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1

Should Levee Goes Up or Down? A Risk Model for Flood Protection Standards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many cities, towns, and areas in the world rely on levee systems protecting them from the threat of flood. Levee systems are designed to provide a specific level of flood protection rather than completely avoid the risk. Due to more and more extreme hydrological condition in recent years, people expect raising the height of levees with higher protection standards as an exclusive means of enhancing protection. The levees system actually is not panacea for flood protection. A flood protection infrastructure may increase flood losses, known as "levee effect". From this perspective, if levees are strategically removed or lowered, the result could be reduced flood risk and increased goods and services. Facing current climate condition, should we consider higher or lower levee systems need to be further examined. To answer this ambiguous question, this study develops a conceptual risk model to evaluate the overall performance of levee system. A general decision rule of flood protection standard is proposed for better understanding of this issue. We indicate that the key factor is the ratio of the rate of change of benefit loss to the rate of change of risk increase. According to the conceptual, numerical examples are simulated. The numerical examples apply appropriate flood damage functions and use different probability distributions of flood to demonstrate levee effect and evaluate the result of changing protection standards. The decision is based on the tradeoff of the reduction of current loss and the possible increase of future threat. For most cases, it is found when the flood level increase, the risk decreases much faster than the increase rate of flood loss. As the result, we prove the increase of flood protection standard is beneficial expect some expect some special cases.

You, G.; Yu, S.

2012-12-01

2

Flood Protection Structure Accreditation Task Force: Interim Report  

E-print Network

inspections and assessments and the National Flood Insurance Program levee accreditation requirements of Completed Works (ICW) Program with the flood protection structure accreditation requirements of the National to satisfy NFIP flood protection structure accreditation requirements. (Task 2) The Flood Protection

US Army Corps of Engineers

3

Climate and floods still govern California levee breaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even in heavily engineered river systems, climate still governs flood variability and thus still drives many levee breaks and geomorphic changes. We assemble a 155-year record of levee breaks for a major California river system to find that breaks occurred in 25% of years during the 20th Century. A relation between levee breaks and river discharge is present that sets

J. L. Florsheim; M. D. Dettinger

2007-01-01

4

Levee breaches and uncertainty in flood risk mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the dense anthropization, to the agricultural and industrial exploitation and to its treasures of art and history, northern Italy floodplain, which is a result of the action of the rivers draining into the northern Adriatic sea, is a land where the mitigation of the flooding risk rises at crucial importance. Most of the major rivers flowing in this area have a long and complex history of training in order to protect the plain and the cities and it is difficult to predict the position where levee breaches can occur and the width and depth of the breaches. In view of an investigation on the uncertainties in flood risk mapping, with the aim of developing a methodology based on a stocastic approach to model the position, length and depth of the breach coupled with a simplified method to determine the flooded area, we collected information on major floods and statistics of levees breaches occurred in the Po, Adige, Brenta, Piave and Tagliamento rivers. We provide the statistics of 225 historical breaches occurred in the 1801-2000 time windows in the floodplain course of the Po river, which is 324 km long (from upstream to downstream, 80 km are meandering, 100 km are braided and the others are sinuous-straight). The first two stretches are characterised also by lateral inflow, while the last stretch is mainly characterised by routing and floodplain inundation processes. Three dominant levee collapse mechanisms (overtopping, erosion, piping) were considered. The highest number of breaches was registered in the meandering course, with overtopping strongly (78%) as the most frequent dominant mechanism. Three different samples of historical floods were considered, separated by two important floods (1857 and 1879). A significant decrease in the total number of breaches (per year and per kilometer) was observed since the second half of the 19th century, as a consequence of flood directives issued in that period and to the levees restoration after the floods. A decrease in the percentage of the overtopping was observed in the second period (77% in the first half of the 19th century, 56% in the 1857-1879 window and again 74% up to the 1951 flood) jointly to the increasing of piping (respectively 9%, 32% and 18% in the three time windows). Statistics on the breach occurrences in the Adige, Brenta, Piave and Tagliamento rivers are also presented and discussed.

Ranzi, Roberto; Barontini, Stefano; Ferri, Michele; Bacchi, Baldassare

2010-05-01

5

Hydraulic and flood-loss modeling of levee, floodplain, and river management strategies, Middle Mississippi River, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this investigation, four scenarios were used to quantify the balance between the benefits of levees for flood protection\\u000a and their potential to increase flood risk using Hazards U.S. Multi-Hazard flood-loss software and hydraulic modeling of the\\u000a Middle Mississippi River (MMR). The goals of this study were (1) to quantify the flood exposure under different flood-control\\u000a configurations and (2) to

Jonathan W. F. RemoMegan; Megan Carlson; Nicholas Pinter

6

Up or Out?--Economic-Engineering Theory of Flood Levee Height and Setback  

E-print Network

static conditions, annual peak flood flows usually fit an independent and identical probability, and floodplain land values, are constant. Optimality conditions can be applied to examine flood levee designsUp or Out?--Economic-Engineering Theory of Flood Levee Height and Setback Tingju Zhu1 and Jay R

Pasternack, Gregory B.

7

Flood protection for the Kansas City bannister federal complex  

SciTech Connect

The Bannister Federal Complex is bordered on the east by the Blue River and on the south by Indian Creek. After a flood in 1961 and several near-miss floods, flood protection has been installed. The protection consists of 2,916 feet of concrete flood walls, 8,769 feet of levee, five rolling gates, four stoplog gaps, one hinged pedestrian gate, and one sandbag gap. The flood walls are over 14 feet tall. Construction was started on August 3, 1992 and was completed in early 1995. Architectural treatment was incorporated in the flood walls as well as landscaping to enhance the appearance of the flood protection.

Nolan, J.J.; Williams, R.H. [AlliedSignal, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States). Kansas City Division; Betzen, G.A. [Kansas City Area Office, MO (United States)] [and others

1995-08-01

8

Flood protection for the Kansas City bannister federal complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bannister Federal Complex is bordered on the east by the Blue River and on the south by Indian Creek. After a flood in 1961 and several near-miss floods, flood protection has been installed. The protection consists of 2,916 feet of concrete flood walls, 8,769 feet of levee, five rolling gates, four stoplog gaps, one hinged pedestrian gate, and one

J. J. Nolan; R. H. Williams; G. A. Betzen

1995-01-01

9

Levee reliability analyses for various flood return periods - a case study in Southern Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, heavy rainfall conditions have caused damages around the world. To prevent damages by floods, levees have often been constructed in prone-to-inundation areas. This study performed reliability analyses for the Chiuliao 1st Levee located in southern Taiwan. The failure-related parameters were the water level, the scouring depth, and the in-situ friction angle. Three major failure mechanisms were considered, including the slope sliding failure of the levee, and the sliding and overturning failures of the retaining wall. When the variabilities of the in-situ friction angle and the scouring depth are considered for various flood return periods, the variations of the factor of safety (FS) for the different failure mechanisms show that the retaining wall sliding and overturning failures are more sensitive to the variability of the friction angle. When the flood return period is greater than 2 years, the levee can undergo slope sliding failure for all values of the water level difference. The results for levee stability analysis considering the variability of different parameters could assist engineers in designing the levee cross sections, especially with potential failure mechanisms in mind.

Huang, W.-C.; Yu, H.-W.; Weng, M.-C.

2015-01-01

10

Counter measures applied on levee system: Effects on flood map and probability of failure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historical records have shown that people living in the flood plain areas surrounded by levees are increased over the time around the world.. However, the effectiveness of different counter measures on increasing levee efficiency, and their environmental and economical consequences on the urbanized flood prone area, are not yet well exploited. The present research proposes a methodology to investigate the effects of two different counter measures on the estimation of the probability of levee failure due to overtopping and the consequent flood extent. The case study was performed in 98km-braided reach of Po River, Italy, between the cross-sections of Cremona and Borgoforte. The adopted methodology was divided into four core categories. Firstly, reliability analysis, expressed in terms of fragility curve, of the levee system in case of overtopping was performed using the geotechnical and geometrical data of the levee considering the grass cover quality as a stochastic variable to account the uncertainties associated to it. In order to estimate the fragility curves for all sections, a Monte Carlo framework was introduced. Secondly, 1D hydrodynamic model was implemented to estimate the water level in the river in case of a synthetic flood event of 200year return period. The information of the water level was used as hydraulic load into the previous fragility curves. Then, a levee breach modeli was introduced to address the uncertainties related to the location, size and development of the breaches. Finally, a 2D hydrodynamic model CA2D_S,based on the cellular automata approach in semi-inertial formulation for flux computation, was implementd. CA2D - SCENARI (CA2D_S) is a version of the CA2D model specifically designed to simulate levee breach scenarios in low land areas. The previous methodological steps were repeated for each countermeasure scenario and the results from CA2D, expressed in terms of flood extent, were compared and analyzed. The analysis showed that different counter measures can reduce the probability of failure of the levee system and prevent flooding locally.

Tekle, Shewandagn; Mazzoleni, Maurizio; Dottori, Francesco; Brandimarte, Luigia

2014-05-01

11

Levee breaches and uncertainty in flood risk mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the dense anthropization, to the agricultural and industrial exploitation and to its treasures of art and history, northern Italy floodplain, which is a result of the action of the rivers draining into the northern Adriatic sea, is a land where the mitigation of the flooding risk rises at crucial importance. Most of the major rivers flowing in this

Roberto Ranzi; Stefano Barontini; Michele Ferri; Baldassare Bacchi

2010-01-01

12

Monitoring of levees, bridges, pipelines, and other critical infrastructure during the 2011 flooding in the Mississippi River Basin: Chapter J in 2011 floods of the central United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the 2011 Mississippi River Basin flood, the U.S. Geological Survey evaluated aspects of critical river infrastructure at the request of and in support of local, State, and Federal Agencies. Geotechnical and hydrographic data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey at numerous locations were able to provide needed information about 2011 flood effects to those managing the critical infrastructure. These data were collected and processed in a short time frame to provide managers the ability to make a timely evaluation of the safety of the infrastructure and, when needed, to take action to secure and protect critical infrastructure. Critical infrastructure surveyed by the U.S. Geological Survey included levees, bridges, pipeline crossings, power plant intakes and outlets, and an electrical transmission tower. Capacitively coupled resistivity data collected along the flood-protection levees surrounding the Omaha Public Power District Nebraska City power plant (Missouri River Levee Unit R573), mapped the near-subsurface electrical properties of the levee and the materials immediately below it. The near-subsurface maps provided a better understanding of the levee construction and the nature of the lithology beneath the levee. Comparison of the capacitively coupled resistivity surveys and soil borings indicated that low-resistivity value material composing the levee generally is associated with lean clay and silt to about 2 to 4 meters below the surface, overlying a more resistive layer associated with sand deposits. In general, the resistivity structure becomes more resistive to the south and the southern survey sections correlate well with the borehole data that indicate thinner clay and silt at the surface and thicker sand sequences at depth in these sections. With the resistivity data Omaha Public Power District could focus monitoring efforts on areas with higher resistivity values (coarser-grained deposits or more loosely compacted section), which typically are more prone to erosion or scour. Data collected from multibeam echosounder hydrographic surveys at selected bridges aided State agencies in evaluating the structural integrity of the bridges during the flood, by assessing the amount of scour present around piers and abutments. Hydrographic surveys of the riverbed detected scour depths ranging from zero (no scour) to approximately 5.8 meters in some areas adjacent to North Dakota bridge piers, zero to approximately 6 meters near bridge piers in Nebraska, and zero to approximately 10.4 meters near bridge piers in Missouri. Substructural support elements of some bridge piers in North Dakota, Nebraska, and Missouri that usually are buried were exposed to moving water and sediment. At five Missouri bridge piers the depth of scour left less than 1.8 meters of bed material between the bottom of the scour hole and bedrock. State agencies used this information along with bridge design and construction information to determine if reported scour depths would have a substantial effect on the stability of the structure. Multibeam echosounder hydrographic surveys of the riverbed near pipeline crossings did not detect exposed pipelines. However, analysis of the USGS survey data by pipeline companies aided in their evaluation of pipeline safety and led one company to further investigate the safety of their line and assisted another company in getting one offline pipeline back into operation. Multibeam echosounder hydrographic surveys of the banks, riverbed, and underwater infrastructure at Omaha Public Power District power plants documented the bed and scour conditions. These datasets were used by Omaha Public Power District to evaluate the effects that the flood had on operation, specifically to evaluate if scour during the peak of the flood or sediment deposition during the flood recession would affect the water intake structures. Hydrographic surveys at an Omaha Public Power District electrical transmission tower documented scour so that they could evaluate the structural integrity of the tower as well as have the informati

Densmore, Brenda K.; Burton, Bethany L.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Cannia, James C.; Huizinga, Richard J.

2014-01-01

13

Aggradation of Leveed Channels and Their Flood Plains in Arroyo Bottoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many arroyos that formed by incision more than a century ago in the southwestern United States are currently filling with sediment. This reversal of processes is important because it causes changes in riparian ecology, erosion hazards, ground water recharge, and sediment supply to downstream. Along the Rio Puerco and Chaco Wash in New Mexico, we examined the geometry and facies of channel and floodplain stratigraphy exposed in trenches, used high-resolution dating of the sedimentary beds, and used photographs and other historical evidence to investigate the processes of aggradation in naturally leveed channels within arroyos. Prior to the onset of aggradation, the streambeds were composed of sand and had low relief, and arroyo walls retreated rapidly due to stream undermining. Aggradation began with the formation of sand levees at the margins of the streambeds, followed by formation of newer levees increasingly closer to the thalweg. These levees coincide with rows of woody shrubs (tamarisk and willow), plants that germinated in moist sand along the high-water marks of moderate flows, and survived because subsequent periods lacked flows large enough to remove them. Flow entering a row of woody shrubs decelerates, promoting deposition of suspended sand. Stream flows in this setting are always turbid but do not have the rheology of debris flows. The rows of shrubs probably are a requirement for initial formation of sand levees on low relief streambeds in this setting. As new levees formed closer to the thalweg the channel effectively narrowed, and smaller discharges overtopped the levees adjacent to the channel. Those closer levees accumulated sand most rapidly, leaving the suspended sand concentration depleted by the time water reached more distant ones. All levees aggraded vertically. As the main channel narrowed it acquired a roughly trapezoidal-shape (Top Width/Depth ~ 9 to 5) with banks inclined close to the angle of repose. In addition, sediment deposited on the emerging flood plain became dominated by silt (or clay) while the levees next to the channel remained dominated by fine or very fine sand. Furthermore, the channel and floodplain aggraded at similar rates and thus had come into geomorphic equilibrium. Vertical accretion of the channel banks, which are the flanks of channel-margin levees, was accomplished by deposition of inclined lamina and very thin beds dominated by silt that have fairly uniform thickness. This may have been promoted by rapid infiltration of stream water into the banks, filtering fine suspended sediment at the solid interface.

Vincent, K. R.

2005-12-01

14

33 CFR 385.37 - Flood protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Flood protection. 385.37 Section 385...and Purpose of the Plan § 385.37 Flood protection. (a) General. In accordance with section 601 of WRDA 2000, flood protection, consistent with...

2014-07-01

15

33 CFR 385.37 - Flood protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flood protection. 385.37 Section 385...and Purpose of the Plan § 385.37 Flood protection. (a) General. In accordance with section 601 of WRDA 2000, flood protection, consistent with...

2010-07-01

16

33 CFR 385.37 - Flood protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Flood protection. 385.37 Section 385...and Purpose of the Plan § 385.37 Flood protection. (a) General. In accordance with section 601 of WRDA 2000, flood protection, consistent with...

2013-07-01

17

33 CFR 385.37 - Flood protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Flood protection. 385.37 Section 385...and Purpose of the Plan § 385.37 Flood protection. (a) General. In accordance with section 601 of WRDA 2000, flood protection, consistent with...

2012-07-01

18

33 CFR 385.37 - Flood protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flood protection. 385.37 Section 385...and Purpose of the Plan § 385.37 Flood protection. (a) General. In accordance with section 601 of WRDA 2000, flood protection, consistent with...

2011-07-01

19

Wood River Levee Reconstruction, Madison County, IL  

E-print Network

provides for flood damage reduction and restores the original degree of protection of the Wood River Levee by the Flood Control Act of 1938 and modified by the Flood Control Act of 1965, with much of the construction be implemented under existing project authority. New authorization is required to implement the reconstruction

US Army Corps of Engineers

20

Flooding and Flood Risks  

MedlinePLUS

... Risk Scenarios The Cost of Flooding The Levee Simulator About The National Insurance Program Residential Coverage Commercial ... flash floods and tropical storms. Learn More Levee Simulator The FloodSmart Levee Simulator shows different ways a ...

21

Elemental chemistry of sand-boil discharge used to trace variable pathways of seepage beneath levees during the 2011 Mississippi River flood  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water samples were collected from the Mississippi River, from sand boils near the toe of the levee on the Mississippi side of the river, and from actively flowing relief wells shortly after peak stage of the 2011 Mississippi River flood. Two distinct pathways for seepage under the levee were identif...

22

Development of Floating Wave Barriers for Cost Effective Protection of Irrigation Pond Levees  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The earth levees commonly used for irrigation reservoirs are subjected to significant embankment erosion due to wind-generated waves. Large seasonal fluctuations in water level make vegetative bank protection impractical, and other stabilization methods, such as the use of stone or discarded tires, ...

23

Mississippi River, Coon Rapids Dam to Ohio River: feasibility report No. 1 for flood damage reduction, Muscatine Island Levee District, City of Muscatine, Iowa and Muscatine-Louisa County drainage district No. 13, Iowa  

SciTech Connect

Flood protection measures are proposed for the Muscatine Island Levee District and the Muscatine-Louisa County Drainage District No. 13 in southeastern Iowa. The project site is located between Mississippi River mile 455 and mile 442. The preferred plan would involve raising approximately 15.6 miles of the existing levee an average of two feet with hydraulic fill from the Mississippi River. The levee would be expanded on the landward side for most of its length. A 7500-foot segment in the northern section of the project area would be expanded riverward to avoid encroachment on existing industrial, commercial, and residential development. Concrete floodwalls would be used in four areas in the city of Muscatine, where space requirements did not allow for levee expansion. Associated features of the project would include raising and resurfacing existing road ramps, construction of a railroad closure at station 9 + 00 in Muscatine, modification of the discharge pipes at the Michael Creek pumping station, and mitigation of recreational fishing opportunities affected by the riverward levee expansion. The levee would be seeded with grasses and receive additional riprap where riprap currently exists. First costs of the project are estimated at $6.0 million.

Not Available

1985-08-01

24

Morphological Analyses and Simulated Flood Elevations in a Watershed with Dredged and Leveed Stream Channels, Wheeling Creek, Eastern Ohio  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The USGS, in cooperation with the Ohio Emergency Management Agency, conducted a study in the Wheeling Creek Basin to (1) evaluate and contrast land-cover characteristics from 2001 with characteristics from 1979 and 1992; (2) compare current streambed elevation, slope, and geometry with conditions present in the late 1980s; (3) look for evidence of channel filling and over widening in selected undredged reaches; (4) estimate flood elevations for existing conditions in both undredged and previously dredged reaches; (5) evaluate the height of the levees required to contain floods with selected recurrence intervals in previously dredged reaches; and (6) estimate flood elevations for several hypothetical dredging and streambed aggradation scenarios in undredged reaches. The amount of barren land in the Wheeling Creek watershed has decreased from 20 to 1 percent of the basin area based on land-cover characteristics from 1979 and 2001. Barren lands appear to have been converted primarily to pasture, presumably as a result of surface-mine reclamation. Croplands also decreased from 13 to 8 percent of the basin area. The combined decrease in barren lands and croplands is approximately offset by the increase in pasture. Stream-channel surveys conducted in 1987 and again in 2006 at 21 sites in four previously dredged reaches of Wheeling Creek indicate little change in the elevation, slope, and geometry of the channel at most sites. The mean change in width-averaged bed and thalweg elevations for the 21 cross sections was 0.1 feet. Bankfull widths, mean depths, and cross-sectional areas measured at 12 sites in undredged reaches were compared to estimates determined from regional equations. The mean percentage difference between measured and estimated bankfull widths was -0.2 percent, suggesting that bankfull widths in the Wheeling Creek Basin are generally about the same as regional averages for undisturbed basins of identical drainage area. For bankfull mean depth and cross-sectional area, the mean percentage differences between the measured and estimated values were -16.0 and -11.2, respectively. The predominantly negative bias in differences between the measured and estimated values indicates that bankfull mean depths and cross-sectional areas in studied reaches generally are smaller than the regional trend. This may be an indication of channel filling and over widening or it may reflect insufficient representation in the regional dataset of basins with characteristics like that of Wheeling Creek. Step-backwater models were constructed for four previously dredged reaches to determine the height of levees required to contain floods with recurrence intervals of 2, 10, 50, and 100 years. Existing levees (all of which are uncertified) were found to contain the 100-year flood at only 20 percent of the surveyed cross sections. At the other 80 percent of the surveyed cross sections, levee heights would have to be raised an average of 2.5 feet and as much as 6.3 feet to contain the 100-year flood. Step-backwater models also were constructed for three undredged reaches to assess the impacts of selected dredging and streambed aggradation scenarios on water-surface elevations corresponding to the 2-, 10-, 50-, and 100-year floods. Those models demonstrated that changes in water-surface elevations associated with a given depth of dredging were proportionately smaller for larger floods due to the fact that more of the flood waters are outside of the main channel. For example, 2.0 feet of dredging in the three study reaches would lower the water-surface elevation an average of 1.30 feet for the 2-year flood and 0.64 feet for the 100-year flood.

Sherwood, James M.; Huitger, Carrie A.; Ebner, Andrew D.; Koltun, G.F.

2008-01-01

25

18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Flood plain management and protection. 801...COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.8 Flood plain management and protection. ...waterways has not discouraged development of flood hazards areas. Major floods cause...

2014-04-01

26

18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Flood plain management and protection. 801...COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.8 Flood plain management and protection. ...waterways has not discouraged development of flood hazards areas. Major floods cause...

2013-04-01

27

18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Flood plain management and protection. 801...COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.8 Flood plain management and protection. ...waterways has not discouraged development of flood hazards areas. Major floods cause...

2012-04-01

28

18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Flood plain management and protection. 801...COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.8 Flood plain management and protection. ...waterways has not discouraged development of flood hazards areas. Major floods cause...

2011-04-01

29

18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flood plain management and protection. 801...COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.8 Flood plain management and protection. ...waterways has not discouraged development of flood hazards areas. Major floods cause...

2010-04-01

30

Flood Vulnerability and Flood Protection North and Baltic Seas  

E-print Network

G G G G Flood Vulnerability and Flood Protection North and Baltic Seas Meteorological Forcings NorthSea/BalticSeaMeteorologicalForcingsforDCSM28April2009 1 #12;G G G G Overview GLAMEPS Harmonie G G G G NorthSea/BalticSeaMeteorologicalForcingsforDCSM28April2009 2 #12;G G G G DCSM and Hirlam History

Vries, Hans de

31

Geophysical applications for levee assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Levees are important engineering structures that build along the rivers to protect the human lives and shield the communities as well as agriculture lands from the high water level events. Animal burrows, subsurface cavities, and low density (high permeability) zones are weakness features within the levee body that increase its risk of failure. To prevent such failure, continuous monitoring of the structure integrity and early detection of the weakness features must be conducted. Application of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Capacitively Coupled Resistivity (CCR) methods were found to be very effective in assessing the levees and detect zones of weakness within the levee body. GPR was implemented using multi-frequency antennas (200, 400, and 900 MHz) with survey cart/wheel and survey vehicle. The (CCR) method was applied by using a single transmitter and three receivers. Studying the capability and the effectiveness of these methods in levee monitoring, subsurface weakness feature detection, and studying the structure integrity of levees were the main tasks of this dissertation. A set of laboratory experiments was conducted at the Geophysics Laboratory of the University of Arkansas at Little Rock (UALR) to analyze the polarity change in GPR signals in the presence of subsurface voids and water-filled cavities. Also three full scale field expeditions at the Big Dam Bridge (BDB) Levee, Lollie Levee, and Helena Levee in Arkansas were conducted using the GPR technique. This technique was effective in detecting empty, water, and clay filled cavities as well as small scale animal burrows (small rodents). The geophysical work at BDB and Lollie Levees expressed intensive subsurface anomalies which might decrease their integrity while the Helena Levee shows less subsurface anomalies. The compaction of levee material is a key factor affecting piping phenomenon. The structural integrity of the levee partially depends on the density/compaction of the soil layers. A reduction in density or compaction of part of the levee body may create a zone of weakness during a flood. The Energy Variation Method (EVM) was used to detect the changes in electromagnetic (EM) energy reflected from the layers as a measure of the variation in density. Synthetic modeling was conducted to simulate a cross-section of a levee body to study the ground penetrating radar (GPR) signal behavior as it propagates in the model. EVM was calculated from the reflected signal to predict the changes in density (compaction). Comprehensive fieldwork was conducted to collect a 2,500 meter profile along part of the Helena Levee, Helena-West Helena, AR, for possible density variations in the soil using EVM of GPR signals. EVM is clearly capable of detecting changes in the dielectric constant. The association of these changes to the variation in density/compaction allows the EVM method to directly delineate these variations. Using such a robust method will definitely improve the assessment process as applied to levee structure. CCR data was collected to study the electrical resistivity distribution within the levee and its usefulness in levee's assessment. CCR was less effective to detect the animal burrows and other small anomalies due to nature of the method in its limitation of detecting very small features.

Chlaib, Hussein Khalefa

32

44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 ...INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND...

2013-10-01

33

44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... true Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 ...INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND...

2012-10-01

34

44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 ...INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND...

2014-10-01

35

44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 ...INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND...

2010-10-01

36

44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 ...INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND...

2011-10-01

37

Diversification of flood protection assets for reducing risk of extreme and catastrophic flood losses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent catastrophic losses due to floods require developing resilient approaches to flood risk protection. This paper assesses how diversification of a system of coastal protections might decrease the probabilities of extreme flood losses. The study compares the performance of portfolios each consisting of four types of flood protection assets in a large region of dike rings. A parametric analysis suggests

Qian Zhou; James Lambert; Chris Karvetski; Jeffrey Keisler; Igor Linkov

2013-01-01

38

Development of Floating Wave Barriers for Cost Effective Protection of Irrigation and Catfish Pond Levees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth levees for catfish ponds and irrigation water storage experience significant embankment erosion due to wind generated waves. Large seasonal fluctuations in water level make vegetative bank protection impractical, and other stabilization methods such as the use of old tires or riprap are not acceptable due to ecological and economic concerns. The goal of the present work is to define configurations and construction techniques for inexpensive floating breakwaters made of polyethylene irrigation tubing. Based on wave characteristics measured in an irrigation pond near Lonoke, Arkansas, a laboratory scale wave generating flume was designed, constructed, and used to test multiple wave barrier configurations for regular waves in deep and transitional water depths. Wave transmission characteristics were investigated for the following breakwater arrangements: (1) fully restrained, (2) vertically restrained with a single mooring line, (3) horizontally restrained with a rigid arm hinged at one end, and (4) horizontally restrained with piles at both sides of the breakwater. The test results show that cylindrical pipes can be used effectively as floating breakwaters and that wave transmission characteristics strongly depend on the draft of the breakwater and the mooring configuration. The use of multiple small cylinders instead of a single large one can reduce cost while maintaining the same level of wave attenuation. The wave characteristics measured in the field and the results of laboratory testing resulted in a final design that is to be tested at the prototype scale in an irrigation pond.

Ozeren, Y.; Wren, D. G.; Alonso, C. V.

2007-12-01

39

On mechanisms triggering the levees failure along the Foenna stream on 1st January 2006 and which caused the flooding in the urban area of Sinalunga, Tuscany Region (Italy). A case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 1st January 2006, during an ordinary flood event, a levee failure along the Foenna stream caused the flooding in the urban area of Sinalunga, a small town located in Tuscany region (Italy). The event was monitored by a public agency with the responsibility for the control and maintenance of the natural channel networks. Long time before of flooding, people living in the surrounding area of the stream blamed the presence of wild animals and of numerous burrows along the levees. Although the numerous actions of maintenance along the levees mainly for removing the burrows, a levee seepage occurred during that flood. The presence of an outflow located on the downstream face, almost 2 m below the levee top, caused the spurt of brown water denoting the presence of sediment erosion. On the upstream face of levee, a little hole of about 30 cm at the same height of the outflow was discovered. Although the agency workers tried to close the hole by using appropriate blankets, in short time the top of the levee subsided and the overtopping flow caused a trapezoidal breach typical for an earth-fill embankment. The formation of breach was so fast that in a little more of one hour the urban area near to the Foenna stream was flooded causing high economic damages. Mechanisms triggered the levees failure are the object of this work. The analysis of the event has been first addressed to assess the state of-fact of levees conditions along the Foenna stream, thus to understand how much the activity of wild animals, in particular that of porcupine, may have affected the hydraulic safety of the embankment. At the purpose, after the event, topographical surveys of cross sections have been done along with tomographic surveys by geoelectric technique for investigating the possible presence, besides of burrows, also of tunnels dug into the levees by animals. Then, the analysis of hydrometeorological conditions of the event has allowed to better understand the evolution of the flood and if its magnitude was able to affect the hydraulic holding of levees. Finally, the seepage vulnerability of these levees has been also assessed to address their hydraulic safety applying two models based on a steady and unsteady infiltration, respectively. Based on the obtained results, the following findings can be drawn. 1) The levees failure near the Sinalunga urban area is certainly due to the presence of the porcupine burrow at middle height of upstream face of levee that has addressed the flow into the embankment and then triggered the seepage phenomenon. 2) The works of the maintenance finalized to the closure of the burrows carried out before of the flood event were necessary but not sufficient to prevent the failure of levees. 3) To prevent the failure due to burrows presence, the levees maintenance should have been addressed through both the closure of burrows and the capture of wild animals; if this action had been done for the Foenna stream then the probability of failure would have been truly low. This last aspect has been also inferred through geoelectrical tomography surveys that showed the possible presence of at least two tunnels along both faces of levees, so emphasizing as the various closure of burrows made in the past by maintenance agency were totally useless. 4) The seepage vulnerability analysis has shown that levees might be to risk of failure for floods whose durations are consistent with the ones might occur in the Foenna basin. However, for this particular event the levees failure can be only ascribed to wild animals activity, seeing that the seepage was caused by a burrow hole.

Camici, Stefania; Moramarco, Tommaso; Brocca, Luca; Melone, Florisa; Lapenna, Vincenzo; Perrone, Angela; Loperte, Antonio

2010-05-01

40

24 CFR 574.640 - Flood insurance protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flood insurance protection. 574.640 Section...Other Federal Requirements § 574.640 Flood insurance protection. No property...Management Agency (FEMA) as having special flood hazards, unless: (a)(1) The...

2010-04-01

41

24 CFR 574.640 - Flood insurance protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Flood insurance protection. 574.640 Section...Other Federal Requirements § 574.640 Flood insurance protection. No property...Management Agency (FEMA) as having special flood hazards, unless: (a)(1) The...

2011-04-01

42

Levee Monitoring with Radar Remote Sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics in this presentation are: 1. Overview of radar remote sensing 2. Surface change detection with Differential Interferometric Radar Processing 3. Study of the Sacramento - San Joaquin levees 4. Mississippi River Levees during the Spring 2011 floods.

Jones, Cathleen E.

2012-01-01

43

44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...uncertainty in the estimated base flood loading conditions. Particular emphasis...seepage during loading conditions associated with the base flood and shall demonstrate...stability against loading conditions for Case IV as defined...

2013-10-01

44

44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...uncertainty in the estimated base flood loading conditions. Particular emphasis...seepage during loading conditions associated with the base flood and shall demonstrate...stability against loading conditions for Case IV as defined...

2012-10-01

45

44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...uncertainty in the estimated base flood loading conditions. Particular emphasis...seepage during loading conditions associated with the base flood and shall demonstrate...stability against loading conditions for Case IV as defined...

2014-10-01

46

Screening of Earthen Levees Using Synthetic Aperture Radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthen levees protect large areas of populated and cultivated land in the US from flooding. As shown recently with hurricanes Katrina and Ike and the recent floods in the Midwest, the potential loss of life and property associated with the catastrophic failure of levees can be extremely large. Over the entire US, there are over 100,000 miles of levee structures of varying designs and conditions. Currently, there are limited processes in place to prioritize the monitoring of large numbers of dam and levee structures. Levee managers and federal agencies need to assess levee health rapidly with robust techniques that identify, classify and prioritize levee vulnerabilities with lower costs than traditional soil-boring programs, which can cost many of millions of dollars and provide information about the subsurface only in the immediate vicinity of a small-diameter borehole. This paper reports preliminary results of a project studying the use of airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) as an aid to the levee screening process. The SAR sensor being studied is the NASA UAVSAR (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle SAR), a fully polarimetric L-band SAR which is specifically designed to acquire airborne repeat track SAR data for differential interferometric measurements. The instrument is capable of sub-meter ground sample distance. NASA has imaged with this instrument 230 km of levees along the lower Mississippi River for use in this study. SAR interferometric mode is capable of identifying vertical displacements on the order of a few millimeters. Its multipolarization measurements can penetrate soil to as much as one meter depth. Thus it is valuable in detecting changes in levees that will be key inputs to a levee vulnerability classification system. Once vulnerable levee reaches have been identified, further actions such as more detailed examination or repairs can be focused on these higher-priority sections. We report on the use of various feature detection algorithms being applied to the polarimetry data, including entropy-anisotropy decomposition and methods based on the Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM). The features detected are compared with various ground truth data including soil type maps, soil conductivity measurements, and on site visual inspections.

Aanstoos, J. V.; O'Hara, C.; Prasad, S.; Dabbiru, L.; Nobrega, R.; Lee, M.

2009-12-01

47

44 CFR 61.12 - Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal funds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal funds...INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.12 Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal...

2013-10-01

48

44 CFR 61.12 - Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal funds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2011-10-01 true Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal funds...INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.12 Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal...

2012-10-01

49

44 CFR 61.12 - Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal funds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal funds...INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.12 Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal...

2010-10-01

50

33 CFR 208.10 - Local flood protection works; maintenance and operation of structures and facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Local flood protection works; maintenance and operation...DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.10 Local flood protection works; maintenance and...

2014-07-01

51

44 CFR 61.12 - Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal funds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal funds...INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.12 Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal...

2011-10-01

52

44 CFR 61.12 - Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal funds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal funds...INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.12 Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal...

2014-10-01

53

33 CFR 208.10 - Local flood protection works; maintenance and operation of structures and facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Local flood protection works; maintenance and operation...DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.10 Local flood protection works; maintenance and...

2012-07-01

54

33 CFR 208.10 - Local flood protection works; maintenance and operation of structures and facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Local flood protection works; maintenance and operation...DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.10 Local flood protection works; maintenance and...

2013-07-01

55

Directionally drilled crossing constructed under river levee  

SciTech Connect

Shell Pipe Line Corp. recently commenced construction of its 20-inch Delta Loop Pipeline Project in south Louisiana. This line will transport crude oil from Main Pass No. 69 to the existing Shell pump station at Nairn in Plaquemines Parish. NBH, Inc. of New Orleans is prime contractor for this project which involves offshore pipe lay, shallow water marsh lay and a 4,100-foot horizontal directional crossing of the Mississippi River at Nairn which was undertaken by Land and Marine, Inc. of Houston. For past directionally drilled crossings, the New Orleans district of the US Army Corps of Engineers has only allowed drilling operations inside its Mississippi River flood protection levees. No drilling has been undertaken beneath the levees out of concern that the drilling operations could in some way damage their structural integrity. Unfortunately, at this particular location, the drill profile could not be designed placing drilling equipment inside the levee and achieve sufficient burial depth for the installed pipeline. If not allowed to bore beneath the levee, significant additional costs would have been incurred in routing the pipeline to a more suitable location. This paper reviews the design of this drilling operation showing the locations and construction of relief wells and piezometers used to monitor the directional drilling.

Skonberg, E.R. [Land and Marine, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Berry, C.W. [Shell Oil Products Co., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-06-01

56

Classification of levees using polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent catastrophe caused by hurricane Katrina emphasizes the importance of examination of levees to improve the condition of those that are prone to failure during floods. On-site inspection of levees is costly and time-consuming, so there is a need to develop efficient techniques based on remote sensing technologies to identify levees that are more vulnerable to failure under flood

Lalitha Dabbiru; James V. Aanstoos; Nicolas H. Younan

2010-01-01

57

Geotechnical reconnaissance of the Mississippi River Delta flood-protection system after Hurricane Katrina: Chapter 3C in Science and the storms-the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This article presents the post-Hurricane Katrina conditions of the flood-protection system of levees and floodwalls that failed in the environs of the Mississippi River Delta and New Orleans, La. Damage conditions and suggested mechanisms of failure are presented from the geotechnical point of view.

Luna, Ronaldo; Summers, David; Hoffman, David; Rogers, J. David; Sevi, Adam; Witt, Emitt C.

2007-01-01

58

Blackland's flood warning system protects soldiers  

E-print Network

tx H2O | pg. 28 Story by Kathy Wythe | pg. 28 A flood warning system resulting from a Texas AgriLife Research water quality monitoring project at Fort Hood is potentially saving lives and property. The Flood Alert System via Telemetry... or FAST uses stream level sensors attached to cell phones to notify Fort Hood Range Control of flooding at six low water crossings. The sensors are part of Blackland Research and Extension Center?s Fort Hood Water Quality Monitoring project, designed...

Wythe, Kathy

2008-01-01

59

Substation flood protection: A case study  

SciTech Connect

On July 18, 1996, the City of Naperville, Illinois encountered a substantial storm event ranging from nine to fourteen inches of rainfall across town in less than twelve hours, with the majority falling over a four-hour period. The watershed containing the City`s Westside substation encountered the most significant rainfall totals, resulting in a flood crest in the substation area of approximately thirteen inches of water. The station is a 138 kV substation, and the flooding of this station caused a power loss to approximately 60% of the City`s customers for more than eight hours. The water level posed no threat to yard equipment, however, within the substation control building, flood water shorted out control circuits and damaged transmission line relay systems. Crews worked round-the-clock for most of a week to return all transmission lines and transformers to normal service. The 15 kV switchgear ultimately had to be replaced due to recurring control circuit problems. Once the station was restored and the cleanup efforts underway, the City embarked on an evaluation to determine what condition or conditions allowed the flooding to occur, and what could be done in the future to avoid this problem to ensure that the customers of Naperville would not experience another service outage of this magnitude due to flooding.

Gacek, D.B. [City of Naperville, IL (United States); McGovern, L.L. [Burns and McDonnell, Westmont, IL (United States)

1999-11-01

60

Protecting Coastal Areas from Flooding by Injecting Solids into the Subsurface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subsidence and sea level rise conspire to increase the risk of flooding in coastal cities throughout the world, and these processes were key contributors to the devastation of New Orleans by hurricane Katrina. Constructing levees and placing fill to raise ground elevations are currently the main options for reducing flooding risks in coastal areas, and both of these options have drawbacks. We suggest that hydromechanical injection of solid compounds suspended in liquid can be used to lift the ground surface and thereby expand the options for protecting such coastal cities as New Orleans, Venice, and Shanghai from flooding. These techniques are broadly related to hydraulic fracturing and compensation grouting, where solid compounds are injected as slurries and cause upward displacements at the ground surface. The equipment and logistics required for hydromechanical solid injection and ground lifting are readily available from current geotechnical and petroleum operations. Hydraulic fractures are routinely created in the upper tens of meters of sediments, where they are filled with a wide range of different proppants for environmental applications. At shallow depths, many of these fractures are sub-parallel to the ground surface and lift their overburden by a few mm to cm, although lifting is not the objective of these fractures. Much larger, vertical displacements, of the order of several meters, could be created in low-cohesion sediments over areas as large as square kilometers. This would be achieved as a result of multiple injections. Injecting solid particulates provides the benefits of a permanent displacement supported by the solids. We have demonstrated that hydraulic fractures will lift the ground surface at shallow depths in Texas near the Sabine River, where the geological setting is generally similar to that of New Orleans (and where, incidentally, hurricane Rita landed in 2005). In these regions, the soft surficial sediments are underlain by relatively stiff Pleistocene deposits, which create in-situ stress conditions favorable for sub-horizontal orientation of hydraulic fractures. Based on the poroelastic effect, these conditions can further be improved by subsurface manipulations of pore fluid. Also, there are many geological examples of natural, sub- horizontal hydraulic fractures. These include multiple igneous sills (e.g., Henry Mountains, Utah) and sand- filled sills intruded into sedimentary formations (e.g., Shetland-Faroe Islands). Techniques that are currently used, or planned, for protecting coastal cities from flood are typically based on the concept of a barrier to the seawater (e.g., levees or water gates). However, the failure of any barrier to flood waters can be catastrophic when the city it protects is below sea level. Hydromechanical injection of solid compounds could permanently lift elevations above a Category 5 hurricane surge, so the risk of a catastrophic failure and subsequent flooding becomes insignificant. We envision that the hydromechanical method can be used in combination with other strategies. For example, in some areas it may be efficient to let most of a city retreat and only lift localized regions of particularly high value, such as airports, port facilities, refineries, historical areas, military bases, etc. In other cases, the protecting equipment itself may begin subsiding (e.g., massive, metal water gates on a soft-sediment foundation). Then, hydromechanical injections could be used to lift the region supporting this equipment.

Germanovich, L. N.; Murdoch, L.

2008-12-01

61

Cost of Flooding  

MedlinePLUS

... Schedule Floodsmart Video Library Flood Risk Scenarios The Cost of Flooding The Levee Simulator About The National ... you what a flood to your home could cost, inch by inch. Launch Cost Of Flooding Now ...

62

Effects of river reach discretization on the estimation of the probability of levee failure owing to piping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the centuries many societies have preferred to settle down nearby floodplains area and take advantage of the favorable environmental conditions. Due to changing hydro-meteorological conditions, over time, levee systems along rivers have been raised to protect urbanized area and reduce the impact of floods. As expressed by the so called "levee paradox", many societies might to tend to trust these levee protection systems due to an induced sense of safety and, as a consequence, invest even more in urban developing in levee protected flood prone areas. As a result, considering also the increasing number of population around the world, people living in floodplains is growing. However, human settlements in floodplains are not totally safe and have been continuously endangered by the risk of flooding. In fact, failures of levee system in case of flood event have also produced the most devastating disasters of the last two centuries due to the exposure of the developed floodprone areas to risk. In those cases, property damage is certain, but loss of life can vary dramatically with the extent of the inundation area, the size of the population at risk, and the amount of warning time available. The aim of this study is to propose an innovative methodology to estimate the reliability of a general river levee system in case of piping, considering different sources of uncertainty, and analyze the influence of different discretization of the river reach in sub-reaches in the evaluation of the probability of failure. The reliability analysis, expressed in terms of fragility curve, was performed evaluating the probability of failure, conditioned by a given hydraulic load in case of a certain levee failure mechanism, using a Monte Carlo and First Order Reliability Method. Knowing the information about fragility curve for each discrete levee reach, different fragility indexes were introduced. Using the previous information was then possible to classify the river into sub-reaches having different classes of reliability. This methodology was then applied to the Po River where the probability of failure in case of synthetic 100-year return period flood event was additionally calculated. The results of this study pointed out how the fragility classes assessed for the Po are in agreement with the historical observations. Moreover, the choice in the discretization criteria may affect the resulting probability of failure along the river reach. Classifying different levee reaches into different classes of fragility can be then used in a generic river reach where levee geometry is known. Furthermore, the proposed fragility analysis can support probabilistic flood risk mapping, monitoring and planning of maintenance works of levee systems. This study is part of the FP7 European Project KULTURisk.

Mazzoleni, Maurizio; Brandimarte, Luigia; Barontini, Stefano; Ranzi, Roberto

2014-05-01

63

Climate change and floods - findings and adaptation strategies for flood protection in Baden-Württemberg.  

PubMed

The climatic conditions in Southern Germany have changed noticeably in the 20th century, especially during the last three decades. Both in specific regions and interannually, the trends found exceed the natural margins of deviation previously known from long measurement series for some measured quantities. The mean and also the extreme floods are expected to increase significantly, although the results of the model chain global model-regional climate models-water balance models are still uncertain. As a precaution an adaptation strategy has been developed for the field of flood protection which takes into consideration the possible development for the next decades and also takes into account the uncertainties. PMID:17851203

Hennegriff, W

2007-01-01

64

Capacitively coupled resistivity survey of the levee surrounding the Omaha Public Power District Nebraska City Power Plant, June 2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report is a release of digital data from a capacitively coupled resistivity survey conducted on June 13, 2011, on the flood-protection levees surrounding the Omaha Public Power District Nebraska City power plant. The U.S. Geological Survey Crustal Geophysics and Geochemistry Science Center and the Nebraska Water Science Center performed the survey in response to a flood on the Missouri River. A single line of resistivity profiling was completed along the center line of the section of levee 573 that surrounds the power plant.

Burton, Bethany L.; Cannia, James C.

2011-01-01

65

Optimization of the flood protection effect of a hydropower multi-reservoir system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of existing hydroelectricity multi-reservoir systems for flood protection may be an efficient approach in many catchment areas. The assessment of the protection potential offered by the hydropower plants during floods requires a comprehensive analysis of the catchment area, including the simulation of flood scenarios. A methodology for the optimization of turbine and bottom outlet operations of multi-reservoir systems

Frédéric M. Jordan; Jean-Louis Boillat; Anton J. Schleiss

2012-01-01

66

Characterizing Levees using Polarimetric and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring the physical condition of levees is vital in order to protect them from flooding. The dynamics of subsurface water events can cause damage on levee structures which could lead to slough slides, sand boils or through seepage. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technology, due to its high spatial resolution and soil penetration capability, is a good choice to identify such problem areas so that they can be treated to avoid possible catastrophic failure. The radar polarimetric and interferometric data is capable of identifying variations in soil properties of the areas which might cause levee failure. The study area encompasses portion of levees of the lower Mississippi river in the United States. The methodology of this research is mainly categorized into two streams: 1) polarimetric data analysis and classification, and 2) interferometric analysis. Two sources of SAR imagery are used: a) quad-polarized, L-band data from Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) for polarimetric classification, and b) high resolution dual-polarized Terrasar-X data for interferometric analysis. NASA's UAVSAR imagery acquired between 2009 and 2011 are used for the analysis. The polarimetric classification is performed based on the decomposition parameters: entropy (H), anisotropy (A) and alpha (?) and the results detected slough slides on the levees and potential future slides. In the interferometric approach, the Terrasar-X SAR images acquired at different times in the year 2011 are combined into pairs to exploit the phase difference of the signals. The interferometric information is used to find evidence of potential small-scale deformations which could be pre-cursors to levee failure.

Dabbiru, L.; Aanstoos, J. V.; Mahrooghy, M.; Gokaraju, B.; Nobrega, R. A.; Younan, N. H.

2011-12-01

67

Towards a deeper judicial protection against floods in France By Thomas THUILLIERi  

E-print Network

Towards a deeper judicial protection against floods in France By Thomas THUILLIERi Column role in the field of flood risk management. Even if they cannot be considered as the main actors of flood risk management, they are developing, through legality reviews or actions for damages, an original

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

68

Tiger Dams Reinforce Baton Rouge Levees  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Tiger Dams line the Baton Rouge Mississippi River levee during the 2011 Flood.  Previously used to prevent oil from reaching Louisiana's coast during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, these Tiger Dams are filled with water and reinforced with sandbags to give the Baton Rouge Mississippi Riv...

69

33 CFR 203.51 - Levee owner's manual.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood...Authority. In accordance with section 202(f) of Public Law 104-303, the Corps will provide a levee owner's...

2010-07-01

70

Floods  

MedlinePLUS

... Matters What's New A - Z Index Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ... Septic Systems After a Flood [EPA] Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ...

71

Natural levee formation along a large and regulated river: The Danube in the National Park Donau-Auen, Austria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated overbank deposition and natural levee formation along the Danube east of Vienna based on airborne laserscan data (ALS) combined with historical information. The analyses of equally spaced cross sections, hypsographic curves and point elevations revealed the significance of the distance from the river bank, the floodplain width and the floodplain flow situation (inflow/outflow sections) for the spatial variability of sediment deposition. Deposition was high near the banks (natural levee formation), in wide floodplain sections and in inflow areas. The overall pattern was modified by the presence of side-channels and the micro-relief of the floodplain. From the derived sedimentation rates (averaged for the past 120 years over the reach) of about 11.0 mm yr- 1 at the natural levee and about 0.3 mm yr- 1 at the flood protection dyke, we can estimate an overbank deposit rate of 416,000 m3 yr- 1 for the entire free-flowing reach (between river-km 1921 and 1880), that is, between 18 and 20% of the annual transported suspended load. An analysis of historical cross sections showed that there was no natural levee along the riverbanks shortly after the regulation, about 100 years ago. We thus assume that natural levee formation is a consequence of the Danube regulation in the late 19th century. Under natural conditions overbank deposition was balanced and limited by side erosion and lateral channel migration. After stabilization of the banks the overbank deposits were not eroded, and distinct ‘natural’ levees formed. These levees will develop and grow further and affect flood protection and floodplain ecology. We discuss the interplay between floodplain deposition and lateral bank migration under the concept of dynamic equilibrium.

Klasz, Gerhard; Reckendorfer, Walter; Gabriel, Hannes; Baumgartner, Christian; Schmalfuss, Roland; Gutknecht, Dieter

2014-06-01

72

Levee Health Monitoring With Radar Remote Sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing offers the potential to augment current levee monitoring programs by providing rapid and consistent data collection over large areas irrespective of the ground accessibility of the sites of interest, at repeat intervals that are difficult or costly to maintain with ground-based surveys, and in rapid response to emergency situations. While synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has long been used for subsidence measurements over large areas, applying this technique directly to regional levee monitoring is a new endeavor, mainly because it requires both a wide imaging swath and fine spatial resolution to resolve individual levees within the scene, a combination that has not historically been available. Application of SAR remote sensing directly to levee monitoring has only been attempted in a few pilot studies. Here we describe how SAR remote sensing can be used to assess levee conditions, such as seepage, drawing from the results of two levee studies: one of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta levees in California that has been ongoing since July 2009 and a second that covered the levees near Vicksburg, Mississippi, during the spring 2011 floods. These studies have both used data acquired with NASA's UAVSAR L-band synthetic aperture radar, which has the spatial resolution needed for this application (1.7 m single-look), sufficiently wide imaging swath (22 km), and the longer wavelength (L-band, 0.238 m) required to maintain phase coherence between repeat collections over levees, an essential requirement for applying differential interferometry (DInSAR) to a time series of repeated collections for levee deformation measurement. We report the development and demonstration of new techniques that employ SAR polarimetry and differential interferometry to successfully assess levee health through the quantitative measurement of deformation on and near levees and through detection of areas experiencing seepage. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta levee study, which covers the entire network of more than 1100 miles of levees in the area, has used several sets of in situ data to validate the results. This type of levee health status information acquired with radar remote sensing could provide a cost-effective method to significantly improve the spatial and temporal coverage of levee systems and identify areas of concern for targeted levee maintenance, repair, and emergency response in the future. Our results show, for example, that during an emergency, when time is of the essence, SAR remote sensing offers the potential of rapidly providing levee status information that is effectively impossible to obtain over large areas using conventional monitoring, e.g., through high precision measurements of subcentimeter-scale levee movement prior to failure. The research described here was carried out in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Jones, C. E.; Bawden, G. W.; Deverel, S. J.; Dudas, J.; Hensley, S.; Yun, S.

2012-12-01

73

A NEW APPROACH TO FLOOD PROTECTION DESIGN AND RIPARIAN MANAGEMENT1  

E-print Network

in California in the last two or three decades. Coastal Northern California has experienced two large floods in the last three decades, in January 1982 and February 1986. The experience of the channelized Bran- ciforteA NEW APPROACH TO FLOOD PROTECTION DESIGN AND RIPARIAN MANAGEMENT1 2 Philip B. Williams

Standiford, Richard B.

74

Citizens' Perceptions of Flood Hazard Adjustments: An Application of the Protective Action Decision Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although research indicates that adoption of flood preparations among Europeans is low, only a few studies have attempted to explain citizens' preparedness behavior. This article applies the Protective Action Decision Model (PADM) to explain flood preparedness intentions in the Netherlands. Survey data ("N" = 1,115) showed that…

Terpstra, Teun; Lindell, Michael K.

2013-01-01

75

Floods  

MedlinePLUS

... neighborhood or community, or very large, affecting entire river basins and multiple states. Flash floods can occur ... flooding event typically occurs when waterways such as rivers or streams overflow their banks as a result ...

76

Flooding  

MedlinePLUS

... con monóxido de carbono. Limit contact with flood water. Flood water may have high levels of raw ... from Centers for Disease Control Alert: Boil Drinking Water If your water may not be safe, bring ...

77

Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact for completion of flood protection works, Bannister Road Federal Complex, Kansas City, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to provide partial funding to the Corps of Engineers (COE) for the completion of the flood protection works at the Bannister Road Federal Complex in Kansas City, Missouri. The DOE Kansas City Plant is a major tenant of the Complex. COE has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) for the project which includes the construction of levees, floodwalls, and drainage ditches. DOE has adopted the EA prepared by COE (DOE/EA-0509), this report. Based on the analyses in this EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, 42 USC 4321 et seq. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

Not Available

1991-09-18

78

Woody Vegetation on Levees? - Research Experiences and Design Suggestions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent flood events in Austria have reawakened practical and scientific interest in the stability of levees. One focus amongst others has been taken on the relationship between vegetation and levee stability with special reference to the role of woody plants. The effects of woody plants are undoubtedly manifold: On the one hand they can potentially have a negative influence and endanger levees, which is why many guidelines ban woody vegetation to preserve stability, visual inspection and unhindered flood-fight access. On the other hand woody vegetation can have several positive impacts on soil stability and which effects prevail depends largely on types and characteristics of plants. This shows how controversially woody plants on levees can be discussed and the strong need for further research in this field. In order to obtain new insights and widen horizons for this controversial issue, a research project carried out by the Institute of Soil Bioengineering and Landscape Construction - at the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna - was launched. This project deals with several aspects of effects of woody plants have on levees and focuses particularly on shrubby woody plants. The examined vegetation type is a dense stand of willows - Purple-Willows (Salix purpurea L.) - commonly used for stabilization of river embankments. The proposed contribution discusses the gained results with reference to levee stability and existing levee vegetation guidelines and gives design suggestions for compatible woody vegetation on levees.

Lammeranner, Walter

2013-04-01

79

The protection of RIVERLIFE by mitigation of flood damages RIVERLIFE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-term development objective of the RIVERLIFE project is to contribute to sustainable human end economic development in the Timis-Bega river basin area as part of the Danube River Basin (DRB), through reinforcing the capacities of Romanian central and local authorities to develop effective mechanisms and tools for integrated river basin management in the Timis-Bega basin. The overall objective of the project is to assist the country in the EU enlargement and accession process to meet the EU requirements of water related Directives with emphasis on the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). The specific objective of the project is to support the WFD implementation process at the level of a sub-unit within the limits of the DRB, through the development of a River Basin Management Plan (RBMP). The project will also facilitate the implementation of the Danube River Protection Convention (DRPC) as an essential element in the implementation of the Directive in the transboundary river basins. Expected outcomes in the recipient country consist of (i) responding to a real hazard problem, which affects the quality of life of many citizens, and (ii) improvement in the environmental conditions in the targeted areas. Flooding is one of the major natural hazards to human society and an important influence on social and economic development for Romania causing financially greater losses per annum on average than any other natural hazard. One key concept of the WFD is the coordination, organization and regulation of water management at the level of river basins. Therefore, river basin districts are shaped in such a way as to include not only the surface run-off through streams and rivers to the sea, but the total area of land and sea together with the associated groundwater and coastal waters. The concept allows even for the small river basins directly discharging into the sea to be combined into one river basin district. As a principle, the complex decisions on the use or interventions in the aquatic systems within the river basin district limits should take place in an integrated and co-coordinated approach as part of the RBMP. The process includes all RBMP plan development phases for Timis-Bega basin from planning and analysis phases to the assessment and the identification of respective programs of measures intended to achieve the defined environmental objectives for the respective river basin. The central administrative tool of the WFD is the River Basin Management Plan, around which all other elements are set. The river basin becomes the basic unit for all water planning and management interventions according with the physical and hydrological boundaries, but not necessary with its political and administrative limits.

Adler, M. J.

2003-04-01

80

Flood  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Flood site is an experiment with a stream table to see what happens during a flood. It was originally a joint project between a 6th grade class and the Bureau of Economic Geography. There are explanations and photographs of the experimental set up and of students and their observation of rivers forming and the creation of a flood. There is also a worksheet for experimental notes and a sheet containing the experimental method and instructions.

81

IAHR Europe Congress, Book of Proceedings, 2014, Porto -Portugal. ISBN 978-989-96479-2-3 THE RISK ANALYSIS OF LEVEE SYSTEMS  

E-print Network

THE RISK ANALYSIS OF LEVEE SYSTEMS RÃ?MY TOURMENT(1), MICHAEL WALLIS(2), BRUNO BEULLAC(1), ANDREAS of risk analysis to levees and the differences and complementarities between levee assessment and flood risk analysis. An analytical method of levee systems risk analysis integrating functional analysis

82

The Morphodynamics of Sub-aerial Natural Levees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As important as natural levees are to floodplain conveyance systems, it is surprising that they have yet to be quantitatively characterized and related to channel and floodplain hydraulics. We do not yet know what factors determine their presence or absence, nor can we predict their basic morphometry as a function of the relevant hydraulic factors. A survey of natural levees from the literature and particularly from the anastomosed reach of the Columbia River in British Columbia, and the Cumberland reach of the Saskatchewan River, Saskatchewan, indicates that the morphology of natural sub-aerial levees depends upon levee age, channel size, and the maximum height to which waters are ponded during floods or storm surges. Vegetation, grain size, floodbasin width, channel stability, and rate of channel alluviation exert secondary controls. Slopes of levees along young channels tend to be markedly steeper than those along mature channels, suggesting an asymptotic approach to a dynamic equilibrium height. Levee slopes also decline exponentially with increasing floodbasin width. Levee widths are highly variable, ranging from fractions of channel width to over 10 for alluvial and deltaic cases. Although data are sparse, levee cross-sectional area appears to scale linearly with channel cross-sectional area. In alluvial and deltaic levees, one levee of a pair is often significantly higher, wider, or steeper than the other, with no systematic variation along a channel. We conjecture that the origin of these relationships lies in the relative volumes of sediment transferred from the channel to the floodbasin via two mechanisms: diffusion and advection. Diffusive transfer occurs when turbid turbulent eddies along the channel boundary during flooding spin off onto the floodbasin and decelerate, allowing grains to settle at distances determined by channel geometry, floodplain roughness, particle size distribution, and flow character. Advective transfer occurs when turbid flows leave the channel as channel water overtops the banks or exits through crevasses to deposit sediment on the distal areas of levees. Although hard data are lacking, we suspect that both transfer mechanisms are significantly influenced by the baffling effects of levee vegetation. Dynamic equilibrium levee height is set by a channel-shaping bankfull flow that has just enough power to lift bed material to the levee top. Levee width is set by the dynamics of floodbasin filling.

Slingerland, R.; Smith, N. D.

2005-12-01

83

Climate Change and Floods - Findings and Adaptation Strategies for Flood Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The climatic conditions in Southern Germany have changed noticeably in the 20th century, especially during the last three decades. Both in specific regions and interannually, the trends found exceed the natural margins of deviation previously known from long measure- ment series for some measured quantities. The mean and also the extreme floods are ex- pected to increase significantly, although

Wolfgang Hennegriff; Hans Weber; Hella Bartels

84

Protection against flooding: a new Delta Plan in The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1993 and 1995 both the Meuse and Rhine achieved seriously high water levels caused by heavy rainfall. The consequences of these two events were significant water damage along the Meuse (in 1993 and 1995) and along the Rhine (in 1995). The local waterboards could no longer guaranty the security against flooding of various polders. As a result of this

FRANK P. HALLIE; RICHARD E. JORISSEN

85

Towards modelling flood protection investment as a coupled human and natural system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to a number of recent high profile flood events and the apparent threat from global warming, governments and their agencies are under pressure to make proactive investments to protect people living in floodplains. However, adopting a proactive approach as a universal strategy is not affordable. It has been argued that delaying expensive and essentially irreversible capital decisions could be a prudent strategy in situations with high future uncertainty. This paper firstly uses Monte Carlo simulation to explore the performance of proactive and reactive investment strategies using a rational cost-benefit approach in a natural system with varying levels of persistence/interannual variability in Annual Maximum Floods. It is found that, as persistence increases, there is a change in investment strategy optimality from proactive to reactive. This could have implications for investment strategies under the increasingly variable climate that is expected with global warming. As part of the emerging holistic approaches to flood risk management, there is increasing emphasis on stakeholder participation in determining where and when flood protection investments are made, and so flood risk management is becoming more people-centred. As a consequence, multiple actors are involved in the decision-making process, and the social sciences are assuming an increasingly important role in flood risk management. There is a need for modelling approaches which can couple the natural and human system elements. It is proposed that Coupled Human and Natural System (CHANS) modelling could play an important role in understanding the motivations, actions and influence of citizens and institutions and how these impact on the effective delivery of flood protection investment. A framework for using Agent Based Modelling of human activities leading to flood investments is outlined, and some of the challenges associated with implementation are discussed.

O'Connell, P. E.; O'Donnell, G.

2013-06-01

86

Towards modelling flood protection investment as a coupled human and natural system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to a number of recent high-profile flood events and the apparent threat from global warming, governments and their agencies are under pressure to make proactive investments to protect people living in floodplains. However, adopting a proactive approach as a universal strategy is not affordable. It has been argued that delaying expensive and essentially irreversible capital decisions could be a prudent strategy in situations with high future uncertainty. This paper firstly uses Monte Carlo simulation to explore the performance of proactive and reactive investment strategies using a rational cost-benefit approach in a natural system with varying levels of persistence/interannual variability in annual maximum floods. It is found that, as persistence increases, there is a change in investment strategy optimality from proactive to reactive. This could have implications for investment strategies under the increasingly variable climate that is expected with global warming. As part of the emerging holistic approaches to flood risk management, there is increasing emphasis on stakeholder participation in determining where and when flood protection investments are made, and so flood risk management is becoming more people-centred. As a consequence, multiple actors are involved in the decision-making process, and the social sciences are assuming an increasingly important role in flood risk management. There is a need for modelling approaches which can couple the natural and human system elements. It is proposed that coupled human and natural system (CHANS) modelling could play an important role in understanding the motivations, actions and influence of citizens and institutions and how these impact on the effective delivery of flood protection investment. A framework for using agent-based modelling of human activities leading to flood investments is outlined, and some of the challenges associated with implementation are discussed.

O'Connell, P. E.; O'Donnell, G.

2014-01-01

87

Flood control failure: San Lorenzo River, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The San Lorenzo River on the central California coast was the site of a major US Army Corps of Engineers flood control project in 1959. By excavating the channel below its natural grade and constructing levees, the capacity of the river was increased in order to contain approximately the 100 year flood. Production and transport of large volumes of sediment from the river's urbanizing watershed has filled the flood control project with sand and silt. The natural gradient has been re-established, and flood protection has been reduced to containment of perhaps the 30 year flood. In order for the City of Santa Cruz, which is situated on the flood plain, to be protected from future flooding,it must either initiate an expensive annual dredging program, or replan and rebuild the inadequately designed flood control channel. It has become clear, here and elsewhere, that the problem of flooding cannot simply be resolved by engineering. Large flood control projects provide a false sense of security and commonly produce unexpected channel changes.

Griggs, Gary B.; Paris, Lance

1982-09-01

88

FLOOD PROTECTION STRUCTURE ACCREDITATION TASK FORCE More than 21,000 communities across the U.S. and its territories voluntarily participate in the NFIP by  

E-print Network

FLOOD PROTECTION STRUCTURE ACCREDITATION TASK FORCE BACKGROUND More than 21,000 communities across management ordinances to reduce future flood damage. In exchange, the NFIP makes federally-backed flood is expected to perform during the 1% ACE event or 100- year flood (this is defined as the "base flood" in NFIP

US Army Corps of Engineers

89

Flood Management and Protection from the Social Point of View: Case Study from Ukraine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Defining Issue According to the statistics presented by the Ministry of Emergencies of Ukraine, river floods have imposed the most severe damages to the sectors of economy and the human communities in Ukraine. But, an adaptability and a vulnerability of Ukrainian society to floods are still poorly understood. Results Presentation In the response to increasing flood losses in the country between 1998 and 2008, the State Hydrometeorological Service of Ukraine, which is subordinate to the Ministry of Emergencies, in the cooperation with the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine have carried out the research study focusing on public views on the problem of river floods for Ukraine. Aims of this study were: a) exploring the main sources of information on water-related hazards and the level of knowledge useful in a flood crisis situation in different groups of peoples; b) learning what the various population groups think of the most significant causes and consequences of flood damages and the role of various central/governmental/ and local authorities in an elaboration and implementation of mitigation measures. Public attitudes towards various prevention and mitigation strategies, as well as sources of emerging conflict were also revealed. The results of study have given a possibility to compare points of view of population groups which: a) living in the low- and high- flood risk areas; b) living in the urban and rural areas; c) having the different levels of education. The responses from 2550 residents have been analyzed and summarized. Among the most important findings of this study can be indicated following: a) on the one hand, the level of knowledge of some aspects of flood problem (impact of climate variation and change, adaptation measures) of the general public should be improved, on the other hand, the most of peoples understand that floods are the significant economical and ecological problem; b) views of the public on the problem differ very much with regard to their regions of residence (low- or high- flood risk areas, cities or villages), education level; c) a lot of peoples don't know distribution of duties between governmental bodies on central and local levels in the field of flood management and protection; d) the most of peoples don't know which Ukrainian governmental bodies are responsible for the elaboration of National adaptation strategy to the expected climate change; e) many recipient estimate as inefficient activities of Ukrainian authorities on local, national and international levels as well as a public participation in the flood management and protection policy. The results of this study have been rather unexpected for Ukrainian central and local governmental bodies responsible for flood management and protection policies. This underlines the importance of having the alternative flood risk management and protection policies studied not only from aspects of technical and economic rational, but also from that of social acceptability, before any decision is made. Practical Application Results of study have been used in preparation of: a) the State Program on the protection against floods in the Dniester, Prut and Siret river basins; b) of the "National Action Plan for Adaptation to Climate Change for period 2011-2015".

Manukalo, V.; Gerasymenko, H.

2012-12-01

90

Argentine, East Bottoms, Fairfax-Jersey Creek, and North Kansan City Levee Units  

E-print Network

by the Flood Control Acts 1944, 1946, and 1954. Project construction of the last levee was completed in 1968 of these three measures is estimated at $63,400,000, all for flood damage reduction. Each measure would be cost and Tributaries at Kansas Cities project was authorized by the Flood Control Act of 1936, and modified

US Army Corps of Engineers

91

Levee Decisions and Sustainability for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta  

E-print Network

i Levee Decisions and Sustainability for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Robyn Suddeth, Jeff Mount The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta's fragile levees are subject to several physical realities that make them increasingly prone to failure. State planners face the challenge of preparing for future Delta flooding

Pasternack, Gregory B.

92

There Is Water Everywhere: How News Framing Amplifies the Effect of Ecological Worldviews on Preference for Flooding Protection Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to examine the interactive effect of worldviews and media frames on policy preference. Using flooding as a case study, we examine the interplay of ecological worldviews and news framed as either emphasizing harmony with nature or mastery over nature on individuals' preference for flood protection policy. A total of 255 undergraduate students participated in

Timothy K. F. Fung; Dominique Brossard; Isabella Ng

2011-01-01

93

Flood Protection Decision Making Within a Coupled Human and Natural System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the perceived threat from climate change, prediction under changing climatic and hydrological conditions has become a dominant theme of hydrological research. Much of this research has been climate model-centric, in which GCM/RCM climate projections have been used to drive hydrological system models to explore potential impacts that should inform adaptation decision-making. However, adaptation fundamentally involves how humans may respond to increasing flood and drought hazards by changing their strategies, activities and behaviours which are coupled in complex ways to the natural systems within which they live and work. Humans are major agents of change in hydrological systems, and representing human activities and behaviours in coupled human and natural hydrological system models is needed to gain insight into the complex interactions that take place, and to inform adaptation decision-making. Governments and their agencies are under pressure to make proactive investments to protect people living in floodplains from the perceived increasing flood hazard. However, adopting this as a universal strategy everywhere is not affordable, particularly in times of economic stringency and given uncertainty about future climatic conditions. It has been suggested that the assumption of stationarity, which has traditionally been invoked in making hydrological risk assessments, is no longer tenable. However, before the assumption of hydrologic nonstationarity is accepted, the ability to cope with the uncertain impacts of global warming on water management via the operational assumption of hydrologic stationarity should be carefully examined. Much can be learned by focussing on natural climate variability and its inherent changes in assessing alternative adaptation strategies. A stationary stochastic multisite flood hazard model has been developed that can exhibit increasing variability/persistence in annual maximum floods, starting with the traditional assumption of independence. This has been coupled to an agent based model of how various stakeholders interact in determining where and when flood protection investments are made in a hypothetical region with multiple sites at risk from flood hazard. Monte Carlo simulation is used to explore how government agencies with finite resources might best invest in flood protection infrastructure in a highly variable climate with a high degree of future uncertainty. Insight is provided into whether proactive or reactive strategies are to be preferred in an increasingly variable climate.

O'Donnell, Greg; O'Connell, Enda

2013-04-01

94

Geomorphic changes on the Mississippi River flood plain at Miller City, Illinois, as a result of the flood of 1993  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the 1993 floods on the upper Mississippi and Missouri rivers, the most dramatic changes to floodplains occurred at levee-break complexes where large discharges were concentrated through narrow breaks in levees. Scour and deposition associated with levee breaks adversely affected large areas of formerly productive bottomland. This case study of the levee-break complex at Miller City, Illinois, documents the geomorphic effects of a typical levee-break complex.

Jacobson, Robert B.; Oberg, Kevin A.

1997-01-01

95

Protection from annual flooding is correlated with increased cholera prevalence in Bangladesh: a zero-inflated regression analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Alteration of natural or historical aquatic flows can have unintended consequences for regions where waterborne diseases are endemic and where the epidemiologic implications of such change are poorly understood. The implementation of flood protection measures for a portion of an intensely monitored population in Matlab, Bangladesh, allows us to examine whether cholera outcomes respond positively or negatively to measures designed to control river flooding. Methods Using a zero inflated negative binomial model, we examine how selected covariates can simultaneously account for household clusters reporting no cholera from those with positive counts as well as distinguishing residential areas with low counts from areas with high cholera counts. Our goal is to examine how residence within or outside a flood protected area interacts with the probability of cholera presence and the effect of flood protection on the magnitude of cholera prevalence. Results In Matlab, living in a household that is protected from annual monsoon flooding appears to have no significant effect on whether the household experiences cholera, net of other covariates. However, counter-intuitively, among households where cholera is reported, living within the flood protected region significantly increases the number of cholera cases. Conclusions The construction of dams or other water impoundment strategies for economic or social motives can have profound and unanticipated consequences for waterborne disease. Our results indicate that the construction of a flood control structure in rural Bangladesh is correlated with an increase in cholera cases for residents protected from annual monsoon flooding. Such a finding requires attention from both the health community and from governments and non-governmental organizations involved in ongoing water management schemes. PMID:20307294

2010-01-01

96

Classification of Soil Moisture on Vegetated Earthen Levees Using X and L Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthen levees protect large areas of land in the US from flooding. Timely inspection and repairs can reduce the potential for catastrophic failures. Changes in spatial and temporal patterns of soil moisture can reveal signs of instability and help identify zones of weakness. Since analytical and empirical models have shown a relationship between SAR backscatter and soil moisture, we are using SAR to classify soil moisture on levees. Estimation of soil moisture from SAR is challenging when the surface has any significant vegetation. For the levee application, the soil is typically covered with a uniform layer of grass. Our methodology is based on a supervised soil moisture classification using a back propagation neural network with four classes of low, medium, high, and very high soil moisture. Our methodology consists of the following steps: 1) segmentation of the levee area from background and exclusion of tree-covered areas; 2) extracting the backscattering and texture features such as GLCM (Grey-Level Co-occurrence Matrix) and wavelet features; 3) training the back propagation neural network classifier; and 4) testing the area of interest and validation of the results using ground truth data. Two sources of SAR imagery are tested with this method: (1) fully polarimetric L-band data from NASA's UAVSAR; and (2) dual-polarimetric X-band data from the German TerraSAR-X satellite. The study area is a 4 km stretch of levee along the lower Mississippi River in the United States. Field data collected simultaneously with image acquisition are utilized for training and validation. Preliminary results show classification accuracies of about 50% for the UAVSAR image and 30% for the TerraSAR-X image in vegetated areas. The figure below shows a soil moisture classification using UAVSAR on April 28, 2011.

Mahrooghy, M.; Aanstoos, J. V.; Hasan, K.; Nobrega, R. A.; Younan, N. H.

2011-12-01

97

Multiscale numerical modeling of levee breach processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the dominant failure modes of levees during flood and storm surge events is erosion-based breach formation due to high velocity flow over the back (land-side) slope. Modeling the breaching process numerically is challenging due to both physical and geometric complexity that develops and evolves during the overtopping event. The surface water flows are aerated and sediment-laden mixtures in the supercritical and turbulent regimes. The air/water free surface may undergo perturbations on the same order as the depth or even topological change (breaking). Likewise the soil/fluid interface is characterized by evolving headcuts, which are essentially moving discontinuities in the soil surface elevation. The most widely used models of levee breaching are nevertheless based on depth-integrated models of flow, sediment transport, and bed morphology. In this work our objective is to explore models with less restrictive modeling assumptions, which have become computationally tractable due to advances in both numerical methods and high-performance computing hardware. In particular, we present formulations of fully three-dimensional flow, transport, and morphological evolution for overtopping and breaching processes and apply recently developed finite element and level set methods to solve the governing equations for relevant test problems.

Kees, C. E.; Farthing, M. W.; Akkerman, I.; Bazilevs, Y.

2010-12-01

98

Estimation of Discharge from Breached Earthfill Levee with Elapsed Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lack of the freeboard of levee has been occurred due to abnormally peaked flood events. Thus, the risk from overtopping of earthfill levee has been remarkably increased. When overflow on levee starts to occur, the breaching gap suddenly grows up at initial stage. As the breach width is extended, the discharge from breached section is also nonlinearly increased. Moreover, if the levee is located through multiple cities, the related damage cannot be predictable. However, researches about the breach mechanism have been focused on the breached shape of levee on the equilibrium state and the study on the development of levee breach is not enough to utilize the prediction of damage itself and select its countermeasure. In this study, the formula for breach discharge was presented to be able to predict that based on hydraulic experimental results. All experiments have been conducted with the movable levee which was the crown width of 0.3 m, the height of 0.3 m, the landside slope of 2:1 (H:V). Breach was induced by the lateral overflow for Froude numbers in main channel from 0.15 to 0.35 with the increment of 0.05. Based on the dimensional analysis with significant parameters such as main channel depth, breach width and discharge coefficient, temporal variation of each parameter was estimated with 25 experimental cases. Finally, the formula for prediction of breach flow due to overtopping failure of levee was presented considering the elapsed time for each Froude number after combing all significant parameters. When Froude number was less than 0.3, the breach discharge occurred to increase with Froude number while it became decreased with Froude number exceeding 0.3, which means the maximum breach discharge was occurred at Froude number = 0.3. It would be explained with the flow diversion caused by the collision of breach flow on the breached section downstream, which decreased the breach discharge into landside for higher Froude number of 0.3. As a future works, when the material of levee is properly considered, results from this study would be able to apply to the prediction and prevention of damage due to levee breach.

Kim, Sooyoung; Yang, Jiro; Song, Chang Geun; Lee, Seung Oh

2014-05-01

99

Flash Flood Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to NOAA’s National Weather Service, a flash flood is a life-threatening flood that begins within 6 hours--and often within 3 hours--of a causative event. That causative event can be intense rainfall, the failure of a dam, levee, or other structure that is impounding water, or the sudden rise of water level associated with river ice jams. The “Flash Flood Processes” module offers an introduction to the distinguishing features of flash floods, the underlying hydrologic influences and the use of flash flood guidance (FFG) products. Through use of rich illustrations, animations, and interactions, this module explains the differences between flash floods and general floods and examines the hydrologic processes that impact flash flooding risk. In addition, it provides an introduction to the use of flash flood guidance (FFG) products including derivation from ThreshR and rainfall-runoff curves as well as current strengths and limitations.

2014-09-14

100

Perspectives on Screening Winter-Flood-Tolerant Woody Species in the Riparian Protection Forests of the Three Gorges Reservoir  

PubMed Central

The establishment of riparian protection forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is an ideal measure to cope with the eco-environmental problems of the water-level fluctuation zone (WLFZ). Thus, the information for screening winter-flood-tolerant woody plant species is useful for the recovery and re-establishment of the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. Therefore, we discussed the possibilities of constructing and popularizing riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ from several aspects, including the woody plant species distribution in the WLFZ, the survival rate analyses of suitable candidate woody species under controlled flooding conditions, the survival rate investigation of some woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, and the physiological responses of some woody plant species during the recovery stage after winter floods. The results of woody species investigation showed that most woody plant species that existed as annual seedlings in the TGR WLFZ are not suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests. However, arbor species (e.g., Salix matsudana, Populus×canadensis, Morus alba, Pterocarya stenoptera, Taxodium ascendens, and Metasequoia glyptostroboides) and shrub species (e.g., Salix variegata, Distylium chinensis, Lycium chinense, Myricaria laxiflora, and Rosa multiflora) might be considered suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ by survival rate analyses under controlled winter flooding conditions, and survival rate investigations of woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, respectively. Physiological analyses showed that P.×canadensis, M. alba, L. chinense, and S. variegata could develop specific self-repairing mechanisms to stimulate biomass accumulation and carbohydrate synthesis via the increases in chlorophyll pigments and photosynthesis during recovery after winter floods. Our results suggested these woody plant species could endure the winter flooding stress and recover well, and be used as candidate for the construction of riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. PMID:25265326

Yang, Fan; Wang, Yong; Chan, Zhulong

2014-01-01

101

Perspectives on screening winter-flood-tolerant woody species in the riparian protection forests of the three gorges reservoir.  

PubMed

The establishment of riparian protection forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is an ideal measure to cope with the eco-environmental problems of the water-level fluctuation zone (WLFZ). Thus, the information for screening winter-flood-tolerant woody plant species is useful for the recovery and re-establishment of the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. Therefore, we discussed the possibilities of constructing and popularizing riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ from several aspects, including the woody plant species distribution in the WLFZ, the survival rate analyses of suitable candidate woody species under controlled flooding conditions, the survival rate investigation of some woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, and the physiological responses of some woody plant species during the recovery stage after winter floods. The results of woody species investigation showed that most woody plant species that existed as annual seedlings in the TGR WLFZ are not suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests. However, arbor species (e.g., Salix matsudana, Populus×canadensis, Morus alba, Pterocarya stenoptera, Taxodium ascendens, and Metasequoia glyptostroboides) and shrub species (e.g., Salix variegata, Distylium chinensis, Lycium chinense, Myricaria laxiflora, and Rosa multiflora) might be considered suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ by survival rate analyses under controlled winter flooding conditions, and survival rate investigations of woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, respectively. Physiological analyses showed that P.×canadensis, M. alba, L. chinense, and S. variegata could develop specific self-repairing mechanisms to stimulate biomass accumulation and carbohydrate synthesis via the increases in chlorophyll pigments and photosynthesis during recovery after winter floods. Our results suggested these woody plant species could endure the winter flooding stress and recover well, and be used as candidate for the construction of riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. PMID:25265326

Yang, Fan; Wang, Yong; Chan, Zhulong

2014-01-01

102

Application of InSAR to detection of localized subsidence and its effects on flood protection infrastructure in the New Orleans area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vulnerability of the United States Gulf of Mexico coast to inundation has received increasing attention in the years since hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Flood protection is a challenge throughout the area, but the population density and cumulative effect of historic subsidence makes it particularly difficult in the New Orleans area. Analysis of historical and continuing geodetic measurements identifies a surprising degree of complexity in subsidence (Dokka 2011), including regions that are subsiding at rates faster than those considered during planning for hurricane protection and for coastal restoration projects. Improved measurements are possible through combining traditional single point, precise geodetic data with interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) observations for to obtain geographically dense constraints on surface deformation. The Gulf Coast environment is very challenging for InSAR techniques, especially with systems not designed for interferometry. We are applying pair-wise InSAR to longer wavelength (L-band, 24 cm) synthetic aperture radar data acquired with the airborne UAVSAR instrument (http://uavsar.jpl.nasa.gov/) to detect localized change impacting flood protection infrastructure in the New Orleans area during the period from 2009 - 2013. Because aircraft motion creates large-scale image artifacts across the scene, we focus on localized areas on and near flood protection infrastructure to identify anomalous change relative to the surrounding area indicative of subsidence, structural deformation, and/or seepage (Jones et al., 2011) to identify areas where problems exist. C-band and particularly X-band radar returns decorrelate over short time periods in rural or less urbanized areas and are more sensitive to atmospheric affects, necessitating more elaborate analysis techniques or, at least, a strict limit on the temporal baseline. The new generation of spaceborne X-band SAR acquisitions ensure relatively high frequency of acquisition, a dramatic increase of persistent scatter density in urban areas, and improved measurement of very small displacements (Crosetto et al., 2010). We compare the L-band UAVSAR results with permanent scatterer (PS-InSAR) and Short Baseline Subsets (SBAS) interferometric analyses of a stack composed by 28 TerraSAR X-band images acquired over the same period, to determine the influence of different radar frequencies and analyses techniques. Our applications goal is to demonstrate a technique to inform targeted ground surveys, identify areas of persistent subsidence, and improve overall monitoring and planning in flood risk areas. Dokka, 2011, The role of deep processes in late 20th century subsidence of New Orleans and coastal areas of southern Louisiana and Mississippi: J. Geophys. Res., 116, B06403, doi:10.1029/2010JB008008. Jones, C. E., G. Bawden, S. Deverel, J. Dudas, S. Hensley, Study of movement and seepage along levees using DINSAR and the airborne UAVSAR instrument, Proc. SPIE 8536, SAR Image Analysis, Modeling, and Techniques XII, 85360E (November 21, 2012); doi:10.1117/12.976885. Crosetto, M., Monserrat, O., Iglesias, R., & Crippa, B. (2010). Persistent Scatterer Interferometry: Potential, limits and initial C-and X-band comparison. Photogrammetric engineering and remote sensing, 76(9), 1061-1069. Acknowledgments: This research was carried out in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Jones, Cathleen; Blom, Ronald; Latini, Daniele

2014-05-01

103

Earthen levees are the major flood protection in U.S. river cities. Cut-off walls are underground structures that  

E-print Network

coefficient of permeability in uncracked conditions (SCB fails after cracking). [1] E.H. Yang, Y. Yang, and V.C Materials Journal, Vol. 104, No. 6, pp. 620-628, Nov-Dec 2007. [2] M.D. Lepech, and V.C. Li, "Water

Kamat, Vineet R.

104

Cost estimates for flood resilience and protection strategies in New York City.  

PubMed

In the aftermaths of Hurricanes Irene, in 2011, and Sandy, in 2012, New York City has come to recognize the critical need to better prepare for future storm surges and to anticipate future trends, such as climate change and socio-economic developments. The research presented in this report assesses the costs of six different flood management strategies to anticipate long-term challenges the City will face. The proposed strategies vary from increasing resilience by upgrading building codes and introducing small scale protection measures, to creating green infrastructure as buffer zones and large protective engineering works such as storm surge barriers. The initial investment costs of alternative strategies vary between $11.6 and $23.8 bn, maximally. We show that a hybrid solution, combining protection of critical infrastructure and resilience measures that can be upgraded over time, is less expensive. However, with increasing risk in the future, storm surge barriers may become cost-effective, as they can provide protection to the largest areas in both New York and New Jersey. PMID:23915111

Aerts, Jeroen C J H; Botzen, W J Wouter; de Moel, Hans; Bowman, Malcolm

2013-08-01

105

Socio-hydrology: conceptualising human-flood interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over history, humankind has tended to settle near streams because of the role of rivers as transportation corridors and the fertility of riparian areas. However, human settlements in floodplains have been threatened by the risk of flooding. Possible responses have been to resettle away and/or modify the river system by building flood control structures. This has led to a complex web of interactions and feedback mechanisms between hydrological and social processes in settled floodplains. This paper is an attempt to conceptualise these interplays for hypothetical human-flood systems. We develop a simple, dynamic model to represent the interactions and feedback loops between hydrological and social processes. The model is then used to explore the dynamics of the human-flood system and the effect of changing individual characteristics, including external forcing such as technological development. The results show that the conceptual model is able to reproduce reciprocal effects between floods and people as well as the emergence of typical patterns. For instance, when levees are built or raised to protect floodplain areas, their presence not only reduces the frequency of flooding, but also exacerbates high water levels. Then, because of this exacerbation, higher flood protection levels are required by the society. As a result, more and more flooding events are avoided, but rare and catastrophic events take place.

Di Baldassarre, G.; Viglione, A.; Carr, G.; Kuil, L.; Salinas, J. L.; Blöschl, G.

2013-04-01

106

Socio-hydrology: conceptualising human-flood interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over history, humankind has tended to settle near streams because of the role of rivers as transportation corridors and the fertility of riparian areas. However, human settlements in floodplains have been threatened by the risk of flooding. Possible responses have been to resettle away and/or modify the river system by building flood control structures. This has led to a complex web of interactions and feedback mechanisms between hydrological and social processes in settled floodplains. This paper is an attempt to conceptualise these interplays for hypothetical human-flood systems. We develop a simple, dynamic model to represent the interactions and feedback loops between hydrological and social processes. The model is then used to explore the dynamics of the human-flood system and the effect of changing individual characteristics, including external forcing such as technological development. The results show that the conceptual model is able to reproduce reciprocal effects between floods and people as well as the emergence of typical patterns. For instance, when levees are built or raised to protect floodplain areas, their presence not only reduces the frequency of flooding, but also exacerbates high water levels. Then, because of this exacerbation, higher flood protection levels are required by society. As a result, more and more flooding events are avoided, but rare and catastrophic events take place.

Di Baldassarre, G.; Viglione, A.; Carr, G.; Kuil, L.; Salinas, J. L.; Blöschl, G.

2013-08-01

107

Mississippi River Flooding 2011: Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This USGS aerial photo mosaic shows a series of levee breaks on the Missouri River during the 1993 flood, which were caused by overtopping. USGS scientists will use measurements from the intentionally breached levee at Birds Point in 2011 to compare with the 1993 levee breach measurements to underst...

108

Flood Risk Management Newsletter 1 June 2010 vol 3 no 4  

E-print Network

Flood Risk Management Newsletter 1 June 2010 vol 3 no 4 Focusing on - DCO - The mission of Levees....................... 6Director, National Flood Risk Management Program .................................................... 8Improving Public Involvement in Flood Risk Management

US Army Corps of Engineers

109

U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS APPLICATION FOR EMERGENCY FLOOD CONTROL WORK  

E-print Network

interrelated portions of the flood control works not requiring repair or restoration such as levees, bermsU.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS APPLICATION FOR EMERGENCY FLOOD CONTROL WORK (Under provisions of existing Flood Control Laws) From: _______________________________ _____________________________ (Name

US Army Corps of Engineers

110

How far must trees be cultivated from the edge of the flood plain to provide best river bank protection?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, to find the best location to cultivate the trees for river bank protection, some experimental tests were performed. One row of trees were cultivated at five different distances from the main channel\\/floodplain interface in a rectangular compound open channel. In experimental model for simulating the trees, some cylindrical wood rods were attached to the bed of flood

Fariba Sadat Esfahani; Ali Reza Keshavarzi

2010-01-01

111

An assessment of two methods for identifying undocumented levees using remotely sensed data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many undocumented and commonly unmaintained levees exist in the landscape complicating flood forecasting, risk management, and emergency response. This report describes a pilot study completed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to assess two methods to identify undocumented levees by using remotely sensed, high-resolution topographic data. For the first method, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers examined hillshades computed from a digital elevation model that was derived from light detection and ranging (lidar) to visually identify potential levees and then used detailed site visits to assess the validity of the identifications. For the second method, the U.S. Geological Survey applied a wavelet transform to a lidar-derived digital elevation model to identify potential levees. The hillshade method was applied to Delano, Minnesota, and the wavelet-transform method was applied to Delano and Springfield, Minnesota. Both methods were successful in identifying levees but also identified other features that required interpretation to differentiate from levees such as constructed barriers, high banks, and bluffs. Both methods are complementary to each other, and a potential conjunctive method for testing in the future includes (1) use of the wavelet-transform method to rapidly identify slope-break features in high-resolution topographic data, (2) further examination of topographic data using hillshades and aerial photographs to classify features and map potential levees, and (3) a verification check of each identified potential levee with local officials and field visits.

Czuba, Christiana R.; Williams, Byron K.; Westman, Jack; LeClaire, Keith

2015-01-01

112

33 CFR 208.10 - Local flood protection works; maintenance and operation of structures and facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and facilities during flood periods and for continuous inspection and maintenance of the project works during periods of low water, all without cost to the United States. (3) A reserve supply of materials needed during a flood emergency...

2010-07-01

113

Flooding in Downtown Minot, N.D.  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

As the Souris River flooded during the early summer of 2011, it overcame levees in the city of Minot, N.D., causing about 11,000 people to evacuate their homes. The record-breaking flood crested on July 25 at over 26,000 cubic feet per second (cfs) and 24 feet - nearly 13 feet over flood s...

114

Review Article: Structural flood-protection measures referring to several European case studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a review of structural measures that were taken to cope with floods in some cities along the Danube River, such as Vienna, Bratislava, and Belgrade. These cities were also considered as case studies within the KULTURisk project. The structural measures are reviewed and compared to each other according to the type, duration of application, the return period of the design flood event, how the project measures are integrated into spatial planning and the problems that occur in the flood defences today. Based on this review, some suggestions are given on how to improve the flood risk management in flood-prone areas.

Kryžanowski, A.; Brilly, M.; Rusjan, S.; Schnabl, S.

2014-01-01

115

Review "Structural flood-protection measures referring to several European case studies"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a critical review of structural measures that were taken to cope with floods in some cities along the Danube River, such as Vienna, Bratislava, Belgrade, and Barcolennette area along the Ubaye River. These cities are also taken as case studies within the KULTURisk project. The structural measures are critically reviewed and compared to each other. Based on this review some suggestions are given how to improve the flood defense in flood prone areas.

Kryžanowski, A.; Brilly, M.; Rusjan, S.; Schnabl, S.

2013-02-01

116

Delivery of Ecosystem Benefits at the Urban-Suburban Interface: A Case Study of Flood Protection in the Woonasquatucket River Watershed  

EPA Science Inventory

Urbanization exacerbates flooding by increasing surface runoff and decreasing surface roughness. Restoring wetlands can enhance flood protection while providing a suite of co-benefits such as temperature regulation and access to open space. Spatial modeling of the delivery of flo...

117

Climatological changes in storm surges and river discharges: the impact on flood protection and salt intrusion in the Rhine-Meuse delta.  

E-print Network

1 Climatological changes in storm surges and river discharges: the impact on flood protection flooding, fresh water supply and shipping. The water system in this area is mainly driven by the combined in boundary conditions and management interventions (mainly of morphological conditions) on the hydrodynamical

Haak, Hein

118

A theoretical and field-based study on the formation and shape of fluvial levees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The natural levees that form on channel margins are important features because they influence sediment transfer between channel and floodplain, and modulate the floodplain accretion rate. Despite this importance, we do not have basic models that predict levee formation or shape. Here we present a coupled theoretical and field-based study on formation and shape of levees. We developed a 1D morphodynamic channel-floodplain model for levee growth. Our model starts from the simplifying assumption of a straight channel and floodplain, each with a uniform width. The model solves conservation of mass for water and sediment along a cross-section perpendicular to the channel and is coupled to an analytical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations that solves for the downstream flood velocity and accounts for turbulent momentum exchange between the channel and floodplain. Model results predict that the necessary conditions for levee formation depend non-linearly on the ratio of channel depth to floodplain depth, and the floodplain Rouse number. If the necessary conditions for levee formation are met, the shape of the levee is controlled by the Peclet-Rouse number. Wider levees form in advection-dominated floodplains (high Peclet number) with easily suspendable grains (low floodplain Rouse number). Diffusion has two important effects on levee width. Firstly, increasing the diffusivity directly increases diffusive sediment transport into the floodplain, which increases levee width. Secondly, increasing diffusivity causes additional turbulent diffusion of momentum from the main channel to the floodplain, which increases the width of the shear layer. A wider shear layer increases the near-channel downstream velocity, which creates more suspended transport and wider levees. We compare our model predictions to levees on reaches of the White River and Muscatatuck River, Indiana, USA. We chose these rivers because the sediment load of the White River is ~5% silt, whereas it is ~80% silt for the Muscatatuck River. Consistent with model predictions, we find that levees on the coarser-grained White River are narrower and much less prevalent compared to the Muscatatuck.

Edmonds, D. A.; Hajek, E. A.

2013-12-01

119

Numerical modeling of the lateral widening of levee breach by overtopping in a flume with 180° bend  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floods caused by levee breaching pose disastrous risks to the lower reaches and the flood flow zones of rivers. Thus, a comprehensive assessment of flow and sediment transport during floods must be performed to mitigate flood disasters. Given that the flow state becomes relatively more complex and the range of the submerged area becomes more extensive after a levee breach, this paper established a flow and sediment model by using two-dimensional shallow water equations (SWEs) to explore the breach development process and the flow and sediment transport in a curved bed after a levee breach due to overtopping. A three-element weighted essentially non-oscillatory Roe scheme was adopted for the discretization of SWEs. In addition, a non-equilibrium total-load sediment transport model was established to simulate the scour depth development process of the breach. A stable equilibrium of the breach was established based on flow shear force and soil shear strength. The lateral widening of the breach was simulated by the scouring-collapse lateral widening mode. These simulations, together with the levee breach experiment conducted in the laboratory, demonstrate the validity of the flow and sediment transport process established in this paper. The effects of water head in and out of the watercourse, the flow rate, the levee sediment grading, and other variables during levee breaching were also analyzed. The mathematical model calculation provided a number of physical quantities, such as flow rate and flow state at the breach, that are difficult to measure by using the current laboratory facilities. The results of this research provide fundamental data for developing measures that can reduce casualties and asset loss due to floods caused by levee breaching.

Dou, S.-T.; Wang, D.-W.; Yu, M.-H.; Liang, Y.-J.

2014-01-01

120

TWENTYFIRST CENTURY LEVEE OVERTOPPING PROJECTIONS FROM  

E-print Network

TWENTYFIRST CENTURY LEVEE OVERTOPPING PROJECTIONS FROM InSARDERIVED SUBSIDENCE RATES at the University of Hawaii: Contemporaneous Subsidence and Levee Overtopping Vulnerability, Sacramento-San Joaquin an updated synoptic assessment of vertical land motion rates in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta

121

California Levee Risk, Now and in the Future:Identifying Research and Tool Development Needs  

SciTech Connect

The Center for Catastrophic Risk Management (CCRM) and the California Center for Environmental Law and Policy (CCELP) at UC Berkeley and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) joined together to cosponsor a workshop to define research requirements to mitigate the hazards facing the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Levee system. The Workshop was intended to provide a forum to (1) Report assessments of current vulnerabilities facing the levees, such as structural failure, seismic loading, flooding, terrorism; (2) Consider longer term challenges such as climate change, sea level rise; and (3) Define research requirements to fill gaps in knowledge and reduce uncertainties in hazard assessments.

Newmark, R L; Hanemann, M; Farber, D

2006-11-28

122

Insights from socio-hydrology modelling on dealing with flood risk: roles of collective memory, risk-taking attitude and trust (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The risk coping culture of a community plays a major role in decision making in urban flood plains. While flood awareness is not necessarily linked to being prepared to face flooding at an individual level, the connection at the community level seems to be stronger through creating policy and initiating protection works. In this work we analyse, in a conceptual way, the interplay of community risk coping culture, flooding damage and economic growth. We particularly focus on three aspects: (i) collective memory, i.e., the capacity of the community to keep the awareness of flooding high; (ii) risk-taking attitude, i.e., the amount of risk a community is collectively willing to expose themselves to; and (iii) trust of people in risk protection measures. We use a dynamic model that represents the feedbacks between the hydrological and social system components. The model results indicate that, on one hand, by under perceiving the risk of flooding (because of short collective memory and too much trust in flood protection structures) in combination with a high risk-attitude, community survival is severely limited because of destruction caused by flooding. On the other hand, high perceived risk (long memory and lack of trust in flood protection structures) relative to the actual risk leads to lost economic opportunities and recession. There are many optimal scenarios for survival and economic growth, but greater certainty of survival plus economic growth can be achieved by ensuring community has accurate risk perception (memory neither too long nor too short and trust in flood protection neither too great nor too low) combined with a low to moderate risk-taking attitude. Interestingly, the model gives rise to situations in which the development of the community in the floodplain is path dependent, i.e., the history of flooding may lead to its growth or recession. Schematic of human adjustments to flooding: (a) settling away from the river; (b) raising levees/dikes.

Viglione, A.; Di Baldassarre, G.; Brandimarte, L.; Kuil, L.; Carr, G.; Salinas, J.; Scolobig, A.

2013-12-01

123

Effects of Removal of Riparian Vegetation on Levee Stability on the Sacramento River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new policy of the US Army Corps of Engineers requires that all levee vegetation be removed from federal levees in California. This directive requires levees to be cleared of all vegetation to preserve channel capacity and allow access for inspection and repair. The case for leaving vegetation in place on levees has largely been an environmental one, with concerns regarding removal of habitat and aesthetics. However, stability factors should also be considered. A previous study by Shields and Gray (1992) investigated the effects of vegetation on sandy levee integrity along the Sacramento River, just one such river that is affected by this vegetation-removal policy. Their study showed that even low root concentrations allowed for more stable bank conditions under worst-case conditions for bank stability. In the years since this initial study, modeling of root-reinforcement and streambank stability has improved greatly. This study used geotechnical data collected along the Sacramento River to model the effects of woody and herbaceous vegetation on levee stability using the Bank Stability and Toe Erosion Model developed at the National Sedimentation Laboratory and the root-reinforcement model, RipRoot. Model runs were carried out for a 4 m high levee with 2H: 1V and 3H: 1V slopes, and vegetation growing at different locations on the levee. Levee material was assumed to be a homogeneous, sandy soil, with very low cohesion (0.84 kPa). Three hydrologic conditions were modeled: baseflow conditions, peak of hydrograph, and the most critical bank condition during the receding limb of a hydrograph. Roots were assumed to grow perpendicular to the soil surface, with the additional cohesion due to roots only being added to soil layers in which the roots extended beyond the potential shear surface in that layer. Values for root-reinforcement were calculated using the RipRoot model, using typical root densities, depths and tensile strength measurements for different riparian species measured at sites across the USA. Values of 3, 15, and 20 kPa were added to the banks to represent young saplings, bunch grasses and mature trees respectively. Results showed that the levees were stable without the reinforcing effect of vegetation under all conditions, except under drawdown conditions which are the most critical. In those cases, root-reinforcement increased levee- stability significantly. A 2H: 1V levee had a factor of safety of 0.33 under these conditions without vegetation and a 3H: 1V levee a value of 0.54 (values <1 are unstable). With the addition of vegetation to the levee sides, factor of safety values increased to >1 under all conditions. Reinforcement added by mature trees and bunch grasses provided highest factor of safety values of up to 8.16 and 5.13 for 2H: 1V and 3H: 1V slopes respectively. The findings suggest that root-reinforcement of levees should be taken into account before complete removal of vegetation is carried out along rivers such as the Sacramento River. In cases where levees are composed of largely uncohesive materials, root-reinforcement provides significant support to the soil matrix, whilst additionally reducing shear stresses acting on the soil from flowing water and protecting the levee from rainfall impact and runoff. In deciding the case for removal of levee vegetation, these positive influences of vegetation should be weighted carefully against the desire for increased channel capacity and any possible negative influences of plant roots on levee integrity.

Pollen, N.; Shields, F. D.

2007-12-01

124

Flooding on the Mighty Mississippi  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week, floodwaters of the Mississippi River crested, leading several counties in Iowa, Minnesota, Illinois, and Wisconsin to declare states of emergency. Floodwaters have reached over 22 feet in Davenport Iowa, closing in on the 1993 record water level. Davenport is perhaps particularly hard hit because it is not equipped with concrete levees, as it relies heavily on its riverfront as a tourist attraction, and city residents feel that levees would create an unsightly barrier. Also, many hydrology experts will agree that levees might not be the wisest choice for flood management because they intensify the flooding downriver. This Week's In the News features Websites dealing with Mississippi River flood data, flood management, and general water resources.Readers who wish to catch up on the situation should browse the first few news sites listed above. The first (1), coming straight from the flood frontlines, is from the Minneapolis Star Tribune giving general news about the Mississippi flood. The next two sites cover the situation in Davenport, IA and the controversy over constructing flood walls. The second site (2) is an article from the Los Angeles Times reviewing the controversy over building flood barriers in Davenport. It mentions how other Iowa towns built levees after the disastrous floods of 1965 while Davenport did not. The third site (3) is a special section of Davenport's Quad City Times entitled Flood 2001. Flood 2001 holds a small archive of recent articles about the flood from the Quad City Times along with other regional papers, hosts an online poll about installing levees, and provides video clips (RealPlayer) and still photos of the flood. It also gives shots from a "floodcam" poised along the banks of the Mississippi. The next few resources house hydrologic data. The US Geological Survey (USGS) posts real-time water data online (4). The plain-text data from all states can be accessed via a clickable map or from lists by state or by station. The National Weather Service's Quad Cities division (the "quad cities" of Davenport, Bettendorf, Moline, and Rock Island straddle the Mississippi River on the Illinois-Iowa border) provides graphs of flood stages of rivers and streams (selected using a clickable map) and real-time weather conditions, forecasts, and flood warnings online (5). Readers will probably encounter the term "100 Year Flood" while reading flood news and stage data. If you are unfamiliar with this term, which refers to the estimated probability that a flood event has a one-in-one hundred chance of occurrence in any given year, this site (7) from an environmental consulting firm gives a nice explanation of the term and its uses. Another educational site comes from the International Rivers Network. About Rivers and Dams (8), gives an overview of the function of dams (for flood control, power generation, water collection) and presents the environmental case against damming of rivers. Other sites related to the environmental impacts of flood control include Cadillac Desert (9), a supplement to the award-winning PBS documentary series on water and the control of nature, and the Powell Consortium (10), a network of research institutions dealing with water management in the arid American West. Another neat site from PBS Online is the supplement to the film "American Experience: Fatal Flood" (11), documenting the 1927 flooding of the Mississippi and its impacts on residents of Greenville, MS. The Fatal Flood site features video clips and interviews with survivors of the 1927 flood.

125

Flooded Downtown Minot, N.D. Near the Police Station  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

As the Souris River flooded during the early summer of 2011, it overcame levees in the city of Minot, N.D., causing about 11,000 people to evacuate their homes. The record-breaking flood crested on July 25 at over 26,000 cubic feet per second (cfs) and 24 feet - nearly 13 feet over flood s...

126

Flooded Homes in Downtown Minot, N.D.  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

As the Souris River flooded during the early summer of 2011, it overcame levees in the city of Minot, N.D., causing about 11,000 people to evacuate their homes. The record-breaking flood crested on July 25 at over 26,000 cubic feet per second (cfs) and 24 feet - nearly 13 feet over flood s...

127

Media Covering Flooding in Downtown Minot, N.D.  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

As the Souris River flooded during the early summer of 2011, it overcame levees in the city of Minot, N.D., causing about 11,000 people to evacuate their homes. The record-breaking flood crested on July 25 at over 26,000 cubic feet per second (cfs) and 24 feet - nearly 13 feet over flood s...

128

Downtown Minot Flooding as Seen From Broadway Bridge  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

As the Souris River flooded during the early summer of 2011, it overcame levees in the city of Minot, N.D., causing about 11,000 people to evacuate their homes. The record-breaking flood crested on July 25 at over 26,000 cubic feet per second (cfs) and 24 feet - nearly 13 feet over flood s...

129

Risk to life due to flooding in post-Katrina New Orleans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the catastrophic flooding of New Orleans due to Hurricane Katrina in 2005, the city's hurricane protection system has been improved to provide protection against a hurricane load with a 1/100 per year exceedance frequency. This paper investigates the risk to life in post-Katrina New Orleans. In a flood risk analysis the probabilities and consequences of various flood scenarios have been analyzed for the central area of the city (the metro bowl) to give a preliminary estimate of the risk to life in the post-Katrina situation. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model has been used to simulate flood characteristics of various breaches. The model for estimation of fatality rates is based on the loss of life data for Hurricane Katrina. Results indicate that - depending on the flood scenario - the estimated loss of life in case of flooding ranges from about 100 to nearly 500, with the highest life loss due to breaching of the river levees leading to large flood depths. The probability and consequence estimates are combined to determine the individual risk and societal risk for New Orleans. When compared to risks of other large-scale engineering systems (e.g., other flood prone areas, dams and the nuclear sector) and acceptable risk criteria found in literature, the risks for the metro bowl are found to be relatively high. Thus, despite major improvements to the flood protection system, the flood risk to life of post-Katrina New Orleans is still expected to be significant. Indicative effects of reduction strategies on the risk level are discussed as a basis for further evaluation and discussion.

Miller, A.; Jonkman, S. N.; Van Ledden, M.

2015-01-01

130

Geomorphic Response to Global Warming in the Anthropocene: Levee Breaches in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geomorphic processes in rivers are likely to be influenced by global warming through alterations of flood, erosion, and sedimentation processes and rates. In California's Sierra Nevada, warming scenarios imply future increases in magnitudes and durations (and changes in timing) of floods as snow packs diminish and rainfall runoff increasingly dominates flow into the Central Valley fluvial system. Geomorphic processes are likely to differ from processes that dominated during the Holocene due to the influence both of projected global warming and land use alterations including levee construction that narrows and separates Sacramento-San Joaquin Rivers and tributaries from floodplains and flow regulation downstream of numerous large dams. Whereas Holocene floods induced overbank flow and avulsion processes that led to vertical floodplain accretion and variability of stages in aggrading multiple-channel systems, modern floods largely transport flow and sediment within incised channels confined by levees. Because the scenarios of warming are developed at coarse scales, only an understanding of the relations between large-scale hydrology and climate on the one hand, and the incidence of levee breaches on the other, will make it possible to project likely geomorphic responses to future warming and flooding. A historical record of catastrophic levee breaks on the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers has been developed to allow analyses of these connections. In the current work, we develop statistical relations between historical levee break events and flow discharge, as well as with climatic phenomena such as El Nino and La Nina phases of the ENSO cycle, positive and negative phases of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and seasonal propensities towards "pineapple-express" storms. Preliminary results suggest strong relations between levee breaches and discharge, but poor relations to ENSO. Further investigation of these data will provide insight to help inform models and river management policy that addresses rates and magnitudes of erosion and sedimentation.

Florsheim, J. L.; Dettinger, M.; Malamud-Roam, F.; Ingram, B.; Mount, J.

2006-12-01

131

River Flooding and Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are presented with a real-life problem of flooding and erosion in the town of Simonton. They must use historical dischage data to determine the future risk of flooding. They must also use historical map data to asses the risk of future losses due to erosion. Using these data, they must dertermine the feasibility of levee systems proposed by the Corp of Engineers. Lastly, they must discuss their assumption and possible sources of error. Has minimal/no quantitative component Uses geophysics to solve problems in other fields

Bill Dupre

132

Mississippi River Flooding 2011: Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Inflow/outflow of the levee breach near New Madrid, MO. USGS scientists are measuring the amount of water spilling into the New Madrid floodway as a result of the recent intentional breaching of the Birds Point Levee in Missouri in support of the Corps of Engineers operation. When flooding happens, ...

133

Comparing multistate expected damages, option price and cumulative prospect measures for valuing flood protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floods are risky events ranging from small to catastrophic. Although expected flood damages are frequently used for economic policy analysis, alternative measures such as option price (OP) and cumulative prospect value exist. The empirical magnitude of these measures whose theoretical preference is ambiguous is investigated using case study data from Baltimore City. The outcome for the base case OP measure increases mean willingness to pay over the expected damage value by about 3%, a value which is increased with greater risk aversion, reduced by increased wealth, and only slightly altered by higher limits of integration. The base measure based on cumulative prospect theory is about 46% less than expected damages with estimates declining when alternative parameters are used. The method of aggregation is shown to be important in the cumulative prospect case which can lead to an estimate up to 41% larger than expected damages. Expected damages remain a plausible and the most easily computed measure for analysts.

Farrow, Scott; Scott, Michael

2013-05-01

134

Submarine channel levee shape and sediment waves from physical experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Submarine channel levees aggrade through repeated overspill events from the channel axis. The shape of the levees may therefore reflect some characteristic(s) of the overspilling flow. It has been noted that basin floor levees typically have a relatively low-relief and taper exponentially to their termination; in contrast slope channel levees may be much steeper close to the channel. A simple

Ian A. Kane; William D. McCaffrey; Jeffrey Peakall; Benjamin C. Kneller

2010-01-01

135

Natural flood reduction strategies – a challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flood hazard and vulnerability to floods tend to increase in many areas, due to changes in socio?economic, and physical – especially climatic – systems. Therefore, increasing attention is being paid to upgrading flood protection systems. As in many vulnerable areas sufficient flood protection cannot be reached with the help of structural means only, further flood damage reduction via non?structural measures

Zbigniew W. Kundzewicz; Lucas Menzel

2005-01-01

136

TERRITORIAL FLOOD DEFENSE: A ROMANIAN PERSPECTIVE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Floods, especially those occurring on large rivers, occur over areas which are greater than those controlled by a single administrative territorial unit. The flood hydraulic regime is influenced by the extent and quality of flood defence structures. All the adopted measures influence the forming and evolution of the flood wave during the flood situation. This requires that the flood protection

MARCEL LUCACIU

137

Combined multi-scale characterization of a sedimentary structure beneath a river embankment to expand conventional flood protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Embankments along rivers and streams are a common measure of constructional flood protection in Germany. At a test site along the River Mulde near the town of Löbnitz, Saxony, Germany, aerial photographs reveal the presence of a surface near underground sedimentary structure that crosses the embankment. This sedimentary structure is suspected to consist of sedimentary channel deposits that may serve as preferential flow path during seasonal flooding, leading to increased water propagation beneath the embankment. During normal water level, this structure is within the unsaturated zone. Geophysical techniques, GPR and geoelectrics, were used to characterize the extent of the sedimentary structure. At selected points high resolution vertical one-dimensional profiles of geotechnical and hydrogeological sediment properties were measured using minimum invasive direct push technology. The combination of multi-scale data allows the characterization of the identified sedimentary structure at the test site regarding its extent and hydraulic properties in respect to the fluviatile floodplain deposits present at the test site along a 500m transect. In this study, the combination of non-invasive geophysics and minimum invasive direct push technology provided high resolution geospatial information of a sedimentary regime, which could not have been achieved with conventional characterization methods, e.g. retrieval and analysis of soil samples, regarding resolution and work efficiency.

Vienken, T.; Kreck, M.; Hausmann, J.; Werban, U.

2011-12-01

138

Risk to life due to flooding in post-Katrina New Orleans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the catastrophic flooding of New Orleans due to hurricane Katrina in the year 2005, the city's hurricane protection system has been improved to provide protection against a hurricane load with a 1/100 per year exceedance frequency. This paper investigates the risk to life in post-Katrina New Orleans. In a risk-based approach the probabilities and consequences of various flood scenarios have been analyzed for the central area of the city (the metro bowl) to give a preliminary estimate of the risk to life in the post-Katrina situation. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model has been used to simulate flood characteristics of various breaches. The model for estimation of fatality rates is based on the loss of life data for Hurricane Katrina. Results indicate that - depending on the flood scenario - the estimated loss of life in case of flooding ranges from about 100 to nearly 500, with the highest life loss due to breaching of the river levees leading to large flood depths. The probability and consequence estimates are combined to determine the individual risk and societal risk for New Orleans. When compared to risks of other large scale engineering systems (e.g. other flood prone areas, dams and the nuclear sector) and acceptable risk criteria found in literature, the risks for the metro bowl are found to be relatively high. Thus, despite major improvements to the flood protection system, the flood risk of post-Katrina New Orleans is still expected to be significant. Effects of reduction strategies on the risk level are discussed as a basis for further evaluation.

Miller, A.; Jonkman, S. N.; Van Ledden, M.

2014-01-01

139

Flood Hazards - A National Threat  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the late summer of 2005, the remarkable flooding brought by Hurricane Katrina, which caused more than $200 billion in losses, constituted the costliest natural disaster in U.S. history. However, even in typical years, flooding causes billions of dollars in damage and threatens lives and property in every State. Natural processes, such as hurricanes, weather systems, and snowmelt, can cause floods. Failure of levees and dams and inadequate drainage in urban areas can also result in flooding. On average, floods kill about 140 people each year and cause $6 billion in property damage. Although loss of life to floods during the past half-century has declined, mostly because of improved warning systems, economic losses have continued to rise due to increased urbanization and coastal development.

U.S. Geological Survey

2006-01-01

140

Cheap Textile Dam Protection of Seaport Cities against Hurricane Storm Surge Waves, Tsunamis, and Other Weather-Related Floods  

E-print Network

Author offers to complete research on a new method and cheap applicatory design for land and sea textile dams. The offered method for the protection of the USA's major seaport cities against hurricane storm surge waves, tsunamis, and other weather-related inundations is the cheapest (to build and maintain of all extant anti-flood barriers) and it, therefore, has excellent prospective applications for defending coastal cities from natural weather-caused disasters. It may also be a very cheap method for producing a big amount of cyclical renewable hydropower, land reclamation from the ocean, lakes, riverbanks, as well as land transportation connection of islands, and islands to mainland, instead of very costly over-water bridges and underwater tunnels.

Bolonkin, A

2007-01-01

141

Effect of bank protection measures, Stehekin River, Chelan County, Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An investigation of the lower Stehekin River was conducted to study the effects on flood elevations and velocities from four bank protection and flood prevention measures that are being contemplated as a means of reducing erosional losses of river bank property. These measures are: bank armoring, armored revetment levees, spur dikes, and redevelopment of old cutoff channels. The banks at seven study sites could be armored without adverse effect on the flood velocities and elevations. The largest increases due to armoring--up to 1.6 ft/sec in velocity and 1 ft in elevation--occurred in the vicinity of sites 5, 6, and 7 where the gradient of the river channel is about 50 ft/mi and the velocities are high to begin with (about 6 to 13 ft/sec). The use of a levee in conjunction with armoring on the northeast bank from sites 5 to 7 would increase the velocities as much as 2.8 ft/sec and increase the elevation as much as 1 ft, but it would also provide some flood protection to the east bank, which is frequently inundated. Spur dikes were considered a practical alternative only at site 3, where reduced bank erosion may occur without aggravating flood inundation or erosion elsewhere. The rerouting of flood flow through an old cutoff channel near site 1 increased the velocity by 3.2 ft/sec and the elevation by 1 ft for the 100-year flood; however, it would move floodwater away from residential property where bank erosion is a problem. The few other old channels that shortcut river bends where much erosion occurs are apparently already part of the channel during floods. (Author 's abstract)

Nelson, L.M.

1986-01-01

142

Istsos, Sensor Observation Management System: a Real Case Application of Hydro-Meteorological Data for Flood Protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

istSOS (Istituto scienze della Terra Sensor Observation Service) is an implementation of the Sensor Observation Service standard from Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The development of istSOS started in 2009 in order to provide a simple implementation of the Sensor Observation Service (SOS) standard for the management, provision and integration of hydro-meteorological data collected in Canton Ticino (Southern Switzerland). istSOS is entirely written in Python and is based on reliable open source software like PostgreSQL/PostGIS and Apache/mod_wsgi. The authors during this presentation want to illustrate the latest software enhancements together with a real case in a production environment. Latest software enhancement includes the development of a RESTful service and of a Web-based graphical user interface that allows hydrologists a better interaction with measurements. This includes the ability of new services creation, addition of new sensors and relative metadata, visualization and manipulation of stored observations, registration of new measures and setting of system properties like observable properties and data quality codes. The study will show a real case application of the system for the provision of data to interregional partners and to a hydrological model for lake level forecasting and flooding hazard assessment. The hydrological model uses a combination of WPS (Web Processing Service) and SOS for the generation of model input data. This system is linked with a dedicated geo-portal used by the civil protection for the management, alert and protection of population and assets of the Locarno area (Verbano Lake flooding). Practical considerations and technical issues will be presented and discussed.

Cannata, M.; Antonovic, M.; Molinari, M.; Pozzoni, M.

2013-01-01

143

A methodology for urban flood resilience assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Europe, river floods have been increasing in frequency and severity [Szöllösi-Nagy and Zevenbergen, 2005]. Moreover, climate change is expected to exacerbate the frequency and intensity of hydro meteorological disaster [IPCC, 2007]. Despite efforts made to maintain the flood defense assets, we often observe levee failures leading to finally increase flood risk in protected area. Furthermore, flood forecasting models, although benefiting continuous improvements, remain partly inaccurate due to uncertainties arising all along data calculation processes. In the same time, the year 2007 marks a turning point in history: half of the world population now lives in cities (UN-Habitat, 2007). Moreover, the total urban population is expected to double from two to four billion over the next 30 to 35 years (United Nations, 2006). This growing rate is equivalent to the creation of a new city of one million inhabitants every week, and this during the next four decades [Flood resilience Group]. So, this quick urban development coupled with technical failures and climate change have increased flood risk and corresponding challenges to urban flood risk management [Ashley et al., 2007], [Nie et al., 2009]. These circumstances oblige to manage flood risk by integrating new concepts like urban resilience. In recent years, resilience has become a central concept for risk management. This concept has emerged because a more resilient system is less vulnerable to risk and, therefore, more sustainable [Serre et al., 2010]. But urban flood resilience is a concept that has not yet been directly assessed. Therefore, when decision makers decide to use the resilience concept to manage urban flood, they have no tool to help them. That is why this paper proposes a methodology to assess urban flood resilience in order to make this concept operational. Networks affect the well-being of the people and the smooth functioning of services and, more generally, of economical activities. Yet, multiple networks that innervate the city are particularly sensitive to flooding, through their structures and geographic constraints. Because societal functions are highly dependent on networked systems and the operability of these systems can be vulnerable to disasters, there is a need to understand how networked systems are resilient. That is why, considering that networks can be regarded as the "flood gateway" [Lhomme et al., 2009], we will focus on the resilience assessment of these critical networks before urban resilience assessment. The first part of this paper introduce resilience concept to well understand the importance of this concept to manage flood risk and of assessing this resilience. In a second part, this paper presents the use of safety methods to model network system dysfunctions during flood and then to produce resilience indicators. Finally it presents use of graph theory to assess adaptive capacity of these networks. These researches are the first steps toward the development of a GIS tool to optimize preparedness and recovery after a flood event.

Lhomme, Serge; Serre, Damien; Diab, Youssef; Laganier, Richard

2010-05-01

144

Sixty Years of River Corridor Change Induced by the Construction, Operation, and Maintenance of Flood Control Infrastructure on Lower Deer Creek, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deer Creek drains 540 km2, joining the Sacramento River near Vina, about 160 km north of the city of Sacramento. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers constructed a levee and partly straightened the lower five miles of Deer Creek in 1949. Repeated levee failures and the presence of the federally threatened spring-run Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in Deer Creek have prompted investigations on habitat restoration coordinated with more effective flood protection. The Deer Creek Watershed Conservancy (1998) identified a significant reduction in channel complexity between 1938 (pre-levee) and 1997, but did not attempt to quantify this reduction. In this study, we examined high quality aerial photographs from 1938, 1952, 1966, 1979, 1985, and 1998, and systematically quantified (in ArcGIS) changes in river corridor complexity by digitizing a range of features in each set of photos. Total active channel length in the levee reach decreased from 14.4 km to 12.6 km between 1938 and 1998. In addition, we documented a significant increase in average active channel width and a decrease in shaded riverine aquatic habitat between 1938 and 1998. Most of these changes occurred during the levee project in 1949, and the simplified channel form persisted through 1998. We also identified a significant decrease in aquatic and riparian habitat resilience (i.e. resistance to habitat damage and destruction by large floods) between 1937 and 1998. These results provide a basis for prioritizing, locating, and developing designs for alternative flood management approaches that would contribute to the enhancement and restoration of aquatic and riparian habitat along lower Deer Creek.

Tompkins, M. R.; Kondolf, G. M.

2004-12-01

145

A New Approach to Monitoring Coastal Marshes for Persistent Flooding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many areas in coastal Louisiana are below sea level and protected from flooding by a system of natural and man-made levees. Flooding is common when the levees are overtopped by storm surge or rising rivers. Many levees in this region are further stressed by erosion and subsidence. The floodwaters can become constricted by levees and trapped, causing prolonged inundation. Vegetative communities in coastal regions, from fresh swamp forest to saline marsh, can be negatively affected by inundation and changes in salinity. As saltwater persists, it can have a toxic effect upon marsh vegetation causing die off and conversion to open water types, destroying valuable species habitats. The length of time the water persists and the average annual salinity are important variables in modeling habitat switching (cover type change). Marsh type habitat switching affects fish, shellfish, and wildlife inhabitants, and can affect the regional ecosystem and economy. There are numerous restoration and revitalization projects underway in the coastal region, and their effects on the entire ecosystem need to be understood. For these reasons, monitoring persistent saltwater intrusion and inundation is important. For this study, persistent flooding in Louisiana coastal marshes was mapped using MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) time series of a Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). The time series data were derived for 2000 through 2009, including flooding due to Hurricane Rita in 2005 and Hurricane Ike in 2008. Using the NDWI, duration and extent of flooding can be inferred. The Time Series Product Tool (TSPT), developed at NASA SSC, is a suite of software developed in MATLAB(R) that enables improved-quality time series images to be computed using advanced temporal processing techniques. This software has been used to compute time series for monitoring temporal changes in environmental phenomena, (e.g. NDVI times series from MODIS), and was modified and used to compute the NDWI indices and also the Normalized Difference Soil Index (NDSI). Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) water levels from various hydrologic monitoring stations and aerial photography were used to optimize thresholds for MODIS-derived time series of NDWI and to validate resulting flood maps. In most of the profiles produced for post-hurricane assessment, the increase in the NDWI index (from storm surge) is accompanied by a decrease in the vegetation index (NDVI) and then a period of declining water. The NDSI index represents non-green or dead vegetation and increases after the hurricane s destruction of the marsh vegetation. Behavior of these indices over time is indicative of which areas remain flooded, which areas recover to their former levels of vegetative vigor, and which areas are stressed or in transition. Tracking these indices over time shows the recovery rate of vegetation and the relative behavior to inundation persistence. The results from this study demonstrated that identification of persistent marsh flooding, utilizing the tools developed in this study, provided an approximate 70-80 percent accuracy rate when compared to the actual days flooded at the CRMS stations.

Kalcic, M. T.; Undersood, Lauren W.; Fletcher, Rose

2012-01-01

146

Wetland Along Levee in Southern Paraguay  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Wetland between levee and Tebicuary river. The Ñeembucú Region is typified by extensive grasslands and wetlands. Near 26°34’52’’S, 56°49’18’’W. (Portion of text from: Guyra Paraguay 2004, Annotated Checklist of the Birds of Paraguay, Paraguay...

147

Levee Decisions and Sustainability for the Delta  

E-print Network

Levee Decisions and Sustainability for the Delta Technical Appendix B Robyn Suddeth Jeffrey F-San Joaquin Delta, prepared by a team of researchers from the Center for Watershed Sciences (University Conclusions 36 References 37 About the Authors 39 #12;#12;v Summary The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta landscape

Pasternack, Gregory B.

148

Flood Cleanup  

MedlinePLUS

... here: EPA Home Air Indoor Air Flood Cleanup Flood Cleanup During a flood cleanup, the indoor air ... flood and how to prevent indoor air problems: Flood Cleanup and the Air In Your Home Booklet ...

149

Evaluation of the Structure of Levee Transitions on Wave Runup and Overtopping by Physical Modeling  

E-print Network

of City of New Orleans, Louisiana ............................................. 11 5 Hurricane Protection System (2005) .......................................................... 12 6 HPS after Hurricane Katrina... ...................................................................... 14 7 Stages of Erosion for Earthen Levee .......................................................... 17 8 Hurricane Katrina Induced Floodwall Failure Modes in HPS ................... 18 9 Example of Overtopping Simulator in Action and Erosion...

Oaks, Drake Benjamin

2011-08-08

150

EFFECT OF FLOOD REGIME ON TREE GROWTH IN THE FLOODPLAIN AND SURROUNDING UPLANDS OF THE WISCONSIN RIVER  

E-print Network

EFFECT OF FLOOD REGIME ON TREE GROWTH IN THE FLOODPLAIN AND SURROUNDING UPLANDS OF THE WISCONSIN, BC, V6T 1Z4 Canada ABSTRACT Flood regime and vegetation flood tolerance interact to influence tree. The levee restricts some floodplain area from overbank flood events, but leaves a portion of active

Turner, Monica G.

151

Environmental risk of dissolved oxygen depletion of diverted flood waters in river polder systems – A quasi-2D flood modelling approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

River polders are retention basins contained by levees alongside rivers into which water from the main river channel is diverted during extreme floods in order to cap the peak discharge of the flood hydrograph and to alleviate downstream flood risk by reducing the water levels. The retained water, however, is stagnant and the organic material in the water and the

Karl-Erich Lindenschmidt; Ina Pech; Martina Baborowski

2009-01-01

152

Experimental analysis of the levees safety based on geophysical monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several flood events brought river levees into the focus of attention for some disasters due to their collapse. This phenomena is quite complex to investigate, because of different factors that can affect the stability of levees, among them the non uniformity of material properties, which influencing the permeability of the embankment, might induce high percolation velocity of flux thus triggering the unstability. Thus, to apply a fast and integrate investigation methods with a non-destructive characteristics should have a large interest, if they are able to furnish ready and usable information necessary to hydrogeological models. In order to achieve this goal, the University of Perugia (Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering) and the National Research Council (IRPI and IMAA research institutes) developed a collaborating project on the study of the internal structure of the river embankment by carrying out experiments in laboratory. The purpose of this study is to show the preliminary results of the experimental investigation. The laboratory embankment was built using material coming from a real levee and gathered inside a 1.5m x 1.2m plexiglas box. The box has two compartments: a water reservoir at one hand where a constant water head was reached after some time and a soil simulating the presence of levee. We perform a geoelectrical multichannel acquisition system with three parallel profiles characterized by 16 mini-electrodes connected to georesistivimeter Syscal Pro. An automatic acquisition protocol has been performed to obtain time slice electrical tomographies during the experiments. The geophysical results show the effect of the water table inside the embankment during the wetting and emptying. In order to assess the capability of the geophysical monitoring for addressing the soil parameters estimate, the resistivity results are investigated by using two analytical and one hydraulic numerical models. The analytical models represent a linear solution of Laplace's equation where Dupuit hypothesis holds (the vertical gradients of the flow velocity in the medium are neglected). In particular, the Marchi and Supino solutions are investigated here by assuming the upstream water level variations in the river negligible with respect to the ones inside the groundwater under the steady state condition. Two different seepage fronts are calculated and compared with the ones inferred from the resistivity maps. The experimental data have been also compared with the results computed by a numerical code. The governing equation for the unsaturated-saturated medium is the continuity equation written in terms of the piezometric head unknown while the Brooks-Corey law relates the water content and the relative hydraulic conductivity to the piezometric head. The numerical model is a time splitting technique and the solution is obtained by solving consecutively a convective and a diffusive component. The medium has been discretized in space using a generally unstructured triangular mesh. The governing equations are discretized using the edge centred mixed hybrid finite element scheme. The computational domain is schematized as 1D network of cells located at the middle point of each edge and linked by fictitious channels and the storage capacity is concentrated in the cells. A linear variation of unknown is assumed inside each triangle. The positive outcomes of hydraulic model application have certainly had benefit from the information coming from the geophysical monitoring. Based on these preliminary results it was noticeable as the geophysical monitoring can be conveniently adopted for addressing the levee safety control and to provide information on soil parameters.

Rizzo, Enzo; Valeria, Giampaolo; Mario, Votta; Lapenna, Vincenzo; Moramarco, Tommaso; Aricò, Costanza; Camici, S.; Morbidelli, Renato; Sinagra, M.; Tucciarelli, T.

2010-05-01

153

Rheologic inferences from the levees of lava flows on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new methodology is presented for estimating the rate of levee growth for channelized lava flows on the basis of spatial changes in the dimensions of the channels and levees. The rate of levee growth can then be used to describe the decrease in flow rate as a function of distance along the flow and, subsequently, to constrain rheologic behavior

Lori S. Glaze; Stephen M. Baloga

2006-01-01

154

Will human recreational activity on levee trails enhance carnivore activity?  

E-print Network

Will human recreational activity on levee trails enhance carnivore activity? Will human recreational activity on levee trails enhance carnivore activity? INTRODUCTION For people and terrestrial 2006, we conducted carnivore surveys in control and impact areas established along the levee (Figure 1

Johnson, Matthew

155

Assessment of the effectiveness of flood adaptation strategies for HCMC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal cities are vulnerable to flooding, and flood risk to coastal cities will increase due to sea-level rise. Moreover, Asian cities in particular are subject to considerable population growth and associated urban developments, increasing this risk even more. Empirical data on vulnerability and the cost and benefits of flood risk reduction measures are therefore paramount for sustainable development of these cities. This paper presents an approach to explore the impacts of sea-level rise and socio-economic developments on flood risk for the flood-prone District 4 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and to develop and evaluate the effects of different adaptation strategies (new levees, dry- and wet proofing of buildings and elevating roads and buildings). A flood damage model was developed to simulate current and future flood risk using the results from a household survey to establish stage-damage curves for residential buildings. The model has been used to assess the effects of several participatory developed adaptation strategies to reduce flood risk, expressed in expected annual damage (EAD). Adaptation strategies were evaluated assuming combinations of both sea-level scenarios and land-use scenarios. Together with information on costs of these strategies, we calculated the benefit-cost ratio and net present value for the adaptation strategies until 2100, taking into account depreciation rates of 2.5% and 5%. The results of this modelling study indicate that the current flood risk in District 4 is USD 0.31 million per year, increasing up to USD 0.78 million per year in 2100. The net present value and benefit-cost ratios using a discount rate of 5 % range from USD -107 to -1.5 million, and from 0.086 to 0.796 for the different strategies. Using a discount rate of 2.5% leads to an increase in both net present value and benefit-cost ratio. The adaptation strategies wet-proofing and dry-proofing generate the best results using these economic indicators. The information on different strategies will be used by the government of Ho Chi Minh City to determine a new flood protection strategy. Future research should focus on gathering empirical data right after a flood on the occurring damage, as this appears to be the most uncertain factor in the risk assessment.

Lasage, R.; Veldkamp, T. I. E.; de Moel, H.; Van, T. C.; Phi, H. L.; Vellinga, P.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

2014-06-01

156

USGS Scientist Interviewed by Media in Flooded Minot  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS hydrologist Chris Laveau is interviewed by media from the Broadway Bridge in downtown Minot, N.D. Dikes on the right of the photograph help control flooding in the downtown area. As the Souris River flooded during the early summer of 2011, it overcame levees in the city of Minot, N.D., causing...

157

Assessing and Affording the Control of Flood Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flood is a most serious hazard to life and property. Dams, dikes and levees are often designed to a fuzzy quantity (PMF). Probabilistic design is preferable but requires that hydrological data be translated into a local monoscopic flood probability distribution. This process introduces information that goes beyond the facts. The method of relative entropy with quantile constraints minimizes this information

Niels Lind; Mahesh Pandey; Jatin Nathwani

2007-01-01

158

Flood, R.D., Piper, D.J.W., Klaus, A., and Peterson, L.C. (Eds.), 1997 Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, Vol. 155  

E-print Network

Flood, R.D., Piper, D.J.W., Klaus, A., and Peterson, L.C. (Eds.), 1997 Proceedings of the Ocean-grained sands deposited at the downstream ends of channels (Flood et al., 1995). Levee deposits form fining interglacial calcareous clay. Within the latest Pleistocene levee complex, major shifts in the posi- tion

159

Exploring high-end scenarios for local sea level rise to develop flood protection strategies for a low-lying delta—the Netherlands as an example  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea level rise, especially combined with possible changes in storm surges and increased river discharge resulting from climate\\u000a change, poses a major threat in low-lying river deltas. In this study we focus on a specific example of such a delta: the\\u000a Netherlands. To evaluate whether the country’s flood protection strategy is capable of coping with future climate conditions,\\u000a an assessment

Caroline A. Katsman; A. Sterl; J. J. Beersma; H. W. van den Brink; J. A. Church; W. Hazeleger; R. E. Kopp; D. Kroon; J. Kwadijk; R. Lammersen; J. Lowe; M. Oppenheimer; H.-P. Plag; J. Ridley; H. von Storch; D. G. Vaughan; P. Vellinga; L. L. A. Vermeersen; R. Weisse

2011-01-01

160

33 CFR 209.220 - Flood control regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209.220 Section...ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.220 Flood control regulations. (a) Local protection...the maintenance and operation of local flood protection works are contained...

2012-07-01

161

33 CFR 209.220 - Flood control regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209.220 Section...ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.220 Flood control regulations. (a) Local protection...the maintenance and operation of local flood protection works are contained...

2014-07-01

162

33 CFR 209.220 - Flood control regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209.220 Section...ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.220 Flood control regulations. (a) Local protection...the maintenance and operation of local flood protection works are contained...

2010-07-01

163

33 CFR 209.220 - Flood control regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209.220 Section...ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.220 Flood control regulations. (a) Local protection...the maintenance and operation of local flood protection works are contained...

2013-07-01

164

33 CFR 209.220 - Flood control regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209.220 Section...ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.220 Flood control regulations. (a) Local protection...the maintenance and operation of local flood protection works are contained...

2011-07-01

165

Cibola High Levee Pond annual report 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This represents the fourth and last annual report of a five year study investigating the early life ecology of the bonytail and razorback sucker at Cibola High Levee Pond. The work in 2004 included: telemetry studies, collection of physical water quality measurements, zooplankton samples, netting fish, the collection of scale samples for aging, predator/prey tank tests and a preliminary analysis of the data base.

Mueller, Gordon A.; Carpenter, Jeanette; Marsh, Paul C.

2005-01-01

166

Mesoscale connectivity through a natural levee  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural levees are potentially locally important zones of lateral seepage between stream channels and floodplain backswamps, because their relatively coarser soils provide pathways of high hydraulic conductivity in an otherwise low conductivity system. Therefore, understanding the rates and mechanisms of subsurface exchange of water and solutes through natural levees may be necessary for understanding biogeochemical cycling in floodplains. We measured imposed hydraulic gradients and solute tracers in 19 shallow monitoring wells within a 580 m3 volume of natural levee in the Atchafalaya Basin, Louisiana. We modeled residence time distributions of pressure and tracers using a simple linear system to quantify spatially variable transport velocities and infer dominant flow mechanisms at a mesoscale. The spatial mean velocity of pressure transport was faster than the mean velocity of tracer transport by two orders of magnitude (1.7 × 10-2 and 4.6 × 10-4 m s-1, respectively), and the variance of pressure velocities was less than the variance of tracer velocities by seven orders of magnitude (1.4 × 104 min2 and 7.9 × 1011 min2, respectively). Higher spatial variability of tracer velocities compared to pressure velocities indicates different functioning mechanisms of mass versus energy transport and suggests preferential flow. Effective hydraulic conductivities, which ranged in magnitude from 10-1 to 103 m d-1, were higher than would be predicted by soil texture. We conclude that, in this fine-grained system, preferential flow paths control water and solute exchange through natural levees. These findings are important for future studies of water and solute cycling in riverine wetlands, and rates of exchange may be particularly useful for modeling water and nutrient budgets in similar systems.

Newman, A. E.; Keim, R. F.

2013-02-01

167

Mesoscale connectivity through a natural levee  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural levees are potentially locally important zones of lateral seepage between stream channels and floodplain backswamps because their relatively coarser soils provide pathways of high hydraulic conductivity in an otherwise low conductivity system. Therefore, understanding the rates and mechanisms of subsurface exchange of water and solutes through natural levees may be necessary for understanding biogeochemical cycling in floodplains. We measured imposed hydraulic gradients and solute tracers in 19 shallow monitoring wells within a 580 m3 volume of natural levee in the Atchafalaya Basin, Louisiana. We modeled residence time distributions of pressure and tracers using a simple linear system to quantify spatially variable transport velocities and infer dominant flow mechanisms at a mesoscale. The spatial mean velocity of pressure transport was faster than the mean velocity of tracer transport by two orders of magnitude (1.7 × 10-2 and 4.6 × 10-4 m s-1, respectively), and the variance of pressure velocities was less than the variance of tracer velocities by seven orders of magnitude (1.4 × 104 min2 and 7.9 × 1011 min2, respectively). Higher spatial variability of tracer velocities compared to pressure velocities indicates different functioning mechanisms of mass versus energy transport and suggests preferential flow. Effective hydraulic conductivities, which ranged in magnitude from 10-1 to 106 and from 10-1 to 103 m d-1 for pressure and tracers, respectively, were higher than would be predicted by soil texture. We conclude that, in this fine-grained system, preferential flowpaths control water and solute exchange through natural levees. These findings are important for future studies of water and solute cycling in riverine wetlands, and rates of exchange may be particularly useful for modeling water and nutrient budgets in similar systems.

Newman, A. E.; Keim, R. F.

2012-06-01

168

USGS Scientist is Interviewed by Media at the Flooded Souris River  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS hydrologist Brent Hanson is interviewed by media at the flooded Souris River in Foxholm, N.D., about 30 miles northwest of Minot. A flooded road can be seen in the background. As the Souris River flooded during the early summer of 2011, it overcame levees in the city of Minot, N.D., causing ab...

169

The Great Flood of 1993  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During a typical year, levees built along the banks of the Mississippi River keep the river in its channel and out of people's homes and fields. However, in 1993, an unsually persistent configuration of the polar jet stream and tropical high pressure produced thunderstorms and heavy rains that lasted for months. This video segment adapted from a NOVA television broadcast describes the meteorological conditions that created what was then the costliest flooding in United States history.

170

76 FR 72961 - Flood Hazard Determinations (Including Flood Elevation Determinations)-Change in Notification and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Management Agency [Docket ID FEMA-2011-0030] Flood Hazard Determinations (Including Flood Elevation Determinations)--Change in Notification...SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, the...

2011-11-28

171

USGS Streamgage Flooded by Souris River  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The USGS Souris River at Foxholm, N.D. streamgage (center of photo) is half inundated by water about 30 miles northwest of Minot. This water channel, normally only about 30 feet wide, runs through a wildlife preserve. As the Souris River flooded during the early summer of 2011, it overcame levees i...

172

Hydrologic effects of area B flood control plan on urbanization of Dade County, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Swampy low land (Area B) that fringes the Everglades west of Metropolitan Miami, Florida (Area A) probably will be urbanized in the future. Area B will be protected from flooding by huge pumps that will pump water westward from Area B over a levee system into Conservation Area 3B. The total capacity of the pumps will be about 13,400 cubic feet per second which is sufficient to lower water levels 2 inches per day in the 203 square miles of Area B. As this capacity is about equal to the highest gravity-flow discharge to the ocean through existing canals of the Miami area, a great potential. will exist, not only for control of floods, but also for beneficial control and management of a major segment of the water resources in southeastern Florida.

Kohout, F.A.; Hartwell, J.H.

1967-01-01

173

Floodplain sedimentation and sensitivity: summer 1993 flood, Upper Mississippi River Valley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterns of overbank sedimentation in the vicinity of, and far removed from, levee breaks that occurred in response to the >100 year, summer 1993 flood in the upper Mississippi River valley are elucidated. Two suites of overbank deposits were associated with the failure of artificial levees within a 70 km long study reach. Circumjacent sand deposits are a component of

Basil Gomez; J. D. Phillips; F. J. Magilligan; L. A. James

1997-01-01

174

Local- and watershed-scale controls on the spatial variability of natural levee deposits in a large fine-grained floodplain: Lower Pánuco Basin, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines spatial variations in natural levee deposits within the lower reaches of a large coastal plain drainage system. The Pánuco basin (98,227 km 2) drains east-central Mexico, and is an excellent setting to examine the influence of watershed and local controls on the morphology and sedimentology of natural levees. Although many fluvial systems in the U.S. Gulf Coastal Plain have been investigated, the rivers in the Mexican Gulf Coastal Plain have received comparatively little attention. Lateral and downstream characteristics of natural levee morphology and sediment texture are considered within the context of meandering river floodplain deposits. Data sources include total-stations surveying, sediment samples of surficial levee deposits, topographic maps (1:50,000), and aerial photographs (1:40,000). The slope of natural levees average 0.0049 m/m, whereas the texture ( D84) of levee deposits averages 0.12 mm. Natural levee characteristics vary due to local- and watershed-scale controls. The lateral reduction in levee height displays a curvilinear pattern that coincides with an abrupt change in sediment texture. The downstream pattern of natural levee texture exhibits the influence of local-scale perturbations superimposed upon a larger watershed-scale trend. Disruption to the fining trend, either by tributary inputs of sediment or reworking of Tertiary valley deposits, is retained for a limited distance. The influence of the channel planform geometry on levee morphology is examined by consideration of the radius of curvature ( Rc) of meander bends, and is inversely related to natural levee width. This suggests that the planform geometry of river channels exerts a control on the dispersal of flood sediments, and is responsible for considerable local variability in the floodplain topography. The average width of natural levees increases with drainage area, from an average of 747 m in the Moctezuma to an average of 894 m in the Pánuco. However, in the lower reaches of the Pánuco valley the width of natural levees rapidly decreases, which is associated with fining of the suspended sediment load. Thus, the reduction in natural levee width signifies an abrupt change in the directionality of cause-effect relationships at the watershed-scale. Findings from this study elucidate linkages between meandering river channels and floodplains for a large lowland alluvial valley.

Hudson, Paul F.; Heitmuller, Franklin T.

2003-12-01

175

Study of Extreme Hydrometeorological Events under Consideration of Climate Change in terms of Flood Protection Design Standard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of Trend and Shift on annual maximum daily data over 500 raingauges with data length of 80 years or longer in the Ohio River Basin U.S. demonstrated a significant increase in variance of the data over time. The area-average increase in standard deviation is 23% for the recent 40 years (1959 - 1998) in comparison with the earlier 40-60 years (1919 or earlier - 1958). This implies that more and more extreme hydrometeorological events such as extreme rainfalls and droughts could be observed in the future years. The centurial flood disaster of August 8-10 2009 in the mid-southern Taiwan caused by Morakot Typhoon and the extraordinary drought lasting from winter 2009 to early summer 2010 wreaking havoc of a vast area of south-west China mainland were two good examples of the extremes. This variation could attribute to climate change. It challenges the hydrologic frequency analysis. Thus, exploration of a robust and reliable approach to precipitation frequency analysis becomes an imminent issue in hydrologic design studies. This paper introduces a novel hydrometeorological approach, the Regional L-moments method (RLM), to rainfall frequency analysis. There are two fatal weaknesses in FA: 1) There is no analytical way to derive a theoretical distribution to best fit the data; 2) The theoretical true value of a frequency such as 50-y or 100-y is unknown forever. The RLM, which is developed based on the order statistics and the concept of hydrometeorological homogeneity, demonstrates unbiasedness of parameter estimates and robust to outliers, and reduces the uncertainties of frequency estimates as well via the real data in Ohio River Basin of the U.S. and in the Taihu Lake Basin of China. Further study indicated that the variation of the frequency estimates such as 10-year, 100-year, 500-year, etc. is not normal as suggested in current textbooks. Actually, the frequency estimates vary asymmetrically from positive skew to negative skew when estimates go through from common frequencies to rare frequencies. Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) is defined as the greatest depth of precipitation for a given duration meteorologically possible for a design watershed or a given storm area at a particular location at a particular time of year, with no allowance made for long-term climate trends (WMO, 2009). The PMP has been widely used by many hydrologists to determine the probable maximum flood (PMF) critical to the design of a variety of hydrological structures and other high profile infrastructures such as nuclear power-generation station with respect to flood-protection, for which a high level safety is required. What is the impact of climate change on PMP estimation? Actually, in the definition of PMP, there is "no allowance made for long-term climate trends" (WMO, 2009). However, when people are talking about impact of climate change on PMP estimation, two things may be taken into account practically: (1) To affect the precipitable water as a result of increase of SST; (2) Effect on the selection of the transposed storm because more extreme storms would occur due to climate change and more potential candidates to be used for storm transposition. The occurrence of a severe rainfall storm could alter the PMP estimates. A good example is the lashing of the Typhoon Morakot of 8 - 10 Aug. 2009 on Taiwan Island that set up new rainfall picture. What is the effect of topography on rainfall is another big issue in PMP estimation. Many observations of precipitation in mountainous areas show a general increase in precipitation with elevation. Practically, the effect of topography on rainfall should be taken into account in PMP estimation and implemented by the storm separation technique. The Step-Duration-Orographic-Intensification-Factor (SDOIF) Method, which was developed based on statistics analysis of extreme rainfalls in the storm area, can practically be used as storm separation technique to decouple the Morakot storm rainfalls into two components, convergence component and orographic component. Then, the convergence co

Lin, B.-Z.

2012-04-01

176

Sulforhodamine B interacts with albumin to lower surface tension and protect against ventilation injury of flooded alveoli.  

PubMed

In the acute respiratory distress syndrome, alveolar flooding by proteinaceous edema liquid impairs gas exchange. Mechanical ventilation is used as a supportive therapy. In regions of the edematous lung, alveolar flooding is heterogeneous, and stress is concentrated in aerated alveoli. Ventilation exacerbates stress concentrations and injuriously overexpands aerated alveoli. Injury degree is proportional to surface tension, T. Lowering T directly lessens injury. Furthermore, as heterogeneous flooding causes the stress concentrations, promoting equitable liquid distribution between alveoli should, indirectly, lessen injury. We present a new theoretical analysis suggesting that liquid is trapped in discrete alveoli by a pressure barrier that is proportional to T. Experimentally, we identify two rhodamine dyes, sulforhodamine B and rhodamine WT, as surface active in albumin solution and investigate whether the dyes lessen ventilation injury. In the isolated rat lung, we micropuncture a surface alveolus, instill albumin solution, and obtain an area with heterogeneous alveolar flooding. We demonstrate that rhodamine dye addition lowers T, reduces ventilation-induced injury, and facilitates liquid escape from flooded alveoli. In vitro we show that rhodamine dye is directly surface active in albumin solution. We identify sulforhodamine B as a potential new therapeutic agent for the treatment of the acute respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:25414246

Kharge, Angana Banerjee; Wu, You; Perlman, Carrie E

2015-02-01

177

Ontogeny of a flood plain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The ontogeny of five flood-plain segments is described for a period of 18 yr following a major flood in 1978 on the Powder River in southeastern Montana. The flood plains developed on relatively elevated sand and gravel deposits left within the channel by the 1978 flood. In cross section, the flood plains resemble benches with well-developed natural levees. Flood-plain growth occurred as sediment was draped onto preexisting surfaces in layers of sand and mud a few centimeters to decimeters thick, resulting in some lateral, but mostly vertical accretion. Annual and biannual measurements indicated that, as the flood-plain segments grew upward, the annual rate of vertical accretion decreased as the partial duration recurrence interval for the threshold or bankfull discharge increased from 0.16 to 1.3 yr. It is clear that a constant recurrence interval for overbank flow cannot be meaningfully assigned to this type of flood-plain ontogeny. These flood plains did not grow on migrating point bars, and vertical accretion at least initially occurred within the channel, rather than across the valley flat during extensive overbank flows. Sediments of these flood plains define narrow, elongated stratigraphic units that border the active channel and onlap older flood-plain deposits. These characteristics are considerably different from those of many facies models for meandering river deposits. Facies similar to those described in this paper are likely to be preserved, thereby providing important evidence in the geologic record for episodes of periodic channel expansion by ancient rivers.

Moody, J.A.; Pizzuto, J.E.; Meade, R.H.

1999-01-01

178

River Floods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This shockwave tool combines animations, text, and simulations in order to teach about floods. Topics addressed in the module include the shape of drainage basins, discharge rates, deposition, runoff, flood frequency, and related issues. Finally, the module allows the user to generate a flood and test different flood control techniques to see how a variety of conditions affect flooding.

Smoothstone

179

Flood Impacts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Flooding causes more deaths and damage than any other hydro meteorological phenomena. The Weather Service provides statistics on flood-related impacts: flood fatalities by year from present to 1903; flood damage, including kinds and value of damage, annually from present to l903. Other features include: reports of current flood watches and warnings, outlooks for impending flooding, hydrologic conditions, and links to climate information and Weather Service offices.

180

33 CFR 209.300 - Flood control regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209.300 Section...ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.300 Flood control regulations. (a) Regulations for the operation and maintenance of local flood protection works approved by the...

2010-07-01

181

33 CFR 209.300 - Flood control regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209.300 Section...ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.300 Flood control regulations. (a) Regulations for the operation and maintenance of local flood protection works approved by the...

2011-07-01

182

33 CFR 209.300 - Flood control regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.300 Flood control regulations. ...operation and maintenance of local flood protection works approved...contained in Section 3 of the Flood Control Act of June 22, 1936...chapter. These regulations cover conditions normally and...

2014-07-01

183

33 CFR 209.300 - Flood control regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.300 Flood control regulations. ...operation and maintenance of local flood protection works approved...contained in Section 3 of the Flood Control Act of June 22, 1936...chapter. These regulations cover conditions normally and...

2013-07-01

184

33 CFR 209.300 - Flood control regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.300 Flood control regulations. ...operation and maintenance of local flood protection works approved...contained in Section 3 of the Flood Control Act of June 22, 1936...chapter. These regulations cover conditions normally and...

2012-07-01

185

Application of ground penetrating radar in detecting the hazards and risks of termites and ants in soil levees.  

PubMed

A ground penetrating radar (GPR) technique was used to detect Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus) and red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) hazards and risks (targets) in a soil levee at the London Avenue Canal in New Orleans, LA. To make this assessment, GPR signal scans were examined for features produced by termite or ant activities and potential sources of food and shelter such as nests, tree roots, and voids (tunnels). The total scanned length of the soil levee was 4,125 m. The average velocity and effective depth of the radar penetration was 0.080 m/ns and 0.61 m, respectively. Four hundred twenty-seven targets were identified. Tree roots (38), voids (31), fire ant nests (209), and metal objects (149) were detected, but no Formosan termite carton nests were identified. The lack of identified termite nests may be related to drowning events at the time to the flood. Based on the target density (TD), the two new floodwall and levee sections that were rebuilt or reinforced after they were destroyed by Hurricane Katrina in 2005 were determined to be at low potential risk from termites and ants. A merging target density (MTD) method indicated a high potential risk near one of the breached sections still remains. Foraging and nesting activity of Formosan subterranean termites and red imported fire ants may be a contributory factor to the levee failure at the London Avenue Canal. PMID:19689906

Yang, Xiuhao; Henderson, Gregg; Mao, Lixin; Evans, Ahmad

2009-08-01

186

Three-dimensional imaging, change detection, and stability assessment during the centerline trench levee seepage experiment using terrestrial light detection and ranging technology, Twitchell Island, California, 2012  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A full scale field seepage test was conducted on a north-south trending levee segment of a now bypassed old meander belt on Twitchell Island, California, to understand the effects of live and decaying root systems on levee seepage and slope stability. The field test in May 2012 was centered on a north-south trench with two segments: a shorter control segment and a longer seepage test segment. The complete length of the trench area measured 40.4 meters (m) near the levee centerline with mature trees located on the waterside and landside of the levee flanks. The levee was instrumented with piezometers and tensiometers to measure positive and negative porewater pressures across the levee after the trench was flooded with water and held at a constant hydraulic head during the seepage test—the results from this component of the experiment are not discussed in this report. We collected more than one billion three-dimensional light detection and ranging (lidar) data points before, during, and after the centerline seepage test to assess centimeter-scale stability of the two trees and the levee crown. During the seepage test, the waterside tree toppled (rotated 20.7 degrees) into the water. The landside tree rotated away from the levee by 5 centimeters (cm) at a height of 2 m on the tree. The paved surface of the levee crown had three regions that showed subsidence on the waterside of the trench—discussed as the northern, central, and southern features. The northern feature is an elongate region that subsided 2.1 cm over an area with an average width of 1.35 m that extends 15.8 m parallel to the trench from the northern end of the trench to just north of the trench midpoint, and is associated with a crack 1 cm in height that formed during the seepage test on the trench wall. The central subsidence feature is a semicircular region on the waterside of the trench that subsided by as much as 6.2 cm over an area 3.4 m wide and 11.2 m long. The southern feature is an elongate region that has a maximum subsidence of 3.5 cm over an area 0.75 m wide and 8.1 m long and is associated with a number of small fractures in the pavement that are predominately north-south-trending and parallel to the trench. We determined that there was no significant motion of the levee flank during the last week of the seepage test. We also determined biomorphic parameters for the landside tree, such as the 3D positioning on the levee, tree height, levee parallel/perpendicular cross sectional area, and canopy centroid. These biomorphic parameters were requested to support a University of California Berkeley team studying seepage and stability on the levee. A gridded, 2-cm bare-earth digital elevation model of the levee crown and the landside levee flank from the final terrestrial lidar (T-Lidar) survey provided detailed topographic data for future assessment. Because the T-Lidar was not integrated into the project design, other than an initial courtesy dataset to help characterize the levee surface, our ability to contribute to the overall science goals of the seepage test was limited. Therefore, our analysis focused on developing data collection and processing methodology necessary to align ultra high-resolution T-Lidar data (with an average spot spacing 2–3 millimeters on the levee crown) from several instrument setup locations to detect, measure, and characterize dynamic centimeter-scale deformation and surface changes during the seepage test.

Bawden, Gerald W.; Howle, James; Bond, Sandra; Shriro, Michelle; Buck, Peter

2014-01-01

187

Chaotic dynamics of the flood series in the Huaihe River Basin for the last 500 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Huaihe River Basin is one of the most flood-prone basins in China because it is frequently affected by collapses of the south levee of the Huanghe (Yellow River) over a long period in addition to its transitional climate and poor drainage topography. The flood series in the Huaihe River Basin for the last 500-year period is reconstructed using the

Yinkang Zhou; Zhiyuan Ma; Lachun Wang

2002-01-01

188

Seasonally Flooded Grasslands -Grand CaymanSeasonally Flooded Grasslands -Grand Cayman 0 1 2 3 4 50.5  

E-print Network

Seasonally Flooded Grasslands - Grand CaymanSeasonally Flooded Grasslands - Grand Cayman 0 1 2 3 4 Protected Areas Seasonally Flooded Grasslands V.A.1.N.g. #12;Seasonally Flooded Grasslands - Little CaymanSeasonally Flooded Grasslands - Little Cayman 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.50.25 Kilometers Cayman Islands National Biodiversity

Exeter, University of

189

Cibola High Levee Pond Annual Report 2003. Interim Report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bonytail and razorback sucker have once again spawned and produced swim-up larvae in Cibola High Levee Pond (CHLP). CHLP continues to support annual recruitment of bonytail while recent razorback sucker recruitment remains elusive. Thus far, razorbacks have experienced intermittent years of spawning success. Both native species were observed spawning on, or near, the riprap on the river levee. Razorbacks spawned from late January until mid-March over gravel and large cobble along the levee toe (2-3 m depth) and bonytail spawned along the levee shoreline during mid-April. Razorback suckers rapidly fin during the reproductive act, which flushes fines from the substrate and leaves gravel relatively clean. Bonytail on the other hand, appear to spawn over or on substrate that has been disturbed by beaver activity. Substrate scour or disturbance appears to be an important factor in spawning site selectiona?|

Mueller, G.A.; Carpenter, J.; Marsh, P.C.; Minckley, C.O.

2003-01-01

190

Anthropogenic impact on flood-risk: a large-scale assessment for planning controlled inundation strategies along the River Po  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Flood Directive (2007/60/EC) has fostered the development of innovative and sustainable approaches and methodologies for flood-risk mitigation and management. Furthermore, concerning flood-risk mitigation, the increasing awareness of how the anthropogenic pressures (e.g. demographic and land-use dynamics, uncontrolled urban and industrial expansion on flood-prone area) could strongly increase potential flood damages and losses has triggered a paradigm shift from "defending the territory against flooding" (e.g. by means of levee system strengthening and heightening) to "living with floods" (e.g. promoting compatible land-uses or adopting controlled flooding strategies of areas located outside the main embankments). The assessment of how socio-economic dynamics may influence flood-risk represents a fundamental skill that should be considered for planning a sustainable industrial and urban development of flood-prone areas, reducing their vulnerability and therefore minimizing socio-economic and ecological losses due to large flood events. These aspects, which are of fundamental importance for Institutions and public bodies in charge of Flood Directive requirements, need to be considered through a holistic approach at river basin scale. This study focuses on the evaluation of large-scale flood-risk mitigation strategies for the middle-lower reach of River Po (~350km), the longest Italian river and the largest in terms of streamflow. Due to the social and economical importance of the Po River floodplain (almost 40% of the total national gross product results from this area), our study aims at investigating the potential of combining simplified vulnerability indices with a quasi-2D model for the definition of sustainable and robust flood-risk mitigation strategies. Referring to past (1954) and recent (2006) land-use data sets (e.g. CORINE) we propose simplified vulnerability indices for assessing potential flood-risk of industrial and urbanized flood prone areas taking into account altimetry and population density, and we analyze the modification of flood-risk occurred during last decades due to the demographic dynamics of the River Po floodplains. Flood hazard associated to a high magnitude event (i.e. return period of about 500 year) was estimated by means of a quasi-2D hydraulic model set up for the middle-lower portion of the Po River and for its major tributaries. The results of the study highlight how coupling a large-scale numerical model with the proposed flood-vulnerability indices could be a useful tool for decision-makers when they are called to define sustainable spatial development plans for the study area, or when they need to identify priorities in the organization of civil protection actions during a major flood event that could include the necessity of controlled flooding of flood-prone areas located outside the main embankment system.

Domeneghetti, Alessio; Castellarin, Attilio; Brath, Armando

2013-04-01

191

Scientists Measure Streamflow near Flooded Minot, N.D.  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientists measure streamflow on a tributary of the Souris River in Foxholm, N.D., about 30 miles northwest of Minot. The team is using an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ACDP) to measure streamflow. As the Souris River flooded during the early summer of 2011, it overcame levees in the city...

192

Mississippi River Flooding 2011: Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS field crew inside the Birds Point-New Madrid floodway. USGS scientists are measuring the amount of water spilling into the New Madrid floodway as a result of the recent intentional breaching of the Birds Point Levee in Missouri in support of the Corps of Engineers operation. When flooding happe...

193

Mississippi River Flooding 2011: Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS Nation Flood Specialist takes a CNN crew on a measurement run at the Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway. USGS scientists are measuring the amount of water spilling into the New Madrid floodway as a result of the recent intentional breaching of the Birds Point Levee in Missouri in support of the Co...

194

Mississippi River Flooding 2011: Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Inflow breach at Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway. USGS scientists are measuring the amount of water spilling into the New Madrid floodway as a result of the recent intentional breaching of the Birds Point Levee in Missouri in support of the Corps of Engineers operation. When flooding happens, USGS f...

195

Mississippi River Flooding 2011: Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Inflow Breech at Birds Point-New Madrid floodway. USGS scientists are measuring the amount of water spilling into the New Madrid floodway as a result of the recent intentional breaching of the Birds Point Levee in Missouri in support of the Corps of Engineers operation. When flooding happens, USGS f...

196

Mississippi River Flooding 2011: Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS National Flood Specialist answers questions for CNN at the Birds Point-NewMadrid Floodway. USGS scientists are measuring the amount of water spilling into the New Madrid floodway as a result of the recent intentional breaching of the Birds Point Levee in Missouri in support of the Corps of Engi...

197

Mississippi River Flooding 2011: Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

National Guard checkpoint at Birds Point-New Madrid floodway. USGS scientists are measuring the amount of water spilling into the New Madrid floodway as a result of the recent intentional breaching of the Birds Point Levee in Missouri in support of the Corps of Engineers operation. When flooding hap...

198

Mississippi River Flooding 2011: Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Inflow breach at Birds Point-New Madrid floodway. USGS scientists are measuring the amount of water spilling into the New Madrid floodway as a result of the recent intentional breaching of the Birds Point Levee in Missouri in support of the Corps of Engineers operation. When flooding happens, USGS f...

199

Mississippi River Flooding 2011: Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientists are measuring the amount of water spilling into the New Madrid floodway as a result of the recent intentional breaching of the Birds Point Levee in Missouri in support of the Corps of Engineers operation. When flooding happens, USGS field crews are among the first to respond. During ...

200

Waterfalls, floods and climate change: evidence from tropical Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediments preserved at the base of rare types of waterfalls provide records of terrestrial floods to 30 kyr or more, being approximately 6–10 times longer than that usually obtained from the traditional slackwater method. These coarse-grained sand deposits form ridges and levees adjacent to plunge pools at the foot of unindented escarpments and within gorge overflow bedrock channel systems. The

Jonathan Nott; David Price

1999-01-01

201

Three dimensional numerical modeling of flow and pollutant transport in a flooding area of 2008 US Midwest Flood  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This paper presents the development and application of a three-dimensional numerical model for simulating the flow field and pollutant transport in a flood zone near the confluence of the Mississippi River and Iowa River in Oakville, Iowa. Due to a levee breaching along the Iowa River during the US ...

202

Vertical Accretion of the Rain Forest Floodplains and Levees: the Formation of Rias from Interaction of Black and White River Types in the Amazon River System.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Amazon river system is dominated by the presence of rias, that is plaeovalleys paretially filled by sediment and harbouring almost standing bodies of water. Since the seminal work of Harald Sioli, it has been clear the paleovalleys have been formed in rivers (black type) poor in sediment and rich in organic matter during low stand periods of the sea level. Subsequently, the rivers rich in sediment (white type) damming of their mouths by the vertical accretion of the rivers rich in sediments (white type). This pattern is present in other rain forest fluvial systems and a good example is the Murray Lake in Papua New Guinea. These relations show that of the flood plain in tropical rain forest systems is strongly dominated by vertical accretion. This fact is also confirmed by the ubiquitous presence of levees inside channels (e.g. Rio Trombettas). Levees accrete vertically by the addition of single layers of sediment mostly entrapped by vegetation. The formation of permanent crevasse splays is also contributing to the levee accretion. Secondary channels are perched over the floodplain interface and totally bounded by levees. Consequently, the floodplain is dominated by lakes, permanent crevasse splays and levees assembled in vertical stacked bodies. The geological record shows examples of rain forest floodplains with similar facies and stratigraphic patterns..

Ori, G.; Franzinelli, E.

2006-12-01

203

Flood Visualizations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A lengthy listing of all of NASA's Scientific Visualization Studio visualizations that have flood as a keyword. The listing includes many visualizations of specific flood instances, as well as visualizations of floods caused by hurricanes. The visualizations are available in a wide variety of formats.

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center SVS

204

Teaching Floods and Flooding Quantitatively  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page helps faculty communicate essential ideas that students struggle with in terms of floods and flooding. It takes into account the concepts of probability and recurrence interval and discusses hydrologic terminology, relations between discharge and stage, and the meaning of the '100 year flood.'

2011-04-21

205

78 FR 64521 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...with section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...msc.fema.gov. The flood hazard determinations...and County of Denver, Colorado Docket No.: FEMA-B-1266...Assistance No. 97.022, ``Flood Insurance.'') Dated: September 16, 2013. Roy E. Wright,...

2013-10-29

206

13 CFR 120.170 - Flood insurance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flood insurance. 120.170 Section 120.170 Business...Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.170 Flood insurance. Under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Sec....

2010-01-01

207

13 CFR 120.170 - Flood insurance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flood insurance. 120.170 Section 120.170 Business...Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.170 Flood insurance. Under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Sec....

2011-01-01

208

New Orleans and Hurricane Katrina. IV: Orleans East Bank (Metro) protected basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper addresses damage caused by Hurricane Katrina to the main Orleans East Bank protected basin. This basin represented the heart of New Orleans, and contained the main downtown area, the historic French Quarter, the Garden District, and the sprawling Lakefront and Canal Districts. Nearly half of the loss of life during this hurricane, and a similar fraction of the overall damages, occurred in this heavily populated basin. There are a number of important geotechnical lessons, as well as geo-forensic lessons, associated with the flooding of this basin. These include the difficulties associated with the creation and operation of regional-scale flood protection systems requiring federal and local cooperation and funding over prolonged periods of time. There are also a number of engineering and policy lessons regarding (1) the accuracy and reliability of current analytical methods; (2) the shortcomings and potential dangers involved in decisions that reduced short-term capital outlays in exchange for increased risk of potential system failures; (3) the difficulties associated with integrating local issues with a flood risk reduction project; and (4) the need to design and maintain levees as systems; with each of the many individual project elements being required to mesh seamlessly. These lessons are of interest and importance for similar flood protection systems throughout numerous other regions of the United States and the world. ?? 2008 ACSE.

Seed, R.B.; Bea, R.G.; Athanasopoulos-Zekkos, A.; Boutwell, G.P.; Bray, J.D.; Cheung, C.; Cobos-Roa, D.; Cohen-Waeber, J.; Collins, B.D.; Harder, L.F., Jr.; Kayen, R.E.; Pestana, J.M.; Riemer, M.F.; Rogers, J.D.; Storesund, R.; Vera-Grunauer, X.; Wartman, J.

2008-01-01

209

Flood Resilient Technological Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a consequence of the paradigm shift of the EU water policy (Directive 2007/60/EC, EC 2003) from defense to living with flood, floods shall be faced in the future through resilient solutions, seeking to improve the permanence of flood protection, and getting thus beyond traditional temporary and human-relying solutions. But the fact is that nowadays "Flood Resilient (FRe) Building Technological Products" is an undefined concept, and concerned FRe solutions cannot be even easily identified. "FRe Building Technological materials" is a wide term involving a wide and heterogeneous range of solutions. There is an interest in offering an identification and classification of the referred products, since it will be useful for stakeholders and populations at flood risk for adopting the most adequate protections when facing floods. Thus, a previous schematic classification would enable us at least to identify most of them and to figure out autonomous FRe Technological Products categories subject all of them to intense industrial innovative processes. The flood resilience enhancement of a given element requires providing it enough water-repelling capacity, and different flood resilient solutions can be sorted out: barriers, waterproofing and anticorrosive. Barriers are palliative solutions that can be obtained either from traditional materials, or from technological ones, offering their very low weight and high maneuverability. Belonging barriers and waterproofing systems to industrial branches clearly different, from a conceptual point of view, waterproofing material may complement barriers, and even be considered as autonomous barriers in some cases. Actually, they do not only complement barriers by their application to barriers' singular weak points, like anchors, joints, but on the other hand, waterproofing systems can be applied to enhance the flood resilience of new building, as preventive measure. Anticorrosive systems do belong to a clearly different category because their function do not consist in repelling water, but in preventing damages caused by the watery contact. Finally, others preventive flood resilient technologies could also be considered, since forecasting, near-casting and warning alert are solutions getting more and more involved in flood resilience strategies.

Diez Gonzalez, J. J.; Monnot, J. V.; Marquez Paniagua, P.; Pámpanas, P.; Paz Abuín, S.; Prendes, P.; Videra, O.; U. P. M. Smartest Team

2012-04-01

210

Analyses of water, core material, and elutriate samples collected near New Orleans, Louisiana (Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, and vicinity hurricane protection project)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

When a hurricane approaches the New Orleans, Louisiana area, the accompanying tides and heavy rainfall increase the level of water in Lake Borgne, Mississippi Sound, and Lake Pontchartrain and pose a major threat of water damage to the populated areas. During Hurricane Betsy (1965), for example, the level of Lake Pontchartrain rose as much as 13 feet. Nineteen core-material-sampling sites were chosen by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers as possible borrow areas for fill material to be used in levee construction for flood protection around Lake Pontchartrain. Twenty-three receiving-water sites were also selected to represent the water that will contact the proposed levees. Selected nutrients, metals, pesticides, and other organic constituents were analyzed from bed-material and native-water samples as well as upon elutriate samples of specific core material-receiving water systems. The results of these analyses are presented without interpretation. (Woodard-USGS)

Leone, Harold L.

1976-01-01

211

Sand boils induced by the 1993 Mississippi River flood: Could they one day be misinterpreted as earthquake-induced liquefaction?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In areas that are seismically active but lacking clear surficial faulting, many paleoearthquake studies depend on the interpretation of ancient liquefaction features (sand blows) as indicators of prehistoric seismicity. Sand blows, however, can be mimicked by nonseismic sand boils formed by water seeping beneath levees during floods. We examined sand boils induced by the Mississippi River flood of 1993 in

Yong Li; John Craven; Eugene S. Schweig; Stephen F. Obermeier

1996-01-01

212

Erosional and depositional patterns associated with the 1993 Missouri River floods inferred from SIR-C and TOPSAR radar data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Missouri River floods of 1993 caused significant and widespread damage to the floodplains between Kansas City and St. Louis. Immediately downstream of levee breaks, flood waters scoured the bottoms. As the floodwaters continued, they spread laterally and deposited massive amounts of sand as crevasse splays on top of agricultural fields. We explore the use of radar interferometry and backscatter

N. R. Izenberg; R. E. Arvidson; R. A. Brackett; S. S. Saatchi; G. R. Osburn; J. Dohrenwend

1996-01-01

213

Flood inundation map library, Fort Kent, Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Severe flooding occurred in northern Maine from April 28 to May 1, 2008, and damage was extensive in the town of Fort Kent (Lombard, 2010). Aroostook County was declared a Federal disaster area on May 9, 2008. The extent of flooding on both the Fish and St. John Rivers during this event showed that the current Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Study (FIS) and Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) (Federal Emergency Management Agency, 1979) were out of date. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study to develop a flood inundation map library showing the areas and depths for a range of flood stages from bankfull to the flood of record for Fort Kent to complement an updated FIS (Federal Emergency Management Agency, in press). Hydrologic analyses that support the maps include computer models with and without the levee and with various depths of backwater on the Fish River. This fact sheet describes the methods used to develop the maps and describes how the maps can be accessed.

Lombard, Pamela J.

2012-01-01

214

Methodology for Establishment of Integrated Flood Analysis System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood risk management efforts face considerable uncertainty in flood hazard delineation as a consequence of changing climatic conditions including shifts in precipitation, soil moisture, and land uses. These changes can confound efforts to characterize flood impacts over decadal time scales and thus raise questions about the true benefits and drawbacks of alternative flood management projects including those of a structural and non-structural nature. Here we report an integrated flood analysis system that is designed to bring climate change information into flood risk context and characterize flood hazards in both rural and urban areas. Distributed rainfall-runoff model, one-dimensional (1D) NWS-FLDWAV model, 1D Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) and two-dimensional (2D) BreZo model are coupled. Distributed model using the multi-directional flow allocation and real time updating is used for rainfall-runoff analysis in ungauged watershed and its outputs are taken as boundary conditions to the FLDWAV model which was employed for 1D river hydraulic routing and predicting the overflow discharge at levees which were overtopped. In addition, SWMM is chosen to analyze storm sewer flow in urban areas and BreZo is used to estimate the inundation zones, depths and velocities due to the surcharge flow at sewer system or overflow at levees on the land surface. The overflow at FLDWAV or surcharged flow at SWMM becomes point sources in BreZo. Applications in Korea and California are presented.

Kim, B.; Sanders, B. F.; Kim, K.; Han, K.; Famiglietti, J. S.

2012-12-01

215

Flood marks of the 1813 flood in the Central Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In August 2013, 200 years have passed since the greatest and most destructive floods known in the Slovak river basins. The flood affected almost the entire territory of Slovakia, northeastern Moravia, south of Poland. River basins of Váh (Orava, Kysuca), Poprad, Nitra, Hron, Torysa, Hornád, upper and middle Vistula, Odra have been most affected. The aim of this paper is to map the flood marks documenting this catastrophic flood in Slovakia. Flood marks and registrations on the 1813 flood in the Váh river basin are characterized by great diversity and are written in Bernolák modification of Slovak, in Latin, German and Hungarian. Their descriptions are stored in municipal chronicles and Slovak and Hungarian state archives. The flood in 1813 devastated the entire Váh valley, as well as its tributaries. Following flood marks were known in the Vah river basin: Dolná Lehota village in the Orava river basin, historical map from 1817 covering the Su?any village and showing three different cross-sections of the Váh river during the 1813 flood, flood mark in the city of Tren?ín, Flood mark in the gate of the Brunovce mansion, cross preserved at the old linden tree at Drahovce, and some records in written documents, e.g. Cifer village. The second part of the study deals with flood marks mapping in the Hron, Hnilec and Poprad River basins, and Vistula River basin in Krakow. On the basis of literary documents and the actual measurement, we summarize the peak flow rates achieved during the floods in 1813 in the profile Hron: Banská Bystrica. According to recent situation the 1813 flood peak was approximately by 1.22 m higher, than the flood in 1974. Also in the Poprad basin is the August 1813 flood referred as the most devastating flood in last 400 years. The position of the flood mark is known, but the building was unfortunately removed later. The water level in 1813 was much higher than the water level during the recent flood in June 2010. In Cracow the water level was by 38 cm lower in May 2010 than during the 1813 flood, but by 5 cm higher than in 1903, and also higher than all the other catastrophic floods that hit Cracow during the last 200 years. The analysis of documentary information is a contribution to the growing pool of material on pre-instrumental floods in Central and Eastern Europe. The long-term flood records may reduce uncertainty in hydrological analyses and contribute to reducing losses of human lives and property. Some historical cases may be used as analogues of the recent floods and very well documented recent events are important for complex understanding of similar past floods Acknowledgement This work was supported by the Science and Technology Assistance Agency under contract No. APVV-0015-10. The paper was prepared during the "Centre of excellence for integrated flood protection of land" (ITMS 26240120004) project implementation supported by the Research & Development Operational Programme funded by the ERDF.

Miklanek, Pavol; Pekárová, Pavla; Halmová, Dana; Pramuk, Branislav; Ba?ová Mitková, Veronika

2014-05-01

216

Flood Frequency Curves - Use of information on the likelihood of extreme floods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investment in the infrastructure that reduces flood risk for flood-prone communities must incorporate information on the magnitude and frequency of flooding in that area. Traditionally, that information has been a probability distribution of annual maximum streamflows developed from the historical gaged record at a stream site. Practice in the United States fits a Log-Pearson type3 distribution to the annual maximum flows of an unimpaired streamflow record, using the method of moments to estimate distribution parameters. The procedure makes the assumptions that annual peak streamflow events are (1) independent, (2) identically distributed, and (3) form a representative sample of the overall probability distribution. Each of these assumptions can be challenged. We rarely have enough data to form a representative sample, and therefore must compute and display the uncertainty in the estimated flood distribution. But, is there a wet/dry cycle that makes precipitation less than independent between successive years? Are the peak flows caused by different types of events from different statistical populations? How does the watershed or climate changing over time (non-stationarity) affect the probability distribution floods? Potential approaches to avoid these assumptions vary from estimating trend and shift and removing them from early data (and so forming a homogeneous data set), to methods that estimate statistical parameters that vary with time. A further issue in estimating a probability distribution of flood magnitude (the flood frequency curve) is whether a purely statistical approach can accurately capture the range and frequency of floods that are of interest. A meteorologically-based analysis produces "probable maximum precipitation" (PMP) and subsequently a "probable maximum flood" (PMF) that attempts to describe an upper bound on flood magnitude in a particular watershed. This analysis can help constrain the upper tail of the probability distribution, well beyond the range of gaged data or even historical or paleo-flood data, which can be very important in risk analyses performed for flood risk management and dam and levee safety studies.

Faber, B.

2011-12-01

217

Flood Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This map, created by combining data from Google Maps and NASA, shows which land areas would be flooded by sea level rises between 0 and 14 meters. The NASA data set used is only of limited reliability, but the map provides a fascinating view of the consequences of rising sea levels, and the consequent floods of costal areas.

Alex Tingle

218

GIS techniques to support flood plain modelling in different scale ranges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of damages caused by extreme flood events increased dramatically during the last years worldwide. Determination of flood risk areas is an essential for the flood protection measures. To facilitate detailed spatial analysis of hydraulic data the \\

O. Evdakov; J. Ihringer; P. Oberle; S. Theobald

2003-01-01

219

24 CFR 1000.38 - What flood insurance requirements are applicable?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What flood insurance requirements are applicable...ACTIVITIES General § 1000.38 What flood insurance requirements are applicable? Under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973,...

2013-04-01

220

24 CFR 1000.38 - What flood insurance requirements are applicable?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What flood insurance requirements are applicable...ACTIVITIES General § 1000.38 What flood insurance requirements are applicable? Under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973,...

2012-04-01

221

Flood Risk Management Newsletter 1 March 2013 vol 6 no 3  

E-print Network

Flood Risk Management Newsletter 1 March 2013 vol 6 no 3 Fstocoll Table of Contents Social-Cognitive Aspects of Risk and Performance Management in Flood Response..........................................................1 Flood Protection Structure Accreditation Task Force

US Army Corps of Engineers

222

24 CFR 1000.38 - What flood insurance requirements are applicable?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What flood insurance requirements are applicable...ACTIVITIES General § 1000.38 What flood insurance requirements are applicable? Under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973,...

2014-04-01

223

24 CFR 1000.38 - What flood insurance requirements are applicable?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What flood insurance requirements are applicable...ACTIVITIES General § 1000.38 What flood insurance requirements are applicable? Under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973,...

2010-04-01

224

24 CFR 1000.38 - What flood insurance requirements are applicable?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What flood insurance requirements are applicable...ACTIVITIES General § 1000.38 What flood insurance requirements are applicable? Under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973,...

2011-04-01

225

A study of morphology and texture of natural levees—Cumberland Marshes, Saskatchewan, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field investigations of natural levees were conducted in the developing avulsion belt of the lower Saskatchewan River. Surveyed transects show that levees adjoining main-thread and crevasse channels vary considerably in size, shape, and slope away from the channel. A slope value of 0.01 was used to define the boundary between levees and adjoining backswamps. Morphometric analyses show that, in general,

Dan Cazanacli; Norman D. Smith

1998-01-01

226

77 FR 9637 - Process for Requesting a Variance From Vegetation Standards for Levees and Floodwalls; Additional...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...setback reserves space for future levee improvements or repairs: while this space is in reserve it may be used as a recreational greenway and/or a landscape buffer between the levee and adjacent development. Slopes (Figure 1) Levee slopes, among other...

2012-02-17

227

76 FR 7508 - National Flood Insurance Program, Policy Wording Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 61...1660-AA70 National Flood Insurance Program...Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION...the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) provides...insurance protection against flood damage to...

2011-02-10

228

Flood Risk and Flood hazard maps - Visualisation of hydrological risks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrological models are an important basis of flood forecasting and early warning systems. They provide significant data on hydrological risks. In combination with other modelling techniques, such as hydrodynamic models, they can be used to assess the extent and impact of hydrological events. The new European Flood Directive forces all member states to evaluate flood risk on a catchment scale, to compile maps of flood hazard and flood risk for prone areas, and to inform on a local level about these risks. Flood hazard and flood risk maps are important tools to communicate flood risk to different target groups. They provide compiled information to relevant public bodies such as water management authorities, municipalities, or civil protection agencies, but also to the broader public. For almost each section of a river basin, run-off and water levels can be defined based on the likelihood of annual recurrence, using a combination of hydrological and hydrodynamic models, supplemented by an analysis of historical records and mappings. In combination with data related to the vulnerability of a region risk maps can be derived. The project RISKCATCH addressed these issues of hydrological risk and vulnerability assessment focusing on the flood risk management process. Flood hazard maps and flood risk maps were compiled for Austrian and German test sites taking into account existing national and international guidelines. These maps were evaluated by eye-tracking using experimental graphic semiology. Sets of small-scale as well as large-scale risk maps were presented to test persons in order to (1) study reading behaviour as well as understanding and (2) deduce the most attractive components that are essential for target-oriented risk communication. A cognitive survey asking for negative and positive aspects and complexity of each single map complemented the experimental graphic semiology. The results indicate how risk maps can be improved to fit the needs of different user groups. Recommendations were developed of how to provide stakeholder-oriented information on hydrological risks.

Spachinger, Karl; Dorner, Wolfgang; Metzka, Rudolf; Serrhini, Kamal; Fuchs, Sven

2008-11-01

229

Flood Facts  

MedlinePLUS

... gov The official site of the National Flood Insurance Program Call toll free: 1-888-379-9531 ... you Enter Search Term(s): Home About The National Insurance Program Residential Coverage Commercial Coverage PolicyHolder Resources Preparation & ...

230

Floods in Colombia (2009-2011): rethinking our response to climatic variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The alternating El Niño-La Niña events of 2009-2011 are clear examples of the extreme weather variability that we can expect from climate-change conditions around the world. This presentation will discuss the impact that such events have had already in Colombia and will suggest ways to deal with similar events in the future. In less than a year the country passed from a dry El Niño (in which the system of reservoirs for water supply and hydropower dropped to critical levels) to a wet La Niña (in which a heavy, sustained rainy period caused landslides and major floods in most of the floodplains and main cities and put the reservoirs to work at their maximum capacity). As a result of the rains, several levees, bridges and roads across the country failed or collapsed, prompting the government to declare a state of emergency and to propose an ambitious plan for the reconstruction of the country's infrastructure in the following years. Many of the effects of these floods, which occur seasonally at lower scales, were magnified by the increasing human occupation of wetlands and floodplains due to different economic interests and by decades of transformation of forested areas in the mountains for pastures and cattle-growing. We drawn several lessons from these alternate occurrence of weather extremes: 1) reservoirs, for instance, may not be resilient to the occurrence of a single period of severe dryness and have a limited capacity to control floods during seasons of heavy rain; 2) alternating weather extremes may leave governments with limited time to respond within the regular seasonal cycle and solutions may be delayed and unreliable (as the PDO enters in a negative phase in the coming years, La Niña events and wetter than normal conditions in the country are likely to become more frequent, extending the rainy season cycle); 3) several years of deforestation in the cordillera have increased erosive processes and sediment loads making the rivers more difficult to predict or forecast; 4) levees and invasive channel works create a false sense of security and require better local specifications and studies (i.e., of discharge, sediment loads and geomorphological evolution in a non-stationary framework), as well as maintenance, constant monitoring and law enforcement to protect floodplain areas; 5) mountain reforestation is essential to mitigate these impacts, along with river-friendly solutions, including the relocation of communities and incentives for changes in the vocational use of land toward practices that harmonize with the ecosystems and with the seasonal nature of floods. These lessons would likely also apply to other countries in tropical regions characterized by similar weather patterns and levels of social development.

Canon Barriga, J. E.

2011-12-01

231

Modelling farm vulnerability to flooding: A step toward vulnerability mitigation policies appraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent catastrophic flood events such as Elbe in 2002 or Rhône in 2003 have shown limits of flood management policies relying on dykes protection: worsening of flood impacts downstream, increased damage by dykes rupture. Those events, among others, contributes to radical changes on the philosophy of flood prevention, with the promotion of new orientations for mitigating flood exposition. Two new

P. Brémond; G. Abrami; C. Blanc; F. Grelot

2009-01-01

232

Mathematical modeling of flooding due to river bank failure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modeling of flooding events resulting from bank overflooding and levee breaching is of relevant social and environmental interest. Two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic models integrating the shallow water equations turn out to be very effective tools for the purpose at hand. Many of the available models also use 1D channel elements, fully coupled to the 2D model, to simulate the flow of small channels dissecting the urban and rural areas, and 1D elements, referred to as 1D-links, to efficiently model the flow over levees, road and rail embankments, bunds, the flow through control gates, either free or submerged, and the operation of other hydraulic structures. In this work we propose a physically-based 1D-link to model breach formation and evolution in fluvial levees, and levee failure due to either piping or overtopping. The proposed 1D-link is then embedded in a 1D-2D hydrodynamic model, thus accounting for critical feedbacks between breach formation and changes in the hydrodynamic flow field. The breach model also includes the possibility of simulating breach closure, an important feature particularly in the view of hydraulic risk assessment and management of the emergency. The model is applied to five different case studies and the results of the numerical simulations compare favorably with field observations displaying a good agreement in terms of urban and rural flooded areas, water levels within the channel, final breach widths, and water volumes flowed through the breach.

Viero, Daniele Pietro; D'Alpaos, Andrea; Carniello, Luca; Defina, Andrea

2013-09-01

233

CONSEQUENCES OF HUMAN-ALTERED FLOODS: LEVEES, FLOODS, AND FLOODPLAIN FORESTS ALONG THE WISCONSIN RIVER. (R826600)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

234

Study of movement and seepage along levees using DINSAR and the airborne UAVSAR instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the utility of high resolution synthetic aperture radar for levee monitoring using UAVSAR data collected over the dikes and levees in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and the lower Mississippi River. Our study has focused on detecting and tracking changes that are indicative of potential problem spots, namely deformation of the levees, subsidence along the levee toe, and seepage through the levees, making use of polarimetric and interferometric SAR techniques. Here we present some results of those studies, which show that high resolution, low noise SAR imaging could supplement more traditional ground-based monitoring methods by providing early indicators of seepage and deformation.

Jones, Cathleen E.; Bawden, Gerald; Deverel, Steven; Dudas, Joel; Hensley, Scott; Yun, Sang-Ho

2012-09-01

235

Uncorrected land-use planning highlighted by flooding: the Alba case study (Piedmont, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alba is a town of over 30 000 inhabitants located along the Tanaro River (Piedmont, northwestern Italy) and is famous for its wine and white truffles. Many important industries and companies are based in Alba, including the famous confectionery group Ferrero. The town suffered considerably from a flood that occurred on 5-6 November 1994. Forty-eight percent of the urban area was inundated, causing severe damage and killing nine people. After the flood, the Alba area was analysed in detail to determine the reasons for its vulnerability. Information on serious floods in this area since 1800 was gathered from official records, state technical office reports, unpublished documents in the municipal archives, and articles published in local and national newspapers. Maps, plans and aerial photographs (since 1954) were examined to reconstruct Alba's urban development over the last two centuries and the planform changes of the Tanaro River. The results were compared with the effects of the November 1994 flood, which was mapped from aerial photographs taken immediately after the flood, field surveys and eyewitness reports. The territory of Alba was subdivided into six categories: residential; public service; industrial, commercial and hotels; sports areas, utilities and standards (public gardens, parks, athletics grounds, private and public sport clubs); aggregate plants and dumps; and agriculture and riverine strip. The six categories were then grouped into three classes with different flooding-vulnerability levels according to various parameters. Using GIS, the three river corridors along the Tanaro identified by the Autorità di Bacino del Fiume Po were overlaid on the three classes to produce a final map of the risk areas. This study shows that the historic floods and their dynamics have not been duly considered in the land-use planning of Alba. The zones that were most heavily damaged in the 1994 flood were those that were frequently affected in the past and sites of more recent urbanisation. Despite recurrent severe flooding of the Tanaro River and its tributaries, areas along the riverbed and its paleochannels have been increasingly used for infrastructure and building (e.g., roads, a municipal dump, a prison, natural aggregate plants, a nomad camp), which has often interfered with the natural spread of the floodwaters. Since the 1994 flood, many remedial projects have been completed along the Tanaro and its tributaries, including levees, bank protection, concrete walls and floodway channels. In spite of these costly projects, some areas remain at high risk for flooding. The method used, which considered historical data, river corridors identified by hydraulic calculations, geomorphological aspects and land-use planning, can indicate with good accuracy flood-prone areas and in consequence to be an useful tool for the coherent planning of urban expansion and the mitigation of flood risk.

Luino, F.; Turconi, L.; Petrea, C.; Nigrelli, G.

2012-07-01

236

Flood protection in the swamps  

E-print Network

ly 000f?tE \\ fa IM IG St\\at *dN TSNO NR USE 0 TSM -El 9'SO USE tahl EI 822 t d I t ~ I Ol SOM I 0 CWI Na 8 1 8 IFJP NG I Q 'I 01 Ol Ut 00 CC IC [ hl(I I ~ 1 I' I W 2 ' CEI I- t I LEGENO STREETS I \\ I; I EVEES waTER GAGES Na... 'I S 0 I o' Sa( CB Q I a c S I' d ed ( , 0 i L d WAS ~6 MM STSNL GGNP NI ILP ALT. (, II I DaaRG GP V~IINITY MAIP I (0 P (I LITTEF 5 ?', ILa' J . I e I' DW 09 8(RCR MRRRS USC B 0 5 P58-EI 122'Sd * St wld d d k t n t n 5 t td...

Reesby, Raymond George

1958-01-01

237

Status of the Lower Sacramento Valley Flood-Control System within the Context of Its Natural  

E-print Network

, potentially causing backwater effects that could limit diversion of flood discharge into the bypass system. Systematic bypass deposition tends to occur in locations where local backwater effects are imposed by river to bypasses and levee repair along main channels, but it is unclear how effective these measures

California at Santa Barbara, University of

238

Moist-Soil Plants as Ecohydrologic Indicators for Recovering the Flood Pulse in the Illinois River  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrologic regime of the Illinois River has been substantially altered by locks and dams, floodplain levees, water diversion, and development of the watershed over the past 100 years. The natural flood pulse, a fundamental rhythm to which the plants and animals of both the river and its floodplain had adapted, has been disrupted. State, federal, and non-governmental organizations are

Changwoo Ahn; David C. White; Richard E. Sparks

2004-01-01

239

Geomorphic and Sedimentological Controls on the Effectiveness of an Extreme Flood  

Microsoft Academic Search

A B STRA C T The 1993 flood on the Upper Mississippi River was a rare, large-magnitude hydrological event. Field and aerial survey analyses and Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper data were used to appraise the thickness of overbank deposits on leveed and unleveed reaches. Results indicate that minimal (,5 mm) overbank sedimentation occurred, except in the immediate vicinity of a

Francis J. Magilligan; Jonathan D. Phillips; L. Allan James; Basil Gomez

1998-01-01

240

The Global Flood Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, a Global Flood Model (GFM) initiative has been proposed by Willis, UK Met Office, Esri, Deltares and IBM. The idea is to create a global community platform that enables better understanding of the complexities of flood risk assessment to better support the decisions, education and communication needed to mitigate flood risk. The GFM will provide tools for assessing the risk of floods, for devising mitigation strategies such as land-use changes and infrastructure improvements, and for enabling effective pre- and post-flood event response. The GFM combines humanitarian and commercial motives. It will benefit: - The public, seeking to preserve personal safety and property; - State and local governments, seeking to safeguard economic activity, and improve resilience; - NGOs, similarly seeking to respond proactively to flood events; - The insurance sector, seeking to understand and price flood risk; - Large corporations, seeking to protect global operations and supply chains. The GFM is an integrated and transparent set of modules, each composed of models and data. For each module, there are two core elements: a live "reference version" (a worked example) and a framework of specifications, which will allow development of alternative versions. In the future, users will be able to work with the reference version or substitute their own models and data. If these meet the specification for the relevant module, they will interoperate with the rest of the GFM. Some "crowd-sourced" modules could even be accredited and published to the wider GFM community. Our intent is to build on existing public, private and academic work, improve local adoption, and stimulate the development of multiple - but compatible - alternatives, so strengthening mankind's ability to manage flood impacts. The GFM is being developed and managed by a non-profit organization created for the purpose. The business model will be inspired from open source software (eg Linux): - for non-profit usage, the core specifications and reference version of the GFM will be licensed free. - for commercial use, users (such as software companies, engineering companies and business or risk management consultancies) will pay an annual fee, contributing to upkeep and maintenance. The GFM demonstrator will be shown and discussed. The initiative is seeking active involvement of the academic community.

Williams, P.; Huddelston, M.; Michel, G.; Thompson, S.; Heynert, K.; Pickering, C.; Abbott Donnelly, I.; Fewtrell, T.; Galy, H.; Sperna Weiland, F.; Winsemius, H.; Weerts, A.; Nixon, S.; Davies, P.; Schiferli, D.

2012-04-01

241

Rivers and Flooding Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understand flooding - why it occurs, how to measure the size and frequency of a flood, the relationship between size and flooding, and how human activity can increase the frequency of flooding events.

Laurel Senft

242

From flood management systems to flood resilient systems: integration of flood resilient technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flooding has always been a major risk world-wide. Humans chose to live and develop settlements close to water (rivers, seas) due to the resources water brings, i.e. food, energy, capacity to economically transport persons and goods, and recreation. However, the risk from flooding, including pluvial flooding, often offsets these huge advantages. Floods sometimes have terrible consequences from both a human and economic point of view. The permanence and growth of urban areas in flood-prone zones despite these risks is a clear indication of the choices of concerned human groups. The observed growing concentration of population along the sea shore, the increase of urban population worldwide, the exponential growth of the world population and possibly climate change are factors that confirm flood will remain a major issue for the next decades. Flood management systems are designed and implemented to cope with such situations. In spite of frequent events, lessons look to be difficult to draw out and progresses are rather slow. The list of potential triggers to improve flood management systems is nevertheless well established: information, education, awareness raising, alert, prevention, protection, feedback from events, ... Many disciplines are concerned which cover a wide range of soft and hard sciences. A huge amount of both printed and electronic literature is available. Regulations are abundant. In spite of all these potentially favourable elements, similar questions spring up after each new significant event: • Was the event forecast precise enough? • Was the alert system efficient? • Why were buildings built in identified flood prone areas? • Why did the concerned population not follow instructions? • Why did the dike break? • What should we do to avoid it happens again? • What about damages evaluation, wastes and debris evacuation, infrastructures and buildings repair, activity recovery, temporary relocation of inhabitants, health concerns, insurance concerns, water-resistant materials, vulnerability assessment ? Flood resilient system (FReS) concept has been proposed as a new framework to address flood situations. Such systems intend to better approach such situations from a holistic point of view. FReS encompass ecologic, spatial, structural, social, disaster relief and flood risk aspects. FReS design and implementation conditions have been addressed by the FP7 SMARTeST (Smart Resilience Technology, Systems and Tools) project. The focus of this Project on the use of available and innovative communication, forecasting and flood protection technologies leads to an original contribution which highlights both the scope and the limits of this technology driven approach. These reflexions contribute to the elaboration of guidelines for the design of FReS.

Salagnac, J.-L.; Diez, J.; Tourbier, J.

2012-04-01

243

Assessment of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood is one of the most significant natural hazards in Japan. The Tokyo metropolitan area has been affected by several large flood disasters. Therefore, investigating potential flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area is important for development of adaptation strategy for future climate change. We aim to develop a method for evaluating flood risk in Tokyo Metropolitan area by considering effect of historical land use and land cover change, socio-economic change, and climatic change. Ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism in Japan published 'Statistics of flood', which contains data for flood causes, number of damaged houses, area of wetted surface, and total amount of damage for each flood at small municipal level. By using these flood data, we estimated damage by inundation inside a levee for each prefecture based on a statistical method. On the basis of estimated damage, we developed flood risk curves in the Tokyo metropolitan area, representing relationship between damage and exceedance probability of flood for the period 1976-2008 for each prefecture. Based on the flood risk curve, we attempted evaluate potential flood risk in the Tokyo metropolitan area and clarify the cause for regional difference of flood risk. By analyzing flood risk curves, we found out regional differences of flood risk. We identified high flood risk in Tokyo and Saitama prefecture. On the other hand, flood risk was relatively low in Ibaraki and Chiba prefecture. We found that these regional differences of flood risk can be attributed to spatial distribution of entire property value and ratio of damaged housing units in each prefecture.We also attempted to evaluate influence of climate change on potential flood risk by considering variation of precipitation amount and precipitation intensity in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Results shows that we can evaluate potential impact of precipitation change on flood risk with high accuracy by using our methodology. Acknowledgments This study is conducted as part of the research subject "Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change in Water Hazard Assessed Using Regional Climate Scenarios in the Tokyo Region' (National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention; PI: Koji Dairaku) of Research Program on Climate Change Adaptation (RECCA) and was supported by the SOUSEI Program, funded by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Government of Japan

Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.

2013-12-01

244

Flood Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how to use and graph real-world stream gage data to create event and annual hydrographs and calculate flood frequency statistics. Using an Excel spreadsheet of real-world event, annual and peak streamflow data, they manipulate the data (converting units, sorting, ranking, plotting), solve problems using equations, and calculate return periods and probabilities. Prompted by worksheet questions, they analyze the runoff data as engineers would. Students learn how hydrographs help engineers make decisions and recommendations to community stakeholders concerning water resources and flooding.

2014-09-18

245

Flooding Exercises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This homework exercise, developed for an undergraduate geology course at Tulane University, leads students through the steps involved in determining the probability that a flood of a given discharge will occur in any given year. Students retrieve discharge data from U.S. Geological Services Internet sites for Dry Creek, LA, Rapid Creek, SD and Red River, ND to make their calculations.

Stephen Nelson

246

76 FR 23 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will...table below and revise the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs...based on knowledge of changed conditions or new scientific or technical...pursuant to section 201 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...

2011-01-03

247

76 FR 58409 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will...table below and revise the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs...based on knowledge of changed conditions or new scientific or technical...pursuant to section 201 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...

2011-09-21

248

76 FR 77155 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will...table below and revise the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs...based on knowledge of changed conditions or new scientific or technical...pursuant to section 201 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...

2011-12-12

249

75 FR 29205 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will...table below and revise the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs...based on knowledge of changed conditions or new scientific or technical...pursuant to section 201 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...

2010-05-25

250

75 FR 82274 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will...table below and revise the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs...based on knowledge of changed conditions or new scientific or technical...pursuant to section 201 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...

2010-12-30

251

75 FR 7956 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will...table below and revise the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs...based on knowledge of changed conditions or new scientific or technical...pursuant to section 201 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...

2010-02-23

252

76 FR 76052 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will...table below and revise the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs...based on knowledge of changed conditions or new scientific or technical...pursuant to section 201 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...

2011-12-06

253

75 FR 29197 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will...table below and revise the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs...based on knowledge of changed conditions or new scientific or technical...pursuant to section 201 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...

2010-05-25

254

76 FR 79090 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will...table below and revise the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs...based on knowledge of changed conditions or new scientific or technical...pursuant to section 201 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...

2011-12-21

255

77 FR 12501 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will...table below and revise the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs...based on knowledge of changed conditions or new scientific or technical...pursuant to section 201 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...

2012-03-01

256

76 FR 20553 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will...table below and revise the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs...based on knowledge of changed conditions or new scientific or technical...pursuant to section 201 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...

2011-04-13

257

75 FR 35672 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will...table below and revise the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs...based on knowledge of changed conditions or new scientific or technical...pursuant to section 201 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...

2010-06-23

258

77 FR 3391 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will...table below and revise the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs...based on knowledge of changed conditions or new scientific or technical...pursuant to section 201 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...

2012-01-24

259

76 FR 35753 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will...table below and revise the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs...based on knowledge of changed conditions or new scientific or technical...pursuant to section 201 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...

2011-06-20

260

75 FR 18090 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will...table below and revise the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs...based on knowledge of changed conditions or new scientific or technical...pursuant to section 201 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...

2010-04-09

261

75 FR 35670 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will...table below and revise the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs...based on knowledge of changed conditions or new scientific or technical...pursuant to section 201 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...

2010-06-23

262

76 FR 60748 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will...table below and revise the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs...based on knowledge of changed conditions or new scientific or technical...pursuant to section 201 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...

2011-09-30

263

76 FR 43194 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will...table below and revise the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs...based on knowledge of changed conditions or new scientific or technical...pursuant to section 201 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...

2011-07-20

264

77 FR 20992 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will...table below and revise the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs...based on knowledge of changed conditions or new scientific or technical...pursuant to section 201 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...

2012-04-09

265

76 FR 43601 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will...table below and revise the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs...based on knowledge of changed conditions or new scientific or technical...pursuant to section 201 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...

2011-07-21

266

76 FR 21660 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will...table below and revise the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs...based on knowledge of changed conditions or new scientific or technical...pursuant to section 201 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...

2011-04-18

267

77 FR 30219 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will...table below and revise the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs...based on knowledge of changed conditions or new scientific or technical...pursuant to section 201 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...

2012-05-22

268

75 FR 29195 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will...table below and revise the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs...based on knowledge of changed conditions or new scientific or technical...pursuant to section 201 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...

2010-05-25

269

77 FR 1887 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will...table below and revise the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs...based on knowledge of changed conditions or new scientific or technical...pursuant to section 201 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...

2012-01-12

270

75 FR 82275 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will...table below and revise the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs...based on knowledge of changed conditions or new scientific or technical...pursuant to section 201 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...

2010-12-30

271

75 FR 78607 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will...table below and revise the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs...based on knowledge of changed conditions or new scientific or technical...pursuant to section 201 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...

2010-12-16

272

76 FR 49674 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will...table below and revise the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs...based on knowledge of changed conditions or new scientific or technical...pursuant to section 201 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...

2011-08-11

273

75 FR 78606 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will...table below and revise the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs...based on knowledge of changed conditions or new scientific or technical...pursuant to section 201 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...

2010-12-16

274

76 FR 21662 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will...table below and revise the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs...based on knowledge of changed conditions or new scientific or technical...pursuant to section 201 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...

2011-04-18

275

76 FR 8905 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will...table below and revise the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs...based on knowledge of changed conditions or new scientific or technical...pursuant to section 201 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...

2011-02-16

276

75 FR 18070 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will...table below and revise the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs...based on knowledge of changed conditions or new scientific or technical...pursuant to section 201 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...

2010-04-09

277

75 FR 29199 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will...table below and revise the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs...based on knowledge of changed conditions or new scientific or technical...pursuant to section 201 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...

2010-05-25

278

77 FR 425 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will...table below and revise the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs...based on knowledge of changed conditions or new scientific or technical...pursuant to section 201 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...

2012-01-05

279

76 FR 50913 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will...table below and revise the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs...based on knowledge of changed conditions or new scientific or technical...pursuant to section 201 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...

2011-08-17

280

75 FR 7955 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will...table below and revise the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs...based on knowledge of changed conditions or new scientific or technical...pursuant to section 201 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...

2010-02-23

281

75 FR 81889 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will...table below and revise the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs...based on knowledge of changed conditions or new scientific or technical...pursuant to section 201 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...

2010-12-29

282

75 FR 18084 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will...table below and revise the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs...based on knowledge of changed conditions or new scientific or technical...pursuant to section 201 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...

2010-04-09

283

75 FR 18073 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will...table below and revise the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs...based on knowledge of changed conditions or new scientific or technical...pursuant to section 201 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...

2010-04-09

284

75 FR 82272 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will...table below and revise the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs...based on knowledge of changed conditions or new scientific or technical...pursuant to section 201 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...

2010-12-30

285

76 FR 50423 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will...table below and revise the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs...based on knowledge of changed conditions or new scientific or technical...pursuant to section 201 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...

2011-08-15

286

75 FR 78613 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will...table below and revise the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs...based on knowledge of changed conditions or new scientific or technical...pursuant to section 201 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...

2010-12-16

287

76 FR 20556 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will...table below and revise the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs...based on knowledge of changed conditions or new scientific or technical...pursuant to section 201 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...

2011-04-13

288

75 FR 29210 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will...table below and revise the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs...based on knowledge of changed conditions or new scientific or technical...pursuant to section 201 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...

2010-05-25

289

75 FR 78615 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will...table below and revise the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs...based on knowledge of changed conditions or new scientific or technical...pursuant to section 201 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...

2010-12-16

290

Flood risk and flood management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk management has been established as a well defined procedure for handling risks due to natural, environmental or man made hazards, of which floods are representative. Risk management has been discussed in many previous papers giving different meanings to the term—a result of the fact that risk management actually takes place on three different levels of actions: the operational level,

Erich J. Plate

2002-01-01

291

FLOOD RESPONSE PLAN River Flood Guide  

E-print Network

1 FLOOD RESPONSE PLAN River Flood Guide Effective Date: January 2013 Updated: February 2014 #12 Thames River basin have the potential to cause flooding on Western properties. PURPOSE To establish areas) closing of parking lots and clearing of parked vehicles and other Western property in flood

Lennard, William N.

292

Effects of restoration and reflooding on soil denitrification in a leveed Midwestern floodplain.  

PubMed

River floodplains have the potential to remove nitrate from water through denitrification, the anaerobic microbial conversion of nitrate to nitrogen gas. An important factor in this process is the interaction of river water with floodplain soil; however, many rivers have been disconnected from their historic floodplains by levees. To test the effect of reflooding a degraded floodplain on nitrate removal, we studied changes in soil denitrification rates on the Baraboo River floodplain in Wisconsin, USA, as it underwent restoration. Prior to this study, the site had been leveed, drained, and farmed for more than 50 years. In late fall 2002, the field drainage system was removed, and a gate structure was installed to allow controlled flooding of this site with river water. Soil moisture was extremely variable among zones and months and reflected local weather. Soil organic matter was stable over the study period with differences occurring along the elevation gradient. High soil nitrate concentrations occurred in dry, relatively organic-poor soil samples and, conversely, all samples with high moisture soils characterized by low nitrate. We measured denitrification in static cores and potential denitrification in bulk samples amended with carbon and nitrogen, one year before and two years following the manipulation. Denitrification rates showed high temporal and spatial variability. Static core rates of individual sites ranged widely (from 0.00 to 16.7 microg N2O-N x [kg soil](-1) x h(-1), mean +/- SD = 1.10 +/- 3.02), and denitrification enzyme activity (DEA) rates were similar with a slightly higher mean (from 0.00 to 15.0 microg N2O-N x [kg soil](-1) x h(-1), 1.41 +/- 1.98). Denitrification was not well-correlated with soil nitrate, organic matter content, or moisture levels, the three parameters typically thought to control denitrification. Static core denitrification rates were not significantly different across years, and DEA rates decreased slightly the second year after restoration. These results demonstrate that restored agricultural soil has the potential for denitrification, but that floodplain restoration did not immediately improve this potential. Future floodplain restorations should be designed to test alternative methods of increasing denitrification. PMID:18213975

Orr, Cailin H; Stanley, Emily H; Wilson, Karen A; Finlay, Jacques C

2007-12-01

293

Future flood losses in major coastal cities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood exposure is increasing in coastal cities owing to growing populations and assets, the changing climate, and subsidence. Here we provide a quantification of present and future flood losses in the 136 largest coastal cities. Using a new database of urban protection and different assumptions on adaptation, we account for existing and future flood defences. Average global flood losses in 2005 are estimated to be approximately US$6billion per year, increasing to US$52billion by 2050 with projected socio-economic change alone. With climate change and subsidence, present protection will need to be upgraded to avoid unacceptable losses of US$1trillion or more per year. Even if adaptation investments maintain constant flood probability, subsidence and sea-level rise will increase global flood losses to US$60-63billion per year in 2050. To maintain present flood risk, adaptation will need to reduce flood probabilities below present values. In this case, the magnitude of losses when floods do occur would increase, often by more than 50%, making it critical to also prepare for larger disasters than we experience today. The analysis identifies the cities that seem most vulnerable to these trends, that is, where the largest increase in losses can be expected.

Hallegatte, Stephane; Green, Colin; Nicholls, Robert J.; Corfee-Morlot, Jan

2013-09-01

294

Tsunami flooding  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Panel 5 focused on tsunami flooding with an emphasis on Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) as derived from its counterpart, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) that determines seismic ground-motion hazards. The Panel reviewed current practices in PTHA and determined the viability of extending the analysis to extreme design probabilities (i.e., 10-4 to 10-6). In addition to earthquake sources for tsunamis, PTHA for extreme events necessitates the inclusion of tsunamis generated by submarine landslides, and treatment of the large attendant uncertainty in source characterization and recurrence rates. Tsunamis can be caused by local and distant earthquakes, landslides, volcanism, and asteroid/meteorite impacts. Coastal flooding caused by storm surges and seiches is covered in Panel 7. Tsunamis directly tied to earthquakes, the similarities with (and path forward offered by) the PSHA approach for PTHA, and especially submarine landslide tsunamis were a particular focus of Panel 5.

Geist, Eric; Jones, Henry; McBride, Mark; Fedors, Randy

2013-01-01

295

Perception of floods as an important aspect of quality of life and territorial changes in flood areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quality of life in many municipalities in the Czech Republic is affected by coming floods. Since 1997 when a great part of Moravia was affected by an extreme flood situation, much closer attention is paid to floods and flood protection. Flood management is based, besides others, on European flood legislation but it still does not reflect the social perception of flood situations as a common part of the evaluation of flood risk. However, this very perception strongly influences future implementation of flood measures, territorial and social development of the municipality and indirectly the quality of life in the municipality. One of the main problems in flood issue is the financing of anti-flood measures. In view of the fact that financial resources in environmental sphere are limited, preventive anti-flood measures, that can eliminate the impacts of future floods and are not so expensive, assume more importance. Such kind of measures is often suggested for local needs. The necessity to research the social perception of flood in this context is supported by some studies pointing out a still insufficient use of preventive anti-flood measures in the Czech Republic in spite of several extreme floods in the past 20 years. This paper aims at presenting the results of a research which has been done in a model area affected by floods. The aim of this research was to point out the main factors that influence the life in the municipality after flood (including suggested anti-flood measures) and the possibilities and willingness of the inhabitants to change them. The research results have subsequently been supplemented with the same evaluation by the members of local administrations who are important players in post-flood development of the municipality and in dealings with citizens about the suggested anti-flood measures.

Klemešová, Kamila; Andráško, Ivan

2014-05-01

296

Toward a More Flood Resilient Urban Environment: The Dutch Multilevel Safety Approach to Flood Risk Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The new EU Floods Directive requires flood risk reduction for areas where risk is deemed significant; for these zones, flood\\u000a risk management plans must be prepared. In line with these requirements, the Netherlands has opted for a ‘multi-level safety’\\u000a approach, which includes prevention, protection and preparedness responses. This paper describes the application of the multi-level\\u000a safety approach to the case

Berry Gersonius; William Veerbeek; Abdus Subhan; Karin Stone; Chris Zevenbergen

297

Assessment of floodplain vulnerability during extreme Mississippi River flood 2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Regional change in the variability and magnitude of flooding could be a major consequence of future global climate change. Extreme floods have the capacity to rapidly transform landscapes and expose landscape vulnerabilities through highly variable spatial patterns of inundation, erosion, and deposition. We use the historic activation of the Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway during the Mississippi and Ohio River Flooding of 2011 as a scientifically unique stress experiment to analyze indicators of floodplain vulnerability. We use pre- and postflood airborne Light Detection and Ranging data sets to locate erosional and depositional hotspots over the 540 km2 agricultural Floodway. While riparian vegetation between the river and the main levee breach likely prevented widespread deposition, localized scour and deposition occurred near the levee breaches. Eroded gullies nearly 1 km in length were observed at a low ridge of a relict meander scar of the Mississippi River. Our flow modeling and spatial mapping analysis attributes this vulnerability to a combination of erodible soils, flow acceleration associated with legacy fluvial landforms, and a lack of woody vegetation to anchor soil and enhance flow resistance. Results from this study could guide future mitigation and adaptation measures in cases of extreme flooding.

Goodwell, Allison E.; Zhu, Zhenduo; Dutta, Debsunder; Greenberg, Jonathan A.; Kumar, Praveen; Garcia, Marcelo H.; Rhoads, Bruce L.; Holmes, Robert R.; Parker, Gary; Berretta, David P.; Jacobson, Robert B.

2014-01-01

298

Assessment of floodplain vulnerability during extreme mississippi river flood 2011.  

PubMed

Regional change in the variability and magnitude of flooding could be a major consequence of future global climate change. Extreme floods have the capacity to rapidly transform landscapes and expose landscape vulnerabilities through highly variable spatial patterns of inundation, erosion, and deposition. We use the historic activation of the Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway during the Mississippi and Ohio River Flooding of 2011 as a scientifically unique stress experiment to analyze indicators of floodplain vulnerability. We use pre- and postflood airborne Light Detection and Ranging data sets to locate erosional and depositional hotspots over the 540 km(2) agricultural Floodway. While riparian vegetation between the river and the main levee breach likely prevented widespread deposition, localized scour and deposition occurred near the levee breaches. Eroded gullies nearly 1 km in length were observed at a low ridge of a relict meander scar of the Mississippi River. Our flow modeling and spatial mapping analysis attributes this vulnerability to a combination of erodible soils, flow acceleration associated with legacy fluvial landforms, and a lack of woody vegetation to anchor soil and enhance flow resistance. Results from this study could guide future mitigation and adaptation measures in cases of extreme flooding. PMID:24512322

Goodwell, Allison E; Zhu, Zhenduo; Dutta, Debsunder; Greenberg, Jonathan A; Kumar, Praveen; Garcia, Marcelo H; Rhoads, Bruce L; Holmes, Robert R; Parker, Gary; Berretta, David P; Jacobson, Robert B

2014-03-01

299

Newton's Apple: Floods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lesson plan on floods provides background information, compares the roles of wetlands and flood plains in a river's natural flood control with the pros and cons of engineered flood control. Includes glossary, resources and additional sources of information, discussion questions. Student activity demonstrates water movement on a wide flood plain and narrow channel.

300

Balancing Play, Meaning and Reality: The Design Philosophy of LEVEE PATROLLER  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most serious games have been developed without a proper and comprehensive design theory. To contribute to the development of such a theory, this article presents the underlying design philosophy of LEVEE PATROLLER, a game to train levee patrollers in the Netherlands. This philosophy stipulates that the design of a digital serious game is a…

Harteveld, Casper; Guimaraes, Rui; Mayer, Igor S.; Bidarra, Rafael

2010-01-01

301

Balancing pedagogy, game and reality components within a unique serious game for training levee inspection  

E-print Network

Balancing pedagogy, game and reality components within a unique serious game for training levee.R.Bidarra@ewi.tudelft.nl Abstract. Most educational or training games, also referred to as serious games, have been developed levee patrollers in the Netherlands. This approach stipulates that the design of a serious game

Bidarra, Rafael

302

A hybrid model for leveed lava flows: Implications for eruption styles on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many channelized lava flows on the plains of Mars have substantial embanking margins and levees inferred to have been stationary while the central channel was active. Levee formation can be attributed to two end-member processes during emplacement: construction during passage of the flow front and growth along the entire length of the flow while it is active. It is shown

Lori S. Glaze; Stephen M. Baloga; W. Brent Garry; Sarah A. Fagents; Carolyn Parcheta

2009-01-01

303

Balancing Play, Meaning and Reality: The Design Philosophy of LEVEE PATROLLER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most serious games have been developed without a proper and comprehensive design theory. To contribute to the development of such a theory, this article presents the underlying design philosophy of LEVEE PATROLLER, a game to train levee patrollers in the Netherlands. This philosophy stipulates that the design of a digital serious game is a multiobjective problem in which trade-offs need

Casper Harteveld; Rui Guimarães; Igor Stefan Mayer; Rafael Bidarra

2009-01-01

304

Documenting Tragedy and Resilience: The Importance of Spike Lee's "When the Levees Broke"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spike Lee's documentary, "When the Levees Broke," provides an informative, enduring, and alternative presentation surrounding the human and man-made debacle associated with Hurricane Katrina. Levees centers the voices of survivors and others involved in the weeks during and after the hurricane, historicizes residents' understandings and reactions,…

Foster, Kevin Michael; Blakes, Tifani; McKay, Jenny

2008-01-01

305

Levee Failures in the Sacramento - San Joaquin River Delta: Characteristics and Perspectives  

E-print Network

Delta on which the Levee System was Constructed ................................................................. 51 3.5 Early Large Landholdings in the Delta ...................................................... 54 3.6 Google Earth Image... of Middle River between Jones Tract and Victoria Island Showing the Levees Built to Cut Off the Meander Bands with the Original Channel Marked in Blue ......................................................... 59 3.7 Google Earth Image of Venice...

Hopf, Frank

2012-02-14

306

Use of propanil and quinclorac tank mixtures for broadleaf weed control on rice ( Oryza sativa) levees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Broadleaf weed control on rice levees is an emerging problem faced by growers and consultants in Arkansas, USA. Field experiments were conducted at Lonoke and Stuttgart, Arkansas, in 2007 and 2008 to evaluate the effectiveness of various postemergence herbicides applied alone or in tank mixture with propanil or quinclorac for large-sized broadleaf weed control on rice levees. Rice injury was

Jason K. Norsworthy; Sanjeev K. Bangarwa; Robert C. Scott; Joshua Still; Griff M. Griffith

2010-01-01

307

Flood Modelling in Jakarta   

E-print Network

Flooding is a major issue that affects the well being of a big part of the global population. This project is concerned with flooding caused by extreme rainfall events. Its aim is the development of a flood prediction ...

Diamantidis, Georgios

2009-11-26

308

Flood risks and willingness to purchase flood insurance.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Computer simulation experiments were conducted to determine the effects of alternative sources of uncertainty on the willingness to pay for flood insurance. Two alternative insurance protection schemes were investigated: coinsurance and fixed coverage. The question investigated is to what extent does the insurance scheme influence how purchasers respond to risks? Floods were assumed to be log normally distributed and the effects on the purchase of insurance of uncertainties in the parameters of the distribution were explored using response surface analysis. Results indicate that fixed coverage insurance provisions shift most of the uncertainty in the physical parameters governing natural disaster occurrences away from the insuree and onto the insurer. The results also show that the form of the damage function has little effect on the demand for flood insurance.- Authors

Karlinger, M.R.; Attanasi, E.D.

1980-01-01

309

Levee crest elevation profiles derived from airborne lidar-based high resolution digital elevation models in south Louisiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study explores the feasibility of using airborne lidar surveys to derive high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) and develop an automated procedure to extract levee longitudinal elevation profiles for both federal levees in Atchafalaya Basin and local levees in Lafourche Parish. Generally, the use of traditional manual surveying methods to map levees is a costly and time consuming process that typically produces cross-levee profiles every few hundred meters, at best. The purpose of our paper is to describe and test methods for extracting levee crest elevations in an efficient, comprehensive manner using high resolution lidar generated DEMs. In addition, the vertical uncertainty in the elevation data and its effect on the resultant estimate of levee crest heights is addressed in an assessment of whether the federal levees in our study meet the USACE minimum height design criteria.

Palaseanu-Lovejoy, Monica; Thatcher, Cindy A.; Barras, John A.

2014-01-01

310

Selfsimilar long profiles of aggrading submarine leveed channels: Analytical solution and its application to the Amazon channel  

E-print Network

Selfsimilar long profiles of aggrading submarine leveed channels: Analytical solution and its submarine fans are coursed by welldefined leveed channels constructed by turbidity currents. The channels Submarine Fan, shows encouraging comparisons. The generality and shortcomings of the model assumptions

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

311

Multilevel integrated flood management aproach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optimal solution for complex flood management is integrated approach. Word »integration« used very often when we try to put something together, but should distinguish full multiple integrated approach of integration by parts when we put together and analyse only two variables. In doing so, we lost complexity of the phenomenon. Otherwise if we try to put together all variables we should take so much effort and time and we never finish the job properly. Solution is in multiple integration captures the essential factors, which are different on a case-by-case (Brilly, 2000). Physical planning is one of most important activity in which flood management should be integrated. The physical planning is crucial for vulnerability and its future development and on other hand our structural measures must be incorporate in space and will very often dominated in. The best solution is if space development derived on same time with development of structural measures. There are good examples with such approach (Vienna, Belgrade, Zagreb, and Ljubljana). Problems stared when we try incorporating flood management in already urbanised area or we would like to decrease risk to some lower level. Looking to practice we learn that middle Ages practices were much better than to day. There is also »disaster by design« when hazard increased as consequence of upstream development or in stream construction or remediation. In such situation we have risk on areas well protected in the past. Good preparation is essential for integration otherwise we just lost time what is essential for decision making and development. We should develop clear picture about physical characteristics of phenomena and possible solutions. We should develop not only the flood maps; we should know how fast phenomena could develop, in hour, day or more. Do we need to analyse ground water - surface water relations, we would like to protected area that was later flooded by ground water. Do we need to take care about sediment transport, phenomenon close related to floods - could the river bad bottom increase or decrease for some meters or river completely rearrange morphology - how then inundated area will look like. Hazard of floods should be presented properly, with maps, uncertainty and trends related to natural and anthropogenic impacts. We should look time back, how our river look in past centuries and what are water management plans for future. Which activities are on the river? There are good practice in flood protection, hydropower development and physical planning (Vienna, Sava River).

Brilly, Mitja; Rusjan, Simon

2013-04-01

312

100-Year Flood-It's All About Chance  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the 1960's, the United States government decided to use the 1-percent annual exceedance probability (AEP) flood as the basis for the National Flood Insurance Program. The 1-percent AEP flood was thought to be a fair balance between protecting the public and overly stringent regulation. Because the 1-percent AEP flood has a 1 in 100 chance of being equaled or exceeded in any 1 year, and it has an average recurrence interval of 100 years, it often is referred to as the '100-year flood'. The term '100-year flood' is part of the national lexicon, but is often a source of confusion by those not familiar with flood science and statistics. This poster is an attempt to explain the concept, probabilistic nature, and inherent uncertainties of the '100-year flood' to the layman.

Holmes, Robert R.; Dinicola, Karen

2010-01-01

313

Terrestrial Lidar Datasets of New Orleans, Louisiana, Levee Failures from Hurricane Katrina, August 29, 2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hurricane Katrina made landfall with the northern Gulf Coast on August 29, 2005, as one of the strongest hurricanes on record. The storm damage incurred in Louisiana included a number of levee failures that led to the inundation of approximately 85 percent of the metropolitan New Orleans area. Whereas extreme levels of storm damage were expected from such an event, the catastrophic failure of the New Orleans levees prompted a quick mobilization of engineering experts to assess why and how particular levees failed. As part of this mobilization, civil engineering members of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) performed terrestrial lidar topographic surveys at major levee failures in the New Orleans area. The focus of the terrestrial lidar effort was to obtain precise measurements of the ground surface to map soil displacements at each levee site, the nonuniformity of levee height freeboard, depth of erosion where scour occurred, and distress in structures at incipient failure. In total, we investigated eight sites in the New Orleans region, including both earth and concrete floodwall levee breaks. The datasets extend from the 17th Street Canal in the Orleans East Bank area to the intersection of the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway (GIWW) with the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet (MRGO) in the New Orleans East area. The lidar scan data consists of electronic files containing millions of surveyed points. These points characterize the topography of each levee's postfailure or incipient condition and are available for download through online hyperlinks. The data serve as a permanent archive of the catastrophic damage of Hurricane Katrina on the levee systems of New Orleans. Complete details of the data collection, processing, and georeferencing methodologies are provided in this report to assist in the visualization and analysis of the data by future users.

Collins, Brian D.; Kayen, Robert; Minasian, Diane; Reiss, Thomas

2009-01-01

314

Identifying robust large-scale flood risk mitigation strategies: A quasi-2D hydraulic model as a tool for the Po river  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on the identification of large-scale flood risk mitigation strategies for the middle-lower reach of River Po, the longest Italian river and the largest in terms of streamflow. This study develops and tests the applicability of a quasi-2D hydraulic model to aid the identification of large-scale flood risk mitigation strategies relative to a 500-year flood event other than levee heightening, which is not technically viable nor economically conceivable for the case study. Different geometrical configurations of the embankment system are considered and modelled in the study: no overtopping; overtopping and levee breaching; overtopping without levee breaching. The quasi-2D model resulted in being a very useful tool for (1) addressing the problem of flood risk mitigation from a global - perspective (i.e., entire middle-lower reach of River Po), (2) identifying critical reaches, inundation areas and corresponding overflow volumes, and (3) generating reliable boundary conditions for smaller scale studies aimed at further analyzing the hypothesized flood mitigation strategies using more complex modelling tools (e.g., fully 2D approaches). These are crucial tasks for institutions and public bodies in charge of formulating robust flood risk management strategies for large European rivers, in the light of the recent Directive 2007/60/EC on the assessment and management of flood risks ( European Parliament, 2007).

Castellarin, Attilio; Domeneghetti, Alessio; Brath, Armando

2011-01-01

315

Flood Inundation Mapper  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A powerful new tool for flood response and mitigation are digital geospatial flood-inundation maps that show flood water extent and depth on the land surface. Because floods are the leading cause of natural-disaster losses, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is actively involved in the development of...

316

What Consumers Need to Know about Food and Water Safety during Hurricanes, Power Outages, and Floods  

MedlinePLUS

... What Consumers Need to Know About Food and Water Safety During Hurricanes, Power Outages, and Floods << Protect ... they are thoroughly cooked. When Flooding Occurs — Keep Water Safe Follow these steps to keep your WATER ...

317

Late Pleistocene channel-levee development on Monterey submarine fan, central California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Much of the modern upper (proximal) Monterey fan is a channel-levee complex, the Upper Turbidite Sequence (UTS), that was deeply eroded after the channel breached a volcanic ridge to reach a deeper base level. Ages of sediment samples collected with the ALVIN submersible from the deepest outcrop within the channel-levee system, 390 m below the adjacent western levee crest, indicate that the UTS deposits accumulated at ???1 m ka-1 during the last 500 ka. Neogene and Early Pleistocene sediment accumulation on the fan prior to the UTS was much slower (<0.03 m ka-1), and underlying turbidite systems(?) had substantially different morphologic expression(s).

Normark, W.R.

1999-01-01

318

Flood of Evidence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article is a Why Files report on the increase in "natural" disasters from floods, probably the most destructive type of natural disaster. The article notes that in constant dollars, the cost in 1998 alone exceeded the economic toll of the entire decade of the 1980s. Evidence is cited that inundations reflect human action rather than simply rainfall amounts. The report covers: furious floods (including possible human-induced causes), too many floods (recent flood events), do fewer trees create more floods?, wetlands and floods, and flood prevention: the engineering structure or earthmover approach. Six scientists and researchers were interviewed for this report.

David Tenenbaum

2000-03-16

319

Ventura River Flood of February 1992  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On February 12, 1992, a portion of the Ventura River, California, flowed through the Ventura Beach RV Resort which had recently been constructed across a major historically active distributary of the Ventura River delta. State and local land-use planners recognized the flood hazards associated with the site, but decision-makers relied on analytical methods developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and flood-hazard categories developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency, which did not adequately reflect the mobile nature of the Ventura River channel and distributaries. A better understanding of the historical behavior of the Ventura River could have averted the flood damages experienced in 1992. Low intensity recreational, agricultural, or habitat restoration use of the site would minimize potential flood damages and obviate the need for structural flood protection that would impact the river? natural resources. Continued operation of the recreational vehicle park could result in additional flood damages in the relatively near future; recognizing the limitations of the flood-modeling methodologies used for the Ventura Beach RV Resort could prevent similar miscalculations of flood potential in comparable situations.

Keller, Edward A.; Capelli, Mark H.

1992-10-01

320

Spatio-temporal clustering of cholera: The impact of flood control in Matlab, Bangladesh, 1983–2003  

PubMed Central

Introducing flood control to an area of endemic waterborne diseases could have significant impacts on spatio-temporal occurrence of cholera. Using 21-years of data from Bangladesh, we conducted cluster analysis to explore changes in spatial and temporal distribution of cholera incidence since construction of flood control structures. Striking changes in temporal cluster patterns emerged, including a shift from dry season to rainy season clusters following flood protection and delayed clustering inside the protected areas. Spatial differences in pre-flood protection and post-protection cholera clusters are weaker. Changes in spatio-temporal cholera clustering, associated with implementation of flood protection strategies, could affect local cholera prevention efforts. PMID:19217821

Carrel, Margaret A.; Emch, Michael; Streatfield, Peter K.; Yunus, Mohammad

2009-01-01

321

The youngest channel-levee system of the Bengal Fan: results from digital sediment echosounder data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-resolution seismic survey focused on the youngest channel-levee system of the Bengal Fan was carried out during January\\/February 1994 from the RV Sonne. Acoustic strata patterns and the downslope development of the channel-levee system were examined with the parametric sediment echosounder parasound. Determination of the age of the sedimentary strata shows turbiditic activity during sea level rise and highstand.

Christian Hübscher; Volkhard Spie?; Monika Breitzke; Michael E. Weber

1997-01-01

322

Anthropic Modification of The Alluvial Plain and Flood Control In Some Marchean Rivers (central Italy).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fluvial axis of the marchean rivers display an essentially sinuate character, whereas in its terminal portion, where it runs through a wide valley, it assumes an anastomosed form. In the initial portion, where it runs inside the Umbro-Marchean calcareous ridge, the regime is prevalently stream like, while in the arenaceous and clayey hilly belt, it follows a more regular trend. In the middle-lower portion, and especially in summer, the hydrological regime is significantly influenced by the water drawn off for hydroelectric and irrigation purposes. The particular hydrographic and orographic setting of the study territory and the considerable amount of anthropic activity, both in the past and present, are responsible for the frequent and disastrous flooding and flash flooding phenomena that, during intense rainfall, affected vast areas of the middle-terminal portion of the alluvial plain. An analysis of the flooding events of the last years has in fact led to the observation that flooding and flash flooding phenomena, and the damage deriving from them, are connected especially with mistaken management of the territory and subordinately with abundant rainfalls in a short span of time. This includes the following factors: insufficient, or complete absence of works for maintaining natural levees and river beds; the obstruction of watercourses due to building with no respect for adequate hydraulic criteria; an excessive narrowing or straightening of the main river axis, above all in those portions near the mouth; runoff difficulties in the works connecting the main hydrographic network with the secondary one; insufficient disposal capacity or efficiency of the rain water outlet network; insufficient measures, or a lack of planning of measures and/or works for emergency protection systems; widespread situations of hydrogeological accident and slope instability, accentuated by the progressive abandoning of agriculture and repeated occurrence of forest fires. In particular, after the atmospheric events of the April, 1992, November 1998 and September 2000, which caused vast damages, it could be shown that the causes determining the flash flooding, as well as the occurrence of floods with return times of less than 20 years (flow rate of the order of 120 m3/sec) and which are increasing in the last decade, were attributable to four main causes: · deviations and artificial banks along the lower valley, dating from 1400 to 1500, for land reclamation and agriculture; · 15th century alterations and destruction due to anthropic settlements and more extensive agricultural cultivation; · beginning from the year 1900, the building of transversal works to deviate the water for hydroelectric and agricultural purposes with a hydraulic profile rate incompatible with that of the existent hydraulic defenses such as to cause flash floods due to breaking of the banks; · underestimation in measuring the fluvial discharge due to indiscriminate and strong exploitations of the aquifers for agriculture during arid periods.

Farabollini, P.; Materazzi, M.

323

Creating Flood Inundation Maps Using 1D Hydrologic Model and GIS for Lower Meric River Basin, Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Turkey, one of the areas facing the danger of flooding is Lower Meric River basin, the part between Edirne and Enos, Turkey. Despite being in the flood zone, the region is used widely as an agricultural and settlement land. The State Hydraulic Works (DSI) has built levees to prevent flood damages on the Lower Evros River Basin. However, having floods in the region reaching areas behind levees, clearly showed the need for reviewing and updating the cross-sections of the critical areas in the river bed. In this study, determination of floodplains for various stream-flow values in any cross sections of the river is aimed. The study area is divided into two sections (Study Area 1 & Study Area 2). Available stream flow gauging station data, which is located in study areas, are used in model. Model created using HEC-RAS, is calibrated with 2006 flood which occurred in the study area. After calibration, floodplain maps are created for 1000 m3/s flows from 1000 to6000 m3/s flows for Study Area1. For Study Area 2, floodplain maps are created for 2, 5, 10, 50, 100 years return periods. The models can illustrate the extent of flooding under different conditions allowing residents in the area to see how predicted flood levels could affect their property, and help them make informed decisions.

Sonmez, O.; Dogan, E.; Demir, I.

2012-12-01

324

Flooding and schools: experiences in Hull in 2007.  

PubMed

Hull, a city in the East Riding of Yorkshire, United Kingdom, suffered severe flooding in June 2007, affecting some 8,600 households and most schools. Despite the potential for damage in such disasters, no studies of the effects of floods on teachers and schools in the UK appear to have been published previously. This study analysed the impacts of the floods on teachers in Hull in two stages: first through correspondence with Hull City Council and a mailed questionnaire to 91 head teachers of primary, secondary, and special schools; and second, through in-depth interviews with head teachers from six flooded schools, representing different degrees of flood experience, and a questionnaire completed by eight teachers from the same schools. The findings reveal the importance and the complexity of the role of the school in the wider community in a time of crisis. The study highlights issues concerning preparedness for floods, support for schools, and flood protection for schools. PMID:25231793

Convery, Ian; Carroll, Bob; Balogh, Ruth

2015-01-01

325

Hydrodynamic Modeling of Flood Dynamics and Restoration Potential of Lower Missouri River Floodplains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lower Missouri River floodplains have the potential to provide multiple ecosystem services including agricultural production, floodwater storage, nutrient processing, and provision of habitats. In this research, a 2-dimensional hydrodynamic model of a representative looped floodplain bottom of approximately 20 km is utilized to explore how floodplain inundation contributes to ecosystem benefits and costs. High resolution 2-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling provides insights into the way velocities, flood stages, residence times, and transported constituents (sediment, nutrients, and fish larvae, for example) are affected by levee geometry, floodplain vegetation patterns, and flood magnitude and duration. The utility of 2-dimensional numerical hydraulic models to represent the channel and floodplain are demonstrated at a scale relevant to understanding processes that control channel/floodplain dynamics. The sensitivity of model response to alternative land use scenarios, including levee setbacks and variable overbank roughness, is quantified using hydraulic parameters such as velocity, water level, conveyance, and residence time. The 2-dimensional models are calibrated to existing 1-dimensional modeling solutions and field measurements of water surface from 1993 and 2007 for the 2-year, 5-year, and 10-year recurrence intervals. Calibration runs with current levee configurations are matched to approximately ±0.1 meters. Simulations of alternative land use scenarios demonstrate the tradeoffs between ecological restoration and flood risk reductions. Levee setbacks with low hydraulic roughness associated with traditional row crop agriculture on the floodplains have the greatest potential for flood stage reductions, while native plant communities with higher roughness can negate the effects of the setbacks by increasing water levels due to enhanced frictional resistance. Residence times, which are presumed to be related to ecosystem services, demonstrate increasingly complex flow paths as levees are setback. Model results indicate that high end-member roughness values on connected floodplains decrease residence time relative to lower roughness characterizations, suggesting compatibility between floodplain restoration and traditional agricultural practices. The 2-dimensional representation of channels and floodplains captures the spatial heterogeneities in water levels and inundation patterns, demonstrating the importance of preferential pathways and ecological hotspots in restoration design. Spatially variable roughness patterns representing a mix of vegetation communities are modeled to explore design scenarios that optimize flood risk reduction, ecological, and agricultural objectives. Evidence of floodwave attenuation is negligible for floods of approximately the 10-year recurrence interval for all land use scenarios because of the small scale of the study domain relative to the contributing area.

Lindner, G. A.

2012-12-01

326

Flood inundation simulation in Ajoy River using MIKE-FLOOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control and risk management of floods using non-structural measures such as flood forecasting and flood warning, flood hazard mapping and flood risk zoning are quite effective. Of these, preparation of flood hazard maps and flood plain zoning require flood inundation simulation, for which various numerical models are available, for example, one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D) and 1D-2D-coupled models. In the present

Prashant Kadam; Dhrubajyoti Sen

2012-01-01

327

Flood fatality hazard and flood damage hazard: combining multiple hazard characteristics into meaningful maps for spatial planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For comprehensive flood risk management, accurate information on flood hazards is crucial. While in the past an estimate of potential flood consequences in large areas was often sufficient to make decisions on flood protection, there currently is an increasing demand to have detailed hazard maps available to be able to consider other risk reducing measures as well. Hazard maps are a prerequisite for spatial planning, but can also support emergency management, the design of flood mitigation measures, and the setting of insurance policies. The increase in flood risks due to population growth and economic development in hazardous areas in the past shows that sensible spatial planning is crucial to prevent risks increasing further. Assigning the least hazardous locations for development or adapting developments to the actual hazard requires comprehensive flood hazard maps. Since flood hazard is a multi-dimensional phenomenon, many different maps could be relevant. Having large numbers of maps to take into account does, however, not make planning easier. To support flood risk management planning we therefore introduce a new approach in which all relevant flood hazard parameters can be combined into two comprehensive maps of flood damage hazard respectively flood fatality hazard.

de Bruijn, K. M.; Klijn, F.; van de Pas, B.; Slager, C. T. J.

2015-01-01

328

Geomorphically effective floods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations of the hydrology and geomorphology of recent floods from the rapid failure of two small upland dams document the unusually large peak boundary shear stress and peak stream power per unit area for each flood. Downstream consequences to alluvial channels and floodplains, however, were minimal. Lack of geomorphic change is attributed to the short duration of the floods, which lasted about six and sixteen minutes each. Distribution of stream power over hydrographs of eight exceptional floods is constructed from channel geometry, discharge rating curves, and flood hydrographs; the resulting curve is defined as a stream-power graph. A stream-power graph gives a better portrayal of the potential for a flood to be geomorphically effective than simple statements of flow magnitude. From stream-power graphs, total energy expended over a flood hydrograph can be computed. Total flood energy may not be a sensitive measure of geomorphic effectiveness without consideration of channel and floodplain resistance. A conceptual model combining flow duration, peak stream power per unit area, flood energy, and alluvial and bedrock thresholds may represent the effectiveness of floods and can distinguish among such cases as (a) floods of long duration, moderate to large energy expenditure, but low peak stream power per unit area. These floods are ineffective in causing significant landform changes in alluvial or bedrock channels; (b) floods of medium to long duration, with medium to large total energy expenditure, and large peak stream power per unit area. These are believed to be the most effective geomorphic floods in any kind of channel because of the optimal combination of peak flood power, duration, and total energy expenditure; and (c) floods of very short duration, low total energy expenditure, but large peak stream power. These floods are also ineffective agents of geomorphic change in spite of record values of peak stream power per unit area because of their short duration, and resulting low energy expenditures.

Costa, John E.; O'Connor, Jim E.

329

Geomorphological understanding of floods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The summer 1993 flooding of the upper Mississippi River valley reminds us that floods are the most globally pervasive, environmentally diverse and continually destructive of all natural hazards. The fact that flood damages continue to rise raises commonsense questions about conventional flood science. Like much modern environmental science, conventional flood science has followed the model of theoretical physics. It advanced from early emphasis on streamflow measurement to the use of simple formulae, and finally to the abstract theoretical sophistication of modern modeling studies. Two approaches are now used to "predict" flood phenomena: (1) beginning with the conventional database of measured properties of small common floods, a conceptual generalization is made to the idealized properties of the large, rare floods from which society is assumed to be at risk, and (2) explanation of detailed, specific flood phenomena is achieved through theoretical generalization (models) based on "first principles", which are assumed to apply to the entire class of phenomena. Unfortunately, both approaches devote almost all their attention to methodology, increasingly mathematical, without questioning basic underlying assumptions. Increasingly it is the assumptions, often unstated, that serve to embody the understanding of floods as real-world particular phenomena, rather than as conceptual generalities. Such trends lead to an unease that it is not floods that are being researched by much of conventional flood science. Rather, such flood "science" is increasingly becoming the mathematical manipulation of idealized parameters that are assumed to have flood-like properties. These idealizations of flood attributes are generalized, and the resulting predicted consequences are imposed upon society through engineering designs, flood-hazard zonations, and the like. Geomorphological understanding of floods derives a from along geological tradition of studying indices of real processes operating in the past. In contrast to the conceptual, theoretical treatment of floods as classes or generalizations, geomorphologists study particular floods revealed as a natural experience that is recorded in the sediments, landforms, and erosional scars of past floods. The strength of this approach is in its affinity to the commonsense perceptional basis that underpins human action. Geomorphological flood studies, including recent advances in paleoflood hydrology, are needed as a complement to conventional hydrological approaches. The resulting complementarity will allow the predictions of the conventional approach to be grounded in the concrete particulars of experience. Without such grounding, flood science risks continuing as an empty quest for universal ideals while humanity, paralyzed by inaction, continues to suffer from the reality of particular floods.

Baker, Victor R.

1994-08-01

330

Torrent floodplain mapping and torrent flood control in Serbia in the conditions of economic crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serbia is a country that is endangered by flooding of the largest European river, the Danube and its largest tributaries, as well as by countless torrents. During the 19th and 20th centuries, an imposing scope of protection structures was constructed. The existence of the protection system created the conviction that flood protection was achieved and that it should only be

Z. Gavrilovic; M. Stefanovic

2009-01-01

331

River Flood Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use this animation to learn about floods. You will learn about drainage basins, discharge, hydrographs, floodplain deposition, and infiltration. You will also learn about the frequency of floods and what we are doing to control them.

2002-01-01

332

FLOOD EVENT MAPPING IMAGES  

EPA Science Inventory

OSEI flood products (FLD) include multichannel color composite imagery and single-channel grayscale imagery of enlarged river areas or increased sediment flow. Typically, these events are displayed by comparison to imagery taken when flooding was not occurring....

333

Flooding in Virginia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use a National Weather Service flood forecast, USGS gauging data, and other reports to estimate the maximum storm discharge from the New River and Wolf Creek, two streams in the Southeast U.S. which experienced flooding in November 2003. Topographic and urban maps are used to predict where flooding would occur and to evaluate strategies for reducing flood risk for the residents of the region.

Drew Patrick

334

Flood Frequency Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This assignment asks students to do a flood frequency analysis to determine the size and stage of various floods and determine if the town of Crawford, OH is likely to be flooded or not. Outcomes: learn to work with quantitative data, learn to use Excel, be able to use USGS data.

Sheila Roberts

335

Flood Aftermath, Boulder, Colo.  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This flooded culvert is located on Monarch Road just east of the Diagonal Highway in Boulder, Colo. Numerous rivers flooded during a significant September 2013 rain event along Colorado's Front Range, damaging or destroying several USGS streamgages. In response, USGS field crews measured flood...

336

2011 Spring Flood  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A camp lies flooded on the edge of the Florida Gas Canal. Rising floodwaters during the 2011 flood have inundated many hunting camps and residences. Flooded even before the additional water from the Morganza Spillway arrived, these camps were built on land that is usually well above the water level ...

337

SMS flood alert system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flood disaster is considered a norm for Malaysians since Malaysia is located near the Equator. Flood disaster usually happens due to improper irrigation method in a housing area or the sudden increase of water volume in a river. Flood disaster often causes lost of property, damages and life. Since this disaster is considered dangerous to human life, an efficient countermeasure

Noor Hafizah Abdul Aziz

2011-01-01

338

Design of early warning flood detection systems for developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In developing countries, flooding due to natural disasters such as hurricanes and earthquakes results in massive loss of life and property. Warning communities of the incoming flood provides an effective solution to this by giving people sufficient time to evacuate and protect their property. However, the range of early warning system solutions introduces a tangle of conflicting requirements including cost

E. Basha; D. Rus

2007-01-01

339

Flood scour monitoring system using fiber Bragg grating sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exposure and subsequent undermining of pier\\/abutment foundations through the scouring action of a flood can result in the structural failure of a bridge. Bridge scour is one of the leading causes of bridge failure. Bridges subject to periods of flood\\/high flow require monitoring during those times in order to protect the traveling public. In this study, an innovative scour

Yung Bin Lin; Jihn Sung Lai; Kuo Chun Chang; Lu Sheng Li

2006-01-01

340

Status report on flood warning systems in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major changes in flash-flood mitigation in the past decade is the number of communities that have implemented warning systems. The authors conducted a survey of 18 early-warning systems in the United States developed by communities or regions to provide protection against flash floods or dam failures. Problems revealed by the study included the following: equipment malfunctions, inadequate

Eve Gruntfest; Carole Huber

1989-01-01

341

Removal of arthropods in the spring “trash floods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Flooding of cranberry marshes is a common practice in the spring. It is intended primarily to clean out detritus while protecting against frost danger. The water is sometimes held for longer periods to reduce pest populations. We examined the detritus being hauled off of flooded beds for any evidenc...

342

Sugarcane Response to Month and Duration of Preharvest Flood  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Some Florida growers apply 1-day floods about 3 weeks prior to harvest to prevent fires that may ignite on organic soils during preharvest burning of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.). Extending these flood durations could improve sugarcane insect control, freeze protection, soil conservation, and reduce u...

343

Time scales of change in chemical and biological parameters after engineered levee breaches adjacent to Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eight sampling trips were coordinated after engineered levee breaches hydrologically reconnected both Upper Klamath Lake and Agency Lake, Oregon, to adjacent wetlands. The reconnection, by a series of explosive blasts, was coordinated by The Nature Conservancy to reclaim wetlands that had for approximately seven decades been leveed for crop production. Sets of nonmetallic porewater profilers (U.S. Patent 8,051,727 B1; November 8, 2011; http://www.uspto.gov/web/patents/patog/ week45/OG/html/1372-2/US08051727-20111108.html.) were deployed during these trips in November 2007, June 2008, May 2009, July 2009, May 2010, August 2010, June 2011, and July 2011 (table 1). Deployments temporally spanned the annual cyanophyte bloom of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and spatially involved three lake and four wetland sites. Spatial and temporal variation in solute benthic flux was determined by the field team, using the profilers, over an approximately 4-year period beginning 3 days after the levee breaches. The highest flux to the water column of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was detected in the newly flooded wetland, contrasting negative or insignificant DOC fluxes at adjacent lake sites. Over the multiyear study, DOC benthic fluxes dissipated in the reconnected wetlands, converging to values similar to those for established wetlands and to the adjacent lake (table 2). In contrast to DOC, benthic sources of soluble reactive phosphorus, ammonium, dissolved iron and manganese from within the reconnected wetlands were consistently elevated (that is, significant in magnitude relative to riverine and established-wetland sources) indicating a multi-year time scale for certain chemical changes after the levee breaches (table 2). Colonization of the reconnected wetlands by aquatic benthic invertebrates during the study trended toward the assemblages in established wetlands, providing further evidence of a multiyear transition of this area to permanent aquatic habitat (table 3). Both the lake and wetland benthic environments substantively contribute to macro- and micronutrients in the water column. Wetland areas undergoing restoration, and those being used for water storage, function very differently relatively to the established wetland within the Upper Klamath Lake National Wildlife Refuge, adjacent Upper Klamath Lake. Developing long-term management strategies for water quality in the Upper Klamath Basin requires recognition of the multi-year time scales associated with restoring wetlands that provide natural, seasonal ecosystem function and services.

Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Wood, Tamara M.; Parchaso, Francis; Cameron, Jason M.; Asbill, Jessica R.; Carlson, Rick A.; Fend, Steven V.

2012-01-01

344

Raising risk preparedness through flood risk communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decade, most European countries have produced risk maps of natural hazards, but little is known about how to communicate these maps most effectively to the public. In October 2011, Zurich's local authorities informed owners of buildings located in the urban flood hazard area about potential flood damage, the probability of flood events and protection measures. The campaign was based on the assumptions that informing citizens increases their risk awareness and that citizens who are aware of risks are more likely to undertake appropriate actions to protect themselves and their property. This study is intended as a contribution to a better understanding the factors influencing flood risk preparedness, with a special focus on the effects of such a one-way risk communication strategy. We conducted a standardized mail survey of 1500 property owners in the hazard areas in Zurich. The questionnaire comprised items measuring respondents' risk awareness, risk preparedness, flood experience, information seeking behaviour, knowledge about flood risk, evaluation of the information material, risk acceptance, kind of property owned, attachment to the property, trust in local authorities, and socio-demographic variables. Multivariate data analysis revealed that the average level of risk awareness and preparedness was low, but our results confirmed that the campaign had a statistically significant effect on the level of preparedness. The main factors influencing the respondents' intention to prepare for a flood were the extent to which they evaluated the information material positively and their risk awareness. Those who had never taken any interest in floods previously were less likely to read the material. For future campaigns, we therefore recommend repeated communication of relevant information tailored to the needs of the target population.

Maidl, E.; Buchecker, M.

2014-01-01

345

Root Development of Salix purpurea L. on Heavily Compacted Levee Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of woody vegetation on levee stability is discussed controversially. On the one hand woody plants improve slope stability, prevent erosion failures and may aid in levee stability. On the other hand it is believed that woody vegetation has negative impacts which are largely related to the rooting system. Hence, root penetration can facilitate water movement - seepage or piping - as well as living and decaying roots can lead to voids and threaten the structural integrity of levees. In general root architecture is known for many plant species, but specific root characteristics and their interaction with soils are influenced by many factors, and therefore poorly understood. Consequently the current research investigates the rooting performance of woody vegetation by singling out a special type of vegetation which is often used within soil bioengineering techniques at river embankments. This vegetation type is a dense stand of shrubby willows (Salix purpurea L.), implemented with brush mattresses. The data is collected from a test site constructed in 2007, 5 km northeast of Vienna, Austria. Part of the test site is a research levee built true to natural scale. The fill material of the levee is a mineral silt-sand-gravel compound classified as silty sand, which was compacted to a dry density of 1.86 g/cm3. The planting of vegetation was applied directly to the compacted levee body using only a thin layer (2-4 cm) of humus topsoil. In 2009 the studies were supplemented with a lysimeter-like setup consisting of a total of 20 containers. The lysimeters were filled homogenously with the same soil as the levees and were consolidated to the same degree of compaction. They were planted similar to the research levees. Within the investigations a comprehensive annual vegetation monitoring program was carried out. Measured aboveground parameters were shoot diameter, shoot length, biomass and leaf area index (LAI). Monitored rooting parameters - examined by excavation - were rooting depth and root mass, complemented with several further rooting parameters obtained from the lysimeters and analyzed by WinRhizo. The proposed contribution will present the results of the vegetation monitoring program. Gained results will be discussed with reference to levee stability.

Lammeranner, W.

2012-04-01

346

Total flavonoid of Litsea coreana leve exerts anti-oxidative effects and alleviates focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury  

PubMed Central

In this study, we hypothesized that total flavonoid of Litsea coreana leve (TFLC) protects against focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. TFLC (25, 50, 100 mg/kg) was administered orally to a rat model of focal ischemia/reperfusion injury, while the free radical scavenging agent, edaravone, was used as a positive control drug. Results of neurological deficit scoring, 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining, hematoxylin-eosin staining and biochemical tests showed that TFLC at different doses significantly alleviated cerebral ischemia-induced neurological deficits and histopathological changes, and reduced infarct volume. Moreover, it suppressed the increase in the levels of nitrates plus nitrites, malondialdehyde and lactate dehydrogenase, and it diminished the reduction in gluta-thione, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in-jury. Compared with edaravone, the protective effects of TFLC at low and medium doses (25, 50 mg/kg) against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury were weaker, while the protective effects at high dose (100 mg/kg) were similar. Our experimental findings suggest that TFLC exerts neuroprotective effects against focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats, and that the effects may be asso-ciated with its antioxidant activities. PMID:25206640

Dong, Shuying; Tong, Xuhui; Li, Jun; Huang, Cheng; Hu, Chengmu; Jiao, Hao; Gu, Yuchen

2013-01-01

347

Biogeochemical and metabolic responses to the flood pulse in a semiarid floodplain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flood pulse inundation of riparian forests alters rates of nutrient retention and organic matter processing in the aquatic ecosystems formed in the forest interior. Along the Middle Rio Grande (New Mexico, USA), impoundment and levee construction have created riparian forests that differ in their inter-flood intervals (IFIs) because some floodplains are still regularly inundated by the flood pulse (i.e., connected), while other floodplains remain isolated from flooding (i.e., disconnected). This research investigates how ecosystem responses to the flood pulse relate to forest IFI by quantifying nutrient and organic matter dynamics in the Rio Grande floodplain during three years of experimental flooding of the disconnected floodplain and during a single year of natural flooding of the connected floodplain. Surface and subsurface conditions in paired sites (control, flood) established in the two floodplain types were monitored to address metabolic and biogeochemical responses. Compared to dry controls, rates of respiration in the flooded sites increased by up to three orders of magnitude during the flood pulse. In the disconnected forest, month-long experimental floods produced widespread anoxia of four-week duration during each of the three years of flooding. In contrast, water in the connected floodplain remained well oxygenated (3-8 ppm). Material budgets for experimental floods showed the disconnected floodplain to be a sink for inorganic nitrogen and suspended solids, but a potential source of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Compared to the main stem of the Rio Grande, flood-water on the connected floodplain contained less nitrate, but comparable concentrations of DOC, phosphate-phosphorus, and ammonium-nitrogen. Results suggest that floodplain IFI drives metabolic and biogeochemical responses during the flood pulse. Impoundment and fragmentation have altered floodplains from a mosaic of patches with variable IFI to a bimodal distribution. Relatively predictable flooding occurs in the connected forest, while inundation of the disconnected forest occurs only as the result of managed application of water. In semiarid floodplains, water is scarce except during the flood pulse. Ecosystem responses to the flood pulse are related to the IFI and other measures of flooding history that help describe spatial variation in ecosystem function.

Valett, H.M.; Baker, M.A.; Morrice, J.A.; Crawford, C.S.; Molles, M.C., Jr.; Dahm, C. N.; Moyer, D.L.; Thibault, J.R.; Ellis, L.M.

2005-01-01

348

Dartmouth Flood Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Dartmouth Flood Observatory produced this website as "a research tool for detection, mapping, measurement, and analysis of extreme flood events world-wide using satellite remote sensing." Users can learn about the Observatory's use of microwave and optical satellite imaging to determine flooding and extreme low flow conditions for various places throughout the world. Students and researchers can discover how the observatory monitors wetland hydrology for various places. Researchers can find archives of large flooding events from 1985 to the present. The web site features a variety of maps and satellite images of floods. This site is also reviewed in the May 28, 2004 _NSDL Physical Sciences Report_.

349

Flood Risk Management Newsletter 1 May 2012 vol 5 no 3  

E-print Network

Flood Risk Management Newsletter 1 May 2012 vol 5 no 3 coll Table of Contents Alexander named on all matters associated with Flood Risk Management, Critical Infrastructure Protection and Resilience commanded at every level from platoon to brigade. His diverse experience Flood Risk Management Newsletter

US Army Corps of Engineers

350

GEOTECHNICAL RECONNAISSANCE OF THE 2011 FLOOD ON THE LOWER MISSISSIPPI RIVER  

E-print Network

GEOTECHNICAL RECONNAISSANCE OF THE 2011 FLOOD ON THE LOWER MISSISSIPPI RIVER Sand Boil on Protected, Louisiana #12;2011 Mississippi River Flood i June 18, 2012 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION #12;2011 Mississippi River Flood 1 June 18, 2012 1. INTRODUCTION The Spring of 2011 brought heavy

351

Flood Risk Management Newsletter 1 December 2013 vol 7 no 2  

E-print Network

Flood Risk Management Newsletter 1 December 2013 vol 7 no 2 Fstocoll Table of Contents Mark Roupas to Flood Risk Management, Emergency Management, and Critical Infrastructure Protection and Resilience Framework, the National Disaster Recovery Framework, and Public Law 84-99, Flood Control and Coastal

US Army Corps of Engineers

352

44 CFR 65.13 - Mapping and map revisions for areas subject to alluvial fan flooding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...maps only major structural flood control measures whose design...effectively eliminate alluvial fan flood hazards from the area protected...movement associated with the flood that has a one-percent probability...apex under current watershed conditions and under potential...

2012-10-01

353

44 CFR 65.13 - Mapping and map revisions for areas subject to alluvial fan flooding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...maps only major structural flood control measures whose design...effectively eliminate alluvial fan flood hazards from the area protected...movement associated with the flood that has a one-percent probability...apex under current watershed conditions and under potential...

2013-10-01

354

44 CFR 65.13 - Mapping and map revisions for areas subject to alluvial fan flooding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...maps only major structural flood control measures whose design...effectively eliminate alluvial fan flood hazards from the area protected...movement associated with the flood that has a one-percent probability...apex under current watershed conditions and under potential...

2014-10-01

355

44 CFR 65.13 - Mapping and map revisions for areas subject to alluvial fan flooding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...maps only major structural flood control measures whose design...effectively eliminate alluvial fan flood hazards from the area protected...movement associated with the flood that has a one-percent probability...apex under current watershed conditions and under potential...

2011-10-01

356

Flood Risk Analysis in the Lower San Joaquin River System Romain Didier Maendly  

E-print Network

i Flood Risk Analysis in the Lower San Joaquin River System By Romain Didier Maendly B.S. (University of California Berkeley) 2008 THESIS Submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements Valley Flood Protection Plan to improve the overall flood management system for the Sacramento

Pasternack, Gregory B.

357

Flood Frequency Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Flood Frequency Analysis module offers an introduction to the use of flood frequency analysis for flood prediction and planning. Through use of rich illustrations, animations, and interactions, this module explains the basic concepts, underlying issues, and methods for analyzing flood data. Common concepts such as the 100-year flood and return periods as well as issues affecting the statistical representation of floods are discussed. Common flood data analysis methods as well as an overview of design events are also covered. As a foundation topic for the Basic Hydrologic Science course, this module may be taken on its own, but it will also be available as a supporting topic providing factual scientific information to support students in completion of the case-based forecasting modules.

2014-09-14

358

Floods: The Awesome Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A newly released publication from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the National Weather Service, and the Red Cross is entitled "Floods: The Awesome Power." The citizen-focused sixteen-page preparedness guide explains "flood-related hazards and suggests life-saving actions you can take." Readers will learn what flash floods are, what to do if youâ??re caught in your vehicle during a flash flood, what river floods are, how tropical cyclones create floods, where to get current weather information, what your local community can do to be more prepared for floods, and much more. The graphics rich and non-technical publication with its potentially life-saving information is definitely worth a read.

2002-01-01

359

Geophysical characterization of the Lollie Levee near Conway, Arkansas, using capacitively coupled resistivity, coring, and direct push logging  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A geophysical characterization of Lollie Levee near Conway, Arkansas, was conducted in February 2011. A capacitively coupled resistivity survey (using Geometric's OhmMapper) was completed along the top and toe of the 6.7-mile levee. Two-dimensional inversions were conducted on the geophysical data. As a quality-control measure, cores and direct push logs were taken at approximately 1-mile intervals along the levee. The capacitively coupled resistivity survey, the coring, and the direct push logs were used to characterize the geologic materials. Comparison of the cores and the direct push log data, along with published resistivity values, indicates that resistivity values of 200 Ohm-meters or greater represent relatively clean sand, with decreasing resistivity values occurring with increasing silt and clay content. The cores indicated that the levee is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of sand, silt, and clay. The capacitively coupled resistivity sections confirm that the levee is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of high and low resistivity materials and show that the composition of the levee varies spatially. The geologic materials underlying the levee vary spatially as a result of the geologic processes that deposited them. In general, the naturally deposited geologic materials underlying the levee contain a greater amount of low resistivity materials in the southern extent of the levee.

Gillip, Jonathan A.; Payne, Jason D.

2011-01-01

360

Coastal Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In recent years, global warming has caused the sea level to rise. The river or coastal related disasters\\u000a such as tsunami, cyclone and flood have also become higher in frequency and stronger in intensity. As one of the counter\\u000a measures, some of the existing coastal protection structures need to be rehabilitated and new, stronger or taller coastal\\u000a structures have to

Jian Chu; Shuwang Yan

361

Sand boils induced by the 1993 Mississippi River flood: Could they one day be misinterpreted as earthquake-induced liquefaction?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In areas that are seismically active but lacking clear surficial faulting, many paleoearthquake studies depend on the interpretation of ancient liquefaction features (sand blows) as indicators of prehistoric seismicity. Sand blows, however, can be mimicked by nonseismic sand boils formed by water seeping beneath levees during floods. We examined sand boils induced by the Mississippi River flood of 1993 in order to compare their characteristics with sand blows of the New Madrid earthquakes of 1811-1812. We found a number of criteria that allow a distinction between the two types of deposits. (1) Earthquake-induced liquefaction deposits are broadly distributed about an epicentral area, whereas flood-induced sand boils are limited to a narrow band along a river's levee. (2) The conduits of most earthquake-induced sand blows are planar dikes, whereas the conduits of flood-induced sand boils are most commonly tubular. (3) Depression of the preearthquake ground surface is usual for sand blows, not for sand boils. (4) Flood-induced sand boils tend to be better sorted and much finer than sand-blow deposits. (5) Source beds for earthquake-induced deposits occur at a wide range of depths, whereas the source bed for sand boils is always near surface. (6) Materials removed from the walls surrounding the vent of a sand blow are seen inside sand blows, but are rarely seen inside sand boils. In general, flood-induced sand boils examined are interpreted to represent a less-energetic genesis than earthquake-induced liquefaction.

Li, Y.; Craven, J.; Schweig, E.S.; Obermeier, S.F.

1996-01-01

362

Technical Note: Stability of a Levee Made of Bottom Sediments From a Dam Reservoir  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stability analysis of a levee made of the bottom sediments from Czorsztyn-Niedzica Reservoir is presented in the paper. These sediments were classified as silty sands and, based on the authors' own research, their geotechnical parameters were beneficial, so the possibility of using this material for the hydraulic embankments was considered. Stability and filtration calculations were carried out for a levee that had the same top width - 3 m, slope inclinations 1:2 and different heights: 4, 6 and 8 m. Two methods were used: analytical and numerical. Calculations were carried out without and with a steady and unsteady seepage filtration. Based on the analysis carried out it was stated that the levee made of the bottom sediments is stable even at the height of 8.0 m, although because of the seepage on the downstream side it is recommended to use a drainage at the toe of the slope.

Koš, Karolina; Zawisza, Eugeniusz

2015-02-01

363

Laboratory Modeling of Self-Formed Leveed Channels From Sediment-Laden Flows Entering Still Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-formed leveed channels constructed by deposition of suspended sediment from sediment-laden flows entering still water are common features in nature. Such channels drive delta progradation, develop at tidal inlets and occur where mainstem river flows empty into oxbows and blocked valley lakes. Presently there is no theory for the formation of such channels. This lack of theory is partly due to a lack of field or laboratory studies that provide insight about the mechanism controlling these self-formed, propagating channels. The creation of such features in the laboratory, have proved illusive to date. Our ongoing experiments aimed at modeling the formation of floodplain tie channels provide insight into the necessary conditions for levee formation and channel growth. Under conditions of steady water discharge, constant sediment feed rate, unimodal sediment distribution and invariant basin stage we are able to create subaqueous lateral bars (submerged levees) along the margins of a sediment laden jet. Our results highlight the sensitivity of channel formation to issues of scaling and experimental design. In the laboratory, levee formation has only been possible with the use of plastic particles (specific gravity ~1.5); complete bed alluviation and dune formation results from the use of particles with specific gravities of ~ 2.65 across a range grain diameters and shapes. We hypothesize this effect is related to high entrainment thresholds relative to suspension thresholds of small (< 100 mm) natural particles under conditions of reduced turbulence in laboratory scaled flows. Additionally, both the width to depth ratio and the form of the outlet channel introducing the sediment laden flow into the experimental basin exert a strong control on sedimentation pattern and levee growth. Continuing experiments are focused on generating emergent channel levees and a basin ward propagation of the channel by adjusting the form of the feed channel, varying basin stage, and the use of unsteady discharge.

Rowland, J. C.; Dietrich, W. E.

2004-12-01

364

Three-dimensional mapping of geomorphic controls on flood-plain hydrology and connectivity from aerial photos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nyack flood plain of the Middle Fork Flathead River, MT, USA is a 9-km anastomosed alluvial montane flood plain. Upstream from the flood plain, the river is unregulated and the catchment virtually pristine. A patchy mosaic of vegetation and channels exists on the flood-plain surface. The surface and subsurface geomorphic structures of the flood plain facilitate high hydrologic connectivity (water flux between the channel and flood plain) marked by complex seasonal patterns of flood-plain inundation, extensive penetration of channel water laterally into the alluvial aquifer, and springbrooks formed by ground water erupting onto the flood-plain surface. After delineating and classifying flood-plain "elements" (vegetation patches and channel reaches) on the flood plain, we analyzed field-based elevation survey data to identify expected relationships among flood-plain element type, surface scour frequency, and flood-plain elevation. Data analyses show that scour frequency was inversely proportional to the elevation of the flood plain above river stage, except when localized geomorphic controls such as natural levees prevent normal high flows from inundating and scouring relatively low flood-plain elements. Further, while different flood-plain element types occupy distinct elevation zones on the flood plain, the elevation of each zone above the river channel varies with localized channel entrenchment. We found that topographic variation among flood-plain elements is greater than the variation within elements, suggesting that coarse-scale flood-plain topography can be characterized by delineating flood-plain elements. Field data document strong associations between specific classes of flood-plain elements and preferential ground-water flow paths in the upper alluvial aquifer. Combined with preexisting ground penetrating RADAR (GPR) surveys, these data intimate a sinuous lattice of preferential ground-water flow paths (buried abandoned streambeds) in the upper alluvial aquifer at approximately the same elevation as the main channel's streambed. Using aerial photo interpretation and the identified relationships among element-types, elevation, and preferential ground-water flow paths, we developed a quantitative, three-dimensional characterization of surface and subsurface geomorphology across the entire flood plain to support a heuristic modeling effort investigating the influence of flood-plain geomorphology on spatio-temporal patterns of surface and ground-water flow and exchange under dynamic hydrologic regimes.

Poole, Geoffrey C.; Stanford, Jack A.; Frissell, Christopher A.; Running, Steven W.

2002-12-01

365

Preliminary Flood Plain Characterization Appendix A  

E-print Network

Appendix A Preliminary Flood Plain Characterization #12;Appendix A Preliminary Flood Plain ................................................................................................................................. 1 1.1 Flood Plain Preliminary Characterization Objectives.......................................................................1 2 Flood Plain Preliminary Characterization Activities

366

SeCom - Serious Community 2.0 prevent flooding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a significant need for raising the awareness and building the capacity of water professionals in different water sectors cross Europe. There is also a need for qualified graduates to implement the EU Flood Risk Directive (FRD). The main aim of this work is to prepare and build the capacity of both groups in flood risk management through identifying synergies, sharing knowledge, and strengthen partnerships between universities and different stakeholders(mainly water professionals). The specific objectives are to develop; a) Development of a dynamic and active tool that allows all target-groups/users to assess their knowledge about flood risk management. b) Development of an innovative, active and problem-based learning methodology for flood risk education and training. c)Development of flood related Vocational Education & Training (VET) modules for water professionals (involving the students to gain practical experience). This will include some modules for undergraduate students on flood risk management and protection.

Komma, Juergen; Breuer, Roman; Sewilam, Hani; Concia, Francesca; Aliprandi, Bruno; Siegmund, Sabine; Goossens, Jannis

2013-04-01

367

Lab 12 : Flooding II --Predicting and Understanding Flooding Introduction  

E-print Network

1 Lab 12 : Flooding II -- Predicting and Understanding Flooding Introduction Knowledge of the timing of flooding events is important for a variety of planning purposes. The time between floods Efforts to planning for flooding along a particular stream requires a historical record of how the stream

Chen, Po

368

Impact Assessment of Large Scale Floods Using Imaging Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lower Mississippi River experienced an extreme flood event during April-May 2011 due to springtime snowmelt and excessive rainfall. In order to protect the city of Cairo the US Army Corps of Engineers breached a two mile long levee on the Birds Point New Madrid (BPNM) floodway inundating about 527 sq. kms of farmland. The entire operation was coordinated with a number of data collection activities in terms of stage and discharge measurements at inflow and outflow points and various other locations in the floodway. Subsequently LiDAR, Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) flights and soil sample were collected after the floodwaters receded. IKONOS and Worldview 2 images show large plumes of sediments originating in the O'Bryan's ridge of the BPNM floodway and extending to more than 20 km downstream. We postulate imaging spectroscopy will enable us to identify various surface constituents and help us in characterizing a flooding event of such a large spatial extent in extensive detail. This has not been explored before. In this study we have used AVIRIS remote sensing data to explore and quantify the landscape characteristics of the floodway using different indices and spectral signatures of materials. Atmospherically corrected surface reflectance values were obtained from the AVIRIS at sensor radiance values using ATCOR 4 incorporating the MODTRAN radiative transfer model. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and moisture stress index values computed from the AVIRIS data shows strong signals of high moisture stress and very low NDVI values in the zones of heavy scouring such as O Bryan's ridge and it is possible to spatially map those locations even in absence of topographic data. This is further substantiated by the available post flood topographic LiDAR data. Laboratory physical and chemical characterization of soil samples and their GIS analyses indicate soils most vulnerable to erosion were along a straight flow path from the breach point to its discharge point at the southern end of the floodway. Physical and chemical analyses of soil are used in conjunction with imaging spectroscopy data for characterizing the soil cover of the landscape using statistical techniques. We have used the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) classifier algorithm on the AVIRIS data together with USGS spectral library and LOPEX (Leaf Optical Properties EXperiment) databases and obtained good classification results. The SAM classification algorithm was able to classify woody vegetation accurately and also pick up spectral signatures of cultivated crops such as corn and soy fairly accurately. The algorithm also helped to exactly map the spatial extent of some very typical soil spectra near O'Bryan's ridge obtained through endmember collection, possibly explaining the deposition in the floodway as floodwaters receded. Some of the historic meanders of Mississippi were also highlighted in different indices and classifications from the AVIRIS data showing evolutionary history between topography and vegetation dynamics.

Dutta, D.; Goodwell, A. E.; Umar, M.; Greenberg, J.; Kumar, P.; Darmody, R.; Garvey, J. E.; Jacobson, R. B.; Berretta, D.

2012-12-01

369

Outside the Bankfull Realm: Challenges in Developing a Flood-based Management and Restoration Strategy for a Large, Semi-arid River System: Santa Clara River, Ventura County, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

River ecosystem restoration is usually based on re-establishing an equilibrium channel form, with the channel modified to convey the statistical bankfull discharge without quite overtopping. The rationale for bankfull-based strategies has stemmed from geomorphic studies which observed that bankfull flow exhibited a frequency that, over the long-term, transported the greatest total load of sediment, making it the `dominant' or `channel- forming' flow. Such ideas have become pervasive in the popular perception of river geomorphology. In contrast, analysis of sediment transport in the lower Santa Clara River, one of the largest coastal watersheds in Southern California (drainage area 4,212 km2) indicates that the dominant discharge is not the bankfull discharge, but instead the largest flow on record. This characteristic is due to extreme flow variability resulting from an ENSO-influenced semi-arid climate, very high sediment supply from highly erodible bedrock, and significant episodic sediment generation from landslides, earthquakes and wildfires. Channel response to large flows is enhanced because the river is now partially leveed and responding to recent in-channel gravel mining. Challenges for managing and restoring the lower Santa Clara River are, therefore, based less on managing moderate fluctuations around a long-term equilibrium channel morphology, and more on accommodating significant lateral and vertical morphological changes resulting from individual large flood events. At decadal scales, influences on channel form include the intensity of ENSO activity, the balance of flow generated by major tributaries exhibiting different sediment supply characteristics, and a suite of human activities that affect the channel at local spatial scales. Regional influences include legacy impacts from ranching, groundwater abstraction, flow regulation, and the 1928 St. Francis Dam disaster. Urban growth will likely influence future impacts. In this highly dynamic geomorphic context, the management of flood risk might be achieved most cost-effectively using a strategy of `vulnerability modification' (land acquisition, setback levees, easements, zoning) rather than the near-universal strategy of `event modification' (bank-edge levees, bank protection, channelization) that often results in significant impairment of riverine ecosystems. Vulnerability modification also has the potential to provide wide-ranging opportunities for river-floodplain ecosystem restoration including the recovery of species imperiled by regional losses in riparian habitat and, overall, seems especially well- suited to river management in large, semi-arid river systems.

Downs, P. W.; Dusterhoff, S. R.; Sears, W. A.

2006-12-01

370

Production and decomposition of forest litter fall on the Apalachicola River flood plain, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Measurements of litter fall (leaves and other particulate organic material) and leaf decomposition were made on the Apalachicola River flood plain in 1979-80. Litter fall was collected monthly in five different forest types in swamp and levee areas. Leaves from 42 species of trees and other plants accounted for 58 percent of total litter fall. The remaining 42 percent was nonleaf material. Average litter fall was 800 grams per square meter per year in the flood plain. Tupelo (Nyssa), baldcypress (Taxodium), and ash (Fraxinus), all swamp-adapted trees, produce over 50 percent of the leaf fall. Common levee species such as sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) and diamond-leaf oak (Quercus laurifolia) are also major contributors to total flood-plain litter fall. Annual flooding of the river provides an important mechanism for mobilization of the litter-fall products. Leaf decomposition rates were greatly reduced in dry environments. Carbon loss was nearly linear over a 6-month period, but nitrogen and phosphorus loss was exponential and nearly complete within 1 month. (USGS)

Elder, J.F.; Cairns, D.J.

1982-01-01

371

Reservoir Re-operation, Risk, and Levee Failure Analysis: Mokelumne River Case  

E-print Network

for flood control requires accurate inflow frequency analysis which involves the multivariate in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in Civil and Environmental characteristics of flood peaks, volumes and duration. A complete understanding of flood events involves the joint

Lund, Jay R.

372

Flood events Dr. Andre Paquier  

E-print Network

Flood events Dr. Andre Paquier 4.1. Various floods Usually, various kinds of floods are distinguished based on the origin or on the main processes. Basically, the cause of the flood can be overflow floods are typical of steep beds and / or high intensity rainfalls. In mountain areas, they can

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

373

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM PROSERPINE RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the PROSERPINE RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Peter Faust Dam

Greenslade, Diana

374

Hydraulic analyses of water-surface profiles in the vicinity of the Coamo Dam and Highway 52 Bridge, southern Puerto Rico; flood analyses as related to the flood of October 7, 1985  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The magnitude, frequency and extent of the flood of October 7, 1985 at the Rio Coamo in the vicinity of the Coamo Dam and Highway 52 bridge in southern Puerto Rico, were investigated. The observed flood profiles were used to calibrate a step-backwater model. The calibrated model was then used to investigate several alternative flow conditions in the vicinity of the bridge. The peak discharge of the flood at the Highway 52 bridge was 72,000 cu ft/sec. This peak discharge was determined from the peak computed at a reach in the vicinity of the Banos de Coamo, about 1.2 mi upstream from the bridge. The computed discharge at the Banos de Coamo of 66,000 cu ft/sec was adjusted to the dam and bridge location by multiplying it by the ratio of the drainage areas raised to the 0.83 power. The flood had a recurrence interval of about 100 yr, exceeding all previously known floods at the site. The flood overtopped the spillway and levee of the Coamo Dam just upstream of Highway 52. The flow over the spillway was 54,000 cu ft/sec. Flow over the levee was about 18,000 cu ft/sec. About 10,000 cu ft/sec of the flow over the levee returned to the main channel at the base of the embankment at the northeast approach to the bridge. The remaining 8,000 cu ft/sec flowed south through the underpass on Highway 153. The embankment and shoulder on the northern span of the bridge were eroded with the eventual collapse of the approach slab. (Author 's abstract)

Johnson, K.G.; Quinones-Marquez, Ferdinand; Gonzalez, Ralph

1987-01-01

375

Ancient Flood Stories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan the teacher will share some ancient flood stories with the class and have them view pictures and discuss the evidence that has been found in the Black Sea. Current theory says that during the Ice Age, the Black Sea was an isolated freshwater lake surrounded by farmland that eventually flooded. Students will practice their creative writing by composing stories about what it might have been like immediately before and during the flood.

376

Alabama district flood plan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this flood plan is to outline and record advance planning for flood emergencies, so that all personnel will know the general plan and have a ready-reference for necessary information. This will ensure that during any flood event, regardless of the extent or magnitude, the resources of the District can be mobilized into a maximum data collection operation with a mimimum of effort.

Hedgecock, T. Scott; Pearman, J. Leroy; Stricklin, Victor E.

2002-01-01

377

Flood Inundation Mapping  

E-print Network

KU GIS Day 2009 November 18, 2009 Wendy L. Pearson NOAA’s National Weather Service Central Region Headquarters Kansas City, Missouri Flood Inundation Mapping “Water Predictions for Life Decisions” Page 2 Flood Inundation Mapping Objectives...: Overview of the technical aspects of the map development process Web demonstration “Water Predictions for Life Decisions”3 NOAA National Weather Service • Flood Mapping depends on partnerships, diligence, dedication, and commitment to ensure...

Pearson, Wendy

2009-11-18

378

Flood Plain Management.  

E-print Network

and table form in the report document (4). Anticipated land use can affect flooding adversely or favorably. If the projected conditions are for an agricul- tural watershed to evolve into an urban watershed, flooding and resultant damages can be expected...>.$P&%Yi$;. :~:~$F~ga -*.i ".*- z-& :z+Tm,*gz .--~ Summary Hobifor- Post housloir Po,! Hooston I'osf Floods will continue to cause damage as long as development...

McNeely, John G.; Lacewell, Ronald D.

1976-01-01

379

European Flood Awareness System - now operational  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Commission's Communication "Towards a Stronger European Union Disaster Response" adopted and endorsed by the Council in 2010, underpins the importance of strengthening concerted actions for natural disasters including floods, which are amongst the costliest natural disasters in the EU. The European Flood Awareness System (EFAS) contributes in the case of major flood events. to better protection of the European Citizen, the environment, property and cultural heritage. The disastrous floods in Elbe and Danube rivers in 2002 confronted the European Commission with non-coherent flood warning information from different sources and of variable quality, complicating planning and organisation of aid. Thus, the Commission initiated the development of a European Flood Awareness System (EFAS) which is now going operational. EFAS has been developed and tested at the Joint Research Centre, the Commission's in house science service, in close collaboration with the National hydrological and meteorological services, European Civil Protection through the Monitoring and Information Centre (MIC) and other research institutes. EFAS provides Pan-European overview maps of flood probabilities up to 10 days in advance as well as detailed forecasts at stations where the National services are providing real time data. More than 30 hydrological services and civil protection services in Europe are part of the EFAS network. Since 2011, EFAS is part of the COPERNICUS Emergency Management Service, (EMS) and is now an operational service since 2012. The Operational EFAS is being executed by several consortia dealing with different operational aspects: • EFAS Hydrological data collection centre —REDIAM and ELIMCO- will be collecting historic and realtime discharge and water levels data in support to EFAS • EFAS Meteorological data collection centre —outsourced but running onsite of JRC Ispra. Will be collecting historic and realtime meteorological data in support to EFAS • EFAS Computational centre - European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts - will be running the forecasts, post-processing and operating the EFAS-Information System platform • EFAS Dissemination centre—Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute and Rijkswaterstaat Waterdienst (the Netherlands)—analyse the results on a daily basis, assess the situation, and disseminate information to the EFAS partners The European Commission is responsible for contract management. The Joint Research Centre further provides support for EFAS through research and development. Aims of EFAS operational • added value early flood forecasting products to hydrological services • unique overview products of ongoing and forecast floods in Europe more than 3 days in advance • create a European network of operational hydrological services

Alionte Eklund, Cristina.; Hazlinger, Michal; Sprokkereef, Eric; Garcia Padilla, Mercedes; Garcia, Rafael J.; Thielen, Jutta; Salamon, Peter; Pappenberger, Florian

2013-04-01

380

Flood frequency in Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Records of peak discharge at 183 sites were used to study flood frequency in Alaska. The vast size of Alaska, its great ranges of physiography, and the lack of data for much of the State precluded a comprehensive analysis of all flood determinants. Peak stream discharges, where gaging-station records were available, were analyzed for 2-year, 5-year, 10-year, 25-year, and 50-year average-recurrence intervals. A regional analysis of the flood characteristics by multiple-regression methods gave a set of equations that can be used to estimate floods of selected recurrence intervals up to 50 years for any site on any stream in Alaska. The equations relate floods to drainage-basin characteristics. The study indicates that in Alaska the 50-year flood can be estimated from 10-year gaging- station records with a standard error of 22 percent whereas the 50-year flood can be estimated from the regression equation with a standard error of 53 percent. Also, maximum known floods at more than 500 gaging stations and miscellaneous sites in Alaska were related to drainage-area size. An envelope curve of 500 cubic feet per second per square mile covered all but 2 floods in the State.

Childers, J.M.

1970-01-01

381

Flash Flood Case Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module takes the learner through seven case studies of flash flood events that occurred in the conterminous U.S. between 2003 and 2006. The cases covered include: * 30-31 August 2003: Chase & Lyon Counties, KS * 16-17 September 2004: Macon County, NC * 31 July 2006: Santa Catalina Mountains near Tucson, AZ * 25 December 2003: Fire burn area near San Bernardino, CA * 30 August 2004: Urban flash flood in Richmond, VA * 19-20 August 2003: Urban flash flood in Las Vegas, NV * 9 October 2005: Cheshire County, NH This module assists the learner in applying the concepts covered in the foundation topics of the Basic Hydrologic Sciences course. Some of the specific topics pertinent to these cases are the physical characteristics that make a basin prone to flash floods, basin response to precipitation, flash flood guidance (FFG), the relationship between wildfire and flash floods, and the relationship between urban development and flash floods. Related topics brought out in the cases include radar quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE), the National Weather Service Flash Flood Monitoring and Prediction (NWS FFMP) products, debris flows, impounded water, and interagency communications. The core foundation topics are recommended prerequisite materials since this module assumes some pre-existing knowledge of hydrologic principles. In particular, the Runoff Processes and Flash Flood Processes modules contain material directly related to these cases.

2014-09-14

382

Flood Finder: Mobile-based automated water level estimation and mapping during floods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Every year, Southeast Asia faces numerous flooding disasters, resulting in very high human and economic loss. Responding to a sudden flood is difficult due to the lack of accurate and up-to- date information about the incoming water status. We have developed a mobile application called Flood Finder to solve this problem. Flood Finder allows smartphone users to measure, share and search for water level information at specified locations. The application uses image processing to compute the water level from a photo taken by users. The photo must be of a known reference object with a standard size. These water levels are more reliable and consistent than human estimates since they are derived from an algorithmic measuring function. Flood Finder uploads water level readings to the server, where they can be searched and mapped by other users via the mobile phone app or standard browsers. Given the widespread availability of smartphones in Asia, Flood Finder can provide more accurate and up-to-date information for better preparation for a flood disaster as well as life safety and property protection.

Pongsiriyaporn, B.; Jariyavajee, C.; Laoharawee, N.; Narkthong, N.; Pitichat, T.; Goldin, S. E.

2014-02-01

383

The use of seismic tomograms for the identification of internal problems with earthen dams and levees  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

According to the National Inventory of dams (NID, 2009), out of the 84,134 dams in the US, more than 87% (73,423) are earthen dams. The majority of these earthen dams are past or approaching their design life expectancy of 50 years. According to the National committee on Levee Safety (NCLS, 2009),...

384

Relationship between canal and levee density and coastal land loss in Louisiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly 1% of Louisiana's coastal land becomes water each year. This land loss affects everything from wildlife, fisheries, and recreation to the economy and culture. A part of this loss results from natural, unmanageable factors, but manageable factors are also responsible. This report discusses one of the manageable factors: canals and their dredged-material levees. In coastal Louisiana wetlands, canals are

1987-01-01

385

Automated determination of flood risk through fragility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change causes an increase in flood risk due to higher water levels in rivers, seas and oceans. It is crucial to understand the effect of the changing water levels on the flood risk to properly manage the effects of climate changes. Practically all existing flood risk models assume a level at which an embankment will no longer preform its water retaining function and fail. In reality, the situation is much more complex. A flood protection embankment can breach many meters before the water reaches the top of the embankment, but it can sometimes also withstand higher water tables without breaching. This paper presents a scientific method for risk assessment and -management that properly takes the strength of the embankment into account. The paper focusses on the determination of the chance of failure of the embankment, given changing water conditions due to climate change. Examples show how this tool can efficiently be used for flood risk management. Flood protection embankments can fail through many different failure mechanisms. The most obvious one is through insufficient height which causes overflow, erosion and finally breach. Other relevant failure mechanisms are, amongst others, macro instability, backwards internal erosion, suffusion and micro instability. The level at which an embankment overtops is easy to determine and therefor usually set equal to the level at which the embankment fails. Recent studies in the Netherlands show, however, that the other failure mechanisms are often dominant, depending on the subsoil conditions. Ignoring these mechanisms give a far too optimistic risk assessment and therefore, these mechanisms must be taken into account. This paper shows an automated methodology to properly represent the strength of flood protection embankments through fragility. A fragility curve is a graph in which the chance of failure of the embankment is plotted against the water level in the river. This database driven methodology uses GIS data to make a representation of the embankment and automatically determines the chances of failure for every relevant failure mechanism at every river water level. When the source database is updated, the fragility curve for the embankment can directly be updated as well to easily adapt to changes. Multiplying this fragility curve with the probability density function of the outside water level directly results in the chance of failure of the flood protection embankment. Scenario studies for different climate changes can easily be performed and be presented in a clear, visual way to the decision maker.

van der Meij, Raymond; Lopez de la Cruz, Juliana

2013-04-01

386

Holocene flood plain soil formation in the lower Mississippi River Valley: Implications for the interpretation of alluvial paleosols  

SciTech Connect

Holocene Mississippi River flood soils representing different depositional environments and ages were sampled along three east-west transects between Vicksburg, MS and Baton Rouge, LA. Flood plain soil development is primarily controlled by episodic flood plain sedimentation and ground water table fluctuations as evidenced by relatively thick cumulative soil profiles with abundant mottles, nodules, and slickensides. Within flood plain deposits of similar age, profile, development is best expressed in moderately-drained silty and sandy soils in natural levee and point bar ridge environmental that occur within and adjacent to meander belts. Soils in natural levee and point bar ridge environments greater than 3 ka generally are acidic and have better-developed Bt horizons and brighter mottles than their younger counterparts. In addition to being acidic and brightly mottled, older back swamp soils have larger and more abundant slickensides and iron nodules. This study suggests that alluvial paleosols formed in aggradational settings may be better suited for interpreting flood plain depositional histories and paleohydrology than climate. Parameters such as solum thickness and clay and carbonate accumulations, routinely used to estimate relative time and climatic effects on soil development in Quaternary studies of stable geomorphic surfaces, may not be applicable to ancient alluvial deposits that reflect continuous sediment aggradation.

Aslan, A. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences); Autin, W.J. (Louisiana Geological Survey, Baton Rouge, LA (United States))

1992-01-01

387

Flooded Wild Rice River  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Wild Rice River at Great Bend North Dakota, streamflow 1,890 cubic feet per second.  Photograph taken during spring 2010 flooding looking downstream of the bridge which was clogged with debris.  The river also had flooded over the road approaching the bridge....

388

2011 Spring Flood  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Left to Right: Bill Stiles, Dan Kroes USGS Hydrologist Dan Kroes shows Congressional staffers the difference in turbidity levels of the water in Bayou Sorrel. As the record flood waters of the 2011 flood inundate the Atchafalaya Basin, they begin to flush out the stagnant swamp water, or

389

Detecting SYN Flooding Attacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a simple and robust mechanism for de- tecting SYN flooding attacks. Instead of monitoring the ongoing traffic at the front end (like firewall or proxy) or a victim server itself, we detect the SYN flooding attacks at leaf routers that con- nect end hosts to the Internet. The simplicity of our detection mechanism lies in its statelessness and

Haining Wang; Danlu Zhang; Kang G. Shin

2002-01-01

390

Discover Floods Educators Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Now available as a Download! This valuable resource helps educators teach students about both the risks and benefits of flooding through a series of engaging, hands-on activities. Acknowledging the different roles that floods play in both natural and urban communities, the book helps young people gain a global understanding of this common--and…

Project WET Foundation, 2009

2009-01-01

391

RouterMulticast .Source sends a flooding  

E-print Network

#12;Router RouterMulticast . . . Source Router Router . . .Source sends a flooding in periodic time One router is receiving multicast data service flooding Router Router Router Router Router RouterSource flooding flooding RouterRouter Router RouterSource flooding flooding flooding flooding prune Router

Jang, Ju-Wook

392

Sedimentary record of Warta river floods in summer 2010 and winter 2011 nearby Poznan, W Poland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Warta River valley nearby Pozna? (W Poland) represents a meandering lowland river changed during the last 150 years by hydro-engineering works. Floods represent a major natural hazard in the region. However, historical records are not complete - particularly for former rural areas. Thus, sedimentary record may potentially offer additional insights into the flooding history. The big floods in the summer 2010 (the largest during the last 31 years) and winter 2011 offered opportunity to study their sedimentary record. The particular purposes were to identify sedimentary characteristics of summer and winter floods, interpret various phases of particular floods in the record, and assess impact of early post-depositional changes of the flood deposits. The surveys were conducted in six areas just after the floods and were repeated after several months, one and two years. The deposits spatial extent, thickness, surface bedforms and sediment type were assessed in the field. Sediment samples were further investigated for grain size distribution, organic matter content, roundness and sand grains surface features (SEM). The sandy flood deposits mostly build natural levee, side bars (<5 m from the channel bank) or crevasse splays (<40 m). They were up to 10-15 cm thick for the summer and 30-35 cm for the winter flood. The sands were mostly fine grained, well sorted and fine skewed. Their structures were massive with rare cases of climbing ripple lamination and planar cross laminations (only in crevasse splays). Vertical grain size changes in levee deposits revealed pensymmetric and/or reverse grading interpreted as effect of changing velocity during the rising water level. The sand grains were similar to the river channel sands and dominated by polished and sub-rounded quartz grains with preserved dissolution and dulled surface microfeatures. Further from the channel bank (few to few hundreds of meters) only discontinuous up to few mm thick organic rich mud layer was left, which after the summer flood was covered by algal mats. However the mud and mats were quickly reworked by new vegetation. The follow up surveys revealed that the preservation potential of flood deposits is low to moderate (only for sandy deposits). The studied cases proved that in the engineered river channels the major record of floods may be preserved in the levees next to river channel, but not on the flooding terraces. The record of winter flood is composed of slightly coarser and thicker deposits, and it may be due to bigger capacity of sediment transport by the colder water and lower surface friction due to reduced plant cover. The vertical grain size distribution changes may be interpreted in terms of duration and variations during the particular floods. The study was supported by National Science Centre grant No. NN 304 105240.

Skolasi?ska, Katarzyna; Szczuci?ski, Witold; Mitr?ga, Marta; Rotnicka, Joanna; Jagodzi?ski, Robert; Lorenc, Stanis?aw

2013-04-01

393

Channel, floodplain, and wetland responses to floods and overbank sedimentation, 1846-2006, Halfway Creek Marsh, Upper Mississippi Valley, Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Conversion of upland forest and prairie vegetation to agricultural land uses, following Euro-American settlement in the Upper Mississippi River System, led to accelerated runoff and soil erosion that subsequently transformed channels, floodplains, and wetlands on bottomlands. Halfway Creek Marsh, at the junction of Halfway Creek and the Mississippi River on Wisconsin's western border, is representative of such historical transformation. This marsh became the focus of a 2005-2006 investigation by scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, the University of Wisconsin- Madison, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, who used an understanding of the historical transformation to help managers identify possible restoration alternatives for Halfway Creek Marsh. Field-scale topographic surveys and sediment cores provided data for reconstructing patterns and rates of historical overbank sedimentation in the marsh. Information culled from historical maps, aerial photographs, General Land Offi ce Survey notes, and other historical documents helped establish the timing of anthropogenic disturbances and document changes in channel patterns. Major human disturbances, in addition to agricultural land uses, included railroad and road building, construction of artifi cial levees, drainage alterations, and repeated dam failures associated with large floods. A volume of approximately 1,400,000 m3, involving up to 2 m of sandy historical overbank deposition, is stored through the upper and lower marshes and along the adjacent margins of Halfway Creek and its principal tributary, Sand Lake Coulee. The estimated overbank sedimentation rate for the entire marsh is ??3,000 m3 yr-1 for the recent period 1994-2006. In spite of reduced surface runoff and soil erosion in recent years, this recent sedimentation rate still exceeds by ??4 times the early settlement (1846-1885) rate of 700 m3 yr-1, when anthropogenic acceleration of upland surface runoff and soil erosion was beginning. The highest rate of historical bottomland sedimentation occurred from 1919 to 1936, when the estimated overbank sedimentation rate was 20,400 m3 yr- 1. This rate exceeded by nearly 30 times the 1846-1886 rate. Artifi cial levees were constructed along the upper reach of Halfway Creek in the marsh during the early twentieth century to restrict fl ooding on the adjacent bottomlands. Anomalously high overbank sedimentation rates subsequently occurred on the fl oodplain between the levees, which also facilitated more effi cient transport of sediment into the lower marsh bottomland. Although overbank sedimentation rates dropped after 1936, corresponding to the widespread adoption of soil-conservation and agricultural best-management practices, the continuation of anomalously high overbank sedimentation between the levees led to increased bank heights and development of a relatively deep channel. The deep cross-section morphology is commonly mistaken as evidence of channel incision; however, this morphology actually resulted from excessive overbank sedimentation. The historical metamorphosis of the Halfway Creek channel and riparian wetlands underscores the importance of understanding the long-term history of channel and fl oodplain evolution when restoration of channels and riparian wetlands are under consideration. Sedimentation patterns and channel morphology for Halfway Creek Marsh probably are representative of other anthropogenically altered riparian wetlands in the Upper Mississippi River System and similar landscapes elsewhere.

Fitzpatrick, F.A.; Knox, J.C.; Schubauer-Berigan, J. P.

2009-01-01

394

Estimating insured residential losses from large flood scenarios on the Tone River, Japan - a data integration approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flooding on the Tone River, which drains the largest catchment area in Japan and is now home to 12 million people, poses significant risk to the Greater Tokyo Area. In April 2010, an expert panel in Japan, the Central Disaster Prevention Council, examined the potential for large-scale flooding and outlined possible mitigation measures in the Greater Tokyo Area. One of the scenarios considered closely mimics the pattern of flooding that occurred with the passage of Typhoon Kathleen in 1947 and would potentially flood some 680 000 households above floor level. Building upon that report, this study presents a Geographical Information System (GIS)-based data integration approach to estimate the insurance losses for residential buildings and contents as just one component of the potential financial cost. Using a range of publicly available data - census information, location reference data, insurance market information and flood water elevation data - this analysis finds that insurance losses for residential property alone could reach approximately 1 trillion JPY (US 12.5 billion). Total insurance losses, including commercial and industrial lines of business, are likely to be at least double this figure with total economic costs being much greater again. The results are sensitive to the flood scenario assumed, position of levee failures, local flood depths and extents, population and building heights. The Average Recurrence Interval (ARI) of the rainfall following Typhoon Kathleen has been estimated to be on the order of 200 yr; however, at this juncture it is not possible to put an ARI on the modelled loss since we cannot know the relative or joint probability of the different flooding scenarios. It is possible that more than one of these scenarios could occur simultaneously or that levee failure at one point might lower water levels downstream and avoid a failure at all other points. In addition to insurance applications, spatial analyses like that presented here have implications for emergency management, the cost-benefit of mitigation efforts and land-use planning.

Okada, T.; McAneney, K. J.; Chen, K.

2011-12-01

395

Flood Response Along a Drainage Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flooding in urban areas is complex. As water overtops stream banks, it comes into contact with structural obstacles on the land surface, such as bridge constrictions, that dominate flow pathways. Furthermore, at small, or local, spatial scales, other hydraulic controls such as pipe surcharge and stormwater management ponds play a significant role in flood response. A major obstacle towards a better understanding of how these controls impact flood response is the scarcity of data available to characterize them. One watershed where both hydraulic and hydrologic data is available is the Dead Run watershed in Metropolitan Baltimore, Maryland. Dead Run is a research watershed of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study (BES), part of the Long Term Ecological Research network established by the National Science Foundation. Dead Run geospatial data is available through the BES and Baltimore County; hydrologic data was collected by the authors during field campaigns in the 2003-2005 field seasons; and hydraulic information including storm drain pipes, stormwater management ponds, and bridge constrictions was digitized by the author. The availability of this data in Dead Run allows us to detail not only the impact of impervious surfaces and hydrologic forcing on flood response, but also structural aspects of the urban drainage network. In this study, we integrate the three types of observations - geospatial, hydrologic, and hydraulic - to characterize drainage network structure along Dead Run's tributaries. We use these characterizations and the Environmental Protection Agency's Stormwater Management Model (EPA SWMM) to estimate the 10- and 100-year floods over the drainage network. Analyses focus on two extreme floods in Dead Run: the 7 July 2004 and 28 June 2005 events. Results highlight the importance of incorporating drainage network structure into the models we use to predict flooding in urban environments.

Meierdiercks, K. L.; Smith, J. A.; Miller, A. J.; Baeck, M.

2007-12-01

396

Winter water; the flooding at Boise, Idaho, January 11-12, 1979  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On January 11 and 12, 1979, unseasonally warm temperatures and rain on several inches of snow lying on frozen ground caused widespread flooding in and around Boise, Idaho. Streams north of Boise crested on January 11, flooding neighborhoods in and adjacent to the mountain foothills. On January 12, streams south and west of the city reached their highest stages. Flooding was confined to ground levels and basements of homes and businesses in low-lying areas. The U.S. Geological Survey made indirect measurements of peak dicharges at selected sites on streams that had the worst flooding. The peak discharges were relatively low in comparison with data from historic floods. Much more severe flooding than this event is likely to occur in the future. More data are needed on the occurrence of flooding in Boise Valley to aid in flood-protection planning. (USGS)

Harper, Robert William; Hubbard, E.F.

1980-01-01

397

Flood resilience technology, systems and toolls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years there has been a general acceptance that the risk from flooding is increasing, primarily due to increased urbanization and the impact of climate change (Zevenbergen et al, 2010). Flood resilience technology (FRe T) is a term used to describe a collection of technologies, materials and products that are used to protect and allow recovery of buildings, communities and infrastructure from flooding. River or coastal flooding is the focus of the legislation, regulation and guidance that is intended to control development and ensure the risk to new properties is low. However, the cost of building and maintaining primary flood defense systems for rivers and coasts is becoming prohibitive and as such future flood management needs to consider a range of measures to manage risk, in particular improving the resilience of buildings, infrastructure and communities. Surface water flooding is now known to cause as much damage as coastal and riverine flooding combined and is as likely to be experienced by both existing and new developments. Therefore FRe T solutions need to be adaptable and flexible. Previous research has shown that barriers exist to the acceptance and use of FRe T by a range of stakeholders. This includes the need to deploy household level items in time, the uncertainty over the performance of FRe T in actual flood situations or reluctance to adopt new or unknown solutions. Investment by public authorities in FRe Technology in recent years has typically increased in countries such as the UK. However, there has been to date little consideration of the system within which the technology has been employed and there is a lack of tools to assist decision makers. The SMARTeST project (an EU FP7 research project) is addressing the issues involved in FRe technology implementation. The findings of the research will be presented, including case studies where the integrated approaches of technology, systems and tools have been considered. SMARTeST seeks to create an environment for innovation in FRe technology, using new approaches that will reduce the risks involved in function, deployment, performance. The paper will describe how alliances of manufacturers, test houses and research organizations can bring about innovation. (Reference; Zevenbergen C, et al, C22 Book, Urban Flood Management, 2010)

Garvin, S.; Kelly, D.

2012-04-01

398

Effect of Sampling Period on Flood Frequency Distributions in the Susquehanna Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flooding is a devastating natural hazard that claims many human lives and significantly impact regional economies each year. Given the magnitude of flooding impacts, significant resources are dedicated to the development of forecasting models for early warning and evacuation planning, construction of flood defenses (levees/dams) to limit flooding, and the design of civil infrastructure (bridges, culverts, storm sewers) to convey flood flows without failing. In all these cases, it is particularly important to understand the potential flooding risk in terms of both recurrence interval (i.e., return period) and magnitude. Flood frequency analysis (FFA) is a form of risk analysis used to extrapolate the return periods of floods beyond the gauged record. The technique involves using observed annual peak flow discharge data to calculate statistical information such as mean values, standard deviations, skewness, and recurrence intervals. Since discharge data for most catchments have been collected for periods of time less than 100 years, the estimation of the design discharge requires a degree of extrapolation. This study focuses on the assessment and modifications of flood frequency based discharges for sites with limited sampling periods. Here, limited sampling period is intended to capture two issues: (1) limited number of observations to adequately capture the flood frequency signal (i.e., minimum number of annual peaks needed) and (2) climate variability (i.e., sampling period contains primarily “wet” or “dry” periods only). Total of 34 gauges (more than 70 years of data) spread throughout the Susquehanna River basin (71,000 sq km) were used to investigate the impact of sampling period on flood frequency distributions. Data subsets ranging from 10 years to the total number of years available were created from the data for each gauging station. To estimate the flood frequency, the Log Pearson Type III distribution was fit to the logarithms of instantaneous annual peak flows following Bulletin 17B guidelines of the U.S. Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data. The resulting flood frequencies from these subsets were compared to the results from the entire record at each gauge. Based on the analysis, the minimum number of years required to obtain a reasonable flood frequency distribution was determined for each gauge. In addition, a method to adjust flood frequency distribution at a given gauging station with limited data based on other locations with longer periods of records was developed.

Kargar, M.; Beighley, R. E.

2010-12-01

399

Analysis of the Potential Resilience and Preparedness of Districts affected by the June 2013 Flood in Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The June 2013 floods had severe impacts on people, transportation and the economy. Numerous levee breaches, e.g. in Bavaria and along the Elbe, resulted in large-scale regional floods. Despite similar flood intensities in several affected regions in Bavaria, Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia, CEDIM analyses show differential impacts in terms of both evacuations and transport disruptions. Based on social, economic and institutional indicators compiled from the 2006 Census and partially-based on a household questionnaire following the August 2002 floods, a Potential Resilience Index was developed for districts (Landkreise) of affected areas in the catchment of the Lech, Elbe, Mulde, Danube and Rhein. Furthermore, a Flood Preparedness and Response Scorecard was developed and evaluated in interviews with district officials for over 20 districts in the affected regions that experienced a flood intensity greater than a 100-year recurrence interval. The Potential Resilience Index is compared against qualitative data derived from the Scorecard, and the actual response measured in the self-evaluation with district officials. Actual metrics of response in terms of economic losses, number of people affected by evacuations and the length and type of transportation disruptions as two measures of the flood impact were also used in evaluating the impact against the degree of preparedness and effectiveness of crisis management during the 2013 floods in affected districts.

Khazai, Bijan; Benkler, Anna; Bessel, Tina; Möhrle, Stella; Schröter, Kai

2014-05-01

400

Flood Insurance in Canada: Implications for Flood Management and Residential Vulnerability to Flood Hazards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Insurance coverage of damage caused by overland flooding is currently not available to Canadian homeowners. As flood disaster losses and water damage claims both trend upward, insurers in Canada are considering offering residential flood coverage in order to properly underwrite the risk and extend their business. If private flood insurance is introduced in Canada, it will have implications for the current regime of public flood management and for residential vulnerability to flood hazards. This paper engages many of the competing issues surrounding the privatization of flood risk by addressing questions about whether flood insurance can be an effective tool in limiting exposure to the hazard and how it would exacerbate already unequal vulnerability. A case study investigates willingness to pay for flood insurance among residents in Metro Vancouver and how attitudes about insurance relate to other factors that determine residential vulnerability to flood hazards. Findings indicate that demand for flood insurance is part of a complex, dialectical set of determinants of vulnerability.

Oulahen, Greg

2015-03-01

401

Floodplain sediment from a 100-year-recurrence flood in 2005 of the Ping River in northern Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tropical storm, floodwater, and the floodplain-sediment layer of a 100-year recurrence flood are examined to better understand characteristics of large monsoon floods on medium-sized rivers in northern Thailand. Storms producing large floods in northern Thailand occur early or late in the summer rainy season (May October). These storms are associated with tropical depressions evolving from typhoons in the South China Sea that travel westward across the Indochina Peninsula. In late September, 2005, the tropical depression from Typhoon Damrey swept across northern Thailand delivering 100 200 mm/day at stations in mountainous areas. Peak flow from the 6355-km2 drainage area of the Ping River upstream of the city of Chiang Mai was 867 m3s-1 (river-gage of height 4.93 m) and flow greater than 600 m3s-1 lasted for 2.5 days. Parts of the city of Chiang Mai and some parts of the floodplain in the intermontane Chiang Mai basin were flooded up to 1-km distant from the main channel. Suspended-sediment concentrations in the floodwater were measured and estimated to be 1000 1300 mg l-1. The mass of dry sediment (32.4 kg m-2), measured over a 0.32-km2 area of the floodplain is relatively high compared to reports from European and North American river floods. Average wet sediment thickness over the area was 3.3 cm. Sediment thicker than 8 cm covered 16 per cent of the area, and sediment thicker than 4 cm covered 44 per cent of the area. High suspended-sediment concentration in the floodwater, flow to the floodplain through a gap in the levee afforded by the mouth of a tributary stream as well as flow over levees, and floodwater depths of 1.2 m explain the relatively large amount of sediment in the measured area. Grain-size analyses and examination of the flood layer showed about 15-cm thickness of massive fine-sandy silt on the levee within 15-m of the main channel, sediment thicker than 6 cm within 200 m of the main channel containing a basal coarse silt, and massive clayey silt beyond 200 m. The massive clayey silt would not be discernable as a separate layer in section of similar deposits. The fine-sand content of the levee sediment and the basal coarse silt of sediment within 200 m of the main channel are sedimentological features that may be useful in identifying flood layers in a stratigraphic section of floodplain deposits.

Wood, S. H.; Ziegler, A. D.

2008-07-01

402

Flood: Farming and Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Farmers and rivers have a close, though not always friendly, relationship with one another. Rivers can create prized farmland, but they also flood fields and the communities built alongside them. Farming practices may also contribute to an increase in the magnitude and intensity of river flooding. This video segment explains the issue of flooding as seen in the Mississippi River watershed and suggests possible solutions. The segment is four minutes thirty-eight seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

403

Nogales flood detention study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flooding in Ambos Nogales often exceeds the capacity of the channel and adjacent land areas, endangering many people. The Nogales Wash is being studied to prevent future flood disasters and detention features are being installed in tributaries of the wash. This paper describes the application of the KINEROS2 model and efforts to understand the capacity of these detention features under various flood and urbanization scenarios. Results depict a reduction in peak flow for the 10-year, 1-hour event based on current land use in tributaries with detention features. However, model results also demonstrate that larger storm events and increasing urbanization will put a strain on the features and limit their effectiveness.

Norman, Laura M.; Levick, Lainie; Guertin, D. Phillip; Callegary, James; Guadarrama, Jesus Quintanar; Anaya, Claudia Zulema Gil; Prichard, Andrea; Gray, Floyd; Castellanos, Edgar; Tepezano, Edgar; Huth, Hans; Vandervoet, Prescott; Rodriguez, Saul; Nunez, Jose; Atwood, Donald; Granillo, Gilberto Patricio Olivero; Ceballos, Francisco Octavio Gastellum

2010-01-01

404

The geomorphic effectiveness of a large flood on the Rio Grande in the Big Bend region: insights on geomorphic controls and post-flood geomorphic response  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Since the 1940s, the Rio Grande in the Big Bend region has undergone long periods of channel narrowing, which have been occasionally interrupted by rare, large floods that widen the channel (termed a channel reset). The most recent channel reset occurred in 2008 following a 17-year period of extremely low stream flow and rapid channel narrowing. Flooding was caused by precipitation associated with the remnants of tropical depression Lowell in the Rio Conchos watershed, the largest tributary to the Rio Grande. Floodwaters approached 1500 m3/s (between a 13 and 15 year recurrence interval) and breached levees, inundated communities, and flooded the alluvial valley of the Rio Grande; the wetted width exceeding 2.5 km in some locations. The 2008 flood had the 7th largest magnitude of record, however, conveyed the largest volume of water than any other flood. Because of the narrow pre-flood channel conditions, record flood stages occurred. We used pre- and post-flood aerial photographs, channel and floodplain surveys, and 1-dimensional hydraulic models to quantify the magnitude of channel change, investigate the controls of flood-induced geomorphic changes, and measure the post-flood response of the widened channel. These analyses show that geomorphic changes included channel widening, meander migration, avulsions, extensive bar formation, and vertical floodplain accretion. Reach-averaged channel widening between 26 and 52% occurred, but in some localities exceeded 500%. The degree and style of channel response was related, but not limited to, three factors: 1) bed-load supply and transport, 2) pre-flood channel plan form, and 3) rapid declines in specific stream power downstream of constrictions and areas of high channel bed slope. The post-flood channel response has consisted of channel contraction through the aggradation of the channel bed and the formation of fine-grained benches inset within the widened channel margins. The most significant post-flood geomorphic changes have occurred at and downstream from ephemeral tributaries that contribute large volumes of sediment.

Dean, David J.; Schmidt, John C.

2013-01-01

405

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BULLOO RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BULLOO RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Bulloo River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

Greenslade, Diana

406

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM PIONEER RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the PIONEER RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River. Pioneer River at Mirani Contained in this document is information about: (Last updated April 2014) Flood

Greenslade, Diana

407

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM NERANG RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the NERANG RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Nerang River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

Greenslade, Diana

408

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BARRON RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BARRON RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Barron River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

Greenslade, Diana

409

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM NORMAN RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the NORMAN RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Norman River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

Greenslade, Diana

410

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM KOLAN RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the KOLAN RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Kolan River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

Greenslade, Diana

411

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM NOOSA RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the NOOSA RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Noosa River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

Greenslade, Diana

412

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM PAROO RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the PAROO RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Paroo River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

Greenslade, Diana

413

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM MOONIE RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the MOONIE RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Moonie River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

Greenslade, Diana

414

Service Assessment Hurricane Floyd Floods  

E-print Network

Service Assessment Hurricane Floyd Floods of September 1999 mm r u, /"' r U.S.DEPARTMENTOF COMMERCE: Hurricane Floyd Floods of September 1999. Aerial view of Grifton, North Carolina, with flooding from Floyd Floods of September 1999 June 2000 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE William M. Daley, Secretary

415

Global Floods 1985?2006  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An animated GIF map of major flood events around the world from 1985-2006. Floods are overlaid on a world map, shown as numbered red areas representing the areas the floods affected. Only major floods reported by news services are included in the map.

Dartmouth Flood Observatory

416

ADVISORY BASE FLOOD ELEVATIONS (ABFE)  

E-print Network

Elevation due to new information. Which FEMA programs now require using Advisory Base Flood ElevationsADVISORY BASE FLOOD ELEVATIONS (ABFE) DURING REBUILDING What are the Advisory Base Flood Elevations (ABFE)? Answer: This is the NEW Base Flood Elevation for rebuilding. It has the same definition

417

Ground-water flow beneath levee 35A from conservation area 2B, Broward County, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Conservation Area 2B is an area of recharge for the surficial aquifer system in Broward County. Water stored in the conservation area provides the hydraulic potential for downward flow to the high permeability zone of the Biscayne aquifer. A 5.64 ft head differential (average for the period of record) between water levels in Conservation Area 2B and water levels in the adjacent levee 35A borrow canal causes water to leak into the canal at an average rate of about 0.0022 cu ft per sec per lineal foot of canal and accounts for a loss of 0.013 foot per day of surface water from Conservation Area 2B. Amounts of canal leakage and underflow are constantly changing and are dependent upon the head differential between Conservation Area 2B and the levee 35A borrow canal. (Author 's abstract)

Swayze, L.J.

1988-01-01

418

The formation of natural levees as a disturbance process significant to the conservation of riverine pastures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disturbances and patch dynamics are inherent to many ecosystems of the world, especially in the riparian zone. This paper\\u000a describes the influence of natural levee overbank deposition on riverine grasslands along the meandering River Dinkel (The\\u000a Netherlands). Here, the rare vegetation type Diantho-Armerietum, characterised by Dianthus deltoides, Thymus pulegioides, Pimpinella saxifraga and Galium verum, has been identified as important to

H. P. Wolfert; P. W. F. M. Hommel; A. H. Prins; M. H. Stam

2002-01-01

419

entry LeveL WeLder College of Rural and Community Development  

E-print Network

entry LeveL WeLder College of Rural and Community Development Community and Technical College 907 ...................................................................21 * Students must earn a C or better in each course. U N I V E R S I T Y O F A L A S K A F A I R B on Colleges and Universities. UAF is an affirmative action/equal opportunity employer and educational

Hartman, Chris

420

Coastal Flooding Assessment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Eric B. Grosfils, Pomona College Summary Students are introduced to Spatial Analyst and 3D Analyst, and use these tools to perform a flooding analysis for the Long Beach area of California. Context Type and level ...

Eric Grosfils

421

Big Thompson River Flooding  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The USGS Big Thompson River at Loveland streamgage, pictured here, was damaged during the September 2013 Colorado flood event. USGS crews installed a temporary streamgage nearby to compensate for the lag in data....

422

Japan: Tsunami Flooding  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

... article title:  Lingering Floods from Tohoku-oki Earthquake Tsunami     View Larger Image The March 11, 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake triggered a deadly and destructive tsunami whose impacts were felt ...

2013-04-16

423

Dartmouth Flood Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Dartmouth Flood Observatory performs research and collects data on the space-based measurement of surface water "for research, educational, and humanitarian applications." On their homepage visitors are presented with a global map of current flooding, complemented by links to data sets related to historic flood levels from 1985 to the present. Visitors can also click on the "Active Archive of Large Floods" section for additional materials, such as an animation that depicts these mega-events. Moving on, the site also includes a link to the "Space-based Atlas of the Earth's Changing Surface Water". Here visitors can look over sample regional maps, and also look at detailed maps of the Mekong Basin from 2000 to 2006. The site is rounded out with some information about current staff members and a list of their publications.

424

Flood Frequency Analysis: International Edition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Flood frequency analysis uses historical flow records to both estimate the frequency with which floods of a certain magnitude may occur and predict the possible flood magnitude over a certain time period. This module offers a thorough introduction to appropriately constructing the necessary historical data series, calculating the flooding probabilities, and gauging the reliability of the resulting probability values. Methods for assessing flood frequency in basins with limited data are also discussed.

COMET

2010-08-31

425

OPERATIONAL FLOOD FORECAST IN BAVARIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure and organisation of the Bavarian flood information service is introduced with focus on the operational flood forecast. Five flood forecast centres corresponding to the main river basins (Main, Danube, Inn) and tributary basins where large reservoirs have to be operated (Iller-Lech, Isar) are responsible for the operational flood forecast. They closely co-operate with the co-ordinating main flood information

Christine Hangen-Brodersen; Alfons Vogelbacher; Franz-Klemens Holle

426

New Orleans Flooding Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation, based on radar topography data captured from the space shuttle, illustrates the vulnerability of New Orleans to flooding. The animation shows the effect of flood ranging from 0 to 9 meters in height, and which portions of the city would be submerged. The animation, which predates Hurricane Katrina, is available as a QuickTime file. Stills are also available in a variety of formats.

NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission

427

Ice Age Floods Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Describes Ice Age glaciers and immense floods of glacial meltwater that swept across the Pacific Northwest (18,000-12,000 years ago and earlier), affecting the landscape from Montana to Washington and Oregon, sculpting the Columbia River Basin, and creating glacial lakes to rival the today's Great Lakes. This non-profit institute promotes scientific education about the floods, their causes and impacts. Proposes an interpretive geologic trail linking significant sites.

428

National Flood Insurance Program: Flood Hazard Mapping  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has created this helpful set of resources for policymakers, elected officials, journalists, and members of the general public who would like to know more about the world of flood hazard mapping. On this site, visitors can find a host of resources and over a dozen thematic links, such as Coastal Projects, Change My Flood Zone Designation, and User Groups. Each link is preceded by a brief introduction to the resource, along with a description of the various items within each link. Visitors shouldn't miss the Online Tutorials offered here, as they include several multimedia instructional resources designed to provide in-depth training on different facets on these programs.

429

Uncertainty and sensitivity assessment of flood risk assessments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floods are one of the most frequent and costly natural disasters. In order to protect human lifes and valuable assets from the effect of floods many defensive structures have been build. Despite these efforts economic losses due to catastrophic flood events have, however, risen substantially during the past couple of decades because of continuing economic developments in flood prone areas. On top of that, climate change is expected to affect the magnitude and frequency of flood events. Because these ongoing trends are expected to continue, a transition can be observed in various countries to move from a protective flood management approach to a more risk based flood management approach. In a risk based approach, flood risk assessments play an important role in supporting decision making. Most flood risk assessments assess flood risks in monetary terms (damage estimated for specific situations or expected annual damage) in order to feed cost-benefit analysis of management measures. Such flood risk assessments contain, however, considerable uncertainties. This is the result from uncertainties in the many different input parameters propagating through the risk assessment and accumulating in the final estimate. Whilst common in some other disciplines, as with integrated assessment models, full uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of flood risk assessments are not so common. Various studies have addressed uncertainties regarding flood risk assessments, but have mainly focussed on the hydrological conditions. However, uncertainties in other components of the risk assessment, like the relation between water depth and monetary damage, can be substantial as well. This research therefore tries to assess the uncertainties of all components of monetary flood risk assessments, using a Monte Carlo based approach. Furthermore, the total uncertainty will also be attributed to the different input parameters using a variance based sensitivity analysis. Assessing and visualizing the uncertainties of the final risk estimate will be helpful to decision makers to make better informed decisions and attributing this uncertainty to the input parameters helps to identify which parameters are most important when it comes to uncertainty in the final estimate and should therefore deserve additional attention in further research.

de Moel, H.; Aerts, J. C.

2009-12-01

430

Flood resilience and uncertainty in flood risk assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood risk assessments do not normally take account of the uncertainty in assessing flood risk. There is no requirement in the EU Floods Directive to do so. But given the generally short series (and potential non-stationarity) of flood discharges, the extrapolation to smaller exceedance potentials may be highly uncertain. This means that flood risk mapping may also be highly uncertainty, with additional uncertainties introduced by the representation of flood plain and channel geometry, conveyance and infrastructure. This suggests that decisions about flood plain management should be based on exceedance probability of risk rather than the deterministic hazard maps that are common in most EU countries. Some examples are given from 2 case studies in the UK where a framework for good practice in assessing uncertainty in flood risk mapping has been produced as part of the Flood Risk Management Research Consortium and Catchment Change Network Projects. This framework provides a structure for the communication and audit of assumptions about uncertainties.

Beven, K.; Leedal, D.; Neal, J.; Bates, P.; Hunter, N.; Lamb, R.; Keef, C.

2012-04-01

431

Origin and architecture of deep-water levee deposits: Insight from the ancient rock record and experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although levee deposits make up a significant part of modern and ancient deep-marine slope systems, details of their internal lithological composition and stratal architecture remain poorly documented. At the Castle Creek study area, strata of the Neoproterozoic Isaac Formation (Windermere Supergroup) crop out superbly in a kilometre-scale section through a sinuous deep-water channel-levee system (ICC3). Levee deposits near the outer bend of the channel consist of sandstone-rich (sandstone-to-mudstone ratio of 68:42), medium- to thick-bedded turbidites interstratified with thinly-bedded turbidites. Structureless sandstone (T a), planar laminated sandstone (Tb), non-climbing ripple cross-stratified sandstone (Tc) and massive and laminated siltstone (Td) are common. Thick beds generally thicken and then thin and fine laterally over about 300 m. Thin-bedded strata, in contrast, thin and fine negligibly over similar distances. In the distal part of the outer-bend levee (up to 700 m laterally away from the channel) strata consist predominantly of thin-bedded Tcd turbidites with a much lower sandstone-to-mudstone ratio (35:65). On the opposite side of the channel, inner-bend levee deposits are mudstone-rich, locally as low as 15:85, and consist mostly of thin-bedded, Tcd turbidites, although thicker-bedded, Ta-d turbidites are more common in the lower part of the section. Lateral thinning and fining of beds is more rapid than their outer-bend counterpart. Levee deposits of ICC3 comprise three stacked decametre-scale upward-thinning and -fining successions. Each is interpreted to record a depositional history consisting of lateral channel migration, levee deposition, channel filling, and distal levee deposition. During the early stage of increasing levee relief it is proposed that the termini of individual beds progressively backstep towards the channel margin resulting in an overall lateral thinning of the stratal profile. This interpretation notably contrasts the common assumption that levee morphology is the result of the vertical stacking of beds that dip. In addition to field studies, laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the depositional threshold of non-climbing ripple cross-stratification, which is common in levee strata of ICC3. It was determined that non-climbing ripples form when bed aggradation rates are less than 0.015 cm/sec, and most probably in flows made up of poorly sorted sediment.

Khan, Zishann

432

Effect of the Three Gorges Dam Project on flood control in the Dongting Lake area, China, in a 1998-type flood  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the protective effect of the Three Gorges Dam Project (TGP) against flooding in the middle region of the Changjiang River basin, we applied an integrated watershed hydrological model using gauged daily precipitation data for 1998, when the second largest flood of the last century occurred in the basin. From the results simulated by applying the daily average discharge

Seiji Hayashi; Shogo Murakami; Kai-Qin Xu; Masataka Watanabe

2008-01-01

433

Urban flood risk mitigation: from vulnerability assessment to resilient city  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban flood risk mitigation: from vulnerability assessment to resilient city Bruno Barroca1, Damien Serre2 1Laboratory of Urban Engineering, Environment and Building (L G U E H) - Université de Marne-la-Vallée - Pôle Ville, 5, Bd Descartes - Bâtiment Lavoisier - 77454 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2 - France 2City of Paris Engineering School, Construction - Environment Department, 15 rue Fénelon, 75010 Paris, France In France, as in Europe and more generally throughout the world, river floods have been increasing in frequency and severity over the last ten years, and there are more instances of rivers bursting their banks, aggravating the impact of the flooding of areas supposedly protected by flood defenses. Despite efforts made to well maintain the flood defense assets, we often observe flood defense failures leading to finally increase flood risk in protected area during major flood events. Furthermore, flood forecasting models, although they benefit continuous improvements, remain partly inaccurate due to uncertainties populated all along data calculation processes. These circumstances obliged stakeholders and the scientific communities to manage flood risk by integrating new concepts like stakes management, vulnerability assessments and more recently urban resilience development. Definitively, the goal is to reduce flood risk by managing of course flood defenses and improving flood forecasting models, but also stakes and vulnerability of flooded areas to achieve urban resilience face to flood events. Vulnerability to flood is essentially concentrated in urban areas. Assessing vulnerability of a city is very difficult. Indeed, urban area is a complex system composed by a sum of technical sub-systems as complex as the urban area itself. Assessing city vulnerability consists in talking into account each sub system vulnerability and integrating all direct and indirect impacts generally depending from city shape and city spatial organization. At this time, although some research activities have been undertaken, there are no specific methods and tools to assess flood vulnerability at the scale of the city. Indeed, by studying literature we can list some vulnerability indicators and a few Geographic Information System (GIS) tools. But generally indicators and GIS are not developed specifically at the city scale: often a regional scale is used. Analyzing vulnerability at this scale needs more accurate and formalized indicators and GIS tools. The second limit of existing GIS is temporal: even if vulnerability could be assessed and localized through GIS, such tools cannot assist city managers in their decision to efficiency recover after a severe flood event. Due to scale and temporal limits, methods and tools available to assess urban vulnerability need large improvements. Talking into account all these considerations and limits, our research is focusing on: • vulnerability indicators design; • recovery scenarios design; • GIS for city vulnerability assessment and recovery scenarios. Dealing with vulnerability indicators, the goal is to design a set of indicators of city sub systems. Sub systems are seen like assets of high value and complex and interdependent infrastructure networks (i.e. power supplies, communications, water, transport etc.). The infrastructure networks are critical for the continuity of economic activities as well as for the people's basic living needs. Their availability is also required for fast and effective recovery after flood disasters. The severity of flood damage therefore largely depends on the degree that both high value assets and critical urban infrastructure are affected, either directly or indirectly. To face the challenge of designing indicators, a functional model of the city system (and sub systems) has to be built to analyze the system response to flood solicitation. Then, a coherent and an efficient set of vulnerability of indicators could be built up. With such methods city stakeholders will be informed on how and how much their systems are vulnerable. It is a first level of inform

Serre, D.; Barroca, B.

2009-04-01

434

Erosional and depositional patterns associated with the 1993 Missouri River floods inferred from SIR-C and TOPSAR radar data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Missouri River floods of 1993 caused significant and widespread damage to the floodplains between Kansas City and St. Louis. Immediately downstream of levee breaks, flood waters scoured the bottoms. As the floodwaters continued, they spread laterally and deposited massive amounts of sand as crevasse splays on top of agricultural fields. We explore the use of radar interferometry and backscatter data for quantitative estimation of scour and deposition for Jameson Island/Arrow Rock Bottoms and Lisbon Bottoms, two bottoms that were heavily damaged during the floods and subsequently abandoned. Shuttle imaging radar C (SIR-C) L band (24 cm) HH (horizontally transmitted and horizontally received) radar backscatter data acquired in October 1994 were used together with a distorted Born approximation canopy scattering model to determine that the abundance of natural leafy forbs controlled the magnitude of backscatter for former agricultural fields. Forb areal density was found to be inversely correlated with thickness of sand deposited during the floods, presumably because thick sands prevented roots from reaching nutrient rich, moist bottoms soils. Using the inverse relationship, a lower bound for the mass of sand added was found to be 6.3 million metric tons over the 17 km2 study area. Digital elevation data from topographic synthetic aperture radar (TOPSAR) C band (5.6 cm) interferometric observations acquired in August 1994 were compared to a series of elevation profiles collected on the ground. Vertical errors in TOPSAR were estimated to range from 1 to 2 m, providing enough accuracy to generate an estimate of total mass (4.7 million metric tons) removed during erosion of levees and scour of the bottoms terrains. Net accretion of material to the study areas is consistent with the geologic record of major floods where sediment-laden floodwaters crested over natural levees, initially scoured into the bottoms, and then deposited sands as crevasse splays as the flows spread out and slowed by frictional dissipation. The addition of artificial levees to the Missouri River system has undoubtedly enhanced flood damage, although quantitative estimation of the degree of enhancement will require additional work. Copyright 1996 by the American Geophysical Union.

Izenberg, N.R.; Arvidson, R.E.; Brackett, R.A.; Saatchi, S.S.; Osburn, G.R.; Dohrenwend, J.

1996-01-01

435

Modeling Floodplain Depositional Patterns under Variable Flood Regimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the more difficult aspects of predicting riverine fluxes to the ocean is intermediate storage in lowland floodplains. This storage is significant: floodplain deposition maintains and builds up low-lying lands along rivers and on deltas. Especially in deltas it is one of the processes that counteracts sea-level rise and maintains stability of the deltaic coast. AquaTellUs is a 3D floodplain architecture model that uses a nested model approach; a 2D longitudinal profile, embedded as a dynamical flow path in a 3D grid-based space. We model the main channel belt as a 2D longitudinal profile that responds dynamically to changes in channel profile geometry, water discharge, sediment load, grain-size distribution and sea level based on first-order, physics-based principles. Sediment flux is described with a modified Exner equation by separate erosion and sedimentation components. Erosion flux along the main flowpath depends on river discharge and channel slope, and is independent of grain-size. Depositional flux along the channel path as well as in the lateral direction into the floodplain depends on the local stream velocity, and on grain-dependent settling rates. Lateral depositional patterns are informed by analysis of remote-sensing imagery of recent flood deposits and by comparison to SRTM and ASTER GDEM2 elevation data of floodplain topography. Floodplain deposition is an event-driven system — only peak discharge events cause overbank flow, crevasse-splays, and potential channel avulsion. The computational architecture of AquaTellUs preserves stratigraphy by event, allowing for preservation of flood layers of variable thickness and composition. We here present depositional cross-sections and pseudo-wells resulting from numerical experiments that show the pronounced effect of different probability density functions for river discharge and sediment load, i.e. flooding recurrence times on the resulting floodplain aggradation. AquaTelllUs distinctly shows a more exponential geometry of elevated channel belts under highly variable flood regimes, with potential implications for breach dynamics. In addition, the model predicts that natural levee complexes are distinctly higher near the apex of delta plains and the levee heights taper off towards the coastal plain.

Overeem, I.; Boyd, R. L.; Kettner, A.; Syvitski, J. P.

2012-12-01

436

IMPROVING PUBLIC SAFETY FROM FEDERAL PROTECTION TO SHARED RISK REDUCTION  

E-print Network

and to enforce flood-wise requirements is entirely the responsibility of state and local government. Floodplain of protection whereby community members will not be required to purchase flood insurance. #12;2/26/2008 Where we Don Riley US Army Corps of Engineers Responsibility for flood risk management in the United States

US Army Corps of Engineers

437

Flood-resilient waterfront development in New York City: bridging flood insurance, building codes, and flood zoning.  

PubMed

Waterfronts are attractive areas for many-often competing-uses in New York City (NYC) and are seen as multifunctional locations for economic, environmental, and social activities on the interface between land and water. The NYC waterfront plays a crucial role as a first line of flood defense and in managing flood risk and protecting the city from future climate change and sea-level rise. The city of New York has embarked on a climate adaptation program (PlaNYC) outlining the policies needed to anticipate the impacts of climate change. As part of this policy, the Department of City Planning has recently prepared Vision 2020: New York City Comprehensive Waterfront Plan for the over 500 miles of NYC waterfront (NYC-DCP, 2011). An integral part of the vision is to improve resilience to climate change and sea-level rise. This study seeks to provide guidance for advancing the goals of NYC Vision 2020 by assessing how flood insurance, flood zoning, and building code policies can contribute to waterfront development that is more resilient to climate change. PMID:21692807

Aerts, Jeroen C J H; Botzen, W J Wouter

2011-06-01

438

Synchronicity in global flood responses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial and temporal pattern of global flooding was investigated using annual maximum discharge data for 200 gauging stations from around the world. The stations were initially aggregated into regions of similar climatic conditions. A hierarchical clustering scheme was subsequently used to create larger groups of stations controlled by a measure of similarity in flood response. The results of the investigation revealed that diverse regions of the world exhibit synchronous flood responses which can be related to various global climatic conditions. The global flooding response also displayed temporal patterns in flooding with distinct historic periods corresponding to increased global flooding activity.

Burn, Donald H.; Arnell, Nigel W.

1993-04-01

439

Modeling and analysis of the vertical roots distribution in levees - a case study of the third Rhone correction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years the effects of roots on river banks and levees have been the subject of major discussions. The main issue about the presence of woody vegetation on levees is related to the possibility that roots increase internal erosion processes and the superimposed load of large trees compromise the integrity of these structures. However, ecologists and landscape managers argue that eliminating the natural vegetation from the riverbanks also means eliminating biotopes, strengthening anthropisation of the landscape, as well as limiting recreations areas. In the context of the third correction of the Rhone in Switzerland, the discussion on new levee geometries and the implementation of woody vegetation on them, lead to a detailed analysis of this issue for this specific case. The objective of this study was to describe quantitatively the processes and factors that influence the root distribution on levees and test modeling approaches for the simulation of vertical root distribution with laboratory and field data. An extension of an eco-hydrological analytic model that considers climatic and pedological condition for the quantification of vertical root distribution was validated with data provided by the University of Vienna (BOKU) of willows' roots (Salix purpurea) grown under controlled conditions. Furthermore, root distribution data of four transversal sections of a levee near Visp (canton Wallis, Switzerland) was used to validate the model. The positions of the levee's sections were chosen based on the species and dimensions of the woody vegetation. The dominant species present in the sections were birch (Betula pendula) and poplar (Populus nigra). For each section a grid of 50x50 cm was created to count and measure the roots. The results show that vertical distribution of root density under controlled growing conditions has an exponential form, decreasing with increasing soil depth, and can be well described by the eco-hydrological model. Vice versa, field data of vertical roots distribution show a non-exponential function and cannot fully be described by the model. A compacted layer of stones at about 2 m depth is considered as limiting factor for the rooting depth on the analyzed levee. The collected data and the knowledge gained from quantitative analysis represent the starting point for a discussion on new levee geometries and the development of new strategies for the implementation of woody vegetation on levees. A long term monitoring project for the analysis of the effectiveness of new implementation strategies of vegetation on levees, is considered an important prospective for future studies on this topic.

Gianetta, Ivan; Schwarz, Massimiliano; Glenz, Christian; Lammeranner, Walter

2013-04-01

440

FLOOD INSURANCE Future Availability of Consumer Flood Insurance in the  

E-print Network

FLOOD INSURANCE Future Availability of Consumer Flood Insurance. There is currently a provisional solution in place, an agreement between the insurance industry and the government the government, the insurance industry and consumer advocates move forward based on the best information

Anderson, Jim

441

Improvements in fast-response flood modeling: desktop parallel computing and domain tracking  

SciTech Connect

It is becoming increasingly important to have the ability to accurately forecast flooding, as flooding accounts for the most losses due to natural disasters in the world and the United States. Flood inundation modeling has been dominated by one-dimensional approaches. These models are computationally efficient and are considered by many engineers to produce reasonably accurate water surface profiles. However, because the profiles estimated in these models must be superimposed on digital elevation data to create a two-dimensional map, the result may be sensitive to the ability of the elevation data to capture relevant features (e.g. dikes/levees, roads, walls, etc...). Moreover, one-dimensional models do not explicitly represent the complex flow processes present in floodplains and urban environments and because two-dimensional models based on the shallow water equations have significantly greater ability to determine flow velocity and direction, the National Research Council (NRC) has recommended that two-dimensional models be used over one-dimensional models for flood inundation studies. This paper has shown that two-dimensional flood modeling computational time can be greatly reduced through the use of Java multithreading on multi-core computers which effectively provides a means for parallel computing on a desktop computer. In addition, this paper has shown that when desktop parallel computing is coupled with a domain tracking algorithm, significant computation time can be eliminated when computations are completed only on inundated cells. The drastic reduction in computational time shown here enhances the ability of two-dimensional flood inundation models to be used as a near-real time flood forecasting tool, engineering, design tool, or planning tool. Perhaps even of greater significance, the reduction in computation time makes the incorporation of risk and uncertainty/ensemble forecasting more feasible for flood inundation modeling (NRC 2000; Sayers et al. 2000).

Judi, David R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcpherson, Timothy N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Burian, Steven J [UNIV. OF UTAH

2009-01-01

442

FLASH FLOOD PREDICTION IN THE DEAD SEA REGION UTILIZING RADAR RAINFALL DATA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flash-flood warning models can save lives and protect various kinds of infrastructure. In dry climate regions, rainfall is highly variable and can be of high intensity. Since rain gauge networks in such areas are sparse, rainfall information derived from weather radar systems can provide useful input for flash-flood models. This paper presents a flash-flood warning model utilizing radar rainfall data

Efrat Morin

2009-01-01

443

Towards flash-flood prediction in the dry Dead Sea region utilizing radar rainfall information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flash-flood warning models can save lives and protect various kinds of infrastructure. In dry climate regions, rainfall is highly variable and can be of high-intensity. Since rain gauge networks in such areas are sparse, rainfall information derived from weather radar systems can provide useful input for flash-flood models. This paper presents a flash-flood warning model which utilizes radar rainfall data

Efrat Morin; Yael Jacoby; Shilo Navon; Erez Bet-Halachmi

2009-01-01

444

A vulnerability function for Mediterranean flash flood risk assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood risk is a major type of environmental hazard jeopardizing human development, and is usually defined as a functional relation between the hazard, such as the physical and statistical aspects of flooding (e.g. return period of a certain flow height, spatial extend of inundation), and the associated vulnerability, i.e. the exposure of people and assets to floods and the susceptibility of the elements at risk to suffer from flood damage. The assessment of vulnerability -from the quantitative point of view- expresses vulnerability as the expected degree of loss for a given element at risk as a consequence of a certain event. It is ranges on a scale from 0 (no damage) to 1 (complete destruction) and focuses on direct flood loss which is estimated by damage or loss functions. A methodology for the development of a vulnerability curve for Mediterranean flash flood risk assessment is presented. This curve is based on a relationship between the intensity of the process and the associated degree of loss of elements at risk. The computation procedure is based on a method combining spatially explicit loss data, data on the value of exposed elements at risk and data on flood intensities on an individual building scale (local scale). The developed methodology is applied for the district of East Attica in Greece, a Mediterranean region influenced by mountain and coastal characteristics of land development. The aim of the study is to provide a valuable tool for the local authorities and the decision makers, a necessary implementation of flood risk management emerging from the requirements laid down in the European Flood Directive, as well as for an assessment of potential costs emerging from future flood events in order to protect individual households.

Karagiorgos, Konstantinos; Hübl, Johannes; Thaler, Thomas; Fuchs, Sven

2014-05-01

445

78 FR 28888 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1315] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-05-16

446

77 FR 44650 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1259] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2012-07-30

447

7 CFR 1788.3 - Flood insurance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flood insurance. 1788.3 Section 1788...Borrower Insurance Requirements § 1788.3 Flood insurance. (a) Borrowers shall purchase and maintain flood insurance for buildings in flood...

2013-01-01

448

7 CFR 1788.3 - Flood insurance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flood insurance. 1788.3 Section 1788...Borrower Insurance Requirements § 1788.3 Flood insurance. (a) Borrowers shall purchase and maintain flood insurance for buildings in flood...

2011-01-01

449

Agricultural damages and losses from ARkStorm scenario flooding in California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Scientists designed the ARkStorm scenario to challenge the preparedness of California communities for widespread flooding with a historical precedence and increased likelihood under climate change. California is an important provider of vegetables, fruits, nuts, and other agricultural products to the nation. This study analyzes the agricultural damages and losses pertaining to annual crops, perennial crops, and livestock in California exposed to ARkStorm flooding. Statewide, flood damage is incurred on approximately 23% of annual crop acreage, 5% of perennial crop acreage, and 5% of livestock, e.g., dairy, feedlot, and poultry, acreage. The sum of field repair costs, forgone income, and product replacement costs span $3.7 and $7.1 billion (2009) for a range of inundation durations. Perennial crop loss estimates dominate, and the vulnerability of orchards and vineyards has likely increased with recent expansion. Crop reestablishment delays from levee repair and dewatering more than double annual crop losses in the delta islands, assuming the fragile system does not remain permanently flooded. The exposure of almost 200,000 dairy cows to ARkStorm flooding poses livestock evacuation challenges. Read More: http://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/%28ASCE%29NH.1527-6996.0000174

Wein, Anne; David Mitchell; Peters, Jeff; John Rowden; Johnny Tran; Alessandra Corsi; Dinitz, Laura B.

2015-01-01

450

Landscape Vulnerability Analysis from Historic Lower Mississippi River Flood in 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents the results of a landscape vulnerability analysis of the Birds Point New Madrid Floodway in southeastern Missouri. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers intentionally inundated 500 square kilometers of agricultural floodplain in May of 2011 as an emergency flood control measure. We use pre-flood (2005) and post-flood (2011) high resolution Lidar data to establish the landscape impact of the levee breach on the floodplain. The Lidar DEMs were corrected for flight line errors using a Fourier filtering technique, and then subtracted to obtain a differential DEM of erosion and deposition patterns. We use soil erosion characteristics, AVIRIS remote sensing data, and 2D floodplain modeling to analyze the three components of vulnerability: sensitivity, exposure, and adaptive capacity. HydroSed2D (Liu, Landry and García 2008), a 2D flow model, is implemented to simulate flow depths and speeds, or flood exposure, over the entire floodway, as well as smaller sections at increased resolution using a nested grid. We classify woody vegetation based on AVIRIS remote sensing data, and represent vegetated regions in the model as varied values of the Manning's n coefficient. Soil erodibility, vegetation, topography, and flow characteristics are compared to observed landscape changes within the floodplain. Overall, the floodway showed a remarkable resilience to an extreme flood event. When compared to levee breaches on similar rivers in other floods, the lack of newly deposited sediment is noticeable and likely attributable to the presence of a substantial riparian corridor between the main channel of the Mississippi River and the floodway. Although many meander scars indicating former channels of the Mississippi River are apparent in the topography, only one, known as O'Bryan Ridge, experienced high volumes of erosion and deposition due to the flooding. The vulnerability analysis supports the hypothesis this high impact is due to a combination of vulnerability factors such as high flow speed, few localized patches of vegetation, and high soil erodibility at this ridge compared to other similar meander scars. The methodology of this analysis can be used to locate regions of high vulnerability in future floodplain management and flood control, and mitigate potentially catastrophic landscape change.

Goodwell, A. E.; Zhu, Z.; Dutta, D.; Greenberg, J.; Kumar, P.; Garcia, M. H.; Rhoads, B. L.; Parker, G.; Berretta, D.; Holmes, R. R.

2012-12-01

451

Flood Hazards: Communicating Hydrology and Complexity to the Public  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floods have a major impact on society and the environment. Since 1952, approximately 1,233 of 1,931 (64%) Federal disaster declarations were due directly to flooding, with an additional 297 due to hurricanes which had associated flooding. Although the overall average annual number of deaths due to flooding has decreased in the United States, the average annual flood damage is rising. According to the Munich Reinsurance Company in their publication “Schadenspiegel 3/2005”, during 1990s the world experienced as much as $500 billion in economic losses due to floods, highlighting the serious need for continued emphasis on flood-loss prevention measures. Flood-loss prevention has two major elements: mitigation (including structural flood-control measures and land-use planning and regulation) and risk awareness. Of the two, increasing risk awareness likely offers the most potential for protecting lives over the near-term and long-term sustainability in the coming years. Flood-risk awareness and risk-aware behavior is dependent on communication, involving both prescriptive and educational measures. Prescriptive measures (for example, flood warnings and stormwater ordinances) are and have been effective, but there is room for improvement. New communications technologies, particularly social media utilizing mobile, smart phones and text devices, for example, could play a significant role in increasing public awareness of long-term risk and near-term flood conditions. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), for example, the Federal agency that monitors the Nation’s rivers, recently released a new service that can better connect the to the public to information about flood hazards. The new service, WaterAlert (URL: http://water.usgs.gov/wateralert/), allows users to set flood notification thresholds of their own choosing for any USGS real-time streamgage. The system then sends emails or text messages to subscribers whenever the threshold conditions are met, as often as the user specifies. In the future, with new GPS enabled cell-phones, notifications could be sent to users based on their proximity to flood hazards. Educational measures also should communicate the hydrologic underpinnings and uncertainties of the complex science of flood hydrology in an understandable manner to a non-technical public. Education can be especially beneficial and important for those in a policy-making role or those who find themselves in an area of potential flood hazards. Case studies, such as the fatal June 11, 2010 flash flood on the Little Missouri River in Arkansas, if presented in a way that the public will absorb, powerfully illustrate the importance of flood hazard awareness and the cost of living unaware. Additionally, such crucial points as the connection between the accuracy of flood-probability estimates and the density (and longevity) of the basic data sources (such as the USGS streamgage or the National Weather Service raingage networks) and the residual risks that both communities and individuals face have to continually be stressed to the general public and policy makers alike. In short, success in flood hazards communication (both prescriptive warnings and education) requires a fusion of the social sciences and hydrology.

Holmes, R. R.; Blanchard, S. F.; Mason, R. R.

2010-12-01

452

76 FR 78015 - Revised Analysis and Mapping Procedures for Non-Accredited Levees  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...is listening to this stakeholder feedback that this current...worked to revise the mapping procedures for non-accredited...understandable to stakeholders, and cost effective...detailed modeling and mapping of flood hazards...

2011-12-15