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1

The influence of woody plants on the seepage of flood protection levees: Experiences from a test site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past flood events have once more drawn the attention to the stability and maintenance of flood protection levees. The attention has also been focused on the relationship between vegetation and the structural integrity of dikes. Current standards regard dense turf to be safest vegetation cover for dikes. Many guidelines ban woody vegetation from dikes and levees to provide structural

W. Lammeranner; H. Meixner; F. Florineth

2009-01-01

2

The influence of woody plants on the seepage of flood protection levees: Experiences from a test site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The past flood events have once more drawn the attention to the stability and maintenance of flood protection levees. The attention has also been focused on the relationship between vegetation and the structural integrity of dikes. Current standards regard dense turf to be safest vegetation cover for dikes. Many guidelines ban woody vegetation from dikes and levees to provide structural integrity, visual inspection and unhindered flood-fight access. The refusal of woody plants is mainly based on the argument that root penetration of woody plants facilitates water movement along their path. Within the frame of a research project carried out by the Institute of Soil Bioengineering and Landscape Construction (University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna), focusing on woody plants on levees, the effects of small to medium growing woody (shrubby) plants on the seepage are tested. Data are drawn from two natural-scaled research levees. The homogenous levees consist of a mineral silt-sand-gravel and have a fill height of 2.7 m and a slope inclination of 2:3. The tests investigate the impact of woody plants (living brush mattress - transversal) in comparison to compact turf (jute netting mulch seeding). Measured plant parameters, characterising the vegetation structures were shoot lengths, shoot diameters, and above ground biomass. Root growth is investigated in an extra plot area allowing excavation of the plants. Percolation is monitored using seepage monitoring pipes, soil moisture sensors and soil temperature probes, which were build into the embankment during construction. The proposed contribution discusses the effects of woody plants (shrubs) on seepage of flood protection levees. Methodology of research and results after three initial seepage tests are presented.

Lammeranner, W.; Meixner, H.; Florineth, F.

2009-04-01

3

Climate and floods still govern California levee breaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even in heavily engineered river systems, climate still governs flood variability and thus still drives many levee breaks and geomorphic changes. We assemble a 155-year record of levee breaks for a major California river system to find that breaks occurred in 25% of years during the 20th Century. A relation between levee breaks and river discharge is present that sets

J. L. Florsheim; M. D. Dettinger

2007-01-01

4

Levee Scour Protection for Storm Waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earnest Johnson, Firat Y. Testik *, Nadarajah Ravichandran Civil Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA * Contact author ftestik@clemson.edu Levee failure due to scouring has been a prominent occurrence among intense storm surges and waves, giving rise to the implementation of various scour protection measures over the years. This study is to investigate the levee scour and to compare different scour protection measures on a model-levee system in a laboratory wave tank. The protection measures that are tested and compared for their effectiveness in this study include turf reinforcement mats, woven geotextiles, and core-locs. This is an ongoing research effort and experiments are currently being conducted with model levees constructed based upon the United States Army Corps of Engineers' levee design and construction guidelines under various simulated storm conditions. Parameters such as wave elevations, deformation time history of the floodwall, and the scour depth are measured in each test. The finding of this research will be translated to provide effective scour protection measures for robust levee designs.

Johnson, E.; Sustainable; Resiliency in Levee Scour Protection

2011-12-01

5

Overview of property, looking north from flood control levee at ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Overview of property, looking north from flood control levee at Summit Avenue and interstate 15. Note Bullock House (feature 11) in middle distance. (Panoramic view 1 of 4, from north to west). - Sainsevain Property, 14804 Summit Avenue, Fontana, San Bernardino County, CA

6

New Orleans Levees and Floodwalls: Hurricane Damage Protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hurricane Katrina's storm surge breached floodwalls and levees surrounding New Orleans, causing widespread inundation and significant damage and hampering rescue and recovery efforts. Flooding from precipitation and storm surges flowing over levees was an...

N. T. Carter

2005-01-01

7

Hydraulic and flood-loss modeling of levee, floodplain, and river management strategies, Middle Mississippi River, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this investigation, four scenarios were used to quantify the balance between the benefits of levees for flood protection\\u000a and their potential to increase flood risk using Hazards U.S. Multi-Hazard flood-loss software and hydraulic modeling of the\\u000a Middle Mississippi River (MMR). The goals of this study were (1) to quantify the flood exposure under different flood-control\\u000a configurations and (2) to

Jonathan W. F. RemoMegan; Megan Carlson; Nicholas Pinter

8

Severe Weather 101: Flood Basics  

MedlinePLUS

... shore, when snow melts too fast, or when dams or levees break. Flooding may happen with only ... failure of levees designed to protect the city. Dam failures can send a sudden destructive wall of ...

9

33 CFR 385.37 - Flood protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Flood protection. 385.37 Section 385...and Purpose of the Plan § 385.37 Flood protection. (a) General. In accordance with section 601 of WRDA 2000, flood protection, consistent with...

2013-07-01

10

Morphological Analyses and Simulated Flood Elevations in a Watershed with Dredged and Leveed Stream Channels, Wheeling Creek, Eastern Ohio  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The USGS, in cooperation with the Ohio Emergency Management Agency, conducted a study in the Wheeling Creek Basin to (1) evaluate and contrast land-cover characteristics from 2001 with characteristics from 1979 and 1992; (2) compare current streambed elevation, slope, and geometry with conditions present in the late 1980s; (3) look for evidence of channel filling and over widening in selected undredged reaches; (4) estimate flood elevations for existing conditions in both undredged and previously dredged reaches; (5) evaluate the height of the levees required to contain floods with selected recurrence intervals in previously dredged reaches; and (6) estimate flood elevations for several hypothetical dredging and streambed aggradation scenarios in undredged reaches. The amount of barren land in the Wheeling Creek watershed has decreased from 20 to 1 percent of the basin area based on land-cover characteristics from 1979 and 2001. Barren lands appear to have been converted primarily to pasture, presumably as a result of surface-mine reclamation. Croplands also decreased from 13 to 8 percent of the basin area. The combined decrease in barren lands and croplands is approximately offset by the increase in pasture. Stream-channel surveys conducted in 1987 and again in 2006 at 21 sites in four previously dredged reaches of Wheeling Creek indicate little change in the elevation, slope, and geometry of the channel at most sites. The mean change in width-averaged bed and thalweg elevations for the 21 cross sections was 0.1 feet. Bankfull widths, mean depths, and cross-sectional areas measured at 12 sites in undredged reaches were compared to estimates determined from regional equations. The mean percentage difference between measured and estimated bankfull widths was -0.2 percent, suggesting that bankfull widths in the Wheeling Creek Basin are generally about the same as regional averages for undisturbed basins of identical drainage area. For bankfull mean depth and cross-sectional area, the mean percentage differences between the measured and estimated values were -16.0 and -11.2, respectively. The predominantly negative bias in differences between the measured and estimated values indicates that bankfull mean depths and cross-sectional areas in studied reaches generally are smaller than the regional trend. This may be an indication of channel filling and over widening or it may reflect insufficient representation in the regional dataset of basins with characteristics like that of Wheeling Creek. Step-backwater models were constructed for four previously dredged reaches to determine the height of levees required to contain floods with recurrence intervals of 2, 10, 50, and 100 years. Existing levees (all of which are uncertified) were found to contain the 100-year flood at only 20 percent of the surveyed cross sections. At the other 80 percent of the surveyed cross sections, levee heights would have to be raised an average of 2.5 feet and as much as 6.3 feet to contain the 100-year flood. Step-backwater models also were constructed for three undredged reaches to assess the impacts of selected dredging and streambed aggradation scenarios on water-surface elevations corresponding to the 2-, 10-, 50-, and 100-year floods. Those models demonstrated that changes in water-surface elevations associated with a given depth of dredging were proportionately smaller for larger floods due to the fact that more of the flood waters are outside of the main channel. For example, 2.0 feet of dredging in the three study reaches would lower the water-surface elevation an average of 1.30 feet for the 2-year flood and 0.64 feet for the 100-year flood.

Sherwood, James M.; Huitger, Carrie A.; Ebner, Andrew D.; Koltun, G. F.

2008-01-01

11

Mississippi River, Coon Rapids Dam to Ohio River: feasibility report No. 1 for flood damage reduction, Muscatine Island Levee District, City of Muscatine, Iowa and Muscatine-Louisa County drainage district No. 13, Iowa  

SciTech Connect

Flood protection measures are proposed for the Muscatine Island Levee District and the Muscatine-Louisa County Drainage District No. 13 in southeastern Iowa. The project site is located between Mississippi River mile 455 and mile 442. The preferred plan would involve raising approximately 15.6 miles of the existing levee an average of two feet with hydraulic fill from the Mississippi River. The levee would be expanded on the landward side for most of its length. A 7500-foot segment in the northern section of the project area would be expanded riverward to avoid encroachment on existing industrial, commercial, and residential development. Concrete floodwalls would be used in four areas in the city of Muscatine, where space requirements did not allow for levee expansion. Associated features of the project would include raising and resurfacing existing road ramps, construction of a railroad closure at station 9 + 00 in Muscatine, modification of the discharge pipes at the Michael Creek pumping station, and mitigation of recreational fishing opportunities affected by the riverward levee expansion. The levee would be seeded with grasses and receive additional riprap where riprap currently exists. First costs of the project are estimated at $6.0 million.

Not Available

1985-08-01

12

Development of the New Orleans Flood Protection System prior to Hurricane Katrina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The system of flood protection surrounding New Orleans and its adjoining parishes prior to Hurricane Katrina evolved over a period of 280 years. The earliest drainage works sought to elevate the river's natural levees and excavate drainage canals leading towards Bayou St. John, the only natural break across the Metairie-Gentilly distributary ridge. An extensive zone of Cypress Swamps occupied the

J. D. Rogers

2008-01-01

13

18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Flood plain management and protection. 801...COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.8 Flood plain management and protection. ...waterways has not discouraged development of flood hazards areas. Major floods cause...

2013-04-01

14

Midwest Flood: Information on the Performance, Effects, and Control of Levees.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The intense rainfall that deluged the upper Mississippi River basin in the spring and summer of 1993 caused the largest flood ever measured at St. Louis. This unprecedented event in nine midwestern states generated the highest flood crests ever recorded a...

1995-01-01

15

44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 ...INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND...

2009-10-01

16

44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 ...INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND...

2010-10-01

17

Levee being built in Fargo, ND  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The city of Fargo, ND builds levees in preparation for rising flood waters. The height of the levees are built based on flood predictions, made by the National Weather Service using USGS streamflow information. ...

2009-03-30

18

Levee and sandbag efforts in Fargo, ND  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The city of Fargo, ND builds levees and prepares sandbags in preparation for rising flood waters. The height of the levees are built based on flood predictions, made by the National Weather Service using USGS streamflow information. ...

2009-03-30

19

25 CFR 286.9 - Environmental and flood disaster protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Environmental and flood disaster protection. 286.9 Section...PROGRAM § 286.9 Environmental and flood disaster protection. Grant funds...compliance with any applicable provisions of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973...

2013-04-01

20

44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...expected during the base flood, as a result of either...associated with the base flood and shall demonstrate that...elevation(s) of the base flood. This analysis must be based on the joint probability of interior and...

2009-10-01

21

44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...expected during the base flood, as a result of either...associated with the base flood and shall demonstrate that...elevation(s) of the base flood. This analysis must be based on the joint probability of interior and...

2010-10-01

22

Flood protection diversification to reduce probabilities of extreme losses.  

PubMed

Recent catastrophic losses because of floods require developing resilient approaches to flood risk protection. This article assesses how diversification of a system of coastal protections might decrease the probabilities of extreme flood losses. The study compares the performance of portfolios each consisting of four types of flood protection assets in a large region of dike rings. A parametric analysis suggests conditions in which diversifications of the types of included flood protection assets decrease extreme flood losses. Increased return periods of extreme losses are associated with portfolios where the asset types have low correlations of economic risk. The effort highlights the importance of understanding correlations across asset types in planning for large-scale flood protection. It allows explicit integration of climate change scenarios in developing flood mitigation strategy. PMID:22817779

Zhou, Qian; Lambert, James H; Karvetski, Christopher W; Keisler, Jeffrey M; Linkov, Igor

2012-07-22

23

Development of Floating Wave Barriers for Cost Effective Protection of Irrigation and Catfish Pond Levees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth levees for catfish ponds and irrigation water storage experience significant embankment erosion due to wind generated waves. Large seasonal fluctuations in water level make vegetative bank protection impractical, and other stabilization methods such as the use of old tires or riprap are not acceptable due to ecological and economic concerns. The goal of the present work is to define configurations and construction techniques for inexpensive floating breakwaters made of polyethylene irrigation tubing. Based on wave characteristics measured in an irrigation pond near Lonoke, Arkansas, a laboratory scale wave generating flume was designed, constructed, and used to test multiple wave barrier configurations for regular waves in deep and transitional water depths. Wave transmission characteristics were investigated for the following breakwater arrangements: (1) fully restrained, (2) vertically restrained with a single mooring line, (3) horizontally restrained with a rigid arm hinged at one end, and (4) horizontally restrained with piles at both sides of the breakwater. The test results show that cylindrical pipes can be used effectively as floating breakwaters and that wave transmission characteristics strongly depend on the draft of the breakwater and the mooring configuration. The use of multiple small cylinders instead of a single large one can reduce cost while maintaining the same level of wave attenuation. The wave characteristics measured in the field and the results of laboratory testing resulted in a final design that is to be tested at the prototype scale in an irrigation pond.

Ozeren, Y.; Wren, D. G.; Alonso, C. V.

2007-12-01

24

24 CFR 574.640 - Flood insurance protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Flood insurance protection. 574.640 Section...Other Federal Requirements § 574.640 Flood insurance protection. No property...Management Agency (FEMA) as having special flood hazards, unless: (a)(1) The...

2013-04-01

25

44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...velocities (especially in constricted areas); expected wind and wave action...flooding, the extent of the flooded area, and, if the average depth...systems usually include storage areas, gravity outlets, pumping...against the base flood. [51 FR 30316, Aug. 25,...

2012-10-01

26

44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...velocities (especially in constricted areas); expected wind and wave action...flooding, the extent of the flooded area, and, if the average depth...systems usually include storage areas, gravity outlets, pumping...against the base flood. [51 FR 30316, Aug. 25,...

2011-10-01

27

Mississippi River Flood of 2011 and the Activation of the Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway: Observations and Modeling of a Levee Breach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During 2011, record flooding has occurred in many parts of the central United States. As the flooding reached record levels for the Mississippi-Ohio River confluence at Cairo, Illinois, the 61 kilometer long and 8 kilometer wide Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway (Floodway) was activated to provide a lowering of upstream water levels through a controlled demolition of approximately 3,300 meters of levee at 10:00 PM on May 2, 2011. Prior to activation of the Floodway, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) deployed 38 self-contained stage sensors throughout the Floodway to capture the change in water elevation through time at various locations. From April 29, 2011 to May 24, 2011, daily streamflow measurements were made upstream of the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers, within the Floodway opening and outlets, and on the Mississippi River downstream of the Floodway opening. Additionally, velocity and bathymetric data were collected immediately downstream of the Floodway opening at Birds Point to characterize scour in the Floodway. The data provide a unique look at the impact of a controlled levee breach on river flows and hydraulics. The activation of the Floodway lowered the water level at Cairo, Illinois by 0.44 meters in the first 14 hours, while increasing the streamflow of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers in vicinity of Cairo, Illinois by 9,200 cubic meters per second. On May 2, prior to the activation of the Floodway, the measured combined streamflow of the upper Mississippi and Ohio Rivers at Cairo, Illinois was 52,900 cubic meters per second with the Ohio River contributing 27,700 cubic meters per second. Following the controlled breach of the Birds Point levee (immediately downstream of Cairo, Illinois on the right descending bank) the night of May 2, 2011, the measured combined streamflow at Cairo, Illinois on May 3, 2011 increased to 62,100 cubic meters per second with the Ohio River increasing to 38,100 cubic meters per second, an increase of 10,400 cubic meters per second (37.5-percent increase). The Ohio River streamflow 57 kilometers upstream at Metropolis, Illinois was nearly steady during this time. Our preliminary interpretation is that a flow transient was introduced in the system by an immediate increase in downstream conveyance through the Floodway. The increased conveyance increased the local water slope, increasing the streamflow, particularly on the Ohio River. The inflow and outflow data for the Floodway, time series of water levels at 38 locations in the Floodway, and velocity mapping data collected during operation of the Floodway provide a unique data set to apply and calibrate two-dimensional unsteady- and steady-state hydraulic models, and evaluate how effectively they can be used in a complex flow environment. The USGS IRIC modeling platform is being used to construct both steady and unsteady two-dimensional models of the Floodway. Assuming the two-dimensional models can be successfully applied, these models will provide water-resources managers with simulation capabilities to evaluate the efficacy of future levee breach scenarios in mitigating flood risk.

Holmes, R. R.; Koenig, T. A.; McDonald, R. R.; Nelson, J. M.; Simoes, F. J.

2011-12-01

28

Economics of Flood Protection in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The peculiar rainfall pattern in Indiarenders the country highly vulnerable to floods. Forty million hectares of land, roughlyone-eighth of the country's geographical area, is prone to floods. Each year, floods cause extensive damage to life and property, losses being exacerbated by rapid population growth, unplanned development and unchecked environmental degradation. The country has been tackling the problem through structural and

Sujata Gupta; Akram Javed; Divya Datt

2003-01-01

29

ROLES OF NATURAL LEVEES ON THE ARA RIVER ALLUVIAL FAN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the comprehensive flood control measures for alluvial fans, it is required to understand the effects of natural levees and micro-topography on reducing flood damages. We investigate the role of natural levees in the flood control measures for the alluvial fan of the Ara River by mapping historical community development and using the hazard maps.As a result, it is clarified that many communities have been developed on natural levees, and that natural levees are resistant to spreading of flood waters. The above indicates the significance of researches on natural levees and micro-topography as control measures on alluvial fans.

Saito, Shigeru; Fukuoka, Shoji

30

Directionally drilled crossing constructed under river levee  

SciTech Connect

Shell Pipe Line Corp. recently commenced construction of its 20-inch Delta Loop Pipeline Project in south Louisiana. This line will transport crude oil from Main Pass No. 69 to the existing Shell pump station at Nairn in Plaquemines Parish. NBH, Inc. of New Orleans is prime contractor for this project which involves offshore pipe lay, shallow water marsh lay and a 4,100-foot horizontal directional crossing of the Mississippi River at Nairn which was undertaken by Land and Marine, Inc. of Houston. For past directionally drilled crossings, the New Orleans district of the US Army Corps of Engineers has only allowed drilling operations inside its Mississippi River flood protection levees. No drilling has been undertaken beneath the levees out of concern that the drilling operations could in some way damage their structural integrity. Unfortunately, at this particular location, the drill profile could not be designed placing drilling equipment inside the levee and achieve sufficient burial depth for the installed pipeline. If not allowed to bore beneath the levee, significant additional costs would have been incurred in routing the pipeline to a more suitable location. This paper reviews the design of this drilling operation showing the locations and construction of relief wells and piezometers used to monitor the directional drilling.

Skonberg, E.R. [Land and Marine, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Berry, C.W. [Shell Oil Products Co., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-06-01

31

Environmental considerations for levees and floodwalls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levees and floodwalls are used extensively throughout the United States for flood control. Levee projects often lack ecological, recreational, and aesthetic values, except for incidental fish and wildlife benefits derived from borrow pits and recreational facilities found in some urban settings. In recent years increased environmental concern within construction agencies and greater responsiveness to public opinion have resulted in increasing

Nelson R. Nunnally; F. Douglas Shields; James Hynson

1987-01-01

32

The Impact of Corps Flood Control Reservoirs in the June 2008 Upper Mississippi Flood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Army Corps of Engineers is responsible for a multitude of flood control project on the Mississippi River and its tributaries, including levees that protect land from flooding, and dams to help regulate river flows. The first six months of 2008 were the wettest on record in the upper Mississippi Basin. During the first 2 weeks of June, rainfall

W. J. Charley; J. A. Stiman

2008-01-01

33

Protecting Coastal Areas from Flooding by Injecting Solids into the Subsurface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subsidence and sea level rise conspire to increase the risk of flooding in coastal cities throughout the world, and these processes were key contributors to the devastation of New Orleans by hurricane Katrina. Constructing levees and placing fill to raise ground elevations are currently the main options for reducing flooding risks in coastal areas, and both of these options have drawbacks. We suggest that hydromechanical injection of solid compounds suspended in liquid can be used to lift the ground surface and thereby expand the options for protecting such coastal cities as New Orleans, Venice, and Shanghai from flooding. These techniques are broadly related to hydraulic fracturing and compensation grouting, where solid compounds are injected as slurries and cause upward displacements at the ground surface. The equipment and logistics required for hydromechanical solid injection and ground lifting are readily available from current geotechnical and petroleum operations. Hydraulic fractures are routinely created in the upper tens of meters of sediments, where they are filled with a wide range of different proppants for environmental applications. At shallow depths, many of these fractures are sub-parallel to the ground surface and lift their overburden by a few mm to cm, although lifting is not the objective of these fractures. Much larger, vertical displacements, of the order of several meters, could be created in low-cohesion sediments over areas as large as square kilometers. This would be achieved as a result of multiple injections. Injecting solid particulates provides the benefits of a permanent displacement supported by the solids. We have demonstrated that hydraulic fractures will lift the ground surface at shallow depths in Texas near the Sabine River, where the geological setting is generally similar to that of New Orleans (and where, incidentally, hurricane Rita landed in 2005). In these regions, the soft surficial sediments are underlain by relatively stiff Pleistocene deposits, which create in-situ stress conditions favorable for sub-horizontal orientation of hydraulic fractures. Based on the poroelastic effect, these conditions can further be improved by subsurface manipulations of pore fluid. Also, there are many geological examples of natural, sub- horizontal hydraulic fractures. These include multiple igneous sills (e.g., Henry Mountains, Utah) and sand- filled sills intruded into sedimentary formations (e.g., Shetland-Faroe Islands). Techniques that are currently used, or planned, for protecting coastal cities from flood are typically based on the concept of a barrier to the seawater (e.g., levees or water gates). However, the failure of any barrier to flood waters can be catastrophic when the city it protects is below sea level. Hydromechanical injection of solid compounds could permanently lift elevations above a Category 5 hurricane surge, so the risk of a catastrophic failure and subsequent flooding becomes insignificant. We envision that the hydromechanical method can be used in combination with other strategies. For example, in some areas it may be efficient to let most of a city retreat and only lift localized regions of particularly high value, such as airports, port facilities, refineries, historical areas, military bases, etc. In other cases, the protecting equipment itself may begin subsiding (e.g., massive, metal water gates on a soft-sediment foundation). Then, hydromechanical injections could be used to lift the region supporting this equipment.

Germanovich, L. N.; Murdoch, L.

2008-12-01

34

Environmental considerations for levees and floodwalls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Levees and floodwalls are used extensively throughout the United States for flood control. Levee projects often lack ecological, recreational, and aesthetic values, except for incidental fish and wildlife benefits derived from borrow pits and recreational facilities found in some urban settings. In recent years increased environmental concern within construction agencies and greater responsiveness to public opinion have resulted in increasing numbers of levee projects designed, built, and maintained with environmental objectives in mind. This paper reviews environmental concepts successfully employed on levee projects constructed in recent years by the US Army Corps of Engineers. Some of the most innovative concepts are described and illustrated and design considerations are discussed.

Nunnally, Nelson R.; Shields, F. Douglas; Hynson, James

1987-03-01

35

33 CFR 203.51 - Levee owner's manual.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program § 203.51 Levee owner's manual. (a) Authority. In...

2013-07-01

36

Earthquake Risk Assessment of Flood Protection Assets in the Wellington Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was undertaken to assess the earthquake risk to the Greater Wellington Regional Council flood protection assets in case of a major seismic event on the Wellington Fault. The vulnerability of various flood protection assets to seismic damage for Hutt, Otaki, Waikanae, Porirua, and Wainuiomata river flood protection schemes was assessed. The assets included 40 km of stopbanks, outlet

A. K. Murashev; R Dave; B. Curley

37

Advances in urban-drainage management and flood protection.  

PubMed

Since the beginning of modern urban drainage in the 19th century, the sole objective has been to get rid of sewage and storm water in the best possible way and design the systems according to accepted standards. In recent decades, advanced methods have been developed not only to refine the design but also especially to enable the assessment of hydraulic performance and pollutant emissions. Consequently, urban drainage has become part of an integrated approach concerning flood protection as well as ecological aspects for whole watersheds. Another major change concerns the management of urban systems: simple structural maintenance has been replaced by interactive operational management and control of the systems in order to make better use of the facilities. Rehabilitation has become a multi-objective task. This paper looks at today's basic principles of urban drainage and tomorrow's potential advances, and deals with their relevance to flood protection. PMID:12804259

Verworn, Hans-Reinhard

2002-07-15

38

Floods  

MedlinePLUS

... in to NOAA Weather Radio, commercial radio or television for information. Flash Flood Watch - Flash flooding is ... listen to NOAA Weather Radio, commercial radio or television for information. Flood Warning - Flooding is occurring or ...

39

"Blow-Up" Dams Might Protect Critical Structures In A Flood  

NSF Publications Database

... Tip 40328 "BLOW-UP" DAMS MIGHT PROTECT CRITICAL STRUCTURES IN A FLOOD Type : News NSF Org: OD / LPA ... CRITICAL STRUCTURES IN A FLOOD The next time the river starts to rise around power plants, water ...

40

When the levee breaks - public policy and holistic risk management - lessons from Katrina for coastal cities faced with rising storm surge flood risk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a period of accelerating sea level rise and increased tropical cyclone intensities, extreme 100 year coastal flood levels are rising rapidly along a number of tropical and subtropical coastlines. Meanwhile, whether from natural megadelta consolidation, post glacial rebound or overpumping of shallow aquifers, many coastal cities are sinking even faster than mean sea level is rising. Without significant investment in continually improved flood defence inevitably this means the risk of catastrophic flooding is rising, for many cities quite steeply. The experience of Hurricane Katrina and New Orleans may become seen as iconic for 21st Century catastrophe risk as more and more coastal cities are subject to similar calamities. The story of New Orleans also highlights many aspects of catastrophe risk management failures before and after extreme events. The city of New Orleans had already been flooded three times by storm surges in the 100 years before Katrina. After each flood, investments were made in improved flood defences but these investments dwindled through time as there appeared to be a reduced imperative to divert money to support abstract risk reduction. Meanwhile land subsidence and rising sea levels and storm surges meant that risk levels continued to rise, until the inevitable time when the city once again was flooded. As the city increasingly sinks below mean sea level the impact of each flood has become increasingly catastrophic, both in terms of areas flooded, property damage and casualties. While a major program of investment in improved flood defences has once again followed the catastrophic 2005 flood, Federal government agencies have given no assurance that levels of flood risk will be maintained below some designated threshold long term. Therefore another cycle of rising flood risk has now started that will inevitably eventually to lead to the city becoming reflooded. This cycle can only end with the eventual abandonment of much of the city area - an outcome that is deemed politically unacceptable. The loss consequences of rising levels of risk, improvements or degradation in flood defences and the potential outcomes of different catastrophic storm surges can only be explored in a Catastrophe loss model.

Muir-Wood, R.

2009-04-01

41

Mapping Flood Protection Benefits from Restored Wetlands at the Urban-Suburban Interface  

EPA Science Inventory

Urbanization exacerbates flooding by increasing runoff and decreasing surface water storage. Restoring wetlands can enhance flood protection while providing a suite of co-benefits such as temperature regulation and access to open space. Spatial modeling of the delivery of flood p...

42

When the levee breaks - public policy and holistic risk management - lessons from Katrina for coastal cities faced with rising storm surge flood risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a period of accelerating sea level rise and increased tropical cyclone intensities, extreme 100 year coastal flood levels are rising rapidly along a number of tropical and subtropical coastlines. Meanwhile, whether from natural megadelta consolidation, post glacial rebound or overpumping of shallow aquifers, many coastal cities are sinking even faster than mean sea level is rising. Without significant investment

R. Muir-Wood

2009-01-01

43

Flooding and Flood Management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Floods result in great human disasters globally and nationally, causing an average of $4 billion of damages each year in the United States. Minnesota has its share of floods and flood damages, and the state has awarded nearly $278 million to local units of government for flood mitigation projects through its Flood Hazard Mitigation Grant Program. Since 1995, flood mitigation in the Red River Valley has exceeded $146 million. Considerable local and state funding has been provided to manage and mitigate problems of excess stormwater in urban areas, flooding of farmlands, and flood damages at road crossings. The cumulative costs involved with floods and flood mitigation in Minnesota are not known precisely, but it is safe to conclude that flood mitigation is a costly business. This chapter begins with a description of floods in Minneosta to provide examples and contrasts across the state. Background material is presented to provide a basic understanding of floods and flood processes, predication, and management and mitigation. Methods of analyzing and characterizing floods are presented because they affect how we respond to flooding and can influence relevant practices. The understanding and perceptions of floods and flooding commonly differ among those who work in flood forecasting, flood protection, or water resource mamnagement and citizens and businesses affected by floods. These differences can become magnified following a major flood, pointing to the need for better understanding of flooding as well as common language to describe flood risks and the uncertainty associated with determining such risks. Expectations of accurate and timely flood forecasts and our ability to control floods do not always match reality. Striving for clarity is important in formulating policies that can help avoid recurring flood damages and costs.

Brooks, K. N.; Fallon, J. D.; Lorenz, D. L.; Stark, J. R.; Menard, Jason

2011-01-01

44

Flood  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Flood site is an experiment with a stream table to see what happens during a flood. It was originally a joint project between a 6th grade class and the Bureau of Economic Geography. There are explanations and photographs of the experimental set up and of students and their observation of rivers forming and the creation of a flood. There is also a worksheet for experimental notes and a sheet containing the experimental method and instructions.

45

Evaluation of a Non-Structural Flood Management and Habitat Enhancement Alternative at the San Joaquin River National Wildlife Refuge  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of the January 1997 floods, the San Joaquin River National Wildlife Refuge (SJRNWR) worked with the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to plan a non-structural flood management alternative (NSA). This alternative included breaching existing mainstem San Joaquin River levees on recently acquired refuge land to protect and restore wetland and riparian habitat. The proposed NSA will

C. L. LOWNEY; E. S. ANDREWS; C. B. BOWLES; J. A. HAAS; S. BLAKE

46

Investigating homeowners' interest in property-level flood protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose The inevitability of climate change and its consequences brings on the need to find new ways of adapting to extreme events, such as floods. One immediate measure would be to make physical improvements to houses to either prevent their inundation or minimise the damage when flood waters enter premises. Currently, the level of implementation of these measures is

Aleksandra Kazmierczak; Erik Bichard

2010-01-01

47

Using geophysics to characterize levee stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shallow slough slides have occurred along the river side slope of Mississippi River Levees for over sixty years. Shallow slough slides also occur along smaller levees that protect tributaries of the Mississippi River. This investigation takes place along a section of the Coldwater River Levee, a tributary levee of the Mississippi River. Field observation, soil samples, and geophysical data were collected at two field sites located on the border of Tate and Tunica County, MS. The first site consists of a developed shallow slough slide that had occurred that has not yet been repaired and the second site is a potential slide area. Electromagnetic induction and electrical resistivity tomography were the geophysical methods used to define subsurface conditions that make a levee vulnerable to failure. These electrical methods are sensitive to the electrical conductivity of the soil and therefore depend upon: soil moisture, clay content, pore size distribution as well as larger scale structures at depth such as cracks and fissures. These same physical properties of the soil are also important to assessing the vulnerability of a levee to slough slides. Soil tests and field observations were also implemented in this investigation to describe and classify the soil composition of the levee material. The problem of slough slide occurrence can potentially be reduced if vulnerabilities are located with the help of geophysical techniques.

Dalton, Laura M.

48

CHARACTER OF FLOODS OF THE NEMUNAS RIVER DELTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today the river Nemunas delta is on the border of Russia and Lithuania. The left bank belongs to Russia and right one - to Lithuania. At the end of the 19 th century almost all the delta area was a territory of Germany and the right bank of the river was protected from floods by high levee, while the left

Antanas Dumbrauskas; Petras Punys

49

Woody Vegetation on Levees? - Research Experiences and Design Suggestions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent flood events in Austria have reawakened practical and scientific interest in the stability of levees. One focus amongst others has been taken on the relationship between vegetation and levee stability with special reference to the role of woody plants. The effects of woody plants are undoubtedly manifold: On the one hand they can potentially have a negative influence and endanger levees, which is why many guidelines ban woody vegetation to preserve stability, visual inspection and unhindered flood-fight access. On the other hand woody vegetation can have several positive impacts on soil stability and which effects prevail depends largely on types and characteristics of plants. This shows how controversially woody plants on levees can be discussed and the strong need for further research in this field. In order to obtain new insights and widen horizons for this controversial issue, a research project carried out by the Institute of Soil Bioengineering and Landscape Construction - at the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna - was launched. This project deals with several aspects of effects of woody plants have on levees and focuses particularly on shrubby woody plants. The examined vegetation type is a dense stand of willows - Purple-Willows (Salix purpurea L.) - commonly used for stabilization of river embankments. The proposed contribution discusses the gained results with reference to levee stability and existing levee vegetation guidelines and gives design suggestions for compatible woody vegetation on levees.

Lammeranner, Walter

2013-04-01

50

What is a fluvial levee?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluvial levees are elevated partitions between channels and floodplains. Because of their character and position, levees may provide critical controls on, and insights into, geomorphic processes that determine the distribution of water and sediment within river systems. Few studies have analysed the character, distribution, sedimentology and processes that form levees in modern depositional environments. Characterisation of levee deposits from the

Gary J. Brierley; Rob J. Ferguson; Ken J. Woolfe

1997-01-01

51

Design of flood protection for transportation alignments on alluvial fans  

SciTech Connect

The method of floodplain delineation on alluvial fans developed for the national flood insurance program is modified to provide estimates of peak flood flows at transportation alignments crossing an alluvial fan. The modified methodology divides the total alignment length into drainage design segments and estimates the peak flows that drainage structures would be required to convey as a function of the length of the drainage design segment, the return period of the event, and the location of the alignment on the alluvial fan. An example of the application of the methodology is provided. 16 refs., 5 figs.

French, R.H.

1991-01-01

52

Flood control failure: San Lorenzo River, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The San Lorenzo River on the central California coast was the site of a major US Army Corps of Engineers flood control project in 1959. By excavating the channel below its natural grade and constructing levees, the capacity of the river was increased in order to contain approximately the 100 year flood. Production and transport of large volumes of sediment from the river's urbanizing watershed has filled the flood control project with sand and silt. The natural gradient has been re-established, and flood protection has been reduced to containment of perhaps the 30 year flood. In order for the City of Santa Cruz, which is situated on the flood plain, to be protected from future flooding,it must either initiate an expensive annual dredging program, or replan and rebuild the inadequately designed flood control channel. It has become clear, here and elsewhere, that the problem of flooding cannot simply be resolved by engineering. Large flood control projects provide a false sense of security and commonly produce unexpected channel changes.

Griggs, Gary B.; Paris, Lance

1982-09-01

53

Comeback at Coles Levee  

Microsoft Academic Search

The San Joaquin Valley's N. Coles Levee oil field is preparing for a comeback. It all goes well, the field may set a new production record within the next 3 to 4 yr. Atlantic Richfield Co. (ARCO) is the firm that is initiating the program that may lead to new highs. The program is a massive waterflood in which Atlantic

Rintoul

1969-01-01

54

Flood  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the discoveryschool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on how flooding can occur due to different types of soil and how soils are able to retain rainwater. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, performing extensions, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, audio vocabulary, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

55

GIS-enabled Spatial Analysis and Modeling of Geotechnical Soil Properties for Seismic Risk Assessment of Levee Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood protection systems are complex, interconnected engineered systems, where failure at one location means the failure of the entire system. Earthen levees, the systems' major component, are at risk from many causes of failure including seepage, erosion and instability due to seismic loading, yet there are currently no guidelines available for the seismic design of levees. Levees stretch for long distances and are formed through various geologic processes and human activities over time, however information regarding soil properties is collected only at limited point locations and varies significantly both laterally and with depth. Levee vulnerability analyses are currently performed only at locations with known soil properties. Prediction of levee performance in locations where no soil data is available becomes a limitation for system risk assessment studies. A simplified methodology is proposed to predict soil variability in riverine geologic environments for the seismic risk assessment of earthen levee systems. A key step in this methodology is to provide a continuous characterization of soil conditions throughout the system. The proposed model correlates soil properties to preselected regional variables and is implemented, using geostatistical kriging, in a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) environment. GIS was crucial in this research and proved to be the appropriate platform for input, manipulation, analysis, and output presentation of spatial and non-spatial data. Correlation relationships between soil strength parameters and geological and river geometry factors are presented for a pilot study area in California. Global observations that apply across the study area included the increasing trend of shear strength, Su. with increasing distance from the river, and decreasing trend of Su with increasing river Sinuosity Index levels. Only local trends were observed in the relation of friction angle, ?, with Sinuosity Index, as well as in the relation of Su and ? with geological formations. The proposed methodology also includes steps for seismic response analysis of levee segments, and flood scenarios in protected areas. Since seismic response of earthen structures is controlled primarily by input ground motions, a methodology for selecting ground motions based on their mean period, Tm, for liquefaction triggering assessment of levees is also developed.

Saadi, Mustafa M. H.

56

A Cost-Benefit Analysis of the New Orleans Flood Protection System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the early stages of rebuilding New Orleans, a decision has to be made on the level of flood protection the city should implement. Such decisions are usually based on cost-benefit analyses. But in such an analysis, the results are contingent on a number of underlying assumptions and varying these assumptions can lead to different recommendations. Indeed, though a standard

Stephane Hallegatte

2006-01-01

57

A Decision Analysis of Options to Rebuild the New Orleans Flood Control System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter makes another step in this direction by developing a decision analysis of options for the levee and floodwall system in and around New Orleans. Like the previous paper,we assume that substantial portions of New Orleans will be rebuilt and require protection. Moreover, we consider a comprehensive list of options for flood mitigation, of the possible types of events

Carl Southwell; Detlof von Winterfeldt

2008-01-01

58

Fragility analysis of flood protection structures in earthquake and flood prone areas around Cologne, Germany for multi-hazard risk assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work presents a methodology for fragility analyses of fluvial earthen dikes in earthquake and flood prone areas. Fragility estimates are being integrated into the multi-hazard (earthquake-flood) risk analysis being undertaken within the framework of the EU FP7 project MATRIX (New Multi-Hazard and Multi-Risk Assessment Methods for Europe) for the city of Cologne, Germany. Scenarios of probable cascading events due to the earthquake-triggered failure of flood protection dikes and the subsequent inundation of surroundings are analyzed for the area between the gauges Andernach and Dsseldorf along the Rhine River. Along this river stretch, urban areas are partly protected by earthen dikes, which may be prone to failure during exceptional floods and/or earthquakes. The seismic fragility of the dikes is considered in terms of liquefaction potential (factor of safety), estimated by the use of the simplified procedure of Seed and Idriss. It is assumed that initiation of liquefaction at any point throughout the earthen dikes' body corresponds to the failure of the dike and, therefore, this should be taken into account for the flood risk calculations. The estimated damage potential of such structures is presented as a two-dimensional surface (as a function of seismic hazard and water level). Uncertainties in geometrical and geotechnical dike parameters are considered within the framework of Monte Carlo simulations. Taking into consideration the spatial configuration of the existing flood protection system within the area under consideration, seismic hazard curves (in terms of PGA) are calculated for sites along the river segment of interest at intervals of 1 km. The obtained estimates are used to calculate the flood risk when considering the temporal coincidence of seismic and flood events. Changes in flood risk for the considered hazard cascade scenarios are quantified and compared to the single-hazard scenarios.

Tyagunov, Sergey; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Munoz Jimenez, Cristina; Parolai, Stefano; Fleming, Kevin; Merz, Bruno; Zschau, Jochen

2013-04-01

59

Self-formed levees and floodplains in an annular flume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various river channel patterns have been produced in experiments recently, including dynamic meandering. The key to produce more realistical patterns is the formation of levees and sedimentary floodplain. However, experiments to date only produced wide floodplains or bedload-generated levees and overbank splays, but not the classical levee with decaying thickness and particle size away from the channel. The objective of our work is to understand the subtle balance between inundation level, flow velocity and sediment properties, and to design experimental conditions that form levees in channel pattern experiments. We designed and built an annular flume with floodplains, where flow is driven by vanes in the preformed channel. The channel sediment was mobile and developed a transverse bed slope in response to the strong spiral flow. The transverse water surface gradient and the level of inundation controlled the flow on the floodplain. We experimented with sediments varying in diameter and density to obtain levees and floodplain under constant forcing and depth. The flow on the floodplain developed horizontal circulation when shallow relative to the channel, and vertical (spiral) flow when it was deeper. Silt-sized silica flour was either not entrained from the bed onto the floodplain, or suspended so much that the floodplain was covered entirely. A channel-flanking levee only formed in a very narrow range of flow depth and velocity for this sediment. Preliminary tests with low-density sediment did not form levees for channel flow conditions with mobile bed sediment. The difficulty in forming levees, and some numerical modelling with tides, suggest that fluctuating water levels due to floods or tides are conducive to levee formation.

Teske, R.; Kleinhans, M. G.; Roosendaal, C.

2011-12-01

60

Flood frequency in China's Poyang Lake region: trends and teleconnections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poyang Lake in Jiangxi Province is the largest freshwater lake in China and is historically a region of significant floods. Annual events of peak lake stage and of severe floods have increased dramatically during the past few decades. This trend is related primarily to levee construction at the periphery of the lake and along the middle of the Changjiang (Yangtze River), which protects a large rural population. These levees reduce the area formerly available for floodwater storage resulting in higher lake stages during the summer flood season and catastrophic levee failures. The most severe floods in the Poyang Lake since 1950, and ranked in descending order of severity, occurred in 1998, 1995, 1954, 1983, 1992, 1973, and 1977. All of these floods occurred during or immediately following El Nio events, which are directly linked to rainfall in central China. The 2-year recurrence interval for maximum annual lake stage during El Nio years is 1.2 m higher than during non-El Nio years. The 10-year recurrence interval is 1.4 m higher during El Nio years than during non-El Nio years.

Shankman, David; Keim, Barry D.; Song, Jie

2006-07-01

61

Flash Flood Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to NOAA's National Weather Service, a flash flood is a life-threatening flood that begins within 6 hours--and often within 3 hours--of a causative event. That causative event can be intense rainfall, the failure of a dam, levee, or other structure that is impounding water, or the sudden rise of water level associated with river ice jams.

Spangler, Tim

2006-11-01

62

Flood Protection Decision Making Within a Coupled Human and Natural System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the perceived threat from climate change, prediction under changing climatic and hydrological conditions has become a dominant theme of hydrological research. Much of this research has been climate model-centric, in which GCM/RCM climate projections have been used to drive hydrological system models to explore potential impacts that should inform adaptation decision-making. However, adaptation fundamentally involves how humans may respond to increasing flood and drought hazards by changing their strategies, activities and behaviours which are coupled in complex ways to the natural systems within which they live and work. Humans are major agents of change in hydrological systems, and representing human activities and behaviours in coupled human and natural hydrological system models is needed to gain insight into the complex interactions that take place, and to inform adaptation decision-making. Governments and their agencies are under pressure to make proactive investments to protect people living in floodplains from the perceived increasing flood hazard. However, adopting this as a universal strategy everywhere is not affordable, particularly in times of economic stringency and given uncertainty about future climatic conditions. It has been suggested that the assumption of stationarity, which has traditionally been invoked in making hydrological risk assessments, is no longer tenable. However, before the assumption of hydrologic nonstationarity is accepted, the ability to cope with the uncertain impacts of global warming on water management via the operational assumption of hydrologic stationarity should be carefully examined. Much can be learned by focussing on natural climate variability and its inherent changes in assessing alternative adaptation strategies. A stationary stochastic multisite flood hazard model has been developed that can exhibit increasing variability/persistence in annual maximum floods, starting with the traditional assumption of independence. This has been coupled to an agent based model of how various stakeholders interact in determining where and when flood protection investments are made in a hypothetical region with multiple sites at risk from flood hazard. Monte Carlo simulation is used to explore how government agencies with finite resources might best invest in flood protection infrastructure in a highly variable climate with a high degree of future uncertainty. Insight is provided into whether proactive or reactive strategies are to be preferred in an increasingly variable climate.

O'Donnell, Greg; O'Connell, Enda

2013-04-01

63

The Impact of Corps Flood Control Reservoirs in the June 2008 Upper Mississippi Flood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The US Army Corps of Engineers is responsible for a multitude of flood control project on the Mississippi River and its tributaries, including levees that protect land from flooding, and dams to help regulate river flows. The first six months of 2008 were the wettest on record in the upper Mississippi Basin. During the first 2 weeks of June, rainfall over the Midwest ranged from 6 to as much as 16 inches, overwhelming the flood protection system, causing massive flooding and damage. Most severely impacted were the States of Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, and Wisconsin. In Iowa, flooding occurred on almost every river in the state. On the Iowa River, record flooding occurred from Marshalltown, Iowa, downstream to its confluence with the Mississippi River. At several locations, flooding exceeded the 500-year event. The flooding affected agriculture, transportation, and infrastructure, including homes, businesses, levees, and other water-control structures. It has been estimated that there was at least 7 billion dollars in damages. While the flooding in Iowa was extraordinary, Corps of Engineers flood control reservoirs helped limit damage and prevent loss of life, even though some reservoirs were filled beyond their design capacity. Coralville Reservoir on the Iowa River, for example, filled to 135% of its design flood storage capacity, with stage a record five feet over the crest of the spillway. In spite of this, the maximum reservoir release was limited to 39,500 cfs, while a peak inflow of 57,000 cfs was observed. CWMS, the Corps Water Management System, is used to help regulate Corps reservoirs, as well as track and evaluate flooding and flooding potential. CWMS is a comprehensive data acquisition and hydrologic modeling system for short-term decision support of water control operations in real time. It encompasses data collection, validation and transformation, data storage, visualization, real time model simulation for decision-making support, and data dissemination. The system uses precipitation and flow data, collected in real-time, along with forecasted flow from the National Weather Service to model and optimize reservoir operations and forecast downstream flows and stages, providing communities accurate and timely information to aid their flood-fighting. This involves integrating several simulation modeling programs, including HEC-HMS to forecast flows, HEC-ResSim to model reservoir operations and HEC-RAS to compute forecasted stage hydrographs. An inundation boundary and depth map of water in the flood plain can be calculated from the HEC-RAS results using ArcInfo. By varying future precipitation and releases, engineers can evaluate different "What if?" scenarios. The effectiveness of this tool and Corps reservoirs are examined.

Charley, W. J.; Stiman, J. A.

2008-12-01

64

Flood Control Root River Basin, Minnesota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proposed action of the Root River basin consists of 3.1 miles of levees and 0.2 miles of road raises at Houston and encouragement of floodplain regulation and flood insurance at other flood-prone communities. The construction of the levee would result...

1977-01-01

65

Classification of Soil Moisture on Vegetated Earthen Levees Using X and L Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthen levees protect large areas of land in the US from flooding. Timely inspection and repairs can reduce the potential for catastrophic failures. Changes in spatial and temporal patterns of soil moisture can reveal signs of instability and help identify zones of weakness. Since analytical and empirical models have shown a relationship between SAR backscatter and soil moisture, we are using SAR to classify soil moisture on levees. Estimation of soil moisture from SAR is challenging when the surface has any significant vegetation. For the levee application, the soil is typically covered with a uniform layer of grass. Our methodology is based on a supervised soil moisture classification using a back propagation neural network with four classes of low, medium, high, and very high soil moisture. Our methodology consists of the following steps: 1) segmentation of the levee area from background and exclusion of tree-covered areas; 2) extracting the backscattering and texture features such as GLCM (Grey-Level Co-occurrence Matrix) and wavelet features; 3) training the back propagation neural network classifier; and 4) testing the area of interest and validation of the results using ground truth data. Two sources of SAR imagery are tested with this method: (1) fully polarimetric L-band data from NASA's UAVSAR; and (2) dual-polarimetric X-band data from the German TerraSAR-X satellite. The study area is a 4 km stretch of levee along the lower Mississippi River in the United States. Field data collected simultaneously with image acquisition are utilized for training and validation. Preliminary results show classification accuracies of about 50% for the UAVSAR image and 30% for the TerraSAR-X image in vegetated areas. The figure below shows a soil moisture classification using UAVSAR on April 28, 2011.

Mahrooghy, M.; Aanstoos, J. V.; Hasan, K.; Nobrega, R. A.; Younan, N. H.

2011-12-01

66

Socio-hydrology: conceptualising human-flood interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over history, humankind has tended to settle near streams because of the role of rivers as transportation corridors and the fertility of riparian areas. However, human settlements in floodplains have been threatened by the risk of flooding. Possible responses have been to resettle away and/or modify the river system by building flood control structures. This has led to a complex web of interactions and feedback mechanisms between hydrological and social processes in settled floodplains. This paper is an attempt to conceptualise these interplays for hypothetical human-flood systems. We develop a simple, dynamic model to represent the interactions and feedback loops between hydrological and social processes. The model is then used to explore the dynamics of the human-flood system and the effect of changing individual characteristics, including external forcing such as technological development. The results show that the conceptual model is able to reproduce reciprocal effects between floods and people as well as the emergence of typical patterns. For instance, when levees are built or raised to protect floodplain areas, their presence not only reduces the frequency of flooding, but also exacerbates high water levels. Then, because of this exacerbation, higher flood protection levels are required by the society. As a result, more and more flooding events are avoided, but rare and catastrophic events take place.

Di Baldassarre, G.; Viglione, A.; Carr, G.; Kuil, L.; Salinas, J. L.; Blschl, G.

2013-04-01

67

Engineering protection of reservoirs of hydropower developments from flooding and subirrigation  

SciTech Connect

Examples are given of current hydropower construction with the creation of systems of embanking lands for protecting them from flooding and subirrigation. The examples are drawn from hydropower developments in Canada, Ecuador, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, and the Soviet Union, and include tidal and nuclear plants as well. An analysis of the specific land-use intensity of different power stations showed that at present there is a tendency toward a reduction of the difference of this index for hydroelectric stations, on the one hand, and thermal power stations (nuclear power stations) on the other. For protection and conservation of lands and improvement of the ecological state of streams, reservoirs, and the lower pools of hydro developments, calculation methods (algorithms and programs) have been developed for optimizing the parameters of the embankment systems.

Vasil'ev, Yu.S.; Khrisanov, N.I.

1988-04-01

68

Federal Emergency Management Agency's National Flood Insurance Program: Call for Issues Status Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For decades the national response to flood disasters was generally limited to constructing flood control works, such as dams, levees, and seawalls, and providing disaster relief to flood victims. This approach did not reduce losses or discourage unwise de...

2000-01-01

69

Climate change, urbanization, and optimal long-term floodplain protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines levee-protected floodplains and economic aspects of adaptation to increasing long-term flood risk due to urbanization and climate change. The lower American River floodplain in the Sacramento, California, metropolitan area is used as an illustration to explore the course of optimal floodplain protection decisions over long periods. A dynamic programming model is developed and suggests economically desirable adaptations for floodplain levee systems given simultaneous changes in flood climate and urban land values. Economic engineering optimization analyses of several climate change and urbanization scenarios are made. Sensitivity analyses consider assumptions about future values of floodplain land and damageable property along with the discount rate. Methodological insights and policy lessons are drawn from modeling results, reflecting the joint effects and relationships that climate, economic costs, and regional economic growth can have on floodplain levee planning decisions.

Zhu, Tingju; Lund, Jay R.; Jenkins, Marion W.; Marques, Guilherme F.; Ritzema, Randall S.

2007-06-01

70

Cost estimates for flood resilience and protection strategies in New York City.  

PubMed

In the aftermaths of Hurricanes Irene, in 2011, and Sandy, in 2012, New York City has come to recognize the critical need to better prepare for future storm surges and to anticipate future trends, such as climate change and socio-economic developments. The research presented in this report assesses the costs of six different flood management strategies to anticipate long-term challenges the City will face. The proposed strategies vary from increasing resilience by upgrading building codes and introducing small scale protection measures, to creating green infrastructure as buffer zones and large protective engineering works such as storm surge barriers. The initial investment costs of alternative strategies vary between $11.6 and $23.8 bn, maximally. We show that a hybrid solution, combining protection of critical infrastructure and resilience measures that can be upgraded over time, is less expensive. However, with increasing risk in the future, storm surge barriers may become cost-effective, as they can provide protection to the largest areas in both New York and New Jersey. PMID:23915111

Aerts, Jeroen C J H; Botzen, W J Wouter; de Moel, Hans; Bowman, Malcolm

2013-08-01

71

Decentralised flood protection in low mountain areas - the Upper Floeha case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the German-Czech border regions throughout the Ore Mountains storm runoff frequently causes severe damage in headwater areas as well as in lower reaches. The fact, that settlements along smaller tributaries (second order rivers) and towns near the receiving water (first order rivers) are affected simultaneously, requires the consideration of measures distributed throughout the entire drainage area. The concept of decentralised flood protection includes a large number of different measures, which are suitable for the application in low mountain ranges, e.g. small, decentralised retarding basins, river revitalisation, reforestation of floodplains or landuse changes. The presented study is part of the Interreg IIIA research project "DINGHO". Its aim is to show, how decentralised measures can contribute to an improvement of flood protection in low mountain areas using the example of the Upper Floeha watershed. On this background the investigations focus on headwater areas as well as downstream settlements. The study area extends between the town of Olbernhau (Free State of Saxony, Germany) and the large Rauschenbach reservoir, including two main tributaries (Natzschung and Schweinitz), and covers an area of 228 km. The geomorphology of the study area is characterised by plateau-like headwater areas with gentle slopes (above ~700 m a.s.l.) and steep and strongly dissected lower reaches. In a first step the local potentials for the implementation of decentralised measures were investigated on the basis of GIS analyses and field surveys. The second step included the assessment of the efficiency of the decentralised measures by the application of rainfall-runoff-models. Depending on the type of measures two different software packages were used: the model systems NASIM for measures along river courses and WaSiM-ETH for the watershed-wide retention (landuse changes). Potentials for water retention in small, decentralised retarding basins can be found especially in higher regions with more gentle slopes. Steep valleys in lower reaches are less suitable for such basins due to their steep gradient and the consequential limitation of storage capacities. Along most of the rivers potentials for an afforestation of the valley bottoms in order to increase the surface roughness were identified, but the hydrological effects depend on the shape of the valleys and their gradients. However potentials for river revitalisation are strongly limited. In addition, some areas can be reforested, since they have recently recovered from the SO2 pollution which affected the area until the late 1980s and caused serious forest decline. The modelling results indicate, that small retarding basins would lead to a reduction of peak discharges of a 100-year return period of up to 45 % at some tributaries and 10 % downstream in Olbernhau. By contrast local effects of the floodplain afforestation remain very low, whereas in Olbernhau a peak reduction of 4.2 % can be achieved. If only the Floeha floodplain with a wide valley and a low gradient is considered for the afforestation, the flood peaks were reduced by 3.5 % in the model. By reforestation of declined forests peak discharge can be reduced by about 13 %. On the whole the results show, that a significant improvement of flood protection in the Upper Floeha watershed can be achieved through the application of decentralised measures. The reduction of flood peaks includes the Floeha river itself, tributaries and headwater areas. However as far as measures along the rivers are concerned, the extent of the hydrological effects strongly depends on the retention potentials in subareas with more gentle valley gradients, i.e. in higher regions of the study area or along the Floeha valley.

Reinhardt, Christian; Blscher, Jens; Ramelow, Mike; Schulte, Achim; Wenzel, Robert

2010-05-01

72

Flood Propagation in the Middle-Lower Reach of the River Po for Different Scenarios of Floodplain Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The River Po is the longest Italian river, and the largest river in terms of streamflow. The middle-lower Po flows East some 350km in the Pianura Padana, a very important agricultural region and industrial heart of northern Italy. For this portion of the river, the riverbed consists of a stable main channel 200-500m wide and two lateral banks (the overall width varies from 200m to 5km) confined by two continuous artificial levees. The lateral banks are densely cultivated, and cultivations are protected against frequent flooding by a system of minor artificial levees. This sub-system of levees impacts significantly the hydraulic behaviour of the middle-lower Po during major flood events. This study utilizes a quasi-2D hydraulic numerical model. The model has been developed on the basis of laser-scanning DTM (resolution: 2m, topographic survey: 2005) and calibrated using the information available for the significant flood event of October 2000. The study aims at investigating the effects of the adoption of different floodplain management strategies (e.g., raising, lowering or removal of the sub-system of levees) on flood hazard along the river reach.

Castellarin, A.; di Baldassarre, G.; Brath, A.

2009-04-01

73

Chattanooga, Tennessee, Brainerd Area Flood Relief Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project proposes flood relief to part of the Brainerd area of Chattanooga from South Chickamauga Creek headwater floods and Tennessee River backwater floods. The plan consists of constructing 3.8 miles of levee with an average height of 23 feet and re...

1973-01-01

74

Cheap Textile Dam Protection of Seaport Cities against Hurricane Storm Surge Waves, Tsunamis, and Other Weather-Related Floods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Author offers to complete research on a new method and cheap applicatory design for land and sea textile dams. The offered method for the protection of the USA's major seaport cities against hurricane storm surge waves, tsunamis, and other weather-related inundations is the cheapest (to build and maintain of all extant anti-flood barriers) and it, therefore, has excellent prospective applications

Alexander A. Bolonkin

2007-01-01

75

How far must trees be cultivated from the edge of the flood plain to provide best river bank protection?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, to find the best location to cultivate the trees for river bank protection, some experimental tests were performed. One row of trees were cultivated at five different distances from the main channel\\/floodplain interface in a rectangular compound open channel. In experimental model for simulating the trees, some cylindrical wood rods were attached to the bed of flood

Fariba Sadat Esfahani; Ali Reza Keshavarzi

2010-01-01

76

Dixon Farm Levee Improvement, Clackamas River, Oregon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proposed action would consist of raising and extending the existing levee at Dixon Farm and would reduce overflow, erosion, and the risk of recurrence of levee failure. With the project, increased agricultural use would be possible, which might increa...

1973-01-01

77

Evaluating Functionality and Sustainability of River widenings at the Kamp River\\/Austria concerning to flood protection and aquatic ecology including a numerical sensitivity test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The catastrophic flood events of the years 2002 and 2005 in Central Europe showed clearly the necessity to act in terms of flood protection. The meaning of floodplain areas and the errors in land use management of the past became obvious by the occurred extraordinary discharges. Unfortunately a high use pressure exists in the surrounding of rivers and the important

Hauer Christoph; Schober Bernhard; Habersack Helmut

78

Natural and Benefical Functions of Floodplains. Reducing Flood Losses by Protecting and Restoring the Floodplain Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the findings and recommendations of the Task Force on the Natural and Beneficial Functions of the Floodplain (Task Force) established under Section 562 of the National Flood Insurance Reform Act (NFIRA) of 1994. Congress directed the...

2002-01-01

79

Flood control failure: San Lorenzo River, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The San Lorenzo River on the central California coast was the site of a major US Army Corps of Engineers flood control project in 1959. By excavating the channel below its natural grade and constructing levees, the capacity of the river was increased in order to contain approximately the 100 year flood. Production and transport of large volumes of sediment

Gary B. Griggs; Lance Paris

1982-01-01

80

California Levee Risk, Now and in the Future:Identifying Research and Tool Development Needs  

SciTech Connect

The Center for Catastrophic Risk Management (CCRM) and the California Center for Environmental Law and Policy (CCELP) at UC Berkeley and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) joined together to cosponsor a workshop to define research requirements to mitigate the hazards facing the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Levee system. The Workshop was intended to provide a forum to (1) Report assessments of current vulnerabilities facing the levees, such as structural failure, seismic loading, flooding, terrorism; (2) Consider longer term challenges such as climate change, sea level rise; and (3) Define research requirements to fill gaps in knowledge and reduce uncertainties in hazard assessments.

Newmark, R L; Hanemann, M; Farber, D

2006-11-28

81

River Flooding and Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are presented with a real-life problem of flooding and erosion in the town of Simonton. They must use historical dischage data to determine the future risk of flooding. They must also use historical map data to asses the risk of future losses due to erosion. Using these data, they must dertermine the feasibility of levee systems proposed by the Corp of Engineers. Lastly, they must discuss their assumption and possible sources of error. Has minimal/no quantitative component Uses geophysics to solve problems in other fields

Dupre, Bill

82

Rapid Economic Assessment of Flood-control Failure along the Rio Grande: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent flood events along the international border between the USA and Mexico resulted in significant economic damage and loss of human life. The International Boundary and Water Commission, the agency responsible for monitoring USMexican flood control levees, had requested funding for maintenance and improvement of these levees. However, the Office of Management and Budget requires agencies to provide benefits or

Zhuping Sheng; Allen Sturdivant; Ari Michelsen; Ron Lacewell

2005-01-01

83

How a Navigation Channel Contributed to Most of the Flooding of New Orleans During Hurricane Katrina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levee failures during Hurricane Katrina left 85% of New Orleans flooded, 1,500 dead, and about 400,000 homeless. Three separate\\u000a investigations into the levee failures have been concluded, yet none of these studies conclusively determined why the St Bernard\\u000a polder flooded so deeply, despite Team Louisianas conclusion regarding early failure of the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet\\u000a (MRGO) levees. Detailed wave and

Ivor Ll. van Heerden; G. Paul Kemp; Robert Bea; Gary Shaffer; John Day; Chad Morris; Duncan Fitzgerald; Andrew Milanes

2009-01-01

84

Flash flood potential from channel measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discharge measurements of flash floods add to hydrological knowledge and provide information needed for protection from future floods. But planning for protection cannot be postponed until a serious flood has occurred at each site. Thus methods of estimating flood potential at ungauged sites are needed. A promising method utilizes (1) a relation between a flood characteristic and stream channel size

H. C. Riggs

85

Personal protective equipment, hygiene behaviours and occupational risk of illness after July 2011 flood in Copenhagen, Denmark.  

PubMed

Incidence of various diseases can increase following a flood. We aimed to identify professionals in Copenhagen who became ill after contact with 2 July 2011 floodwater/sediment and determine risks and protective factors associated with illness. We conducted a cohort study of employees engaged in post-flood management activities. Participants completed a questionnaire collecting information about demographics, floodwater/sediment exposure, compliance with standard precautions, and symptoms of illness. Overall, 257 professionals participated, with 56 (22%) cases. Risk of illness was associated with not washing hands after floodwater/sediment contact [relative risk (RR) 2?45], exposure to floodwater at work and home (RR 2?35), smoking (RR 1?92), direct contact with floodwater (RR 1?86), and eating/drinking when in contact with floodwater (RR 1?77). Professionals need to follow standard precautions when in contact with floodwater/sediment, especially proper hand hygiene after personal protective equipment use and before eating/drinking and smoking. PMID:22989427

Wjcik, O P; Holt, J; Kjerulf, A; Mller, L; Ethelberg, S; Mlbak, K

2012-09-19

86

Exploring high-end climate change scenarios for flood protection of the Netherlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea level rise, changing storm frequency and intensity, and increased river discharge resulting from climate change pose a particular threat to low-lying countries like the Netherlands and create many new challenges for them. With these threats and challenges in mind, the Dutch cabinet established a special committee, the Delta Committee, charged with the development of effective planning-, management- and adaptation strategies for climate proofing the Netherlands. At the request of the Dutch Delta Committee, an international scientific assessment has been carried out to explore high-end climate change scenarios for flood protection of the Netherlands. Upper-bound values and longer-term projections (up to 2200) of climate-induced sea level rise, changing storm surge conditions, and peak discharge of the river Rhine have been considered. The assessment builds on a review of recent studies, model projections and expert opinions. For the scenarios for sea level rise, thermal expansion of the ocean, the shrinking of small glaciers, the Greenland and the Antarctic Ice Sheets, and changes in terrestrial water storage are considered separately, along with their uncertainties. Except for the contribution of the Antarctic Ice Sheet all contributions are assumed to depend (at least in part) on the rise in global mean atmospheric temperature rise. To arrive at a projection for local sea level, elastic and gravity effects of elastic deformation of the Earth's crust arising from mass redistribution due to the melting of land-based ice masses, local expansion differences with respect to the global mean (dominated by ocean circulation changes) and local land movement were accounted for. Depending on the adopted impact of the elastic and gravity effects, a high-end projection for local sea level rise of 0.50 - 1.15 m and 0.05 - 1.25 m is projected for the Dutch coast for 2100. For 2200 these ranges are 1.5 - 4 m and 0.5 - 4.0 m. Besides sea level rise, the height of storm surges and wind waves is extremely important for a low-lying country like the Netherlands. By law, coastal defense has to withstand a water level that occurs only once every 10,000 years. In the assessment for the Delta Committee, this aspect has been addressed by first investigating projected changes in the wind climate on the North Sea from global and regional climate model simulations. In a second step these winds are used to drive storm surge and wind wave models. The results point to changes being small compared to the uncertainty in present-day 10,000 year return values. Finally, the effects of climate change on the discharge of the river Rhine were considered using hydrological models. It was found that average winter flow will increase while summer flows will be reduced to a magnitude depending on the assumed climate change scenario. Peak discharges that are currently being considered very high will become normal. Finally, it was concluded that the current hydraulic properties of the Rhine limit the potential increase of the design discharge substantially.

Hazeleger, W.; Katsman, C.; Sterl, A.; Beersma, J.

2009-04-01

87

Comparing multistate expected damages, option price and cumulative prospect measures for valuing flood protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floods are risky events ranging from small to catastrophic. Although expected flood damages are frequently used for economic policy analysis, alternative measures such as option price (OP) and cumulative prospect value exist. The empirical magnitude of these measures whose theoretical preference is ambiguous is investigated using case study data from Baltimore City. The outcome for the base case OP measure increases mean willingness to pay over the expected damage value by about 3%, a value which is increased with greater risk aversion, reduced by increased wealth, and only slightly altered by higher limits of integration. The base measure based on cumulative prospect theory is about 46% less than expected damages with estimates declining when alternative parameters are used. The method of aggregation is shown to be important in the cumulative prospect case which can lead to an estimate up to 41% larger than expected damages. Expected damages remain a plausible and the most easily computed measure for analysts.

Farrow, Scott; Scott, Michael

2013-05-01

88

Effects of Removal of Riparian Vegetation on Levee Stability on the Sacramento River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new policy of the US Army Corps of Engineers requires that all levee vegetation be removed from federal levees in California. This directive requires levees to be cleared of all vegetation to preserve channel capacity and allow access for inspection and repair. The case for leaving vegetation in place on levees has largely been an environmental one, with concerns regarding removal of habitat and aesthetics. However, stability factors should also be considered. A previous study by Shields and Gray (1992) investigated the effects of vegetation on sandy levee integrity along the Sacramento River, just one such river that is affected by this vegetation-removal policy. Their study showed that even low root concentrations allowed for more stable bank conditions under worst-case conditions for bank stability. In the years since this initial study, modeling of root-reinforcement and streambank stability has improved greatly. This study used geotechnical data collected along the Sacramento River to model the effects of woody and herbaceous vegetation on levee stability using the Bank Stability and Toe Erosion Model developed at the National Sedimentation Laboratory and the root-reinforcement model, RipRoot. Model runs were carried out for a 4 m high levee with 2H: 1V and 3H: 1V slopes, and vegetation growing at different locations on the levee. Levee material was assumed to be a homogeneous, sandy soil, with very low cohesion (0.84 kPa). Three hydrologic conditions were modeled: baseflow conditions, peak of hydrograph, and the most critical bank condition during the receding limb of a hydrograph. Roots were assumed to grow perpendicular to the soil surface, with the additional cohesion due to roots only being added to soil layers in which the roots extended beyond the potential shear surface in that layer. Values for root-reinforcement were calculated using the RipRoot model, using typical root densities, depths and tensile strength measurements for different riparian species measured at sites across the USA. Values of 3, 15, and 20 kPa were added to the banks to represent young saplings, bunch grasses and mature trees respectively. Results showed that the levees were stable without the reinforcing effect of vegetation under all conditions, except under drawdown conditions which are the most critical. In those cases, root-reinforcement increased levee- stability significantly. A 2H: 1V levee had a factor of safety of 0.33 under these conditions without vegetation and a 3H: 1V levee a value of 0.54 (values <1 are unstable). With the addition of vegetation to the levee sides, factor of safety values increased to >1 under all conditions. Reinforcement added by mature trees and bunch grasses provided highest factor of safety values of up to 8.16 and 5.13 for 2H: 1V and 3H: 1V slopes respectively. The findings suggest that root-reinforcement of levees should be taken into account before complete removal of vegetation is carried out along rivers such as the Sacramento River. In cases where levees are composed of largely uncohesive materials, root-reinforcement provides significant support to the soil matrix, whilst additionally reducing shear stresses acting on the soil from flowing water and protecting the levee from rainfall impact and runoff. In deciding the case for removal of levee vegetation, these positive influences of vegetation should be weighted carefully against the desire for increased channel capacity and any possible negative influences of plant roots on levee integrity.

Pollen, N.; Shields, F. D.

2007-12-01

89

A methodology for urban flood resilience assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Europe, river floods have been increasing in frequency and severity [Szllsi-Nagy and Zevenbergen, 2005]. Moreover, climate change is expected to exacerbate the frequency and intensity of hydro meteorological disaster [IPCC, 2007]. Despite efforts made to maintain the flood defense assets, we often observe levee failures leading to finally increase flood risk in protected area. Furthermore, flood forecasting models, although benefiting continuous improvements, remain partly inaccurate due to uncertainties arising all along data calculation processes. In the same time, the year 2007 marks a turning point in history: half of the world population now lives in cities (UN-Habitat, 2007). Moreover, the total urban population is expected to double from two to four billion over the next 30 to 35 years (United Nations, 2006). This growing rate is equivalent to the creation of a new city of one million inhabitants every week, and this during the next four decades [Flood resilience Group]. So, this quick urban development coupled with technical failures and climate change have increased flood risk and corresponding challenges to urban flood risk management [Ashley et al., 2007], [Nie et al., 2009]. These circumstances oblige to manage flood risk by integrating new concepts like urban resilience. In recent years, resilience has become a central concept for risk management. This concept has emerged because a more resilient system is less vulnerable to risk and, therefore, more sustainable [Serre et al., 2010]. But urban flood resilience is a concept that has not yet been directly assessed. Therefore, when decision makers decide to use the resilience concept to manage urban flood, they have no tool to help them. That is why this paper proposes a methodology to assess urban flood resilience in order to make this concept operational. Networks affect the well-being of the people and the smooth functioning of services and, more generally, of economical activities. Yet, multiple networks that innervate the city are particularly sensitive to flooding, through their structures and geographic constraints. Because societal functions are highly dependent on networked systems and the operability of these systems can be vulnerable to disasters, there is a need to understand how networked systems are resilient. That is why, considering that networks can be regarded as the "flood gateway" [Lhomme et al., 2009], we will focus on the resilience assessment of these critical networks before urban resilience assessment. The first part of this paper introduce resilience concept to well understand the importance of this concept to manage flood risk and of assessing this resilience. In a second part, this paper presents the use of safety methods to model network system dysfunctions during flood and then to produce resilience indicators. Finally it presents use of graph theory to assess adaptive capacity of these networks. These researches are the first steps toward the development of a GIS tool to optimize preparedness and recovery after a flood event.

Lhomme, Serge; Serre, Damien; Diab, Youssef; Laganier, Richard

2010-05-01

90

Combined multi-scale characterization of a sedimentary structure beneath a river embankment to expand conventional flood protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Embankments along rivers and streams are a common measure of constructional flood protection in Germany. At a test site along the River Mulde near the town of Lbnitz, Saxony, Germany, aerial photographs reveal the presence of a surface near underground sedimentary structure that crosses the embankment. This sedimentary structure is suspected to consist of sedimentary channel deposits that may serve as preferential flow path during seasonal flooding, leading to increased water propagation beneath the embankment. During normal water level, this structure is within the unsaturated zone. Geophysical techniques, GPR and geoelectrics, were used to characterize the extent of the sedimentary structure. At selected points high resolution vertical one-dimensional profiles of geotechnical and hydrogeological sediment properties were measured using minimum invasive direct push technology. The combination of multi-scale data allows the characterization of the identified sedimentary structure at the test site regarding its extent and hydraulic properties in respect to the fluviatile floodplain deposits present at the test site along a 500m transect. In this study, the combination of non-invasive geophysics and minimum invasive direct push technology provided high resolution geospatial information of a sedimentary regime, which could not have been achieved with conventional characterization methods, e.g. retrieval and analysis of soil samples, regarding resolution and work efficiency.

Vienken, T.; Kreck, M.; Hausmann, J.; Werban, U.

2011-12-01

91

Precipitation based hydrometeorological services of the Deutscher Wetterdienst for water management and flood protection in Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inland water management agencies of the German "Lnder" address flood forecast and prevention in order to mitigate flood risks. Additionally their risk management activities also address assessment of low flow situations (droughts) and freshwater resources availability. Hydrometeorological services for these hydrological applications are operationally provided by the Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) and comprise: High spatially and temporally resoluted observational monitoring products and quantitative predictions of precipitation, evaporation and snow cover (storage and melting). The DWD hydrometeorological services processing chain spans from in situ and remotely sensed observations via numerical weather forecast to runoff models. The best precipitation analysis for Germany is achieved by combining weather radar and in situ observations; this QPE product 'RADOLAN' is available near-realtime on an hourly basis. It is currently being spatially extended to cover transboundary river basins in the hydrological catchment area of Germany and will also be used in nowcasting mode. The NWP model COSMO-DE uses RADOLAN precipitation analysis products and provides precipitation forecasts in 2.8 km spatial resolution. Ensemble based weather predictions providing forecast uncertainty information are more and more accepted by hydrological users. The model SNOW uses precipitation observations in order to improve snow melt forecasts. Time series of precipitation and extreme value statistics complete the hydrometeorological services supporting risk management and climate change assessment in Germany.

Fuchs, T.; Gratzki, A.; Rudolf, B.

2009-04-01

92

Feedback on flood risk management  

Microsoft Academic Search

For several years, as floods were increasing in South of France, local communities felt deprive to assume their mission of protection and information of citizens, and were looking for assistance in flood management. In term of flood disaster, the fact is that physical protection is necessary but inevitably limited. Tools and structures of assistance to anticipation remain slightly developed. To

K. Moreau; A. Roumagnac

2009-01-01

93

Numerical Modeling of the Effect of Woody Vegetation on Seepage in Levees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A remarkable number and diversity of levees exist in the United States. One controversial and complicated concern is the effect of woody vegetation on the performance of levees. Some really appreciate the trees on levees because they are beautiful and great for the environment and habitat. However, others do not like trees on levees because they can cause defects and get in the way of doing maintenance, especially during the time of floods. This poster will focus on two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) numerical modeling of seepage in levees to determine the effect of woody vegetation on piping and internal erosion of the foundation of the levee. The finite element method is the modeling tool that is used. The approach in the overall modeling study was to select several levees around the country for further analysis. Then for each levee, trees were placed at different locations on the levee. A given root zone from a tree was modeled in three ways: (1) a 6 ft X 5 ft constant hydraulic conductivity zone where the original hydraulic conductivity of the zone was varied from 0.01 to 100.0 times its original value, (2) a randomly generated macropore heterogeneous zone where the hydraulic conductivity was varied from 0.01 to 100.0 times its original value for each finite element in the zone, and (3) a defect in actual root shapes embedded into the root zone where the hydraulic conductivity of the defect was chosen to be 100.0 times that of its original value without the defect. Both steady-state and transient flow simulations were done. Output from the models consisted of equipotentials, velocities, pore pressures, and isosurfaces of potential. From these data, the likelihood of the initiation of sand boils and internal erosion of the levee foundation was determined. Data generated with and without the presence of trees were compared to see possible helpful or detrimental effects of the woody vegetation. A 3-D finite element model was generated by taking a 2-D mesh of a levee cross section consisting of triangular elements (approximately 60,000 elements in one case) and extruding it several times into the third dimension. The 3-D root zone (6 ft X 6 ft X 5 ft) was placed in the middle of this 3-D model just beyond the toe of the levee for the case studied. The macropore model had in its 3-D root zone prism elements of approximately one inch in size in each dimension, and the saturated hydraulic conductivity of each tiny element was randomly varied from 0.01 to 100.0 times its original value. This led to 3-D models having millions of nodes (3,000,000 for one example) and elements (6,000,000 for the same example) and ill-conditioned linear systems of equations to solve. Running this model required the use of high performance, parallel computing. The defects in the roots were also taken to be one inch in width for the 2-D simulations, and having a one inch X one inch horizontal cross section in the 3-D models. The poster will illustrate this modeling experience and provide results of the study. It will show (1) examples of levees, (2) sn example of a 2-D finite element model of a levee cross section, (3) an example of a 3-D macropore root zone, (3) an example of a root embedded in a root zone with a defect, and (4) graphical output results from the 2-D and 3-D models.

Tracy, F. T.; Corcoran, M. K.

2011-12-01

94

Environmental risk of dissolved oxygen depletion of diverted flood waters in river polder systems A quasi-2D flood modelling approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

River polders are retention basins contained by levees alongside rivers into which water from the main river channel is diverted during extreme floods in order to cap the peak discharge of the flood hydrograph and to alleviate downstream flood risk by reducing the water levels. The retained water, however, is stagnant and the organic material in the water and the

Karl-Erich Lindenschmidt; Ina Pech; Martina Baborowski

2009-01-01

95

Use of geophysical methods to map subsurface features at levee seepage locations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Great Flood of 2011 caused moderate to severe seepage and piping along the Mississippi River levees in Northwest Mississippi. The aim of this thesis was to implement geophysical techniques at two seepage locations in order to give a better understanding of the causes of underseepage and information on how to mitigate the problem. Sites near Rena Lara in Coahoma County and near Francis in Bolivar County were chosen to conduct this survey. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and Electromagnetic Induction (EM) surveys were conducted on and adjacent to levees to identify seepage pathways and any dominant geological features at the sites. Results from geophysical surveys revealed that Francis and Rena Laura each had a prominent geomorphologic feature that was attributing to underseepage. Seepage at Francis was the result of a sand filled channel capped by a clay overburden. Permeable materials at the base of the channel served as a conduit for transporting river water beneath the levee. The seepage surfaced as sand boils where the overlying clay overburden was thin or non-existent. Investigations at the Rena Lara site revealed a large, clay-filled swale extending beneath the levee. The clay within the swale has relatively low horizontal permeability, and concentrated the seepage flow towards more permeable zones on the flanks of the swale. This resulted in the formation of sand boils at the base of the levee. Both geomorphic features at Francis and Rena Lara were identified as surface drainages using remote sensing data. With the assistance of borehole and elevation data, geophysics was successfully used to characterize the features at each site. Properties such as permeability and clay content were derived from responses in electrical conductivity and used to build seepage models at each site. These models will hopefully be considered when determining seepage conditions and mitigation techniques at other sites along the levee.

Brackett, Thomas C.

96

Flood frequency in China's Poyang Lake region: trends and teleconnections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poyang Lake in Jiangxi Province is the largest freshwater lake in China and is historically a region of significant floods. Annual events of peak lake stage and of severe floods have increased dramatically during the past few decades. This trend is related primarily to levee construction at the periphery of the lake and along the middle of the Changjiang (Yangtze

David Shankman; Barry D. Keim; Jie Song

2006-01-01

97

Assessing and affording the control of flood risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flood is a most serious hazard to life and property. Dams, dikes and levees are often designed to a fuzzy quantity (PMF). Probabilistic design is preferable but requires that hydrological data be translated into a local monoscopic flood probability distribution. This process introduces information that goes beyond the facts. The method of relative entropy with quantile constraints minimizes this information

Niels Lind; Mahesh Pandey; Jatin Nathwani

2009-01-01

98

Experimental analysis of the levees safety based on geophysical monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several flood events brought river levees into the focus of attention for some disasters due to their collapse. This phenomena is quite complex to investigate, because of different factors that can affect the stability of levees, among them the non uniformity of material properties, which influencing the permeability of the embankment, might induce high percolation velocity of flux thus triggering the unstability. Thus, to apply a fast and integrate investigation methods with a non-destructive characteristics should have a large interest, if they are able to furnish ready and usable information necessary to hydrogeological models. In order to achieve this goal, the University of Perugia (Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering) and the National Research Council (IRPI and IMAA research institutes) developed a collaborating project on the study of the internal structure of the river embankment by carrying out experiments in laboratory. The purpose of this study is to show the preliminary results of the experimental investigation. The laboratory embankment was built using material coming from a real levee and gathered inside a 1.5m x 1.2m plexiglas box. The box has two compartments: a water reservoir at one hand where a constant water head was reached after some time and a soil simulating the presence of levee. We perform a geoelectrical multichannel acquisition system with three parallel profiles characterized by 16 mini-electrodes connected to georesistivimeter Syscal Pro. An automatic acquisition protocol has been performed to obtain time slice electrical tomographies during the experiments. The geophysical results show the effect of the water table inside the embankment during the wetting and emptying. In order to assess the capability of the geophysical monitoring for addressing the soil parameters estimate, the resistivity results are investigated by using two analytical and one hydraulic numerical models. The analytical models represent a linear solution of Laplace's equation where Dupuit hypothesis holds (the vertical gradients of the flow velocity in the medium are neglected). In particular, the Marchi and Supino solutions are investigated here by assuming the upstream water level variations in the river negligible with respect to the ones inside the groundwater under the steady state condition. Two different seepage fronts are calculated and compared with the ones inferred from the resistivity maps. The experimental data have been also compared with the results computed by a numerical code. The governing equation for the unsaturated-saturated medium is the continuity equation written in terms of the piezometric head unknown while the Brooks-Corey law relates the water content and the relative hydraulic conductivity to the piezometric head. The numerical model is a time splitting technique and the solution is obtained by solving consecutively a convective and a diffusive component. The medium has been discretized in space using a generally unstructured triangular mesh. The governing equations are discretized using the edge centred mixed hybrid finite element scheme. The computational domain is schematized as 1D network of cells located at the middle point of each edge and linked by fictitious channels and the storage capacity is concentrated in the cells. A linear variation of unknown is assumed inside each triangle. The positive outcomes of hydraulic model application have certainly had benefit from the information coming from the geophysical monitoring. Based on these preliminary results it was noticeable as the geophysical monitoring can be conveniently adopted for addressing the levee safety control and to provide information on soil parameters.

Rizzo, Enzo; Valeria, Giampaolo; Mario, Votta; Lapenna, Vincenzo; Moramarco, Tommaso; Aric, Costanza; Camici, S.; Morbidelli, Renato; Sinagra, M.; Tucciarelli, T.

2010-05-01

99

The Great Flood of 1993  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During a typical year, levees built along the banks of the Mississippi River keep the river in its channel and out of people's homes and fields. However, in 1993, an unsually persistent configuration of the polar jet stream and tropical high pressure produced thunderstorms and heavy rains that lasted for months. This video segment adapted from a NOVA television broadcast describes the meteorological conditions that created what was then the costliest flooding in United States history.

100

Classification and formation of lava levees on Mount Etna, Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of the 1975 subterminal lava flows and sections through the larger flank lavas on Mount Etna show that there are four principal types of levees formed in Etnean lavas: initial, accretionary, rubble, and overflow. Initial levees are formed because of the yield strength of these non-Newtonian lavas and are thought to determine channel width. The other types of levees

R. S. J. Sparks; H. Pinkerton; G. Hulme

1976-01-01

101

Mesoscale connectivity through a natural levee  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural levees are potentially locally important zones of lateral seepage between stream channels and floodplain backswamps because their relatively coarser soils provide pathways of high hydraulic conductivity in an otherwise low conductivity system. Therefore, understanding the rates and mechanisms of subsurface exchange of water and solutes through natural levees may be necessary for understanding biogeochemical cycling in floodplains. We measured imposed hydraulic gradients and solute tracers in 19 shallow monitoring wells within a 580 m3 volume of natural levee in the Atchafalaya Basin, Louisiana. We modeled residence time distributions of pressure and tracers using a simple linear system to quantify spatially variable transport velocities and infer dominant flow mechanisms at a mesoscale. The spatial mean velocity of pressure transport was faster than the mean velocity of tracer transport by two orders of magnitude (1.7 10-2 and 4.6 10-4 m s-1, respectively), and the variance of pressure velocities was less than the variance of tracer velocities by seven orders of magnitude (1.4 104 min2 and 7.9 1011 min2, respectively). Higher spatial variability of tracer velocities compared to pressure velocities indicates different functioning mechanisms of mass versus energy transport and suggests preferential flow. Effective hydraulic conductivities, which ranged in magnitude from 10-1 to 106 and from 10-1 to 103 m d-1 for pressure and tracers, respectively, were higher than would be predicted by soil texture. We conclude that, in this fine-grained system, preferential flowpaths control water and solute exchange through natural levees. These findings are important for future studies of water and solute cycling in riverine wetlands, and rates of exchange may be particularly useful for modeling water and nutrient budgets in similar systems.

Newman, A. E.; Keim, R. F.

2012-06-01

102

Engineering protection against flooding and ground-water inundation at the memorial town of Shushensk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1.\\u000a \\u000a Design and research work carried out by Lengidroproekt and Giprogor have provided a system of engineering measures for the\\u000a protection of the territory, meeting the specific requirements of a small town with a large number of preserved and restored\\u000a buildings.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2.\\u000a \\u000a Some of the early structures employed (gates, conduits) can be recommended for further study for the purpose

I. M. Shnaider

1970-01-01

103

Exploring high-end scenarios for local sea level rise to develop flood protection strategies for a low-lying deltathe Netherlands as an example  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea level rise, especially combined with possible changes in storm surges and increased river discharge resulting from climate\\u000a change, poses a major threat in low-lying river deltas. In this study we focus on a specific example of such a delta: the\\u000a Netherlands. To evaluate whether the countrys flood protection strategy is capable of coping with future climate conditions,\\u000a an assessment

Caroline A. Katsman; A. Sterl; J. J. Beersma; H. W. van den Brink; J. A. Church; W. Hazeleger; R. E. Kopp; D. Kroon; J. Kwadijk; R. Lammersen; J. Lowe; M. Oppenheimer; H.-P. Plag; J. Ridley; H. von Storch; D. G. Vaughan; P. Vellinga; L. L. A. Vermeersen; R. Weisse

2011-01-01

104

Water and Solute Transport in the Shallow Subsurface of a Natural Levee  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In riverine wetlands, river channels are separated from backswamps by natural levees that form adjacent to the channel by sediment deposition during floods. The conventional conceptual framework is that backswamp water is impounded and disconnected from surface flow; however, layered sediments, shrink-swell clays, roots and decayed organic matter, and animal burrows likely form preferential pathways for subsurface flow and may substantially affect water and solute exchange between wetlands and river channels. To test the hypothesis that preferential flow is an important pathway of subsurface water movement through natural levees, we measured hydraulic gradients and solute tracers in a 5 x 5 m grid of 19 shallow (2m) monitoring wells within a large representative elementary volume (300 m3) of natural levee in the Atchafalaya Basin, Louisiana. In addition to measuring transient responses to precipitation, we constructed a small reservoir on the backswamp side of the levee to simulate a seasonal hydraulic gradient from the swamp to the adjacent river channel. Results indicate rapid response of water levels in all monitoring wells to the imposed hydraulic gradient as well as rain events, which included two tropical cyclones. In contrast, tracer response was highly variable, both spatially and across events, indicating a complex relationship between subsurface flow processes and water chemistry. Groundwater chemistry indicated spatially variable flowpaths. In some wells, hydraulic response coincided with a chemical shift toward low-conductivity surface water; however, other wells showed similar hydraulic responses but no change in tracer concentrations or even a shift toward higher-conductivity water that was presumably stored in the soil matrix. This spatial variation in tracer response indicates multiple mechanisms of hydraulic response, each of which has important implications for biogeochemical interactions between backswamps and channels in the shallow subsurface of natural levees.

Newman, A.; Keim, R.

2008-12-01

105

Satellite imagery maps Hurricane Katrina-induced flooding and oil slicks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the early morning of 29 August 2005, Hurricane Katrina made landfall near Buras, Louisiana, as a Category 4 hurricane. With wind speeds of about 233 kilometers per hour, a storm surge of 8.5 meters, and heavy rains, Katrina pounded the U.S. Gulf Coast states of Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi with lifethreatening flooding and destruction. Katrina's high winds and storm surge breached the levees protecting New Orleans, a city located below sea level, and flooded approximately 80% of the city.Katrina also caused major damage to the region's oil and natural gas production and refining capabilities. On 2 September 2005, the Associated Press reported that Katrina had damaged 58 oil platforms, 30 of which were reported lost; one damaged platform had been blown nearly 100 km from its original location.

Rykhus, Russell P.

106

Development of storm surge which led to flooding in St. Bernard Polder during Hurricane Katrina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hurricane Katrina caused devastating flooding in St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana. Storm surge surrounded the polder that comprises heavily populated sections of the Parish in addition to the Lower 9th Ward section of Orleans Parish. Surge propagated along several pathways to reach levees and walls around the polder's periphery. Extreme water levels led to breaches in the levee\\/wall system which, along

B. A. Ebersole; J. J. Westerink; S. Bunya; J. C. Dietrich; M. A. Cialone

2010-01-01

107

Flood Cleanup  

MedlinePLUS

... Flood Cleanup During a flood cleanup, the indoor air quality in your home or office may appear to ... additional resources: Fact Sheet: Flood Cleanup - Avoiding Indoor Air Quality Problems (PDF) (2 pp, 57 K, about PDF ) ...

108

Restoring straightened rivers for sustainable flood mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose This article aims to show how communities with severe river flooding can develop sustainable flood plans that remediate environmental problems caused by previous river straightening and other structural flood controls. Design\\/methodology\\/approach The article builds on a case study of the nationally recognized Napa River Flood Protection Project (USA), which incorporates an ecological living river strategy and builds

Vanessa Bechtol; Lucie Laurian

2005-01-01

109

FLOOD! Engineered Flood Controls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this learning module on the theme of flood management. The unit "contains a variety of offerings for a unit on flood engineering controls including background information, outside resources and three learning activities." A number of activities are included which would be useful for environmental engineering students. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item. The unit is available in a ZIP file, which contains the individual lesson items.

2012-11-27

110

Geophysical Surveys for Assessing Levee Foundation Conditions, Sacramento River Levees, Sacramento, CA.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Effective flood and coastal storm emergency response depends on the ability of emergency managers to obtain information on the condition of flood damage reduction structures in near-real time. This report describes the results of a series of geophysical i...

E. W. Smith J. L. Lipis R. E. North

2007-01-01

111

Landscape Changes and Increasing Flood Frequency in China's Poyang Lake Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jiangxi Province in southeastern China contains Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China. Poyang Lake and the lower sections of the major Jiangxi rivers flowing into the lake often flood during the early summer months. Floodwater can be several meters above the surrounding lowlands during the most severe flood events. Levees at the margins of Poyang Lake and along

David Shankman; Qiaoli Liang

2003-01-01

112

FLOOD! Natural Flood Controls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this learning module on the theme of flood management. The unit "contains a set of activities that ask students to investigate the characteristics of drainage basins of rivers in order to understand the relationships between landscape and the movement of water across the landscape surface." Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item. The unit is available in a ZIP file, which contains the individual lesson items.

2012-11-27

113

Anthropogenic impact on flood-risk: a large-scale assessment for planning controlled inundation strategies along the River Po  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Flood Directive (2007/60/EC) has fostered the development of innovative and sustainable approaches and methodologies for flood-risk mitigation and management. Furthermore, concerning flood-risk mitigation, the increasing awareness of how the anthropogenic pressures (e.g. demographic and land-use dynamics, uncontrolled urban and industrial expansion on flood-prone area) could strongly increase potential flood damages and losses has triggered a paradigm shift from "defending the territory against flooding" (e.g. by means of levee system strengthening and heightening) to "living with floods" (e.g. promoting compatible land-uses or adopting controlled flooding strategies of areas located outside the main embankments). The assessment of how socio-economic dynamics may influence flood-risk represents a fundamental skill that should be considered for planning a sustainable industrial and urban development of flood-prone areas, reducing their vulnerability and therefore minimizing socio-economic and ecological losses due to large flood events. These aspects, which are of fundamental importance for Institutions and public bodies in charge of Flood Directive requirements, need to be considered through a holistic approach at river basin scale. This study focuses on the evaluation of large-scale flood-risk mitigation strategies for the middle-lower reach of River Po (~350km), the longest Italian river and the largest in terms of streamflow. Due to the social and economical importance of the Po River floodplain (almost 40% of the total national gross product results from this area), our study aims at investigating the potential of combining simplified vulnerability indices with a quasi-2D model for the definition of sustainable and robust flood-risk mitigation strategies. Referring to past (1954) and recent (2006) land-use data sets (e.g. CORINE) we propose simplified vulnerability indices for assessing potential flood-risk of industrial and urbanized flood prone areas taking into account altimetry and population density, and we analyze the modification of flood-risk occurred during last decades due to the demographic dynamics of the River Po floodplains. Flood hazard associated to a high magnitude event (i.e. return period of about 500 year) was estimated by means of a quasi-2D hydraulic model set up for the middle-lower portion of the Po River and for its major tributaries. The results of the study highlight how coupling a large-scale numerical model with the proposed flood-vulnerability indices could be a useful tool for decision-makers when they are called to define sustainable spatial development plans for the study area, or when they need to identify priorities in the organization of civil protection actions during a major flood event that could include the necessity of controlled flooding of flood-prone areas located outside the main embankment system.

Domeneghetti, Alessio; Castellarin, Attilio; Brath, Armando

2013-04-01

114

Regional Skew for California, and Flood Frequency for Selected Sites in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Basin, Based on Data through Water Year 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Improved flood-frequency information is important throughout California in general and in the SacramentoSan Joaquin River Basin in particular, because of an extensive network of flood-control levees and the risk of catastrophic flooding. A key first step ...

A. Veilleux C. Parrett D. L. Knifong J. R. Stedinger N. A. Barth

2010-01-01

115

Waterfalls, floods and climate change: evidence from tropical Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediments preserved at the base of rare types of waterfalls provide records of terrestrial floods to 30 kyr or more, being approximately 610 times longer than that usually obtained from the traditional slackwater method. These coarse-grained sand deposits form ridges and levees adjacent to plunge pools at the foot of unindented escarpments and within gorge overflow bedrock channel systems. The

Jonathan Nott; David Price

1999-01-01

116

Three dimensional numerical modeling of flow and pollutant transport in a flooding area of 2008 US Midwest Flood  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This paper presents the development and application of a three-dimensional numerical model for simulating the flow field and pollutant transport in a flood zone near the confluence of the Mississippi River and Iowa River in Oakville, Iowa. Due to a levee breaching along the Iowa River during the US ...

117

Cibola High Levee Pond Annual Report 2003. Interim Report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bonytail and razorback sucker have once again spawned and produced swim-up larvae in Cibola High Levee Pond (CHLP). CHLP continues to support annual recruitment of bonytail while recent razorback sucker recruitment remains elusive. Thus far, razorbacks have experienced intermittent years of spawning success. Both native species were observed spawning on, or near, the riprap on the river levee. Razorbacks spawned from late January until mid-March over gravel and large cobble along the levee toe (2-3 m depth) and bonytail spawned along the levee shoreline during mid-April. Razorback suckers rapidly fin during the reproductive act, which flushes fines from the substrate and leaves gravel relatively clean. Bonytail on the other hand, appear to spawn over or on substrate that has been disturbed by beaver activity. Substrate scour or disturbance appears to be an important factor in spawning site selectiona?|

Mueller, G.A.; Carpenter, J.; Marsh, P.C.; Minckley, C.O.

2003-01-01

118

Floods n' Dams: A Watershed Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an activity meant to illustrate flooding in a watershed as it impinges on human activities. Shows how flood protection can be provided using the natural holding capacity of basins elsewhere in the water system to reduce the impact on the settled flood plain. The activity works well with intermediate and senior level students but can be

Milne, Andrew; Etches, John

1996-01-01

119

Floods n' Dams: A Watershed Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an activity meant to illustrate flooding in a watershed as it impinges on human activities. Shows how flood protection can be provided using the natural holding capacity of basins elsewhere in the water system to reduce the impact on the settled flood plain. The activity works well with intermediate and senior level students but can be

Milne, Andrew; Etches, John

1996-01-01

120

13 CFR 120.170 - Flood insurance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flood insurance. 120.170 Section 120.170 Business...Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.170 Flood insurance. Under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Sec....

2013-01-01

121

Cartographic evidence of the disastrous ice flood of 1809 and its aftermath (Danube River, Slovakia).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 18th and early 19th century river maps are important data sources for studying past landscapes. This is not only as a result of improved surveying techniques, but also because they depict landscape during probably the most important climatic and land-use changes since the Middle Ages. In this phase of the increased river activity during the last onset of the so-called Little Ice Age period, several major flood events occured. Local manuscript maps, which often depict the channel in major detail, help us to obtain a better understanding of their geomorphic and other impacts. The catastrophic ice flood, which occured on the Middle Danube river at the end of January 1809 was undoubtedly the most disastrous event of its kind in Slovakia, although it also hit a number of settlements in Lower Austria and Hungary. Several people drowned and the flood also resulted in great damage to settlements and livestock. Devastating effects of this flood particularly as to the towns of Bratislava and Komrno/Komrom were comparable with effects of disastrous floods of February 1830 in Vienna (Austria), March 1838 in Buda/Pest (Hungary) or 1845 flood in Prague (Czech Republic), respectively. In case of the present Slovakian capital Bratislava, on January 29, 1809, two ice barriers suddenly rose the water up to 10 m above the zero level and the river quickly overflowed its banks inundating the low-lying parts of the town. The flood blacked out communications with neighbouring regions. Record-breaking height of water led to breaches of the important right-bank embankment (constructed in 1770s). Through several openings water flooded the right bank, almost completely destroying the adjacent village of Petralka/Engerau. The damage to Vienna highway levee was so massive that it only could be repaired 16 years later, in 1825-6 (although this was also due to Napoleonic wars). The flood also reactivated the Chorvtske rameno anabranch, 33 years after its abandonment. A number of local manuscript maps depict the river before and after this event. Combined with written literary reports, the maps allow us to describe the course, the devastating effects and the aftermath consequences of the 1809 flood precisely, particularly as to the territory of the city of Bratislava itself. Moreover, many of these maps comprise a wealth of information about flood in their detailed explanatory legends and remarks. The most important maps and plans are those currently deposited in the National Archives of Hungary (= maps from the collection of former Governing Council, the central supervisory authority of the Habsburgs for the Hungarian Kingdom), in the Municipial Archives of Bratislava and the Slovak National Archives, respectively. Effects of the 1809 ice flood, as evidenced by historical maps and plans, can be generally summarised as follows: a) direct destruction (by ice floes) or collapse of houses, bridges, buildings, boat mills, groynes and bank revetments b) heavy lateral erosion of the river channel during this single event (then referred to as damage to banks") c) breaches of protective dikes d) formation of new water bodies - temporary lakes - created by spilled water on the landside of levees e) reactivation of upstream entrances of some side channels f) pronounced changes of flooplain configuration g) damage to floodplain forest. This research was supported by the Slovak Scientific Grant agency VEGA (Project N. 1/0362/09).

Pit, P.

2009-04-01

122

Living With Floods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood risk management in the lower Rhine River basin (downstream from Cologne) relies on flood control by dikes for many centuries. This has resulted in an ever in- creasing sense of safety and, subsequently, in increased investments in the protected areas. In the long term, however, this causes an increase in vulnerability to flood- ing and a recurrent call to further control the floods, with many negative impacts on natural and cultural landscape values, and eventually also on society at large. The ob- jective of the project was to design and evaluate alternative flood risk management strategies which are applicable for the long-term (50-100 years) and better take into account the uncertainties that are inherent to lowland rivers. Two different strategies were elaborated, based on the principle of resilience and living with floods: compart- mentalisation for detentionS and Sgreen rivers for dischargeS. It was found that these alternative strategies have many advantages from a sustainability point of view, but are difficult to implement. They require huge investments and have enormous impact on local and regional scales, whereas the advantages are obvious primarily from a long-term point-of-view and in a larger spatial-scale frame.

van Buuren, M.; Vis, M.; Klijn, F.

123

Shallow (0-10) seismic investigation of a distressed earthen levee, New Orleans, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both deep- and near-surface hydrogeologic processes can contribute to the structural failure of artificial earthen levees. Recently, seismic geophysical methods have attempted to develop a proxy for engineering shear strength, by mapping changes in the transmission velocity of shear waves. High fluid content may indicate both weak, under-compacted materials and/or organic-rich sediments. In the absence of electromagnetic methods, Vp/Vs ratios can be used as good indicators of variations in the fluid (water, and air or gas) saturation. Cone penetration borehole tests measure the resistance of soils to penetration of the cone tip and its frictional sliding that can be correlated to sediment types and their physical properties. A distressed section of an artificial earthen levee, suitable for seismic investigation, lies ~15 km S of the city of New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. Open curvilinear fissures, 10 cm wide, 30 cm deep, and up to 100 m in length, exist along the crest at two sites. Between September 2007 and February 2008 we collect horizontally (SH) polarized shear and compressional wave (P) data in pseudo-walkaway tests for the upper 100 m of the subsurface along the protected (west) side of the earthen levee, within 30 m of its crest. One profile lies parallel and adjacent to the damaged levee crest and, for reference, two profiles lie nearby adjacent to undamaged portions of the artificial earthen levee. In the first ~30 m of sediment below the lower delta plain of the Greater New Orleans area, a complex and dynamic interaction of freshwater and marine sedimentary environments juxtaposes a diverse set of facies. We combine of Vp and Vs velocity maps, sedimentary environment interpretations, and cone-penetration-derived sediment/soil and laboratory-derived physical properties to locate possible zones of high fluid concentration, (and perhaps seepage), weak engineering materials, and natural foundation soil shear strength. Under the distressed portion of the earthen levee, shear modulus minima in a constructed profile, correlate with zones of estimated high saturation porosity (80%) high organic content and undercomapcted clay-rich sediments. We interpret that despite nominal full soil saturation, small in-situ intergaranular, free gas maintains Vp values low (~140 m/s). However, Vp/Vs ratios increase to values > 14 within gas-free sands of the underlying St. Bernard delta lobe complex (2000 -4000 yr) at shallow depths (~ 5m).

Lorenzo, J. M.; Hicks, J.; Vera, E. E.

2009-12-01

124

Flood Risk Assessment of Urban Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with assessment of the existing storm sewer system of the Prishtina airport area in Kosovo. Frequent flooding\\u000a of the airport area occurred recently and the activities in flood assessment and flood protection design were undertaken.\\u000a First step in achieving flood risk assessment is data collection. Since the region recently was in war conflict it was not\\u000a an

Cvetanka Popovska; Dragan Ivanoski

125

Channelization and levee construction in Illinois: Review and implications for management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The environmental impact of loss of natural stream and riparian habitat is of concern throughout the United States and Europe. Environmental impacts related to such activities as channelization of and levee construction along streams and rivers are particularly apparent in the Midwestern United States. The objective of the research presented here was to delineate the extent, relative degree of impact, and implications for management of channelization and levee construction along watercourses located in the state of Illinois. According to records maintained through the Illinois Streams Information System data base (Illinois Department of Conservation), nearly 25% of surface water resources in the state have been modified directly by channelization and/or levee construction. Reviews of agency records, elaboration of case histories, interviews with agency personnel, and inspections of impacted sites indicated that these alterations have occurred without the benefit of effective mitigation. Although permit records may provide suggestions for mitigation to be incorporated in the design of a particular project, permits issued generally do not require even minimal instream habitat and bank stabilization efforts in conjunction with channel alteration. Information derived from policy and case study analyses suggests that institutional constraints, rather than lack of particular understanding about mitigation, provide major barriers to protecting the state's surface water resources in terms of regulatory review, policy interpretation and implementation, and project evaluation. Recommendations for environmental management efforts regarding these and similar channel alterations are elaborated from these findings.

Mattingly, Rosanna L.; Herricks, Edwin E.; Johnston, Douglas M.

1993-11-01

126

Polymer flooding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book covers all aspects of polymer flooding, an enhanced oil recovery method using water soluble polymers to increase the viscosity of flood water, for the displacement of crude oil from porous reservoir rocks. Although this method is becoming increasingly important, there is very little literature available for the engineer wishing to embark on such a project. In the past,

Littmann

1988-01-01

127

Sodium-fire protection by space isolation, open catch pan and nitrogen flooding - FFTF Proof Test F5  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large-scale sodium fire extinguishment test was performed to demonstrate the adequacy of the FFTF secondary sodium fire protection system. Twenty-three hundred pounds of sodium at 1100F were spilled into an air filled cell which had a steel catch pan protecting the concrete floor and walls. The fire was self-extinguished when the oxygen in the relatively leak tight cell was

W. D. Boehmer; R. K. Hilliard

1975-01-01

128

Flood inundation map library, Fort Kent, Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Severe flooding occurred in northern Maine from April 28 to May 1, 2008, and damage was extensive in the town of Fort Kent (Lombard, 2010). Aroostook County was declared a Federal disaster area on May 9, 2008. The extent of flooding on both the Fish and St. John Rivers during this event showed that the current Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Study (FIS) and Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) (Federal Emergency Management Agency, 1979) were out of date. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study to develop a flood inundation map library showing the areas and depths for a range of flood stages from bankfull to the flood of record for Fort Kent to complement an updated FIS (Federal Emergency Management Agency, in press). Hydrologic analyses that support the maps include computer models with and without the levee and with various depths of backwater on the Fish River. This fact sheet describes the methods used to develop the maps and describes how the maps can be accessed.

Lombard, Pamela J.

2012-01-01

129

COMPARISON OF FLOOD PREDICTION MODELS FOR RIVER LOKOJA, NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flood estimation is one of the major aspects of hydrologic design and is the first in planning for flood regulation and protection measures. This research work was aimed at comparing prediction models for forecasting flood occurrences in River Lokoja, located in Kogi State of Nigeria. Relevant climatic data such as rainfalls, flood discharges, river stages of 24 years duration (1980

130

Floods in the United States: Magnitude and Frequency  

USGS Publications Warehouse

FOREWORD 'The ideal river, which would have a uniform flow, does not exist in nature.' (Mississippi Valley Committee Report, 2d ed., p. 3, 1934.) From time immemorial floods have transformed beneficent river waters into a menace to humanity. ManTs progress toward economic stability has been repeatedly halted or even thrown backward by the interruption of his efforts to make effective use of rivers and of valley lands. This handicap is not imposed by the destructiven&ss of large rivers alone, or of rivers in widely separated areas, for there are few if any streams, brooks, or rivulets that are not subject to flows beyond their channel capacities. Yet, though man for ages has suffered seriously from recurring floods, he has not been deterred from continuing to extend his activities in areas that are virtually foredoomed to flood damage. Today in the United states serious floods may occur in any section in any year, and even, in some regions, several times a year. Many of these floods leave behind them the tragedy of death and disease and of property irreparably damaged. The aggregate direct property damage caused by floods in this country has been estimated roughly to average $35,000,000 a year. In addition there are serious indirect and intangible losses of great but not precisely calculable magnitude. The persistent recurrence of flood damages in our country, and, indeed, their tendency to increase, have given birth to the mistaken notion that floods are increasing in size and frequency. The rising damage totals are not attributable to greater or more frequent floods, however; rather they are the result of increasing occupation of river banks and river valleys by cities, towns, industrial plants, bridges, railroads, and highways and the increasing use of rivers as a source of water supplies for municipalities and industries and for power, irrigation, navigation, and recreation. Safety of life and reduction of both direct and indirect losses from floods may be promoted by the adoption of measures for protection and control. It should be borne clearly in mind, however, that probably no single method of flood control will insure the protection of a large drainage basin. 'The improvement of natural channels; the building of reservoirs - sometimes well adapted for purposes of irrigation and power; the construction of levees, such as now exist along the lower Mississippi; reforestation and a Change in certain areas from tilled crops to grass crops, may all playa part in slowing down the rush of water to the sea, or in keeping it away from cities, towns, and valuable lands.' (Mississippi Valley Committee Report, 2d ed., p. 3, 1934.) 'Consideration of a national flood-control policy must necessarily recognize that the flood-control aspects of a project, be it a major purpose or an incidental one, must be evaluated in the light of a broad study which takes into account all other purposes or possibilities involved. Among such other purposes may be power, navigation, irrigation; may be low-water control, water supply, sewage, or waste disposal. Wherever more than one purpose is indicated, each must be considered in its full relation to all the others. Only by such procedure can a well-coordinated project be evolved.' (Idem, p. 27.) In planning public works for the con trol of floods, and in relating such works to effective utilization of river waters for the various purposes enumerated above, two basic requirements are (1) accurate and reliable records of the stage and discharge of past floods, and (2) development of methods for the analysis of such data, to determine the frequency of floods heretofore experienced and to estimate the magnitude and frequency of future floods. It is the purpose of this study to present for certain rivers in the United States much of the basic information of this sort now available. Engineers generally agree that a large part of the flood destruction in this country could have been pre

Jarvis, Clarence S.; Et Al

1936-01-01

131

Three-Dimensional Modelling of Leveed Lava Flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eruption rates and lava flow emplacement times are important factors in understanding planetary volcanism. For planetary lava flows featuring well-developed central channels and lateral embanking levees, lava flow rates and emplacement times have been estimated from measured morphological parameters, such as levee and channel widths, using the isothermal Bingham flow model of Hulme. The isothermal assumption and the arbitrary fitting of a static two-dimensional model to a three-dimensional problem have been criticized, but no definitive replacement has emerged in the literature to date. Through the use of numerical modeling, we are investigating the validity of the theoretical assumptions and approach used by Hulme for leveed lava flows that have fully developed central channels. The goal of this study is to identify the conditions for which the Hulme approach provides a reasonable approximation and to isolate the parameter regimes that require a more refined theoretical treatment of flow emplacement.

Sakimoto, S.; Baloga, S.; Crisp, J.

1996-03-01

132

Sodium-Fire Protection by Space Isolation, Open Catch Pan and Nitrogen Flooding - FFTF Proof Test F5.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A large-scale sodium fire extinguishment test was performed to demonstrate the adequacy of the FFTF secondary sodium fire protection system. Twenty-three hundred pounds of sodium at 1100 exp 0 F were spilled into an air filled cell which had a steel catch...

R. K. Hilliard W. D. Boehmer

1975-01-01

133

33 CFR 209.220 - Flood control regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209.220 Section...ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.220 Flood control regulations. (a) Local protection...the maintenance and operation of local flood protection works are contained...

2013-07-01

134

The geomorphic effectiveness of a large flood on the Rio Grande in the Big Bend region: Insights on geomorphic controls and post-flood geomorphic response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the 1940s, the Rio Grande in the Big Bend region has undergone long periods of channel narrowing, which have been occasionally interrupted by rare, large floods that widen the channel (termed a channel reset). The most recent channel reset occurred in 2008 following a 17-year period of extremely low stream flow and rapid channel narrowing. Flooding was caused by precipitation associated with the remnants of tropical depression Lowell in the Rio Conchos watershed, the largest tributary to the Rio Grande. Floodwaters approached 1500 m3/s (between a 13 and 15 year recurrence interval) and breached levees, inundated communities, and flooded the alluvial valley of the Rio Grande; the wetted width exceeding 2.5 km in some locations. The 2008 flood had the 7th largest magnitude of record, however, conveyed the largest volume of water than any other flood. Because of the narrow pre-flood channel conditions, record flood stages occurred.

Dean, David J.; Schmidt, John C.

2013-11-01

135

Evaluation of Setback Levees on the Sacramento River  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents a preliminary analysis to determine the effect that setback levees would have along a specified reach of the Sacramento River. This was done using a three-scenario strategy such that recommendations could arise from the analysis of several setback width options. The project reach ranges from river mile 143, just south of Colusa, to river mile 84, near

Setenay Bozkurt; Petra Dekens; Ron Gartland; Justin Gragg; Jorine Lawyer; Matt McGoogan

136

CONSEQUENCES OF HUMAN-ALTERED FLOODS: LEVEES, FLOODS, AND FLOODPLAIN FORESTS ALONG THE WISCONSIN RIVER. (R826600)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

137

Echanization of concreting the slope revetment slabs of the Leningrad flood-control levees  

Microsoft Academic Search

For this purpose sliding formwork was proposed [i], which permit placingconcrete mixes with a cone slump of 1-3 cm, which is a more progressive method than the use of removable panel formwork. However, the given design (as far as it can be judged from the schematic diagram) is rather complex and does not consider the main process of concreting--compaction of

L. S. Sharov; V. E. Kondakov; I. V. Kornienko; E. V. Lavrinovich; V. I. Khor'kov; O. A. Savinov

1988-01-01

138

Intensive Cultural Resources Survey and Assessment of Proposed Levee Modifications at the Peters Levee, Lee Country, Arkansas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project consists of a cultural resources survey and assessment of approximately 1,175 acres of land which will be affected by proposed levee modification and improvement in Lee County, Arkansas. During the course of the survey four historic sites and...

M. J. McNerney

1979-01-01

139

Flood Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how to use and graph real-world stream gage data to create event and annual hydrographs and calculate flood frequency statistics. Using an Excel spreadsheet of real-world event, annual and peak streamflow data, they manipulate the data (converting units, sorting, ranking, plotting), solve problems using equations, and calculate return periods and probabilities. Prompted by worksheet questions, they analyze the runoff data as engineers would. Students learn how hydrographs help engineers make decisions and recommendations to community stakeholders concerning water resources and flooding.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

140

Urban flood risk assessment using sewer flooding databases.  

PubMed

Sustainable water management is a global challenge for the 21st century. One key aspect remains protection against urban flooding. The main objective is to ensure or maintain an adequate level of service for all inhabitants. However, level of service is still difficult to assess and the high-risk locations difficult to identify. In this article, we propose a methodology, which (i) allows water managers to measure the service provided by the urban drainage system with regard to protection against urban flooding; and (ii) helps stakeholders to determine effective strategies for improving the service provided. One key aspect of this work is to use a database of sewer flood event records to assess flood risk. Our methodology helps urban water managers to assess the risk of sewer flooding; this approach does not seek to predict flooding but rather to inform decision makers on the current level of risk and on actions which need to be taken to reduce the risk. This work is based on a comprehensive definition of risk, including territorial vulnerability and perceptions of urban water stakeholders. This paper presents the results and the methodological contributions from implementing the methodology on two case studies: the cities of Lyon and Mulhouse. PMID:22097068

Caradot, Nicolas; Granger, Damien; Chapgier, Jean; Cherqui, Frdric; Chocat, Bernard

2011-01-01

141

Groundwater flooding in an urbanised floodplain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, risk management associated with groundwater flooding has been recognised as an area requiring improved understanding in the United Kingdom. Government figures suggest as many as 1.6 million properties may be at risk from this form of flooding. Further, the recently enforced EU Floods Directive requires hazard mapping associated with groundwater flooding to be undertaken. The city of Oxford is situated within a narrow valley in the upper reaches of the River Thames in the south of the United Kingdom. Although much of the city sits above the current floodplain of the River Thames, approximately 3600 properties are located within the 1 in 100 year return flood envelope. The floodplain is underlain by a shallow alluvial aquifer in good hydraulic connection with the River Thames and its tributaries. The city suffers from recurrent floods, most recently in July 2007, when a 1 in 20 year event impacted over 200 properties. A significant number of these properties were affected by flooding from rising groundwater which was either the sole cause of flooding or the initial cause prior to inundation from fluvial waters. A study has been undertaken by the British Geological Survey, in collaboration with the environment regulator and linked with the local flood risk management scheme, to assess the role of groundwater in flooding in Oxford. The study has shown that groundwater flooding in the city occurs in low-lying areas protected from direct fluvial flooding, at least in the early stages of an event, by high ground associated with urbanisation. Although direct rainfall recharge associated with extreme events can cause significant groundwater level rise in these low-lying areas, the primary mechanism for groundwater flooding is the movement of water through the permeable subsurface from fluvial flooded zones. Groundwater flooding is often the only form of flooding for the isolated low-lying areas for medium-to-high probability flood events. As a result, measures to increase the conveyance of flood waters through the valley to reduce direct fluvial flood risk have been identified as beneficial in reducing groundwater flood risk as they will limit the head of fluvial flood waters that drive water through the subsurface into the isolated low-lying areas. The study has shown the importance of anthropogenic topographical changes in controlling the extent, timing and nature of flooding within urban floodplain areas.

MacDonald, D.; Peach, D.; Dixon, A.

2009-12-01

142

Martian Floods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Windows to the Universe site provides beginner, intermediate and advanced information about Martian flooding. It includes a NASA image of Mars despicting outflow channels and river valley networks, which provide evidence for two theories about the global Martian water cycle.

Johnson, Roberta

143

Flooding Exercises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This homework exercise, developed for an undergraduate geology course at Tulane University, leads students through the steps involved in determining the probability that a flood of a given discharge will occur in any given year. Students retrieve discharge data from U.S. Geological Services Internet sites for Dry Creek, LA, Rapid Creek, SD and Red River, ND to make their calculations.

Nelson, Stephen

144

Decision support systems for flood scenario elicitation and hazard mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improved management of flood hazards in mountain catchments entails the investigation of large woody debris transport, their impact in terms of bridge clogging, and the combined effect of these phenomena with high flows in mountain rivers. Moreover, the effects of woody debris may combine with those of possible levee failure in the valley bottoms. The contribution reviews the state of the art of models and methods for the characterization of both aspects, and illustrates a blueprint of a decision support system where information on woody debris recruitment, transport capacity of the stream network, cloggability of hydraulic structures and levees are combined with hydrological information to identify the most appropriate scenarios one should consider for precautionary and realistic flood hazard assessment. The decision support system is exemplified with reference to the case study of South Tyrol, Italy.

Pistocchi, Alberto

2013-04-01

145

REEVALUATION OF THE FLOOD AND THE FLOOD CONTROL PLAN AROUND THE DAIJUU WEIR IN THE YOSHINO RIVER BY USING THE WATER LEVEL DATA AND THE RIVER SURVEY MAP IN THE MEIJI ERA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors analyzed the hydraulic features of the Daijuu Weir and neighboring levee of the Yoshino River in the historical perspective, as the structures are important factors of flood control for the river. Firstly, the authors analyzed the precious data of water level observations around the Weir started by De Rijke, a Dutch engineer in 1883. Then using a river survey map surveyed in 1901, they restored the status of levees of the Yoshino River before modern improvement works. Thirdly they analyzed a relationship between the Yoshino River Levee and the Daijuu Weir based on the newspaper articles of the fifty years of period from 1878 through 1927. As the conclusion they reevaluated the flood and flood control plan of the Yoshino River around the Daijuu Weir.

Matsuo, Yuji; Yatunaga, Kazuo; Nakano, Susumu

146

Study of movement and seepage along levees using DINSAR and the airborne UAVSAR instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the utility of high resolution synthetic aperture radar for levee monitoring using UAVSAR data collected over the dikes and levees in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and the lower Mississippi River. Our study has focused on detecting and tracking changes that are indicative of potential problem spots, namely deformation of the levees, subsidence along the levee toe, and seepage through the levees, making use of polarimetric and interferometric SAR techniques. Here we present some results of those studies, which show that high resolution, low noise SAR imaging could supplement more traditional ground-based monitoring methods by providing early indicators of seepage and deformation.

Jones, Cathleen E.; Bawden, Gerald; Deverel, Steven; Dudas, Joel; Hensley, Scott; Yun, Sang-Ho

2012-09-01

147

Cultural Resources Survey of Proposed Flood Control Project Area, Gays Mills, Crawford County, Wisconsin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Flood control measures in the town of Gay Mills, Wisconsin, on the Kickapoo River include levee construction, storm sewer construction, and bank cutting to reroute a portion of the Kickapoo River. Most of the project area is within the town of Gay Mills a...

B. Withrow

1983-01-01

148

33 CFR 209.300 - Flood control regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209.300 Section...ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.300 Flood control regulations. (a) Regulations for the operation and maintenance of local flood protection works approved by the...

2013-07-01

149

25 CFR 101.8 - Environmental and Flood Disaster Acts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Environmental and Flood Disaster Acts. 101.8 Section 101...LOAN FUND § 101.8 Environmental and Flood Disaster Acts. Loans will not be...compliance with any applicable provisions of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973...

2013-04-01

150

24 CFR 570.605 - National Flood Insurance Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false National Flood Insurance Program. 570.605 Section...Program Requirements § 570.605 National Flood Insurance Program. Notwithstanding...CFR part 91), section 202(a) of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973...

2013-04-01

151

Newton's Apple: Floods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lesson plan on floods provides background information, compares the roles of wetlands and flood plains in a river's natural flood control with the pros and cons of engineered flood control. Includes glossary, resources and additional sources of information, discussion questions. Student activity demonstrates water movement on a wide flood plain and narrow channel.

152

Hydrological simulation of extreme flood scenarios for operational flood management at the Middle Elbe river  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Operational flood management at the Middle Elbe river requires comprehensive knowledge about the magnitude and characteristics of possible extreme flood events. Since these events are not sufficiently included in available historical records, an extended sample of extreme flood events was generated by hydrological scenario simulation. Present paper emphasises simulations in the German part of the catchment of the Middle Elbe river and introduces the stochastic-conceptual precipitation-runoff model which was developed for this task. After validation of this model and its coupling with the weather forecast model COSMO and hydraulic-numerical models, a set of 25 flood scenarios could be simulated and provided for a planning of flood protection measures. Analysis of simulated scenarios reveal that extreme flood events at the Mulde and Middle Elbe rivers may have a wide spectrum of characteristics and may considerably exceed the magnitude of past flood events (e.g., those of August 2002).

Helms, M.; Ihringer, J.; Mikovec, R.

2012-12-01

153

The August 2002 flood in Prague  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In August 2002 the Czech Republic was struck by the largest flood in its history with the destruction of more than 1000 houses, tens of km of roads and dozens of bridges. The reconstruction of the country will take more than 2 years. The catastrophic flood was caused by two rainfall events following rapidly one after the other. Saturated basins and full river channels after the first rainstorm caused the highest water stages and discharges ever recorded in a number of river profiles in the country. In Prague two floods coincided, with run-off from the Vltava river cascade meeting the flood wave from the Berounka river. The floods in the Czech Republic and in Prague are still being assessed. The water level of this flood surpassed the flood marks from the last century by 70 - 100 cm. At the present time the value of the discharge in Prague is evaluated as 5200 {m^3 s-1}, whereas {Q100} is considered to be 3700 {m3s-1}. The Vltava in Prague is a trained river, protected by embankments ({Q50} and {Q20}) and protective dykes ({Q100} and {Q20}). In addition, a significant role in the flood protection of Prague was played by the manipulation of the dams of the Vltava river cascade, and by a new element - mobile walls protecting the historically valuable Old Town of Prague on the right bank of the Vltava. A conception for improving the flood protection of Prague was ready in the form of a design at the end of the {20th} century. It was ready for use in 2000, when the way in which it should be built was also checked. The calculation for the level of the mobile wall was based on mathematical modeling of the course of a hundred year flood in Prague. However, the mobile walls were constructed 50 cm higher than the calculated flood levels. During the flood, the water levels reached about 20 cm, and in some places only about 5 cm, below the top of the mobile walls, but the mobile walls were not overtopped. Mobile walls were not used on the left bank of the Prague city center. This is the location of the Lesser Town of Prague and Kampa, in particular, which lies below Prague Castle, the most picturesque part of Prague, with historical buildings from the {14 - 19th} century. Flood protection by mobile walls in this part of the city continues to be a topic of discussion among proponents of different opinions. Although the building structures were not protected, there was no damage to them or to their stability. Greater damage was caused to the interiors of the buildings. Unfortunately, the barriers in Karln and Holesovice, residential areas from the {18th} and {19th} century, originally built for workers, were very seriously destroyed. The flood water level there was about 3 meters above ground level. Three houses collapsed during the flood, and dozens of houses are still not habitable because of their endangered stability. As a consequence of the flood, Prague encountered a range of other problems: a flooded waste water treatment plant, areas flooded through the sewerage system, flooded theatres, archives, and serious flooding at the zoo. A problem arose due to suffusion behind the mobile walls which led to the destruction of the roads where public trams and private cars operate. This problem, together with the flooded underground railway network, caused very serious problems and the near collapse of the traffic network in Prague.

Mareov, I.; Mare, K.; Vogel, T.

2003-04-01

154

The spatial and temporal variability of residential real estate values in response to flooding.  

PubMed

A relationship between residential property values and the incidence of flooding is represented, using a case study of two Californian communities that were flooded following a levee break. Analysis of the real estate market before and after the flood shows that the flood was capitalized into housing values, whereby both list and selling prices dropped immediately and have recently begun to recover. However, recovery of the market is not uniform throughout the floodplain. Houses that suffered eighteen inches of water recovered to near pre-flood values in less than one year. In contrast, houses that had approximately ten feet of water in them have not recovered to the same extent, indicating that capitalization and recovery do not occur evenly. These findings suggest that policies and programs should address these spatial and temporal differences in recovery, which are expected to vary with different flood frequencies and magnitudes. PMID:20958665

Montz, B E; Tobin, G A

1988-12-01

155

Floods and flood management in Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flooding is the most devastating natural hazard in Pakistan and the recent flooding has demonstrated its severeness. Floods are common throughout the country. However, their characteristics differ from region to region. Flooding behavior of the major basins and flood management at the national level are investigated in this article. Monsoon rainfalls are the main source of floods in the Indus Basin, while Mediterranean Waves and Cyclones, which are generated over the Arabian Sea, induce flooding in the Kharan Basin and the Makran Coastal Area. Fluvial floods in the Indus Basin have caused major economic losses. Pakistan's government has spent vast resources on relief operations and flood works since the country came into existence in 1947. A number of provincial and federal acts, ordinances, accords, and treaties shape the national flood policy. Institutional setup for flood hazard and crisis management has evolved over the years. Nevertheless, data show no major reduction in the flood-to-damage ratio. The inter-linkage of structural and non-structural measures and their combined efficiency must be analyzed and optimized for more effective flood management.

Tariq, Muhammad Atiq Ur Rehman; van de Giesen, Nick

156

Linking flow properties of partially channelized turbidity currents to the morphodynamics and texture of submarine levees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Levees are the primary elements of self-formed submarine channels, yet in comparison to channel thalwegs little is known about their morphodynamics. Motivated by observations of levee stratigraphy in seismic data and levee morphodynamics observed in physical experiments we have developed a levee growth model. This model couples a simple advection settling scheme for suspended sediment with a vertical suspended sediment profile for partially-channelized turbidity currents. Use of an advection-settling scheme is supported by small advection length scales for settling sediment in overbanking flows compared to most levee widths. The channelized (parent) suspended sediment concentration profile in our model is defined for multiple grain sizes using a two-layer method. Suspended sediment concentration below the height of the velocity maximum is defined by the Rouse equation, while the concentration above this height is defined by a near-Gaussian relationship. In our model only the current fraction situated above the elevation of the levee crest is used in the advection settling calculation. As a result early levee growth is associated with coarse and relatively stratified overbanking flow compared to later periods of growth when channel relief is greater. We use this model to link channelized flow properties to both levee morphology and texture. The evolution of levee morphology, specifically levee taper, is shown to depend on the Rouse number of the parent flow with high Rouse number flows corresponding to steep levees. Initial exploration of levee texture has focused on the distribution of particle diameters in the parent flows. We find that a flow composed of a narrow distribution of particle diameters results in a coarser levee than a flow with the same median grain size but broader particle size distribution.

Straub, K. M.; Esposito, C.; Kuykendall, J.

2011-12-01

157

Archeological Survey Along the Eastern Floodplain of the Lower Illinois River: Cultural Resource Survey of Selected Portions of the Meredosia and Meredosia Lake Drainage and Levee Districts, Scott, Cass and Morgan Counties, Illinois. St. Louis District Cultural Resource Management Report Number 19.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A cultural resource survey of selected portions of the Meredosia and Meredosia Lake Drainage and Levee Districts was performed. The project area is situated on the eastern flood plains of the Illinois River between river miles 65 and 79 and lies within Sc...

D. Morgan D. L. Asch E. Schroeder H. Hassen N. B. Asch

1985-01-01

158

Implementing the EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC) in Austria: Flood Risk Management Plans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

he Directive 2007/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2007 on the assessment and management of flood risks (EFD) aims at the reduction of the adverse consequences for human health, the environment, cultural heritage and economic activity associated with floods in the Community. This task is to be achieved based on three process steps (1) preliminary flood risk assessment (finalised by the end of 2011), (2) flood hazard maps and flood risk maps (due 2013) and (3) flood risk management plans (due 2015). Currently, an interdisciplinary national working group is defining the methodological framework for flood risk management plans in Austria supported by a constant exchange with international bodies and experts. Referring to the EFD the components of the flood risk management plan are (excerpt): 1. conclusions of the preliminary flood risk assessment 2. flood hazard maps and flood risk maps and the conclusions that can be drawn from those maps 3. a description of the appropriate objectives of flood risk management 4. a summary of measures and their prioritisation aiming to achieve the appropriate objectives of flood risk management The poster refers to some of the major challenges in this process, such as the legal provisions, coordination of administrative units, definition of public relations, etc. The implementation of the EFD requires the harmonisation of legal instruments of various disciplines (e.g. water management, spatial planning, civil protection) enabling a coordinated - and ideally binding - practice of flood risk management. This process is highly influenced by the administrative organisation in Austria - federal, provincial and municipality level. The Austrian approach meets this organisational framework by structuring the development of the flood risk management plan into 3 time-steps: (a) federal blueprint, (b) provincial editing and (c) federal finishing as well as reporting to the European Commission. Each time-step addresses different administrative levels and spatial scales accompanied by the active involvement of interested parties.

Neuhold, Clemens

2013-04-01

159

Derived flood frequency analysis using different precipitation input data - a comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

For planning of hydraulic structures design floods with different recurrence intervals are required. For monitored river cross sections these values are usually obtained using flood frequency analysis based on long time series of observed discharge. If such observations are missing or if effects of new flood protection measures or changes in natural conditions are to be evaluated derived flood frequency

Imke Radtke; Uwe Haberlandt

2010-01-01

160

Flooding of municipal solid waste landfills--an environmental hazard?  

PubMed

Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills pose a long-lasting risk for humans and the environment. While landfill emissions under regular operating conditions are well investigated, landfill behaviour and associated emissions in case of flooding are widely unknown, although damages have been documented. This paper aims at developing a methodology for determining the proportion of MSW landfills endangered by flooding, and at evaluating the impact flooded landfills might have on the environment during a flood event. The risk of flooding of MSW landfills is assessed by using information about flood risk zones. Out of 1064 landfills investigated in Austria, 312 sites or about 30% are located in or next to areas flooded on average once in 200 years. Around 5% of these landfills are equipped with flood protection facilities. Material inventories of 147 landfill sites endangered by flooding are established, and potential emissions during a flood event are estimated by assuming the worst case of complete landfill leaching and erosion. The environmental relevance of emissions during flooding is discussed on the basis of a case study in the western part of Austria. Although environmental hazards need to be assessed on a site- and event-specific basis, the results indicate that flooded MSW landfills represent in general small environmental risks for the period of flooding. The longer term consequences of flooding are discussed in a next paper. PMID:19345983

Laner, David; Fellner, Johann; Brunner, Paul H

2009-04-05

161

Estimating extreme flood probabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates of the exceedance probabilities of extreme floods are needed for the assessment of flood hazard at Department of Energy facilities. A new approach using a joint probability distribution of extreme rainfalls and antecedent soil moisture conditions, along with a rainfall runoff model, provides estimates of probabilities for floods approaching the probable maximum flood. This approach is illustrated for a

T. A. Fontaine; K. W. Potter; C. A. Rodgers

1994-01-01

162

Improvements on Flood Alleviation in Germany: Lessons Learned from the Elbe Flood in August 2002  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increase in damage due to natural disasters is directly related to the number of people who live and work in hazardous areas and continuously accumulate assets. Therefore, land use planning authorities have to manage effectively the establishment and development of settlements in flood-prone areas in order to avoid the further increase of vulnerable assets. Germany faced major destruction during the flood in August 2002 in the Elbe and Danube catchments, and many changes have been suggested in the existing German water and planning regulations. This article presents some findings of a Lessons Learned study that was carried out in the aftermath of the flood and discusses the following topics: 1) the establishment of comprehensive hazard maps and flood protection concepts, 2) the harmonization of regulations of flood protection at the federal level, 3) the communication of the flood hazard and awareness strategies, and 4) how damage potential can be minimized through measures of area precaution such as resettlement and risk-adapted land use. Although attempts towards a coordinated and harmonized creation of flood hazard maps and concepts have been made, there is still no uniform strategy at all planning levels and for all states ( Lae nder) of the Federal Republic of Germany. The development and communication of possible mitigation strategies for unthinkable extreme events beyond the common safety level of a 100-year flood are needed. In order to establish a sustainable and integrated flood risk management, interdisciplinary and catchment-based approaches are needed.

Petrow, Theresia; Thieken, Annegret H.; Kreibich, Heidi; Merz, Bruno; Bahlburg, Cord Heinrich

2006-11-01

163

Flood-inundation map and water-surface profiles for floods of selected recurrence intervals, Consumnes River and Deer Creek, Sacramento County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The damage caused by the January 1997 floods along the Cosumnes River and Deer Creek generated new interest in planning and managing land use in the study area. The 1997 floodflow peak, the highest on record and considered to be a 150-year flood, caused levee failures at 24 locations. In order to provide a technical basis for floodplain management practices, the U.S. Goelogical Survey, in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency, completed a flood-inundation map of the Cosumnes River and Deer Creek drainage from Dillard Road bridge to State Highway 99. Flood frequency was estimated from streamflow records for the Cosumnes River at Michigan Bar and Deer Creek near Sloughhouse. Cross sections along a study reach, where the two rivers generally flow parallel to one another, were used with a step-backwater model (WSPRO) to estimate the water-surface profile for floods of selected recurrence intervals. A flood-inundation map was developed to show flood boundaries for the 100-year flood. Water-surface profiles were developed for the 5-, 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year floods.

Guay, Joel R.; Harmon, Jerry G.; McPherson, Kelly R.

1998-01-01

164

Balancing Play, Meaning and Reality: The Design Philosophy of LEVEE PATROLLER  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most serious games have been developed without a proper and comprehensive design theory. To contribute to the development of such a theory, this article presents the underlying design philosophy of LEVEE PATROLLER, a game to train levee patrollers in the Netherlands. This philosophy stipulates that the design of a digital serious game is a

Harteveld, Casper; Guimaraes, Rui; Mayer, Igor S.; Bidarra, Rafael

2010-01-01

165

Documenting Tragedy and Resilience: The Importance of Spike Lee's "When the Levees Broke"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Spike Lee's documentary, "When the Levees Broke," provides an informative, enduring, and alternative presentation surrounding the human and man-made debacle associated with Hurricane Katrina. Levees centers the voices of survivors and others involved in the weeks during and after the hurricane, historicizes residents' understandings and

Foster, Kevin Michael; Blakes, Tifani; McKay, Jenny

2008-01-01

166

Growth, Failure, and Erosion of Submarine Channel Levees on the Upper Mississippi Fan, Gulf of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Late Pleistocene channel levees on the Mississippi Fan failed repeatedly along deep-seated listric faults. These growth faults begin at the top of the levee, as much as a kilometer away from the channel axis. They plunge 150-200 meters downward reaching their deepest point halfway towards the channel axis (0.5 km) along the base of a regional sand unit. They then rise toward the channel axis where they emerge. The erosion of toe-thrust material coupled with levee growth, promoted a dynamic equilibrium: turbidity currents flushed the channel axis and deposited new levee on the margins, which induced further displacement into the channel. With a geomechanical model we show that deep-seated failure occurred by undrained loading of an underlying low permeability mudstone. Excess pore pressure formed a low-strength layer that localized the detachment at the base of a regional sand. Our results show that deep-seated failure is expected when levee systems form above regional sand bodies that were deposited rapidly above low permeability mudstone. Furthermore, the presence of this failure style in channel-levee systems is a strong indicator that overpressures and low effective stresses were present during formation and thus record paleo-pressures. Understanding these systems is critical for the design of safe well penetrations, predicting hydraulic connectivity of deepwater channel sands, and the growth of submarine channel-levee systems. This study illuminates the linkages between sedimentation, erosion, and the mechanical stability of levees in submarine channel systems.

Sawyer, D. E.; Flemings, P. B.; Nikolinakou, M. A.

2011-12-01

167

Ventura River Flood of February 1992  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On February 12, 1992, a portion of the Ventura River, California, flowed through the Ventura Beach RV Resort which had recently been constructed across a major historically active distributary of the Ventura River delta. State and local land-use planners recognized the flood hazards associated with the site, but decision-makers relied on analytical methods developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and flood-hazard categories developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency, which did not adequately reflect the mobile nature of the Ventura River channel and distributaries. A better understanding of the historical behavior of the Ventura River could have averted the flood damages experienced in 1992. Low intensity recreational, agricultural, or habitat restoration use of the site would minimize potential flood damages and obviate the need for structural flood protection that would impact the river? natural resources. Continued operation of the recreational vehicle park could result in additional flood damages in the relatively near future; recognizing the limitations of the flood-modeling methodologies used for the Ventura Beach RV Resort could prevent similar miscalculations of flood potential in comparable situations.

Keller, Edward A.; Capelli, Mark H.

1992-10-01

168

Feedback on flood risk management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For several years, as floods were increasing in South of France, local communities felt deprive to assume their mission of protection and information of citizens, and were looking for assistance in flood management. In term of flood disaster, the fact is that physical protection is necessary but inevitably limited. Tools and structures of assistance to anticipation remain slightly developed. To manage repeated crisis, local authorities need to be able to base their policy against flood on prevention, warnings, post-crisis analysis and feedback from former experience. In this objective, after 3 years of test and improvement since 2003, the initiative Predict-Services was developed in South of France: it aims at helping communities and companies to face repeated flood crisis. The principle is to prepare emergency plans, to organize crisis management and reduce risks; to help and assist communities and companies during crisis to activate and adapt their emergency plans with enough of anticipation; and to analyse floods effects and improve emergency plans afterwards. With the help of Meteo France datas and experts, Predict services helps local communities and companies in decision making for flood management. In order to reduce risks, and to keep the benefits of such an initiative, local communities and companies have to maintain the awareness of risk of the citizens and employees. They also have to maintain their safety plans to keep them constantly operational. This is a part of the message relayed. Companies, Local communities, local government authorities and basin stakeholders are the decision makers. Companies and local communities have to involve themselves in the elaboration of safety plans. They are also completely involved in their activation that is their own responsability. This applies to other local government authorities, like districts one's and basin stakeholders, which participle in the financing community safety plans and adminitrative district which are responsible of the transmission of meteorological alert and of rescue actions. In the crossing of the go-information stemming from the space technology, communication, meteorology, hydraulics and hydrology, Predict-services brings help to local communities in their mission of protection and information to the citizens, for flood problems and helps companies to limit and delete operating losses facing floods. The initiative, developped by BRL, EADS Astrium, in association with Meteo France, has been employed and is functioning on cities of south of France, notably on Montpellier, and also on the scale of catchment area ( BRL is a regional development company, a public private partnership controlled by the local gouvernments of the Languedoc-Roussillon Region). The initiative has to be coordinated with state services to secure continuity and coherence of information. This initiative is developped in dialogue with State services as Mto France, the Ministry for the interior, the Ministry for ecology and the durable development, the Regional Direction of the Environment (DIREN), the Central service of Hydrometeorology and Support to the Forecast of the Floods ( SCHAPI) and service of forecast of rising (SPC). It has been successfully functioning for 5 years with 300 southern cities from South West to South East of France and notably Montpellier and Sommires, famous for it's flood problems on the Vidourle river where no human loss was to regret and where the economic impacts were minimized. Actually developed in cities of South of France, this initiative is to be developed nationaly and very soon internationally. Thanks to the efficiency of it's method, this initiative is also developed in partnership with insurance company involved in prevention actions. After more than 100 events observed and analysed in South of France, the experience gained, allowed PREDICT Services to better anticipate phenomena and also to better manage them. The presentation will expose the feedback of this initiative and lessons learned on risk management.

Moreau, K.; Roumagnac, A.

2009-09-01

169

River Flood Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use this animation to learn about floods. You will learn about drainage basins, discharge, hydrographs, floodplain deposition, and infiltration. You will also learn about the frequency of floods and what we are doing to control them.

2002-01-01

170

Feedback on flood risk management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For several years, as floods were increasing in South of France, local communities felt deprive to assume their mission of protection and information of citizens, and were looking for assistance in flood management. In term of flood disaster, the fact is that physical protection is necessary but inevitably limited. Tools and structures of assistance to anticipation remain slightly developed. To manage repeated crisis, local authorities need to be able to base their policy against flood on prevention, warnings, post-crisis analysis and feedback from former experience. In this objective, after 3 years of test and improvement since 2003, the initiative Predict-Services was developped in South of France: it aims at helping communities and companies to face repeated flood crisis. The principle is to prepare emergency plans, to organize crisis management and reduce risks; to help and assist communities and companies during crisis to activate and adapt their emergency plans with enough of anticipation; and to analyse floods effects and improve emergency plans afterwards. In order to reduce risks, and to keep the benefits of such an initiative, local communities and companies have to maintain the awareness of risk of the citizens and employees. They also have to maintain their safety plans to keep them constantly operational. This is a part of the message relayed. Companies, Local communities, local government authorities and basin stakeholders are the decision makers. Companies and local communities have to involve themselves in the elaboration of safety plans. They are also completely involved in their activation that is their own responsability. This applies to other local government authorities, like districts one's and basin stakeholders, which participle in the financing community safety plans and adminitrative district which are responsible of the transmission of meteorological alert and of rescue actions. In the crossing of the go-information stemming from the space technology, communication, meteorology, hydraulics and hydrology, Predict-services brings help to local communities in their mission of protection and information to the citizens, for flood problems and helps companies to limit and delete operating losses facing floods. The initiative, developped by BRL, EADS Astrium, in association with Meteo France, has been employed and is functioning on cities of south of France, notably on Montpellier, and also on the scale of catchment area( BRL is a regional development company, a public private partnership controlled by the local gouvernments of the Languedoc-Roussillon Region). The initiative has to be coordinated with state services to secure continuity and coherence of information. This initiative is developped in dialogue with State services as Mto France, the Ministry for the interior, the Ministry for ecology and the durable development, the Regional Direction of the Environment (DIREN), the Central service of Hydrometeorology and Support to the Forecast of the Floods ( SCHAPI) and service of forecast of rising (SPC). It has been successfully functioning for 5 years with 300 southern cities from South West to South East of France and notably Montpellier and Sommires, famous for its flood problems on the Vidourle river where no human loss was to regret and where the economic impacts were minimized. Actually developed in cities of South of France, this initiative is to be developed nationaly and very soon internationally. Thanks to the efficiency of its method, this initiative is also developed in partnership with insurance company involved in prevention actions. The presentation will expose the feedback of this initiative and lessons learned.

Moreau, K.; Roumagnac, A.

2009-09-01

171

Flood Management in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, flood problems in India, regional variabilityof the problem, present status of the ongoing management measures, their effectiveness and futureneeds in flood management are covered. Flood problems in India are presented by four zonesof flooding, viz. (a) Brahmaputra River Basin, (b) Ganga River Basin, (c) North-WestRivers Basin, and (d) Central India and Deccan Rivers Basin. Some special problems,related

P. K. Mohapatra; R. D. Singh

2003-01-01

172

Space geodesy: subsidence and flooding in New Orleans.  

PubMed

It has long been recognized that New Orleans is subsiding and is therefore susceptible to catastrophic flooding. Here we present a new subsidence map for the city, generated from space-based synthetic-aperture radar measurements, which reveals that parts of New Orleans underwent rapid subsidence in the three years before Hurricane Katrina struck in August 2005. One such area is next to the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet (MRGO) canal, where levees failed during the peak storm surge: the map indicates that this weakness could be explained by subsidence of a metre or more since their construction. PMID:16738651

Dixon, Timothy H; Amelung, Falk; Ferretti, Alessandro; Novali, Fabrizio; Rocca, Fabio; Dokka, Roy; Sella, Giovanni; Kim, Sang-Wan; Wdowinski, Shimon; Whitman, Dean

2006-06-01

173

75 FR 6364 - Process for Requesting a Variance From Vegetation Standards for Levees and Floodwalls  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...levees and floodwalls to reflect organizational changes and incorporate current agency-wide...included in the public docket without change and may be made available on-line...The draft FONSI is subject to change based on the comments...

2010-02-09

174

Reducing the Effects of Dredged Material Levees on Coastal Marsh Function: Sediment Deposition and Nekton Utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dredged material levees in coastal Louisiana are normally associated with pipeline canals or, more frequently, canals dredged\\u000a through the wetlands to allow access to drilling locations for mineral extraction. The hydrologic impact on marshes behind\\u000a the levee is of concern to coastal resource managers because of the potential impact on sediment transport and deposition,\\u000a and the effect on estuarine organism

Denise J. Reed; Mark S. Peterson; Brian J. Lezina

2006-01-01

175

Using level-I PRA for enhanced safety of the advanced neutron source reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phase-1, level-I probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor has been completed as part of the conceptual design phase of this proposed research facility. Since project inception, PRA and reliability concepts have been an integral part of the design evolutions contributing to many of the safety features in the current design. The level-I PRA has

C. T. Ramsey; M. A. Linn

1995-01-01

176

LESSONS FROM GRAND FORKS :P LANNING NONSTRUCTURAL FLOOD CONTROL MEASURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though the flood of 1997 at Grand Forks, North Dakota, did not take a single life, the people suffered enormous economic damage and such large intangible losses that the city considered itself damaged to the ''core.'' Losses were exacerbated by five surprises. People working to protect themselves as flood stages rose and then to salvage their possessions as waters

L. Douglas James; Scott F. Korom

177

Biogeochemical and metabolic responses to the flood pulse in a semiarid floodplain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flood pulse inundation of riparian forests alters rates of nutrient retention and organic matter processing in the aquatic ecosystems formed in the forest interior. Along the Middle Rio Grande (New Mexico, USA), impoundment and levee construction have created riparian forests that differ in their inter-flood intervals (IFIs) because some floodplains are still regularly inundated by the flood pulse (i.e., connected), while other floodplains remain isolated from flooding (i.e., disconnected). This research investigates how ecosystem responses to the flood pulse relate to forest IFI by quantifying nutrient and organic matter dynamics in the Rio Grande floodplain during three years of experimental flooding of the disconnected floodplain and during a single year of natural flooding of the connected floodplain. Surface and subsurface conditions in paired sites (control, flood) established in the two floodplain types were monitored to address metabolic and biogeochemical responses. Compared to dry controls, rates of respiration in the flooded sites increased by up to three orders of magnitude during the flood pulse. In the disconnected forest, month-long experimental floods produced widespread anoxia of four-week duration during each of the three years of flooding. In contrast, water in the connected floodplain remained well oxygenated (3-8 ppm). Material budgets for experimental floods showed the disconnected floodplain to be a sink for inorganic nitrogen and suspended solids, but a potential source of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Compared to the main stem of the Rio Grande, flood-water on the connected floodplain contained less nitrate, but comparable concentrations of DOC, phosphate-phosphorus, and ammonium-nitrogen. Results suggest that floodplain IFI drives metabolic and biogeochemical responses during the flood pulse. Impoundment and fragmentation have altered floodplains from a mosaic of patches with variable IFI to a bimodal distribution. Relatively predictable flooding occurs in the connected forest, while inundation of the disconnected forest occurs only as the result of managed application of water. In semiarid floodplains, water is scarce except during the flood pulse. Ecosystem responses to the flood pulse are related to the IFI and other measures of flooding history that help describe spatial variation in ecosystem function.

Valett, H. M.; Baker, M. A.; Morrice, J. A.; Crawford, C. S.; Molles, Jr. , M. C.; Dahm, C. N.; Moyer, D. L.; Thibault, J. R.; Ellis, L. M.

2005-01-01

178

Hydraulic flood modeling using laser scanner data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work analyzes the altimetrical data and the effects of resolution on flood modeling. Two different terrain representations were considered: regular square cells (GRID) and Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN). Altimetry was obtained from a particular terrain representation called Model Key Point (MKP): this is a DTM obtained from the elaboration of laser scanner data, and it is characterized by high number of points in the areas with more elevation differences, and by few points in flat areas. The accuracy of GRID and TIN data, obtained from MKP, was checked comparing them to the ground surveyed data. As well known hydrodynamic simulations need to represent the terrain morphology as input. Bi-dimensional hydraulic simulations were realized using different software and terrain representations obtained from MKP; the different results were compared afterwards. The use of bi-dimensional models to study flooded areas was increased with large diffusion of the high resolution Digital Terrain Model (DTM). However several models are not able to work easily and with reasonable simulation times when the DTM has a great deal of points. So some modifications of initial DTM are necessary and, in this work, the elaborations to reduce GID and TIN errors realized with Arcmap GIS are described too. The studied area is the Ionian coastal plane of the Basilicata region (Southern Italy): here anthropic elements such as levees, roads and channels strongly influence the water motion of the floodplain; thus a careful description of these elements is necessary in order to obtain the hydraulic risk evaluation.

Giosa, L.; Sole, A.; Nol, L.

2009-04-01

179

Torrent floodplain mapping and torrent flood control in Serbia in the conditions of economic crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serbia is a country that is endangered by flooding of the largest European river, the Danube and its largest tributaries, as well as by countless torrents. During the 19th and 20th centuries, an imposing scope of protection structures was constructed. The existence of the protection system created the conviction that flood protection was achieved and that it should only be

Z. Gavrilovic; M. Stefanovic

2009-01-01

180

RISK-BASED DESIGN OF FLOOD DEFENCE SYSTEMS - A PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS FOR THE NEW ORLEANS METROPOLITAN AREA  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the catastrophic flooding of New Orleans due to hurricane Katrina plans are developed for the improvement of the flood protection system of the city. In the article we apply the principles used in the Netherlands for risk based design of flood protection systems to the New Orleans metropolitan area. In this so-called economic optimization the incremental investments in more

SN Jonkman; M Kok; M van Ledden; JK Vrijling

181

Subsidence and its Impact on the Quality of Geospatial Data Used in the Planning and Building of Hurricane Protection for New Orleans and Southeast Louisiana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A state-wide digital elevation model (DEM; www.atlas.lsu.edu) based on 1999-2002 LiDAR data is widely used in assessing present and future flooding potential in New Orleans and southeast Louisiana due to storm surge. Although the data were acquired during a time when official vertical controls had been deemed unreliable due to subsidence, the DEM continues to be used for operational modeling and planning. To test its viability, an accuracy assessment of the DEM was performed in 2007 using a statewide real-time kinematic GPS system based on NOAA-sanctioned continuously operating reference stations. Sampling was focused on built structures, i.e., levees, floodwall, and roads, features considered to control surge flow in the low-lying coast. Over 100,000 points were measured and compared to 5X5 m DEM pixels. The vertical accuracy of test points was determined to be +/-10cm (0.3 ft). It is claimed that 90% of the DEM is to accurate to +/-15 cm (0.5 ft).The study had the added benefit of providing a snapshot of the progress being made in augmenting the regional hurricane protection system following the 2005 storms. The study shows that only 40 percent of DEM samples pass the accuracy test, i.e., are +/- 0.8 ft of the true elevation. Where the DEM is too low, it is likely due to: levee augmentation, floodwalls are too narrow to be detected by LiDAR, new levees, and a "levee crown bias", i.e., sampled DEM pixel includes levee slope areas. Where the DEM is too high, the causes can be traced to two factors, inaccurate vertical controls established prior to LiDAR acquisition, and to a lesser degree, post-acquisition subsidence. The DEM south and east of New Orleans overestimates levee elevations by 0-1 m. We conclude, therefore that the state-wide digital elevation model (DEM) is unreliable and inadequate to support present-day surge modeling.

Dokka, R. K.; Cavell, J. A.

2007-12-01

182

Risk-based design of large-scale flood defence systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: On the basis of quantitative reliability analysis of flood defence systems, two design methods are developed. The first is reliability-based design, where the optimal geometry of a flood defence system is obtained by minimising the cost of construction under a constraint on the probability of flooding of the protected area. Reliability-based design is an integral part of the second

H. G. Voortman

2002-01-01

183

Regional flood probabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The T-year annual maximum flood at a site is defined to be that streamflow, that has probability 1\\/T of being exceeded in any given year, and for a group of sites the corresponding regional flood probability (RFP) is the probability that at least one site will experience a T-year flood in any given year. The RFP depends on the number

Brent M. Troutman; Michael R. Karlinger

2003-01-01

184

Root responses to flooding.  

PubMed

Soil water-logging and submergence pose a severe threat to plants. Roots are most prone to flooding and the first to suffer from oxygen shortage. Roots are vital for plant function, however, and maintenance of a functional root system upon flooding is essential. Flooding-resistant plants possess a number of adaptations that help maintain oxygen supply to the root. Plants are also capable of initiating organogenesis to replace their original root system with adventitious roots if oxygen supply becomes impossible. This review summarizes current findings on root development and de novo root genesis in response to flooding. PMID:23608517

Sauter, Margret

2013-04-19

185

Safety of Nuclear Power Plants against Flooding  

Microsoft Academic Search

For flood protection of nuclear power plants at German tidal coasts sea dikes were built. Apart from the wave run-up at the dike their construction height is based on a design water level providing a recurrence probability of 10 -4. The extrapolation to a 10000 years recurrence inter- val on the basis of 100 years of measured data on tidal

Stephan Mai; Nino Ohle; Claus Zimmermann

2002-01-01

186

Spatial models for flood risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of computing risk measures associated to flood events is extremely important not only from the point of view of civil protection systems but also because of the necessity for the municipalities of insuring against the damages. In this work we propose, in the framework of an integrated strategy, an operating solution which merges in a conditional approach the

Marco Bee; Roberto Benedetti; Giuseppe Espa

2007-01-01

187

Sand boils induced by the 1993 Mississippi River flood: Could they one day be misinterpreted as earthquake-induced liquefaction?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In areas that are seismically active but lacking clear surficial faulting, many paleoearthquake studies depend on the interpretation of ancient liquefaction features (sand blows) as indicators of prehistoric seismicity. Sand blows, however, can be mimicked by nonseismic sand boils formed by water seeping beneath levees during floods. We examined sand boils induced by the Mississippi River flood of 1993 in order to compare their characteristics with sand blows of the New Madrid earthquakes of 1811-1812. We found a number of criteria that allow a distinction between the two types of deposits. (1) Earthquake-induced liquefaction deposits are broadly distributed about an epicentral area, whereas flood-induced sand boils are limited to a narrow band along a river's levee. (2) The conduits of most earthquake-induced sand blows are planar dikes, whereas the conduits of flood-induced sand boils are most commonly tubular. (3) Depression of the preearthquake ground surface is usual for sand blows, not for sand boils. (4) Flood-induced sand boils tend to be better sorted and much finer than sand-blow deposits. (5) Source beds for earthquake-induced deposits occur at a wide range of depths, whereas the source bed for sand boils is always near surface. (6) Materials removed from the walls surrounding the vent of a sand blow are seen inside sand blows, but are rarely seen inside sand boils. In general, flood-induced sand boils examined are interpreted to represent a less-energetic genesis than earthquake-induced liquefaction.

Li, Y.; Craven, J.; Schweig, E. S.; Obermeier, S. F.

1996-01-01

188

Potential flood and debris hazards at Cottonwood Cove, Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Clark County, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

At Cottonwood Cove, Nevada, most of the existing dikes at the recreation sites are effective in diverting and routing floodflows, up to and including the 100-year flood, away from people and facilities. The dikes across Ranger Residence Wash and Access Road Wash at the mouth divert floods up to the 50-year recurrence interval away from residential areas. Flow and debris damage in protected areas will be relatively minor minor for floods including the 100-year flood, whereas damage caused by sediment deposition at the mouths of the washes near Lake Mohave could be significant for floods equal to or less than the 100-year flood. The extreme flood, a flood meteorologically and hydrologically possible but so rare as to preclude a frequency estimate, could cause great damage and possible loss of life. The present dikes would be topped or breached by such flooding. (USGS)

Moosburner, Otto

1981-01-01

189

The Thames Gateway: planning policy and flood risk scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Thames Gateway, currently Europe's largest regeneration project, presents a valuable case study area in which to examine the interrelated issues of planning policy, flood risk and insurance loss potential. The region is typified by a significant exposure to flooding due to its location, which as developments proceed, could result in increased areas of vulnerability with consequential insurance loss and hotspots of risk. With 160,000 new homes planned by 2016, positive use of planning policy is fundamental in minimising potential flood risk as well as ensuring long term economic and social goals can be met. This project focuses on several planning scenarios within the Gateway for the areas of Barking and Medway, and models flood risk using a commercial flood model to develop the flood risk under alternative planning policy scenarios. The two areas chosen demonstrate major regeneration and redevelopment sites located on Thames tidal floodplain. The areas are protected by flood defences although are both downstream of the Thames Barrier. However, it is expected that defences will be maintained and upgraded over the next several years, particularly in the Medway, which is currently protected to a lower level than most other areas in the Thames Gateway. The progress of development is more advanced in Barking with the major regeneration site, Barking Riverside, hosting 2000 new homes. The study sites have been chosen based on their location and proximity to the Thames and allow for an analysis of planning policy and its influence in minimising risk into the future. The reflected change in flood risk due to both the planned developments and flood defences will help to understand change in risk over time and the intricacies expected with delivering planning policy in a multi-governed area subject to conflicting objectives. Flood risk for both sites are modelled using a commercial flood model to estimate flood risk based on several flood scenarios for both current and future developments. Alternative planning approaches are also used to determine the potential risk faced under a range policy conditions, from using fewer brownfield sites to implementing PPS25 (Planning Policy Statement 25: Flood Risk and Development) to varying degrees. Building vulnerability is assessed for all scenarios using vulnerability curves, and insurance loss calculated for each scenario output. The flood model outputs for the study areas gives an initial indication of present flood risk. The results will be of use to planners and insurers in understanding future flood risk scenarios in urban regeneration areas.

Eldridge, Jillian; Horn, Diane

2010-05-01

190

Time scales of change in chemical and biological parameters after engineered levee breaches adjacent to Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eight sampling trips were coordinated after engineered levee breaches hydrologically reconnected both Upper Klamath Lake and Agency Lake, Oregon, to adjacent wetlands. The reconnection, by a series of explosive blasts, was coordinated by The Nature Conservancy to reclaim wetlands that had for approximately seven decades been leveed for crop production. Sets of nonmetallic porewater profilers (U.S. Patent 8,051,727 B1; November 8, 2011; http://www.uspto.gov/web/patents/patog/ week45/OG/html/1372-2/US08051727-20111108.html.) were deployed during these trips in November 2007, June 2008, May 2009, July 2009, May 2010, August 2010, June 2011, and July 2011 (table 1). Deployments temporally spanned the annual cyanophyte bloom of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and spatially involved three lake and four wetland sites. Spatial and temporal variation in solute benthic flux was determined by the field team, using the profilers, over an approximately 4-year period beginning 3 days after the levee breaches. The highest flux to the water column of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was detected in the newly flooded wetland, contrasting negative or insignificant DOC fluxes at adjacent lake sites. Over the multiyear study, DOC benthic fluxes dissipated in the reconnected wetlands, converging to values similar to those for established wetlands and to the adjacent lake (table 2). In contrast to DOC, benthic sources of soluble reactive phosphorus, ammonium, dissolved iron and manganese from within the reconnected wetlands were consistently elevated (that is, significant in magnitude relative to riverine and established-wetland sources) indicating a multi-year time scale for certain chemical changes after the levee breaches (table 2). Colonization of the reconnected wetlands by aquatic benthic invertebrates during the study trended toward the assemblages in established wetlands, providing further evidence of a multiyear transition of this area to permanent aquatic habitat (table 3). Both the lake and wetland benthic environments substantively contribute to macro- and micronutrients in the water column. Wetland areas undergoing restoration, and those being used for water storage, function very differently relatively to the established wetland within the Upper Klamath Lake National Wildlife Refuge, adjacent Upper Klamath Lake. Developing long-term management strategies for water quality in the Upper Klamath Basin requires recognition of the multi-year time scales associated with restoring wetlands that provide natural, seasonal ecosystem function and services.

Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Wood, Tamara M.; Parchaso, Francis; Cameron, Jason M.; Asbill, Jessica R.; Carlson, Rick A.; Fend, Steven V.

2012-01-01

191

Advances in Regionalising Flood Probabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Flood regionalisation methods are used to estimate floods of a given excedance probability, such as the 100-year flood, in\\u000a ungauged catchments, i.e. catchments, where no local streamflow data are available. They can also be used to improve flood\\u000a estimates from local data in gauged catchments. The main idea of flood regionalisation methods is to transfer flood information\\u000a from hydrologically similar

Ralf Merz

192

Monitoring Levees and Subsidence in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nearly a quarter of Californias fresh water supply flows through the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, an area comprised of tidal marshland and reclaimed land in the form of ~60 islands surrounded by 1700 km of levees. The Delta is of critical importance to Californias water supply, contains premier agricultural and recreational resources, and functions as a vital, productive estuarine ecosystem. Unfortunately, land subsidence and levee instability within the Delta pose serious challenges to maintaining the ecosystem and integrity of the water supply from the area. We have initiated a campaign to image the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta with the airborne UAVSAR L-band synthetic aperture radar instrument. The data collected monthly will be analyzed using repeat pass interferometry to monitor subsidence throughout the delta. Because the UAVSAR instrument has single-look imaging resolution of ~1 m x 2 m, we can monitor the levees and land surface at a resolution scale unattainable with satellite observations. We have begun monitoring monthly changes to the levees and measuring yearly subsidence rates throughout the area. This information is not only vital to risk management associated with maintaining the levees in the area, but also to long-term plans for the area. Ultimately, the subsidence rates derived from our data will be correlated to the hydrology, geology, and soil characteristics of the region to better understand the mechanisms driving changes in the area. This presentation will include the results from data collected over the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta during 2009.

Jones, C. E.; Bawden, G. W.; Deverel, S. J.; Dudas, J.; Galef, J.; Hensley, S.

2009-12-01

193

Alluvial Fan Flooding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report addresses a wide range of issues related to alluvial fan flooding. Chapter 1 presents an introduction to why identification of alluvial fan flooding hazards is controversial and the problems of definitions. Chapter 2 looks in more depth at fan...

1996-01-01

194

Detecting SYN Flooding Attacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a simple and robust mechanism for de- tecting SYN flooding attacks. Instead of monitoring the ongoing traffic at the front end (like firewall or proxy) or a victim server itself, we detect the SYN flooding attacks at leaf routers that con- nect end hosts to the Internet. The simplicity of our detection mechanism lies in its statelessness and

Haining Wang; Danlu Zhang; Kang G. Shin

2002-01-01

195

Discover Floods Educators Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Now available as a Download! This valuable resource helps educators teach students about both the risks and benefits of flooding through a series of engaging, hands-on activities. Acknowledging the different roles that floods play in both natural and urban communities, the book helps young people gain a global understanding of this common--and

Project WET Foundation, 2009

2009-01-01

196

Flash floods in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a brief description of the magnitude and nature of floods in Indian rivers, this paper describes the existing flood forecasting organisation in the country and the proposed plans to augment its services. The occurrence of intense, short duration rainfall during the south west monsoon period is then examined with respect to the regions of occurrence, frequency and magnitude. It

Pritam Singh; A. S. Ramanathan; V. G. Ghanekar

197

Automated determination of flood risk through fragility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change causes an increase in flood risk due to higher water levels in rivers, seas and oceans. It is crucial to understand the effect of the changing water levels on the flood risk to properly manage the effects of climate changes. Practically all existing flood risk models assume a level at which an embankment will no longer preform its water retaining function and fail. In reality, the situation is much more complex. A flood protection embankment can breach many meters before the water reaches the top of the embankment, but it can sometimes also withstand higher water tables without breaching. This paper presents a scientific method for risk assessment and -management that properly takes the strength of the embankment into account. The paper focusses on the determination of the chance of failure of the embankment, given changing water conditions due to climate change. Examples show how this tool can efficiently be used for flood risk management. Flood protection embankments can fail through many different failure mechanisms. The most obvious one is through insufficient height which causes overflow, erosion and finally breach. Other relevant failure mechanisms are, amongst others, macro instability, backwards internal erosion, suffusion and micro instability. The level at which an embankment overtops is easy to determine and therefor usually set equal to the level at which the embankment fails. Recent studies in the Netherlands show, however, that the other failure mechanisms are often dominant, depending on the subsoil conditions. Ignoring these mechanisms give a far too optimistic risk assessment and therefore, these mechanisms must be taken into account. This paper shows an automated methodology to properly represent the strength of flood protection embankments through fragility. A fragility curve is a graph in which the chance of failure of the embankment is plotted against the water level in the river. This database driven methodology uses GIS data to make a representation of the embankment and automatically determines the chances of failure for every relevant failure mechanism at every river water level. When the source database is updated, the fragility curve for the embankment can directly be updated as well to easily adapt to changes. Multiplying this fragility curve with the probability density function of the outside water level directly results in the chance of failure of the flood protection embankment. Scenario studies for different climate changes can easily be performed and be presented in a clear, visual way to the decision maker.

van der Meij, Raymond; Lopez de la Cruz, Juliana

2013-04-01

198

Production and decomposition of forest litter fall on the Apalachicola River flood plain, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Measurements of litter fall (leaves and other particulate organic material) and leaf decomposition were made on the Apalachicola River flood plain in 1979-80. Litter fall was collected monthly in five different forest types in swamp and levee areas. Leaves from 42 species of trees and other plants accounted for 58 percent of total litter fall. The remaining 42 percent was nonleaf material. Average litter fall was 800 grams per square meter per year in the flood plain. Tupelo (Nyssa), baldcypress (Taxodium), and ash (Fraxinus), all swamp-adapted trees, produce over 50 percent of the leaf fall. Common levee species such as sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) and diamond-leaf oak (Quercus laurifolia) are also major contributors to total flood-plain litter fall. Annual flooding of the river provides an important mechanism for mobilization of the litter-fall products. Leaf decomposition rates were greatly reduced in dry environments. Carbon loss was nearly linear over a 6-month period, but nitrogen and phosphorus loss was exponential and nearly complete within 1 month. (USGS)

Elder, J. F.; Cairns, D. J.

1982-01-01

199

Geophysical characterization of the Lollie Levee near Conway, Arkansas, using capacitively coupled resistivity, coring, and direct push logging  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A geophysical characterization of Lollie Levee near Conway, Arkansas, was conducted in February 2011. A capacitively coupled resistivity survey (using Geometric's OhmMapper) was completed along the top and toe of the 6.7-mile levee. Two-dimensional inversions were conducted on the geophysical data. As a quality-control measure, cores and direct push logs were taken at approximately 1-mile intervals along the levee. The capacitively coupled resistivity survey, the coring, and the direct push logs were used to characterize the geologic materials. Comparison of the cores and the direct push log data, along with published resistivity values, indicates that resistivity values of 200 Ohm-meters or greater represent relatively clean sand, with decreasing resistivity values occurring with increasing silt and clay content. The cores indicated that the levee is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of sand, silt, and clay. The capacitively coupled resistivity sections confirm that the levee is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of high and low resistivity materials and show that the composition of the levee varies spatially. The geologic materials underlying the levee vary spatially as a result of the geologic processes that deposited them. In general, the naturally deposited geologic materials underlying the levee contain a greater amount of low resistivity materials in the southern extent of the levee.

Gillip, Jonathan A.; Payne, Jason D.

2011-01-01

200

Prediction of extreme flood in August 2002 along the Upper-Danube in Hungary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Specific for summer conditions weather situation caused the flood. A cyclone reached the region of Alps, humid air and great instability of stratification produced high precipitation throughout the region in two vawes. The flood has reached historical maxima on the reach between Bratislava Budapest. This is the first flood of this magnitude, which has passed this section of the Danube without breaching the dikes, flood embankments. The peak flow rate attenuated along this section from 10 000 m3s-1 to 8600 m3s-1. Specifics of flood routing conditions are discussed. Barrages and training has changed flood routing patterns along the Austrian and joined Slovak Hungarian sections of the Danube. Increased velocity of wave propagation decreases the impact of superposition of consequent flood waves, but attenuation of flood waves is also less expressed. The most significant impact on the present flood was, that this was the first flood of this magnitude, which has passed this section of the Danube without breaching the flood embankments. Earlier extreme floods including the 1954 and 1965 floods resulted failure of the dikes and spill over of 1.5- 2 million m3 of water to the protected floodplain. This time the flood was contained within the floodberm.

Sthe, L.; Blint, G.; Szlvik, L.

2003-04-01

201

Overbank Sedimentation from the 2011 Flood along the Lower Mississippi River: Characterization and Comparison of Two Extreme Events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geomorphic effectiveness of extreme events has long been a fundamental topic within Earth sciences. The 2011 flood along the lower Mississippi River (3.2 x 10-6 km2) was an extreme event and presented an ideal opportunity to consider controls on the magnitude and pattern of floodplain sedimentation. The study reach was located between Natchez, Mississippi and St. Francisville, Louisiana, the lowermost reaches of the alluvial valley, and the same location utilized in a well documented sedimentation study from a comparable flood event in 1973. Thus, the 2011 field study provided a rare opportunity to directly compare floodplain sedimentation from two extreme events on Earth's third largest fluvial system. Although flood stage along the Lower Mississippi River is influenced by an extensive levee system the field setting is distinctive because it is not embanked by main-line levees. The field site was flooded for nearly two months, from early May to late June 2011. The flood crest exceeded long standing (> 100 yr) stage heights, including the infamous 1927, 1937, and 1973 events. The maximum discharge at Vicksburg, Mississippi, upstream of the study sites, was 65,695 m3/s, one of the larger discharge events along the Lower Mississippi River. Field work was conducted soon after flood waters receded and before bioturbation disrupted the integrity of the flood deposits. We sampled flood deposits at fifty-five locations within a range of floodplain depositional environments to quantify and qualify the sedimentary, hydrologic, and hydraulic characteristics of the flood, and to make explicit comparison with the 1973 study. The average thickness of flood deposits ranged from < 1 mm to 650 mm, but was highly variable. Although natural levees had the thickest flood deposits several reaches along natural levees had no measureable deposits, despite being inundated by ~4 m of flood water. In such cases the angle of the upstream channel relative to the downstream cutbank is suggested as a possible control on the pattern of sedimentation. Despite the magnitude and duration of the 2011 flood, the overall thickness of flood deposits was not very high and the geologic legacy of the event is likely to be unimpressive. Most sediment samples was < 10 mm in thickness, which could be due to the timing of the flood event superimposed upon an overall declining trend in suspended sediment load. The peak discharge was associated with a suspended sediment load of 727,400 tonnes/day. This is notably lower than the maximum suspended sediment load of 1,046,000 tonnes/day, which likely caused sediment exhaustion because of occurring about two months prior to inundation. The thickness of the 2011 flood deposits were about an order of magnitude less than the 1973 flood deposits (11 to 530 mm). Since the early 1900s the sediment budget of the Lower Mississippi has been fundamentally altered. Suspended sediment loads have declined by more than fifty percent, and could contribute to the overall low amount of sedimentation.

Hudson, P. H.; Heitmuller, F. T.; Kesel, R. H.

2012-04-01

202

Seasonal Flood Forecasts and Dynamic Flood Risk Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in predicting seasonal flood peaks\\/volumes conditioned on ocean, atmospheric and land surface conditions offer the scope for dynamic flood risk management. We address a deficiency of the traditional assumption that flood series are stationary, independent and identically distributed (iid). In this study, we evaluate a semi-parametric methodology based on local likelihood estimation for estimating the flood quantiles based

S. Arumugam; U. Lall

2004-01-01

203

The Var turbidite system (Ligurian Sea, northwestern Mediterranean)morphology, sediment supply, construction of turbidite levee and sediment waves: implications for hydrocarbon reservoirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Var turbidite system is a small sandy system located in the Ligurian Basin. It was deposited during the Pliocene-Quaternary in a flat-floored basin formed during the Messinian salinity crisis. The system was fed through time by the Var and Paillon canyons that connect directly to the Var and Paillon rivers. It is still active during the present sea-level highstand. Two main mechanisms are responsible for gravity-flow triggering in the Var turbidite system: (1) mass-wasting events affect mainly the upper part of the continental slope, in areas where volumes of fresh sediment delivered by rivers are highest, and result from the under-consolidation state of slope sediments and earthquakes, and (2) high-magnitude river floods resulting from melting of snow and convective rainfall during fall and spring seasons, and generating hyperpycnal turbidity currents at river mouths when the density of freshwater transporting suspended particles exceeds that of ambient seawater. Failure- and flood-induced gravity flows are involved through time in the construction of the Var Sedimentary Ridge, the prominent right-hand levee of the Var system, and sediment waves. Processes of construction of both the Var Ridge and sediment waves are closely connected. Sandy deposits are thick and abundant in the eastern (downchannel) part of the ridge. Their distribution is highly constrained by the strong difference of depositional processes across the sediment waves, potentially resulting through time in the individualization of large and interconnected sand bodies.

Migeon, Sbastien; Mulder, Thierry; Savoye, Bruno; Sage, Franoise

2006-12-01

204

Flood: Farming and Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Farmers and rivers have a close, though not always friendly, relationship with one another. Rivers can create prized farmland, but they also flood fields and the communities built alongside them. Farming practices may also contribute to an increase in the magnitude and intensity of river flooding. This video segment explains the issue of flooding as seen in the Mississippi River watershed and suggests possible solutions. The segment is four minutes thirty-eight seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

2011-03-28

205

Flood: Farming and Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Farmers and rivers have a close, though not always friendly, relationship with one another. Rivers can create prized farmland, but they also flood fields and the communities built alongside them. Farming practices may also contribute to an increase in the magnitude and intensity of river flooding. This video segment explains the issue of flooding as seen in the Mississippi River watershed and suggests possible solutions. The segment is four minutes thirty-eight seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

206

Flooding and forest succession in a modified stretch along the upper Mississippi River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This research examines the effect of a rare flood on floodplain forest regeneration in a 102-km stretch of the Mississippi River beginning 21 km above the mouth of the Ohio River. The river has been restricted by levees and navigation structures and subjected to sediment dredging to maintain a stable navigation channel. Because the bank erosion-accretion process has been slowed or eliminated, cottonwood (Populus spp.) and willow (Salix spp.) communities regenerate poorly in the modified river environment. An unusually large flood in 1993 destroyed the entire ground vegetation layer, killing 77.2% of the saplings and 32.2% of the trees. The flood created an alternative mechanism for cottonwood and willow to regenerate under canopy openings, enabling the community type composition of the present-day forest to be sustained for the next 50 years. Over time, however, the forest will likely exhibit considerable compositional fluctuation.

Yin, Yao

1998-01-01

207

Reducing New Orleans Residential Flood Risk in an Uncertain Future Using Non-Structural Risk Mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five years after Hurricane Katrina devastated the Gulf Coast, the long-term future of the City of New Orleans remains uncertain. This paper addresses one of New Orleans' most critical challenges: how to make the city more resilient and less vulnerable to future flood damages. Despite recent upgrades to the protection system surrounding the city designed to protect against floods with

J. R. Fischbach; D. Groves; D. Johnson

2010-01-01

208

Holocene flood plain soil formation in the lower Mississippi River Valley: Implications for the interpretation of alluvial paleosols  

SciTech Connect

Holocene Mississippi River flood soils representing different depositional environments and ages were sampled along three east-west transects between Vicksburg, MS and Baton Rouge, LA. Flood plain soil development is primarily controlled by episodic flood plain sedimentation and ground water table fluctuations as evidenced by relatively thick cumulative soil profiles with abundant mottles, nodules, and slickensides. Within flood plain deposits of similar age, profile, development is best expressed in moderately-drained silty and sandy soils in natural levee and point bar ridge environmental that occur within and adjacent to meander belts. Soils in natural levee and point bar ridge environments greater than 3 ka generally are acidic and have better-developed Bt horizons and brighter mottles than their younger counterparts. In addition to being acidic and brightly mottled, older back swamp soils have larger and more abundant slickensides and iron nodules. This study suggests that alluvial paleosols formed in aggradational settings may be better suited for interpreting flood plain depositional histories and paleohydrology than climate. Parameters such as solum thickness and clay and carbonate accumulations, routinely used to estimate relative time and climatic effects on soil development in Quaternary studies of stable geomorphic surfaces, may not be applicable to ancient alluvial deposits that reflect continuous sediment aggradation.

Aslan, A. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences); Autin, W.J. (Louisiana Geological Survey, Baton Rouge, LA (United States))

1992-01-01

209

Ice Age Floods Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Describes Ice Age glaciers and immense floods of glacial meltwater that swept across the Pacific Northwest (18,000-12,000 years ago and earlier), affecting the landscape from Montana to Washington and Oregon, sculpting the Columbia River Basin, and creating glacial lakes to rival the today's Great Lakes. This non-profit institute promotes scientific education about the floods, their causes and impacts. Proposes an interpretive geologic trail linking significant sites.

210

Level-I Trauma Center Effects on Return-to-Work Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Injury is the leading cause of death for persons aged 1-44 years in the United States. Injuries have a substantial economic cost. For that reason, regional systems of trauma care in which the more acutely injured patients are transported to Level-I (L-I) trauma centers (TCs) has been widely advocated. However, the cost of TC care is

Prada, Sergio I.; Salkever, David; MacKenzie, Ellen J.

2012-01-01

211

Quaternary development of channels, levees, and lobes on middle Laurentian fan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismic reflection profiles from the middle Laurentian fan show that the western fan valley has an abrupt eastward (leftward) hook at its terminus. The right-hand levee of this valley has been built across an older depositional surface in which numerous south-trending channels developed before the abrupt bend formed. This older channeled surface probably represents a complex depositional lobe deposit. Eastward

W. R. Normark; D. J. W. Piper; D. A. V. Stow

1983-01-01

212

Cultural Resources Survey of Concord, Missouri Levee Repair Item Number R-859R, Pemiscot County.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During October, 1979, a cultural resources survey was conducted by the Environmental Resource Section of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Memphis District within the direct impact zone of Concord, Missouri Levee Repair Item No. R-859R. The project includ...

C. H. Kleinhans

1980-01-01

213

Assessment of the role of slit as a safety valve in failure of levees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a narrow channel or slit due to piping just underneath the base of levees channel has been reported to be useful to withstand the increase in the head beyond critical head conditions. Also, the maximum slit length has been emphasized to be up to half of the base width. By developing a model of critical head considering

C. S. P. OJHA; V. P. SINGH; D. D. ADRIAN

2008-01-01

214

Flood resilience and uncertainty in flood risk assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood risk assessments do not normally take account of the uncertainty in assessing flood risk. There is no requirement in the EU Floods Directive to do so. But given the generally short series (and potential non-stationarity) of flood discharges, the extrapolation to smaller exceedance potentials may be highly uncertain. This means that flood risk mapping may also be highly uncertainty, with additional uncertainties introduced by the representation of flood plain and channel geometry, conveyance and infrastructure. This suggests that decisions about flood plain management should be based on exceedance probability of risk rather than the deterministic hazard maps that are common in most EU countries. Some examples are given from 2 case studies in the UK where a framework for good practice in assessing uncertainty in flood risk mapping has been produced as part of the Flood Risk Management Research Consortium and Catchment Change Network Projects. This framework provides a structure for the communication and audit of assumptions about uncertainties.

Beven, K.; Leedal, D.; Neal, J.; Bates, P.; Hunter, N.; Lamb, R.; Keef, C.

2012-04-01

215

Emotions, trust, and perceived risk: affective and cognitive routes to flood preparedness behavior.  

PubMed

Despite the prognoses of the effects of global warming (e.g., rising sea levels, increasing river discharges), few international studies have addressed how flood preparedness should be stimulated among private citizens. This article aims to predict Dutch citizens' flood preparedness intentions by testing a path model, including previous flood hazard experiences, trust in public flood protection, and flood risk perceptions (both affective and cognitive components). Data were collected through questionnaire surveys in two coastal communities (n= 169, n= 244) and in one river area community (n= 658). Causal relations were tested by means of structural equation modeling (SEM). Overall, the results indicate that both cognitive and affective mechanisms influence citizens' preparedness intentions. First, a higher level of trust reduces citizens' perceptions of flood likelihood, which in turn hampers their flood preparedness intentions (cognitive route). Second, trust also lessens the amount of dread evoked by flood risk, which in turn impedes flood preparedness intentions (affective route). Moreover, the affective route showed that levels of dread were especially influenced by citizens' negative and positive emotions related to their previous flood hazard experiences. Negative emotions most often reflected fear and powerlessness, while positive emotions most frequently reflected feelings of solidarity. The results are consistent with the affect heuristic and the historical context of Dutch flood risk management. The great challenge for flood risk management is the accommodation of both cognitive and affective mechanisms in risk communications, especially when most people lack an emotional basis stemming from previous flood hazard events. PMID:21477090

Terpstra, Teun

2011-04-07

216

Koaping River Flood Simulation due to Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Koaping River suffered huge damages from the Typhoon Morakot in 2009 and Typhoon Fanapi in 2010. Climate change will bring huge impacts to nations all over the world. Those impacts including the followings: change in biosphere, long-duration drought, large floods trigger by extreme torrential rain, spatial change in homelands, and food scarcity. The extreme weather induced by climate change is the most direct factor influencing the floods, e.g. the extreme rainfall increases discharge and inundation area, sea level and estuary water level raising induce overbank floods, and land-use abuse and land-slides trigger high concentration of sediment discharge and river bed aggradations. This study aims at the settings of hydrological scenarios due to climate change, evaluation of hydraulic structures (e.g. levees), vulnerability and risk analysis, and adaption strategy and practices. The study area is focused on Kaoping River Basin. First, the hydrological scenarios due to climate change are set. Secondly, based on those scenarios, the hydraulic structures are evaluated. Thirdly, the vulnerability and risk analysis are performed. Last, adaption strategy and action plans are proposed by referencing to actions taken by the Netherlands, Japan, Korea, and USA for improving the capacity of the hydraulic structures of Kaoping River.

Lin, Y. J.; Ma, K. C.; Tan, Y. C.; Chang, T. J.; Lai, J. S.

2012-04-01

217

Governance of flood risk management in a time of climate change: the cases of Jakarta and Rotterdam  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than half the world's population lives in cities, and over two-thirds of the world's cities will be exposed to flooding within the next 30 years due to factors including climate change, land subsidence, sea level rise, and socio-economic development. Traditionally, flood management has concentrated on providing protection against floods using technical measures, but there is currently an international shift

P. J. Ward; W. P. Pauw; M. W. van Buuren; M. A. Marfai

2012-01-01

218

A comparison of large 18th-century floods on Danube: Vienna - Bratislava - Budapest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The documentation of historic floods can help in better understanding of factors that might cause and contribute to large and extreme flood events. In particular, the analysis of historic floods provides information about flood seasonality, its changes and anthropogenic impacts on river flood regime which in some cases strongly influenced flood behaviour. The main objective of the present contribution is to document large and medium size flood events on Danube in Vienna, Bratislava and Budapest in the 18th century. In the present study, based on contemporary documentary evidence, for each of the three towns a five-scaled flood index series is developed to describe the magnitude and intensity of flood events. According to this classification, the 100-year flood event was characterised by the index value 5, while great destructive floods - depending on their extension, destructivity and further impacts - received the values 4 and 3, respectively. Less significant but still harmful flood events were classified as No. 2, and floods without further specification remained in the lowest category (No. 1). Beside classification issues, seasonality and flood frequency differences between the three towns are as well discussed. The results indicate that a greater number of flood events took place in the last decades of the century, but only a few flood events of the same magnitude are documented simultaneously in all three towns. And whereas in 1775 no winter flood event was reported in Vienna, an important ice jam flood was documented in Bratislava, and a catastrophic ice jam flood event, greatest of the century, occurred in Budapest. In 1787 autumn the greatest flood event of the century occurred in Vienna, while hardly any flood waves were observed at Budapest. While in Vienna, summer (and partly autumn) floods had great importance, in Budapest a large number of ice jam floods were documented. In some cases the differences are likely caused by different hydrometeorological and morphological conditions, but the importance of human impact (e.g. different types and levels of flood protection in the towns, large-scale changes of land use in the catchment area) have to be as well emphasised.

Kiss, Andrea; Parajka, Juraj

2013-04-01

219

FLOOD MITIGATION STRATEGIES AT WATERSHED SCALE THROUGH DISPERSED STRUCTURAL MEASURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flood management has to undergo changes in order to meet the present societal needs. At watershed scale, zones of human activities are found dispersed and logically any protection measure needs to be oriented for the entire area. Retention of excess flow volume locally and consequent discharge into the watercourse is a good management plan for a holistic protection. Structural mitigation

S. Chennu; E. Leblois; C. Poulard

220

Uncertainty and sensitivity assessment of flood risk assessments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floods are one of the most frequent and costly natural disasters. In order to protect human lifes and valuable assets from the effect of floods many defensive structures have been build. Despite these efforts economic losses due to catastrophic flood events have, however, risen substantially during the past couple of decades because of continuing economic developments in flood prone areas. On top of that, climate change is expected to affect the magnitude and frequency of flood events. Because these ongoing trends are expected to continue, a transition can be observed in various countries to move from a protective flood management approach to a more risk based flood management approach. In a risk based approach, flood risk assessments play an important role in supporting decision making. Most flood risk assessments assess flood risks in monetary terms (damage estimated for specific situations or expected annual damage) in order to feed cost-benefit analysis of management measures. Such flood risk assessments contain, however, considerable uncertainties. This is the result from uncertainties in the many different input parameters propagating through the risk assessment and accumulating in the final estimate. Whilst common in some other disciplines, as with integrated assessment models, full uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of flood risk assessments are not so common. Various studies have addressed uncertainties regarding flood risk assessments, but have mainly focussed on the hydrological conditions. However, uncertainties in other components of the risk assessment, like the relation between water depth and monetary damage, can be substantial as well. This research therefore tries to assess the uncertainties of all components of monetary flood risk assessments, using a Monte Carlo based approach. Furthermore, the total uncertainty will also be attributed to the different input parameters using a variance based sensitivity analysis. Assessing and visualizing the uncertainties of the final risk estimate will be helpful to decision makers to make better informed decisions and attributing this uncertainty to the input parameters helps to identify which parameters are most important when it comes to uncertainty in the final estimate and should therefore deserve additional attention in further research.

de Moel, H.; Aerts, J. C.

2009-12-01

221

The August 2002 flood in the Czech Republic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The floods in August 2002 in the Czech Republic were caused by very intensive and large-scale rainfall that hit mainly the southern and western part of the country. There were two following rainfall events, the first on the {6th} and {7th} August and the second on the {11th} and {12th} August. The total sum of areal rainfall was 150 to 200 mm; in mountain areas more than 250 mm and in some localities even more than 300 mm. Such large-scale rainfall amounts are extraordinary for Czech conditions. The first wave of rainfall caused floods in the majority of rivers. There were 10 to 20 year floods, exceptionally 100-year (and more) floods on rivers in the southern and western part of the country. When the second wave of rainfall followed the first one, rivers were already full of water and soils were saturated: therefore the runoff response was rapid and massive. Water levels in all rivers rose very quickly again and they reached their historical maxima in many places. Peak discharges in most streams reached or exceeded a 100-year flood and in some rivers a 1000-year flood. The capital of the Czech Republic, Prague, is situated at the confluence of two rivers, the Moldau and the Berounka (left hand tributary of the Moldau). The flow in the Moldau River can be partly controlled by operation of many reservoirs in the upstream reaches of the river (the Moldau cascade), the flow in Berounka is not influenced. During the first flood event the major part of the wave was retained by the reservoirs and the discharge in Prague was reduced. During the second event the inflow into the reservoir system was so high that reservoirs were filled before the peak occurred. The peak flow from the Berounka River coincided with the maximum outflow from the Moldau. As a consequence, on 14th August the peak discharge in Prague was about 5200 {m3/s} (the long-term mean discharge is 150 {m3/s}) and is preliminarily judged to be a 500-year flood. The influence of the Moldau cascade on the course of the flood has been analysed. It is clear that the cascade cannot protect Prague during such an extreme flood. Below the confluence of the Moldau and Elbe rivers the flood wave propagated in the Elbe and flooded a large area along the river. Therefore the peak discharge decreased a little. The flood caused enormous damage and losses in all regions including the towns of Budweis, Pilsen and Prague. About 100 towns and villages were completely flooded and 350 were partly flooded. 1.6 million people were affected by the flood, 220 thousand were moved from their houses, 15 people died. The total losses are assessed to be 2 to 3 billion Euro. The Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) is a governmental institution responsible for monitoring and forecasting the weather and hydrological conditions in the Czech Republic. During the flood in August 2002, the CHMI was continually preparing information, forecasts and reports for decision-making bodies, the public and the rescue system. Overall, the flood protection and rescue system worked very well and many protective measures were performed during the flood, including the evacuation of people. In general, the system was more effective than it was during the previous catastrophic flood in 1997 in the Oder basin. The experience from the 1997 event and the adoption of new laws on crisis management and the integrated rescue system had a positive influence the response of people.

Sercl, P.; Stehlik, J.

2003-04-01

222

The Role of Public Policy in Shaping 21st Century Approaches to Flooding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last 100 years, the approach taken by water resource professionals to combat periodic riverine flooding shifted from efforts to control floods through massive engineering projects, through a mix of structural projects and nonstructural activities that brought about a reduction in damages, to a 21st-century approach of managing the risk of floods. The final shift in approach was generated by the failure of engineering projects to solve the flood challenge and public policies that dictated that activity in the floodplain would be based on goals and objectives that reflected the changing values of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. Until the mid part of the 20th century, efforts to control devastating floods throughout the United States were focused on engineered flood control. Major flood events worldwide, coupled with the disastrous Great Flood of 1993 on the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers moved much of the flood community to begin close examination of the flood damage reduction approach that had come into use. Taking a lead from the financial and insurance communities, which for centuries had based many of their decisions on the relative risk of the potential outcomes of their decisions, the flood community began to shift slowly to flood risk management as a new approach to dealing with flooding. Instead of focusing on elimination of flooding or the protection of communities from a specified flood event, the flood risk management paradigm acknowledges that absolute protection from flooding is not possible and that, as a result, there will always be a residual risk to those occupying the floodplain. The risk paradigm also introduced to the engineering community the concept of uncertainty and the necessity to base decisions on incomplete information. Changes in societal values expanded the considerations involved in dealing with floods to include attention to the environment, public safety, and social equity. As a result, flood risk management has wrapped its efforts not only around risk-based engineering but also around achievement of the non-engineering objectives demanded by society. Flood-related projects developed since 2007 are substantially different than those prior to Hurricane Katrina and the structure of the work force of the Corps of Engineers has been modified to new disciplines. The education of 21st-century engineers is becoming, by necessity, different than the education of earlier engineers. The previous strong focus on technical competence is being supplemented by the addition of knowledge acquisition in fields beyond engineering. As the nation moves to deal with increasing flood losses, a variety of public policy objectives are substantially modifying what was once an engineering-only approach to dealing with flooding.

Galloway, G. E.

2011-12-01

223

The August 2002 flood in Salzburg / Austria experience gained and lessons learned from the ``Flood of the century''?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the {12th} of August 2002 a low pressure system moved slowly from northern Italy towards Slovakia. It continuously carried moist air from the Mediterranean towards the northern rim of the Alps with the effect of wide-spread heavy rainfall in Salzburg and other parts of Austria. Daily precipitation amounts of 100 - 160 mm, in some parts even more, as well as rainfall intensities of 5 - 10 mm/h , combined with well saturated soils lead to a rare flood with a return period of 100 years and more. This rare hydrological event not only caused a national catastrophe with damages of several Billion Euro, but also endangered more than 200,000 people, and even killed some. As floods are dangerous, life-threatening, destructive, and certainly amongst the most frequent and costly natural disasters in terms of human hardship as well as economic loss, a great effort, therefore, has to be made to protect people against negative impacts of floods. In order to achieve this objective, various regulations in land use planning (flood maps), constructive measurements (river regulations and technical constructions) as well as flood warning systems, which are not suitable to prevent big floods, but offer in-time-warnings to minimize the loss of human lives, are used in Austria. HYDRIS (Hydrological Information System for flood forecasting in Salzburg), a modular river basin model, developed at Technical University Vienna and operated by the Hydrological Service of Salzburg, was used during the August 2002 flood providing accurate 3 to 4 hour forecasts within 3 % of the real peak discharge of the fast flowing River Salzach. The August {12^th}} flood was in many ways an exceptional, very fast happening event which took many people by surprise. At the gauging station Salzburg / Salzach (catchment area 4425 {km^2}) it took only eighteen hours from mean annual discharge (178 {m3/s}) to the hundred years flood (2300 {m3/s}). The August flood made clear, that there is a strong need for longer lead times in Salzburg's flood forecasts. Methods to incorporate precipitation forecasts, provided by the Met Office, as well as observations of actual soil conditions, therefore, have to be developed and should enable hydrologists to predict possible scenarios and impacts of floods, forecasted for the next 24 hours. As a further consequence of the August 2002 flood, building regulations, e.g. the use of oil tanks in flood prone areas, have to be checked and were necessary adapted. It is also necessary to make people, who already live in flood prone areas, aware of the dangers of floods. They also need to know about the limits of flood protection measurements and about what happens, if flood protection design values are exceeded. Alarm plans, dissemination of information by using modern communication systems (Internet) as well as communication failure in peak times and co-ordination of rescue units are also a subject to be looked at carefully. The above mentioned measurements are amongst others of a 10 point program, developed by the Government of the Province of Salzburg and at present checked with regards to feasibility. As it is to be expected, that the August 2002 flood was not the last rare one of this century, experience gained should be valuably for the next event.

Wiesenegger, H.

2003-04-01

224

Wetland hydrology and tree distribution of the Apalachicola River flood plain, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Apalachicola River is part of a 50,800-square-kilometer drainage basin in northwest Florida, Alabama, and Georgia. The river is formed by the confluence of the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers at Jim Woodruff Dam and flows 171 kilometers to Apalachicola Bay in the Gulf of Mexico. Its flood plain supports 450 square kilometers of bottom-land hardwood and tupelco-cypress forests. The most common trees, constituting 62 percent of the total basal area, were five wet-site species; water tupelo, Ogeeche tupelo, baldcypress, Carolina ash, and swamp tupelo. Other common species were sweetgum, overcup oak, planertree, green ash, water hickory, sugarberry, and diamond-leaf oak. Five forest types were defined based on species predominance by basal area. Biomass increased downstream and was greatest in forests growing on permanently saturated soils. Water and tree relations varied with river location because range in water-level fluctuation and topographic relief in the flood plain diminished downstream. Heights of natural riverbank levees and size and distribution of breaks in levees had a major controlling effect on flood-plain hydrology. Depth of water, duration of inundation and saturation, and river location, but not water velocity, were very highly correlated with forest types. (USGS)

Leitman, H. M.; Sohm, J. E.; Franklin, M. A.

1982-01-01

225

Flood-resilient waterfront development in New York City: bridging flood insurance, building codes, and flood zoning.  

PubMed

Waterfronts are attractive areas for many-often competing-uses in New York City (NYC) and are seen as multifunctional locations for economic, environmental, and social activities on the interface between land and water. The NYC waterfront plays a crucial role as a first line of flood defense and in managing flood risk and protecting the city from future climate change and sea-level rise. The city of New York has embarked on a climate adaptation program (PlaNYC) outlining the policies needed to anticipate the impacts of climate change. As part of this policy, the Department of City Planning has recently prepared Vision 2020: New York City Comprehensive Waterfront Plan for the over 500 miles of NYC waterfront (NYC-DCP, 2011). An integral part of the vision is to improve resilience to climate change and sea-level rise. This study seeks to provide guidance for advancing the goals of NYC Vision 2020 by assessing how flood insurance, flood zoning, and building code policies can contribute to waterfront development that is more resilient to climate change. PMID:21692807

Aerts, Jeroen C J H; Botzen, W J Wouter

2011-06-01

226

Flood Plain Management Information Report, Ohio.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Development of Flood Plains; Why Flood Plain Management, What is Good Flood Plain Management; Sample Flood Plain Regulations; Responsibility of State, County, and Local Governments; What Information is Available; What Local Action can be Taken b...

1973-01-01

227

78 FR 21143 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1307] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-04-09

228

78 FR 28891 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1312] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-05-16

229

78 FR 43906 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1330] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-07-22

230

78 FR 48888 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1344] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-08-12

231

77 FR 29678 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1251] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2012-05-18

232

78 FR 14584 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1296] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-03-06

233

77 FR 46104 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket ID FEMA-2012-0003] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2012-08-02

234

77 FR 27076 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1254] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2012-05-08

235

77 FR 76501 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1282] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2012-12-28

236

78 FR 43910 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1339] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-07-22

237

77 FR 44650 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1259] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2012-07-30

238

77 FR 44651 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1261] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2012-07-30

239

78 FR 20343 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1304] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-04-04

240

7 CFR 1788.3 - Flood insurance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flood insurance. 1788.3 Section 1788...Borrower Insurance Requirements § 1788.3 Flood insurance. (a) Borrowers shall purchase and maintain flood insurance for buildings in flood...

2013-01-01

241

78 FR 36215 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1321] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-06-17

242

77 FR 58562 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1267] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2012-09-21

243

78 FR 32679 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1309] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-05-31

244

77 FR 55856 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1266] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2012-09-11

245

78 FR 49277 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1345] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-08-13

246

78 FR 36222 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1326] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-06-17

247

77 FR 18844 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1236] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2012-03-28

248

78 FR 57646 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1343] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-09-19

249

78 FR 48701 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1340] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-08-09

250

Rapid flood loss estimation for large scale floods in Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid evaluations of flood events are needed for efficient responses both in emergency management and financial appraisal. Beyond that, closely monitoring and documenting the formation and development of flood events and their impacts allows for an improved understanding and in depth analyses of the interplay between meteorological, hydrological, hydraulic and societal causes leading to flood damage. This contribution focuses on the development of a methodology for the rapid assessment of flood events. In the first place, the focus is on the prediction of damage to residential buildings caused by large scale floods in Germany. For this purpose an operational flood event analysis system is developed. This system has basic spatial thematic data available and supports data capturing about the current flood situation. This includes the retrieval of online gauge data and the integration of remote sensing data. Further, it provides functionalities to evaluate the current flood situation, to assess the hazard extent and intensity and to estimate the current flood impact using the flood loss estimation model FLEMOps+r. The operation of the flood event analysis system will be demonstrated for the past flood event from January 2011 with a focus on the Elbe/Saale region. On this grounds, further requirements and potential for improving the information basis as for instance by including hydrological and /or hydraulic model results as well as information from social sensors will be discussed.

Schrter, Kai; Kreibich, Heidi; Merz, Bruno

2013-04-01

251

Effect of the Three Gorges Dam Project on flood control in the Dongting Lake area, China, in a 1998-type flood  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the protective effect of the Three Gorges Dam Project (TGP) against flooding in the middle region of the Changjiang River basin, we applied an integrated watershed hydrological model using gauged daily precipitation data for 1998, when the second largest flood of the last century occurred in the basin. From the results simulated by applying the daily average discharge

Seiji Hayashi; Shogo Murakami; Kai-Qin Xu; Masataka Watanabe

2008-01-01

252

Ground-water flow beneath levee 35A from conservation area 2B, Broward County, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Conservation Area 2B is an area of recharge for the surficial aquifer system in Broward County. Water stored in the conservation area provides the hydraulic potential for downward flow to the high permeability zone of the Biscayne aquifer. A 5.64 ft head differential (average for the period of record) between water levels in Conservation Area 2B and water levels in the adjacent levee 35A borrow canal causes water to leak into the canal at an average rate of about 0.0022 cu ft per sec per lineal foot of canal and accounts for a loss of 0.013 foot per day of surface water from Conservation Area 2B. Amounts of canal leakage and underflow are constantly changing and are dependent upon the head differential between Conservation Area 2B and the levee 35A borrow canal. (Author 's abstract)

Swayze, L. J.

1988-01-01

253

Effects of rating-curve uncertainty on probabilistic flood mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comprehensive flood risk assessment studies should quantify the global uncertainty in flood hazard estimation, for instance by mapping inundation extents together with their confidence intervals. This appears of particular importance in case of flood hazard assessments along dike-protected reaches where the possibility of occurrence of dike failures may considerably enhance the uncertainty. We present a methodology to derive probabilistic flood maps in dike-protected flood prone areas, where several sources of uncertainty are taken into account. In particular, this paper focuses on a 50 km reach of River Po (Italy) and three major sources of uncertainty in hydraulic modelling and flood mapping: uncertainties in the (i) upstream and (ii) downstream boundary conditions, and (iii) uncertainties in dike failures. Uncertainties in the definition of upstream boundary conditions (i.e. design-hydrographs) are assessed by applying different bivariate copula families to model the frequency regime of flood peaks and volumes. Uncertainties in the definition of downstream boundary conditions are characterised by associating the rating-curve used as downstream boundary condition with confidence intervals which reflect discharge measurements errors and interpolation errors. The effects of uncertainties in boundary conditions and randomness of dike failures are assessed by means of the Inundation Hazard Assessment Model (IHAM), a recently proposed hybrid probabilistic-deterministic model that considers three different failure mechanisms: overtopping, piping and micro-instability due to seepage. The results of the study show that the IHAM-based analysis enables probabilistic flood hazard mapping and provides decision makers with a fundamental piece of information for devising and implementing flood risk mitigation strategies in the presence of various sources of uncertainty.

Domeneghetti, A.; Vorogushyn, S.; Castellarin, A.; Merz, B.; Brath, A.

2012-08-01

254

Quaternary development of channels, levees, and lobes on middle Laurentian fan  

SciTech Connect

Seismic reflection profiles from the middle Laurentian fan show that the western fan valley has an abrupt eastward (leftward) hook at its terminus. The right-hand levee of this valley has been built across an older depositional surface in which numerous south-trending channels developed before the abrupt bend formed. This older channeled surface probably represents a complex depositional lobe deposit. Eastward deflection of turbidity-current flow occurred after debris-flow or slide deposits partly obstructed the valley near its termination or after aggradation of the lobe deposits. This deflection produced an abrupt change in the valley trend. Through time, the eastward-growing part of the levee has migrated northward toward the axis of the channel; this northward migration confines turbidity-current flow against the levee of another valley immediately upfan. This study documents progradation of muddy facies over sandy lobes thus providing conditions for an effective seal for any hydrocarbons accumulated in the lobe sands. Updip migration of hydrocarbons through valley-fill sands that contiguous with the lobes could be blocked locally by thick debris-flow units or by fine-grained turbidite fill in abandoned channels.

Normark, W.R.; Piper, D.J.W.; Stow, D.A.

1983-09-01

255

Quaternary development of channels, levees, and lobes on middle Laurentian fan  

SciTech Connect

Seismic reflection profiles from the middle Laurentian fan show that the western fan valley has an abrupt eastward (leftward) hook at its terminus. The right-hand levee of this valley has been built across an older depositional surface in which numerous south-trending channels developed before the abrupt bend formed. This older channeled surface probably represents a complex depositional lobe deposit. Eastward deflection of turbidity-current flow occurred after debris-flow or slide deposits partly obstructed the valley near its termination or after aggradation of the lobe deposits. This deflection producted an abrupt change in the valley trend. Through time, the eastward-growing part of the levee has migrated northward toward the axis of the channel; this northward migration confines turbidity-current flow against the levee of another valley immediately upfan. This study documents progradation of muddy facies over sandy lobes thus providing conditions for an effective seal for any hydrocarbons accumulated in the lobe sands. Updip migration of hydrocarbons through valley-fill sands that are contiguous with the lobes could be blocked locally by thick debris-flow units or by fine-grained turbidite fill in abandoned channels.

Normark, W.R.; Piper, D.J.W.; Stow, D.A.V.

1983-09-01

256

Fault tree analysis for urban flooding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional methods to evaluate flood risk mostly focus on storm events as the main cause of flooding. Fault tree analysis is a technique that is able to model all potential causes of flooding and to quantify both the overall probability of flooding and the contributions of all causes of flooding to the overall flood probability. This paper gives the results

J. A. E. Ten Veldhuis; F. H. L. R. Clemens

2008-01-01

257

Repairing Your Flooded Home.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Step 1: Take Care of Yourself First; Step 2: Give Your Home First Aid; Step 3: Get Organized; Step 4: Dry Out Your Home; Step 5: Restore the Utilities; Step 6: Clean Up; Step 7: Check on Financial Assistance: Step 8: Rebuild and Flood proof; and...

2003-01-01

258

After the Flood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When floodwater swept through the McVities biscuit factory in Carlisle in January 2005 few were confident that it would reopen. The factory, in the Caldewgate area of the city, was one of the first casualties of the flood, as water, nine feet deep in places, coursed trough the food preparation areas, destroying equipment and covering everything in

Stanistreet, Paul

2007-01-01

259

STEAMBOAT CREEK FLOOD STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will present the development, analy- sis, calibration, and results of a comprehensive hydrologic and hydraulic study performed for the Steamboat Creek watershed, located in Reno, Nevada. The purpose of the study was to establish accurate Base Flood Elevations (BFEs) in support of a number of residential developments proposed along Steamboat Creek. There had been several studies performed over

Carla Muscarella; Todd Cochran

2007-01-01

260

After the Flood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When floodwater swept through the McVities biscuit factory in Carlisle in January 2005 few were confident that it would reopen. The factory, in the Caldewgate area of the city, was one of the first casualties of the flood, as water, nine feet deep in places, coursed trough the food preparation areas, destroying equipment and covering everything

Stanistreet, Paul

2007-01-01

261

Hydrologic Flood Routing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses a short classroom-based BASIC program which routes stream flow through a system of channels and reservoirs. The program is suitable for analyses of open channel conveyance systems, flood detention reservoirs, and combinations of the two. (Author/JN)|

Heggen, Richard J.

1982-01-01

262

Defending P2Ps from Overlay Flooding-based DDoS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flooding-based search mechanism is often used in un- structured P2P systems. Although a flooding-based search mechanism is simple and easy to implement, it is vulnerable to overlay distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks. Most pre- vious security techniques protect networks from network-layer DDoS attacks, but cannot be applied to overlay DDoS attacks. Overlay flooding-based DDoS attacks can be more damaging in

Yunhao Liu; Xiaomei Liu; Chen Wang; Li Xiao

2007-01-01

263

Flood data for the Sacramento River and Butte Basin, Sacramento Valley, California, 1980-90  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Floodflows and peak states of floods were measured and channel cross sections were surveyed at sites along the Sacramento River and in Butte Basin, Sacramento Valley, California, during 1980-90 to document magnitudes of flooding and channel changes. The study reach extends from rivermile 200 near Hamilton City to rivermile 134 near Meridian. Data were collected for each flood at about 70 sites that include streamf-flow gages, crest-stage gages, bridges and road overflows on State Highway 162 east of Butte City, and locations of historical high- water marks. Six cross sections of the river between rivermiles 193.7 near Big Chico Creek and 183.3 near Ordbend were surveyed annually during calendar years 1981-84, and 1986-90. Floodflows (peak flow 157,000 cubic feet per second) almost equaled the design flow capacity of the river at Butte City on March 2, 1983, when the peak stage of 93.0 feet was 5 feet below the top of the levee. This was the largest flood recorded at Butte City during 1980- 90. The most recent flood occurred February 18-19, 1986, when the peak stage in the river at Butte City was 92.0 feet and the peak flow was 145,000 cubic feet per second.

Harmon, Jerry G.

1994-01-01

264

Flood early warning along the East Coast of Scotland and the Storm of December 2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood warning is at the heart of improved approaches to flood risk management in Scotland. The Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) is committed to reducing the impact of coastal flooding through the provision of reliable and timely flood warnings. They have specifically set out a programme of enhancing coastal flood forecasting through modelling and improved understanding of coastal flooding processes and improved approaches to wind and wave forecasting in coastal and tidal waters. In 2011, SEPA commissioned a project to develop a flood forecasting and warning system for the Firths of Forth and Tay along Scotland's North East coast. The new approach to flood forecasting has just been implemented into the Flood Early Warning System (FEWS) (Cranston and Tavendale, 2012) to contribute to the real-time flood forecasting and warning service from November 2012. The new system enables the prediction of coastal and tidal flooding and allows SEPA to warn people about potential flooding, using the latest advances in coastal modelling. The approach to the forecasting system includes: the transformation of tidal surge forecasts from Leith to 28 flood warning sites along the coast and inside the Firths of Forth and Tay; the transformation of offshore wave forecasts to inshore locations including the Firths of Forth and Tay; and the transformation of inshore wave forecasts to mean wave overtopping forecasts at six key communities at risk. In December 2012, some communities along the east coast of Scotland experienced their most severe storm damage since the Great 1953 Storm. This paper will discuss how the flood forecasting system was developed and how the system was utilised in real time during the recent storm. References Cranston, M. D. and Tavendale, A. C. W. (2012) Advances in operational flood forecasting in Scotland. Proceedings of the ICE - Water Management, 165, 2, 79-87.

Cranston, Michael; Hu, Keming

2013-04-01

265

Modelling muddy floods in urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Muddy floods are sediment loaded runoff from agricultural land. The related flooding and mud depositions become a major problem when occuring in settling areas to cover streets, private properties, industrial areas etc. Beside of the psychological strain for the affected residents the costs for mud removal are a burden that has to be considered. Up to now, the threat of muddy floods has poorly been considered in the planing processes of settling or industrial areas. This is because there is no adequate tool to predict the exact places where the mud is transported and where it might be deposited during flash floods. At present the structures of settlements have not been considered in digital elevation models (DEM) wich are used for erosion and deposition modelling. As these structures notably influence surface runoff, it is necessary to develop a method that integrates the elements of settlements into the DEM. We use GIS to alter DEMs with informations about settlement structures (buildings, streets, sidewalks, ditches, walls etc.) and also with information about planed constructions. This altered DEM will than be applied in an event-based soil erosion model (Erosion 3D) that is able to predict both runoff and transported sediment. The aim of this study is to find out runoff and deposition patterns in settlements in case of flash floods, but also to test the impact of changes in the anthropogenic surface due to new constructions. Such a tool would be useful in the planning process of new settlements or industrial areas or to evaluate possible protection measures.

Arvalo, S. A.; Schmidt, J.

2012-04-01

266

Response of extreme floods in the southwestern United States to climatic variations in the late Holocene  

Microsoft Academic Search

A regional synthesis of paleoflood chronologies on rivers in Arizona and southern Utah reveals that the largest floods over the last 5000 years cluster into distinct time periods that are related to regional and global climatic fluctuations. The flood chronologies were constructed using fine-grained slackwater deposits that accumulate in protected areas along the margins of bedrock canyons and selectively preserve

Lisa L. Ely

1997-01-01

267

Simulations of the New Orleans 17th Street Canal breach flood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The City of New Orleans is surrounded by an intricate network of floodwalls and dikes built to protect it from flooding from the Mississippi River and Lake Pontchartrain. In 2005, following Hurricane Katrina, New Orleans experienced one of the most devastating urban floods in recent history caused by several dike breaches. This work presents an idealized case study of a

Sylvie Van Emelen; Sandra Soares-Frazo; Cyrus K. Riahi-Nezhad; M. Hanif Chaudhry; Jasim Imran; Yves Zech

2012-01-01

268

13 CFR 120.172 - Flood-plain and wetlands management.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Flood-plain and wetlands management. 120.172 Section 120...Orders § 120.172 Flood-plain and wetlands management. (a) All loans must conform...117) and 11990, Protection of Wetlands (3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p....

2013-01-01

269

The policy and science supporting flash flood forecasting in Scotland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2012, the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) published its Flood Warning Strategy. The strategy aims to ensure that emerging science is at the heart of supporting its strategic aim of reducing the impact of river flooding through the provision of reliable and timely flood warnings and allowing Scotland's flood warning authority to develop forecasting approaches in areas not previously considered. One specific area of agreed commitment is in the development of methods for forecasting in rapid response or flashy catchments. Previous policies have stated that flood warning provision would not be possible without adequate hydrological response time (greater than three hours). The particular challenge with meeting this new aim is on the reliance of increasingly uncertain flooding predictions at the shorter timescale against a more cautious and traditional approach to flood warning which relies on hydrological observations and real time verification of forecasts. This therefore places increasing demands on developing hydrometeorological forecasting capabilities. This paper will present on some scientific developments supporting the latest policy. In particular on Grid-2-Grid, a distributed hydrological model, which has been in operation across Scotland for over a year (Cranston, et al., 2012) and on a specific assessment of its capabilities using high resolution and ensemble rainfall forecasts. The paper will focus on Comrie, a community in Scotland that has been devastated twice during 2012 by flash flooding and considers the various challenges in meeting this strategic aim. References Cranston, M., Maxey, R., Tavendale, A., Buchanan, P., Motion, A., Moore, R. M., Cole, S., Robson, A. and Minett, A. (2012) Countrywide flood forecasting in Scotland: challenges for hydrometeorological uncertainty and prediction. Weather Radar and Hydrology (Proceedings of a symposium held in Exeter, UK, April 2011), IAHS Publ. 351, 2012)

Cranston, Michael; Maxey, Richard; Speight, Linda; Tavendale, Amy; Cole, Steven; Robson, Alice; Moore, Robert

2013-04-01

270

Surfactant flooding system  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for modifying a sulfonate surfactant flooding system and recovering hydrocarbons from an underground formation. The system comprises one or more sulfonate surfactant slugs and a following polymer drive fluid to be injected into an underground hydrocarbon formation to permit the use of increased salinity in the polymer drive fluid without a substantial decrease in recovery efficiency. The method comprises: adding about 0.05% to about 1.0% by weight of a divalent metal cation to the one or more surfactant slugs of the surfactant flooding system to give a total concentration of about 0.1% to about 1.0% by weight of divalent metal cations and injecting the one or more surfactant slugs into the formation; and adding about 0.1% to about 1.5% by weight of a solubilizer compound to the polymer drive fluid and injecting the polymer drive fluid into the formation and recovering hydrocarbons from the formation.

Maddox, J. Jr.

1987-05-26

271

Flooding in Southeast Texas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Southeast of San Antonio, Texas, rivers that were barely discernible in satellite imagery acquired in late June 2002 by Terra MODIS stand out clearly this Aqua MODIS image from July 24, 2002. Heavy rains during the first week of July brought as much as 2 feet of rain to some places in southeastern Texas, resulting in massive flooding of three major river systems along the Gulf of Mexico. Please note that this story is in relation to the Before the Flooding in Southeast Texas story and are match-framed for dissolves in post production. To visit the relating story, please click on the following link: (http:--svs.gsfc.nasa.gov-vis-a000000-a002500-a002501-index.html).

Rhodes, Greg; Herring, David

2002-08-15

272

Quick mapping of flood-prone areas in plain terrain using GIS analysis: applications for flood management plans over large areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood management plans, as required under the provisions of the "Flood Directive" 2007/60/EC, ground on the mapping of flood-prone areas. When dealing with plain terrains, inundation modeling using bi-dimensional models may entail considerable efforts both in terms of data collection and processing, and of hydraulic computation. The resolution of numerical models may be limited if working on large areas, or conversely a model can tackle only relatively limited areas with a high resolution. On the other hand, a dynamic simulation of overland floods may be necessary for certain applications, but may be beyond the practical requirements of a flood management plan, for which it may be sufficient to identify the general characteristics of flow that drive potential risks, such as the type of flooding (slow or with significant dynamic component) and an indication of depth and velocity of flow. In this contribution we present criteria for the classification of flooding type and for the mapping of first-approximation depth and velocity fields in case of floods, and we illustrate a few applications of simple GIS analyses entailing the use of hydrologic functions and mathematical morphology, that can be implemented in most GIS packages and can be used for quick mapping of flood hazards on plain terrain. In this way, no dynamic model implementation is required and computing time is irrelevant even at high resolution as allowed e.g. by LiDAR terrain models. These applications refer to contexts in Italy including the Emilia Romagna regional basins flood management plan, the Province of Ravenna civil protection plan, hydraulic hazards on Northern Adriatic coastal areas and the assessment of hazards for a windfarm to be located in a flood-prone area in Puglia, Southern Italy. We discuss how the approach can be generally applied in Europe with relatively limited and/or uncertain information, within the framework of the Floods Directive in support of flood hazards for subsequent planning and management of response.

Pistocchi, A.; Mazzoli, P.; Bagli, S.

2012-04-01

273

Flood inundation modeling using MIKE FLOOD and remote sensing data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coupled 1D-2D hydrodynamic model, MIKE FLOOD was used to simulate the flood inundation extent and flooding depth in the\\u000a delta region of Mahanadi River basin in India. Initially, the 1D model MIKE 11 was calibrated using river water level and\\u000a discharge data of various gauging sites for the monsoon period (June to October) of the year 2002. Subsequently, the

S. Patro; C. Chatterjee; S. Mohanty; R. Singh; N. S. Raghuwanshi

2009-01-01

274

Public perception of flood risks, flood forecasting and mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multidisciplinary and integrated approach to the flood mitigation decision making process should provide the best response of society in a flood hazard situation including preparation works and post hazard mitigation. In Slovenia, there is a great lack of data on social aspects and public response to flood mitigation measures and information management. In this paper, two studies of flood perception in the Slovenian town Celje are represented. During its history, Celje was often exposed to floods, the most recent serious floods being in 1990 and in 1998, with a hundred and fifty return period and more than ten year return period, respectively. Two surveys were conducted in 1997 and 2003, with 157 participants from different areas of the town in the first, and 208 in the second study, aiming at finding the general attitude toward the floods. The surveys revealed that floods present a serious threat in the eyes of the inhabitants, and that the perception of threat depends, to a certain degree, on the place of residence. The surveys also highlighted, among the other measures, solidarity and the importance of insurance against floods.

Brilly, M.; Polic, M.

2005-04-01

275

Ecological and Economic Analysis of Watershed Protection in Eastern Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Watershed protection is one of the many goods and services provided by the world's fast disappearing tropical forests. Among the variety of watershed protection benefits, flood damage alleviation is crucial, particularly in upland watersheds. This study is a rare attempt to estimate flooding alleviation benefits, resulting from the protection of upland forests in Eastern Madagascar. A three stage model is

Randall A. Kramer; Daniel D. Richter; Subhrendu Pattanayak; Narendra P. Sharma

1997-01-01

276

A process typology of regional floods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a framework for identifying types of causative mechanisms of floods. The types are long-rain floods, short-rain floods, flash floods, rain-on-snow floods, and snowmelt floods. We adopt a catchment perspective, i.e., the focus is on the catchment state and the atmospheric inputs rather than on atmospheric circulation patterns. We use a combination of a number of process indicators, including the timing of the floods, storm duration, rainfall depths, snowmelt, catchment state, runoff response dynamics, and spatial coherence. On the basis of these indicators and diagnostic regional plots we identify the process types of 11,518 maximum annual flood peaks in 490 Austrian catchments. Forty-three percent of the flood peaks are long-rain floods, only 3% are snowmelt floods, and the relative contribution of the types changes with the flood magnitude. There are pronounced spatial patterns in the frequency of flood type occurrence. For example, rain-on-snow floods most commonly occur in northern Austria. Runoff coefficients tend to increase with rainfall depth for long-rain floods but are less dependent of rainfall depth and exhibit much larger scatter for flash floods. All types exhibit seasonal patterns, both in terms of flood magnitudes and catchment altitudes of flood occurrence. The coefficient of variation (CV) of the flood samples stratified by process type decreases with catchment area for most process types with the exception of flash floods for which CV increases with catchment area.

Merz, R.; BlSchl, G.

2003-12-01

277

Land Use Interpretation in Flood Damage Estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis examines the role of geographic land use interpretation in flood damage estimation. Sample flood data were drawn from the 1998 flood event along San Francisquito Creek in northern Santa Clara County, California. Spatial flood data for the event were collected from the Santa Clara Valley Water District (the District); depth-damage factors and the flood damage equations were both

Sharon Michelle Metzler

2011-01-01

278

Floods of the Brahmaputra River in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Floods in the Brahmaputra basin of India are characterized by their extremely large magnitude, high frequency, and extensive devastation. During the last forty years of flood record at Pandu, the highest flood [72,748 cubic meters per second (ms)] occurred in 1962. But, more recently, the 1988 flood, characterized by the maximum flood height so far observed at Pandu, appears to

N. N. Bhattachaiyya; A. K. Bora

1997-01-01

279

A Versatile Flood Frequency Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many observed annual flood series exhibit reverse curvatures when plotted on lognormal probability paper. The occurrence of these curvatures may be attributed to seasonal variation in flood-producing storm types, relative dominance of within-the-channel or floodplain flow, and variability in antecedent soil moisture and cover conditions. A mixed distribution model is needed to analyze such flood series because of the mixed

Krishan P. Singh

1987-01-01

280

Flood Risk in Megadelta Coastal Cities: Lessons From New Orleans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flood hazard posed by storm surges to the city of New Orleans is increasing for three reasons. First, as a result of the city's location on thick deposits of recent delta sediments along the edge of an oceanic basin, it is sinking at geologically rapid rates. Second, over the last decade, global sea level has increased as a result of climate change and is projected to continue to rise in the future. And third, the level of Atlantic basin hurricane activity has also increased, with the biggest increase for the strongest storms (with the largest surges), particularly in and around the Gulf of Mexico. The future flood risk in New Orleans has been explored using stochastic hurricane and storm surge generation models. Levels of risk have been determined at different geographical locations within the city today, and have been estimated for the future based on likely changes in the flood hazard. The study has also incorporated vulnerability and breaching models to determine the probabilities of failure and likely breach size, relative to the height of the storm surge outside, for each section of the flood defences that protect the city. Flood maps of relative risk throughout the region were developed from high resolution digital elevation maps, showing expected flood depths at various return periods. For example, the map for the 100-year return flood shows the extent of flooding that is expected on average once every 100 years, corresponding to an annual exceedance probability of one per cent. Additionally, four locations within the city of New Orleans were chosen for a more detailed study of predicted flood depth return periods, using the simple metric of the modeled return period of first flooding from a storm surge. The study shows that while the risk of flooding from storm surges can be reduced by the repair and enhancement of flood defences, the risk will begin to rise again as soon as improvements stop. The situation in New Orleans raises wider questions about the viability of megadelta coastal cities that are faced with the impacts of climate change.

Ward, R. E.; Muir-Wood, R.; Grossi, P.

2007-05-01

281

Linking the historic 2011 Mississippi River flood to coastal wetland sedimentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetlands in the Mississippi River deltaic plain are deteriorating in part because levees and control structures starve them of sediment. In spring 2011 a record-breaking flood brought discharge on the lower Mississippi River to dangerous levels, forcing managers to divert up to 3,500m3s-1 of water to the Atchafalaya River Basin. Here we use field-calibrated satellite data to quantify differences in inundation and sediment-plume patterns between the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River. We assess the impact of these extreme outflows on wetland sedimentation, and use in situ data collected during the historic flood to characterize the Mississippi plume's hydrodynamics and suspended sediment. We show that a focused, high-momentum jet emerged from the leveed Mississippi, and delivered sediment far offshore. In contrast, the plume from the Atchafalaya was more diffuse; diverted water inundated a large area, and sediment was trapped within the coastal current. The largest sedimentation, of up to several centimetres, occurred in the Atchafalaya Basin despite the larger sediment load carried by the Mississippi. Sediment accumulation was lowest along the shoreline between the two river sources. We conclude that river-mouth hydrodynamics and wetland sedimentation patterns are mechanistically linked, providing results that are relevant for plans to restore deltaic wetlands using artificial diversions.

Falcini, Federico; Khan, Nicole S.; Macelloni, Leonardo; Horton, Benjamin P.; Lutken, Carol B.; McKee, Karen L.; Santoleri, Rosalia; Colella, Simone; Li, Chunyan; Volpe, Gianluca; D'Emidio, Marco; Salusti, Alessandro; Jerolmack, Douglas J.

2012-11-01

282

Linking the historic 2011 Mississippi River flood to coastal wetland sedimentation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wetlands in the Mississippi River deltaic plain are deteriorating in part because levees and control structures starve them of sediment. In Spring of 2011 a record-breaking flood brought discharge on the lower Mississippi River to dangerous levels, forcing managers to divert up to 3500 m3/s-1 of water to the Atchafalaya River Basin. Here we quantify differences between the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River inundation and sediment-plume patterns using field-calibrated satellite data, and assess the impact these outflows had on wetland sedimentation. We characterize hydrodynamics and suspended sediment patterns of the Mississippi River plume using in-situ data collected during the historic flood. We show that the focused, high-momentum jet from the leveed Mississippi delivered sediment far offshore. In contrast, the plume from the Atchafalaya was more diffuse; diverted water inundated a large area; and sediment was trapped within the coastal current. Maximum sedimentation (up to several centimetres) occurred in the Atchafalaya Basin despite the larger sediment load carried by the Mississippi. Minimum accumulation occurred along the shoreline between these river sources. Our findings provide a mechanistic link between river-mouth dynamics and wetland sedimentation patterns that is relevant for plans to restore deltaic wetlands using artificial diversions.

Falcini, Federico; Khan, Nicole S.; Macelloni, Leonardo; Horton, Benjamin P.; Lutken, Carol B.; McKee, Karen L.; Santoleri, Rosalia; Colella, Simone; Li, Chunyan; Volpe, Gianluca; DEmidio, Marco; Salusti, Alessandro; Jerolmack, Douglas J.

2012-01-01

283

The Ischia island flash flood of November 2009 (Italy): Phenomenon analysis and flood hazard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The island of Ischia is particularly susceptible to landslides and flash floods due to its particular geological and geomorphological context. Urbanization in recent decades coupled with the development of tourism has increased the risk. After the November 10, 2009 event occurring in the northern sector of the island (the town of Casamicciola), a detailed geo-morphological survey was conducted to ascertain the evolution of the phenomenon. In the watersheds upstream of Casamicciola, many landslides were mapped and the volume of material involved during detachment and sliding was estimated. In the lower course area, near the town and towards the sea, flow pathways were reconstructed with the aid of extensive video footage taken during the event. Rainfall data were also analyzed and a relationship was established between the hourly rainfall rate and the flash flood. The phenomenon was found to be quite complex, with many upstream landslides stopping before reaching the urban area. In the lower course the alluvial event occurred as a flood with a very small sediment discharge, which left a very thin layer of sediment. Reconstruction of the flash flood phenomenon suggested possible action for future risk mitigation, early warning and civil protection plans.

Santo, A.; Di Crescenzo, G.; Del Prete, S.; Di Iorio, L.

284

Mediterranean Firestorm, are extreme wildfires a specular aspect of floods?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe weather and rainfall extremes predictors are a long standing issue for risk mitigation and civil protection purposes, analogously this work is focused on finding precursors for extreme wildfires throughout Mediterranean regions. Mediterranean storm are usually related with extreme precipitation and consequent floods. In this paper we propose to consider extreme wildfires in the Mediterranean as a specular aspect of

P. Fiorucci; L. Molini; A. Parodi

2010-01-01

285

A new methodology for flood hazard assessment considering dike breaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on development and application of a new modeling approach for a comprehensive flood hazard assessment along protected river reaches considering dike failures. The proposed Inundation Hazard Assessment Model (IHAM) represents a hybrid probabilistic-deterministic model. It comprises three models that are coupled in a dynamic way: (1) 1D unsteady hydrodynamic model for river channel and floodplain between dikes;

S. Vorogushyn; B. Merz; K.-E. Lindenschmidt; H. Apel

2010-01-01

286

Flood Plain Study and Model Flood Plain Ordinance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report deals with the Flooding problems of the Eastern Coastal Areas of Palm Beach County and offers methods by which the more serious effects of heavy Flooding could be minimized or avoided. Sections of the report are concerned with the patterns of d...

1972-01-01

287

Guidelines for Flash Flood and Small Tributary Flood Prediction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The technical note, augmenting Manual Chapter E-13, was devised to provide all offices with guidelines for determining the threat and extent of flash floods and other small tributary floods. Basically these involve knowledge of when, how much and how fast...

L. A. Hughes L. L. Longsdorf

1975-01-01

288

46 CFR 28.580 - Unintentional flooding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Unintentional flooding. 28.580 Section 28.580 Shipping...Stability § 28.580 Unintentional flooding. (a) Applicability. Except...the assumed damage and unintentional flooding described in paragraphs (d) and...

2009-10-01

289

76 FR 13570 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations...Areas. Specifically, it addresses the flooding source South Creek. DATES: Comments...Incorporated Areas'' addressed the flooding source South Creek. That table...

2011-03-14

290

77 FR 15664 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations...Kentucky. Specifically, it addresses the flooding sources Little River (backwater effects...of Cadiz, Kentucky'' addressed the flooding sources Little River (backwater...

2012-03-16

291

77 FR 51744 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...rule that included an erroneous flooding source name for the Town of Livonia...Coupee Parish, Louisiana. The flooding source name of Bayou Fordoche...Incorporated Areas'' addressed several flooding sources, including Bayou...

2012-08-27

292

78 FR 9406 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundaries or zone designations...South Stevens Street, Rhinelander, WI 54501. Lac Du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior William Wildcat Tribal Chippewa Indians....

2013-02-08

293

Multireservoir operations for flood management in Tanshui River basin, Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study assesses the effectiveness of the reservoir system under different design flood events based on SOBEK-RIVER modeling package. The balanced water level index is introduced to deal with the optimal approach for joint reservoir operations. The simulation results suggest that SOBEK-RIVER significantly facilitates the model establishment for studying the propagation of floods through different flood events. It is also found in this study that the joint operation policy performs better during flood emergencies by minimizing flood damage for downstream area. The approach is applied to the Tanshui River which is located in the north of Taiwan and consists of three major tributaries: Tahan River, Hsintien River and Keelung River. Two reservoirs (Shihmen and Festui) are located in the upstream (Tahan and Hsintien) for regulating water release to protect downstream areas from floods during typhoon strikes. To simulate the flood process, the river mouth is selected as the downstream boundary while the inflow into the river basin is controlled by the precipitation. The frequency-duration relationships derived from recorded intense bursts of rainfall of various durations are used to design the precipitation hydrographs. The storm tide distribution in the river mouth is analyzed with Monte Carlo simulations of the tide and storm surge distribution at river mouth to determine the occurrence probabilities of the extreme storm tides. All the scenario designs are based on the available data from typhoon Nari of the year 2001. The study models the flood behavior by the SOBEK-RIVER modeling system which was developed by DELTARES. The proposed procedure in this study involves three modules which are a rainfall runoff model, a reservoir operation model and a channel routing model respectively.

Mei, X.; van Gelder, P. H. A. J. M.; Sloff, C. J.; Prinsen, G.; Vrijling, J. K.

2012-04-01

294

Urban flooding and Resilience: concepts and needs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the recent years, a growing interest for resilience has been expressed in the natural disaster mitigation area and especially in the flood related events. The European Union, under the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), has initiated several research initiatives in order to explore this concept especially for the urban environments. Under urban resilience is underlined the ability of system potentially exposed to hazard to resist, respond, recover and reflect up to stage which is enough to preserve level of functioning and structure. Urban system can be resilient to lot of different hazards. Urban resilience is defined as the degree to which cities are able to tolerate some disturbance before reorganizing around a new set of structures and processes (Holling 1973, De Bruijn 2005). The United Nation's International strategy for Disaster Reductions has defined resilience as "the capacity of a system, community or society potentially exposed to hazards to adapt, by resisting or changing in order to reach and maintain an acceptable level of functioning and structure. This is determined by the degree to which the social system is capable of organizing itself to increase this capacity for learning from past disasters for better future protection and to improve risk reduction measures."(UN/ISDR 2004). According to that, system should be able to accept the hazard and be able to recover up to condition that provides acceptable operational level of city structure and population during and after hazard event. Main elements of urban system are built environment and population. Physical characteristic of built environment and social characteristic of population have to be examined in order to evaluate resilience. Therefore presenting methodology for assessing flood resilience in urban areas has to be one of the focal points for the exposed cities. Strategies under flood management planning related to resilience of urban systems are usually regarding controlling runoff volume, increasing capacity of drainage systems, spatial planning, building regulations, etc. Resilience also considers resilience of population to floods and it's measured with time. Assessment of resilience that is focused on population is following bottom-up approach starting from individual and then assessing community level. Building resilience involves also contribution of social networks, increasing response capacity of communities, self-organization, learning and education and cheering adaptation culture. Measures for improving social side of resilience covers: raising public awareness, implementation of flood forecasting and warning, emergency response planning and training, sharing information, education and communication. Most of these aspects are analyzed with the CORFU FP7 project. Collaborative Research on Flood Resilience in Urban areas (CORFU) is a major project involving 17 European and Asian institutions, funded by a grant from the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Programme. The overall aim of CORFU is to enable European and Asian partners to learn from each other through joint investigation, development, implementation and dissemination of short to medium term strategies that will enable more scientifically sound management of the consequences of urban flooding in the future and to develop resilience strategies according to each situation. The CORFU project looks at advanced and novel strategies and provide adequate measures for improved flood management in cities. The differences in urban flooding problems in Asia and in Europe range from levels of economic development, infrastructure age, social systems and decision making processes, to prevailing drainage methods, seasonality of rainfall patterns and climate change trends. The study cases are, in Europe, the cities of Hamburg, Barcelona and Nice, and in Asia, Beijing, Dhaka, Mumbai, Taipei, Seoul and Incheon.

Gourbesville, Ph.

2012-04-01

295

Regional flood mapping from space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS 1), launched on July 23, 1972, has been used to monitor the extent of inundation of regional floods with varying recurrence intervals. The inundated areas exhibit sharply reduced near-infrared reflectances caused by standing surface water, excessive soil moisture, and stressed vegetation, which persist up to 1012 days after the flood peak. The amount of

Albert Rango; Vincent V. Salomonson

1974-01-01

296

Flood risk and insurance loss potential in the Thames Gateway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Thames Gateway, currently Europe's largest regeneration project, is an area of redevelopment located in the South East of England, with Government plans to create up to 160,000 new homes and 180,000 new jobs by 2016. Although the new development is intended to contribute 12bn annually to the economy, the potential flood risk is high, with much of the area situated on Thames tidal floodplain and vulnerable to both storm surges and peak river flows. This poses significant hazard to those inhabiting the area and has raised concern amongst the UK insurance industry, who would be liable for significant financial claims if a large flood event were to occur, particularly with respect to the number of new homes and businesses being built in flood risk areas. Flood risk and the potential damage to both lives and assets in vulnerable areas have gained substantial recognition, in light of recent flooding events, from both governmental agencies and in the public's awareness of flood hazard. This has resulted in a change in UK policy with planning policy for flood risk (PPS25, Planning Policy Statement 25) adopting a more strategic approach to development, as well as a new Flooding and Water Bill which is due for consultation in 2009. The Government and the Association of British Insurers, who represent the UK insurance industry, have also recently changed their Statement of Principles which guides provision of flood insurance in the future. This PhD research project aims to quantify flood risk in the Thames Gateway area with a view to evaluating the insurance loss potential under different insurance and planning scenarios. Using current sources of inundation extent, and incorporating varying insurance penetration rates and degrees of adoption of planning policy and guidance, it focuses on estimating flood risk under these different scenarios. This presentation introduces the development of the project and the theory and methodology which will be used to address the research problem, and presents the initial findings, including an overview of the major developments going ahead in the area and an indication of areas of high asset value and potential for inundation based on topography and standard of protection of defences.

Eldridge, J.; Horn, D.

2009-04-01

297

Flood Frequency Estimates and Documented and Potential Extreme Peak Discharges in Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Knowledge of the magnitude and frequency of floods is required for the safe and economical design of highway bridges, culverts, dams, levees, and other structures on or near streams; and for flood plain management programs. Flood frequency estimates for gaged streamflow sites were updated, documented extreme peak discharges for gaged and miscellaneous measurement sites were tabulated, and potential extreme peak discharges for Oklahoma streamflow sites were estimated. Potential extreme peak discharges, derived from the relation between documented extreme peak discharges and contributing drainage areas, can provide valuable information concerning the maximum peak discharge that could be expected at a stream site. Potential extreme peak discharge is useful in conjunction with flood frequency analysis to give the best evaluation of flood risk at a site. Peak discharge and flood frequency for selected recurrence intervals from 2 to 500 years were estimated for 352 gaged streamflow sites. Data through 1999 water year were used from streamflow-gaging stations with at least 8 years of record within Oklahoma or about 25 kilometers into the bordering states of Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, New Mexico, and Texas. These sites were in unregulated basins, and basins affected by regulation, urbanization, and irrigation. Documented extreme peak discharges and associated data were compiled for 514 sites in and near Oklahoma, 352 with streamflow-gaging stations and 162 at miscellaneous measurements sites or streamflow-gaging stations with short record, with a total of 671 measurements.The sites are fairly well distributed statewide, however many streams, large and small, have never been monitored. Potential extreme peak-discharge curves were developed for streamflow sites in hydrologic regions of the state based on documented extreme peak discharges and the contributing drainage areas. Two hydrologic regions, east and west, were defined using 98 degrees 15 minutes longitude as the dividing line.

Tortorelli, Robert L.; McCabe, Lan P.

2001-01-01

298

Surfactant-enhanced low-pH alkaline flooding  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports sodium bicarbonate investigated as a potential alkaline agent in surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding because it has very little tendency to dissolve silicate minerals. In experiments performed with Wilmington, CA, crude oil and three types of surfactants, the bicarbonate/surfactant combination caused a marked lowering of interfacial tension (IFT). Bicarbonate protected the surfactant against divalent cations and reduced adsorption of surfactant and polymer on various minerals. Coreflood test confirm that sodium bicarbonate plus surfactant can be an effective alternative to the high-pH flooding process.

Peru, D.A. (Grace (W.R.) and Co., Columbia, MD (USA). Research Div.); Lorenz, P.B. (National Inst. for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (USA))

1990-08-01

299

Characterizing land surface change and levee stability in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta using UAVSAR radar imagery  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The islands of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta have been subject to subsidence since they were first reclaimed from the estuary marshlands starting over 100 years ago, with most of the land currently lying below mean sea level. This area, which is the primary water resource of the state of California, is under constant threat of inundation from levee failure. Since July 2009, we have been imaging the area using the quad-polarimetric UAVSAR L-band radar, with eighteen data sets collected as of April 2011. Here we report results of our polarimetric and differential interferometric analysis of the data for levee deformation and land surface change. ?? 2011 IEEE.

Jones, C.; Bawden, G.; Deverel, S.; Dudas, J.; Hensley, S.

2011-01-01

300

Flash Flooding and 'Muddy Floods' on Arable Land  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flash flooding is often associated with upland, grazed catchments. It does, however, occur in lowland arable-dominated areas. In southern England, notable examples have occurred at Rottingdean (Brighton) in 1987, at Faringdon (Oxfordshire) in 1993 and at Breaky Bottom vineyard (near Brighton) in 1987 and 2000. All resulted in damage to nearby property. Runoff was largely from recently cultivated ground. The characteristics of such floods are: Rapid runoff from bare soil surfaces. Saturated excess overland flow is likely in the early parts of storms but high intensity rainfall on loamy soils results in crusting and Hortonian overland flow; High rates of erosion; Sediment transport to downvalley sites causing property damage ('muddy flooding'). Muddy floods are known from several areas of Europe e.g. Belgium, northern France, South Limburg (Netherlands) and Slovakia (Boardman et al 2006). In other areas they occur but have gone unreported or are classified under different terms. The necessary conditions for occurrence are areas of arable land which is bare at times of the year when there is a risk of storms. For muddy floods to cause damage (and hence be reported), vulnerable property must lie downstream from such areas of arable land. In some areas the incidence of muddy floods relates to autumn and early winter rainfall and winter cereal crops (e.g. southern England). In continental Europe, flooding is more common in summer and is associated with convectional storms and land uses including sugar beet, maize and potatoes. Predictions of increased numbers of high-intensity storms with future climate change, suggest that arable areas will continue to generate both flash floods and muddy floods.

Boardman, J.

2012-04-01

301

Improving Gas Flooding Efficiency  

SciTech Connect

This study focuses on laboratory studies with related analytical and numerical models, as well as work with operators for field tests to enhance our understanding of and capabilities for more efficient enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Much of the work has been performed at reservoir conditions. This includes a bubble chamber and several core flood apparatus developed or modified to measure interfacial tension (IFT), critical micelle concentration (CMC), foam durability, surfactant sorption at reservoir conditions, and pressure and temperature effects on foam systems.Carbon dioxide and N{sub 2} systems have been considered, under both miscible and immiscible conditions. The injection of CO2 into brine-saturated sandstone and carbonate core results in brine saturation reduction in the range of 62 to 82% brine in the tests presented in this paper. In each test, over 90% of the reduction occurred with less than 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected, with very little additional brine production after 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected. Adsorption of all considered surfactant is a significant problem. Most of the effect is reversible, but the amount required for foaming is large in terms of volume and cost for all considered surfactants. Some foams increase resistance to the value beyond what is practical in the reservoir. Sandstone, limestone, and dolomite core samples were tested. Dissolution of reservoir rock and/or cement, especially carbonates, under acid conditions of CO2 injection is a potential problem in CO2 injection into geological formations. Another potential change in reservoir injectivity and productivity will be the precipitation of dissolved carbonates as the brine flows and pressure decreases. The results of this report provide methods for determining surfactant sorption and can be used to aid in the determination of surfactant requirements for reservoir use in a CO{sub 2}-foam flood for mobility control. It also provides data to be used to determine rock permeability changes during CO{sub 2} flooding due to saturation changes, dissolution, and precipitation.

Reid Grigg; Robert Svec; Zheng Zeng; Alexander Mikhalin; Yi Lin; Guoqiang Yin; Solomon Ampir; Rashid Kassim

2008-03-31

302

Challenges in communicating and using ensemble forecasts in operational flood risk management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following trends in operational weather forecasting, where ensemble prediction systems (EPS) are now increasingly the norm, a number of hydrological and flood forecasting centres internationally have begun to experiment with using similar ensemble methods. Most of the research to date has focused on the substantial technical challenges of developing coupled rainfall-runoff systems to represent the full cascade of uncertainties involved in predicting future flooding. As a consequence much less attention has been given to the communication and eventual use of EPS flood forecasts. Thus, this talk addresses the general understanding and communicative challenges in using EPS in operational flood forecasting. Drawing on a set of 48 semi-structured interviews conducted with flood forecasters, meteorologists and civil protection authorities (CPAs) dispersed across 17 European countries, this presentation pulls out some of the tensions between the scientific development of EPS and their application in flood risk management. The scientific uncertainties about whether or not a flood will occur comprise only part of the wider decision' uncertainties faced by those charged with flood protection, who must also consider questions about how warnings they issue will subsequently be interpreted. By making those first order scientific uncertainties more explicit, ensemble forecasts can sometimes complicate, rather than clarify, the second order decision uncertainties they are supposed to inform.

Nobert, Sbastien; Demeritt, David; Cloke, Hannah

2010-05-01

303

Added value flooding products coupling hydraulic modeling and COSMO Sky-Med SAR imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work the real time use of a simplified two dimensional hydraulic model constrained by satellite data for the simulation of flooding events is studied. The main features of such a model are computational speed and simple start-up, with no need to insert complex information but a subset of simplified boundary and initial condition. Those characteristics allow the model to be fast enough to be used in real time for the simulation of flooding events. The model fills the gap of information left by single satellite scenes of flooded area, allowing for the estimation of the maximum flooding extension and magnitude. The static information provided by earth observation (like SAR extension of flooded areas at a certain time) are interpreted in a dynamic consitent way and very useful hydraulic information (e.g., water depth, water speed and the evolution of flooded areas)are provided. The model has been applied in several flooding events occured wordwide. amongst the other activations in the mediterranean areas like Veneto (IT) (October 2010), Basilicata (IT) (March 2011) and Shkoder (January 2010 and December 2010) are considered and compared with larger types of floods like the one of Queensland in December 2010. In the past year the model has been used, by request of Department of Civil Protection, to provide previsions of scenarios to help authority involved in recent Magra flooding, using as input the predicted discharges.

Fiorini, M.; Rudari, R.; Candela, L.; Corina, A.; Boni, G.

2012-04-01

304

Clutter flooding with sea clutter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the statistics of flooded clutter in a sea environment. Clutter flooding occurs when a pulse compression waveform encounters extended clutter causing samples of the clutter to fold over into a given range cell and add vectorially. The statistics of the received radar clutter cross-section is needed to specify the dynamic range requirements of the system. In this paper, a model is presented for sea clutter and the probability distribution of the flooded clutter as a function of the average clutter cross-section.

Parnell, John W.; Stevens, G. H.

305

Floodplain Management Strategies for Flood Attenuation in the River Po  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper analyses the effects of different floodplain management policies on flood hazard using a 350km reach of the River Po (Italy) as a case study. The River Po is the longest Italian river, and the largest in terms of streamflow. The middle-lower Po flows East some 350km in the Pianura Padana (Po Valley), a very important agricultural region and industrial heart of Northern Italy. This portion of the river consists of a main channel (200-500m wide) and a floodplain (overall width from 200m to 5km) confined by two continuous artificial embankments. Floodplains are densely cultivated, and a significant portion of these areas is protected against frequent flooding by a system of minor dikes, which impacts significantly the hydraulic behaviour of the middle-lower Po during major flood events. This study aims at investigating the effects of the adoption of different floodplain management strategies (e.g., raising, lowering or removal of the minor dike system) on the hydrodynamics of the middle-lower Po and, in particular, on flood-risk mitigation. This is a crucial task for institutions and public bodies in charge of formulating robust flood risk management strategies for the Po River. Furthermore, the results of the study is of interest for other European water related public bodies managing large river basins, in the light of the recent Directive 2007/60/EC on the assessment and management of flood risks (European Parliament, 2007). The analysis is performed by means of a quasi-2D hydraulic model, which has been developed on the basis of a laser-scanning DTM and a large amount of calibration data recorded during the significant flood event of October 2000.

Brath, A.; Castellarin, A.; di Baldassarre, G.

2009-12-01

306

Flood risk model for probabilistic safety assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report describes a methodology developed for treating internal flooding. The goal of the methodology is to quantitatively estimate the frequency of flooding and the conditional probability of reactor core damage given that flooding occurs. The method models leak size, component height, watertight volumes, the potential volume of flood sources, water removal systems and recovery of faulted systems, isolation procedures,

Bott

1992-01-01

307

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Flood Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes events leading to a flood in the Wehr Chemistry Laboratory at Marquette University, discussing steps taken to minimize damage upon discovery. Analyzes the problem of flooding in the chemical laboratory and outlines seven steps of flood control: prevention; minimization; early detection; stopping the flood; evaluation; clean-up; and

Pollard, Bruce D.

1983-01-01

308

Groundwater flooding in an urbanised floodplain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, risk management associated with groundwater flooding has been recognised as an area requiring improved understanding in the United Kingdom. Government figures suggest as many as 1.6 million properties may be at risk from this form of flooding. Further, the recently enforced EU Floods Directive requires hazard mapping associated with groundwater flooding to be undertaken. The city of

D. MacDonald; D. Peach; A. Dixon

2009-01-01

309

Forecasting Extreme Flooding in South Asia (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most years there is extensive flooding across India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. On average, 40 million people are displaced by floods in India and half that many again in Bangladesh. Occasionally, even more extensive and severe flooding occurs across South Asia. In 2007 and 2008 the Brahmaputra flooded three times causing severe disruption of commerce, agriculture and life in general.

P. J. Webster

2010-01-01

310

Cultural Resources Survey of Arlington Revetment and LSU Berm Levee Improvement Item, East Baton Rouge Parish Louisiana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the results of a cultural resources investigation on the east side of the Mississippi River within a reach between M-228.1 to 222.2-L. The project area included survey of unrevetted portions of the batture side of the levee, as well ...

D. Jones J. Mossa F. T. Smith B. Banta J. Treffinger

1993-01-01

311

A model for the formation of lava tubes by the growth of the crust from the levees  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a model to explain lava tube formation by the growth of crust slabs from the levees of a channel toward its center, involving solid surface fragments. The flow dynamics are described with the steady state solution of the Navier-Stokes equation in a rectangular channel, for a Newtonian, homogeneous, isotropic and incompressible fluid. The cooling of a lava flow

A. Valerio; A. Tallarico; M. Dragoni

2010-01-01

312

76 FR 25310 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Zoar Levee and Diversion Dam, Dam...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...upstream of the dam, which corresponds to the height of the spillway of the dam. c. The Zoar Levee was constructed in 1937 with...which provided three feet of freeboard over the Dover Dam spillway crest of elevation 916' above msl. The crest elevation...

2011-05-04

313

Socioeconomic vulnerability and adaptation to environmental risk: a case study of climate change and flooding in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

In this article we investigate the complex relationship between environmental risk, poverty, and vulnerability in a case study carried out in one of the poorest and most flood-prone countries in the world, focusing on household and community vulnerability and adaptive coping mechanisms. Based upon the steadily growing amount of literature in this field we develop and test our own analytical model. In a large-scale household survey carried out in southeast Bangladesh, we ask almost 700 floodplain residents living without any flood protection along the River Meghna about their flood risk exposure, flood problems, flood damage, and coping mechanisms. Novel in our study is the explicit testing of the effectiveness of adaptive coping strategies to reduce flood damage costs. We show that, households with lower income and less access to productive natural assets face higher exposure to risk of flooding. Disparity in income and asset distribution at community level furthermore tends to be higher at higher risk exposure levels, implying that individually vulnerable households are also collectively more vulnerable. Regarding the identification of coping mechanisms to deal with flood events, we look at both the ex ante household level preparedness for flood events and the ex post availability of community-level support and disaster relief. We find somewhat paradoxically that the people that face the highest risk of flooding are the least well prepared, both in terms of household-level ex ante preparedness and community-level ex post flood relief. PMID:17511700

Brouwer, Roy; Akter, Sonia; Brander, Luke; Haque, Enamul

2007-04-01

314

Loudon surfactant flood pilot--overview and update  

SciTech Connect

A successful surfactant (microemulsion) flood pilot test in a watered-out portion of the Weiler sand, Loudon Field, Illinois (USA) was completed in October, 1981. The microemulsion system tested was designed to be effective in the presence of highsalinity formation water containing 104,000 ppm (mg/1) total dissolved solids (TDS) without use of a preflush. The test was conducted in a single, 0.68acre (2752 m/sup 2/) 5-spot operated in a manner that approximated a confined pattern. The test was highly successful, recovering 60% of the oil remaining after waterflood. Cores from a post-flood well drilled within the pattern have confirmed the low final oil saturations and low surfactant retention achieved in the flood. Although oil recovery was excellent, loss of mobility control in the polymer drive bank and premature breakthrough of lower-salinity drive water were observed part-way through the test. Laboratory and field studies conducted since flood termination have confirmed that loss was caused by bacterial degradation of the xanthan biopolymer used. Several biocides were tested in the laboratory and in a field injection experiment to determine their effectiveness against the bacteria contaminating the pilot. Formaldehyde was shown to kill bacteria within the formation, have negligible absorption on reservoir rock, and permit propagation of undegraded polymer. Based on these test results, formaldehyde should protect xanthan biopolymer from bacterial degradation in future microemulsion floods at Loudon.

Bragg, J.R.; Canning, J.W.; Gale, W.W.

1983-03-01

315

Floods in a changing climate  

Treesearch

Science.gov - We Participate ... Description: Atmospheric warming and associated hydrological changes have implications for regional flood intensity and frequency. ... prediction include satellite missions, advanced radar, and in- situ networks.

316

Subglacial floods beneath ice sheets.  

PubMed

Subglacial floods (jkulhlaups) are well documented as occurring beneath present day glaciers and ice caps. In addition, it is known that massive floods have occurred from ice-dammed lakes proximal to the Laurentide ice sheet during the last ice age, and it has been suggested that at least one such flood below the waning ice sheet was responsible for a dramatic cooling event some 8000 years ago. We propose that drainage of lakes from beneath ice sheets will generally occur in a time-periodic fashion, and that such floods can be of severe magnitude. Such hydraulic eruptions are likely to have caused severe climatic disturbances in the past, and may well do so in the future. PMID:16782609

Evatt, G W; Fowler, A C; Clark, C D; Hulton, N R J

2006-07-15

317

Geomorphology: Flood-built land  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southeastern US coastline is under threat as land subsides and sea level rises. Measurements of the 2011 Mississippi River flood suggest that the river carries enough sandy sediment to offset some of this coastal drowning.

Kim, Wonsuck

2012-08-01

318

Taking the heterogeneity of citizens into account: flood risk communication in coastal cities - a case study of Bremen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The likely manifestations of climate change like flood hazards are prominent topics in public communication. This can be shown by media analysis and questionnaire data. However, in the case of flood risks an information gap remains resulting in misinformed citizens who probably will not perform the necessary protective actions when an emergency occurs. This paper examines more closely a newly

T. Martens; H. Garrelts; H. Grunenberg; H. Lange

2009-01-01

319

Habitat conservation and creation: Invoking the flood-pulse concept to enhance fisheries in the lower Mississippi River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analysis of four years of growth data failed to identify a single temperature or hydrologic variable that consistently accounted for variation in annual growth of catfishes (Ictaluridae). Instead, a composite variable that measured duration of floodplain inundation when water temperature exceeded minima for active feeding was directly related to growth. Results indicated that floodplain inundation have provided little direct energetic benefit to fishes when water temperatures were sub-optimal for active feeding, but floodplain resources were exploited when thermal conditions were sufficient for active feeding and growth. Thus, the flood-pulse concept applies to the lower Mississippi River (LMR) when modified to consider temperature. Managing the existing leveed floodplain to prolong inundation, increase water temperatures during spring flooding, and maintain connectivity of floodplain habitats with the main river channel should benefit fish production in the LMR.

Schramm, H. L. , Jr.; Eggleton, M. A.; Mayo, R. M.

2000-01-01

320

Flooding characteristics of Goodloe packing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental flooding data for the countercurrent flow of air and water in a 7.62-cm-diam glass column filled with Goodloe packing were compared with a correlation reported by the packing manufacturer. Flooding rates observed in this study were as low as one-half those predicted by the correlation. Rearranging the packing by inverting the column and removing some packing segments yielded results

J. M. Begovich; J. S. Watson

1976-01-01

321

Flood magnitude and frequency of Pochack Creek at two sites, at Pennsauken Township, New Jersey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Six methods were used to estimate the magnitude and frequency of floods at Pochack Creek at the down- stream end of the culvert on United States Route 130 and at a second site about 1,600 feet upstream at Pennsauken Township, New Jersey. Flood magnitude and frequency calculated by the six methods, as well as drainage-basin characteristics, are included in this report. The 100-year-flood estimates for the culvert site range from 280 cubic feet per second to 2,600 cubic feet per second. The 100-year-flood estimates for the upstream site range from 216 cubic feet per second to 1,800 cubic feet per second. Flood magni- tude and frequency estimates obtained by using the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Special Report 38 method fall within the range of values estimated by using the U.S. Geological Survey transfer method with data collected from three nearby crest-stage gages.

Dunne, Paul

1994-01-01

322

Flood elevations for the Soleduck River at Sol Duc Hot Springs, Clallam County, Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Elevations and inundation areas of a 100-year flood of the Soleduck River, Washington, were determined by the U.S. Geological Survey for the area in the vicinity of the Sol Duc Hot Springs resort, a public facility in the Olympic National Park that under Federal law must be located beyond or protected from damage by a 100-year flood. Results show that most flooding could be eliminated by raising parts of an existing dike. In general, little flood damage is expected, except at the southern end of an undeveloped airstrip that could become inundated and hazardous due to flow from a tributary. The airstrip is above the 100-year flood of the Soleduck River.

Nelson, L. M.

1983-01-01

323

44 CFR 60.3 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-prone areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Flood plain management criteria for flood-prone areas. 60.3 Section 60.3 Emergency...SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program CRITERIA FOR LAND...

2009-10-01

324

44 CFR 60.3 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-prone areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood plain management criteria for flood-prone areas. 60.3 Section 60.3 Emergency...SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program CRITERIA FOR LAND...

2010-10-01

325

Profile of Sacramento River, Freeport to Verona, California, flood of February 1986  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A major storm in February 1986 caused record flooding in the Sacramento River and other nearby basins in north-coastal and central California. As part of an effort to document this flood, the peak water surface profile of a 33 mi reach of the Sacramento River was surveyed between Freeport and Verona, California. Supplementary profiles in this reach include elevations of the approximate top of levee, flood plain, and the water surface on March 17, 1987. On the Sacramento River at Sacramento, the peak discharge of 117,000 cu ft/sec occurred February 19 and 20, 1986. The peak stage of 30.58 ft on February 19 is the highest on record, including the period prior to construction of large flood control dams in the Sacramento River basin beginning with Shasta Dam in 1942. The February 1986 flood profile of the Sacramento River between the mouth of the American River and the Sacramento Weir (located upstream from the American River) shows a reverse water surface slope with a corresponding drop of about 0.13 ft. On the Sacramento River at Verona, upstream from Sacramento, a peak stage of 39.11 ft occurred February 20 (peak discharge 92,900 cu ft/sec) due to runoff from upstream tributaries. The February 1986 peak stage is the highest of record for 1914-87 (no record for 1918-20, 1922-25). The previous peak stage of record at Verona, March 1, 1940, was 38.20 ft, with a discharge of 79,200 cu ft/sec. (Author 's abstract)

Blodgett, J. C.; Lucas, J. B.

1988-01-01

326

Assessing Flood Risk at Nuclear Power Plants with an Uncertain Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2010 a tsunami severely damaged the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan. As a result, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission directed that a systematic and methodical review of Commission processes and regulations be performed to determine whether the agency should make additional improvements to its regulatory system and to make recommendations to the Commission. Two of the recommendations of the Task Force created to inform the Commission were: establish a logical, systematic, and coherent regulatory framework for adequate protection that appropriately balances defense-in-depth and risk considerations and that the NRC require licensees to reevaluate and upgrade as necessary the design-basis flooding protection of structures, systems, and components for each operating reactor. These recommendations came at the same time as technical discussions about updating approaches to evaluate flood hazard were underway. These discussions included: consideration of climate nonstationarity in flood assessments; transitioning from PMP/PMF assessments to probabilistic flood analyses to better align with risk-informed decision making; and systematic consideration of combined events in flood risk analysis. There is no scientific basis to assume that shifts in long-term mean precipitation and temperature (such as is commonly derived from climate models) relate to flood probability. Flood mechanisms are often more complex and reflect climate pattern anomalies more than mean annual shifts. Instead of discounting historical data due to climatic nonstationarity, it is important to better understand the climate patterns that have triggered floods in the past and to look to climate forecasts to understand the likely changes in the frequency of those historical climate patterns with climate change. It is equally important to have a better understanding of whether climate change will result in flood-generating climate systems heretofore unknown in the particular locale. This presentation will provide a roadmap to ensuring that the flood hazards of existing and future nuclear power plants are well defined.

Wigmosta, M. S.; Vail, L. W.

2011-12-01

327

The Possibility of Community-Wide Flood Control Benefits: Evidence From Voting Behavior in a Bond Referendum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Voting behavior in a flood control referendum in Roanoke, Virginia, provides evidence that people living and working outside the flood prone area are willing to pay for flood control project construction. This voting behavior supports the argument that flood control benefits exist at the community level. In providing the cost sharing required under recent federal legislation, local government financing which distributes project costs over the whole population of a local jurisdiction, and not just those persons living or working in protected areas, may increase both economic efficiency and expand communities' financial capacity to pay for such projects.

Shabman, Leonard; Stephenson, Kurt

1992-04-01

328

Flood Inundation Modeling for Urban Watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, flood inundation modeling is examined through analyses of major urban floods in Baltimore, MD (USA). Analyses are based on the LISFLOOD-FP model and utilize high-resolution data sets for the channel and valley bottom topography and composition of Dead Run. We examine flood inundation for major flood events on 7 July 2004 and 24 July 2008. For the 7 July 2004 flood event, flood inundation observations are available over a significant portion of the drainage network of the Dead Run watershed. Additional data sets, including high-resolution radar rainfall data sets and stage observations from a network of stream gaging stations, are used to assess spatial heterogeneities of flood response. LISFLOOD-FP inundation representations are compared to FEMA flood inundation maps for the Dead Run study region and used to assess critical modeling elements for flood hazard assessments in urban watersheds.

Fewtrell, T.; Neal, J.; Smith, J.; Bates, P.; Miller, A.; Baeck, M. L.; Villarini, G.

2012-04-01

329

LOW OZONE-DEPLETING HALOCARBONS AS TOTAL-FLOOD AGENTS: VOLUME 1. CANDIDATE SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

The volume describes an effort to identify chemical fire protection and explosion prevention agents which may replace the ozone-depleting agent Halon-1301 (CF3Br). Halon-1301 is used in total-flood fire protection systems where the agent is released as a gas into an enclosed spac...

330

Geomorphic Change in Two Historical Flood Events on the Umatilla River, Oregon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We mapped geomorphic change in an 80-km length of the active channel and floodplain of the Umatilla River for two flood events, 1965 and 1996/1997, both about 20 to 70-yr events. More artificial bank stabilization structures were in place during the 1996-7 cluster. We scanned and georectified pre- and post-flood aerial photos, achieving RMSE of 1.5 to 3m, and we digitized channel and floodplain features. Sinuosity generally decreased, and the scour zone and active bars increased in each flood. Secondary channels were created or reactivated. Changes were smaller during the 1996-7 flood cluster, due partly to increased bank protection. In both floods, geomorphic change was spatially variable and related to local influences (tributary junctions, human influences) as well as landscape-scale controls (downstream trends in alluvial deposit characteristics and incision). Both flood events increased areas of several types of features important for fish habitat and water quality, such as alcoves and riparian woody vegetation. Where human influences such as bank protection severely limit geomorphic change, floods can no longer renew habitat and ecological health may decline over time.

McDowell, P. F.; Hughes, M. L.; Marcus, W. A.

2003-12-01

331

A simple and effective tool for flood scenario simulation and risk analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent project between the University of Bologna and the Civil Protection of Emilia-Romagna Region in Italy was aimed at developping a tool to simulate flood scenario as a basis for risk analysis. Considering this framework, we developed a simple but effective 2D flood inundation model based on a simplified finite volume scheme, called CA2D. Several application to both numerical and real case studies were performed to investigate the model performance under different flow conditions. Thanks to the simple structure and different techniques to improve stability, the model is fast and particularly suited for large scale flood analysis. In particular, the code structure allows for massive code parallelization. Experiments proved that the model is able to reproduce both slow and fast flood events with a good accuracy in terms of water depths and velocity. Therefore, the model can be applied to simulate a wide range of flood event types, including lowland floods and flash floods in urban areas.Moreover we included in the framework a simple tool for flood vulnerability analysis.

Martina, M. L. V.; Dottori, F.; Todini, E.

2012-04-01

332

Anthropogenic greenhouse gas contribution to UK autumn flood risk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interest in attributing the risk of damaging weather-related events to anthropogenic climate change is increasing[1]. Yet climate models typically used for studying the attribution problem do not resolve weather at scales causing damage[2]. Here we present the first multi-step study that attributes increasing risk of a damaging regional weather-related event to global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The event was the UK flooding of October and November 2000, occurring during the wettest autumn in England & Wales since records began in 1766[3] and inundating several river catchments[4]. Nearly 10,000 properties were flooded and transport services and power supplies severely disrupted, with insured losses estimated at 1.3bn[5,6]. Though the floods were deemed a wake up call' to the impacts of climate change[7], anthropogenic drivers cannot be blamed for this individual event: but they could be blamed for changing its risk[8,9]. Indeed, typically quoted thermodynamic arguments do suggest increased probability of precipitation extremes under anthropogenic warming[10]. But these arguments are too simple[11,12,13] to fully account for the complex weather[4,14] associated with the flooding. Instead we use a Probabilistic Event Attribution framework, to rigorously estimate the contribution of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions to England & Wales Autumn 2000 flood risk. This involves comparing an unprecedented number of daily river runoff realisations for the region, under Autumn 2000 scenarios both with and without the emissions. These realisations are produced using publicly volunteered distributed computing power to generate several thousand seasonal forecast resolution climate model simulations[15,16] that are then fed into a precipitation-runoff model[17,18]. Autumn 2000 flooding is characterised by realisations exceeding the highest daily river runoff for that period, derived from the observational-based ERA-40 re-anaylsis[19]. We find that our climate model adequately represents autumn synoptic conditions, and that our precipitation-runoff model adequately represents England & Wales runoff variability. Moreover, our model results indicate 20th century anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions significantly (at the 10% level) increased England & Wales flood risk in Autumn 2000 and most probably about trebled it. This pilot demonstration of the Probabilistic Event Attribution framework forms the foundation for an ongoing long-term project to provide operational attribution statements for extreme weather-related events worldwide. References: -------------- 1. Hegerl, G.C. et al. Understanding and attributing climate change. In Climate change 2007: The physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [eds Solomon, S. et al.] (Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA) (2007). 2. Stott, P.A. et al. Detection and attribution of climate change: a regional perspective. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, submitted. 3. Alexander, L.V. & Jones, P.D. Updated precipitation series for the U.K. and discussion of recent extremes. Atmos. Sci. Lett. 1, 142-150 (2001). 4. Marsh, T.J. & Dale, M. The UK floods of 2000-2001 : A hydrometeorological appraisal. J. Chartered Inst. Water Environ. Manage. 16, 180-188 (2002). 5. Association of British Insurers. Flooding: A partnership approach to protecting people. http://www.abi.org.uk/Display/File/301/Flooding_-_A_Partnership_Approach_to_Protecting_People.doc (2001). 6. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. To what degree can the October/November 2000 flood events be attributed to climate change? DEFRA FD2304 Final Report, London, 36 pp. (2001). 7. Environment Agency. Lessons learned: Autumn 2000 floods. Environment Agency, Bristol, 56 pp. (2001). 8. Allen, M.R. Liability for climate change. Nature 421, 891-892 (2003). 9. Stone, D.A. & Allen, M.R. The end-to-end attribution problem: From emissions to impacts. Climatic Cha

Pall, Pardeep; Aina, Tolu; Stone, Dith; Stott, Peter; Nozawa, Toru; Hilberts, Arno; Lohmann, Dag; Allen, Myles

2010-05-01

333

Native fish sanctuaries of the lower Colorado River : Cibola High Levee Pond, Desert Pupfish Pond  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Historically, the Colorado River was one of the most formidable rivers in the world. Each spring, melting snow from the mountains scoured the desert landscape moving millions of tons of sediment to the sea. The Grand Canyon lays testament to its erosive nature. Summer heat would bring seasonal droughts, reducing the river to a trickle impacting humans, animals, and fish. Isolated by high mountains and harsh deserts, its fish community developed unique and specialized traits that helped them survive raging floods and prolonged droughts. Conditions were so unique that three quarters of the fish species are found nowhere else in the worlda?|

Mueller, G.

2005-01-01

334

King Tide floods in Tuvalu  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial and temporal distributions of sea level rise present regional floods in some certain areas. The low-lying island countries are obviously the spots affected severely. Tuvalu, an atoll island country located in the south-west Pacific Ocean, is suffering the devastating effects of losing life, property, and intending migration caused by floods. They blame the regional flooding to King Tide, a term used but not clearly identified by Pacific islanders. In this study, we clarify what King Tide is first. By the tide gauge and topography data, we estimated the reasonable value of 3.2 m as the threshold of King Tide. This definition also fits to the statement by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of King Tide occurring once or twice a year. In addition, We cross validate the 19 yr data of tide gauge and satellite altimeter (1993-2012), the correlation coefficient indicates King Tide phenomenon is considerable connected to warm water mass. The 28 King Tide events revealed the fact that flooding can be referenced against spring tide levels, so can it be turned up by warm water mass. The warm water mass pushes up sea level; once spring tide, storm surge, or other climate variability overlaps it, the rising sea level might overflow and so has been called "King Tide" for the floods in Tuvalu. This study provides more understanding of the signals of King Tide and an island country case study of regional sea level rise.

Lin, C.-C.; Ho, C.-R.; Cheng, Y.-H.

2013-05-01

335

Flood trends along the Rhine: the role of river training  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several previous studies have detected positive trends in flood flows in German rivers, among others, at Rhine gauges over the past six decades. The presence and detectability of the climate change signal in flood records has been controversially discussed, particularly against the background of massive river training measures in the Rhine. In the past the Rhine catchment has been heavily trained, including the construction of the Rhine weir cascade, flood protection dikes and detention basins. The present study investigates the role of river training on changes in annual maximum daily flows at Rhine gauges starting from Maxau down to Lobith. In particular, the effect of the Rhine weir cascade and of a series of detention basins was investigated. By homogenising the original flood flow records in the period from 1952 till 2009, the annual maximum series were computed that would have been recorded had river training measures not been in place. Using multiple trend analysis, relative changes in the homogenised time series were found to be from a few percentage points to more than 10 percentage points smaller compared to the original records. This effect is attributable to the river training measures, and primarily to the construction of the Rhine weir cascade. The increase in Rhine flood discharges during this period was partly caused by an unfavourable superposition of the Rhine and Neckar flood waves. This superposition resulted from an acceleration of the Rhine waves due to the construction of the weir cascade and associated channelisation and dike heightening. However, at the same time, tributary flows across the entire Upper and Lower Rhine, which enhance annual maximum Rhine peaks, showed strong positive trends. This suggests the dominance of another driver or drivers which acted alongside river training.

Vorogushyn, S.; Merz, B.

2013-10-01

336

Uncertainty of Mitigation Measures to Floods in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As an aspect of the changing climatic conditions and anthropogenic impact; however, floods and torrents have been recently existed in Jeddah, the coastal Saudi city along the Red Sea. Distributed over 28 surface water basins, totaling an area of more than 2500km2, floods cover more than 15% of the area. This is well pronounced in 2009 and 2011, and it was attributed mainly to the torrential rainfall peaks the area witnesses lately. In addition, there is a chaotic urban distribution from the coastal zone to the adjacent mountain chains to the east, where torrential water runs towards the coast. A detailed assessment has been obtained using advanced space tools (e.g. high-resolution satellite images), and the application was carried out on several aspects of these images and at different dates. This was accomplished in combination the applications of geo-spatial systems to induce the mechanism of water flow regime and to identify the major reasons behind the high risk magnitude. Consequently, the geomorphologic and hydrologic parameters for flood occurrence were recognized. In the light of this catastrophic status; however, mitigation measures are rare enough to protect the area under risk. Recently, and after the 2009 and the recurrent 2011 disasters, which were resulted from floods, some mitigation measures have been undertaken and others were proposed. However, there is still uncertainty for an integrated flood control system. This can be viewed from the unsuitability of the selected sites and erroneous applications for flood controls. Besides, there is a lack to: 1) a giant channeling system for the risk area, 2) check dams, 3) ponds for water collection, 4) sediments-fixing controls, 5) traced watercourses. This is in addition to absence of proper legislation to prevent chaotic urban activities along valleys' pathways.

Al Saud, M.

2011-12-01

337

Assess the flood resilience tools integration in the landuse projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite a severe regulation concerning the building in flooding areas, 80% of these areas are already built in the Greater Paris (Paris, Val-de-Marne, Hauts-de-Seine and Seine-Saint-Denis). The land use in flooding area is presented as one of the main solutions to solve the ongoing real estate pressure. For instance some of the industrial wastelands located along the river are currently in redevelopment and residential buildings are planned. So the landuse in the flooding areas is currently a key issue in the development of the Greater Paris area. To deal with floods there are some resilience tools, whether structural (such as perimeter barriers or building aperture barriers, etc) or non structural (such as warning systems, etc.). The technical solutions are available and most of the time efficient1. Still, we notice that these tools are not much implemented. The people; stakeholders and inhabitants, literally seems to be not interested. This papers focus on the integration of resilience tools in urban projects. Indeed one of the blockages in the implementation of an efficient flood risk prevention policy is the lack of concern of the landuse stakeholders and the inhabitants for the risk2. We conducted an important number of interviews with stakeholders involved in various urban projects and we assess, in this communication, to what extent the improvement of the resilience to floods is considered as a main issue in the execution of an urban project? How this concern is maintained or could be maintained throughout the project. Is there a dilution of this concern? In order to develop this topic we rely on a case study. The "Ardoines" is a project aiming at redeveloping an industrial site (South-East Paris), into a project including residential and office buildings and other amenities. In order to elaborate the master plan, the urban planning authority brought together some flood risk experts. According to the comments of the experts, the architect in charge of the landuse elaborated the master plan taking into account the flood risk; reducing vulnerability of the area and improving the resilience in case of floods, towards a threshold plan. We set this case-study back in the French policy context of prevention and protection against floods and in the context of the Greater Paris development. There are two levels of problems: In the case of the Ardoines project, the reduction of vulnerability isn't linked with the improvement of the resilience. Indeed, the stakeholders do not envisage an event worst than the 100-years flood return period, the one taken into account in a flood prevention plan. The regulation is the guide for construction rules but there is no consideration for the crisis management. Moreover, the reduction of vulnerability appears less important than the economical issues in the management of a project. This case study illustrates how the lack of awareness for territorial resilience issues and the lack of interest for flood resilience tools are embedded in the "governance" of the risk in the greater Paris area.

Moulin, E.; Deroubaix, J.-F.

2012-04-01

338

Flood frequency analyses with annual and partial flood series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the study was (1) to analyse the influence of time scale of the data on the results, (2) to analyse the relations between discharge, volume and time of flood waves of the Sava river at Litija (Slovenia), (3) to perform flood frequency analyses of peak discharges with annual and partial data series and compare the results and (4) to explore the influence of threshold value by POT method. Calculations and analyses were made for the period 1953-2010. Daily scale data sets (considering also local maximum) were used. The flood frequency analyses were based on anual and partial data series. The differences between daily and hourly time scale data sets were explored. Daily and hourly time scale hydrographs were compared and differences were analysed. Differences were adequately small. Daily time series with included maximums were logical choice because of the length of the daily time series and because hourly time series were not continuous due to gauging equipment failures. Important objective of the study was to analyse the relationship between discharge, volume and duration of flood waves. Baseflow was separated from continuous daily discharge measurements on simple and complex hydrographs. Simple graphical method with three points was used. Many different coefficients like base flow index were calculated and different combinations of correlation coefficient of wave components were examined. Annual maximum series were used to study the relationship between wave components. Flood frequency analyses were made with annual maximum series and partial duration series. Log-normal distribution, Pearson distribution type 3, log-Pearson distribution type 3, Gumbel distribution, exponential distribution, GEV distribution and GL distribution were used for annual maximum series. Simple equation of linear transformation was used to determine the design discharge and procedure which is proposed in Flood Estimation Handbook was used with GEV and GL distribution. Results were then compared with those from partial duration series. Poisson distribution, binomial distribution and negative binomial distribution were used to describe annual number of exceedances and exponential distribution was used to model the magnitude of exceedances. The method of annual series is mostly used in flood frequency analyses in Slovenia because of its simplicity. Main advantages of partial duration series were shown on practical example. Distributions for modeling annual number of peaks over threshold were also compared. Influence of threshold value on analyses results for the partial duration series was also explored. Many suggestions for the choice of the threshold were found in literature. Differences in design flood with various threshold values were analysed. Program Hydrospect was used to determine peaks over threshold data for as many different thresholds as possible.

Bezak, N.; Brilly, M.; Sraj, M.

2012-04-01

339

EARTHQUAKE RESPONSE ANALYSES OF A LEVEE USING STRONG MOTION RECORD DURING THE 2011 OFF THE PACIFIC COAST OF TOHOKU EARTHQUAKE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time history records of ground acceleration and pore water pressure were obtained at a levee during the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake. The earthquake response of the levee is simulated by 1-D equivalent linear analysis and 1-D effective stress analysis using the ground motion recorded in the base layer as input motion. Frequency dependence of effective shear strain is taken into account to reproduce short period component of the response by the 1-D equivalent linear analysis. Hydrodynamic pressure and dissipation of pore water pressure are not reproduced by the 1-D effective stress analysis; freezing soil sampling and 2-D simulation may be required for improving the analytical results.

Matsuoka, Kazunari; Kataoka, Shojiro; Nagaya, Kazuhiro; Kaneko, Masahiro

340

The hand-held FAST: experience with hand-held trauma sonography in a level-I urban trauma center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To describe the effectiveness of a portable hand-held ultrasound machine when used by clinicians in the early evaluation and resuscitation of trauma victims.Methods: The study was a prospective evaluation in a level-I urban trauma center. The focussed assessment with sonography for trauma is a specifically defined examination for free fluid known as the focused assessment with sonography for trauma

Andrew W Kirkpatrick; Richard K Simons; Ross Brown; Savvas Nicolaou; Scott Dulchavsky

2002-01-01

341

78 FR 43900 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. FEMA-B-1331] Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency...base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundaries or zone designations...floodway (hereinafter referred to as flood hazard determinations), as shown on the...

2013-07-22

342

78 FR 8174 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. FEMA-B-1289] Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency...base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundaries or zone designations...floodway (hereinafter referred to as flood hazard determinations), as shown on the...

2013-02-05

343

78 FR 8169 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. FEMA-B-1291] Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency...base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundaries or zone designations...floodway (hereinafter referred to as flood hazard determinations), as shown on the...

2013-02-05

344

Comprehensive Framework Study. California Region. Appendix IX. Flood Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Flood Control Subcommittee finds that serious flood problems exist in the California Region. Although the existing flood control measures have been very effective in their respective areas, damages from flooding continue to increase. Except for the in...

1971-01-01

345

Data and Administrative Considerations for Two District Flood Plain Zoning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

National flood plain management policy has shifted from placing the primary emphasis on structural controls to a balance between structural and regulatory type controls. Two district flood plain zoning, in which the flood hazard area is divided into flood...

S. J. Burges J. S. Hillmer

1974-01-01

346

78 FR 35305 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agency Docket No. FEMA-B-1324] Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency...communities where the addition or modification of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA)...

2013-06-12

347

78 FR 20331 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agency Docket No. FEMA-B-1302] Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency...communities where the addition or modification of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA)...

2013-04-04

348

78 FR 43899 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agency [Docket ID FEMA-2013-0002] Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency...New or modified Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA)...

2013-07-22

349

78 FR 45939 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agency Docket No. FEMA-B-1338] Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency...communities where the addition or modification of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA)...

2013-07-30

350

77 FR 59953 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agency Docket No. FEMA-B-1271] Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency...communities where the addition or modification of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA)...

2012-10-01

351

78 FR 48885 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agency Docket No. FEMA-B-1341] Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency...communities where the addition or modification of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA)...

2013-08-12

352

77 FR 71807 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agency Docket No. FEMA-B-1273] Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency...communities where the addition or modification of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA)...

2012-12-04

353

78 FR 29765 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agency Docket No. FEMA-B-1316] Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency...communities where the addition or modification of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA)...

2013-05-21

354

78 FR 14565 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agency Docket No. FEMA-B-1297] Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency...communities where the addition or modification of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA)...

2013-03-06

355

78 FR 57645 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agency Docket No. FEMA-B-1355] Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency...communities where the addition or modification of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA)...

2013-09-19

356

78 FR 52955 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agency Docket No. FEMA-B-1349] Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency...communities where the addition or modification of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA)...

2013-08-27

357

77 FR 73393 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...addresses the following flooding sources: Cane Creek (backwater effects from Mississippi...addressed the following flooding sources: Cane Creek (backwater effects from Mississippi...Cane Creek (backwater effects from From...

2012-12-10

358

Flood Damage Abatement Study for Virginia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study gives a quick review of the national flood problem, a comprehensive review of the problem in Virginia, an identification of various programs which have attempted to ameliorate flood damages, and two major pieces of legislation recommended to be ...

W. R. Walker

1971-01-01

359

USGS Shoots Video of Flooding Efforts  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS public affairs specialist, Jennifer LaVista prepares to shoot video of USGS efforts during historic flooding in Fargo, ND. The videos can be viewed at http://www.usgs.gov/homepage/science_features/flooding_march09.asp...

2009-04-03

360

Assessment of Flood Management Activities in Maryland.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document provides a description and assessment of flood hazard mitigation responsibilities at the State level and a description of Federal, regional, private and local flood hazard mitigation activities. The findings will be used to improve Maryland'...

1982-01-01

361

76 FR 26982 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...addresses the flooding source Licking River (Cave Run Lake). DATES: Comments are to be...addressed the flooding source Licking River (Cave Run Lake). That table contained inaccurate...Licking River (Cave Run Lake)....... At the Buck...

2011-05-10

362

77 FR 73398 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...addresses the following flooding sources: Bailey Ditch (backwater effects from Green River...addressed the following flooding sources: Bailey Ditch (backwater effects from Green River...Bailey Ditch (backwater effects From the...

2012-12-10

363

76 FR 43637 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...addresses the following flooding sources: Bailey Branch (backwater effects from Cumberland...include the following flooding sources: Bailey Branch (backwater effects from Cumberland...Bailey Branch (backwater effects From the...

2011-07-21

364

Flood preparedness and emergency management: people-centred approach in integrated flood risk management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flood preparedness and flood emergency management strengthening remain core elements of MRC's Flood Management and Mitigation Programme (FMMP), as these directly address the needs of flood vulnerable communities, and also indicate\\/guide the strengthening and operations of government agencies in the Member Countries (at different levels: national, provincial, district and commune) and of national and international NGOs. This is vital for

Aslam Perwaiz

365

Effects of flooding upon woody vegetation along parts of the Potomac River flood plain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A two-part study along the Potomac River flood plain near Washington, D.C., was undertaken to investigate the effects of flooding upon woody vegetation. Floods abrade bark, damage branches and canopies, and often uproot trees. The first study was of vegetation in five monumented flood-plain plots which differed in the frequency and severity of floodflow over a 10-year period. Basal area and survival of trees appears to be related to velocity of floodflow, which in turn is related to flood magnitude and channel shape. However, the effects of flooding also depend on the nature of the flood-plain surface and size and growth habit of vegetation. In the second study, a catastrophic flood after Hurricane Agnes in June 1972 was found to cause large-scale changes in the age, form, and species composition of flood-plain forest below Great Falls, Va. The impact of the flood depended primarily on the flow regime of the river; destruction was greatest in areas exposed to the maximum flood foce, and minimal at sheltered locations. Age determinations from dead trunks and surviving trees suggest that most trees in severely damaged areas started to grow since the last great flood, which occurred in 1952. Trees along sheltered reaches survived several previous catastrophic floods. In addition, species varied in ability to withstand damage from the Hurricane Agnes flood. Least likely to recover were species growing on infrequently flooded surfaces, which may explain, in part, their absence at lower flood-plain elevations. (USGS)

Yanosky, T. M.

1982-01-01

366

Flooding in imagination vs. flooding in vivo: A comparison with agoraphobics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this investigation of agoraphobic patients, 3 different flooding procedures were compared: (1) prolonged exposure in vivo, (2) flooding in the imagination by a live therapist and (3) a combination of flooding in the imagination and flooding in vivo. After an intermediate-test all clients were treated by the self-observation method, with a minimum of therapeutic intervention. Assessments were made at

Paul M. G. Emmelkamp; Hemmy Wessels

1975-01-01

367

Flood risk model for probabilistic safety assessment  

SciTech Connect

The report describes a methodology developed for treating internal flooding. The goal of the methodology is to quantitatively estimate the frequency of flooding and the conditional probability of reactor core damage given that flooding occurs. The method models leak size, component height, watertight volumes, the potential volume of flood sources, water removal systems and recovery of faulted systems, isolation procedures, and the time dependence of all these quantities.

Bott, T.F.

1992-06-01

368

Application of stochastic differential equation to reservoir routing with probabilistic inflow forecasting and flood control risk analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real-time flood control of a reservoir system involves various uncertainties including the prediction uncertainty of inflow flood events, uncertainties in boundary conditions such as the reservoir storage curve, release capacity curve, and the uncertainty within the reservoir flood routing model itself. In this study, the hydrologic uncertainty processor (PUB) under the framework of Bayesian forecasting system (BFS) is adopted to quantify the uncertainty of flood prediction, providing with the probabilistic forecasting for real-time flood events. A Gaussian form of distribution is used to describe uncertainty of reservoir storage or release capacity; parameters of the distribution are estimated by historical measurements. In order to route the flood hydrograph with probability feature, i.e. a probabilistic forecasting flood event, stochastic differential equation (SDE) is introduced to build the reservoir flood routing model. By introducing a Gaussian white noise term, the traditional reservoir's water balance equation is altered to a kind of Ito stochastic differential equation. The solutions of Ito equation provide a probabilistic form of forecasting for reservoir stage process and outflow hydrograph. Both the analytical and numerical approaches are applied to solve the Ito stochastic differential equation, and their applicability for reservoir stochastic flood routing is testified. By assigning a specific flood limit level or reservoir beginning water level on which a real-time flood event is started to route through using the SDE, a corresponding probabilistic reservoir stage processes can be forecasted. For a designed control water level (DCWL), the risk rate or the largest probability that the forecasted reservoir stage excesses DCWL can be computed. Setting a series of flood limit levels, for a forecasted probabilistic inflow hydrograph, there obtains the corresponding reservoir stage processes, and in turn the risk rate of flood protection. By checking if the risk rate is less than a preassigned acceptable risk or flood control standard, a reasonable flood limit water level is determined to raise the utilization ratio of flood resources. As an example, the approach is applied to Dahuofang reservoir, which is located on Hun river in Northeast China. A typical flood event occurred in the flooding season of 2005 is analyzed to demonstrate the application of proposed procedure.

Liang, Z.; Hu, Y.; Wang, J.

2012-04-01

369

Hydraulic reconstruction of historical floods at the Danube-Carpathian basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimation of flood quantiles with high return periods (i.e. low exceedance probabilities) is a key step in designing hydraulic structure and developing flood protection strategies. These estimates are always linked with a high prediction uncertainty that increases with larger return periods. One way to reduce this uncertainty is by introducing additional information in the analysis beyond the instrumental peak annual flow time series (Merz and Blschl 2008 ab). In this study, values from historical floods from the Danube-Carpathian basin during the last 500 years are reconstructed from detailed archive information about cross section geometry, flood plain extent and water level. The historical information was mainly found in official documents and registers. Including this information into the analysis allows to verify or deny the stationarity assumption on which most of the flood quantiles estimation methods are based. On a second step we are able to introduce information about the historical floods into the prediction with the help of a Bayesian framework (Viglione et al. 2013). If the stationarity assumption is sufficiently fulfilled, this temporal expansion of information will reduce dramatically the uncertainty bounds of the flood frequency curve and provide more accurate estimates for high return periods. Merz, R., and G. Blschl (2008a), Flood frequency hydrology: 1. Temporal, spatial, and causal expansion of information, Water Resour. Res., 44, W08432, doi:10.1029/2007WR006744. Merz, R., and G. Blschl (2008b), Flood frequency hydrology: 2. Combining data evidence, Water Resour. Res., 44, W08433, doi:10.1029/2007WR006745. Viglione, A., R. Merz, J. L. Salinas, and G. Blschl (2012), Flood frequency hydrology: 3. A Bayesian analysis, Water Resour. Res., doi:10.1029/2011WR010782, in press.

Salinas, Jos Luis; Kiss, Andrea

2013-04-01

370

Wetland hydrology and tree distribution of the Apalachicola River flood plain, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Apalachicola River in northwest Florida is part of a three-State drainage basin encompassing 50,800 km 2 in Alabama, Georgia, and Florida. The river is formed by the confluence of the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers at Jim Woodruff Dam from which it flows 171 km to Apalachicola Bay in the Gulf of Mexico. Its average annual discharge at Chattahoochee, Fla., is 690 m3/s (1958-80) with annual high flows averaging nearly 3,000 m3/s. Its flood plain supports 450 km 2 of bottom-land hardwood and tupelo-cypress forests. The Apalachicola River Quality Assessment focuses on the hydrology and productivity of the flood-plain forest. The purpose of this part of the assessment is to address river and flood-plain hydrology, flood-plain tree species and forest types, and water and tree relations. Seasonal stage fluctuations in the upper river are three times greater than in the lower river. Analysis of long-term streamflow record revealed that 1958-79 average annual and monthly flows and flow durations were significantly greater than those of 1929-57, probably because of climatic changes. However, stage durations for the later period were equal to or less than those of the earlier period. Height of natural riverbank levees and the size and distribution of breaks in the levees have a major controlling effect on flood-plain hydrology. Thirty-two kilometers upstream of the bay, a flood-plain stream called the Brothers River was commonly under tidal influence during times of low flow in the 1980 water year. At the same distance upstream of the bay, the Apalachicola River was not under tidal influence during the 1980 water year. Of the 47 species of trees sampled, the five most common were wet-site species constituting 62 percent of the total basal area. In order of abundance, they were water tupelo, Ogeechee tupelo, baldcypress, Carolina ash, and swamp tupelo. Other common species were sweetgum, overcup oak, planertree, green ash, water hickory, sugarberry, and diamond-leaf oak. Five forest types were defined on the basis of species predominance by basal area. Biomass increased downstream and was greatest in forests growing on permanently saturated soils. Depth of water, duration of inundation and saturation, and water-level fluctuation, but not water velocity, were highly correlated with forest types. Most forest types dominated by tupelo and bald-cypress grew on permanently saturated soils that were inundated by flood waters 50 to 90 percent of the time, or an average of 75 to 225 consecutive days during the growing season from 1958 to 1980. Most forest types dominated by other species grew in areas that were saturated or inundated 5 to 25 percent of the time, or an average of 5 to 40 consecutive days during the growing season from 1958 to 1980. Water and tree relations varied with river location because range in water-level fluctuation and topographic relief in the flood plain diminished downstream.

Leitman, Helen M.; Sohm, James E.; Franklin, Marvin A.

1984-01-01

371

Flood Basalts and Mass Extinctions. (Abstract Only).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There appears to be a correlation between the times of flood basalts and mass-extinction events. There is a correlation of flood basalts and hotspot tracks--flood basalts appear to mark the beginning of a new hotspot. Perhaps there is an initial instabili...

W. J. Morgan

1988-01-01

372

SUGARCANE GENOTYPE EMERGENCE RESPONSE TO FLOOD DURATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is the primary crop in the Everglades Agricultural Area of Florida where it is exposed to periodic floods. After sugarcane is planted, it is particularly susceptible to flooding until it sprouts. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects on emergence of flood du...

373

On the objective identification of flood seasons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determination of seasons of high and low probability of flood occurrence is a task with many practical applications in contemporary hydrology and water resources management. Flood seasons are generally identified subjectively by visually assessing the temporal distribution of flood occurrences and, then at a regional scale, verified by comparing the temporal distribution with distributions obtained at hydrologically similar neighboring

Juraj M. Cunderlik; Taha B. M. J. Ouarda; Bernard Bobe

2004-01-01

374

Surfactant flooding oil recovery process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of an aqueous, saline surfactant fluid, especially one containing as essentially the only surfactant an alkylpolyalkoxyalkyl sulfonate or an alkylarylpolyalkoxyalkyl sulfonate for oil recovery by surfactant flooding is increased substantially if the fluid is subjected to a high shear rate for a predetermined period of time prior to injecting the fluid into the oil containing formation. The surfactant

Schievelbein

1980-01-01

375

Sink Inserts for Flood Prevention  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple, inexpensive insert is described for preventing flooding in lab sinks. The insert is essentially a tube with slots cut into the side that fits snugly into the drain outlet, preventing water buildup and providing additional drainage sites to avoid constriction by small lab items and paper towels.

Fleming, Fraser F.; Bodnar, Daniel J.; Hardesty, David L.

2004-09-01

376

River Gauging and Flood Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT is with great satisfaction that I have read the leading article on this subject in NATURE of July 2 with its complimentary reference to my measurements on the Ness Basin. On this area there are six principal water-level stations at which continuous records are being kept on clock-driven gauges. The measurements of flow, at ordinary flood and low water

W. N. McClean

1932-01-01

377

Floods from tailings dam failures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compiles the available information on historic tailings dam failures with the purpose to establish simple correlations between tailings ponds geometric parameters (e.g., dam height, tailings volume) and the hydraulic characteristics of floods resulting from released tailings. Following the collapse of a mining waste dam, only a part of tailings and polluted water stored at the dam is released,

M. Rico; G. Benito; A. Dez-Herrero

2008-01-01

378

Mantle plumes and flood basalts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the geological, geophysical, and petrological observations that constrain the nature of mantle convection in plumes, and show how theoretical models of mantle plumes have developed over the past three decades. The large volumes of lava emplaced in geologically short periods as flood basalts are generated mainly by decompression melting of abnormally hot mantle brought to the base of

R. S. White; D. P. Mckenzie

1995-01-01

379

Flood management and a GIS modelling method to assess flood-hazard areasa case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a viable approach for flood management strategy in a river basin based on the European Floods Directive. A reliable flood management plan has two components: (a) a proper flood management strategy, and (b) the determination of the flood-hazard areas. A method to evaluate the benefits of a flood warning system is presented herein, as well as a

Nektarios N. Kourgialas; George P. Karatzas

2011-01-01

380

Flood magnitude and frequency of Little Timber Creek at the culvert on Interstate Route 295, Haddon Heights Township, Camden County, New Jersey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The magnitude and frequency of floods at the Little Timber Creek at the culvert on Interstate 295, at milepost 28.9, in Haddon Heights Township, New Jersey, were determined by using the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Special Report 38 method. Flood-magnitude and -frequency estimates, as well as drainage-basin characteristics, are included in this report. The 100-year-flood estimate is 770 cubic feet per second.

Barringer, T. H.

1996-01-01

381

Ensemble Flood Forecasting in Africa: A Feasibility Study in the Juba-Shabelle River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last years the African continent has increasingly experienced severe transnational floods that caused substantial socio-economic losses and put enormous pressure on countries across the continent. The planning, coordination and realization of flood prevention, protection and mitigation measures require time, which can be provided through an early flood prediction. In this paper, the transferability of the European Flood Alert System (EFAS) to equatorial African basins is assessed. EFAS achieves early flood warnings for large to medium-size river basins with lead times of 10 days. This is based on probabilistic weather forecasts, the exceedance of alert thresholds and persistence indicators. These methodologies, having been tested for different events and time scales in mid-latitude basins in Europe, are being applied in this paper to the Juba-Shabella river basin, shared between Ethopia and Somalia. A variety of different meteorological data sources have been used, including ERA-40 and CHARM for the calculation of climatologies. The unique re-forecasts of the current operational ECMWF model provided hindcasts of historic flood events. The results show that for the selected flood events a detection rate of 85% was achieved, with a high accuracy in terms of timing and magnitude.

Thiemig, Vera; Pappenberger, Florian; Thielen, Jutta; Gadain, Hussein; de Roo, Ad; Bodis, Katalin; Del Medico, Mauro; Muthusi, Flavian

2010-05-01

382

Floods in Indiana, June-August 1979  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report documents rainstorms and resultant floods in central and southern Indiana during the summer of 1979. Major flooding was caused by three storms, one in June and two in July 1979, centered primarily in central and southern Indiana. Peak discharge exceeded the 100-year recurrence interval at 16 sites in this area. State Civil Defense officials estimated that almost 50-million dollars damage was attributable to the July floods. Hydrologic data have been tabulated for streamflow sites in the areas of flooding. Reservoir storage volumes, observation-well data, rainfall totals, and discharge hydrographs are presented to show the intensity and time of the storms and resultant floods. (USGS)

Gold, Robert L.; Wolcott, Stephen W.

1980-01-01

383

A methodology for evaluation of flood forecast-response systems: 1. Analyses and concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determination of the value of flood forecasts at a microeconomic level necessitates the consideration of numerous hydrologic, organizational, behavioral, and economic factors. These factors and their interactions are captured in a concept of a flood forecast-response (FFR) system. The forecast system extends from the collection of data through the forecasting of floods to the dissemination of warnings. The response system encompasses decision making by the floodplain dweller and the protective actions he takes. A methodology for evaluation of the performance of FFR systems is presented. It concerns specifically the economic evaluation of the effectiveness of riverine flood forecasts as a means of reducing property damage. The methodology is built of (1) a model of the FFR process and (2) a performance theory. The first element provides a comprehensive mathematical description of the physical FFR process which takes place during floodings; it outputs the expected annual losses (cost of protective action plus flood damage) incurred by the floodplain dweller under several scenarios. The second element establishes the performance measures and expresses them in terms of the outputs of the FFR model; the measures consist of values (expected annual reductions of the loss), efficiencies, and expected opportunity losses. This part presents a system analysis of the FFR process, describes the general structure of the methodology, and introduces the performance theory. The second part details the theory, and the third part reports three case studies.

Krzysztofowicz, Roman; Davis, Donald R.

1983-12-01

384

Living behind dikes: mimicking flooding experiences.  

PubMed

Delta areas like the Netherlands are threatened by global climate change. Awareness is, however, rather low. Our research objective was to investigate whether coping responses to flooding risks could be enhanced in a virtual environment (VE). A laboratory experiment was conducted in which participants were exposed to a simulated dike breach and consequent flooding of their virtual residence. We tested the hypothesis that an interactive 3D flood simulation facilitates coping responses compared to noninteractive film and slide simulations. Our results showed that information search, the motivation to evacuate, and the motivation to buy flood insurance increased after exposure to the 3D flood simulation compared to the film and slide simulations. Mediation analyses revealed that some of these presentation mode effects were mediated by a greater sense of being present in the VE. Implications to use high-end flood simulations in a VE to communicate real-world flooding risks and coping responses to threatened residents will be discussed. PMID:22817689

Zaalberg, Ruud; Midden, Cees J H

2012-07-22

385

Flood monitoring for ungauged rivers: the power of combining space-based monitoring and global forecasting models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood warning systems typically rely on forecasts from national meteorological services and in-situ observations from hydrological gauging stations. This capacity is not equally developed in flood-prone developing countries. Low-cost satellite monitoring systems and global flood forecasting systems can be an alternative source of information for national flood authorities. The Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS) has been develop jointly with the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) and the Joint Research Centre, and it is running quasi operational now since June 2011. The system couples state-of-the art weather forecasts with a hydrological model driven at a continental scale. The system provides downstream countries with information on upstream river conditions as well as continental and global overviews. In its test phase, this global forecast system provides probabilities for large transnational river flooding at the global scale up to 30 days in advance. It has shown its real-life potential for the first time during the flood in Southeast Asia in 2011, and more recently during the floods in Australia in March 2012, India (Assam, September-October 2012) and Chad Floods (August-October 2012).The Joint Research Centre is working on further research and development, rigorous testing and adaptations of the system to create an operational tool for decision makers, including national and regional water authorities, water resource managers, hydropower companies, civil protection and first line responders, and international humanitarian aid organizations. Currently efforts are being made to link GloFAS to the Global Flood Detection System (GFDS). GFDS is a Space-based river gauging and flood monitoring system using passive microwave remote sensing which was developed by a collaboration between the JRC and Dartmouth Flood Observatory. GFDS provides flood alerts based on daily water surface change measurements from space. Alerts are shown on a world map, with detailed reports for individual gauging sites. A comparison of discharge estimates from the Global Flood Detection System (GFDS) and the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS) with observations for representative climatic zones is presented. Both systems have demonstrated strong potential in forecasting and detecting recent catastrophic floods. The usefulness of their combined information on global scale for decision makers at different levels is discussed. Combining space-based monitoring and global forecasting models is an innovative approach and has significant benefits for international river commissions as well as international aid organisations. This is in line with the objectives of the Hyogo and the Post-2015 Framework that aim at the development of systems which involve trans-boundary collaboration, space-based earth observation, flood forecasting and early warning.

Revilla-Romero, Beatriz; Netgeka, Victor; Raynaud, Damien; Thielen, Jutta

2013-04-01

386

Neolithic Mondsee Culture - Living on lakes and living with floods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neolithic lake dwellings in the European Alps became recently protected under the UNESCO World Heritage. Various archaeological sites are known, however, the influence of climatic changes on the settlement activity remains unknown. In particular, unfavourable climatic conditions are discussed to be responsible for the decline of the Lake Mondsee Culture at about 4700 years ago. The abandonment of Neolithic settlements appeared almost synchronously in various lakes in the Austrian Salzkammergut, thus suggesting a significant and overall influence of climate change. Within the varved Lake Mondsee sediment record covering the last 7000 years, we investigated intercalated detrital layers (0.05-40 mm) to unravel the recurrence pattern of hydro-meteorological events during the Neolithic. We used sedimentological and geochemical methods (microfacies analysis, XRF element scanning) to distinguish between debris flow and flood deposits. A period of increased runoff events (30 floods and 6 debris flow events) occurred between 5.8 and 4.7 ka BP and probably affected two different Neolithic settling phases (5.8-5.4 ka BP and 5.2-4.7 ka BP). This period of more frequent flood events corresponds to colder climate conditions in Central Europe. While during the first settling phase lake dwellings on the wetlands dominated, the second settling phase is characterized by lake dwellings built on piles upon the water, possible indicating an early adaptation to increasing flood risk. Our reconstruction of flood events from varved lake sediments linked with the archaeological sites of the Mondsee Culture improves the understanding of the complex interplay between past climate changes, hydro-climatic extreme events and the adaptation of human settlements.

Swierczynski, T.; Lauterbach, S.; Dulski, P.; Brauer, A.

2012-04-01

387

New radar technology may improve flash flood forecasting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between rain and hail lies the story. Recognizing the difference between the two forms of precipitation could provide more accurateand possibly earlierwarnings of flash floods, such as those that have plagued parts of the U.S. West this summer.The NEXRAD, or WSR-88D, Doppler National Weather Service (NWS) radars, which measure only the horizontal polarity of the precipitation, cannot distinguish between the two. But an experimental type of radar with dual-polarimetry technology can tell the rain from the hail. While this polarimetric technology is no magic pill for protecting people and property from flash floods, it could make a big difference, according to some weather experts. Scientists currently are conducting field tests of the devices, and hope to convince federal funding agencies that the technology offers social and economic benefits significant enough to justify retrofitting NWS radars within a few years.

Showstack, Randy

388

Development of flood profiles and flood-inundation maps for the Village of Killbuck, Ohio  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Digital flood-inundation maps for a reach of Killbuck Creek near the Village of Killbuck, Ohio, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Holmes County, Ohio. The inundation maps depict estimates of the areal extent of flooding corresponding to water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage Killbuck Creek near Killbuck (03139000) and were completed as part of an update to Federal Emergency Management Agency Flood-Insurance Study. The maps were provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into a Web-based flood-warning system that can be used in conjunction with NWS flood-forecast data to show areas of predicted flood inundation associated with forecasted flood-peak stages. The digital maps also have been submitted for inclusion in the data libraries of the USGS interactive Flood Inundation Mapper. Data from the streamgage can be used by emergency-management personnel, in conjunction with the flood-inundation maps, to help determine a course of action when flooding is imminent. Flood profiles for selected reaches were prepared by calibrating a steady-state step-backwater model to an established streamgage rating curve. The step-backwater model then was used to determine water-surface-elevation profiles for 10 flood stages at the streamgage with corresponding streamflows ranging from approximately the 50- to 0.2-percent annual exceedance probabilities. The computed flood profiles were used in combination with digital elevation data to delineate flood-inundation areas.

Ostheimer, Chad J.

2013-01-01

389

Development of levees on deep-sea channels: Insights from high-resolution AUV exploration of the Lucia Chica system, offshore central California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lucia Chica, a tributary channel system of the Lucia Canyon, offshore central California, was imaged using the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institutes (MBARI) Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) in order to investigate seafloor and subsurface morphologies associated with low-relief submarine channels. In larger, previously investigated seafloor channel-levee systems, initial deposits are either eroded, compacted, or below the resolution of available imaging. In this dataset from the Lucia Chica, the unprecedented high-resolution multibeam bathymetry (1 m lateral resolution) and chirp sub-bottom profiles (11 cm vertical resolution) reveal a highly irregular seafloor with scours, depressions, and discontinuous low-relief conduits over an area of ~70 km2. Sediment packages associated with channels, levees, and deposits related to less confined flows are correlated between chirp profiles and with the multibeam bathymetric image to determine the stratigraphic evolution of the Lucia Chica and the sequence of channel-levee development. In the Lucia Chica, channels appear to have initiated as trains of scours that eventually coalesced into continuous channel thalwegs carved by erosional turbidity currents. Channel incision and stepped lateral migration led to the development of terraces, complex levee stratigraphy, and distinct morphologies associated with inner and outer bends of sinuous channels. The inner bend levee stratigraphy indicates that the channel position migrated in discrete shifts, as opposed to continuous channel migration associated with lateral accretion. Discrete levee packages, formed from flow-stripped turbidity currents, later infilled abandoned portions of the channel and overbank areas. While processes of initial channel and levee development are well established in fluvial settings, detailed examples are lacking for deep-sea systems. These results highlight the differences in initiation between submarine channel systems, their fluvial counterparts, and larger submarine channel-levee systems imaged only with lower-resolution technologies. High-resolution imaging and detailed mapping made possible by cutting-edge oceanographic technology provide an unprecedented examination of deep-water channel-levee morphology and improve understanding of deep-water channel migration and levee development.

Maier, K. L.; Fildani, A.; Romans, B.; Paull, C. K.; McHargue, T.; Graham, S. A.; Caress, D. W.

2010-12-01

390

Does flood tolerance explain tree species distribution in tropical seasonally flooded habitats?  

PubMed

In the tropics, seasonally flooded forests (SFF) harbor fewer tree species than terra firme (i.e. non-flooded) forests. The low species diversity of tropical flooded forests has been ascribed to the paucity of species with adaptations to tolerate flooding. To test the hypothesis that flooding is the only factor restricting most species from SFF, we compared plant morphological and physiological responses to flooding in 2-month old seedlings of 6 species common to SFF and 12 species common to terra firme forests. Although flooding impaired growth, total biomass, maximum root length and stomatal conductance in most species, responses varied greatly and were species-specific. For example, after 90 days, flooding reduced leaf area growth by 10-50% in all species, except in Tabebuia, a common species from non-flooded habitats. Similarly, flooding had a 5-45% negative effect on total biomass for all species, except in 1 SFF and 1 terra firme species both of which had more biomass under flooding. A principal component analysis, using the above responses to flooding, provided no evidence that SFF and terra firme species differed in their responses to flooding. Flooding also caused reductions in root growth for most species. Rooting depth and root: shoot ratios were significantly less affected by flooding in SFF than in terra firme species. Although flood tolerance is critical for survival in flooded habitats, we hypothesize that responses to post-flooding events such as drought might be equally important in seasonal habitats. Therefore, we suggest that the ability to grow roots under anoxia might be critical in predicting success in inundated habitats that also experience a strong dry season. PMID:12743794

Lopez, Omar R; Kursar, Thomas A

2003-05-13

391

The flash flood of October 2011 in the Magra River basin (Italy): rainstorm characterisation and flood response analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 25 October 2011, the Magra River, a stream of northwest Italy outflowing into the Ligurian Sea, was affected by a flash flood, which caused severe economic damage and loss of lives. The catchment covers an area of 1717 km2, of which 605 km2 are drained by the Vara River, the major tributary of the Magra River. The flood was caused by an intense rainstorm which lasted approximately 20 hours. The most intense phase lasted about 8 hours, with rainfall amounts up to around 500 mm. The largest rainfall depths (greater than 300 mm) occurred in a narrow southwest - northeast oriented belt covering an area of approximately 400 km2. This flash flood was studied by analysing rainstorm characteristics, runoff response and geomorphic effects. The rainfall fields used in the analysis are based on data from the Settepani weather radar antenna (located at around 100 km from the study basin) and the local rain gauge network. Radar observations and raingauge data were merged to obtain rainfall estimates at 30 min with a resolution of 1 km2. River stage and discharge rating curves are available for few cross-sections on the main channels. Post-flood documentation includes the reconstruction of peak discharge by means of topographic surveys and application of the slope-conveyance method in 34 cross-sections, observations on the geomorphic effects of the event - both in the channel network and on the hillslopes - and the assessment of the timing of the flood based on interviews to eyewitnesses. Regional authorities and local administrations contributed to the documentation of the flood by providing hydrometeorological data, civil protection volunteers accounts, photos and videos recorded during and immediately after the flood. A spatially distributed rainfall-runoff model, fed with rainfall estimates obtained by the radar-derived observations, was used to check the consistency of field-derived peak discharges and to derive the time evolution of the flood. The assessment of unit peak discharges confirmed the severity of the flood, with values up to approximately 20 m3s-1km-2 in catchments up to 10-20 km2. The strong spatial gradients of the precipitation had a major influence on flood response, with large differences in peak discharge between neighbouring catchments. The magnitude of sediment transport processes, featuring as well a large variability among sub-basins, seems to have been controlled both by peak water discharge and by local geomorphological conditions affecting sediment supply, i.e. occurrence of large landslides connected to the channel network. A striking characteristic of the flood event was the recruitment and transport of large amounts of wood elements, deriving mostly from eroded portions of floodplains and islands along the main channels.

Marchi, Lorenzo; Boni, Giorgio; Cavalli, Marco; Comiti, Francesco; Crema, Stefano; Luca, Ana; Marra, Francesco; Zoccatelli, Davide

2013-04-01

392

An experimental investigation of the dynamics of submarine leveed channel initiation as sediment-laden density currents experience sudden unconfinement  

SciTech Connect

Leveed submarine channels play a critical role in the transfer of sediment from the upper continental slopes to interslope basins and ultimately deepwater settings. Despite a reasonable understanding of how these channels grow once established, how such channels initiate on previously unchannelized portions of the seafloor remains poorly understood. We conducted a series of experiments that elucidate the influence of excess density relative to flow velocity on the dynamics of, and depositional morphologies arising from, density currents undergoing sudden unconfinement across a sloped bed. Experimental currents transported only suspended sediment across a non-erodible substrate. Under flow conditions ranging from supercritical to subcritical (bulk Richardson numbers of 0.02 to 1.2) our experiments failed to produce deposits resembling or exhibiting the potential to evolve into self-formed leveed channels. In the absence of excess density, a submerged sediment-laden flow produced sharp crested lateral deposits bounding the margins of the flow for approximately a distance of two outlet widths down basin. These lateral deposits terminated in a centerline deposit that greatly exceeded marginal deposits in thickness. As excess density increased relative to the outlet velocity, the rate of lateral spreading of the flow increased relative to the downstream propagation of the density current, transitioning from a narrow flow aligned with the channel outlet to a broad radially expanding flow. Coincident with these changes in flow dynamics, the bounding lateral deposits extended for shorter distances, had lower, more poorly defined crests that were increasingly wider in separation than the initial outlet, and progressively became more oblong rather than linear. Based on our results, we conclude that leveed channels cannot initiate from sediment-laden density currents under strictly depositional conditions. Partial confinement of these currents appears to be necessary to establish the hydrodynamic conditions needed for sediment deposition along the margins of a density current which ultimately may evolve into confining levees. We suggest that erosion into a previously unchannelized substrate is the mostly likely source of this partial confinement.

Rowland, Joel C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hilley, George E [STANFORD UNIV; Fildani, Andrea [CHEVRON ETC

2009-01-01

393

Real-time flood forecasting  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Researchers at the Hydroinformatic Research and Development Team (HIRDT) of the National Taiwan University undertook a project to create a real time flood forecasting model, with an aim to predict the current in the Tamsui River Basin. The model was designed based on deterministic approach with mathematic modeling of complex phenomenon, and specific parameter values operated to produce a discrete result. The project also devised a rainfall-stage model that relates the rate of rainfall upland directly to the change of the state of river, and is further related to another typhoon-rainfall model. The geographic information system (GIS) data, based on precise contour model of the terrain, estimate the regions that were perilous to flooding. The HIRDT, in response to the project's progress, also devoted their application of a deterministic model to unsteady flow of thermodynamics to help predict river authorities issue timely warnings and take other emergency measures.

Lai, C.; Tsay, T. -K.; Chien, C. -H.; Wu, I. -L.

2009-01-01

394

Contaminated sediment transport during floods  

SciTech Connect

Over the past 48 years, operations and waste disposal activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have resulted in the contamination of parts of the White Oak Creek catchment. The contaminants presenting the highest risk to human health and the environment are particle reactive and are associated with the soils and sediments in the White Oak Creek drainage system. The erosion of these sediments during floods can result in the transport of contaminants both within the catchment and off-site into the Clinch River. A data collection program and a modeling investigation are being used to evaluate the probability of contaminated sediment transport during floods and to develop strategies for controlling off-site transport under present and future conditions.

Fontaine, T.A.

1992-06-01

395

Public perception of flood hazard and flood risk in Iceland: a case study in a watershed prone to ice-jam floods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding and improving the public perception has become an important element in the management of flood risk worldwide.\\u000a In Iceland, studying perception of flood hazard and flood risk is, however, in its early stages. This paper presents a case\\u000a study on the public perception of flood hazard and flood risk in an Icelandic town prone to ice-jam floods. Awareness of

Emmanuel PagneuxGu; Gurn Gsladttir; Salvr Jnsdttir

2011-01-01

396

When the Levee Breaks: Treating Adolescents and Families in the Aftermath of Hurricane Katrina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hurricane Katrina brought to the surface serious questions about the capacity of the public health system to respond to community-wide disaster. The storm and its aftermath severed developmentally protective family and community ties; thus its consequences are expected to be particularly acute for vulnerable adolescents. Research confirms that teens are at risk for a range of negative outcomes under conditions

Cynthia L. Rowe; Howard A. Liddle

2008-01-01

397

When the Levee Breaks: Treating Adolescents and Families in the Aftermath of Hurricane Katrina  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Hurricane Katrina brought to the surface serious questions about the capacity of the public health system to respond to community-wide disaster. The storm and its aftermath severed developmentally protective family and community ties; thus its consequences are expected to be particularly acute for vulnerable adolescents. Research confirms that

Rowe, Cynthia L.; Liddle, Howard A.

2008-01-01

398

Flood-frequency characteristics of Wisconsin streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flood-frequency characteristics for 312 gaged sites on Wisconsin streams are presented for recurrence intervals of 2 to 100 years using flood-peak data collected through water year 2000. Equations of the relations between flood-frequency and drainage-basin characteristics were developed by multiple-regression analyses. Flood-frequency characteristics for ungaged sites on unregulated, rural streams can be estimated by use of these equations. The state was divided into five areas with similar physiographic characteristics. The most significant basin characteristics are drainage area, main-channel slope, soil permeability, storage, rainfall intensity, and forest cover. The standard error of prediction for the equation for the 100-year flood discharge ranges from 22 to 44 percent in the state. A graphical method for estimating flood-frequency characteristics of regulated streams was developed from the relation of discharge and drainage area. Graphs for the major regulated streams are presented.

Walker, John F.; Krug, William R.

2003-01-01

399

Evaluation of internal flooding in a BWR  

SciTech Connect

Flooding inside a nuclear power station is capable of concurrently disabling redundant safety systems. This paper presents the results of a recent review study performed on internally-generated floods inside a boiling water reactor (BWR) reactor building. The study evaluated the flood initiator frequency due to either maintenance or ruptures using Markovian models. A time phased event tree approach was adopted to quantify the core damage frequency based on the flood initiator frequency. It is found in the study that the contribution to the total core damage due to internal flooding events is not insignificant and is comparable to other transient contributors. The findings also indicate that the operator plays an important role in the prevention as well as the mitigation of a flooding event.

Shiu, K.; Papazoglou, I.A.; Sun, Y.H.; Anavim, E.; Ilberg, D.

1985-01-01

400

Influence of flood risk characteristics on flood insurance demand: a comparison between Germany and the Netherlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existence of sufficient demand for insurance coverage against infrequent losses is important for the adequate function of insurance markets for natural disaster risks. This study investigates how characteristics of flood risk influence household flood insurance demand based on household surveys undertaken in Germany and the Netherlands. Our analyses confirm the hypothesis that willingness to pay (WTP) for insurance against medium-probability medium-impact flood risk in Germany is higher than WTP for insurance against low-probability high-impact flood risk in the Netherlands. These differences in WTP can be related to differences in flood experience, individual risk perceptions, and the charity hazard. In both countries there is a need to stimulate flood insurance demand if a relevant role of private insurance in flood loss compensation is regarded as desirable, for example, by making flood insurance compulsory or by designing information campaigns.

Seifert, I.; Botzen, W. J. W.; Kreibich, H.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

2013-07-01

401

Changes in flood frequencies in Switzerland since 1500  

Microsoft Academic Search

In northern Switzerland, an accumulation of large flood events has occurred since the 1970s, preceded by a prolonged period with few floods (Schmocker-Fackel and Naef, 2010). How have Swiss flood frequencies changed over the past 500 years? And how does the recent increase in flood frequencies compare with other periods in this half millennium? We collected historical flood data for

P. Schmocker-Fackel; F. Naef

2010-01-01

402

Flood Hazards: Communicating Hydrology and Complexity to the Public  

Microsoft Academic Search

Floods have a major impact on society and the environment. Since 1952, approximately 1,233 of 1,931 (64%) Federal disaster declarations were due directly to flooding, with an additional 297 due to hurricanes which had associated flooding. Although the overall average annual number of deaths due to flooding has decreased in the United States, the average annual flood damage is rising.

R. R. Holmes; S. F. Blanchard; R. R. Mason

2010-01-01

403

Flood-inundation maps for a 15-mile reach of the Kalamazoo River from Marshall to Battle Creek, Michigan, 2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Digital flood-inundation maps for a 15-mile reach of the Kalamazoo River from Marshall to Battle Creek, Michigan, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to help guide remediation efforts following a crude-oil spill on July 25, 2010. The spill happened on Talmadge Creek, a tributary of the Kalamazoo River near Marshall, during a flood. The floodwaters transported the spilled oil down the Kalamazoo River and deposited oil in impoundments and on the surfaces of islands and flood plains. Six flood-inundation maps were constructed corresponding to the flood stage (884.09 feet) coincident with the oil spill on July 25, 2010, as well as for floods with annual exceedance probabilities of 0.2, 1, 2, 4, and 10 percent. Streamflow at the USGS streamgage at Marshall, Michigan (USGS site ID 04103500), was used to calculate the flood probabilities. From August 13 to 18, 2010, 35 channel cross sections, 17 bridges and 1 dam were surveyed. These data were used to construct a water-surface profile for the July 25, 2010, flood by use of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The calibrated model was used to estimate water-surface profiles for other flood probabilities. The resulting six flood-inundation maps were created with a geographic information system by combining flood profiles with a 1.2-foot vertical and 10-foot horizontal resolution digital elevation model derived from Light Detection and Ranging data.

Hoard, C. J.; Fowler, K. K.; Kim, M. H.; Menke, C. D.; Morlock, S. E.; Peppler, M. C.; Rachol, C. M.; Whitehead, M. T.

2010-01-01

404

Groundwater The Subterranean Part of Flood Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Floods cause significant damages not only on, but also beneath the earths surface. Infiltration of surface water into deeper\\u000a soil, flooding of the urban sewer system and, in consequence, rising groundwater levels are main causes of subsurface damages.\\u000a There are various reasons for high groundwater levels during and after flood events. Two different processes can be specified.\\u000a The direct infiltration

Thomas Sommer

405

Flood of June 2008 in Southern Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In June 2008, heavy rain caused severe flooding across southern Wisconsin. The floods were aggravated by saturated soils that persisted from unusually wet antecedent conditions from a combination of floods in August 2007, more than 100 inches of snow in winter 2007-08, and moist conditions in spring 2008. The flooding caused immediate evacuations and road closures and prolonged, extensive damages and losses associated with agriculture, businesses, housing, public health and human needs, and infrastructure and transportation. Record gage heights and streamflows occurred at 21 U.S. Geological Survey streamgages across southern Wisconsin from June 7 to June 21. Peak-gage-height data, peak-streamflow data, and flood probabilities are tabulated for 32 USGS streamgages in southern Wisconsin. Peak-gage-height and peak-streamflow data also are tabulated for three ungaged locations. Extensive flooding along the Baraboo River, Kickapoo River, Crawfish River, and Rock River caused particularly severe damages in nine communities and their surrounding areas: Reedsburg, Rock Springs, La Farge, Gays Mills, Milford, Jefferson, Fort Atkinson, Janesville, and Beloit. Flood-peak inundation maps and water-surface profiles were generated for the nine communities in a geographic information system by combining flood high-water marks with available 1-10-meter resolution digital-elevation-model data. The high-water marks used in the maps were a combination of those surveyed during the June flood by communities, counties, and Federal agencies and hundreds of additional marks surveyed in August by the USGS. The flood maps and profiles outline the extent and depth of flooding through the communities and are being used in ongoing (as of November 2008) flood response and recovery efforts by local, county, State, and Federal agencies.

Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Peppler, Marie C.; Walker, John F.; Rose, William J.; Waschbusch, Robert J.; Kennedy, James L.

2008-01-01

406

Urban flood analysis in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flood insurance study information from the Federal Emergency Management Agency is utilized to estimate future flood hazard in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Techniques are described for estimating future urban runoff estimates. A method of developing stream cross section rating curves is explained. Future runoff estimates are used in conjuction with the rating curves to develop an estimate of 50- and 100- year flood profiles that would result from future urban development.

Tortorelli, Robert L.; Huntzinger, T. L.; Bergman, D. L.; Patneaude, A. L.

1983-01-01

407

Flood-inundation maps for the Saddle River from Rochelle Park to Lodi, New Jersey, 2012  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Digital flood-inundation maps for a 2.75-mile reach of the Saddle River from 0.2 mile upstream from the Interstate 80 bridge in Rochelle Park to 1.5 miles downstream from the U.S. Route 46 bridge in Lodi, New Jersey, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP). The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at Saddle River at Lodi, New Jersey (station 01391500). Current conditions for estimating near real-time areas of inundation using USGS streamgage information may be obtained on the Internet at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis/uv?site_no=01391500. The National Weather Service (NWS) forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often collocated with USGS streamgages. NWS-forecasted peak-stage information may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated using the most current stage-discharge relations at the Saddle River at Lodi, New Jersey streamgage and documented high-water marks from recent floods. The hydraulic model was then used to determine 11 water-surface profiles for flood stages at the Saddle River streamgage at 1-ft intervals referenced to the streamgage datum, North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88), and ranging from bankfull, 0.5 ft below NWS Action Stage, to the extent of the stage-discharge rating, which is approximately 1 ft higher than the highest recorded water level at the streamgage. Action Stage is the stage which when reached by a rising stream the NWS or a partner needs to take some type of mitigation action in preparation for possible significant hydrologic activity. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system 3-meter (9.84-ft) digital elevation model (derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data) in order to delineate the area flooded at each water level. The availability of these maps, along with Internet information regarding current stage from USGS streamgages and forecasted stream stages from the NWS, provide emergency management personnel and residents with information that is critical for flood response activities, such as evacuations and road closures, as well as for post-flood recovery efforts.

Hoppe, Heidi L.; Watson, Kara M.

2012-01-01

408

Fault tree analysis for urban flooding.  

PubMed

Traditional methods to evaluate flood risk generally focus on heavy storm events as the principal cause of flooding. Conversely, fault tree analysis is a technique that aims at modelling all potential causes of flooding. It quantifies both overall flood probability and relative contributions of individual causes of flooding. This paper presents a fault model for urban flooding and an application to the case of Haarlem, a city of 147,000 inhabitants. Data from a complaint register, rainfall gauges and hydrodynamic model calculations are used to quantify probabilities of basic events in the fault tree. This results in a flood probability of 0.78/week for Haarlem. It is shown that gully pot blockages contribute to 79% of flood incidents, whereas storm events contribute only 5%. This implies that for this case more efficient gully pot cleaning is a more effective strategy to reduce flood probability than enlarging drainage system capacity. Whether this is also the most cost-effective strategy can only be decided after risk assessment has been complemented with a quantification of consequences of both types of events. To do this will be the next step in this study. PMID:19403976

ten Veldhuis, J A E; Clemens, F H L R; van Gelder, P H A J M

2009-01-01

409

Reconstruction of the 1945 Wieringermeer Flood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present state-of-the-art in flood risk assessment focuses on breach models, flood propagation models, and economic modelling of flood damage. However, models need to be validated with real data to avoid erroneous conclusions. Such reference data can either be historic data, or can be obtained from controlled experiments. The inundation of the Wieringermeer polder in the Netherlands in April 1945 is one of the few examples for which sufficient historical information is available. The objective of this article is to compare the flood simulation with flood data from 1945. The context, the breach growth process and the flood propagation are explained. Key findings for current flood risk management addresses the importance of the drainage canal network during the inundation of a polder, and the uncertainty that follows from not knowing the breach growth parameters. This case study shows that historical floods provide valuable data for the validation of models and reveal lessons that are applicable in current day flood risk management.

Hoes, O. A. C.; Hut, R. W.; van de Giesen, N. C.; Boomgaard, M.

2013-03-01

410

Future populations at risk of flooding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flooding is one of the major risks anticipated to increase in association with anthropogenically induced climate change which is likely to intensify the global water cycle. In this study, daily discharge simulation by a relatively high-resolution (T106; about 1.1-degree) general circulation model under the A1B scenario was used to investigate future projections of population changes under risks of more frequent flooding. Currently, historical disaster record showed that 20 to 300 million people per year are affected by floods that threaten both social security and sustainable development. Out results indicate that in the case of 3C warming from the average of 1980-1999, approximately 300 million people could be at risk even in years of relatively low flooding; this number corresponds to the number of people affected in a devastating flood year at present. If the temperature increase is greater than 3C, the flood-affected population would likely be even larger. A Monte Carlo approach revealed that the population experiencing daily discharge higher than the 20C 100-year flood from 2091 to 2100 is in the top 35% of the ranges of possible population sizes (sum of the population in regions that were randomly selected from global land of the same area as the regions with flood discharge), while that in 1991-2000 was below 30% of the probable population sets. This result indicates that future flooding will occur more common in regions with high population densities.

Kanae, S.; Hirabayashi, Y.

2009-04-01

411

44 CFR 65.13 - Mapping and map revisions for areas subject to alluvial fan flooding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...from sources other than the fan apex, including local runoff...hazards in all areas of the fan (including those not protected...on areas subject to alluvial fan flooding shall be those specified...Certifications are subject to the definition given at § 65.2....

2009-10-01

412

44 CFR 65.13 - Mapping and map revisions for areas subject to alluvial fan flooding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...from sources other than the fan apex, including local runoff...hazards in all areas of the fan (including those not protected...on areas subject to alluvial fan flooding shall be those specified...Certifications are subject to the definition given at § 65.2....

2010-10-01

413

33 CFR 203.48 - Inspection guidelines for non-Federal flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The...these inspections determine Active status...CEI's. (b) Level of detail...personnel. The level of detail...required to help determine the Federal...the estimated level of protection...existing or needed erosion control...

2010-07-01

414

Urban flash flood in Gda?sk ? 2001; solutions and measures for city flood management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Floods in urban areas cause considerable economic losses and affect many people. Measures for flood mitigation in urban areas are primarily of an engineering character. Existing city infrastructure very often restricts the introduction of appropriate new constructions. The city of Gda?sk situated at the mouth of the Vistula River, is the most flood?prone agglomeration in Poland. Now there are three

Wojciech Majewski

2008-01-01

415

Calibrating flood inundation models: identifying and addressing uncertainty in satellite observed flood extents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improvements in the resolution of satellite imagery have enabled extraction of water surface elevations at the margins of the flood. Comparison between modelled and observed water surface elevations provides a new means for calibrating and validating flood inundation models, however the uncertainty in this observed data has yet to be addressed. Here a flood inundation model is calibrated using a

Liz Stephens; Paul Bates; David Mason

2010-01-01

416

A data based mechanistic approach to nonlinear flood routing and adaptive flood level forecasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operational flood forecasting requires accurate forecasts with a suitable lead time, in order to be able to issue appropriate warnings and take appropriate emergency actions. Recent improvements in both flood plain characterization and computational capabilities have made the use of distributed flood inundation models more common. However, problems remain with the application of such models. There are still uncertainties associated

Renata J. Romanowicz; Peter C. Young; Keith J. Beven; Florian Pappenberger

2008-01-01

417

El Nino floods and culture change: A late Holocene flood history  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1997-1998 El Nino generated large floods throughout southern Peru, especially in inland locations along Rio Moquegua. Using remote sensing, hydraulic modeling, field surveying, and stratigraphic analyses, we estimate the magnitude and frequency of this flood and determine a late Holocene flood history for main- stem and tributary sections. Modeling indicates a peak discharge of 450 m 3 \\/s for

Francis J. Magilligan; Paul S. Goldstein

418

44 CFR 60.5 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone...MANAGEMENT AND USE Requirements for Flood Plain Management Regulations § 60.5 Flood plain management criteria for flood-related...

2010-10-01

419

44 CFR 60.5 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone...MANAGEMENT AND USE Requirements for Flood Plain Management Regulations § 60.5 Flood plain management criteria for flood-related...

2009-10-01

420

Experimental study of the impact response of geocells as components of rockfall protection embankments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rockfall protection embankments are ground levees designed to stop falling boulders. This paper investigates the behaviour of geocells to be used as components of these structures. Geocells, or cellular confinement systems, are composite structures associating a manufactured envelope with a granular geomaterial. Single cubic geocells were subjected to the impact resulting from dropping a spherical boulder. The geocells were filled

S. Lambert; P. Gotteland; F. Nicot

2009-01-01

421

Evaluation of Flood Forecast and Warning in Elbe river basin - Impact of Forecaster's Strategy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) is responsible for flood forecasting and warning in the Czech Republic. To meet that issue CHMI operates hydrological forecasting systems and publish flow forecast in selected profiles. Flood forecast and warning is an output of system that links observation (flow and atmosphere), data processing, weather forecast (especially NWP's QPF), hydrological modeling and modeled outputs evaluation and interpretation by forecaster. Forecast users are interested in final output without separating uncertainties of separate steps of described process. Therefore an evaluation of final operational forecasts was done for profiles within Elbe river basin produced by AquaLog forecasting system during period 2002 to 2008. Effects of uncertainties of observation, data processing and especially meteorological forecasts were not accounted separately. Forecast of flood levels exceedance (peak over the threshold) during forecasting period was the main criterion as flow increase forecast is of the highest importance. Other evaluation criteria included peak flow and volume difference. In addition Nash-Sutcliffe was computed separately for each time step (1 to 48 h) of forecasting period to identify its change with the lead time. Textual flood warnings are issued for administrative regions to initiate flood protection actions in danger of flood. Flood warning hit rate was evaluated at regions level and national level. Evaluation found significant differences of model forecast skill between forecasting profiles, particularly less skill was evaluated at small headwater basins due to domination of QPF uncertainty in these basins. The average hit rate was 0.34 (miss rate = 0.33, false alarm rate = 0.32). However its explored spatial difference is likely to be influenced also by different fit of parameters sets (due to different basin characteristics) and importantly by different impact of human factor. Results suggest that the practice of interactive model operation, experience and forecasting strategy differs between responsible forecasting offices. Warning is based on model outputs interpretation by hydrologists-forecaster. Warning hit rate reached 0.60 for threshold set to lowest flood stage of which 0.11 was underestimation of flood degree (miss 0.22, false alarm 0.28). Critical success index of model forecast was 0.34, while the same criteria for warning reached 0.55. We assume that the increase accounts not only to change of scale from single forecasting point to region for warning, but partly also to forecaster's added value. There is no official warning strategy preferred in the Czech Republic (f.e. tolerance towards higher false alarm rate). Therefore forecaster decision and personal strategy is of great importance. Results show quite successful warning for 1st flood level exceedance, over-warning for 2nd flood level, but under-warning for 3rd (highest) flood level. That suggests general forecaster's preference of medium level warning (2nd flood level is legally determined to be the start of the flood and flood protection activities). In conclusion human forecaster's experience and analysis skill increases flood warning performance notably. However society preference should be specifically addressed in the warning strategy definition to support forecaster's decision making.

Danhelka, Jan; Vlasak, Tomas

2010-05-01

422

Modeling of partial flooding for criticality safety analysis  

SciTech Connect

Accidental exposure of fuel to water is often an important concern in criticality safety. This is the result of the effectiveness of water as a reflecting material and especially as a neutron moderating material. Even a low effective water density, such as that produced by fire protection sprinklers, is sometimes sufficient to produce a large reactivity increase relative to dry fuel. Also, the peak reactivity can occur when the water exposure is far below the maximum possible. For these reasons, it is necessary to consider all plausible water exposure possibilities when assessing the criticality safety of fuel. This paper explores approaches for modeling the partial flooding of stored fuel.

Schaefer, R.W. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1999-09-01

423

Emergency Watershed Protection Program. Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Emergency Watershed Protection (EWP) Program helps remove threats to life and property that remain in the nation's watersheds in the aftermath of natural disasters such as floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, and wildfires. This Programmatic Environmental I...

2004-01-01

424

Use of Synthetic Aperture Radar in Cold Climate Flood Response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite images during a cold climate disaster response event. There were 15 European Space Agency (ESA) Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar ASAR scenes, five Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) scenes, one RADARSAT2 scene, and numerous optical sensor data. These data were primarily used to indentify floodwater inundation polygons and flow vectors. However, in cold climate flooding, there are complicating factors such as frazil ice, ice jams, and snow-covered, frozen flood waters that are not present during warmer flooding events. The imagery was obtained through the International Charter "Space and Major Disasters. The Charter aims at providing a unified system of space data acquisition and delivery to those affected by natural or man-made disasters through Authorized Users. Each member agency has committed resources to support the provisions of the Charter, and thus is helping to mitigate the effects of disasters on human life and property. On 25 March 2009, the Charter was activated in response to the flooding along the Red River of the North in the states of North Dakota and Minnesota of the United States. The delivery time of a single SAR scene from a Charter participant was less than 12 hours from the time of acquisition. This expedited service allowed additional time for creating image-based derivations, field checking and delivery to a decision maker or emergency responder. SAR-derived data sets include identification of river ice and saturated ground conditions. This data could be provided to experts in river ice engineering for use in the development of plans to reduce ice jamming, its effect on water levels and additional stresses on river infrastructure. During disaster response applications, SAR data was found to very useful in indentifying open water and the front of ice jams. Using a river mask from historical imagery, the SAR data helped to confirm if areas behind flood protection were, in fact, frozen flood water or snow-covered field. This analysis would benefit from future research efforts because optical sensor data is of little use in this application.

Yarbrough, L. D.

2009-12-01

425

The pre YD Agassiz Flood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ever since the publication of the Gulf of Mexico 18O record by Kennett and Shackleton (1975), it has been generally accepted that the overflow of proglacial Lake Agassiz was diverted from the Mississippi River drainage system just prior to the onset of the Younger Dryas. Jim Teller has long championed a scenario involving diversion of the outflow through the Great Lakes into the St. Lawrence drainage. Klaus Rooth was the first to propose that a flood resulting from the opening of the Agassiz eastern outlet freshened the surface waters in the northern Atlantic, thereby shutting down the Atlantic's conveyor circulation. A seductive story; but is it true?

Broecker, W. S.

2005-12-01

426

Economic motivation of households to undertake private precautionary measures against floods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood damage is on the increase due to a combination of growing vulnerability and a changing climate. This trend can be mitigated only through significantly improved flood risk management which, alongside the efforts of public authorities, will include improvements in the mitigation measures adopted by private households. Economically "reasonable" efforts to self-insure and self-protect should be expected from households before the government steps in with publicly-funded relief programmes. To gain a deeper understanding of the benefits of households' precautionary measures, telephone interviews with private home owners were conducted in the Elbe and Danube catchments in Germany after the floods of 2002 and again after the floods in 2005 and 2006. Only detached, solid single-family houses were included in this study, which is based on 759 interviews. In addition, market-based cost assessments were solicited based on a "model building". Expert interviews and a literature review - including catalogues and price lists for building materials and household appliances - were used as back-up information for the cost assessments. The comparison of costs and benefits shows that large investments, such as building a sealed cellar, are only economically efficient if the building is flooded very frequently, that is, if it is located in a high flood risk area. In such areas it would be preferable in economic terms not to build a new house at all - or else to build a house without a cellar. Small investments, however, such as oil tank protection, can prevent serious damage at low cost. Such investments are still profitable even if the building is flooded every 50 years or less on average. It could be argued that these low-cost measures should be made mandatory through the enforcement of building codes. Financial incentives built into insurance contracts coupled with limits set on governmental relief programmes would provide an economic motivation for people to invest in precautionary measures.

Kreibich, H.; Christenberger, S.; Schwarze, R.

2011-02-01

427

76 FR 43965 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations...Areas. Specifically, it addresses the flooding sources Cumberland River (Lake Barkley...Incorporated Areas'' addressed the flooding sources Cumberland River (Lake...

2011-07-22

428

Flood Control Plans, Wallkill River, New York (Black Dirt Area).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project proposed flood control in the Black Dirt Area of the Wallkill River to reduce flood damages to farming. Environmental impacts include: Reduction of flood damages, resulting in enhancement of the economy of the region; modifications to streams,...

1973-01-01

429

Local Flood Proofing Programs (US Army Corps of Engineers).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Flood proofing is a proven approach to reducing flood damage. It involves altering an existing building or its immediate area to prevent or minimize damage during a flood. Alterations may range from minor changes to the utilities, to waterproofing walls, ...

2005-01-01

430

24 CFR 3285.302 - Flood hazard areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Flood hazard areas. 3285.302 Section 3285.302...INSTALLATION STANDARDS Foundations § 3285.302 Flood hazard areas. In flood hazard areas, foundations, anchorings, and...

2013-04-01

431

21 CFR 892.1380 - Nuclear flood source phantom.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nuclear flood source phantom. 892.1380 Section 892...Diagnostic Devices § 892.1380 Nuclear flood source phantom. (a) Identification. A nuclear flood source phantom is a device that...

2013-04-01