDAR data. Sampson, C.C., Smith, A.M., Bates, P.D., Neal, J.C., Alfieri, L. and Freer, J.E. (submitted). A High Resolution Global Flood Hazard Model. Water Resources Research.

  7. Effect of Sampling Period on Flood Frequency Distributions in the Susquehanna Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargar, M.; Beighley, R. E.

    2010-12-01

    Flooding is a devastating natural hazard that claims many human lives and significantly impact regional economies each year. Given the magnitude of flooding impacts, significant resources are dedicated to the development of forecasting models for early warning and evacuation planning, construction of flood defenses (levees/dams) to limit flooding, and the design of civil infrastructure (bridges, culverts, storm sewers) to convey flood flows without failing. In all these cases, it is particularly important to understand the potential flooding risk in terms of both recurrence interval (i.e., return period) and magnitude. Flood frequency analysis (FFA) is a form of risk analysis used to extrapolate the return periods of floods beyond the gauged record. The technique involves using observed annual peak flow discharge data to calculate statistical information such as mean values, standard deviations, skewness, and recurrence intervals. Since discharge data for most catchments have been collected for periods of time less than 100 years, the estimation of the design discharge requires a degree of extrapolation. This study focuses on the assessment and modifications of flood frequency based discharges for sites with limited sampling periods. Here, limited sampling period is intended to capture two issues: (1) limited number of observations to adequately capture the flood frequency signal (i.e., minimum number of annual peaks needed) and (2) climate variability (i.e., sampling period contains primarily wet or dry periods only). Total of 34 gauges (more than 70 years of data) spread throughout the Susquehanna River basin (71,000 sq km) were used to investigate the impact of sampling period on flood frequency distributions. Data subsets ranging from 10 years to the total number of years available were created from the data for each gauging station. To estimate the flood frequency, the Log Pearson Type III distribution was fit to the logarithms of instantaneous annual peak flows following Bulletin 17B guidelines of the U.S. Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data. The resulting flood frequencies from these subsets were compared to the results from the entire record at each gauge. Based on the analysis, the minimum number of years required to obtain a reasonable flood frequency distribution was determined for each gauge. In addition, a method to adjust flood frequency distribution at a given gauging station with limited data based on other locations with longer periods of records was developed.

  8. Analysis of the Potential Resilience and Preparedness of Districts affected by the June 2013 Flood in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazai, Bijan; Benkler, Anna; Bessel, Tina; Mhrle, Stella; Schrter, Kai

    2014-05-01

    The June 2013 floods had severe impacts on people, transportation and the economy. Numerous levee breaches, e.g. in Bavaria and along the Elbe, resulted in large-scale regional floods. Despite similar flood intensities in several affected regions in Bavaria, Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia, CEDIM analyses show differential impacts in terms of both evacuations and transport disruptions. Based on social, economic and institutional indicators compiled from the 2006 Census and partially-based on a household questionnaire following the August 2002 floods, a Potential Resilience Index was developed for districts (Landkreise) of affected areas in the catchment of the Lech, Elbe, Mulde, Danube and Rhein. Furthermore, a Flood Preparedness and Response Scorecard was developed and evaluated in interviews with district officials for over 20 districts in the affected regions that experienced a flood intensity greater than a 100-year recurrence interval. The Potential Resilience Index is compared against qualitative data derived from the Scorecard, and the actual response measured in the self-evaluation with district officials. Actual metrics of response in terms of economic losses, number of people affected by evacuations and the length and type of transportation disruptions as two measures of the flood impact were also used in evaluating the impact against the degree of preparedness and effectiveness of crisis management during the 2013 floods in affected districts.

  9. Koaping River Flood Simulation due to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y. J.; Ma, K. C.; Tan, Y. C.; Chang, T. J.; Lai, J. S.

    2012-04-01

    The Koaping River suffered huge damages from the Typhoon Morakot in 2009 and Typhoon Fanapi in 2010. Climate change will bring huge impacts to nations all over the world. Those impacts including the followings: change in biosphere, long-duration drought, large floods trigger by extreme torrential rain, spatial change in homelands, and food scarcity. The extreme weather induced by climate change is the most direct factor influencing the floods, e.g. the extreme rainfall increases discharge and inundation area, sea level and estuary water level raising induce overbank floods, and land-use abuse and land-slides trigger high concentration of sediment discharge and river bed aggradations. This study aims at the settings of hydrological scenarios due to climate change, evaluation of hydraulic structures (e.g. levees), vulnerability and risk analysis, and adaption strategy and practices. The study area is focused on Kaoping River Basin. First, the hydrological scenarios due to climate change are set. Secondly, based on those scenarios, the hydraulic structures are evaluated. Thirdly, the vulnerability and risk analysis are performed. Last, adaption strategy and action plans are proposed by referencing to actions taken by the Netherlands, Japan, Korea, and USA for improving the capacity of the hydraulic structures of Kaoping River.

  10. Flood Insurance in Canada: Implications for Flood Management and Residential Vulnerability to Flood Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oulahen, Greg

    2015-03-01

    Insurance coverage of damage caused by overland flooding is currently not available to Canadian homeowners. As flood disaster losses and water damage claims both trend upward, insurers in Canada are considering offering residential flood coverage in order to properly underwrite the risk and extend their business. If private flood insurance is introduced in Canada, it will have implications for the current regime of public flood management and for residential vulnerability to flood hazards. This paper engages many of the competing issues surrounding the privatization of flood risk by addressing questions about whether flood insurance can be an effective tool in limiting exposure to the hazard and how it would exacerbate already unequal vulnerability. A case study investigates willingness to pay for flood insurance among residents in Metro Vancouver and how attitudes about insurance relate to other factors that determine residential vulnerability to flood hazards. Findings indicate that demand for flood insurance is part of a complex, dialectical set of determinants of vulnerability.

  11. Estimating magnitude and frequency of floods using the PeakFQ 7.0 program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veilleux, Andrea G.; Cohn, Timothy A.; Flynn, Kathleen M.; Mason, Robert R.; Hummel, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    Flood-frequency analysis provides information about the magnitude and frequency of flood discharges based on records of annual maximum instantaneous peak discharges collected at streamgages. The information is essential for defining flood-hazard areas, for managing floodplains, and for designing bridges, culverts, dams, levees, and other flood-control structures. Bulletin 17B (B17B) of the Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data (IACWD; 1982) codifies the standard methodology for conducting flood-frequency studies in the United States. B17B specifies that annual peak-flow data are to be fit to a log-Pearson Type III distribution. Specific methods are also prescribed for improving skew estimates using regional skew information, tests for high and low outliers, adjustments for low outliers and zero flows, and procedures for incorporating historical flood information. The authors of B17B identified various needs for methodological improvement and recommended additional study. In response to these needs, the Advisory Committee on Water Information (ACWI, successor to IACWD; http://acwi.gov/, Subcommittee on Hydrology (SOH), Hydrologic Frequency Analysis Work Group (HFAWG), has recommended modest changes to B17B. These changes include adoption of a generalized method-of-moments estimator denoted the Expected Moments Algorithm (EMA) (Cohn and others, 1997) and a generalized version of the Grubbs-Beck test for low outliers (Cohn and others, 2013). The SOH requested that the USGS implement these changes in a user-friendly, publicly accessible program.

  12. Nogales flood detention study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norman, Laura M.; Levick, Lainie; Guertin, D. Phillip; Callegary, James; Guadarrama, Jesus Quintanar; Anaya, Claudia Zulema Gil; Prichard, Andrea; Gray, Floyd; Castellanos, Edgar; Tepezano, Edgar; Huth, Hans; Vandervoet, Prescott; Rodriguez, Saul; Nunez, Jose; Atwood, Donald; Granillo, Gilberto Patricio Olivero; Ceballos, Francisco Octavio Gastellum

    2010-01-01

    Flooding in Ambos Nogales often exceeds the capacity of the channel and adjacent land areas, endangering many people. The Nogales Wash is being studied to prevent future flood disasters and detention features are being installed in tributaries of the wash. This paper describes the application of the KINEROS2 model and efforts to understand the capacity of these detention features under various flood and urbanization scenarios. Results depict a reduction in peak flow for the 10-year, 1-hour event based on current land use in tributaries with detention features. However, model results also demonstrate that larger storm events and increasing urbanization will put a strain on the features and limit their effectiveness.

  13. The geomorphic effectiveness of a large flood on the Rio Grande in the Big Bend region: Insights on geomorphic controls and post-flood geomorphic response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, David J.; Schmidt, John C.

    2013-11-01

    Since the 1940s, the Rio Grande in the Big Bend region has undergone long periods of channel narrowing, which have been occasionally interrupted by rare, large floods that widen the channel (termed a channel reset). The most recent channel reset occurred in 2008 following a 17-year period of extremely low stream flow and rapid channel narrowing. Flooding was caused by precipitation associated with the remnants of tropical depression Lowell in the Rio Conchos watershed, the largest tributary to the Rio Grande. Floodwaters approached 1500 m3/s (between a 13 and 15 year recurrence interval) and breached levees, inundated communities, and flooded the alluvial valley of the Rio Grande; the wetted width exceeding 2.5 km in some locations. The 2008 flood had the 7th largest magnitude of record, however, conveyed the largest volume of water than any other flood. Because of the narrow pre-flood channel conditions, record flood stages occurred. We used pre- and post-flood aerial photographs, channel and floodplain surveys, and 1-dimensional hydraulic models to quantify the magnitude of channel change, investigate the controls of flood-induced geomorphic changes, and measure the post-flood response of the widened channel. These analyses show that geomorphic changes included channel widening, meander migration, avulsions, extensive bar formation, and vertical floodplain accretion. Reach-averaged channel widening between 26 and 52% occurred, but in some localities exceeded 500%. The degree and style of channel response was related, but not limited to, three factors: 1) bed-load supply and transport, 2) pre-flood channel plan form, and 3) rapid declines in specific stream power downstream of constrictions and areas of high channel bed slope. The post-flood channel response has consisted of channel contraction through the aggradation of the channel bed and the formation of fine-grained benches inset within the widened channel margins. The most significant post-flood geomorphic changes have occurred at and downstream from ephemeral tributaries that contribute large volumes of sediment.

  14. The geomorphic effectiveness of a large flood on the Rio Grande in the Big Bend region: insights on geomorphic controls and post-flood geomorphic response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dean, David J.; Schmidt, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1940s, the Rio Grande in the Big Bend region has undergone long periods of channel narrowing, which have been occasionally interrupted by rare, large floods that widen the channel (termed a channel reset). The most recent channel reset occurred in 2008 following a 17-year period of extremely low stream flow and rapid channel narrowing. Flooding was caused by precipitation associated with the remnants of tropical depression Lowell in the Rio Conchos watershed, the largest tributary to the Rio Grande. Floodwaters approached 1500 m3/s (between a 13 and 15 year recurrence interval) and breached levees, inundated communities, and flooded the alluvial valley of the Rio Grande; the wetted width exceeding 2.5 km in some locations. The 2008 flood had the 7th largest magnitude of record, however, conveyed the largest volume of water than any other flood. Because of the narrow pre-flood channel conditions, record flood stages occurred. We used pre- and post-flood aerial photographs, channel and floodplain surveys, and 1-dimensional hydraulic models to quantify the magnitude of channel change, investigate the controls of flood-induced geomorphic changes, and measure the post-flood response of the widened channel. These analyses show that geomorphic changes included channel widening, meander migration, avulsions, extensive bar formation, and vertical floodplain accretion. Reach-averaged channel widening between 26 and 52% occurred, but in some localities exceeded 500%. The degree and style of channel response was related, but not limited to, three factors: 1) bed-load supply and transport, 2) pre-flood channel plan form, and 3) rapid declines in specific stream power downstream of constrictions and areas of high channel bed slope. The post-flood channel response has consisted of channel contraction through the aggradation of the channel bed and the formation of fine-grained benches inset within the widened channel margins. The most significant post-flood geomorphic changes have occurred at and downstream from ephemeral tributaries that contribute large volumes of sediment.

  15. Development of flood index by characterisation of flood hydrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Biswa; Suman, Asadusjjaman

    2015-04-01

    In recent years the world has experienced deaths, large-scale displacement of people, billions of Euros of economic damage, mental stress and ecosystem impacts due to flooding. Global changes (climate change, population and economic growth, and urbanisation) are exacerbating the severity of flooding. The 2010 floods in Pakistan and the 2011 floods in Australia and Thailand demonstrate the need for concerted action in the face of global societal and environmental changes to strengthen resilience against flooding. Due to climatological characteristics there are catchments where flood forecasting may have a relatively limited role and flood event management may have to be trusted upon. For example, in flash flood catchments, which often may be tiny and un-gauged, flood event management often depends on approximate prediction tools such as flash flood guidance (FFG). There are catchments fed largely by flood waters coming from upstream catchments, which are un-gauged or due to data sharing issues in transboundary catchments the flow of information from upstream catchment is limited. Hydrological and hydraulic modelling of these downstream catchments will never be sufficient to provide any required forecasting lead time and alternative tools to support flood event management will be required. In FFG, or similar approaches, the primary motif is to provide guidance by synthesising the historical data. We follow a similar approach to characterise past flood hydrographs to determine a flood index (FI), which varies in space and time with flood magnitude and its propagation. By studying the variation of the index the pockets of high flood risk, requiring attention, can be earmarked beforehand. This approach can be very useful in flood risk management of catchments where information about hydro-meteorological variables is inadequate for any forecasting system. This paper presents the development of FI and its application to several catchments including in Kentucky in the USA, Oc-gok Basin in Republic of Korea and the haor region of Bangladesh. Keywords: flood index, flood risk management, flood characteristics

  16. Flood resilience technology, systems and toolls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvin, S.; Kelly, D.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years there has been a general acceptance that the risk from flooding is increasing, primarily due to increased urbanization and the impact of climate change (Zevenbergen et al, 2010). Flood resilience technology (FRe T) is a term used to describe a collection of technologies, materials and products that are used to protect and allow recovery of buildings, communities and infrastructure from flooding. River or coastal flooding is the focus of the legislation, regulation and guidance that is intended to control development and ensure the risk to new properties is low. However, the cost of building and maintaining primary flood defense systems for rivers and coasts is becoming prohibitive and as such future flood management needs to consider a range of measures to manage risk, in particular improving the resilience of buildings, infrastructure and communities. Surface water flooding is now known to cause as much damage as coastal and riverine flooding combined and is as likely to be experienced by both existing and new developments. Therefore FRe T solutions need to be adaptable and flexible. Previous research has shown that barriers exist to the acceptance and use of FRe T by a range of stakeholders. This includes the need to deploy household level items in time, the uncertainty over the performance of FRe T in actual flood situations or reluctance to adopt new or unknown solutions. Investment by public authorities in FRe Technology in recent years has typically increased in countries such as the UK. However, there has been to date little consideration of the system within which the technology has been employed and there is a lack of tools to assist decision makers. The SMARTeST project (an EU FP7 research project) is addressing the issues involved in FRe technology implementation. The findings of the research will be presented, including case studies where the integrated approaches of technology, systems and tools have been considered. SMARTeST seeks to create an environment for innovation in FRe technology, using new approaches that will reduce the risks involved in function, deployment, performance. The paper will describe how alliances of manufacturers, test houses and research organizations can bring about innovation. (Reference; Zevenbergen C, et al, C22 Book, Urban Flood Management, 2010)

  17. Big Thompson River Flooding

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The USGS Big Thompson River at Loveland streamgage, pictured here, was damaged during the September 2013 Colorado flood event. USGS crews installed a temporary streamgage nearby to compensate for the lag in data....

  18. Repairing Your Flooded Home

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Contents The mud left behind by flood- waters contains most of the health hazards you will face. ... system will be blowing foul, dusty air that contains the same health hazards you are trying to ...

  19. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect

    2002-02-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop the flooding predictor, an advanced process control strategy, into a universally useable tool that will maximize the separation yield of a distillation column.

  20. Flooding the market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Diane; McShane, Michael

    2013-11-01

    A flood insurance market with risk-based prices in the UK will only stimulate climate change adaptation if it is part of a wider strategy that includes land-use planning, building regulations and water management.

  1. Souris River Flooding

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Souris River flooding a road near Sherwood, North Dakota.On June 23, 2011, USGS personnel were there to measure the streamflow. Streamflow was approximately 27,100 cubic feet per second, stage approximately 27.98 feet....

  2. Japan: Tsunami Flooding

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Lingering Floods from Tohoku-oki Earthquake Tsunami     View Larger Image The March 11, 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake triggered a deadly and destructive tsunami whose impacts were felt ...

  3. Reconstruction of flood events based on documentary data and transnational flood risk analysis of the Upper Rhine and its French and German tributaries since AD 1480

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himmelsbach, I.; Glaser, R.; Schoenbein, J.; Riemann, D.; Martin, B.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the long-term analysis of flood occurrence along the southern part of the Upper Rhine River system and of 14 of its tributaries in France and Germany covering the period starting from 1480 BC. Special focus is given on the temporal and spatial variations of flood events and their underlying meteorological causes over time. Examples are presented of how long-term information about flood events and knowledge about the historical aspect of flood protection in a given area can help to improve the understanding of risk analysis and therefor transnational risk management. Within this context, special focus is given to flood vulnerability while comparing selected historical and modern extreme events, establishing a common evaluation scheme. The transnational aspect becomes especially evident analyzing the tributaries: on this scale, flood protection developed impressively different on the French and German sides. We argue that comparing high technological standards of flood protection, which were initiated by the dukes of Baden on the German side starting in the early 19th century, misled people to the common belief that the mechanical means of flood protection like dams and barrages can guarantee the security from floods and their impacts. This lead to widespread settlements and the establishment of infrastructure as well as modern industries in potentially unsafe areas until today. The legal status in Alsace on the French side of the Rhine did not allow for continuous flood protection measurements, leading to a constant - and probably at last annoying - reminder that the floodplains are a potentially unsafe place to be. From a modern perspective of flood risk management, this leads to a significant lower aggregation of value in the floodplains of the small rivers in Alsace compared to those on the Baden side - an interesting fact - especially if the modern European Flood directive is taken into account.

  4. Winter water; the flooding at Boise, Idaho, January 11-12, 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harper, Robert William; Hubbard, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    On January 11 and 12, 1979, unseasonally warm temperatures and rain on several inches of snow lying on frozen ground caused widespread flooding in and around Boise, Idaho. Streams north of Boise crested on January 11, flooding neighborhoods in and adjacent to the mountain foothills. On January 12, streams south and west of the city reached their highest stages. Flooding was confined to ground levels and basements of homes and businesses in low-lying areas. The U.S. Geological Survey made indirect measurements of peak dicharges at selected sites on streams that had the worst flooding. The peak discharges were relatively low in comparison with data from historic floods. Much more severe flooding than this event is likely to occur in the future. More data are needed on the occurrence of flooding in Boise Valley to aid in flood-protection planning. (USGS)

  5. Characterizing the impacts of water resources infrastructure, humans, and hydrologic nonstationarity on changes in flood risk across the Himalaya region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tullos, D. D.

    2014-12-01

    As flood control infrastructure reaches its design life, and climate change, population growth, and urban migration increase flood risk, the historical paradigm of store-then-release floodwaters behind rigid infrastructure is of decreasing physical and socioeconomic value. Instead, a new paradigm of sustainable flood management is emerging, which can be framed in the context of three elements that can contribute to and/or mitigate flood risk: 1) water resources infrastructure, 2) policies and socioeconomics, and 3) changing climates and land use. In this presentation, I present the results of analysis on the role of these three elements in contributing to flood risk of the Sutlej River (India) and the Koshi River (Nepal) basins for six historical flood events. The Himalaya region was selected based on the a) increasing intensity of monsoonal rains, b) increasing prevalence of glacial lake outburst floods, c) water resources management that achieves short-term development goals but lacks long-term sustainability, and d) other socio-economic, environmental, and geopolitical factors. I develop and apply a flood risk management framework that is based on metrics for characterizing the losses associated with the three elements contributing to major floods in the Himalaya region. Derived from a variety of data sources, results highlight how, across different hydrogeologic settings and various flood magnitudes, the largest influences on high flood losses are associated with inflexible water resources infrastructure and inappropriate development and flood management policies. Particularly for the most destructive events, which are generally associated with landslides and other natural hazards in this region, the effectiveness of some types of traditional and inflexible flood management infrastructure, including large dams and levees, is limited. As opposed to the probability of a particular flood event, findings illustrate the importance of the damages side of the flood risk equation, which is often the most controllable but disregarded element of flood risk management. In addition, results lead to a hypothesized matrix of appropriate flood management strategies for the types of flood events that occur in the hydrogeology and cultural settings of high mountain areas and the lowlands to which they drain.

  6. Contemporary channel-levee systems in active borderland basin plains, California Continental Borderland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwalbach, J.R.; Edwards, B.D.; Gorsline, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    Long-range large-scale side-scan (GLORIA) information, other seismic reflection profiling studies, and data from cores in the California Continental Borderland, have defined active levee-channel systems extending basinward from the lower fan of Hueneme-Mugu Submarine Fan, Redondo Submarine Fan, and Santa Cruz Canyon Fan in Santa Monica, San Pedro and Santa Cruz Basins, respectively. The Holocene distributaries have been created by a series of turbidity current events. These distributaries range in length from 10-25 km, and are wide (2-5 km) and low-relief (1-10 m) in their distal parts. They are also active conduits for nepheloid flows. Distributions of sedimentological parameters typically mimic the pattern of levee-channel systems. Organic carbon and biogenic carbonate content roughly outline the systems. Channels are incised in the upper to middle fan areas, and become constructional leveed channels in the lower fan and basin plain as the channel gradient adjusts to maintain a graded profile. Thus sediment gravity flows are generally confined to channels in the upper fan zones, but deposit both channelized and over-bank deposits on the lower fan and basin floor. The deposits show that the canyon-fan activity has continued during a rising sea level phase. It is evident that canyon headward erosion rates have been equal to or greater than the transgression rate, and that the canyon-fan systems have remained linked with their sediment sources. Frequency of events was probably higher, and volumes of the events were often larger, during the glacially lowered sea level episodes. However, turbidity currents of sufficient volume to reach the basin floors continue to occur at century or multi-century intervals. As one progresses headward in each system, the number of flows per length of core increases. Small flows that do not pass beyond the distributaries are much more frequent, and may be decadal in frequency, or even more frequent in the Santa Monica Basin system. These California borderland basins are probably typical of narrow active margins where rate of lateral sea level transgression is less than or equal to the rate of canyon headward erosion. The canyons maintain connections with sediment sources during sea level rise, and the systems therefore are active during the entire sea level cycle. Thus sediment supply is not a simple function of eustacy. This contrasts with the simplified sequence model developed on passive margins where canyons turn off as sea level rises.

  7. 4-D monitoring of levee stability from Balloon and Airborne LIDAR data sets, Sherman Island, Sacramento Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, B. A.; Glennie, C. L.; Ericksen, T. L.; Foster, J. H.; Hudnut, K. W.; Hauser, D.; Avery, J.

    2012-12-01

    To assess local subsidence and levee stability, we compared data acquired in May 2012 by a newly developed Balloon-mounted laser scanning systm (BLIDAR) with a 2007 airborne laser scanning (ALS) dataset from Sherman Island in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. In one day, we scanned a 5 km stretch of the island's southwestern levee, towing the BLIDAR behind a vehicle moving at speeds of 7-10km/h. Data density is ~ 1000/m^2 and comparison with Terrestrial Laser Scanning data from the same targets determines vertical accuracy of ~ 4 cm (1 sigma) and ~10cm in the horizontal. The ALS survey, acquired with a fixed wing aircraft, had data density of ~1/m^2 and vertical accuracy of 18.5 cm at a 95% confidence level. Differencing the 2012 and 2007 data sets documents locally variable subsidence over spatial scales of order ~100m with magnitudes of 10s of cm's on the levee's crowns and inland slopes, as well as the levee slope/island interior boundary. The high subsidence regions do not appear to be correlated with levee slopes, suggesting that an underlying process ranging from fill-consolidation to ongoing island peat compaction controls local levee subsidence. Importantly, the BLIDAR-ALS comparison yielded dense data for a region where two previous space-geodetic surveys (InSAR) had failed to yield returns. We speculate that the large amounts of surface change, both from engineering activities and high subsidence rates prevent satellite radar image correlation rendering the InSAR technique ineffective. The robust performance characteristics of the BLIDAR system, combined with its relatively low construction and operating costs, highlights BLIDAR's future utility in assessing co-seismic and post-seismic rupture mapping and monitoring in association with prexisting Lidar data sets.

  8. Flood resilience and uncertainty in flood risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beven, K.; Leedal, D.; Neal, J.; Bates, P.; Hunter, N.; Lamb, R.; Keef, C.

    2012-04-01

    Flood risk assessments do not normally take account of the uncertainty in assessing flood risk. There is no requirement in the EU Floods Directive to do so. But given the generally short series (and potential non-stationarity) of flood discharges, the extrapolation to smaller exceedance potentials may be highly uncertain. This means that flood risk mapping may also be highly uncertainty, with additional uncertainties introduced by the representation of flood plain and channel geometry, conveyance and infrastructure. This suggests that decisions about flood plain management should be based on exceedance probability of risk rather than the deterministic hazard maps that are common in most EU countries. Some examples are given from 2 case studies in the UK where a framework for good practice in assessing uncertainty in flood risk mapping has been produced as part of the Flood Risk Management Research Consortium and Catchment Change Network Projects. This framework provides a structure for the communication and audit of assumptions about uncertainties.

  9. Analyses of water, core material, and elutriate samples collected near Sicily Island, Louisiana (Sicily Island area levee project)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demcheck, Dennis K.; Dupuy, Alton J.

    1980-01-01

    Samples consisting of composited core material were collected from five areas by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey to provide data on the impact of proposed channel excavation and levee construction in the Sicily Island area, Louisiana. Samples of receiving water from the five areas, selected to represent the water that will contact the proposed dredged material of the levee fill material, also were collected. Chemical and physical analyses were performed on samples of core material and native water and on elutriate samples of specific core material-receiving water mixtures. The results of these analyses are presented without interpretation. (USGS)

  10. Characterizing land surface change and levee stability in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta using UAVSAR radar imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, C.; Bawden, G.; Deverel, S.; Dudas, J.; Hensley, S.

    2011-01-01

    The islands of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta have been subject to subsidence since they were first reclaimed from the estuary marshlands starting over 100 years ago, with most of the land currently lying below mean sea level. This area, which is the primary water resource of the state of California, is under constant threat of inundation from levee failure. Since July 2009, we have been imaging the area using the quad-polarimetric UAVSAR L-band radar, with eighteen data sets collected as of April 2011. Here we report results of our polarimetric and differential interferometric analysis of the data for levee deformation and land surface change. ?? 2011 IEEE.

  11. Geophysical Characterization of the American River Levees, Sacramento, California, using Electromagnetics, Capacitively Coupled Resistivity, and DC Resistivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asch, Theodore H.; Deszcz-Pan, Maria; Burton, Bethany L.; Ball, Lyndsay B.

    2008-01-01

    A geophysical characterization of a portion of American River levees in Sacramento, California was conducted in May, 2007. Targets of interest included the distribution and thickness of sand lenses that underlie the levees and the depth to a clay unit that underlies the sand. The concern is that the erosion of these sand lenses can lead to levee failure in highly populated areas of Sacramento. DC resistivity (Geometric?s OhmMapper and Advanced Geosciences, Inc.?s SuperSting R8 systems) and electromagnetic surveys (Geophex?s GEM-2) were conducted over a 6 mile length of the levee on roads and bicycle and horse trails. 2-D inversions were conducted on all the geophysical data. The OhmMapper and SuperSting surveys produced consistent inversion results that delineated potential sand and clay units. GEM-2 apparent resistivity data were consistent with the DC inversion results. However, the GEM-2 data could not be inverted due to low electromagnetic response levels, high ambient electromagnetic noise, and large system drifts. While this would not be as large a problem in conductive terrains, it is a problem for a small induction number electromagnetic profiling system such as the GEM-2 in a resistive terrain (the sand lenses). An integrated interpretation of the geophysical data acquired in this investigation is presented in this report that includes delineation of those areas consisting of predominantly sand and those areas consisting predominantly of clay. In general, along most of this part of the American River levee system, sand lenses are located closest to the river and clay deposits are located further away from the river. The interpreted thicknesses of the detected sand deposits are variable and range from 10 ft up to 60 ft. Thus, despite issues with the GEM-2 inversion, this geophysical investigation successfully delineated sand lenses and clay deposits along the American River levee system and the approximate depths to underlying clay zones. The results of this geophysical investigation should help the USACE to maintain the current levee system while also assisting the designers and planners of levee enhancements with the knowledge of what is to be expected from the near-surface geology and where zones of concern may be located.

  12. Emotions, trust, and perceived risk: affective and cognitive routes to flood preparedness behavior.

    PubMed

    Terpstra, Teun

    2011-10-01

    Despite the prognoses of the effects of global warming (e.g., rising sea levels, increasing river discharges), few international studies have addressed how flood preparedness should be stimulated among private citizens. This article aims to predict Dutch citizens' flood preparedness intentions by testing a path model, including previous flood hazard experiences, trust in public flood protection, and flood risk perceptions (both affective and cognitive components). Data were collected through questionnaire surveys in two coastal communities (n= 169, n= 244) and in one river area community (n= 658). Causal relations were tested by means of structural equation modeling (SEM). Overall, the results indicate that both cognitive and affective mechanisms influence citizens' preparedness intentions. First, a higher level of trust reduces citizens' perceptions of flood likelihood, which in turn hampers their flood preparedness intentions (cognitive route). Second, trust also lessens the amount of dread evoked by flood risk, which in turn impedes flood preparedness intentions (affective route). Moreover, the affective route showed that levels of dread were especially influenced by citizens' negative and positive emotions related to their previous flood hazard experiences. Negative emotions most often reflected fear and powerlessness, while positive emotions most frequently reflected feelings of solidarity. The results are consistent with the affect heuristic and the historical context of Dutch flood risk management. The great challenge for flood risk management is the accommodation of both cognitive and affective mechanisms in risk communications, especially when most people lack an emotional basis stemming from previous flood hazard events. PMID:21477090

  13. Comparison of methods for separating flood frequency of reservoir by sub-seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Xie, M.; Xie, K.; Li, R.

    2015-10-01

    The development of separate flood frequency distributions for different sub-seasons within a year can be useful for protection, storage and utilization of flood flows for the reservoir operation management. This paper applies conventional statistical method, fractal method and the mixed Von Mises distribution to the separation of flood sub-seasons for inflows to Hongfeng Reservoir in China. Design floods are found for different sub-seasons, along with flood control levels for flood regulation. The flood season is divided into four sub-seasons using the fractal method: the pre-rainy season (May), main-flood season (June and July), late-flood season I (August) and late-flood season II (September). The mixed Von Mises distribution method accounts for the general flood pattern and combines August and September as one late-flood season, for three sub-seasons with different frequency distributions. The flood regulation calculation results show little difference between the control water levels in August and September, so the two can be combined into one period.

  14. Erosional and depositional patterns associated with the 1993 Missouri River floods inferred from SIR-C and TOPSAR radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izenberg, N. R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Brackett, R. A.; Saatchi, S. S.; Osburn, G. R.; Dohrenwend, J.

    1996-10-01

    The Missouri River floods of 1993 caused significant and widespread damage to the floodplains between Kansas City and St. Louis. Immediately downstream of levee breaks, flood waters scoured the bottoms. As the floodwaters continued, they spread laterally and deposited massive amounts of sand as crevasse splays on top of agricultural fields. We explore the use of radar interferometry and backscatter data for quantitative estimation of scour and deposition for Jameson Island/Arrow Rock Bottoms and Lisbon Bottoms, two bottoms that were heavily damaged during the floods and subsequently abandoned. Shuttle imaging radar C (SIR-C) L band (24 cm) HH (horizontally transmitted and horizontally received) radar backscatter data acquired in October 1994 were used together with a distorted Born approximation canopy scattering model to determine that the abundance of natural leafy forbs controlled the magnitude of backscatter for former agricultural fields. Forb areal density was found to be inversely correlated with thickness of sand deposited during the floods, presumably because thick sands prevented roots from reaching nutrient rich, moist bottoms soils. Using the inverse relationship, a lower bound for the mass of sand added was found to be 6.3 million metric tons over the 17 km2 study area. Digital elevation data from topographic synthetic aperture radar (TOPSAR) C band (5.6 cm) interferometric observations acquired in August 1994 were compared to a series of elevation profiles collected on the ground. Vertical errors in TOPSAR were estimated to range from 1 to 2 m, providing enough accuracy to generate an estimate of total mass (4.7 million metric tons) removed during erosion of levees and scour of the bottoms terrains. Net accretion of material to the study areas is consistent with the geologic record of major floods where sediment-laden floodwaters crested over natural levees, initially scoured into the bottoms, and then deposited sands as crevasse splays as the flows spread out and slowed by frictional dissipation. The addition of artificial levees to the Missouri River system has undoubtedly enhanced flood damage, although quantitative estimation of the degree of enhancement will require additional work.

  15. Erosional and depositional patterns associated with the 1993 Missouri River floods inferred from SIR-C and TOPSAR radar data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izenberg, N.R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Brackett, R.A.; Saatchi, S.S.; Osburn, G.R.; Dohrenwend, J.

    1996-01-01

    The Missouri River floods of 1993 caused significant and widespread damage to the floodplains between Kansas City and St. Louis. Immediately downstream of levee breaks, flood waters scoured the bottoms. As the floodwaters continued, they spread laterally and deposited massive amounts of sand as crevasse splays on top of agricultural fields. We explore the use of radar interferometry and backscatter data for quantitative estimation of scour and deposition for Jameson Island/Arrow Rock Bottoms and Lisbon Bottoms, two bottoms that were heavily damaged during the floods and subsequently abandoned. Shuttle imaging radar C (SIR-C) L band (24 cm) HH (horizontally transmitted and horizontally received) radar backscatter data acquired in October 1994 were used together with a distorted Born approximation canopy scattering model to determine that the abundance of natural leafy forbs controlled the magnitude of backscatter for former agricultural fields. Forb areal density was found to be inversely correlated with thickness of sand deposited during the floods, presumably because thick sands prevented roots from reaching nutrient rich, moist bottoms soils. Using the inverse relationship, a lower bound for the mass of sand added was found to be 6.3 million metric tons over the 17 km2 study area. Digital elevation data from topographic synthetic aperture radar (TOPSAR) C band (5.6 cm) interferometric observations acquired in August 1994 were compared to a series of elevation profiles collected on the ground. Vertical errors in TOPSAR were estimated to range from 1 to 2 m, providing enough accuracy to generate an estimate of total mass (4.7 million metric tons) removed during erosion of levees and scour of the bottoms terrains. Net accretion of material to the study areas is consistent with the geologic record of major floods where sediment-laden floodwaters crested over natural levees, initially scoured into the bottoms, and then deposited sands as crevasse splays as the flows spread out and slowed by frictional dissipation. The addition of artificial levees to the Missouri River system has undoubtedly enhanced flood damage, although quantitative estimation of the degree of enhancement will require additional work. Copyright 1996 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Probable maximum flood control; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    DeGabriele, C.E.; Wu, C.L.

    1991-11-01

    This study proposes preliminary design concepts to protect the waste-handling facilities and all shaft and ramp entries to the underground from the probable maximum flood (PMF) in the current design configuration for the proposed Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) repository protection provisions were furnished by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USSR) or developed from USSR data. Proposed flood protection provisions include site grading, drainage channels, and diversion dikes. Figures are provided to show these proposed flood protection provisions at each area investigated. These areas are the central surface facilities (including the waste-handling building and waste treatment building), tuff ramp portal, waste ramp portal, men-and-materials shaft, emplacement exhaust shaft, and exploratory shafts facility.

  17. EC and EM surveys of a levee of the Tuolumne River, Stanislaus County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo, I.; Ferriz, H. D.

    2010-12-01

    The Tuolumne River Regional Park is built over a non-engineered levee, which allegedly included a portion of a 1920s landfill. EC and EM surveys were conducted to substantiate this report. The conductivity measurements were acquired using a Geonics EM-31 MK2, Geonics EM-34, and the AGI Superstring Resistivity meters. The Geonics EM-31 MK2 acquired conductivity data in the horizontal and vertical dipole mode with theoretical penetration depths of 3 meters and 6 m respectively. The Geonics EM-34 acquired data at spacings of 10 and 20 m in both horizontal and vertical mode, with theoretical penetrations of 7.5 m, 15 m, and 30 m. The location of all electromagnetic measurements where tracked using a Trimble 114 GPS receiver. The AGI Superstring resistivity meter collected data in dipole-dipole mode over a 108-meter span with a four-meter spacing between each stake. The EM conductivity ranges from 20 mS/m to 50mS/m on the background portions of the levee, but the central portions of the profile include high conductivity anomalies (120 mS/m to 300 mS/m), which potentially represents the old landfill. The anomalies form pockets within the profile, rather than a continuous block, which leads us to believe that the profile cuts only the fringe of the landfill. Resistivity imaging confirms the presence of low resistivity materials (< 10 ohmm) at depths from 2 to 7 m, underlain by a zone of higher resistivities (20 to 80 ohmm) to a depth of 20 m. Because the area is used as a park, and is periodically irrigated, we cannot discount the possibility that some of the high conductivity/low resistivity anomalies could be related to increased water content in the soil.

  18. Losses of surface runoff, total solids, and nitrogen during bermudagrass establishment on levee embankments.

    PubMed

    Burwell, Robert W; Beasley, Jeffrey S; Gaston, Lewis A; Borst, Steven M; Sheffield, Ron E; Strahan, Ron E; Munshaw, Gregg C

    2011-01-01

    Nutrient and sediment runoff from newly constructed levee embankments pose a threat to water quality during soft armor vegetation establishment. Research was initiated in 2008 and 2009 to evaluate the effect of bermudagrass ( L.) coverage and N source on nutrient and sediment runoff from levee embankments during establishment. Bermudagrass plots were seeded at 195.3 kg pure live seed ha and fertilized at 50 kg N ha using a water-soluble N source, urea or NH-NO, or slow-release N source, S-coated urea (SCU) or urea formaldehyde (UF), with controls unfertilized. Vegetative cover percentage, time until the onset of runoff, runoff volume, and total solids (TS), NO-N, and NH-N concentrations were measured from simulated and natural rainfall events for 70 d in 2008 and 56 d in 2009. Bermudagrass at 90% grass cover delayed the onset of runoff an additional 441 to 538 s and reduced runoff volumes 74 to 84% of that exhibited at 10% grass cover. Nitrogen fertilizers did not accelerate bermudagrass growth sufficiently, however, to reduce TS loading compared with unfertilized bermudagrass in either year of the study. The application of urea and SCU resulted in cumulative N losses of 2.45 and 3.13 kg ha compared with 1.59 kg ha from the unfertilized bermudagrass in 2008, and 1.73 kg ha from NH-NO vs. 0.24 kg ha from controls in 2009. Only UF increased bermudagrass establishment without increasing cumulative N losses compared with unfertilized bermudagrass. Therefore, the benefit of greater erosion and runoff resistance expected from N-accelerated vegetative growth did not occur but had the unintended consequence of higher N losses when water-soluble N and SCU fertilizers were applied. PMID:21712593

  19. 12 CFR 760.9 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. 760.9 Section 760.9 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION... special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. (a) Notice requirement. When... flood insurance purchase requirements set forth in section 102(b) of the Flood Disaster Protection...

  20. 12 CFR 760.9 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. 760.9 Section 760.9 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION... special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. (a) Notice requirement. When... flood insurance purchase requirements set forth in section 102(b) of the Flood Disaster Protection...

  1. 12 CFR 22.9 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... purchase requirements set forth in section 102(b) of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, as amended... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of special flood hazards and... CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS 22.9 Notice of...

  2. Uncertainty and sensitivity assessment of flood risk assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Moel, H.; Aerts, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    Floods are one of the most frequent and costly natural disasters. In order to protect human lifes and valuable assets from the effect of floods many defensive structures have been build. Despite these efforts economic losses due to catastrophic flood events have, however, risen substantially during the past couple of decades because of continuing economic developments in flood prone areas. On top of that, climate change is expected to affect the magnitude and frequency of flood events. Because these ongoing trends are expected to continue, a transition can be observed in various countries to move from a protective flood management approach to a more risk based flood management approach. In a risk based approach, flood risk assessments play an important role in supporting decision making. Most flood risk assessments assess flood risks in monetary terms (damage estimated for specific situations or expected annual damage) in order to feed cost-benefit analysis of management measures. Such flood risk assessments contain, however, considerable uncertainties. This is the result from uncertainties in the many different input parameters propagating through the risk assessment and accumulating in the final estimate. Whilst common in some other disciplines, as with integrated assessment models, full uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of flood risk assessments are not so common. Various studies have addressed uncertainties regarding flood risk assessments, but have mainly focussed on the hydrological conditions. However, uncertainties in other components of the risk assessment, like the relation between water depth and monetary damage, can be substantial as well. This research therefore tries to assess the uncertainties of all components of monetary flood risk assessments, using a Monte Carlo based approach. Furthermore, the total uncertainty will also be attributed to the different input parameters using a variance based sensitivity analysis. Assessing and visualizing the uncertainties of the final risk estimate will be helpful to decision makers to make better informed decisions and attributing this uncertainty to the input parameters helps to identify which parameters are most important when it comes to uncertainty in the final estimate and should therefore deserve additional attention in further research.

  3. Meteorology-hydrology study targets Typhoon Nari and Taipei flood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiung Sui, Chung; Huang, Ching-Yuang; Tsai, Yi-Ben; Chen, Ching-Sen; Lin, Pay-Liam; Shieh, Shinn-Liang; Li, Ming-Hsu; Liou, Yuei-An; Wang, Tai-Chi Chen; Wu, Ray-Shyan; Liu, Gin-Rong; Chu, Yen-Hsyang

    Typhoon Nari struck Taiwan on 16 September 2001, taking 92 lives. Analysis reveals that the storm's heavy rains were due to warmer ocean temperatures, Nari's unique track and slow-moving speed, and the terrain of Taiwan. Analysis further suggests that the heavy rains in Nari contained many small raindrops. The typhoon rains overwhelmed existing flood protection capacities downstream of the Chi-Lung River in a part of Taipei that has no regulatory reservoirs, resulting in major flooding. Preliminary findings underscore several key issues for future study, the goal of which will be to improve quantitative precipitation estimation/prediction, hydrologic modeling, and flood prediction.

  4. Modeling Flood Dynamics Along the Super-Elevated Channel Belt of the Yellow River, China, over the Last 3,000 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Overeem, I.; Kettner, A. J.; Gao, S.; Syvitski, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    During the much of the 20th Century, the Yellow River, China, carried between 1.1 and 1.6 Gt y-1 of sediment derived from the over-used Loess Plateau. A portion of this sediment load accumulates inside the artificial levees, reducing the accommodation space and subsequently building up the modern channel-belt >10m above the surrounding floodplains. Historical levees often failed along the older Yellow River courses resulting in >1000 floods in 3000 yrs. In the last millennium, the river has shifted its lower course every ~25 years, breached its levees once a year; in mid 17th century up to 3 breaches occurred per year. A novel methodology is employed to quantitatively reconstruct and interpret flood dynamics on the Yellow River. A reduced-complexity model is developed to explore how climate change and human activity affect levee breaches and river avulsions. The model integrates yearly morphological change along a channel belt with daily river fluxes, and hourly evolution of levee breaches. The model calculates breach characteristics at the scale of 100yr and 200km. To cope with the sparseness in historical records and to incorporate the complex and uncertain nature of flood behavior, 17,118 experiments are conducted to explore dominant factors controlling flood frequency and their likely values in historical times. Model sensitivity analyses reveal that under natural conditions, super-elevation of the channel belt dominates flood frequency. However, when there is significant human-accelerated basin erosion and breach repair, the dominant factors shift to a combination of mean annual precipitation, super-elevation, critical shear stress of weak channel banks, and the interval between breach initiation and its repair. With human perturbation, breaching became more sensitive to precipitation and channel bank strength. Applying uncertainty analyses, the most likely values of the dominant factors for six historical periods between 850BC and 1839AD are explored and used to quantitatively reconstruct the history of Yellow River floods. During 850BC-1839AD when the sediment load increased fourfold, the major breach recurrence interval was shortened from more than 500 years to less than 6 years, and the breach outflow rate increased ~27 times.

  5. Conceptual classification model for Sustainable Flood Retention Basins.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Miklas; Sadowski, Adam J

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to recommend a rapid conceptual classification model for Sustainable Flood Retention Basins (SFRB) used to control runoff in a temperate climate. An SFRB is an aesthetically pleasing retention basin predominantly used for flood protection adhering to sustainable drainage and best management practices. The classification model was developed on the basis of a database of 141 SFRB using the River Rhine catchment in Baden (part of Baden-Wrttemberg, Germany) as a case study. It is based on an agglomerative cluster analysis and is intended to be used by engineers and scientists to adequately classify the following different types of SFRB: Hydraulic Flood Retention Basin, Traditional Flood Retention Basin, Sustainable Flood Retention Wetland, Aesthetic Flood Retention Wetland, Integrated Flood Retention Wetland and Natural Flood Retention Wetland. The selection of classification variables was supported by a principal component analysis. The identification of SFRB in the data set was based on a Ward cluster analysis of 34 weighted classification variables. Scoring tables were defined to enable the assignment of the six SFRB definitions to retention basins in the data set. The efficiency of these tables was based on a scoring system which gave the conceptual model for the example case study sites an overall efficiency of approximately 60% (as opposed to 17% by chance). This conceptual classification model should be utilized to improve communication by providing definitions for SFRB types. The classification definitions are likely to be applicable for other regions with both temperate oceanic and temperate continental climates. PMID:18280029

  6. Flooding in Bifurcation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Masakazu; Matumoto, Aoki

    2010-05-01

    Edo River to diverge from Tone River on the right side flows away through Tokyo downtown, and into Tokyo Bay. Tone River of main stream flows through the north region of Kanto into Chiba prefecture of rural aria. Tone River originally flowed through present Edo River into Tokyo downtown. So when Tokyo (Edo era) became the political center of Japan 400 years ago, this place had been suffered from flood caused by augmenting downstream flowing of rainfall over watershed catchment area. Edo Government extended near independent small rivers and connected with Tone River and led away most of flood water transportation into Chiba prefecture to be a rural reason. The present rout of the river has been determined in the mass during the 16th century. Created artificial Edo River experimentally divided into 40 percentage and artificial Tone River divided into 60 percentage of flood water transportation. After that Japanese Government confirmed a safety against flood and confirmed to be a safety Tokyo by using SFM (storage function method) and SNFM (steady non-uniform flow method). Japanese Government estimated Plan High Water Discharge 17,500m3/s at upstream of the divergent point and Edo river flowing through 40 percentage (7,000m3/s) of 17,500m3/s which was same ratio as Edo era. But SFM and SNFM could not explain dynamic flow phenomena. We surveyed how many channel storage amount were there in this river by using UFM (unsteady flow method). We reproduce real flowing shape and carried out more detail dynamic phenomena. In this research, we had taken up diverse and various 11floods from 1981. These floods were confirmed that Edo River to be bifurcated less than 40 percentages. Large flood are not always high ratio of diversion in to Edo River. It's almost smaller ratio rather than higher ratio. For example, peak discharge 11,117m3/s, Aug. 1982 flood was bifurcated into Edo river flowing through 20 percentage of 11,117m3/s. Small flood peak discharge 1,030m3/s, Aug. 1992 flood was diverted into Edo river flowing through 33 percentage of 1,030m3/s. The case of these phenomena was arisen from channel storage. In right side of upstream, a lot of spur dike that Japanese Government constructed in 300 years ago invented storage effect. Otherwise, channel storage effect delayed the reach of peak discharge from upstream to Edo River downstream. We realized that channel storage have a ability to make a safe river and save person's life from flood water. We will show you each floods hydrograph at the EGU 2010. It is testified the channel storage that the difference between discharge of upstream and downstream during inverse phenomena which upstream is higher discharge than downstream. And more over, we will show you our UFM equation and current direction graph in design flood.

  7. Hydraulic analysis of measures for flood mitigation in floodplain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentova, J.; Valenta, P.; Weyskrabova, L.; Dostal, T.

    2012-04-01

    The question of possible flood control and flood mitigation measures and their effects is still challenging. While the effect of purely technical flood control measures such as dams or levees is sufficiently described by using any of widely spread or more specific models, the effectiveness of close-to-nature ones (river restoration, appropriate land use, landscape structure regeneration, etc.) is not adequately verified and quantified. On that account, the benefits and feasibility of integration of the natural potential of floodplains to absorb and transform flood wave is being discussed. In addition, there are many side benefits of close-to-nature measures which are hard to evaluate and include into decision making processes. This contribution presents a part of the study related to river and floodplain restoration and revitalization measures in catchments and their flood-control effect. In the study the possibilities of using one-dimensional (HEC-RAS) and two-dimensional hydraulic mathematical models (FAST2D, DIFEM2D) of steady and unsteady flow for estimation of transformation effects of a floodplain were compared. The comparison of used models was made with respect to computed results and also to the availability of input data, mathematical stability, processes and accuracy demands and time requirements. The above mentioned methods of hydraulic modelling were applied to three case study localities in the Czech Republic. The parts of river channels and their floodplain differ in terms of morphology, river channel form and training situation and land-use. Case study areas were selected to represent the main types of floodplains within the Czech Republic for their further classification related to flood wave transformation potential. The transformation effect is compared not only for the natural state of the floodplain, but also for various theoretical scenarios in each locality. Keywords Hydraulic modelling, flood control, floodplain, storage capacity, river restoration Acknowledgement This paper was created within the project NIVA "Water Retention in Floodplains and Ways of Increasing Water Retention" QH82078, and within Research Project No. MSM6840770002 "Revitalization of water system of the landscape and urban areas under heavy anthropogenic changes" and supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Technical University in Prague, grant No. SGS10/240/OHK1/3T/11.

  8. Multifractal Flood Frequency Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D.; Lovejoy, S.

    2007-12-01

    Hydrology and more generally sciences involved in water resources management, researches and technological or operational development face a fundamental difficulty: the extreme variability of hydrological fields. It clearly appears today that this variability is a function of the observation scale and yield natural hazards such as floods or droughts. The estimation of return periods for extreme precipitation and flooding events requires a model of the natural (unperturbed) statistical behaviour of the probability tails and the possible clustering (including possible long-range dependencies) of the extremes. Appropriate approaches for handling such non classical variability over wide ranges of time and space scale do exist. They are based on a fundamental property of the non-linear equations: scale invariance. Its specific framework is that of multifractals. In this framework hydrological variability builds up scale by scale leading to non-classical statistics; this provides the key element needed to better understand and predict floods. Scaling is a verifiable physical principle which can be exploited to model hydrological processes and estimate their statistics over wide ranges of space-time scales. We first present the Multifractal Flood Frequency Analysis (MFFA) tool and illustrate some results of its application to a large database (for more than 16000 selected stations over USA and Canada). We then discuss its efficiency by showing how the mean flow information - coupled with universal multifractal parametrizations with power law tails - can be used to estimate return times for extreme flood events.

  9. Improvements in fast-response flood modeling: desktop parallel computing and domain tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Judi, David R; Mcpherson, Timothy N; Burian, Steven J

    2009-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly important to have the ability to accurately forecast flooding, as flooding accounts for the most losses due to natural disasters in the world and the United States. Flood inundation modeling has been dominated by one-dimensional approaches. These models are computationally efficient and are considered by many engineers to produce reasonably accurate water surface profiles. However, because the profiles estimated in these models must be superimposed on digital elevation data to create a two-dimensional map, the result may be sensitive to the ability of the elevation data to capture relevant features (e.g. dikes/levees, roads, walls, etc...). Moreover, one-dimensional models do not explicitly represent the complex flow processes present in floodplains and urban environments and because two-dimensional models based on the shallow water equations have significantly greater ability to determine flow velocity and direction, the National Research Council (NRC) has recommended that two-dimensional models be used over one-dimensional models for flood inundation studies. This paper has shown that two-dimensional flood modeling computational time can be greatly reduced through the use of Java multithreading on multi-core computers which effectively provides a means for parallel computing on a desktop computer. In addition, this paper has shown that when desktop parallel computing is coupled with a domain tracking algorithm, significant computation time can be eliminated when computations are completed only on inundated cells. The drastic reduction in computational time shown here enhances the ability of two-dimensional flood inundation models to be used as a near-real time flood forecasting tool, engineering, design tool, or planning tool. Perhaps even of greater significance, the reduction in computation time makes the incorporation of risk and uncertainty/ensemble forecasting more feasible for flood inundation modeling (NRC 2000; Sayers et al. 2000).

  10. The August 2002 flood in Salzburg / Austria experience gained and lessons learned from the ``Flood of the century''?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesenegger, H.

    2003-04-01

    On the {12th} of August 2002 a low pressure system moved slowly from northern Italy towards Slovakia. It continuously carried moist air from the Mediterranean towards the northern rim of the Alps with the effect of wide-spread heavy rainfall in Salzburg and other parts of Austria. Daily precipitation amounts of 100 - 160 mm, in some parts even more, as well as rainfall intensities of 5 - 10 mm/h , combined with well saturated soils lead to a rare flood with a return period of 100 years and more. This rare hydrological event not only caused a national catastrophe with damages of several Billion Euro, but also endangered more than 200,000 people, and even killed some. As floods are dangerous, life-threatening, destructive, and certainly amongst the most frequent and costly natural disasters in terms of human hardship as well as economic loss, a great effort, therefore, has to be made to protect people against negative impacts of floods. In order to achieve this objective, various regulations in land use planning (flood maps), constructive measurements (river regulations and technical constructions) as well as flood warning systems, which are not suitable to prevent big floods, but offer in-time-warnings to minimize the loss of human lives, are used in Austria. HYDRIS (Hydrological Information System for flood forecasting in Salzburg), a modular river basin model, developed at Technical University Vienna and operated by the Hydrological Service of Salzburg, was used during the August 2002 flood providing accurate 3 to 4 hour forecasts within 3 % of the real peak discharge of the fast flowing River Salzach. The August {12^th}} flood was in many ways an exceptional, very fast happening event which took many people by surprise. At the gauging station Salzburg / Salzach (catchment area 4425 {km^2}) it took only eighteen hours from mean annual discharge (178 {m3/s}) to the hundred years flood (2300 {m3/s}). The August flood made clear, that there is a strong need for longer lead times in Salzburg's flood forecasts. Methods to incorporate precipitation forecasts, provided by the Met Office, as well as observations of actual soil conditions, therefore, have to be developed and should enable hydrologists to predict possible scenarios and impacts of floods, forecasted for the next 24 hours. As a further consequence of the August 2002 flood, building regulations, e.g. the use of oil tanks in flood prone areas, have to be checked and were necessary adapted. It is also necessary to make people, who already live in flood prone areas, aware of the dangers of floods. They also need to know about the limits of flood protection measurements and about what happens, if flood protection design values are exceeded. Alarm plans, dissemination of information by using modern communication systems (Internet) as well as communication failure in peak times and co-ordination of rescue units are also a subject to be looked at carefully. The above mentioned measurements are amongst others of a 10 point program, developed by the Government of the Province of Salzburg and at present checked with regards to feasibility. As it is to be expected, that the August 2002 flood was not the last rare one of this century, experience gained should be valuably for the next event.

  11. 76 FR 25310 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Zoar Levee and Diversion Dam, Dam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... Levee and Diversion Dam, Dam Safety Modification Study, Tuscarawas County, OH AGENCY: Department of the... purpose and need of this study. After full consideration of all alternatives, the best plan will be... Development Act of 2007 (Pub. L. 110-114). 2. Background: a. Guidance for this study is provided in...

  12. Improvements in the Weeding of Levee Slope of Terraced Paddy Fields with Statutory Regulation of Places of Scenic Beauty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchikawa, Yoshiyuki; Kimura, Kazuhiro; Hirata, Ayumi

    A growing number of terraced paddy fields in Japan are being conserved as cultural assets like places of scenic beauty. This has meant that the task of weeding levee slope of these terraced paddy fields has become increasingly important, not only for general maintenance of the terraced paddy fields, but also because of the impact landscape, vegetation and the surrounding environment. However, the steep gradient of the levee slope and lack of footholds mean that the workability and safety associated with this weeding work is problematic. In addition, in the event that an area has been designated as a cultural asset, there are restrictions regarding how it can be modified and local farmers are reluctant to change their traditional farming methods in such cases. This study therefore sought to clarify the actual condition of the levee slope weeding work undertaken in the places of scenic beauty Obasute Tanada district. Empirical validations of potential measures for reforming the work environment were evaluated based on the findings of this investigation. We demonstrated that it is possible to modify current work practices while still maintaining and preserving the terraced paddy fields, even in designated scenic locations. To improve the working environment for levee slope weeding, we propose creating berms to serve as footholds at the toes of slopes.

  13. Implications of using direct or indirect approaches on design flood assessment in urbanized river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravazzani, Giovanni; Mancini, Marco; Gianoli, Paride; Meucci, Stefania

    2013-04-01

    A number of approaches are possible for estimating design floods. In cases where long records of measured streamflow data are available, a direct statistical analysis of the data may be feasible. However, the streamflow data series are often too short to perform robust statistical inference. In many circumstances no measured streamflow data are available at the site of interest. Moreover, in urban area, when natural development of the watercourse is significantly altered by anthropic constraints such as bridges, detention ponds, and levees, design flood estimates may result significantly lower than natural discharge, with dangerous impact on downstream sections in case of further modifications of upstream river. Under such conditions the design flood can be assessed from rainfall-runoff transformation, under the assumptions that the Depth Duration Frequency curve characterizes the rainfall regime and assuming the critical flood design method. This work presents the application of distributed hydrological model FEST for the assessment of design flood of Olona river basin, a small watershed in northern Italy. The significant heterogeneity of river Olona basin is enhanced by the presence of a mixture of forest, natural landscapes, and highly urbanized areas that, despite small extent of the basin, require use of a spatially distributed hydrological model. The work shows that indirect method provides design discharges significantly greater respect to direct method when discharge measurements are strongly affected by upstream river overflows like in highly urbanized area.

  14. Agricultural damages and losses from ARkStorm scenario flooding in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wein, Anne; David Mitchell; Peters, Jeff; John Rowden; Johnny Tran; Alessandra Corsi; Dinitz, Laura B.

    2015-01-01

    Scientists designed the ARkStorm scenario to challenge the preparedness of California communities for widespread flooding with a historical precedence and increased likelihood under climate change. California is an important provider of vegetables, fruits, nuts, and other agricultural products to the nation. This study analyzes the agricultural damages and losses pertaining to annual crops, perennial crops, and livestock in California exposed to ARkStorm flooding. Statewide, flood damage is incurred on approximately 23% of annual crop acreage, 5% of perennial crop acreage, and 5% of livestock, e.g., dairy, feedlot, and poultry, acreage. The sum of field repair costs, forgone income, and product replacement costs span $3.7 and $7.1 billion (2009) for a range of inundation durations. Perennial crop loss estimates dominate, and the vulnerability of orchards and vineyards has likely increased with recent expansion. Crop reestablishment delays from levee repair and dewatering more than double annual crop losses in the delta islands, assuming the fragile system does not remain permanently flooded. The exposure of almost 200,000 dairy cows to ARkStorm flooding poses livestock evacuation challenges. Read More: http://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/%28ASCE%29NH.1527-6996.0000174

  15. Hydrology, vegetation, and soils of four north Florida River flood plains with an evaluation of state and federal wetland determinations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Light, H.M.; Darst, M.R.; MacLaughlin, M.T.; Sprecher, S.W.

    1993-01-01

    A study of hydrologic conditions, vegetation, and soils was made in wetland forests of four north Florida streams from 1987 to 1990. The study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation to support State and Federal efforts to improve wetland delineation methodology in flood plains. Plant communities and soils were described and related to topographic position and long-term hydrologic conditions at 10 study plots located on 4 streams. Detailed appendixes give average duration, frequency, and depth of flooding; canopy, subcanopy, and ground-cover vegetation; and taxonomic classification, series, and profile descriptions of soils for each plot. Topographic relief, range in stage, and depth of flooding were greatest on the alluvial flood plain of the Ochlockonee River, the largest of the four streams. Soils were silty in the lower elevations of the flood plain, and tree communities were distinctly different in each topographic zone. The Aucilla River flood plain was dominated by levees and terraces with very few depressions or low backwater areas. Oaks dominated the canopy of both lower and upper terraces of the Aucilla flood plain. Telogia Creek is a blackwater stream that is a major tributary of the Ochlockonee River. Its low, wet flood plain was dominated by Wyssa ogeche (Ogeechee tupelo) trees, had soils with mucky horizons, and was inundated by frequent floods of very short duration. The St. Marks River, a spring-fed stream with high base flow, had the least topographic relief and lowest range in stage of the four streams. St. Marks soils had a higher clay content than the other streams, and limestone bedrock was relatively close to the surface. Wetland determinations of the study plots based on State and Federal regulatory criteria were evaluated. Most State and Federal wetland determinations are based primarily on vegetation and soil characteristics because hydrologic records are usually not available. In this study, plots were located near long-term gaging stations, thus wetland determinations based on plant and soil characteristics could be evaluated at sites where long-term hydrologic conditions were known. Inconsistencies among hydrology, vegetation, and soil determinations were greatest on levee communities of the Ochlockonee and Aucilla River flood plains. Duration of average annual longest flood was almost 2 weeks for both plots. The wetland species list currently used (1991) by the State lacks many ground-cover species common to forested flood plains of north Florida rivers. There were 102 ground-cover species considered upland plants by the State that were present on the nine annually flooded plots of this study. Among them were 34 species that grew in areas continuously flooded for an average of 5 weeks or more each year. Common flood-plain species considered upland plants by the State were: Hypoxis leptocarpa (yellow star-grass), and two woody vines, Brunnichia ovata (ladies' eardrops) and Campsis radicans (trumpet-creeper), which were common in areas flooded continuously for 6 to 9 weeks a year; Sebastiania fruticosa (Sebastian-bush), Chasmanthium laxum (spikegrass), and Panicum dichotomum (panic grass), which typically grew in areas flooded an average of 2 to 3 weeks or more per year; Vitis rotundifolia (muscadine) and Toxicodendron radicans (poison-ivy), usually occurring in areas flooded an average of 1 to 2 weeks a year; and Quercus virginiana (live oak) present most often in areas flooded approximately 1 week a year. Federal wetland regulations (1989) limited wetland jurisdiction to only those areas that are inundated or saturated during the growing season. However, year-round hydrologic records were chosen in this report to describe the influence of hydrology on vegetation, because saturation, inundation, or flowing water can have a variety of both beneficial and adverse effects on flood-plain vegetation at any time of the

  16. Flood-prone areas and land-use planning; selected examples from the San Francisco Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waananen, Arvi O.; Limerinos, J.T.; Kockelman, W.J.; Spangle, W.E.; Blair, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    The common goal of flood-plain regulation and use is protecting life, minimizing public expenditures, and reducing flood loss. A comprehensive program combining structural and nonstructural measures can yield substantial benefits and may present a practical approach for managing a flood plain. A review of flood-plain planning, management, and regulation in the San Francisco Bay region, Calif., as shown by a study of Napa County , demonstrates complex multijurisdictional involvements. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. Landscape Vulnerability Analysis from Historic Lower Mississippi River Flood in 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwell, A. E.; Zhu, Z.; Dutta, D.; Greenberg, J.; Kumar, P.; Garcia, M. H.; Rhoads, B. L.; Parker, G.; Berretta, D.; Holmes, R. R.

    2012-12-01

    This study presents the results of a landscape vulnerability analysis of the Birds Point New Madrid Floodway in southeastern Missouri. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers intentionally inundated 500 square kilometers of agricultural floodplain in May of 2011 as an emergency flood control measure. We use pre-flood (2005) and post-flood (2011) high resolution Lidar data to establish the landscape impact of the levee breach on the floodplain. The Lidar DEMs were corrected for flight line errors using a Fourier filtering technique, and then subtracted to obtain a differential DEM of erosion and deposition patterns. We use soil erosion characteristics, AVIRIS remote sensing data, and 2D floodplain modeling to analyze the three components of vulnerability: sensitivity, exposure, and adaptive capacity. HydroSed2D (Liu, Landry and García 2008), a 2D flow model, is implemented to simulate flow depths and speeds, or flood exposure, over the entire floodway, as well as smaller sections at increased resolution using a nested grid. We classify woody vegetation based on AVIRIS remote sensing data, and represent vegetated regions in the model as varied values of the Manning's n coefficient. Soil erodibility, vegetation, topography, and flow characteristics are compared to observed landscape changes within the floodplain. Overall, the floodway showed a remarkable resilience to an extreme flood event. When compared to levee breaches on similar rivers in other floods, the lack of newly deposited sediment is noticeable and likely attributable to the presence of a substantial riparian corridor between the main channel of the Mississippi River and the floodway. Although many meander scars indicating former channels of the Mississippi River are apparent in the topography, only one, known as O'Bryan Ridge, experienced high volumes of erosion and deposition due to the flooding. The vulnerability analysis supports the hypothesis this high impact is due to a combination of vulnerability factors such as high flow speed, few localized patches of vegetation, and high soil erodibility at this ridge compared to other similar meander scars. The methodology of this analysis can be used to locate regions of high vulnerability in future floodplain management and flood control, and mitigate potentially catastrophic landscape change.

  18. Flood-resilient waterfront development in New York City: bridging flood insurance, building codes, and flood zoning.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Jeroen C J H; Botzen, W J Wouter

    2011-06-01

    Waterfronts are attractive areas for many-often competing-uses in New York City (NYC) and are seen as multifunctional locations for economic, environmental, and social activities on the interface between land and water. The NYC waterfront plays a crucial role as a first line of flood defense and in managing flood risk and protecting the city from future climate change and sea-level rise. The city of New York has embarked on a climate adaptation program (PlaNYC) outlining the policies needed to anticipate the impacts of climate change. As part of this policy, the Department of City Planning has recently prepared Vision 2020: New York City Comprehensive Waterfront Plan for the over 500 miles of NYC waterfront (NYC-DCP, 2011). An integral part of the vision is to improve resilience to climate change and sea-level rise. This study seeks to provide guidance for advancing the goals of NYC Vision 2020 by assessing how flood insurance, flood zoning, and building code policies can contribute to waterfront development that is more resilient to climate change. PMID:21692807

  19. Rapid flood loss estimation for large scale floods in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrter, Kai; Kreibich, Heidi; Merz, Bruno

    2013-04-01

    Rapid evaluations of flood events are needed for efficient responses both in emergency management and financial appraisal. Beyond that, closely monitoring and documenting the formation and development of flood events and their impacts allows for an improved understanding and in depth analyses of the interplay between meteorological, hydrological, hydraulic and societal causes leading to flood damage. This contribution focuses on the development of a methodology for the rapid assessment of flood events. In the first place, the focus is on the prediction of damage to residential buildings caused by large scale floods in Germany. For this purpose an operational flood event analysis system is developed. This system has basic spatial thematic data available and supports data capturing about the current flood situation. This includes the retrieval of online gauge data and the integration of remote sensing data. Further, it provides functionalities to evaluate the current flood situation, to assess the hazard extent and intensity and to estimate the current flood impact using the flood loss estimation model FLEMOps+r. The operation of the flood event analysis system will be demonstrated for the past flood event from January 2011 with a focus on the Elbe/Saale region. On this grounds, further requirements and potential for improving the information basis as for instance by including hydrological and /or hydraulic model results as well as information from social sensors will be discussed.

  20. 77 FR 18835 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  1. 77 FR 18841 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  2. 77 FR 18846 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  3. 78 FR 49278 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  4. 78 FR 49277 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  5. 78 FR 21143 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  6. 78 FR 5826 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  7. 77 FR 18844 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  8. 77 FR 18842 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  9. Fews-Risk: A step towards risk-based flood forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Daniel; Eilander, Dirk; de Leeuw, Annemargreet; Diermanse, Ferdinand; Weerts, Albrecht; de Bruijn, Karin; Beckers, Joost; Boelee, Leonore; Brown, Emma; Hazlewood, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Operational flood prediction and the assessment of flood risk are important components of flood management. Currently, the model-based prediction of discharge and/or water level in a river is common practice for operational flood forecasting. Based on the prediction of these values decisions about specific emergency measures are made within operational flood management. However, the information provided for decision support is restricted to pure hydrological or hydraulic aspects of a flood. Information about weak sections within the flood defences, flood prone areas and assets at risk in the protected areas are rarely used in a model-based flood forecasting system. This information is often available for strategic planning, but is not in an appropriate format for operational purposes. The idea of FEWS-Risk is the extension of existing flood forecasting systems with elements of strategic flood risk analysis, such as probabilistic failure analysis, two dimensional flood spreading simulation and the analysis of flood impacts and consequences. Thus, additional information is provided to the decision makers, such as: • Location, timing and probability of failure of defined sections of the flood defence line; • Flood spreading, extent and hydraulic values in the hinterland caused by an overflow or a breach flow • Impacts and consequences in case of flooding in the protected areas, such as injuries or casualties and/or damages to critical infrastructure or economy. In contrast with purely hydraulic-based operational information, these additional data focus upon decision support for answering crucial questions within an operational flood forecasting framework, such as: • Where should I reinforce my flood defence system? • What type of action can I take to mend a weak spot in my flood defences? • What are the consequences of a breach? • Which areas should I evacuate first? This presentation outlines the additional required workflows towards risk-based flood forecasting systems. In a cooperation between HR Wallingford and Deltares, the extended workflows are being integrated into the Delft-FEWS software system. Delft-FEWS provides modules for managing the data handling and forecasting process. Results of a pilot study that demonstrates the new tools are presented. The value of the newly generated information for decision support during a flood event is discussed.

  10. Effects of rating-curve uncertainty on probabilistic flood mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domeneghetti, A.; Vorogushyn, S.; Castellarin, A.; Merz, B.; Brath, A.

    2012-08-01

    Comprehensive flood risk assessment studies should quantify the global uncertainty in flood hazard estimation, for instance by mapping inundation extents together with their confidence intervals. This appears of particular importance in case of flood hazard assessments along dike-protected reaches where the possibility of occurrence of dike failures may considerably enhance the uncertainty. We present a methodology to derive probabilistic flood maps in dike-protected flood prone areas, where several sources of uncertainty are taken into account. In particular, this paper focuses on a 50 km reach of River Po (Italy) and three major sources of uncertainty in hydraulic modelling and flood mapping: uncertainties in the (i) upstream and (ii) downstream boundary conditions, and (iii) uncertainties in dike failures. Uncertainties in the definition of upstream boundary conditions (i.e. design-hydrographs) are assessed by applying different bivariate copula families to model the frequency regime of flood peaks and volumes. Uncertainties in the definition of downstream boundary conditions are characterised by associating the rating-curve used as downstream boundary condition with confidence intervals which reflect discharge measurements errors and interpolation errors. The effects of uncertainties in boundary conditions and randomness of dike failures are assessed by means of the Inundation Hazard Assessment Model (IHAM), a recently proposed hybrid probabilistic-deterministic model that considers three different failure mechanisms: overtopping, piping and micro-instability due to seepage. The results of the study show that the IHAM-based analysis enables probabilistic flood hazard mapping and provides decision makers with a fundamental piece of information for devising and implementing flood risk mitigation strategies in the presence of various sources of uncertainty.

  11. Probabilistic flood hazard mapping: effects of uncertain boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domeneghetti, A.; Vorogushyn, S.; Castellarin, A.; Merz, B.; Brath, A.

    2013-08-01

    Comprehensive flood risk assessment studies should quantify the global uncertainty in flood hazard estimation, for instance by mapping inundation extents together with their confidence intervals. This appears of particular importance in the case of flood hazard assessments along dike-protected reaches, where the possibility of occurrence of dike failures may considerably enhance the uncertainty. We present a methodology to derive probabilistic flood maps in dike-protected flood prone areas, where several sources of uncertainty are taken into account. In particular, this paper focuses on a 50 km reach of River Po (Italy) and three major sources of uncertainty in hydraulic modelling and flood mapping: uncertainties in the (i) upstream and (ii) downstream boundary conditions, and (iii) uncertainties in dike failures. Uncertainties in the definition of upstream boundary conditions (i.e. design-hydrographs) are assessed through a copula-based bivariate analysis of flood peaks and volumes. Uncertainties in the definition of downstream boundary conditions are characterised by uncertainty in the rating curve with confidence intervals which reflect discharge measurement and interpolation errors. The effects of uncertainties in boundary conditions and randomness of dike failures are assessed by means of the Inundation Hazard Assessment Model (IHAM), a recently proposed hybrid probabilistic-deterministic model that considers three different dike failure mechanisms: overtopping, piping and micro-instability due to seepage. The results of the study show that the IHAM-based analysis enables probabilistic flood hazard mapping and provides decision-makers with a fundamental piece of information for devising and implementing flood risk mitigation strategies in the presence of various sources of uncertainty.

  12. Probabilistic Flash Flood Forecasting using Stormscale Ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, J.; Gourley, J. J.; Kain, J. S.; Clark, A.; Novak, D.; Hong, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Flash flooding is one of the most costly and deadly natural hazards in the US and across the globe. The loss of life and property from flash floods could be mitigated with better guidance from hydrological models, but these models have limitations. For example, they are commonly initialized using rainfall estimates derived from weather radars, but the time interval between observations of heavy rainfall and a flash flood can be on the order of minutes, particularly for small basins in urban settings. Increasing the lead time for these events is critical for protecting life and property. Therefore, this study advances the use of quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs) from a stormscale NWP ensemble system into a distributed hydrological model setting to yield basin-specific, probabilistic flash flood forecasts (PFFFs). Rainfall error characteristics of the individual members are first diagnosed and quantified in terms of structure, amplitude, and location (SAL; Wernli et al., 2008). Amplitude and structure errors are readily correctable due to their diurnal nature, and the fine scales represented by the CAPS QPF members are consistent with radar-observed rainfall, mainly showing larger errors with afternoon convection. To account for the spatial uncertainty of the QPFs, we use an elliptic smoother, as in Marsh et al. (2012), to produce probabilistic QPFs (PQPFs). The elliptic smoother takes into consideration underdispersion, which is notoriously associated with stormscale ensembles, and thus, is good for targeting the approximate regions that may receive heavy rainfall. However, stormscale details contained in individual members are still needed to yield reasonable flash flood simulations. Therefore, on a case study basis, QPFs from individual members are then run through the hydrological model with their predicted structure and corrected amplitudes, but the locations of individual rainfall elements are perturbed within the PQPF elliptical regions using Monte Carlo sampling. This yields an ensemble of flash flood simulations. These simulated flows are compared to historically-based flow thresholds at each grid point to identify basin scales most susceptible to flash flooding, therefore, deriving PFFF products. This new approach is shown to: 1) identify the specific basin scales within the broader regions that are forecast to be impacted by flash flooding based on cell movement, rainfall intensity, duration, and the basin's susceptibility factors such as initial soil moisture conditions; 2) yield probabilistic information about on the forecast hydrologic response; and 3) improve lead time by using stormscale NWP ensemble forecasts.

  13. Epic Flooding in Georgia, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gotvald, Anthony J.; McCallum, Brian E.

    2010-01-01

    Metropolitan Atlanta-September 2009 Floods * The epic floods experienced in the Atlanta area in September 2009 were extremely rare. Eighteen streamgages in the Metropolitan Atlanta area had flood magnitudes much greater than the estimated 0.2-percent (500-year) annual exceedance probability. * The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) reported that 23 counties in Georgia were declared disaster areas due to this flood and that 16,981 homes and 3,482 businesses were affected by floodwaters. Ten lives were lost in the flood. The total estimated damages exceed $193 million (H.E. Longenecker, Federal Emergency Management Agency, written commun., November 2009). * On Sweetwater Creek near Austell, Ga., just north of Interstate 20, the peak stage was more than 6 feet higher than the estimated peak stage of the 0.2-percent (500-year) flood. Flood magnitudes in Cobb County on Sweetwater, Butler, and Powder Springs Creeks greatly exceeded the estimated 0.2-percent (500-year) floods for these streams. * In Douglas County, the Dog River at Ga. Highway 5 near Fairplay had a peak stage nearly 20 feet higher than the estimated peak stage of the 0.2-percent (500-year) flood. * On the Chattahoochee River, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gage at Vinings reached the highest level recorded in the past 81 years. Gwinnett, De Kalb, Fulton, and Rockdale Counties also had record flooding. South Georgia March and April 2009 Floods * The March and April 2009 floods in South Georgia were smaller in magnitude than the September floods but still caused significant damage. * No lives were lost in this flood. Approximately $60 million in public infrastructure damage occurred to roads, culverts, bridges and a water treatment facility (Joseph T. McKinney, Federal Emergency Management Agency, written commun., July 2009). * Flow at the Satilla River near Waycross, exceeded the 0.5-percent (200-year) flood. Flows at seven other stations in South Georgia exceeded the 1-percent (100-year) flood.

  14. 78 FR 36216 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ...Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundaries or zone designations, or regulatory floodways on the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs) and where applicable, in the supporting Flood Insurance Study (FIS) reports have been made final for the communities listed in the table......

  15. 78 FR 14318 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ...Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundaries or zone designations, or regulatory floodways on the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs) and where applicable, in the supporting Flood Insurance Study (FIS) reports have been made final for the communities listed in the table......

  16. 78 FR 8175 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ...Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundaries or zone designations, or regulatory floodways on the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs) and where applicable, in the supporting Flood Insurance Study (FIS) reports have been made final for the communities listed in the table......

  17. 78 FR 43908 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ...Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood depth, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs), and where applicable, in the supporting Flood Insurance Study (FIS) reports for the communities listed in......

  18. 78 FR 32679 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ...Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundaries or zone designations, or regulatory floodways on the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs) and where applicable, in the supporting Flood Insurance Study (FIS) reports have been made final for the communities listed in the table......

  19. 78 FR 78995 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ...Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood depth, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs), and where applicable, in the supporting Flood Insurance Study (FIS) reports for the communities listed in......

  20. 78 FR 20939 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ...Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood depth, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs), and where applicable, in the supporting Flood Insurance Study (FIS) reports for the communities listed in......

  1. 78 FR 14584 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ...Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood depth, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs), and where applicable, in the supporting Flood Insurance Study (FIS) reports for the communities listed in......

  2. Flooding on Elbe River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Heavy rains in Central Europe over the past few weeks have led to some of the worst flooding the region has witnessed in more than a century. The floods have killed more than 100 people in Germany, Russia, Austria, Hungary, and the Czech Republic and have led to as much as $20 billion in damage. This false-color image of the Elbe River and its tributaries was taken on August 20, 2002, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The floodwaters that inundated Dresden, Germany, earlier this week have moved north. As can be seen, the river resembles a fairly large lake in the center of the image just south of the town of Wittenberg. Flooding was also bad further downriver in the towns of Maqgdeburge and Hitzacker. Roughly 20,000 people were evacuated from their homes in northern Germany. Fifty thousand troops, border police, and technical assistance workers were called in to combat the floods along with 100,000 volunteers. The floodwaters are not expected to badly affect Hamburg, which sits on the mouth of the river on the North Sea. Credit:Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  3. Hydrologic Flood Routing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heggen, Richard J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses a short classroom-based BASIC program which routes stream flow through a system of channels and reservoirs. The program is suitable for analyses of open channel conveyance systems, flood detention reservoirs, and combinations of the two. (Author/JN)

  4. After the Flood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2007-01-01

    When floodwater swept through the McVities biscuit factory in Carlisle in January 2005 few were confident that it would reopen. The factory, in the Caldewgate area of the city, was one of the first casualties of the flood, as water, nine feet deep in places, coursed trough the food preparation areas, destroying equipment and covering everything in…

  5. After the Flood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2007-01-01

    When floodwater swept through the McVities biscuit factory in Carlisle in January 2005 few were confident that it would reopen. The factory, in the Caldewgate area of the city, was one of the first casualties of the flood, as water, nine feet deep in places, coursed trough the food preparation areas, destroying equipment and covering everything in

  6. The Stanford Flood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leighton, Philip D.

    1979-01-01

    Describes, from the flood to the start of freeze-drying operations, the preservation efforts of Stanford University regarding books damaged by water in the Green Library in November 1978. Planning, action, and mopping-up activities are chronicled, and 20 suggestions are offered as guidance in future similar situations. (JD)

  7. 2011 Spring Flood

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Left to Right: Phil Turnipseed, T Bradley Keith USGS National Wetlands Research Center Director Phil Turnipseed speaks with Congressional staffers about the work the NWRC does in the Atchafalaya Basin. During the 2011 flood, NWRC crews have undertaken ecological studies and sampling runs, as well a...

  8. Improving Sugarcane Flood Tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) of Florida is often exposed to high water tables and periodic floods. Growers are concerned that elevated water tables for prolonged periods and during certain phases of growth reduce yields. However, these wet conditions help co...

  9. 2011 Spring Flood

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Left to Right: George Arcement, Phil Turnipseed USGS Louisiana Water Science Center Director George Arcement and USGS National Wetlands Research Center Director Phil Turnipseed are coordinating USGS efforts in Louisiana to respond to the record-setting 2011 flood. Although fairly new to their posit...

  10. 2011 Spring Flood

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Left to Right: George Arcement USGS Louisiana Water Science Center Director George Arcement looks out onto Lake Murphy on the East Side of the Atchafalaya Basin. During the 2011 record-setting flood, high water levels have flushed out the stagnant waters in the back bayous in the Basin, replacing t...

  11. Flooded Gage House

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Flooded U.S. Geological Survey gage house on the Sheyenne River near Lisbon, North Dakota, April 22, 2011. At this time streamflow was approximately 7,450 cubic feet per second and gage height (stage) was 21.23 feet. More information about this streamgage is availableonline....

  12. Flooded Gaging Station

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Flooded gaging station on the Souris River near Westhope, North Dakota, April 20, 2011.  See other pictures in this gallery with the tag 05124000 to see what the gage house normally looks like - it is on a raised platform on the bank of the river with an access road next to it. Note muskra...

  13. Flooded Gaging Station

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Flooded gaging station and cableway on the Souris River near Westhope, North Dakota, April 20, 2011.  See other pictures in this gallery with the tag 05124000 to see what the gage house normally looks like - it is on a raised platform on the bank of the river with an access road next to ...

  14. Flooded Gaging Station

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Flooded gaging station on the Souris River near Westhope, North Dakota, April 20, 2011.  See other pictures in this gallery with the tag 05124000 to see what the gage house normally looks like - it is on a raised platform on the bank of the river with an access road next to it....

  15. Flooded Gaging Station

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Flooded gaging station on the Souris River near Westhope, North Dakota, April 19, 2011.  See other pictures in this gallery with the tag 05124000 to see what the gage house normally looks like - it is on a raised platform on the bank of the river....

  16. 2011 Spring Flood

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Left to Right: Dan Kroes, George Arcement, Bill Stiles USGS Louisiana Water Science Center Director George Arcement talks with Congressional staffers about USGS work monitoring the floodwaters in the Atchafalaya Basin. The 2011 flood has caused record levels of water to move through the Basin, pote...

  17. 2011 Spring Flood

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A USGS streamgage station lies mostly submerged. Following rising floodwaters during the 2011 flood, USGS crews removed sensitive streamgage equipment and replaced them with special, pressure-operated streamgage monitoring equipment that could survive being inundated with water. This streamgage, and...

  18. Night Flooding in Natchez

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Image shows a night-time view of the Natchez-Vidalia Bridge at Natchez, Mississippi. In late 2015/early 2016 unusually large rainfall in the Upper Mississippi River Valley led to significant flooding in Arkansas, Illinois, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and Tennessee. USGS crews responded t...

  19. 2016 Flooding 1

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS scientist Tammy Caudle demonstrates the acoustic dopplar current profiler onboard that will be used to measure streamflow on the Mississippi River. In late 2015/early 2016, unusually large rainfall in the Upper Mississippi River Valley led to flooding throughout Arkansas, Illinois, Louisiana, ...

  20. Flood Hazards: Communicating Hydrology and Complexity to the Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, R. R.; Blanchard, S. F.; Mason, R. R.

    2010-12-01

    Floods have a major impact on society and the environment. Since 1952, approximately 1,233 of 1,931 (64%) Federal disaster declarations were due directly to flooding, with an additional 297 due to hurricanes which had associated flooding. Although the overall average annual number of deaths due to flooding has decreased in the United States, the average annual flood damage is rising. According to the Munich Reinsurance Company in their publication “Schadenspiegel 3/2005”, during 1990s the world experienced as much as $500 billion in economic losses due to floods, highlighting the serious need for continued emphasis on flood-loss prevention measures. Flood-loss prevention has two major elements: mitigation (including structural flood-control measures and land-use planning and regulation) and risk awareness. Of the two, increasing risk awareness likely offers the most potential for protecting lives over the near-term and long-term sustainability in the coming years. Flood-risk awareness and risk-aware behavior is dependent on communication, involving both prescriptive and educational measures. Prescriptive measures (for example, flood warnings and stormwater ordinances) are and have been effective, but there is room for improvement. New communications technologies, particularly social media utilizing mobile, smart phones and text devices, for example, could play a significant role in increasing public awareness of long-term risk and near-term flood conditions. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), for example, the Federal agency that monitors the Nation’s rivers, recently released a new service that can better connect the to the public to information about flood hazards. The new service, WaterAlert (URL: http://water.usgs.gov/wateralert/), allows users to set flood notification thresholds of their own choosing for any USGS real-time streamgage. The system then sends emails or text messages to subscribers whenever the threshold conditions are met, as often as the user specifies. In the future, with new GPS enabled cell-phones, notifications could be sent to users based on their proximity to flood hazards. Educational measures also should communicate the hydrologic underpinnings and uncertainties of the complex science of flood hydrology in an understandable manner to a non-technical public. Education can be especially beneficial and important for those in a policy-making role or those who find themselves in an area of potential flood hazards. Case studies, such as the fatal June 11, 2010 flash flood on the Little Missouri River in Arkansas, if presented in a way that the public will absorb, powerfully illustrate the importance of flood hazard awareness and the cost of living unaware. Additionally, such crucial points as the connection between the accuracy of flood-probability estimates and the density (and longevity) of the basic data sources (such as the USGS streamgage or the National Weather Service raingage networks) and the residual risks that both communities and individuals face have to continually be stressed to the general public and policy makers alike. In short, success in flood hazards communication (both prescriptive warnings and education) requires a fusion of the social sciences and hydrology.

  1. A Methodology to Support Decision Making in Flood Plan Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biscarini, C.; di Francesco, S.; Manciola, P.

    2009-04-01

    The focus of the present document is on specific decision-making aspects of flood risk analysis. A flood is the result of runoff from rainfall in quantities too great to be confined in the low-water channels of streams. Little can be done to prevent a major flood, but we may be able to minimize damage within the flood plain of the river. This broad definition encompasses many possible mitigation measures. Floodplain management considers the integrated view of all engineering, nonstructural, and administrative measures for managing (minimizing) losses due to flooding on a comprehensive scale. The structural measures are the flood-control facilities designed according to flood characteristics and they include reservoirs, diversions, levees or dikes, and channel modifications. Flood-control measures that modify the damage susceptibility of floodplains are usually referred to as nonstructural measures and may require minor engineering works. On the other hand, those measures designed to modify the damage potential of permanent facilities are called non-structural and allow reducing potential damage during a flood event. Technical information is required to support the tasks of problem definition, plan formulation, and plan evaluation. The specific information needed and the related level of detail are dependent on the nature of the problem, the potential solutions, and the sensitivity of the findings to the basic information. Actions performed to set up and lay out the study are preliminary to the detailed analysis. They include: defining the study scope and detail, the field data collection, a review of previous studies and reports, and the assembly of needed maps and surveys. Risk analysis can be viewed as having many components: risk assessment, risk communication and risk management. Risk assessment comprises an analysis of the technical aspects of the problem, risk communication deals with conveying the information and risk management involves the decision process. In the present paper we propose a novel methodology for supporting the priority setting in the assessment of such issues, beyond the typical "expected value" approach. Scientific contribution and management aspects are merged to create a simplified method for plan basin implementation, based on risk and economic analyses. However, the economic evaluation is not the sole criterion for flood-damage reduction plan selection. Among the different criteria that are relevant to the decision process, safety and quality of human life, economic damage, expenses related with the chosen measures and environmental issues should play a fundamental role on the decisions made by the authorities. Some numerical indices, taking in account administrative, technical, economical and risk aspects, are defined and are combined together in a mathematical formula that defines a Priority Index (PI). In particular, the priority index defines a ranking of priority interventions, thus allowing the formulation of the investment plan. The research is mainly focused on the technical factors of risk assessment, providing quantitative and qualitative estimates of possible alternatives, containing measures of the risk associated with those alternatives. Moreover, the issues of risk management are analyzed, in particular with respect to the role of decision making in the presence of risk information. However, a great effort is devoted to make this index easy to be formulated and effective to allow a clear and transparent comparison between the alternatives. Summarizing this document describes a major- steps for incorporation of risk analysis into the decision making process: framing of the problem in terms of risk analysis, application of appropriate tools and techniques to obtain quantified results, use of the quantified results in the choice of structural and non-structural measures. In order to prove the reliability of the proposed methodology and to show how risk-based information can be incorporated into a flood analysis process, its application to some middle italy river basins is presented. The methodology assessment is performed by comparing different scenarios and showing that the optimal decision stems from a feasibility evaluation.

  2. Linking the historic 2011 Mississippi River flood to coastal wetland sedimentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falcini, Federico; Khan, Nicole S.; Macelloni, Leonardo; Horton, Benjamin P.; Lutken, Carol B.; McKee, Karen L.; Santoleri, Rosalia; Colella, Simone; Li, Chunyan; Volpe, Gianluca; DEmidio, Marco; Salusti, Alessandro; Jerolmack, Douglas J.

    2012-01-01

    Wetlands in the Mississippi River deltaic plain are deteriorating in part because levees and control structures starve them of sediment. In Spring of 2011 a record-breaking flood brought discharge on the lower Mississippi River to dangerous levels, forcing managers to divert up to 3500 m3/s-1 of water to the Atchafalaya River Basin. Here we quantify differences between the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River inundation and sediment-plume patterns using field-calibrated satellite data, and assess the impact these outflows had on wetland sedimentation. We characterize hydrodynamics and suspended sediment patterns of the Mississippi River plume using in-situ data collected during the historic flood. We show that the focused, high-momentum jet from the leveed Mississippi delivered sediment far offshore. In contrast, the plume from the Atchafalaya was more diffuse; diverted water inundated a large area; and sediment was trapped within the coastal current. Maximum sedimentation (up to several centimetres) occurred in the Atchafalaya Basin despite the larger sediment load carried by the Mississippi. Minimum accumulation occurred along the shoreline between these river sources. Our findings provide a mechanistic link between river-mouth dynamics and wetland sedimentation patterns that is relevant for plans to restore deltaic wetlands using artificial diversions.

  3. Linking the historic 2011 Mississippi River flood to coastal wetland sedimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcini, Federico; Khan, Nicole S.; Macelloni, Leonardo; Horton, Benjamin P.; Lutken, Carol B.; McKee, Karen L.; Santoleri, Rosalia; Colella, Simone; Li, Chunyan; Volpe, Gianluca; D'Emidio, Marco; Salusti, Alessandro; Jerolmack, Douglas J.

    2012-11-01

    Wetlands in the Mississippi River deltaic plain are deteriorating in part because levees and control structures starve them of sediment. In spring 2011 a record-breaking flood brought discharge on the lower Mississippi River to dangerous levels, forcing managers to divert up to 3,500m3s-1 of water to the Atchafalaya River Basin. Here we use field-calibrated satellite data to quantify differences in inundation and sediment-plume patterns between the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River. We assess the impact of these extreme outflows on wetland sedimentation, and use in situ data collected during the historic flood to characterize the Mississippi plume's hydrodynamics and suspended sediment. We show that a focused, high-momentum jet emerged from the leveed Mississippi, and delivered sediment far offshore. In contrast, the plume from the Atchafalaya was more diffuse; diverted water inundated a large area, and sediment was trapped within the coastal current. The largest sedimentation, of up to several centimetres, occurred in the Atchafalaya Basin despite the larger sediment load carried by the Mississippi. Sediment accumulation was lowest along the shoreline between the two river sources. We conclude that river-mouth hydrodynamics and wetland sedimentation patterns are mechanistically linked, providing results that are relevant for plans to restore deltaic wetlands using artificial diversions.

  4. Floods and Fluvial Wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comiti, F.

    2014-12-01

    Several studies have recently addressed the complex interactions existing at various spatial scales among riparian vegetation, channel morphology and wood storage. The majority of these investigations has been carried out in relatively natural river systems, focusing mostly on the long-term vegetation-morphology dynamics under "equilibrium" conditions. Little is still known about the role of flood events - of different frequency/magnitude - on several aspects of such dynamics, e.g. entrainment conditions of in-channel wood, erosion rates of vegetation from channel margins and from islands, transport distances of wood elements of different size along the channel network. Even less understood is how the river's evolutionary trajectory may affect these processes, and thus the degree to which conceptual models derivable from near-natural systems could be applicable to human-disturbed channels. Indeed, the different human pressures - present on most river basins worldwide - have greatly impaired the morphological and ecological functions of fluvial wood, and the attempts to "restore" in-channel wood storage are currently carried out without a sufficient understanding of wood transport processes occurring during floods. On the other hand, the capability to correctly predict the magnitude of large wood transport during large floods is now seen as crucial - especially in mountain basins - for flood hazard mapping, as is the identification of the potential wood sources (e.g. landslides, floodplains, islands) for the implementation of sound and effective hazard mitigation measures. The presentation will first summarize the current knowledge on fluvial wood dynamics and modelling at different spatial and temporal scales, with a particular focus on mountain rivers. The effects of floods of different characteristics on vegetation erosion and wood transport will be then addressed presenting some study cases from rivers in the European Alps and in the Italian Apennines featuring different degrees of human alteration. Finally, several conclusions about the applicability of wood transport modelling and on rationale vegetation/wood management strategies will be drawn.

  5. Importance of frictional effects and jet instability on the morphodynamics of river mouth bars and levees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canestrelli, Alberto; Nardin, William; Edmonds, Douglas; Fagherazzi, Sergio; Slingerland, Rudy

    2014-01-01

    In this work, extensive numerical simulations have been performed to assess the hydrodynamic and morphodynamic behavior of a river jet debouching in a large quiescent water body. A refined three-dimensional grid has been used to capture the transition zone between a stable jet and an unstable meandering jet. The model results show that the stability number S, which is a function of friction and river mouth aspect ratio, and the mouth Reynolds number are the two parameters that describe the stable/unstable character of the jet. From a morphodynamic point of view, a stable jet always tends to form a mouth bar. However, a decrease of the stability number together with jet instability increase the delivery of sediments to the jet margins, favoring the formation of subaerial levees and elongated channels. Frictional effects play a major role to set the distance at which the mouth bar becomes stagnant. The importance of the stability number in setting depositional patterns at the river mouth is larger than other variables (i.e., momentum of the jet and potential vorticity) and therefore should be considered in the design of restoration schemes for deltaic land.

  6. Plagioclase dissolution related to oil residence time, North Coles Levee field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Boles, J.R. )

    1991-02-01

    Diagenetic mineral zones characterize an originally homogeneous turbidite sandstone reservoir at North Coles Levee (NCL). The medium- to coarse-grained sands in the reservoir contain a 500-ft oil column. Plagioclase dissolution is greatest near the oil-water contact. Kaolinite and plagioclase porosity are very rare in the upper 180 ft of the oil column next to the gas cap. Previous work has shown that at NCL plagioclase dissolution occurred in the last several million years of the reservoir burial history, nearly contemporaneous with oil emplacement. Clearly if plagioclase alteration was independent of the hydrocarbons, a uniform alteration pattern would be expected. The zonation pattern described here appears to be related to the presence of the oil. Thus, diagenesis was most intense where the residence time of the hydrocarbon was greatest (in the lower part), whereas near the gas cap, plagioclase diagenesis was minimal where the accumulation of gas effectively shut down feldspar dissolution. These new results indicate that plagioclase porosity at NCL was an effect of oil emplacement, perhaps due to acid components solubilized from the oil. Important implications of these findings are (1) maximum porosity enhancement may be off-structure away from the gas cap, (2) importance of acid components associated with hydrocarbons on feldspar dissolution is confirmed, and (3) diagenetic interpretations may differ if sample locations relative to gas/oil/water zones are not known.

  7. Plagioclase dissolution related to oil residence time, North Coles Levee field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Boles, J.R. )

    1991-03-01

    Diagenetic mineral zones characterize an originally homogeneous turbidite sandstone reservoir at North Coles Levee (NCL). The medium to coarse-grained sands in the reservoir contain a 500 ft oil column with high water saturation. Extensive plagioclase porosity and associated diagenetic kaolinite occur in the lower third of the oil column. Plagioclase dissolution is greatest near the oil-water contact. Kaolinite and plagioclase porosity are vary rare in the upper third of the oil column next to the gas cap. Previous work has sown that at NCL plagioclase dissolution occurred in the last several million years of the reservoir burial history, nearly contemporaneous with oil emplacement. Clearly if plagioclase alteration was independent of the hydrocarbons, a uniform alteration pattern would be expected. The zonation pattern described here appears to be related to the presence of the oil. Thus diagenesis was most intense where the residence time of the hydrocarbon was greatest (in the lower part), whereas near the gas cap, plagioclase diagenesis was minimal where the accumulation of gas effectively shut down feldspar dissolution. These new results indicate that plagioclase porosity at NCL was an effect of oil emplacement, perhaps due to acid components solubilized from the oil. Important implications of these findings are: (1) Maximum porosity enhancement may be off-structure away from the gas cap, (2) tends to confirm the importance of acid components associated with hydrocarbons on feldspar dissolution, and (3) diagenetic interpretations may differ if sample locations relative to gas/oil/water zones are not known.

  8. Evaluation of the use of reach transmissivity to quantify leakage beneath Levee 31N, Miami-Dade County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nemeth, Mark S.; Wilcox, Walter M.; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.

    2000-01-01

    A coupled ground- and surface-water model (MODBRANCH) was developed to estimate ground-water flow beneath Levee 31N in Miami-Dade County, Florida, and to simulate hydrologic conditions in the surrounding area. The study included compilation of data from monitoring stations, measurement of vertical seepage rates in wetlands, and analysis of the hydrogeologic properties of the ground-water aquifer within the study area. In addition, the MODBRANCH code was modified to calculate the exchange between surface-water channels and ground water using a relation based on the concept of reach transmissivity. The modified reach-transmissivity version of the MODBRANCH code was successfully tested on three simple problems with known analytical solutions. It was also tested and determined to function adequately on one field problem that had previously been solved using the unmodified version of the software. The modified version of MODBRANCH was judged to have performed satisfactorily, and it required about 60 percent as many iterations to reach a solution. Additionally, its input parameters are more physically-based and less dependent on model-grid spacing. A model of the Levee 31N area was developed and used with the original and modified versions of MODBRANCH, which produced similar output. The mean annual modeled ground-water heads differed by only 0.02 foot, and the mean annual canal discharge differed by less than 1.0 cubic foot per second. Seepage meters were used to quantify vertical seepage rates in the Everglades wetlands area west of Levee 31N. A comparison between results from the seepage meters and from the computer model indicated substantial differences that seemed to be a result of local variations in the hydraulic properties in the topmost part of the Biscayne aquifer. The transmissivity of the Biscayne aquifer was estimated to be 1,400,000 square feet per day in the study area. The computer model was employed to simulate seepage of ground water beneath Levee 31N. Modeled seepage rates were usually between 100 and 400 cubic feet per day per foot of levee, but extreme values ranged from about -200 to 500 cubic feet per day (positive values indicate eastward seepage beneath the levee). The modeled seepage results were used to develop an algorithm to estimate seepage based on head differential at selected monitoring stations. The algorithm was determined to adequately predict ground-water seepage.

  9. Management of hazardous waste at RCRA facilities during the flood of `93 -- Methods used and lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, T.; Jacko, R.B.

    1996-11-01

    During the summer of 1993, the state of Iowa experienced severe flooding that caused the release of many hazardous materials into the environment. Six months after the flood, the Iowa section of the RCRA branch, US EPA Region 7, sent inspectors to survey every RCRA facility in Iowa. Information was gathered through questionnaires to determine the flood`s impact and to learn potential lessons that could be beneficial in future flood disasters. The objective of this project was to use the information gathered to determine effective storage methods and emergency procedures for handling hazardous material during flood disasters. Additional data were obtained through record searches, phone interviews, and site visits. Data files and statistics were analyzed, then the evident trends and specific insights observed were utilized to create recommendations for RCRA facilities in the flood plain and for the federal EPA and state regulatory agencies. The recommendations suggest that RCRA regulated facilities in the flood plain should: employ the safest storage methods possible; have a flood emergency plan that includes the most effective release prevention available; and take advantage of several general suggestions for flood protection. The recommendations suggest that the federal EPA and state regulatory agencies consider: including a provision requiring large quantity generators of hazardous waste in the flood plain to include flood procedures in the contingency plans; establishing remote emergency storage areas during the flood disasters; encouraging small quantity generators (SQGs) within the flood plain to establish flood contingency plans; and promoting sound flood protection engineering practices for all RCRA facilities in the flood plain.

  10. Impact of the Three-Gorges Dam and water transfer project on Changjiang floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Tadanobu; Shankman, David

    2013-01-01

    Increasing frequency of severe floods on the middle and lower Changjiang (Yangtze) River during the past few decades can be attributed to both abnormal monsoon rainfall and landscape changes that include extensive deforestation affecting river sedimentation, and shrinking lakes and levee construction that reduced the areas available for floodwater storage. The Three-Gorges Dam (TGD) and the South-to-North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP) will also affect frequency and intensity of severe floods in the Poyang Lake region of the middle Changjiang. Process-based National Integrated Catchment-based Eco-hydrology (NICE) model predicts that the TGD will increase flood risk during the early summer monsoon against the original justifications for building the dam, relating to complex river-lake-groundwater interactions. Several scenarios predict that morphological change will increase flood risk around the lake. This indicates the importance of managing both flood discharge and sediment deposition for the entire basin. Further, the authors assessed the impact of sand mining in the lake after its prohibition on the Changjiang, and clarified that alternative scenario of sand mining in lakes currently disconnected from the mainstream would reduce the flood risk to a greater extent than intensive dredging along junction channel. Because dry biomasses simulated by the model were linearly related to the Time-Integrated Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (TINDVI) estimated from satellite images, its decadal gradient during 1982-1999 showed a spatially heterogeneous distribution and generally decreasing trends beside the lakes, indicating that the increases in lake reclamation and the resultant decrease in rice productivity are closely related to the hydrologic changes. This integrated approach could help to minimize flood damage and promote better decisions addressing sustainable development.

  11. Flood risk management in Italy: challenges and opportunities for the implementation of the EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mysiak, J.; Testella, F.; Bonaiuto, M.; Carrus, G.; De Dominicis, S.; Ganucci Cancellieri, U.; Firus, K.; Grifoni, P.

    2013-11-01

    Italy's recent history is punctuated with devastating flood disasters claiming high death toll and causing vast but underestimated economic, social and environmental damage. The responses to major flood and landslide disasters such as the Polesine (1951), Vajont (1963), Firenze (1966), Valtelina (1987), Piedmont (1994), Crotone (1996), Sarno (1998), Soverato (2000), and Piedmont (2000) events have contributed to shaping the country's flood risk governance. Insufficient resources and capacity, slow implementation of the (at that time) novel risk prevention and protection framework, embodied in the law 183/89 of 18 May 1989, increased the reliance on the response and recovery operations of the civil protection. As a result, the importance of the Civil Protection Mechanism and the relative body of norms and regulation developed rapidly in the 1990s. In the aftermath of the Sarno (1998) and Soverato (2000) disasters, the Department for Civil Protection (DCP) installed a network of advanced early warning and alerting centres, the cornerstones of Italy's preparedness for natural hazards and a best practice worth following. However, deep convective clouds, not uncommon in Italy, producing intense rainfall and rapidly developing localised floods still lead to considerable damage and loss of life that can only be reduced by stepping up the risk prevention efforts. The implementation of the EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC) provides an opportunity to revise the model of flood risk governance and confront the shortcomings encountered during more than 20 yr of organised flood risk management. This brief communication offers joint recommendations towards this end from three projects funded by the 2nd CRUE ERA-NET (http://www.crue-eranet.net/) Funding Initiative: FREEMAN, IMRA and URFlood.

  12. Torrent floodplain mapping and torrent flood control in Serbia in the conditions of economic crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilovic, Z.; Stefanovic, M.

    2009-04-01

    Serbia is a country that is endangered by flooding of the largest European river, the Danube and its largest tributaries, as well as by countless torrents. During the 19th and 20th centuries, an imposing scope of protection structures was constructed. The existence of the protection system created the conviction that flood protection was achieved and that it should only be complemented on a great number of unregulated torrents. Such an opinion and practice are possible only in the countries with powerful economies. However, for almost two decades, Serbia has been going through the conditions of economic crisis. The floods which occurred in Serbia during that period pointed to the problem of maintenance of the existing protection system and to the impossibility of building the new projects. Floodplain mapping, although prescribed by the Law, was postponed because of the high price of the classical geodetic surveying. The postponing of this activity, in the conditions of a stable and good economic situation, was explained by the achieved flood protection on large rivers and by low probability that the system could fail. On the other hand, small torrents were partly regulated in the zones of roads and towns, so in this case also it was thought that the protection was accomplished. It was overlooked that the majority of torrents in Serbia was not regulated by any protection system. Urbanisation was progressing unrestrainedly. The State could not afford the construction of the necessary protection system, so numerous settlements remained at risk, without any protection. Floods did not forgive and forget any mistakes and the awareness of the necessity of collecting the data on floodplains and protection against floods became an indispensable task, but in the conditions of economic crisis, difficult to realise. For this reason, a rational method of floodplain mapping was searched, as well as the method of reducing the damage caused by floods, but not requiring high investments. This paper will present the realised results of low-budget mapping of flood zones of torrents and other waterways and the realised preventive techniques of torrential flood control, which were successfully implemented during the great flood of the Danube in 2006. On that occasion, numerous torrential floods endangered the defence system of the river Danube. Key words: Floodplain, flood, torrent, flood defence.

  13. Reinforcing flood-risk estimation.

    PubMed

    Reed, Duncan W

    2002-07-15

    Flood-frequency estimation is inherently uncertain. The practitioner applies a combination of gauged data, scientific method and hydrological judgement to derive a flood-frequency curve for a particular site. The resulting estimate can be thought fully satisfactory only if it is broadly consistent with all that is reliably known about the flood-frequency behaviour of the river. The paper takes as its main theme the search for information to strengthen a flood-risk estimate made from peak flows alone. Extra information comes in many forms, including documentary and monumental records of historical floods, and palaeological markers. Meteorological information is also useful, although rainfall rarity is difficult to assess objectively and can be a notoriously unreliable indicator of flood rarity. On highly permeable catchments, groundwater levels present additional data. Other types of information are relevant to judging hydrological similarity when the flood-frequency estimate derives from data pooled across several catchments. After highlighting information sources, the paper explores a second theme: that of consistency in flood-risk estimates. Following publication of the Flood estimation handbook, studies of flood risk are now using digital catchment data. Automated calculation methods allow estimates by standard methods to be mapped basin-wide, revealing anomalies at special sites such as river confluences. Such mapping presents collateral information of a new character. Can this be used to achieve flood-risk estimates that are coherent throughout a river basin? PMID:12804255

  14. The future of flood insurance in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Diane

    2013-04-01

    Approximately one in seven properties in the UK (3.6 million homes and businesses) are at risk of flooding. The Adaptation Sub-Committee of the UK Committee on Climate Change reported in 2012 that development on the floodplain grew at a faster rate than elsewhere in England over the past ten years, with one in five properties in the floodplain in areas of significant risk. They concluded that current levels of investment will not keep pace with the increasing risk, noting that without additional action, climate change could almost double the number of properties at significant risk by 2035. Flood insurance can contribute to risk reduction by using pricing or restrictions on availability of cover to discourage new development in flood risk areas, or to encourage the uptake of flood resilience measures. The UK insurance market currently offers flood cover as a standard feature of domestic and small business policies, with central government providing physical protection backed up by financial protection provided by the insurance industry. This approach is unusual in not passing all or part of the flood risk to government schemes. At present, flood insurance in the UK is conducted under a series of informal agreements established between the insurance industry and the Government known as the Statement of Principles. Members of the Association of British Insurers (ABI) currently agree to cover homes at risk of flooding in return for government commitment to manage flood risk. However, this arrangement is now under threat, as the insurance industry is increasingly reluctant to bear the financial burden of flooding alone. The current Statement of Principles ends on 30 June 2013 and will not be renewed. High-risk properties may be unable to obtain insurance after the Statement of Principles expires. Unusually, insurers are arguing against a free market solution, arguing that no country in the world provides universal flood cover without some form of government-led support. The UK insurance industry prefers a risk-pooling approach, while to date the government has not taken a position on the future of flood insurance after 2013.

  15. Modelling muddy floods in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arévalo, S. A.; Schmidt, J.

    2012-04-01

    Muddy floods are sediment loaded runoff from agricultural land. The related flooding and mud depositions become a major problem when occuring in settling areas to cover streets, private properties, industrial areas etc. Beside of the psychological strain for the affected residents the costs for mud removal are a burden that has to be considered. Up to now, the threat of muddy floods has poorly been considered in the planing processes of settling or industrial areas. This is because there is no adequate tool to predict the exact places where the mud is transported and where it might be deposited during flash floods. At present the structures of settlements have not been considered in digital elevation models (DEM) wich are used for erosion and deposition modelling. As these structures notably influence surface runoff, it is necessary to develop a method that integrates the elements of settlements into the DEM. We use GIS to alter DEMs with informations about settlement structures (buildings, streets, sidewalks, ditches, walls etc.) and also with information about planed constructions. This altered DEM will than be applied in an event-based soil erosion model (Erosion 3D) that is able to predict both runoff and transported sediment. The aim of this study is to find out runoff and deposition patterns in settlements in case of flash floods, but also to test the impact of changes in the anthropogenic surface due to new constructions. Such a tool would be useful in the planning process of new settlements or industrial areas or to evaluate possible protection measures.

  16. Flood Events, Discharge and Sedimentation On Floodplains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boelscher, J.; Ergenzinger, P.

    The activation of retention areas and the restoration of floodplains have great importance for flood protection and the ecological function of river landscapes. Complex interactions take place between flow velocity, sediment transport, morphology and vegetation within floodplains. This investigation, which is embedded in the framework of the EU Research Project Riparian Forest Management, focuses on these interactions and will give more detailed information about the impact of vegetation on flow field, discharge and sediment transport. Under the aspects of flood retention and river restoration the improved knowledge of these parameters is expected to assist in generating measures for the optimisation of riparian forest management. Hence the objective of this investigation is the description and analysis of : a.) duration and level of inundation b.) spatio-temporal variation of flow velocity and its intensity within the floodplain c.) roughness in the form of substrate, vegetation, morphology and its spatio- temporal variation d.) impact of morphology and vegetation on flow velocity and discharge within the floodplain d.) morphology, vegetation, substrate, sedimentation and erosion before and after subset flood events. The selected area of investigation is located at the upper Rhine, near Freiburg. The test sites within the inv estigated floodplain differ in the type of vegetation, morphology, substrate, aspect and height. These parameters were investigated before and after a longer period of floods. The spatio-temporal variations of flow velocity in the stream and on the floodplain were recorded using Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers. Simultaneously data were collected about the suspended load above the ground and below the water surface. Using a digital video camera, a first attempt was made to monitor the deformation of trees during a single flood event.

  17. Flood early warning along the East Coast of Scotland and the Storm of December 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranston, Michael; Hu, Keming

    2013-04-01

    Flood warning is at the heart of improved approaches to flood risk management in Scotland. The Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) is committed to reducing the impact of coastal flooding through the provision of reliable and timely flood warnings. They have specifically set out a programme of enhancing coastal flood forecasting through modelling and improved understanding of coastal flooding processes and improved approaches to wind and wave forecasting in coastal and tidal waters. In 2011, SEPA commissioned a project to develop a flood forecasting and warning system for the Firths of Forth and Tay along Scotland's North East coast. The new approach to flood forecasting has just been implemented into the Flood Early Warning System (FEWS) (Cranston and Tavendale, 2012) to contribute to the real-time flood forecasting and warning service from November 2012. The new system enables the prediction of coastal and tidal flooding and allows SEPA to warn people about potential flooding, using the latest advances in coastal modelling. The approach to the forecasting system includes: the transformation of tidal surge forecasts from Leith to 28 flood warning sites along the coast and inside the Firths of Forth and Tay; the transformation of offshore wave forecasts to inshore locations including the Firths of Forth and Tay; and the transformation of inshore wave forecasts to mean wave overtopping forecasts at six key communities at risk. In December 2012, some communities along the east coast of Scotland experienced their most severe storm damage since the Great 1953 Storm. This paper will discuss how the flood forecasting system was developed and how the system was utilised in real time during the recent storm. References Cranston, M. D. and Tavendale, A. C. W. (2012) Advances in operational flood forecasting in Scotland. Proceedings of the ICE - Water Management, 165, 2, 79-87.

  18. Costs and benefits of adapting to river floods at the global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Philip; Aerts, Jeroen; Botzen, Wouter; Hallegatte, Stephane; Jongman, Brenden; Kind, Jarl; Scussolini, Paolo; Winsemius, Hessel

    2015-04-01

    It is well known that the economic losses associated with flooding are huge; for example in 2012 alone the economic losses from flooding exceeded 19 billion. As a result, different models have been developed to assess global scale flood risk. Recently, these have been used in several studies to assess current flood risk at the global scale, and to project how risk may increase as a result of climate change and/or socioeconomic development. In most regions, these studies show rapid increases in risk into the future, and therefore call for urgent adaptation. However, to date no studies have attempted to assess the costs of carrying out such adaptation, nor the benefits. In this paper, we therefore present the first global scale estimate of the costs and benefits of adapting to increased river flood risk caused by factors such as climate change and socioeconomic development. For this study, we concentrate on structural adaptation measures, such as dikes, designed to prevent flood hazard up to a certain design standard. We address two questions: 1. What would be the costs and benefits of maintaining current flood protection standards, accounting for future climate and socioeconomic change until 2100? 2. What flood protection standards would be required by 2100 to keep future flood risk constant at today's levels? And what would be the costs and benefits associated with this? In this paper, we will present our first global estimates of the costs and benefits of adaptation to increased flood risk, as well as maps of these findings per country and river basin. We present the results under 4 emission scenarios (RCPs), 5 socioeconomic scenarios (SSPs), and under several assumptions relating to total potential flood damages, discount rates, construction costs, maintenance costs, and so forth. The research was carried out using the GLOFRIS modelling cascade. This global flood risk model calculates flood risk in terms of annual expected damage, and has been developed and validated over the past few years. For this study we have extended GLOFRIS by developing a module that calculates the costs and benefits of adaptation by increasing dike flood protection standards. In brief, this is carried out by calculating, per cell, the length of dikes that would be required to provide flood protection, multiplying this with the change in dike height that would be required to offer a certain flood protection standard, and multiplying this with data on the costs of dike construction and maintenance.

  19. Effects of anthropogenic land-subsidence on river flood hazard: a case study in Ravenna, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carisi, Francesca; Domeneghetti, Alessio; Castellarin, Attilio

    2015-04-01

    Can differential land-subsidence significantly alter the river flooding dynamics, and thus flood risk in flood prone areas? Many studies show how the lowering of the coastal areas is closely related to an increase in the flood-hazard due to more important tidal flooding and see level rise. On the contrary, the literature on the relationship between differential land-subsidence and possible alterations to riverine flood-hazard of inland areas is still sparse, while several areas characterized by significant land-subsidence rates during the second half of the 20th century experienced an intensification in both inundation magnitude and frequency. This study investigates the possible impact of a significant differential ground lowering on flood hazard in proximity of Ravenna, which is one of the oldest Italian cities, former capital of the Western Roman Empire, located a few kilometers from the Adriatic coast and about 60 km south of the Po River delta. The rate of land-subsidence in the area, naturally in the order of a few mm/year, dramatically increased up to 110 mm/year after World War II, primarily due to groundwater pumping and a number of deep onshore and offshore gas production platforms. The subsidence caused in the last century a cumulative drop larger than 1.5 m in the historical center of the city. Starting from these evidences and taking advantage of a recent digital elevation model of 10m resolution, we reconstructed the ground elevation in 1897 for an area of about 65 km2 around the city of Ravenna. We referred to these two digital elevation models (i.e. current topography and topographic reconstruction) and a 2D finite-element numerical model for the simulation of the inundation dynamics associated with several levee failure scenarios along embankment system of the river Montone. For each scenario and digital elevation model, the flood hazard is quantified in terms of water depth, speed and dynamics of the flooding front. The comparison enabled us to quantify alterations to the flooding hazard due to large and rapid differential land-subsidence, shedding some light on whether to consider anthropogenic land-subsidence among the relevant human-induced drivers of flood-risk change.

  20. Torrential floods and town and country planning in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risti?, R.; Kostadinov, S.; Abolmasov, B.; Dragi?evi?, S.; Trivan, G.; Radi?, B.; Trifunovi?, M.; Radosavljevi?, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Torrential floods are the most frequent natural catastrophic events in Serbia, causing the loss of human lives and huge material damage, both in urban and rural areas. The analysis of the intra-annual distribution of maximal discharges aided in noticing that torrential floods have a seasonal character. The erosion and torrent control works (ETCWs) in Serbia began at the end of the 19th century. Effective protection from torrential floods encompasses biotechnical works on the slopes in the watershed and technical works on the torrent beds, within a precisely defined administrative and spatial framework in order to achieve maximal safety for people and their property. Cooperation to overcome the conflicts between the sectors of the water resources management, forestry, agriculture, energetics, environmental protection and local economic development groups is indispensable at the following levels: policy, spatial planning, practice, investments and education. The lowest and most effective level is through the Plans for Announcement of Erosive Regions (PAERs) and the Plans for Protection from Torrential Floods (PPTFs), with Hazard Zones (HZs) and Threatened Areas (TAs) mapping on the basis of the hydrologic, hydraulic and spatial analysis of the factors that are important for the formation of torrential floods. Solutions defined through PAERs and PPTFs have to be integrated into Spatial Plans at local and regional levels.