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1

HYDRAULICS AND EFFECTIVENESS OF LEVEES FOR FLOOD CONTROL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levees have been used as a means of structural flood protection for several thousand years. Their effect and effectiveness have been debated periodically, most recently during and after the 1993 Mississippi River flood. Based on hydraulic principles, it can be shown that for a given flood levees raise the water stage in the leveed channel and upstream of it. On

Ben Chie YEN

2

BUILDING STRONG Flood Protection Structure  

E-print Network

Community/sponsor has decision whether to participate in National Flood Insurance Program. Has a key roleBUILDING STRONG® Flood Protection Structure Accreditation Task Force March 2013 #12;BUILDING STRONG® FEMA's Role in Levees Present flood hazard and risk information Establish appropriate risk zone

US Army Corps of Engineers

3

CONSEQUENCES OF HUMAN-ALTERED FLOODS: LEVEES, FLOODS, AND FLOODPLAIN FORESTS ALONG THE WISCONSIN RIVER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flood-control levees are generally thought to increase flood height and ve- locity for a given discharge. While extensive areas of floodplain in the United States are leveed, the ecological impacts of levees have largely been ignored relative to other an- thropogenic impacts to large river floodplains. We examined a century of flood control along the Wisconsin River by comparing simulated

SARAH E. GERGEL; MARK D. DIXON; MONICA G. TURNER

2002-01-01

4

Hydraulic and flood-loss modeling of levee, floodplain, and river management strategies, Middle Mississippi River, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this investigation, four scenarios were used to quantify the balance between the benefits of levees for flood protection\\u000a and their potential to increase flood risk using Hazards U.S. Multi-Hazard flood-loss software and hydraulic modeling of the\\u000a Middle Mississippi River (MMR). The goals of this study were (1) to quantify the flood exposure under different flood-control\\u000a configurations and (2) to

Jonathan W. F. RemoMegan; Megan Carlson; Nicholas Pinter

5

Mitigation Experiment of Levee Breach by Concrete Block Foot Protection in Chiyoda Experimental Flume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent years have seen a considerably increased incidence of typhoons, torrential rainstorms and other extreme meteorological phenomena due to climate change, thereby raising the risk of large-scale disasters caused by riverine floods. The flood damage is particularly severe when levee breaches occur, so estimating the flood magnitude and providing hazard maps are crucial for risk management. In previous studies, the mechanisum of levee breach was examined and measures to reinforce levee and restrict the overflow rates of protection forest were investigated. However, no appropriate techniques for the implementation of such measures hasn't been established yet. The purpose of this study is to evaluate countermeasures of mitigating levee breach progress and reducing overflow rate. The concept of the countermeasure is to utilize 2 ton of concrete blocks installed on the levee ahead of breaching and expect these blocks to be collapsed and protect the edge of the breached levee. Upon considering this concept, we referred to the findings of previous side-overflow breach experiments performed in the Chiyoda experiment flume, where the levee breach process with state-of-the-art observation devices under highly precise hydraulic conditions. Therefore we performed levee breach experiments in the Chiyoda Experimental Flume. (Large scale experimental flume; width is 30m, length is 1,300m, bed slope is approximately 1/500.) The experimental results highlighted the behavior of the collapsed blocks, effectiveness for mitigating the breach progress, and hydraulic characteristics around blocks. Considerations such as the number of blocks to be used were also clarified.

Tobita, D.; Kakinuma, T.; Yokoyama, H.; Takeda, A.

2013-12-01

6

Wood River Levee Reconstruction, Madison County, IL  

E-print Network

Wood River Levee Reconstruction, Madison County, IL 25 October 2006 Abstract: The recommended plan provides for flood damage reduction and restores the original degree of protection of the Wood River Levee-federal sponsor is the Wood River Drainage and Levee District. The Wood River Levee System was authorized

US Army Corps of Engineers

7

Counter measures applied on levee system: Effects on flood map and probability of failure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historical records have shown that people living in the flood plain areas surrounded by levees are increased over the time around the world.. However, the effectiveness of different counter measures on increasing levee efficiency, and their environmental and economical consequences on the urbanized flood prone area, are not yet well exploited. The present research proposes a methodology to investigate the effects of two different counter measures on the estimation of the probability of levee failure due to overtopping and the consequent flood extent. The case study was performed in 98km-braided reach of Po River, Italy, between the cross-sections of Cremona and Borgoforte. The adopted methodology was divided into four core categories. Firstly, reliability analysis, expressed in terms of fragility curve, of the levee system in case of overtopping was performed using the geotechnical and geometrical data of the levee considering the grass cover quality as a stochastic variable to account the uncertainties associated to it. In order to estimate the fragility curves for all sections, a Monte Carlo framework was introduced. Secondly, 1D hydrodynamic model was implemented to estimate the water level in the river in case of a synthetic flood event of 200year return period. The information of the water level was used as hydraulic load into the previous fragility curves. Then, a levee breach modeli was introduced to address the uncertainties related to the location, size and development of the breaches. Finally, a 2D hydrodynamic model CA2D_S,based on the cellular automata approach in semi-inertial formulation for flux computation, was implementd. CA2D - SCENARI (CA2D_S) is a version of the CA2D model specifically designed to simulate levee breach scenarios in low land areas. The previous methodological steps were repeated for each countermeasure scenario and the results from CA2D, expressed in terms of flood extent, were compared and analyzed. The analysis showed that different counter measures can reduce the probability of failure of the levee system and prevent flooding locally.

Tekle, Shewandagn; Mazzoleni, Maurizio; Dottori, Francesco; Brandimarte, Luigia

2014-05-01

8

Monitoring of levees, bridges, pipelines, and other critical infrastructure during the 2011 flooding in the Mississippi River Basin: Chapter J in 2011 floods of the central United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the 2011 Mississippi River Basin flood, the U.S. Geological Survey evaluated aspects of critical river infrastructure at the request of and in support of local, State, and Federal Agencies. Geotechnical and hydrographic data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey at numerous locations were able to provide needed information about 2011 flood effects to those managing the critical infrastructure. These data were collected and processed in a short time frame to provide managers the ability to make a timely evaluation of the safety of the infrastructure and, when needed, to take action to secure and protect critical infrastructure. Critical infrastructure surveyed by the U.S. Geological Survey included levees, bridges, pipeline crossings, power plant intakes and outlets, and an electrical transmission tower. Capacitively coupled resistivity data collected along the flood-protection levees surrounding the Omaha Public Power District Nebraska City power plant (Missouri River Levee Unit R573), mapped the near-subsurface electrical properties of the levee and the materials immediately below it. The near-subsurface maps provided a better understanding of the levee construction and the nature of the lithology beneath the levee. Comparison of the capacitively coupled resistivity surveys and soil borings indicated that low-resistivity value material composing the levee generally is associated with lean clay and silt to about 2 to 4 meters below the surface, overlying a more resistive layer associated with sand deposits. In general, the resistivity structure becomes more resistive to the south and the southern survey sections correlate well with the borehole data that indicate thinner clay and silt at the surface and thicker sand sequences at depth in these sections. With the resistivity data Omaha Public Power District could focus monitoring efforts on areas with higher resistivity values (coarser-grained deposits or more loosely compacted section), which typically are more prone to erosion or scour. Data collected from multibeam echosounder hydrographic surveys at selected bridges aided State agencies in evaluating the structural integrity of the bridges during the flood, by assessing the amount of scour present around piers and abutments. Hydrographic surveys of the riverbed detected scour depths ranging from zero (no scour) to approximately 5.8 meters in some areas adjacent to North Dakota bridge piers, zero to approximately 6 meters near bridge piers in Nebraska, and zero to approximately 10.4 meters near bridge piers in Missouri. Substructural support elements of some bridge piers in North Dakota, Nebraska, and Missouri that usually are buried were exposed to moving water and sediment. At five Missouri bridge piers the depth of scour left less than 1.8 meters of bed material between the bottom of the scour hole and bedrock. State agencies used this information along with bridge design and construction information to determine if reported scour depths would have a substantial effect on the stability of the structure. Multibeam echosounder hydrographic surveys of the riverbed near pipeline crossings did not detect exposed pipelines. However, analysis of the USGS survey data by pipeline companies aided in their evaluation of pipeline safety and led one company to further investigate the safety of their line and assisted another company in getting one offline pipeline back into operation. Multibeam echosounder hydrographic surveys of the banks, riverbed, and underwater infrastructure at Omaha Public Power District power plants documented the bed and scour conditions. These datasets were used by Omaha Public Power District to evaluate the effects that the flood had on operation, specifically to evaluate if scour during the peak of the flood or sediment deposition during the flood recession would affect the water intake structures. Hydrographic surveys at an Omaha Public Power District electrical transmission tower documented scour so that they could evaluate the structural integrity of the tower as well as have the informati

Densmore, Brenda K; Burton, Bethany L.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Cannia, James C.; Huizinga, Richard J.

2014-01-01

9

44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...debris; slope protection techniques; duration of flooding at various stages and velocities; embankment and...be addressed in the analyses include: Depth of flooding, duration of flooding, embankment geometry and length of seepage...

2010-10-01

10

44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...debris; slope protection techniques; duration of flooding at various stages and velocities; embankment and...be addressed in the analyses include: Depth of flooding, duration of flooding, embankment geometry and length of seepage...

2012-10-01

11

44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...debris; slope protection techniques; duration of flooding at various stages and velocities; embankment and...be addressed in the analyses include: Depth of flooding, duration of flooding, embankment geometry and length of seepage...

2013-10-01

12

Flood Protection Structure Accreditation Task Force: Interim Report  

E-print Network

inspections and assessments and the National Flood Insurance Program levee accreditation requirements Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) so that: n Information and data collected for either purpose can be used (ICW) program or National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) levee accreditation process can be used

US Army Corps of Engineers

13

Variations in natural levee morphology in anastomosed channel flood plain complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural levees are common features of alluvial river systems, yet their origin and evolution are poorly understood. In this paper, we present morphologic and sedimentologic data from two anastomosed rivers and offer a hypothesis of natural levee growth in these systems based on mechanisms of sediment transport.In settings where floodbasins fill at the same rate as the channel, levees form

Peter N Adams; Rudy L Slingerland; Norman D Smith

2004-01-01

14

18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...nature for the protection of flood plains subject to frequent flooding. (3) Assist in the study and classification of flood prone lands to ascertain the relative risk of flooding, and establish standards for flood plain management....

2013-04-01

15

18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...nature for the protection of flood plains subject to frequent flooding. (3) Assist in the study and classification of flood prone lands to ascertain the relative risk of flooding, and establish standards for flood plain management....

2011-04-01

16

18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...nature for the protection of flood plains subject to frequent flooding. (3) Assist in the study and classification of flood prone lands to ascertain the relative risk of flooding, and establish standards for flood plain management....

2012-04-01

17

18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.  

...nature for the protection of flood plains subject to frequent flooding. (3) Assist in the study and classification of flood prone lands to ascertain the relative risk of flooding, and establish standards for flood plain management....

2014-04-01

18

Morphological Analyses and Simulated Flood Elevations in a Watershed with Dredged and Leveed Stream Channels, Wheeling Creek, Eastern Ohio  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The USGS, in cooperation with the Ohio Emergency Management Agency, conducted a study in the Wheeling Creek Basin to (1) evaluate and contrast land-cover characteristics from 2001 with characteristics from 1979 and 1992; (2) compare current streambed elevation, slope, and geometry with conditions present in the late 1980s; (3) look for evidence of channel filling and over widening in selected undredged reaches; (4) estimate flood elevations for existing conditions in both undredged and previously dredged reaches; (5) evaluate the height of the levees required to contain floods with selected recurrence intervals in previously dredged reaches; and (6) estimate flood elevations for several hypothetical dredging and streambed aggradation scenarios in undredged reaches. The amount of barren land in the Wheeling Creek watershed has decreased from 20 to 1 percent of the basin area based on land-cover characteristics from 1979 and 2001. Barren lands appear to have been converted primarily to pasture, presumably as a result of surface-mine reclamation. Croplands also decreased from 13 to 8 percent of the basin area. The combined decrease in barren lands and croplands is approximately offset by the increase in pasture. Stream-channel surveys conducted in 1987 and again in 2006 at 21 sites in four previously dredged reaches of Wheeling Creek indicate little change in the elevation, slope, and geometry of the channel at most sites. The mean change in width-averaged bed and thalweg elevations for the 21 cross sections was 0.1 feet. Bankfull widths, mean depths, and cross-sectional areas measured at 12 sites in undredged reaches were compared to estimates determined from regional equations. The mean percentage difference between measured and estimated bankfull widths was -0.2 percent, suggesting that bankfull widths in the Wheeling Creek Basin are generally about the same as regional averages for undisturbed basins of identical drainage area. For bankfull mean depth and cross-sectional area, the mean percentage differences between the measured and estimated values were -16.0 and -11.2, respectively. The predominantly negative bias in differences between the measured and estimated values indicates that bankfull mean depths and cross-sectional areas in studied reaches generally are smaller than the regional trend. This may be an indication of channel filling and over widening or it may reflect insufficient representation in the regional dataset of basins with characteristics like that of Wheeling Creek. Step-backwater models were constructed for four previously dredged reaches to determine the height of levees required to contain floods with recurrence intervals of 2, 10, 50, and 100 years. Existing levees (all of which are uncertified) were found to contain the 100-year flood at only 20 percent of the surveyed cross sections. At the other 80 percent of the surveyed cross sections, levee heights would have to be raised an average of 2.5 feet and as much as 6.3 feet to contain the 100-year flood. Step-backwater models also were constructed for three undredged reaches to assess the impacts of selected dredging and streambed aggradation scenarios on water-surface elevations corresponding to the 2-, 10-, 50-, and 100-year floods. Those models demonstrated that changes in water-surface elevations associated with a given depth of dredging were proportionately smaller for larger floods due to the fact that more of the flood waters are outside of the main channel. For example, 2.0 feet of dredging in the three study reaches would lower the water-surface elevation an average of 1.30 feet for the 2-year flood and 0.64 feet for the 100-year flood.

Sherwood, James M.; Huitger, Carrie A.; Ebner, Andrew D.; Koltun, G. F.

2008-01-01

19

Mississippi River, Coon Rapids Dam to Ohio River: feasibility report No. 1 for flood damage reduction, Muscatine Island Levee District, City of Muscatine, Iowa and Muscatine-Louisa County drainage district No. 13, Iowa  

SciTech Connect

Flood protection measures are proposed for the Muscatine Island Levee District and the Muscatine-Louisa County Drainage District No. 13 in southeastern Iowa. The project site is located between Mississippi River mile 455 and mile 442. The preferred plan would involve raising approximately 15.6 miles of the existing levee an average of two feet with hydraulic fill from the Mississippi River. The levee would be expanded on the landward side for most of its length. A 7500-foot segment in the northern section of the project area would be expanded riverward to avoid encroachment on existing industrial, commercial, and residential development. Concrete floodwalls would be used in four areas in the city of Muscatine, where space requirements did not allow for levee expansion. Associated features of the project would include raising and resurfacing existing road ramps, construction of a railroad closure at station 9 + 00 in Muscatine, modification of the discharge pipes at the Michael Creek pumping station, and mitigation of recreational fishing opportunities affected by the riverward levee expansion. The levee would be seeded with grasses and receive additional riprap where riprap currently exists. First costs of the project are estimated at $6.0 million.

Not Available

1985-08-01

20

24 CFR 574.640 - Flood insurance protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Flood insurance protection. 574.640 Section...Requirements 574.640 Flood insurance protection. No property...participating in the National Flood Insurance Program and the regulations...

2011-04-01

21

24 CFR 574.640 - Flood insurance protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Flood insurance protection. 574.640 Section...Requirements 574.640 Flood insurance protection. No property...participating in the National Flood Insurance Program and the regulations...

2012-04-01

22

24 CFR 574.640 - Flood insurance protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flood insurance protection. 574.640 Section...Requirements 574.640 Flood insurance protection. No property...participating in the National Flood Insurance Program and the regulations...

2010-04-01

23

24 CFR 574.640 - Flood insurance protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Flood insurance protection. 574.640 Section...Requirements 574.640 Flood insurance protection. No property...participating in the National Flood Insurance Program and the regulations...

2013-04-01

24

Geophysical applications for levee assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Levees are important engineering structures that build along the rivers to protect the human lives and shield the communities as well as agriculture lands from the high water level events. Animal burrows, subsurface cavities, and low density (high permeability) zones are weakness features within the levee body that increase its risk of failure. To prevent such failure, continuous monitoring of the structure integrity and early detection of the weakness features must be conducted. Application of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Capacitively Coupled Resistivity (CCR) methods were found to be very effective in assessing the levees and detect zones of weakness within the levee body. GPR was implemented using multi-frequency antennas (200, 400, and 900 MHz) with survey cart/wheel and survey vehicle. The (CCR) method was applied by using a single transmitter and three receivers. Studying the capability and the effectiveness of these methods in levee monitoring, subsurface weakness feature detection, and studying the structure integrity of levees were the main tasks of this dissertation. A set of laboratory experiments was conducted at the Geophysics Laboratory of the University of Arkansas at Little Rock (UALR) to analyze the polarity change in GPR signals in the presence of subsurface voids and water-filled cavities. Also three full scale field expeditions at the Big Dam Bridge (BDB) Levee, Lollie Levee, and Helena Levee in Arkansas were conducted using the GPR technique. This technique was effective in detecting empty, water, and clay filled cavities as well as small scale animal burrows (small rodents). The geophysical work at BDB and Lollie Levees expressed intensive subsurface anomalies which might decrease their integrity while the Helena Levee shows less subsurface anomalies. The compaction of levee material is a key factor affecting piping phenomenon. The structural integrity of the levee partially depends on the density/compaction of the soil layers. A reduction in density or compaction of part of the levee body may create a zone of weakness during a flood. The Energy Variation Method (EVM) was used to detect the changes in electromagnetic (EM) energy reflected from the layers as a measure of the variation in density. Synthetic modeling was conducted to simulate a cross-section of a levee body to study the ground penetrating radar (GPR) signal behavior as it propagates in the model. EVM was calculated from the reflected signal to predict the changes in density (compaction). Comprehensive fieldwork was conducted to collect a 2,500 meter profile along part of the Helena Levee, Helena-West Helena, AR, for possible density variations in the soil using EVM of GPR signals. EVM is clearly capable of detecting changes in the dielectric constant. The association of these changes to the variation in density/compaction allows the EVM method to directly delineate these variations. Using such a robust method will definitely improve the assessment process as applied to levee structure. CCR data was collected to study the electrical resistivity distribution within the levee and its usefulness in levee's assessment. CCR was less effective to detect the animal burrows and other small anomalies due to nature of the method in its limitation of detecting very small features.

Chlaib, Hussein Khalefa

25

18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Flood plain management and protection...Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER...8 Flood plain management and protection...essential part of water resources management, the Commission...

2010-04-01

26

Development of Floating Wave Barriers for Cost Effective Protection of Irrigation and Catfish Pond Levees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth levees for catfish ponds and irrigation water storage experience significant embankment erosion due to wind generated waves. Large seasonal fluctuations in water level make vegetative bank protection impractical, and other stabilization methods such as the use of old tires or riprap are not acceptable due to ecological and economic concerns. The goal of the present work is to define configurations and construction techniques for inexpensive floating breakwaters made of polyethylene irrigation tubing. Based on wave characteristics measured in an irrigation pond near Lonoke, Arkansas, a laboratory scale wave generating flume was designed, constructed, and used to test multiple wave barrier configurations for regular waves in deep and transitional water depths. Wave transmission characteristics were investigated for the following breakwater arrangements: (1) fully restrained, (2) vertically restrained with a single mooring line, (3) horizontally restrained with a rigid arm hinged at one end, and (4) horizontally restrained with piles at both sides of the breakwater. The test results show that cylindrical pipes can be used effectively as floating breakwaters and that wave transmission characteristics strongly depend on the draft of the breakwater and the mooring configuration. The use of multiple small cylinders instead of a single large one can reduce cost while maintaining the same level of wave attenuation. The wave characteristics measured in the field and the results of laboratory testing resulted in a final design that is to be tested at the prototype scale in an irrigation pond.

Ozeren, Y.; Wren, D. G.; Alonso, C. V.

2007-12-01

27

Flood protection and management: quo vadimus?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decade, there have been many destructive floods in various parts of the world. Despite the extensive investment in flood control works, neither flood occurrences nor damages are decreasing. A possible consequence of climate change is an increased frequency of extreme meteorological events that may cause floods. Discussion is offered of some recent large floods in the world

ZBIGNIEW W. KUNDZEWICZ; KUNIYOSHI TAKEUCHI

1999-01-01

28

44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01...levee systems. 65.10 Section 65.10 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

2011-10-01

29

Protection of Coastal Infrastructure under Rising Flood Risk  

E-print Network

Protection of Coastal Infrastructure under Rising Flood Risk Megan J. Lickley, Ning Lin and Henry D://globalchange.mit.edu/ Printed on recycled paper #12;Protection of Coastal Infrastructure under Rising Flood Risk Megan J foreshadow a risk that is to continue and likely in- crease with a changing climate. Extensive energy

30

FLOOD PROTECTION STRUCTURE ACCREDITATION TASK FORCE More than 21,000 communities across the U.S. and its territories voluntarily participate in the NFIP by  

E-print Network

regulations). Once compliance is demonstrated, the levee system can be accredited on NFIP Flood Insurance Rate. In most cases, mandatory flood insurance purchase requirements of the NFIP do not apply in areas behind accredited levees (although flood insurance is recommended). Many communities pursue accreditation of a levee

US Army Corps of Engineers

31

Case Study: Risk-Based Analysis of Flood Reduction Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers designs levee projects to provide economical protection to flood prone areas. Levee height\\u000a is determined by analysing flood damage potential, damage prevention, performance, and cost. The plan selected is that which\\u000a maximizes net economic benefits. Traditionally, an added and often arbitrary increment of levee height freeboard is included\\u000a to allow for the uncertainty involved

Harry W. Dotson; Darryl W. Davis

32

Protecting Coastal Areas from Flooding by Injecting Solids into the Subsurface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subsidence and sea level rise conspire to increase the risk of flooding in coastal cities throughout the world, and these processes were key contributors to the devastation of New Orleans by hurricane Katrina. Constructing levees and placing fill to raise ground elevations are currently the main options for reducing flooding risks in coastal areas, and both of these options have

L. N. Germanovich; L. Murdoch

2008-01-01

33

Geotechnical reconnaissance of the Mississippi River Delta flood-protection system after Hurricane Katrina: Chapter 3C in Science and the storms-the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This article presents the post-Hurricane Katrina conditions of the flood-protection system of levees and floodwalls that failed in the environs of the Mississippi River Delta and New Orleans, La. Damage conditions and suggested mechanisms of failure are presented from the geotechnical point of view.

Luna, Ronaldo; Summers, David; Hoffman, David; Rogers, J. David; Sevi, Adam; Witt, Emitt C.

2007-01-01

34

Blackland's flood warning system protects soldiers  

E-print Network

or FAST uses stream level sensors attached to cell phones to notify Fort Hood Range Control of flooding at six low water crossings. The sensors are part of Blackland Research and Extension Center?s Fort Hood Water Quality Monitoring project, designed... monitor stream depth, are programmed to issue alerts when the streams reach certain depths. These alerts are transmitted by cell phones to a Blackberry located in Fort Hood?s Range Control office. The Blackberry delivers a text message, describing...

Wythe, Kathy

2008-01-01

35

33 CFR 385.37 - Flood protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Ensuring Protection of the Natural System and Water Availability Consistent With the Goals and Purpose of the Plan ...and protection of the natural system, is a purpose of the Plan...restoration of the natural system, and the provisions of...

2010-07-01

36

33 CFR 385.37 - Flood protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROGRAMMATIC REGULATIONS... Ensuring Protection of the Natural System and Water Availability...preservation, and protection of the natural system, is a purpose of the...consistent with restoration of the natural system, and the...

2011-07-01

37

33 CFR 385.37 - Flood protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROGRAMMATIC REGULATIONS... Ensuring Protection of the Natural System and Water Availability...preservation, and protection of the natural system, is a purpose of the...consistent with restoration of the natural system, and the...

2012-07-01

38

33 CFR 385.37 - Flood protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROGRAMMATIC REGULATIONS... Ensuring Protection of the Natural System and Water Availability...preservation, and protection of the natural system, is a purpose of the...consistent with restoration of the natural system, and the...

2013-07-01

39

Directionally drilled crossing constructed under river levee  

SciTech Connect

Shell Pipe Line Corp. recently commenced construction of its 20-inch Delta Loop Pipeline Project in south Louisiana. This line will transport crude oil from Main Pass No. 69 to the existing Shell pump station at Nairn in Plaquemines Parish. NBH, Inc. of New Orleans is prime contractor for this project which involves offshore pipe lay, shallow water marsh lay and a 4,100-foot horizontal directional crossing of the Mississippi River at Nairn which was undertaken by Land and Marine, Inc. of Houston. For past directionally drilled crossings, the New Orleans district of the US Army Corps of Engineers has only allowed drilling operations inside its Mississippi River flood protection levees. No drilling has been undertaken beneath the levees out of concern that the drilling operations could in some way damage their structural integrity. Unfortunately, at this particular location, the drill profile could not be designed placing drilling equipment inside the levee and achieve sufficient burial depth for the installed pipeline. If not allowed to bore beneath the levee, significant additional costs would have been incurred in routing the pipeline to a more suitable location. This paper reviews the design of this drilling operation showing the locations and construction of relief wells and piezometers used to monitor the directional drilling.

Skonberg, E.R. [Land and Marine, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Berry, C.W. [Shell Oil Products Co., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-06-01

40

Screening of Earthen Levees Using Synthetic Aperture Radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthen levees protect large areas of populated and cultivated land in the US from flooding. As shown recently with hurricanes Katrina and Ike and the recent floods in the Midwest, the potential loss of life and property associated with the catastrophic failure of levees can be extremely large. Over the entire US, there are over 100,000 miles of levee structures of varying designs and conditions. Currently, there are limited processes in place to prioritize the monitoring of large numbers of dam and levee structures. Levee managers and federal agencies need to assess levee health rapidly with robust techniques that identify, classify and prioritize levee vulnerabilities with lower costs than traditional soil-boring programs, which can cost many of millions of dollars and provide information about the subsurface only in the immediate vicinity of a small-diameter borehole. This paper reports preliminary results of a project studying the use of airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) as an aid to the levee screening process. The SAR sensor being studied is the NASA UAVSAR (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle SAR), a fully polarimetric L-band SAR which is specifically designed to acquire airborne repeat track SAR data for differential interferometric measurements. The instrument is capable of sub-meter ground sample distance. NASA has imaged with this instrument 230 km of levees along the lower Mississippi River for use in this study. SAR interferometric mode is capable of identifying vertical displacements on the order of a few millimeters. Its multipolarization measurements can penetrate soil to as much as one meter depth. Thus it is valuable in detecting changes in levees that will be key inputs to a levee vulnerability classification system. Once vulnerable levee reaches have been identified, further actions such as more detailed examination or repairs can be focused on these higher-priority sections. We report on the use of various feature detection algorithms being applied to the polarimetry data, including entropy-anisotropy decomposition and methods based on the Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM). The features detected are compared with various ground truth data including soil type maps, soil conductivity measurements, and on site visual inspections.

Aanstoos, J. V.; O'Hara, C.; Prasad, S.; Dabbiru, L.; Nobrega, R.; Lee, M.

2009-12-01

41

Protecting Coastal Areas from Flooding by Injecting Solids into the Subsurface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subsidence and sea level rise conspire to increase the risk of flooding in coastal cities throughout the world, and these processes were key contributors to the devastation of New Orleans by hurricane Katrina. Constructing levees and placing fill to raise ground elevations are currently the main options for reducing flooding risks in coastal areas, and both of these options have drawbacks. We suggest that hydromechanical injection of solid compounds suspended in liquid can be used to lift the ground surface and thereby expand the options for protecting such coastal cities as New Orleans, Venice, and Shanghai from flooding. These techniques are broadly related to hydraulic fracturing and compensation grouting, where solid compounds are injected as slurries and cause upward displacements at the ground surface. The equipment and logistics required for hydromechanical solid injection and ground lifting are readily available from current geotechnical and petroleum operations. Hydraulic fractures are routinely created in the upper tens of meters of sediments, where they are filled with a wide range of different proppants for environmental applications. At shallow depths, many of these fractures are sub-parallel to the ground surface and lift their overburden by a few mm to cm, although lifting is not the objective of these fractures. Much larger, vertical displacements, of the order of several meters, could be created in low-cohesion sediments over areas as large as square kilometers. This would be achieved as a result of multiple injections. Injecting solid particulates provides the benefits of a permanent displacement supported by the solids. We have demonstrated that hydraulic fractures will lift the ground surface at shallow depths in Texas near the Sabine River, where the geological setting is generally similar to that of New Orleans (and where, incidentally, hurricane Rita landed in 2005). In these regions, the soft surficial sediments are underlain by relatively stiff Pleistocene deposits, which create in-situ stress conditions favorable for sub-horizontal orientation of hydraulic fractures. Based on the poroelastic effect, these conditions can further be improved by subsurface manipulations of pore fluid. Also, there are many geological examples of natural, sub- horizontal hydraulic fractures. These include multiple igneous sills (e.g., Henry Mountains, Utah) and sand- filled sills intruded into sedimentary formations (e.g., Shetland-Faroe Islands). Techniques that are currently used, or planned, for protecting coastal cities from flood are typically based on the concept of a barrier to the seawater (e.g., levees or water gates). However, the failure of any barrier to flood waters can be catastrophic when the city it protects is below sea level. Hydromechanical injection of solid compounds could permanently lift elevations above a Category 5 hurricane surge, so the risk of a catastrophic failure and subsequent flooding becomes insignificant. We envision that the hydromechanical method can be used in combination with other strategies. For example, in some areas it may be efficient to let most of a city retreat and only lift localized regions of particularly high value, such as airports, port facilities, refineries, historical areas, military bases, etc. In other cases, the protecting equipment itself may begin subsiding (e.g., massive, metal water gates on a soft-sediment foundation). Then, hydromechanical injections could be used to lift the region supporting this equipment.

Germanovich, L. N.; Murdoch, L.

2008-12-01

42

Chapter 15 Flood Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Floods can be very damaging and costly. In order to lessen the effects, numerous practices aim to reduce flood damages. The construction of levees, dams, and reservoirs are common methods of flood damage reduction in California. Levees confine the water flows within a channel. The integrity of a levee and its maximum design flow capacity, dictate the extent of a

Lake Shasta; Sly Creek Reservoirs; Lake Oroville; French Meadows; Hell Hole Reservoirs; Folsom Lake; Lake McClure; Feather Sacramento; Export; Anderson Reservoir; Lake Perris; Castaic Lake; Diamond Valley Lake; California Aqueduct

43

Structural master plan of flood mitigation measures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood protection is one of the practical methods in damage reduction. Although it not possible to be completely protected from flood disaster but major part of damages can be reduced by mitigation plans. In this paper, the optimum flood mitigation master plan is determined by economic evaluation in trading off between the construction costs and expected value of damage reduction as the benefits. Size of the certain mitigation alternative is also be obtained by risk analysis by accepting possibility of flood overtopping. Different flood mitigation alternatives are investigated from various aspects in the Dez and Karun river floodplain areas as a case study in south west of IRAN. The results show that detention dam and flood diversion are the best alternatives of flood mitigation methods as well as enforcing the flood control purpose of upstream multipurpose reservoirs. Dyke and levees are not mostly justifiable because of negative impact on down stream by enhancing routed flood peak discharge magnitude and flood damages as well.

Heidari, A.

2009-01-01

44

Effects of rock riprap design parameters on flood protection costs for uranium tailings impoundments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is studying the problem of long-term protection of earthen covers on decommissioned uranium tailings impoundments. The major erosive forces acting on these covers will be river flooding and overland flow from rainfall-runoff. For impoundments adjacent to rivers, overbank flooding presents the greater potential for significant erosion. To protect the earthen covers against flood erosion, rock

1984-01-01

45

Capacitively coupled resistivity survey of the levee surrounding the Omaha Public Power District Nebraska City Power Plant, June 2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report is a release of digital data from a capacitively coupled resistivity survey conducted on June 13, 2011, on the flood-protection levees surrounding the Omaha Public Power District Nebraska City power plant. The U.S. Geological Survey Crustal Geophysics and Geochemistry Science Center and the Nebraska Water Science Center performed the survey in response to a flood on the Missouri River. A single line of resistivity profiling was completed along the center line of the section of levee 573 that surrounds the power plant.

Burton, Bethany L.; Cannia, James C.

2011-01-01

46

ENGINEERING PERSPECTIVES FOR A NATIONAL LEVEE SAFETY PROGRAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The catastrophic destruction and loss of life induced by the 2005 flooding of New Orleans by Hurricane Katrina was a wakeup call to the nation. This terrible tragedy demonstrated yet again the fragility of levees and the significant flood risks that many of our communities now share. On January 15, 2009, the National Committee on Levee Safety submitted a draft

Warren D. Williams

47

Mapping Flood Protection Benefits from Restored Wetlands at the Urban-Suburban Interface  

EPA Science Inventory

Urbanization exacerbates flooding by increasing runoff and decreasing surface water storage. Restoring wetlands can enhance flood protection while providing a suite of co-benefits such as temperature regulation and access to open space. Spatial modeling of the delivery of flood p...

48

Raising the bar for levees.  

PubMed

Engineers have worked for millennia to control natural flooding through dams and levees. While the fundamental principles and challenges of holding back water have not changed, the tools brought to the task continue to evolve. Among other tools being tested and implemented today are elaborate sensors to detect stresses and strains within structures, and impermeable lining materials known as geomembranes, which are laid underneath the structure before it is built to prevent water seepage. PMID:16393647

Lougheed, Tim

2006-01-01

49

Using ground penetrating radar in levee assessment to detect small scale animal burrows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Levees are civil engineering structures built to protect human lives, property, and agricultural lands during flood events. To keep these important structures in a safe condition, continuous monitoring must be performed regularly and thoroughly. Small rodent burrows are one of the major defects within levees; however, their early detection and repair helps in protecting levees during flooding events. A set of laboratory experiments was conducted to analyze the polarity change in GPR signals in the presence of subsurface voids and water-filled cavities. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) surveys using multi frequency antennas (400 MHz and 900 MHz) were conducted along an 875 meter section of the Lollie Levee near Conway, Arkansas, USA, to assess the levee's structural integrity. Many subsurface animal burrows, water-filled cavities, clay clasts, and metallic objects were investigated and identified. These anomalies were located at different depths and have different sizes. To ground truth the observations, hand dug trenches were excavated to confirm several anomalies. Results show an excellent match between GPR interpreted anomalies and the observed features. In-situ dielectric constant measurements were used to calculate the feature depths. The results of this research show that the 900 MHz antenna has more advantages over the 400 MHz antenna.

Chlaib, Hussein K.; Mahdi, Hanan; Al-Shukri, Haydar; Su, Mehmet M.; Catakli, Aycan; Abd, Najah

2014-04-01

50

West Fork Des Moines River, Jackson, Minnesota, Local Protection Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes flood control protection consisting of construction of new earthen levees, concrete floodwalls, closure structures, ponding area, and modification of sanitary and storm sewer system for the city of Jackson, Jackson County, Minnesota. ...

1972-01-01

51

Characterizing Levees using Polarimetric and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring the physical condition of levees is vital in order to protect them from flooding. The dynamics of subsurface water events can cause damage on levee structures which could lead to slough slides, sand boils or through seepage. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technology, due to its high spatial resolution and soil penetration capability, is a good choice to identify such problem areas so that they can be treated to avoid possible catastrophic failure. The radar polarimetric and interferometric data is capable of identifying variations in soil properties of the areas which might cause levee failure. The study area encompasses portion of levees of the lower Mississippi river in the United States. The methodology of this research is mainly categorized into two streams: 1) polarimetric data analysis and classification, and 2) interferometric analysis. Two sources of SAR imagery are used: a) quad-polarized, L-band data from Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) for polarimetric classification, and b) high resolution dual-polarized Terrasar-X data for interferometric analysis. NASA's UAVSAR imagery acquired between 2009 and 2011 are used for the analysis. The polarimetric classification is performed based on the decomposition parameters: entropy (H), anisotropy (A) and alpha (?) and the results detected slough slides on the levees and potential future slides. In the interferometric approach, the Terrasar-X SAR images acquired at different times in the year 2011 are combined into pairs to exploit the phase difference of the signals. The interferometric information is used to find evidence of potential small-scale deformations which could be pre-cursors to levee failure.

Dabbiru, L.; Aanstoos, J. V.; Mahrooghy, M.; Gokaraju, B.; Nobrega, R. A.; Younan, N. H.

2011-12-01

52

Integration of ecological aspects in flood protection strategies: defining an ecological minimum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policy makers are confronted with the question of how to combine sustainable flood protection and floodplain rehabilitation in the best possible way. Both topics deal with spatial planning aspects in a range of scales. This question was the starting point for the development of an evaluation method within the IRMA\\/SPONGE project INTERMEUSE, illustrated on the basis of assumed flood protection

Nol Geilen; Hans Jochems; Laurence Krebs; Serge Muller; G. B. M. Pedroli; Theo Van der Sluis; Kris Van Looy; Rooij van S. A. M

2004-01-01

53

Floods  

MedlinePLUS

... rainfall , topography, flood-control measures, river-flow and tidal-surge data, and changes due to new construction ... may be electrically charged from underground or downed power lines. Flooding may have caused familiar places to ...

54

Investigating homeowners' interest in property-level flood protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose The inevitability of climate change and its consequences brings on the need to find new ways of adapting to extreme events, such as floods. One immediate measure would be to make physical improvements to houses to either prevent their inundation or minimise the damage when flood waters enter premises. Currently, the level of implementation of these measures is

Aleksandra Kazmierczak; Erik Bichard

2010-01-01

55

Protection of Coastal Infrastructure under Rising Flood Risk  

E-print Network

The 2005 hurricane season was particularly damaging to the United States, contributing to significant losses to energy infrastructuremuch of it the result of flooding from storm surge during hurricanes Katrina and Rita. ...

Lickley, M.J.

56

24 CFR 574.640 - Flood insurance protection.  

... No property to be assisted under this part may be located in an area that has been identified by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) as having special flood hazards, unless: (a)(1) The community in which the area is...

2014-04-01

57

Flooding and Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, flooding is the nation's most common natural disaster. Some floods develop slowly during an extended period of rain or in a warming trend following a heavy snow. Flash floods can occur quickly, without any visible sign of rain. Catastrophic floods are associated with burst dams and levees,

National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2011

2011-01-01

58

Design of flood protection for transportation alignments on alluvial fans  

SciTech Connect

The method of floodplain delineation on alluvial fans developed for the national flood insurance program is modified to provide estimates of peak flood flows at transportation alignments crossing an alluvial fan. The modified methodology divides the total alignment length into drainage design segments and estimates the peak flows that drainage structures would be required to convey as a function of the length of the drainage design segment, the return period of the event, and the location of the alignment on the alluvial fan. An example of the application of the methodology is provided. 16 refs., 5 figs.

French, R.H.

1991-01-01

59

Probabilistic Safety Assessment of External Flooding Protection for Nuclear Power Plants in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods to systematically analyse existing nuclear power plants (NPP) regarding the adequacy of their existing protection equipment against external hazards, e.g. flooding, can be of deterministic as well as probabilistic nature. In the past the adequacy of the protection measures has been assessed only on a deterministic basis. The German regulatory body has issued probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) guidelines, which

Heinz Peter Berg; Rudolf Goertz; Thomas Froehmel; Christian Winter

2008-01-01

60

Floods  

MedlinePLUS

... quickly, often have a dangerous wall of roaring water. The wall carries rocks, mud, and rubble and can sweep away most things in its path. Be aware of flood hazards no matter where you live, but especially if you live ...

61

Using geophysics to characterize levee stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shallow slough slides have occurred along the river side slope of Mississippi River Levees for over sixty years. Shallow slough slides also occur along smaller levees that protect tributaries of the Mississippi River. This investigation takes place along a section of the Coldwater River Levee, a tributary levee of the Mississippi River. Field observation, soil samples, and geophysical data were collected at two field sites located on the border of Tate and Tunica County, MS. The first site consists of a developed shallow slough slide that had occurred that has not yet been repaired and the second site is a potential slide area. Electromagnetic induction and electrical resistivity tomography were the geophysical methods used to define subsurface conditions that make a levee vulnerable to failure. These electrical methods are sensitive to the electrical conductivity of the soil and therefore depend upon: soil moisture, clay content, pore size distribution as well as larger scale structures at depth such as cracks and fissures. These same physical properties of the soil are also important to assessing the vulnerability of a levee to slough slides. Soil tests and field observations were also implemented in this investigation to describe and classify the soil composition of the levee material. The problem of slough slide occurrence can potentially be reduced if vulnerabilities are located with the help of geophysical techniques.

Dalton, Laura M.

62

Geospatial Information Relevant to the Flood Protection Available on The Mainstream Web  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood protection is one of several disciplines where geospatial data is very important and is a crucial component. Its management, processing and sharing form the foundation for their efficient use; therefore, special attention is required in the development of effective, precise, standardized, and interoperable models for the discovery and publishing of data on the Web. This paper describes the design of a methodology to discover Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) services on the Web and collect descriptive information, i.e., metadata in a geocatalogue. A pilot implementation of the proposed methodology - Geocatalogue of geospatial information provided by OGC services discovered on Google (hereinafter "Geocatalogue") - was used to search for available resources relevant to the area of flood protection. The result is an analysis of the availability of resources discovered through their metadata collected from the OGC services (WMS, WFS, etc.) and the resources they provide (WMS layers, WFS objects, etc.) within the domain of flood protection.

Kliment, Tom; Glov, Linda; ?ura?iov, Renata; Fenck, Rbert; Kliment, Marcel

2014-03-01

63

Towards modelling flood protection investment as a coupled human and natural system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to a number of recent high profile flood events and the apparent threat from global warming, governments and their agencies are under pressure to make proactive investments to protect people living in floodplains. However, adopting a proactive approach as a universal strategy is not affordable. It has been argued that delaying expensive and essentially irreversible capital decisions could be a prudent strategy in situations with high future uncertainty. This paper firstly uses Monte Carlo simulation to explore the performance of proactive and reactive investment strategies using a rational cost-benefit approach in a natural system with varying levels of persistence/interannual variability in Annual Maximum Floods. It is found that, as persistence increases, there is a change in investment strategy optimality from proactive to reactive. This could have implications for investment strategies under the increasingly variable climate that is expected with global warming. As part of the emerging holistic approaches to flood risk management, there is increasing emphasis on stakeholder participation in determining where and when flood protection investments are made, and so flood risk management is becoming more people-centred. As a consequence, multiple actors are involved in the decision-making process, and the social sciences are assuming an increasingly important role in flood risk management. There is a need for modelling approaches which can couple the natural and human system elements. It is proposed that Coupled Human and Natural System (CHANS) modelling could play an important role in understanding the motivations, actions and influence of citizens and institutions and how these impact on the effective delivery of flood protection investment. A framework for using Agent Based Modelling of human activities leading to flood investments is outlined, and some of the challenges associated with implementation are discussed.

O'Connell, P. E.; O'Donnell, G.

2013-06-01

64

Towards modelling flood protection investment as a coupled human and natural system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to a number of recent high-profile flood events and the apparent threat from global warming, governments and their agencies are under pressure to make proactive investments to protect people living in floodplains. However, adopting a proactive approach as a universal strategy is not affordable. It has been argued that delaying expensive and essentially irreversible capital decisions could be a prudent strategy in situations with high future uncertainty. This paper firstly uses Monte Carlo simulation to explore the performance of proactive and reactive investment strategies using a rational cost-benefit approach in a natural system with varying levels of persistence/interannual variability in annual maximum floods. It is found that, as persistence increases, there is a change in investment strategy optimality from proactive to reactive. This could have implications for investment strategies under the increasingly variable climate that is expected with global warming. As part of the emerging holistic approaches to flood risk management, there is increasing emphasis on stakeholder participation in determining where and when flood protection investments are made, and so flood risk management is becoming more people-centred. As a consequence, multiple actors are involved in the decision-making process, and the social sciences are assuming an increasingly important role in flood risk management. There is a need for modelling approaches which can couple the natural and human system elements. It is proposed that coupled human and natural system (CHANS) modelling could play an important role in understanding the motivations, actions and influence of citizens and institutions and how these impact on the effective delivery of flood protection investment. A framework for using agent-based modelling of human activities leading to flood investments is outlined, and some of the challenges associated with implementation are discussed.

O'Connell, P. E.; O'Donnell, G.

2014-01-01

65

The use of airborne geophysics for levee classification and assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research is the first known application into using airborne geophysical methods to evaluate and classify levees. This research is an important step toward developing new technologies and methods to rapidly screen and evaluate earthen flood control levees for safety against flooding. An investigation of airborne geophysical methods was conducted on levees in the lower Rio Grande Valley and involved electromagnetic induction, magnetometer, and LiDAR surveys of the levee system. Airborne EM signatures were analyzed by geologic mapping of floodplain depositional environments, examination of published soils data, and drilling of borings. A geographic information system was developed to manage the various data sets and evaluate historic land use changes and development of the flood control systems to better understand the signatures using airborne methods. This research presents information about the historic basis for evaluating and classifying levees, which is based primarily on the federal perspective and flood control experiences in the lower Mississippi River Valley, where national floodplain engineering methods and standards were developed. This research examines the evolution of today's flood control policy, and the development of engineering assessment procedures, and the application of geophysical methods to provide critical information about levee failure mechanisms and assessment of flood control systems. This research demonstrates that topographic base maps and Sengpiel sections showing the results of electrical conductivity or resistivity surveys at different frequencies along the levee corridor provide accurate and valuable information to determine the composition of floodplain soils and the foundation stratigraphy to assess modes of levee failure, to aid in the placement of borings to obtain material properties of the levee and foundation, and to determine the extent of levee reaches with similar properties for the engineering analysis. The main purpose for segmenting the levee system is for identifying reaches with similar geotechnical properties for an engineering evaluation and to identify areas where anomalous conditions may occur. Airborne geophysical methods offer added benefits and improvements over traditional engineering methods to evaluate levees based solely on evenly spaced borings along the levee right-of-way, where zones of weakness may be missed. The volume of earth being measured by multiple frequency airborne EM techniques corresponds primarily to the foundation of the levee instead of the body of the levee in smaller levees. Ideally, airborne methods would be supplemented with high resolution ground based EM methods to better define anomalous conditions. Data derived from airborne sur-veys are used in a levee screening process developed during this research to rank levees for the most efficient use of limited maintenance resources and subsequently target reaches for focused studies using traditional engineering methods. Airborne EM surveys show that local variations in electrical conductivity occur, and usually corre-spond to abrupt geologic boundaries in the levee foundation associated with different types of depositional environments (i.e., abandoned channel, abandoned course, point bar, flood basin, crevasse splay, chute, etc.).

Dunbar, Joseph B.

66

Flood Management and Protection from the Social Point of View: Case Study from Ukraine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Defining Issue According to the statistics presented by the Ministry of Emergencies of Ukraine, river floods have imposed the most severe damages to the sectors of economy and the human communities in Ukraine. But, an adaptability and a vulnerability of Ukrainian society to floods are still poorly understood. Results Presentation In the response to increasing flood losses in the country between 1998 and 2008, the State Hydrometeorological Service of Ukraine, which is subordinate to the Ministry of Emergencies, in the cooperation with the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine have carried out the research study focusing on public views on the problem of river floods for Ukraine. Aims of this study were: a) exploring the main sources of information on water-related hazards and the level of knowledge useful in a flood crisis situation in different groups of peoples; b) learning what the various population groups think of the most significant causes and consequences of flood damages and the role of various central/governmental/ and local authorities in an elaboration and implementation of mitigation measures. Public attitudes towards various prevention and mitigation strategies, as well as sources of emerging conflict were also revealed. The results of study have given a possibility to compare points of view of population groups which: a) living in the low- and high- flood risk areas; b) living in the urban and rural areas; c) having the different levels of education. The responses from 2550 residents have been analyzed and summarized. Among the most important findings of this study can be indicated following: a) on the one hand, the level of knowledge of some aspects of flood problem (impact of climate variation and change, adaptation measures) of the general public should be improved, on the other hand, the most of peoples understand that floods are the significant economical and ecological problem; b) views of the public on the problem differ very much with regard to their regions of residence (low- or high- flood risk areas, cities or villages), education level; c) a lot of peoples don't know distribution of duties between governmental bodies on central and local levels in the field of flood management and protection; d) the most of peoples don't know which Ukrainian governmental bodies are responsible for the elaboration of National adaptation strategy to the expected climate change; e) many recipient estimate as inefficient activities of Ukrainian authorities on local, national and international levels as well as a public participation in the flood management and protection policy. The results of this study have been rather unexpected for Ukrainian central and local governmental bodies responsible for flood management and protection policies. This underlines the importance of having the alternative flood risk management and protection policies studied not only from aspects of technical and economic rational, but also from that of social acceptability, before any decision is made. Practical Application Results of study have been used in preparation of: a) the State Program on the protection against floods in the Dniester, Prut and Siret river basins; b) of the "National Action Plan for Adaptation to Climate Change for period 2011-2015".

Manukalo, V.; Gerasymenko, H.

2012-12-01

67

On Land Slide Detection Using Terrasar-X Over Earthen Levees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthen levees have an important role to protect large areas of inhabited and cultivated land in the US from flooding. Failure of the levees can threaten the loss of life and property. One of the problems which can lead to a complete failure during a high water event is a slough slide. In this research, we are trying to detect such slides using X-band SAR data. Our methodology consists of the following four steps: 1) segmentation of the levee area from background; 2) extracting features including backscatter features and texture features; 3) training a back propagation neural network classifier using ground-truth data; and 4) testing the area of interest and validation of the results using ground truth data. A dual-polarimetric X-band image is acquired from the German TerraSAR-X satellite. Ground-truth data include the slides and healthy area. The study area is an approximately 1 km stretch of levee along the lower Mississippi River in the United States. The output classification shows the two classes of healthy and slide areas. The results show classification accuracies of approximately 67% for detecting the slide pixels.

Mahrooghy, M.; Aanstoos, J.; Prasad, S.; Younan, N. H.

2012-08-01

68

There Is Water Everywhere: How News Framing Amplifies the Effect of Ecological Worldviews on Preference for Flooding Protection Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to examine the interactive effect of worldviews and media frames on policy preference. Using flooding as a case study, we examine the interplay of ecological worldviews and news framed as either emphasizing harmony with nature or mastery over nature on individuals' preference for flood protection policy. A total of 255 undergraduate students participated in

Timothy K. F. Fung; Dominique Brossard; Isabella Ng

2011-01-01

69

Flood Protection Decision Making Within a Coupled Human and Natural System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the perceived threat from climate change, prediction under changing climatic and hydrological conditions has become a dominant theme of hydrological research. Much of this research has been climate model-centric, in which GCM/RCM climate projections have been used to drive hydrological system models to explore potential impacts that should inform adaptation decision-making. However, adaptation fundamentally involves how humans may respond to increasing flood and drought hazards by changing their strategies, activities and behaviours which are coupled in complex ways to the natural systems within which they live and work. Humans are major agents of change in hydrological systems, and representing human activities and behaviours in coupled human and natural hydrological system models is needed to gain insight into the complex interactions that take place, and to inform adaptation decision-making. Governments and their agencies are under pressure to make proactive investments to protect people living in floodplains from the perceived increasing flood hazard. However, adopting this as a universal strategy everywhere is not affordable, particularly in times of economic stringency and given uncertainty about future climatic conditions. It has been suggested that the assumption of stationarity, which has traditionally been invoked in making hydrological risk assessments, is no longer tenable. However, before the assumption of hydrologic nonstationarity is accepted, the ability to cope with the uncertain impacts of global warming on water management via the operational assumption of hydrologic stationarity should be carefully examined. Much can be learned by focussing on natural climate variability and its inherent changes in assessing alternative adaptation strategies. A stationary stochastic multisite flood hazard model has been developed that can exhibit increasing variability/persistence in annual maximum floods, starting with the traditional assumption of independence. This has been coupled to an agent based model of how various stakeholders interact in determining where and when flood protection investments are made in a hypothetical region with multiple sites at risk from flood hazard. Monte Carlo simulation is used to explore how government agencies with finite resources might best invest in flood protection infrastructure in a highly variable climate with a high degree of future uncertainty. Insight is provided into whether proactive or reactive strategies are to be preferred in an increasingly variable climate.

O'Donnell, Greg; O'Connell, Enda

2013-04-01

70

GIS-enabled Spatial Analysis and Modeling of Geotechnical Soil Properties for Seismic Risk Assessment of Levee Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood protection systems are complex, interconnected engineered systems, where failure at one location means the failure of the entire system. Earthen levees, the systems' major component, are at risk from many causes of failure including seepage, erosion and instability due to seismic loading, yet there are currently no guidelines available for the seismic design of levees. Levees stretch for long distances and are formed through various geologic processes and human activities over time, however information regarding soil properties is collected only at limited point locations and varies significantly both laterally and with depth. Levee vulnerability analyses are currently performed only at locations with known soil properties. Prediction of levee performance in locations where no soil data is available becomes a limitation for system risk assessment studies. A simplified methodology is proposed to predict soil variability in riverine geologic environments for the seismic risk assessment of earthen levee systems. A key step in this methodology is to provide a continuous characterization of soil conditions throughout the system. The proposed model correlates soil properties to preselected regional variables and is implemented, using geostatistical kriging, in a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) environment. GIS was crucial in this research and proved to be the appropriate platform for input, manipulation, analysis, and output presentation of spatial and non-spatial data. Correlation relationships between soil strength parameters and geological and river geometry factors are presented for a pilot study area in California. Global observations that apply across the study area included the increasing trend of shear strength, Su. with increasing distance from the river, and decreasing trend of Su with increasing river Sinuosity Index levels. Only local trends were observed in the relation of friction angle, ?, with Sinuosity Index, as well as in the relation of Su and ? with geological formations. The proposed methodology also includes steps for seismic response analysis of levee segments, and flood scenarios in protected areas. Since seismic response of earthen structures is controlled primarily by input ground motions, a methodology for selecting ground motions based on their mean period, Tm, for liquefaction triggering assessment of levees is also developed.

Saadi, Mustafa M. H.

71

Probabilistic Safety Assessment of External Flooding Protection for Nuclear Power Plants in Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods to systematically analyse existing nuclear power plants (NPP) regarding the adequacy of their existing protection equipment against external hazards, e.g. flooding, can be of deterministic as well as probabilistic nature. In the past the adequacy of the protection measures has been assessed only on a deterministic basis. The German regulatory body has issued probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) guidelines, which had been elaborated for a comprehensive integrated safety review of all NPP in operation. Amongst others the guidelines imply, that probabilistic considerations regarding external flooding are required. This paper presents a newly developed graded approach for the probabilistic assessment of external flooding. Main aspects are explained such as the underlying probabilistic considerations and the mathematical procedures for the calculation of exceedance frequencies, which have recently been developed and issued as part of the German Nuclear Safety Standard. Exemplarily it has been investigated if extreme events such as tsunami waves could be a hazard for NPP at coastal sites in Germany. Here it could be shown that due to limited source mechanisms and the specific morphological conditions in the North Sea no dedicated measures for protection against tsunamis in the German Bight are necessary.

Berg, Heinz Peter; Goertz, Rudolf; Froehmel, Thomas; Winter, Christian

72

Bayesian estimation of levee breach progression in natural rivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During severe flood events, sometime, levee breaches occur in a river reach causing the flooding of the surrounding area. Most levee failures are not instantaneous but they gradually evolve over a period of time: the initial breach progressively increases its depth and enlarges its width. After the failure takes place, even if its location can be known, the breach progression is hard to be recovered. However, if one or more sites monitored with level gauges are located downstream the failure site, the breach time evolution leaves an imprint in these water levels. The knowledge of the breach progression can be useful to better understand the effective dynamics of the failure and to evaluate the breach flood wave in order to simulate the flooding process for forensic purposes among others. In this work an inverse methodology to estimate the progression of an occurred levee breach in a natural river using water level data available at monitored stations downstream the failure is presented. The methodology is based on a Bayesian approach to the inverse problem coupled with geostatistical models to describe the structure of the unknown breach time evolution. The methodology requires a forward hydraulic model of the considered river reach able to accurately reproduce not only the flow routing processes but also the levee breach in terms of progression and outflow discharge. In this work, a 1D forward model (USACE HEC-RAS river analysis system) that solves the unsteady flow De Saint Venant equations has been used. A simplified description of both the depth and the width time evolution of the levee breach has been considered. The methodology has been tested by means of synthetic examples of several levee breaches considering different stressing flood waves and different locations of the observed water levels used as input for the inverse procedure. The results highlight the reliability of the procedure in estimating the progression of the levee breach and consequently the volume of water released. Further studies will be conducted considering more complex descriptions of the levee breaches and the flow field using also 2D flooding models.

Tanda, M.; D'Oria, M.; Mignosa, P.

2013-12-01

73

Protection from annual flooding is correlated with increased cholera prevalence in Bangladesh: a zero-inflated regression analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Alteration of natural or historical aquatic flows can have unintended consequences for regions where waterborne diseases are endemic and where the epidemiologic implications of such change are poorly understood. The implementation of flood protection measures for a portion of an intensely monitored population in Matlab, Bangladesh, allows us to examine whether cholera outcomes respond positively or negatively to measures designed to control river flooding. Methods Using a zero inflated negative binomial model, we examine how selected covariates can simultaneously account for household clusters reporting no cholera from those with positive counts as well as distinguishing residential areas with low counts from areas with high cholera counts. Our goal is to examine how residence within or outside a flood protected area interacts with the probability of cholera presence and the effect of flood protection on the magnitude of cholera prevalence. Results In Matlab, living in a household that is protected from annual monsoon flooding appears to have no significant effect on whether the household experiences cholera, net of other covariates. However, counter-intuitively, among households where cholera is reported, living within the flood protected region significantly increases the number of cholera cases. Conclusions The construction of dams or other water impoundment strategies for economic or social motives can have profound and unanticipated consequences for waterborne disease. Our results indicate that the construction of a flood control structure in rural Bangladesh is correlated with an increase in cholera cases for residents protected from annual monsoon flooding. Such a finding requires attention from both the health community and from governments and non-governmental organizations involved in ongoing water management schemes. PMID:20307294

2010-01-01

74

The Impact of Corps Flood Control Reservoirs in the June 2008 Upper Mississippi Flood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The US Army Corps of Engineers is responsible for a multitude of flood control project on the Mississippi River and its tributaries, including levees that protect land from flooding, and dams to help regulate river flows. The first six months of 2008 were the wettest on record in the upper Mississippi Basin. During the first 2 weeks of June, rainfall over the Midwest ranged from 6 to as much as 16 inches, overwhelming the flood protection system, causing massive flooding and damage. Most severely impacted were the States of Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, and Wisconsin. In Iowa, flooding occurred on almost every river in the state. On the Iowa River, record flooding occurred from Marshalltown, Iowa, downstream to its confluence with the Mississippi River. At several locations, flooding exceeded the 500-year event. The flooding affected agriculture, transportation, and infrastructure, including homes, businesses, levees, and other water-control structures. It has been estimated that there was at least 7 billion dollars in damages. While the flooding in Iowa was extraordinary, Corps of Engineers flood control reservoirs helped limit damage and prevent loss of life, even though some reservoirs were filled beyond their design capacity. Coralville Reservoir on the Iowa River, for example, filled to 135% of its design flood storage capacity, with stage a record five feet over the crest of the spillway. In spite of this, the maximum reservoir release was limited to 39,500 cfs, while a peak inflow of 57,000 cfs was observed. CWMS, the Corps Water Management System, is used to help regulate Corps reservoirs, as well as track and evaluate flooding and flooding potential. CWMS is a comprehensive data acquisition and hydrologic modeling system for short-term decision support of water control operations in real time. It encompasses data collection, validation and transformation, data storage, visualization, real time model simulation for decision-making support, and data dissemination. The system uses precipitation and flow data, collected in real-time, along with forecasted flow from the National Weather Service to model and optimize reservoir operations and forecast downstream flows and stages, providing communities accurate and timely information to aid their flood-fighting. This involves integrating several simulation modeling programs, including HEC-HMS to forecast flows, HEC-ResSim to model reservoir operations and HEC-RAS to compute forecasted stage hydrographs. An inundation boundary and depth map of water in the flood plain can be calculated from the HEC-RAS results using ArcInfo. By varying future precipitation and releases, engineers can evaluate different "What if?" scenarios. The effectiveness of this tool and Corps reservoirs are examined.

Charley, W. J.; Stiman, J. A.

2008-12-01

75

Self-formed levees and floodplains in an annular flume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various river channel patterns have been produced in experiments recently, including dynamic meandering. The key to produce more realistical patterns is the formation of levees and sedimentary floodplain. However, experiments to date only produced wide floodplains or bedload-generated levees and overbank splays, but not the classical levee with decaying thickness and particle size away from the channel. The objective of our work is to understand the subtle balance between inundation level, flow velocity and sediment properties, and to design experimental conditions that form levees in channel pattern experiments. We designed and built an annular flume with floodplains, where flow is driven by vanes in the preformed channel. The channel sediment was mobile and developed a transverse bed slope in response to the strong spiral flow. The transverse water surface gradient and the level of inundation controlled the flow on the floodplain. We experimented with sediments varying in diameter and density to obtain levees and floodplain under constant forcing and depth. The flow on the floodplain developed horizontal circulation when shallow relative to the channel, and vertical (spiral) flow when it was deeper. Silt-sized silica flour was either not entrained from the bed onto the floodplain, or suspended so much that the floodplain was covered entirely. A channel-flanking levee only formed in a very narrow range of flow depth and velocity for this sediment. Preliminary tests with low-density sediment did not form levees for channel flow conditions with mobile bed sediment. The difficulty in forming levees, and some numerical modelling with tides, suggest that fluctuating water levels due to floods or tides are conducive to levee formation.

Teske, R.; Kleinhans, M. G.; Roosendaal, C.

2011-12-01

76

Flash Flood Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to NOAAs National Weather Service, a flash flood is a life-threatening flood that begins within 6 hours--and often within 3 hours--of a causative event. That causative event can be intense rainfall, the failure of a dam, levee, or other structure that is impounding water, or the sudden rise of water level associated with river ice jams. The Flash Flood Processes module offers an introduction to the distinguishing features of flash floods, the underlying hydrologic influences and the use of flash flood guidance (FFG) products. Through use of rich illustrations, animations, and interactions, this module explains the differences between flash floods and general floods and examines the hydrologic processes that impact flash flooding risk. In addition, it provides an introduction to the use of flash flood guidance (FFG) products including derivation from ThreshR and rainfall-runoff curves as well as current strengths and limitations.

Comet

2006-11-08

77

Problems with Conventional Flood Control Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional engineering methods of flood control design focus narrowly on the efficient conveyance of water, with little regard for environmental resource planning and natural geomorphic processes. Conse- quently, flood control projects are often environmentally disastrous, expensive to maintain, and even inadequate to control floods. In addition, maintenance programs to improve flood conveyance and enhance levee stability, such as clearing riparian

Philip B. Williams; Mitchell L. Swanson

78

Perspectives on Screening Winter-Flood-Tolerant Woody Species in the Riparian Protection Forests of the Three Gorges Reservoir  

PubMed Central

The establishment of riparian protection forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is an ideal measure to cope with the eco-environmental problems of the water-level fluctuation zone (WLFZ). Thus, the information for screening winter-flood-tolerant woody plant species is useful for the recovery and re-establishment of the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. Therefore, we discussed the possibilities of constructing and popularizing riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ from several aspects, including the woody plant species distribution in the WLFZ, the survival rate analyses of suitable candidate woody species under controlled flooding conditions, the survival rate investigation of some woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, and the physiological responses of some woody plant species during the recovery stage after winter floods. The results of woody species investigation showed that most woody plant species that existed as annual seedlings in the TGR WLFZ are not suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests. However, arbor species (e.g., Salix matsudana, Populuscanadensis, Morus alba, Pterocarya stenoptera, Taxodium ascendens, and Metasequoia glyptostroboides) and shrub species (e.g., Salix variegata, Distylium chinensis, Lycium chinense, Myricaria laxiflora, and Rosa multiflora) might be considered suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ by survival rate analyses under controlled winter flooding conditions, and survival rate investigations of woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, respectively. Physiological analyses showed that P.canadensis, M. alba, L. chinense, and S. variegata could develop specific self-repairing mechanisms to stimulate biomass accumulation and carbohydrate synthesis via the increases in chlorophyll pigments and photosynthesis during recovery after winter floods. Our results suggested these woody plant species could endure the winter flooding stress and recover well, and be used as candidate for the construction of riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. PMID:25265326

Yang, Fan; Wang, Yong; Chan, Zhulong

2014-01-01

79

Perspectives on screening winter-flood-tolerant woody species in the riparian protection forests of the three gorges reservoir.  

PubMed

The establishment of riparian protection forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is an ideal measure to cope with the eco-environmental problems of the water-level fluctuation zone (WLFZ). Thus, the information for screening winter-flood-tolerant woody plant species is useful for the recovery and re-establishment of the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. Therefore, we discussed the possibilities of constructing and popularizing riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ from several aspects, including the woody plant species distribution in the WLFZ, the survival rate analyses of suitable candidate woody species under controlled flooding conditions, the survival rate investigation of some woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, and the physiological responses of some woody plant species during the recovery stage after winter floods. The results of woody species investigation showed that most woody plant species that existed as annual seedlings in the TGR WLFZ are not suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests. However, arbor species (e.g., Salix matsudana, Populuscanadensis, Morus alba, Pterocarya stenoptera, Taxodium ascendens, and Metasequoia glyptostroboides) and shrub species (e.g., Salix variegata, Distylium chinensis, Lycium chinense, Myricaria laxiflora, and Rosa multiflora) might be considered suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ by survival rate analyses under controlled winter flooding conditions, and survival rate investigations of woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, respectively. Physiological analyses showed that P.canadensis, M. alba, L. chinense, and S. variegata could develop specific self-repairing mechanisms to stimulate biomass accumulation and carbohydrate synthesis via the increases in chlorophyll pigments and photosynthesis during recovery after winter floods. Our results suggested these woody plant species could endure the winter flooding stress and recover well, and be used as candidate for the construction of riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. PMID:25265326

Yang, Fan; Wang, Yong; Chan, Zhulong

2014-01-01

80

Cost estimates for flood resilience and protection strategies in New York City.  

PubMed

In the aftermaths of Hurricanes Irene, in 2011, and Sandy, in 2012, New York City has come to recognize the critical need to better prepare for future storm surges and to anticipate future trends, such as climate change and socio-economic developments. The research presented in this report assesses the costs of six different flood management strategies to anticipate long-term challenges the City will face. The proposed strategies vary from increasing resilience by upgrading building codes and introducing small scale protection measures, to creating green infrastructure as buffer zones and large protective engineering works such as storm surge barriers. The initial investment costs of alternative strategies vary between $11.6 and $23.8 bn, maximally. We show that a hybrid solution, combining protection of critical infrastructure and resilience measures that can be upgraded over time, is less expensive. However, with increasing risk in the future, storm surge barriers may become cost-effective, as they can provide protection to the largest areas in both New York and New Jersey. PMID:23915111

Aerts, Jeroen C J H; Botzen, W J Wouter; de Moel, Hans; Bowman, Malcolm

2013-08-01

81

Earthen levees are the major flood protection in U.S. river cities. Cut-off walls are underground structures that  

E-print Network

. Figure 7. Coefficient permeability for slurry cut-off wall mixtures. ; compared to the average SCB coefficient of permeability in uncracked conditions (SCB fails after cracking). [1] E.H. Yang, Y. Yang, and VPermeability,k(cm/sec) Coefficient of Permeability vs. Strain Percentage Average Permeability for a SCB Slurry Wall 4.4FA-PP 4.4FA

Kamat, Vineet R.

82

Socio-hydrology: conceptualising human-flood interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over history, humankind has tended to settle near streams because of the role of rivers as transportation corridors and the fertility of riparian areas. However, human settlements in floodplains have been threatened by the risk of flooding. Possible responses have been to resettle away and/or modify the river system by building flood control structures. This has led to a complex web of interactions and feedback mechanisms between hydrological and social processes in settled floodplains. This paper is an attempt to conceptualise these interplays for hypothetical human-flood systems. We develop a simple, dynamic model to represent the interactions and feedback loops between hydrological and social processes. The model is then used to explore the dynamics of the human-flood system and the effect of changing individual characteristics, including external forcing such as technological development. The results show that the conceptual model is able to reproduce reciprocal effects between floods and people as well as the emergence of typical patterns. For instance, when levees are built or raised to protect floodplain areas, their presence not only reduces the frequency of flooding, but also exacerbates high water levels. Then, because of this exacerbation, higher flood protection levels are required by society. As a result, more and more flooding events are avoided, but rare and catastrophic events take place.

Di Baldassarre, G.; Viglione, A.; Carr, G.; Kuil, L.; Salinas, J. L.; Blschl, G.

2013-08-01

83

Socio-hydrology: conceptualising human-flood interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over history, humankind has tended to settle near streams because of the role of rivers as transportation corridors and the fertility of riparian areas. However, human settlements in floodplains have been threatened by the risk of flooding. Possible responses have been to resettle away and/or modify the river system by building flood control structures. This has led to a complex web of interactions and feedback mechanisms between hydrological and social processes in settled floodplains. This paper is an attempt to conceptualise these interplays for hypothetical human-flood systems. We develop a simple, dynamic model to represent the interactions and feedback loops between hydrological and social processes. The model is then used to explore the dynamics of the human-flood system and the effect of changing individual characteristics, including external forcing such as technological development. The results show that the conceptual model is able to reproduce reciprocal effects between floods and people as well as the emergence of typical patterns. For instance, when levees are built or raised to protect floodplain areas, their presence not only reduces the frequency of flooding, but also exacerbates high water levels. Then, because of this exacerbation, higher flood protection levels are required by the society. As a result, more and more flooding events are avoided, but rare and catastrophic events take place.

Di Baldassarre, G.; Viglione, A.; Carr, G.; Kuil, L.; Salinas, J. L.; Blschl, G.

2013-04-01

84

Cheap Textile Dam Protection of Seaport Cities against Hurricane Storm Surge Waves, Tsunamis, and Other Weather-Related Floods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Author offers to complete research on a new method and cheap applicatory design for land and sea textile dams. The offered method for the protection of the USA's major seaport cities against hurricane storm surge waves, tsunamis, and other weather-related inundations is the cheapest (to build and maintain of all extant anti-flood barriers) and it, therefore, has excellent prospective applications

Alexander A. Bolonkin

2007-01-01

85

44 CFR 61.12 - Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal funds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES...under section 1307(e) of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968, as amended, shall...

2013-10-01

86

Review Article: Structural flood-protection measures referring to several European case studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a review of structural measures that were taken to cope with floods in some cities along the Danube River, such as Vienna, Bratislava, and Belgrade. These cities were also considered as case studies within the KULTURisk project. The structural measures are reviewed and compared to each other according to the type, duration of application, the return period of the design flood event, how the project measures are integrated into spatial planning and the problems that occur in the flood defences today. Based on this review, some suggestions are given on how to improve the flood risk management in flood-prone areas.

Kryanowski, A.; Brilly, M.; Rusjan, S.; Schnabl, S.

2014-01-01

87

Socio-economic Evaluation Of Different Alternatives For Flood Protection Within The Rivierenland-project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Netherlands have a tradition of protecting land against flooding from the main rivers Rhine, Meuse and Scheldt by means of an extensive system of dikes. In recent years, however, this approach to protection has been increasingly questioned with re- gard to its sustainability and cost-effectiveness. The argument is that although the continued elevation of dikes may be technically feasible, there are several disadvan- tages to this approach. Firstly, a vast network of dikes requires a very high degree of organisation of water management, in which mistakes can not be afforded. Such a high degree of organisation may not always be maintainable in the future, due to changed economic or political circumstances. Secondly, it may not be the most cost- effective system for maintaining safety in the long term. Thirdly, it may not be the most desirable approach in terms of sustainability. One of the alternatives to contin- ued dike-elevation is the concept 'room for the river' ('ruimte voor de rivier'), which aims to give more space to rivers in the horizontal in stead of the vertical dimen- sion. This approach would reduce the risk of flooding, defined as the product of the probability and the consequences of flooding. In order to explore the long term con- sequences of both alternatives ('dike elevation' and 'room for the river'), the ministry of Verkeer en Waterstaat (Public Works, Transport and Water Management) started the 'Rivierenland'-project. The comparison of the alternatives mentioned was based on a fictitious project to adjust a region of The Netherlands, between the rivers Rhine and Meuse, to the concept of 'room for water'. The consequence of this adjustment would be that safety within that region would no longer be safeguarded by dikes, but by adjusting daily life to the 'demands of the water'. Part of the 'Rivierenland'-project was an analysis of the socio-economic costs and benefits of the alternative approaches. Within this analysis, a study was performed to identify the requirements an economic evaluation of the project-alternatives would have to meet to do justice to the specific characteristics of the project. These specific characteristics were its mere size (both in spatial and in financial terms), the duration and complexity of the decision-making process, and uncertainty about the effects of the alternatives. Requirements for the method to be used were an integrated analysis of the effects and the taking into account of both the short and the long term effects (over a hundred years) of the alternatives. As a result of these characteristics and requirements, the decision-making process in- volves considerations of intra- and intergenerational equity, the discount factor to be used, transparency of the decision-making process to the public and the possibility to adapt the results of the economic evaluation to changing insights and opinions.

Boot, S. P.; van Ast, J. A.

88

Managing floodplain-forest restoration in European river landscapes combining ecological and flood-protection issues.  

PubMed

Throughout Europe the demands for improved flood protection on the one hand and the requirements to maintain and enhance floodplain forests on the other are perceived as conflicting goals in river-basin management, revealing the urgent need for strategies to combine both issues. We developed an interdisciplinary approach for floodplain-forest restoration identifying sites suitable for reforestations from both an ecological and hydraulic point of view. In the ecological module, habitat-distribution models are developed providing information on ecologically suitable sites. In the hydraulic module, a two-dimensional hydrodynamic-numerical model (2D-HN model) delivers the requested hydraulic information. The output of the two models is intersected. Subsequently, in an iterative procedure, the potential of plantings without exceeding critical water levels can be identified by hydraulic evaluation using the 2D-HN-model. The approach is exemplified using two reforestation scenarios at the Elbe River, Germany, showing considerable potential for softwood forest establishment without negative hydraulic effects. The approach reported here provides a solution for a severe conflict in river-basin management that hampers the reestablishment of the strongly threatened floodplain forests in Europe. Alternative measures to enhance floodplain-forest regeneration feasible under certain preconditions are discussed in the context of the current state of European large rivers. PMID:22471087

Leyer, Ilona; Mosner, Eva; Lehmann, Boris

2012-01-01

89

Flood information for flood-plain planning  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Floods are natural and normal phenomena. They are catastrophic simply because man occupies the flood plain, the highwater channel of a river. Man occupies flood plains because it is convenient and profitable to do so, but he must purchase his occupancy at a price-either sustain flood damage, or provide flood-control facilities. Although large sums of money have been, and are being, spent for flood control, flood damage continues to mount. However, neither complete flood control nor abandonment of the flood plain is practicable. Flood plains are a valuable resource and will continue to be occupied, but the nature and degree of occupancy should be compatible with the risk involved and with the degree of protection that is practicable to provide. It is primarily to meet the needs for defining the risk that the flood-inundation maps of the U.S. Geological Survey are prepared.

Bue, Conrad D.

1967-01-01

90

Delivery of Ecosystem Benefits at the Urban-Suburban Interface: A Case Study of Flood Protection in the Woonasquatucket River Watershed  

EPA Science Inventory

Urbanization exacerbates flooding by increasing surface runoff and decreasing surface roughness. Restoring wetlands can enhance flood protection while providing a suite of co-benefits such as temperature regulation and access to open space. Spatial modeling of the delivery of flo...

91

Evaluating Functionality and Sustainability of River widenings at the Kamp River\\/Austria concerning to flood protection and aquatic ecology including a numerical sensitivity test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The catastrophic flood events of the years 2002 and 2005 in Central Europe showed clearly the necessity to act in terms of flood protection. The meaning of floodplain areas and the errors in land use management of the past became obvious by the occurred extraordinary discharges. Unfortunately a high use pressure exists in the surrounding of rivers and the important

Hauer Christoph; Schober Bernhard; Habersack Helmut

92

Flooding and Fragmentation: How Physical Features Structure Political Conflict Over Flood Control in California's Pajaro Valley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pajaro River on California's Central Coast has flooded repeat- edly over the past 40 years, causing millions of dollars of flood damages. The original levee system, expanded and rebuilt in 1949 by the U.S. Army, was designed based on insufficient hydrologic data, and local efforts to reconstruct it and maintain the flood chan- nel have been tangled up in

KEITH DOUGLASS WARNER

93

11-14 November 2012 Umbria Region (Central Italy) flood event: from prediction to management for civil protection purposes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following laws and regulations concerning extreme natural events management, the Italian national hydrometeorological early warning system is composed by 21 regional offices (Functional Centres - CF). Umbria Region CF is located in Central Italy and provides early warning, monitoring and decision support systems (DSS) when significant flood/landslide events occur. The alert system is based on hydrometric and rainfall thresholds with detailed procedures for the management of critical events in which different roles of authorities and institutions involved are defined. For the real time flood forecasting system, at the CF several operational hydrological and hydraulic models were developed and implemented for a "dynamic" hazard/risk scenario assessment for Civil Protection DSS, useful also for the development of Flood Risk Management Plans according to the European "Floods Directive" 2007/60. In the period 11th-14th November 2012, a significant flood event occurred in Umbria (as well as Tuscany and northern Lazio). The territory was interested by intense and persistent rainfall; the hydro-meteorological monitoring network recorded locally rainfall depth over 300 mm in 72 hours and, generally, values greater than the seasonal averages all over the region. In the most affected area the recorded rainfall depths correspond to centenarian return period: one-third of the annual mean precipitation occurred in 2-3 days. Almost all rivers in Umbria have been involved, exceeding hydrometric thresholds, and several ones overflowed. Furthermore, in some cases, so high water levels have never been recorded by the hydrometric network. As in the major flood events occurred in the last years, dams (Montedoglio and Corbara dams along Tiber River and Casanuova dam along Chiascio River) and other hydraulic works for flood defense (e.g. along Chiani stream) played a very important mitigation role, storing high water volumes and avoiding the overlap of peak discharges downstream. During the event many emergency interventions were necessary. There were no casualties among the population, but many landslides and flooding occurred causing over 240 million Euros of damages (to hydraulic works, infrastructures, public and commercial facilities, residential buildings, agriculture, etc.) enough to induce the Regional Administration to request declaration of state of emergency to the National Government. The day before the beginning of the event (10th November) QPFs values were high enough to activate "Attention" Phase of Regional Civil Protection System and CF, during the critical phases, provided 24h decision support activities, also through the official web site (www.cfumbria.it), very useful for monitoring and data/info dissemination from the national to the municipality level. The thresholds presented good agreement with direct territorial presidiums observations and the alert system has been tested. The purpose of this work is to highlight what worked well and what did not, in order to improve the early warning and DSS for Civil Protection purposes.

Berni, Nicola; Pandolfo, Claudia; Stelluti, Marco; Zauri, Renato; Ponziani, Francesco; Francioni, Marco; Governatori Leonardi, Federico; Formica, Alessandro; Natazzi, Loredana; Costantini, Sandro

2013-04-01

94

Reservoir Re-operation, Risk, and Levee Failure Analysis: Mokelumne River Case  

E-print Network

i Reservoir Re-operation, Risk, and Levee Failure Analysis: Mokelumne River Case By PATRICK estimation. The main contributions include separating flood pulses from daily inflow time series by base flow Engineering in the OFFICE OF GRADUATE STUDIES of the UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA DAVIS Approved: Jay R. Lund

Lund, Jay R.

95

Flood Plain Management.  

E-print Network

or a major part of flood protection works and subsidized the use of the flood plain. Boulding (2) suggests that we need an entirely new philosophy for flood control, which may involve treating the river not as an enemy to be conquered but as a... of a more intensive utilization of flood lain acre- age. Studies indicate that flood plain encroachment oc- curs because of 1) ignorance of the flood hazard, 2) an- ticipation of further Federal protection, and 3) profitabil- ity to the private...

McNeely, John G.; Lacewell, Ronald D.

1976-01-01

96

44 CFR 61.12 - Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal funds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...present delay in completion of the system is attributable to local sponsors of the system, and that a good faith effort is being made to...A community for which risk premium rates have been...under section 1307(e) of the National Flood...

2010-10-01

97

44 CFR 61.12 - Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal funds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...present delay in completion of the system is attributable to local sponsors of the system, and that a good faith effort is being made to...A community for which risk premium rates have been...under section 1307(e) of the National Flood...

2012-10-01

98

Coastal flood protection: What perspective in a changing climate? The THESEUS approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal areas are vital economic hubs in terms of settlement, industry, agriculture, trade and tourism to mention some key sectors. There are already many coastal problems including erosion, flood risk and long-term habitat deterioration. As economies continue to develop the asset base at risk will grow, while accelerating climate change will increase the likelihood of damaging extreme events, as well

Barbara Zanuttigh

2011-01-01

99

Methods for Estimating the Magnitude and Frequency of Floods for Urban and Small, Rural Streams in Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reliable estimates of the magnitude and frequency of floods are essential for flood insurance studies, flood-plain management, and the design of transportation and water-conveyance structures, such as roads, bridges, culverts, dams, and levees. Federal, S...

A. J. Gotvald, J. C. Weaver, T. D. Feaster

2014-01-01

100

Exploring high-end climate change scenarios for flood protection of the Netherlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea level rise, changing storm frequency and intensity, and increased river discharge resulting from climate change pose a particular threat to low-lying countries like the Netherlands and create many new challenges for them. With these threats and challenges in mind, the Dutch cabinet established a special committee, the Delta Committee, charged with the development of effective planning-, management- and adaptation strategies for climate proofing the Netherlands. At the request of the Dutch Delta Committee, an international scientific assessment has been carried out to explore high-end climate change scenarios for flood protection of the Netherlands. Upper-bound values and longer-term projections (up to 2200) of climate-induced sea level rise, changing storm surge conditions, and peak discharge of the river Rhine have been considered. The assessment builds on a review of recent studies, model projections and expert opinions. For the scenarios for sea level rise, thermal expansion of the ocean, the shrinking of small glaciers, the Greenland and the Antarctic Ice Sheets, and changes in terrestrial water storage are considered separately, along with their uncertainties. Except for the contribution of the Antarctic Ice Sheet all contributions are assumed to depend (at least in part) on the rise in global mean atmospheric temperature rise. To arrive at a projection for local sea level, elastic and gravity effects of elastic deformation of the Earth's crust arising from mass redistribution due to the melting of land-based ice masses, local expansion differences with respect to the global mean (dominated by ocean circulation changes) and local land movement were accounted for. Depending on the adopted impact of the elastic and gravity effects, a high-end projection for local sea level rise of 0.50 - 1.15 m and 0.05 - 1.25 m is projected for the Dutch coast for 2100. For 2200 these ranges are 1.5 - 4 m and 0.5 - 4.0 m. Besides sea level rise, the height of storm surges and wind waves is extremely important for a low-lying country like the Netherlands. By law, coastal defense has to withstand a water level that occurs only once every 10,000 years. In the assessment for the Delta Committee, this aspect has been addressed by first investigating projected changes in the wind climate on the North Sea from global and regional climate model simulations. In a second step these winds are used to drive storm surge and wind wave models. The results point to changes being small compared to the uncertainty in present-day 10,000 year return values. Finally, the effects of climate change on the discharge of the river Rhine were considered using hydrological models. It was found that average winter flow will increase while summer flows will be reduced to a magnitude depending on the assumed climate change scenario. Peak discharges that are currently being considered very high will become normal. Finally, it was concluded that the current hydraulic properties of the Rhine limit the potential increase of the design discharge substantially.

Hazeleger, W.; Katsman, C.; Sterl, A.; Beersma, J.

2009-04-01

101

A theoretical and field-based study on the formation and shape of fluvial levees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The natural levees that form on channel margins are important features because they influence sediment transfer between channel and floodplain, and modulate the floodplain accretion rate. Despite this importance, we do not have basic models that predict levee formation or shape. Here we present a coupled theoretical and field-based study on formation and shape of levees. We developed a 1D morphodynamic channel-floodplain model for levee growth. Our model starts from the simplifying assumption of a straight channel and floodplain, each with a uniform width. The model solves conservation of mass for water and sediment along a cross-section perpendicular to the channel and is coupled to an analytical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations that solves for the downstream flood velocity and accounts for turbulent momentum exchange between the channel and floodplain. Model results predict that the necessary conditions for levee formation depend non-linearly on the ratio of channel depth to floodplain depth, and the floodplain Rouse number. If the necessary conditions for levee formation are met, the shape of the levee is controlled by the Peclet-Rouse number. Wider levees form in advection-dominated floodplains (high Peclet number) with easily suspendable grains (low floodplain Rouse number). Diffusion has two important effects on levee width. Firstly, increasing the diffusivity directly increases diffusive sediment transport into the floodplain, which increases levee width. Secondly, increasing diffusivity causes additional turbulent diffusion of momentum from the main channel to the floodplain, which increases the width of the shear layer. A wider shear layer increases the near-channel downstream velocity, which creates more suspended transport and wider levees. We compare our model predictions to levees on reaches of the White River and Muscatatuck River, Indiana, USA. We chose these rivers because the sediment load of the White River is ~5% silt, whereas it is ~80% silt for the Muscatatuck River. Consistent with model predictions, we find that levees on the coarser-grained White River are narrower and much less prevalent compared to the Muscatatuck.

Edmonds, D. A.; Hajek, E. A.

2013-12-01

102

Comparing multistate expected damages, option price and cumulative prospect measures for valuing flood protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floods are risky events ranging from small to catastrophic. Although expected flood damages are frequently used for economic policy analysis, alternative measures such as option price (OP) and cumulative prospect value exist. The empirical magnitude of these measures whose theoretical preference is ambiguous is investigated using case study data from Baltimore City. The outcome for the base case OP measure increases mean willingness to pay over the expected damage value by about 3%, a value which is increased with greater risk aversion, reduced by increased wealth, and only slightly altered by higher limits of integration. The base measure based on cumulative prospect theory is about 46% less than expected damages with estimates declining when alternative parameters are used. The method of aggregation is shown to be important in the cumulative prospect case which can lead to an estimate up to 41% larger than expected damages. Expected damages remain a plausible and the most easily computed measure for analysts.

Farrow, Scott; Scott, Michael

2013-05-01

103

Flooding on the Mighty Mississippi  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week, floodwaters of the Mississippi River crested, leading several counties in Iowa, Minnesota, Illinois, and Wisconsin to declare states of emergency. Floodwaters have reached over 22 feet in Davenport Iowa, closing in on the 1993 record water level. Davenport is perhaps particularly hard hit because it is not equipped with concrete levees, as it relies heavily on its riverfront as a tourist attraction, and city residents feel that levees would create an unsightly barrier. Also, many hydrology experts will agree that levees might not be the wisest choice for flood management because they intensify the flooding downriver. This Week's In the News features Websites dealing with Mississippi River flood data, flood management, and general water resources.Readers who wish to catch up on the situation should browse the first few news sites listed above. The first (1), coming straight from the flood frontlines, is from the Minneapolis Star Tribune giving general news about the Mississippi flood. The next two sites cover the situation in Davenport, IA and the controversy over constructing flood walls. The second site (2) is an article from the Los Angeles Times reviewing the controversy over building flood barriers in Davenport. It mentions how other Iowa towns built levees after the disastrous floods of 1965 while Davenport did not. The third site (3) is a special section of Davenport's Quad City Times entitled Flood 2001. Flood 2001 holds a small archive of recent articles about the flood from the Quad City Times along with other regional papers, hosts an online poll about installing levees, and provides video clips (RealPlayer) and still photos of the flood. It also gives shots from a "floodcam" poised along the banks of the Mississippi. The next few resources house hydrologic data. The US Geological Survey (USGS) posts real-time water data online (4). The plain-text data from all states can be accessed via a clickable map or from lists by state or by station. The National Weather Service's Quad Cities division (the "quad cities" of Davenport, Bettendorf, Moline, and Rock Island straddle the Mississippi River on the Illinois-Iowa border) provides graphs of flood stages of rivers and streams (selected using a clickable map) and real-time weather conditions, forecasts, and flood warnings online (5). Readers will probably encounter the term "100 Year Flood" while reading flood news and stage data. If you are unfamiliar with this term, which refers to the estimated probability that a flood event has a one-in-one hundred chance of occurrence in any given year, this site (7) from an environmental consulting firm gives a nice explanation of the term and its uses. Another educational site comes from the International Rivers Network. About Rivers and Dams (8), gives an overview of the function of dams (for flood control, power generation, water collection) and presents the environmental case against damming of rivers. Other sites related to the environmental impacts of flood control include Cadillac Desert (9), a supplement to the award-winning PBS documentary series on water and the control of nature, and the Powell Consortium (10), a network of research institutions dealing with water management in the arid American West. Another neat site from PBS Online is the supplement to the film "American Experience: Fatal Flood" (11), documenting the 1927 flooding of the Mississippi and its impacts on residents of Greenville, MS. The Fatal Flood site features video clips and interviews with survivors of the 1927 flood.

2001-01-01

104

Numerical modeling of the lateral widening of levee breach by overtopping in a flume with 180 bend  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floods caused by levee breaching pose disastrous risks to the lower reaches and the flood flow zones of rivers. Thus, a comprehensive assessment of flow and sediment transport during floods must be performed to mitigate flood disasters. Given that the flow state becomes relatively more complex and the range of the submerged area becomes more extensive after a levee breach, this paper established a flow and sediment model by using two-dimensional shallow water equations (SWEs) to explore the breach development process and the flow and sediment transport in a curved bed after a levee breach due to overtopping. A three-element weighted essentially non-oscillatory Roe scheme was adopted for the discretization of SWEs. In addition, a non-equilibrium total-load sediment transport model was established to simulate the scour depth development process of the breach. A stable equilibrium of the breach was established based on flow shear force and soil shear strength. The lateral widening of the breach was simulated by the scouring-collapse lateral widening mode. These simulations, together with the levee breach experiment conducted in the laboratory, demonstrate the validity of the flow and sediment transport process established in this paper. The effects of water head in and out of the watercourse, the flow rate, the levee sediment grading, and other variables during levee breaching were also analyzed. The mathematical model calculation provided a number of physical quantities, such as flow rate and flow state at the breach, that are difficult to measure by using the current laboratory facilities. The results of this research provide fundamental data for developing measures that can reduce casualties and asset loss due to floods caused by levee breaching.

Dou, S.-T.; Wang, D.-W.; Yu, M.-H.; Liang, Y.-J.

2014-01-01

105

Cheap Textile Dam Protection of Seaport Cities against Hurricane Storm Surge Waves, Tsunamis, and Other Weather-Related Floods  

E-print Network

Author offers to complete research on a new method and cheap applicatory design for land and sea textile dams. The offered method for the protection of the USA's major seaport cities against hurricane storm surge waves, tsunamis, and other weather-related inundations is the cheapest (to build and maintain of all extant anti-flood barriers) and it, therefore, has excellent prospective applications for defending coastal cities from natural weather-caused disasters. It may also be a very cheap method for producing a big amount of cyclical renewable hydropower, land reclamation from the ocean, lakes, riverbanks, as well as land transportation connection of islands, and islands to mainland, instead of very costly over-water bridges and underwater tunnels.

Alexander Bolonkin

2007-01-04

106

Cheap Textile Dam Protection of Seaport Cities against Hurricane Storm Surge Waves, Tsunamis, and Other Weather-Related Floods  

E-print Network

Author offers to complete research on a new method and cheap applicatory design for land and sea textile dams. The offered method for the protection of the USA's major seaport cities against hurricane storm surge waves, tsunamis, and other weather-related inundations is the cheapest (to build and maintain of all extant anti-flood barriers) and it, therefore, has excellent prospective applications for defending coastal cities from natural weather-caused disasters. It may also be a very cheap method for producing a big amount of cyclical renewable hydropower, land reclamation from the ocean, lakes, riverbanks, as well as land transportation connection of islands, and islands to mainland, instead of very costly over-water bridges and underwater tunnels.

Bolonkin, A

2007-01-01

107

Parcel-scale urban coastal flood mapping: Leveraging the multi-scale CoSMoS model for coastal flood forecasting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

California coastal sea levels are projected to rise 1-1.4 meters in the next century and evidence suggests mean tidal range, and consequently, mean high water (MHW) is increasing along portions of Southern California Bight. Furthermore, emerging research indicates wind stress patterns associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) have suppressed sea level rise rates along the West Coast since 1980, and a reversal in this pattern would result in the resumption of regional sea level rise rates equivalent to or exceeding global mean sea level rise rates, thereby enhancing coastal flooding. Newport Beach is a highly developed, densely populated lowland along the Southern California coast currently subject to episodic flooding from coincident high tides and waves, and the frequency and intensity of flooding is expected to increase with projected future sea levels. Adaptation to elevated sea levels will require flood mapping and forecasting tools that are sensitive to the dominant factors affecting flooding including extreme high tides, waves and flood control infrastructure. Considerable effort has been focused on the development of nowcast and forecast systems including Scripps Institute of Oceanography's Coastal Data Information Program (CDIP) and the USGS Multi-hazard model, the Southern California Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS). However, fine scale local embayment dynamics and overtopping flows are needed to map unsteady flooding effects in coastal lowlands protected by dunes, levees and seawalls. Here, a recently developed two dimensional Godunov non-linear shallow water solver is coupled to water level and wave forecasts from the CoSMoS model to investigate the roles of tides, waves, sea level changes and flood control infrastructure in accurate flood mapping and forecasting. The results of this study highlight the important roles of topographic data, embayment hydrodynamics, water level uncertainties and critical flood processes required for meaningful prediction of sea level rise impacts and coastal flood forecasting.

Gallien, T.; Barnard, P. L.; Sanders, B. F.

2011-12-01

108

33 CFR 208.10 - Local flood protection works; maintenance and operation of structures and facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...structures shall be made once each year, alternating the structures chosen so that each...including switch gear, transformers, motors, pumps, valves, and gates shall...protect those reaches being attacked by the current or by wave wash. Appropriate...

2010-07-01

109

Geomorphic Response to Global Warming in the Anthropocene: Levee Breaches in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geomorphic processes in rivers are likely to be influenced by global warming through alterations of flood, erosion, and sedimentation processes and rates. In California's Sierra Nevada, warming scenarios imply future increases in magnitudes and durations (and changes in timing) of floods as snow packs diminish and rainfall runoff increasingly dominates flow into the Central Valley fluvial system. Geomorphic processes are likely to differ from processes that dominated during the Holocene due to the influence both of projected global warming and land use alterations including levee construction that narrows and separates Sacramento-San Joaquin Rivers and tributaries from floodplains and flow regulation downstream of numerous large dams. Whereas Holocene floods induced overbank flow and avulsion processes that led to vertical floodplain accretion and variability of stages in aggrading multiple-channel systems, modern floods largely transport flow and sediment within incised channels confined by levees. Because the scenarios of warming are developed at coarse scales, only an understanding of the relations between large-scale hydrology and climate on the one hand, and the incidence of levee breaches on the other, will make it possible to project likely geomorphic responses to future warming and flooding. A historical record of catastrophic levee breaks on the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers has been developed to allow analyses of these connections. In the current work, we develop statistical relations between historical levee break events and flow discharge, as well as with climatic phenomena such as El Nino and La Nina phases of the ENSO cycle, positive and negative phases of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and seasonal propensities towards "pineapple-express" storms. Preliminary results suggest strong relations between levee breaches and discharge, but poor relations to ENSO. Further investigation of these data will provide insight to help inform models and river management policy that addresses rates and magnitudes of erosion and sedimentation.

Florsheim, J. L.; Dettinger, M.; Malamud-Roam, F.; Ingram, B.; Mount, J.

2006-12-01

110

Risk to life due to flooding in post-Katrina New Orleans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the catastrophic flooding of New Orleans due to hurricane Katrina in the year 2005, the city's hurricane protection system has been improved to provide protection against a hurricane load with a 1/100 per year exceedance frequency. This paper investigates the risk to life in post-Katrina New Orleans. In a risk-based approach the probabilities and consequences of various flood scenarios have been analyzed for the central area of the city (the metro bowl) to give a preliminary estimate of the risk to life in the post-Katrina situation. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model has been used to simulate flood characteristics of various breaches. The model for estimation of fatality rates is based on the loss of life data for Hurricane Katrina. Results indicate that - depending on the flood scenario - the estimated loss of life in case of flooding ranges from about 100 to nearly 500, with the highest life loss due to breaching of the river levees leading to large flood depths. The probability and consequence estimates are combined to determine the individual risk and societal risk for New Orleans. When compared to risks of other large scale engineering systems (e.g. other flood prone areas, dams and the nuclear sector) and acceptable risk criteria found in literature, the risks for the metro bowl are found to be relatively high. Thus, despite major improvements to the flood protection system, the flood risk of post-Katrina New Orleans is still expected to be significant. Effects of reduction strategies on the risk level are discussed as a basis for further evaluation.

Miller, A.; Jonkman, S. N.; Van Ledden, M.

2014-01-01

111

A New Approach to Monitoring Coastal Marshes for Persistent Flooding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many areas in coastal Louisiana are below sea level and protected from flooding by a system of natural and man-made levees. Flooding is common when the levees are overtopped by storm surge or rising rivers. Many levees in this region are further stressed by erosion and subsidence. The floodwaters can become constricted by levees and trapped, causing prolonged inundation. Vegetative communities in coastal regions, from fresh swamp forest to saline marsh, can be negatively affected by inundation and changes in salinity. As saltwater persists, it can have a toxic effect upon marsh vegetation causing die off and conversion to open water types, destroying valuable species habitats. The length of time the water persists and the average annual salinity are important variables in modeling habitat switching (cover type change). Marsh type habitat switching affects fish, shellfish, and wildlife inhabitants, and can affect the regional ecosystem and economy. There are numerous restoration and revitalization projects underway in the coastal region, and their effects on the entire ecosystem need to be understood. For these reasons, monitoring persistent saltwater intrusion and inundation is important. For this study, persistent flooding in Louisiana coastal marshes was mapped using MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) time series of a Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). The time series data were derived for 2000 through 2009, including flooding due to Hurricane Rita in 2005 and Hurricane Ike in 2008. Using the NDWI, duration and extent of flooding can be inferred. The Time Series Product Tool (TSPT), developed at NASA SSC, is a suite of software developed in MATLAB that enables improved-quality time series images to be computed using advanced temporal processing techniques. This software has been used to compute time series for monitoring temporal changes in environmental phenomena, (e.g. NDVI times series from MODIS), and was modified and used to compute the NDWI indices and also the Normalized Difference Soil Index (NDSI). Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) water levels from various hydrologic monitoring stations and aerial photography were used to optimize thresholds for MODIS-derived time series of NDWI and to validate resulting flood maps. In most of the profiles produced for post-hurricane assessment, the increase in the NDWI index (from storm surge) is accompanied by a decrease in the vegetation index (NDVI) and then a period of declining water. The NDSI index represents non-green or dead vegetation and increases after the hurricane's destruction of the marsh vegetation. Behavior of these indices over time is indicative of which areas remain flooded, which areas recover to their former levels of vegetative vigor, and which areas are stressed or in transition. Tracking these indices over time shows the recovery rate of vegetation and the relative behavior to inundation persistence. The results from this study demonstrated that identification of persistent marsh flooding, utilizing the tools developed in this study, provided an approximate 70-80 percent accuracy rate when compared to the actual days flooded at the CRMS stations.

Kalcic, M. T.; Underwood, L. W.; Fletcher, R. M.

2012-12-01

112

Effect of bank protection measures, Stehekin River, Chelan County, Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An investigation of the lower Stehekin River was conducted to study the effects on flood elevations and velocities from four bank protection and flood prevention measures that are being contemplated as a means of reducing erosional losses of river bank property. These measures are: bank armoring, armored revetment levees, spur dikes, and redevelopment of old cutoff channels. The banks at seven study sites could be armored without adverse effect on the flood velocities and elevations. The largest increases due to armoring--up to 1.6 ft/sec in velocity and 1 ft in elevation--occurred in the vicinity of sites 5, 6, and 7 where the gradient of the river channel is about 50 ft/mi and the velocities are high to begin with (about 6 to 13 ft/sec). The use of a levee in conjunction with armoring on the northeast bank from sites 5 to 7 would increase the velocities as much as 2.8 ft/sec and increase the elevation as much as 1 ft, but it would also provide some flood protection to the east bank, which is frequently inundated. Spur dikes were considered a practical alternative only at site 3, where reduced bank erosion may occur without aggravating flood inundation or erosion elsewhere. The rerouting of flood flow through an old cutoff channel near site 1 increased the velocity by 3.2 ft/sec and the elevation by 1 ft for the 100-year flood; however, it would move floodwater away from residential property where bank erosion is a problem. The few other old channels that shortcut river bends where much erosion occurs are apparently already part of the channel during floods. (Author 's abstract)

Nelson, L. M.

1986-01-01

113

Sixty Years of River Corridor Change Induced by the Construction, Operation, and Maintenance of Flood Control Infrastructure on Lower Deer Creek, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deer Creek drains 540 km2, joining the Sacramento River near Vina, about 160 km north of the city of Sacramento. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers constructed a levee and partly straightened the lower five miles of Deer Creek in 1949. Repeated levee failures and the presence of the federally threatened spring-run Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in Deer Creek have prompted investigations on habitat restoration coordinated with more effective flood protection. The Deer Creek Watershed Conservancy (1998) identified a significant reduction in channel complexity between 1938 (pre-levee) and 1997, but did not attempt to quantify this reduction. In this study, we examined high quality aerial photographs from 1938, 1952, 1966, 1979, 1985, and 1998, and systematically quantified (in ArcGIS) changes in river corridor complexity by digitizing a range of features in each set of photos. Total active channel length in the levee reach decreased from 14.4 km to 12.6 km between 1938 and 1998. In addition, we documented a significant increase in average active channel width and a decrease in shaded riverine aquatic habitat between 1938 and 1998. Most of these changes occurred during the levee project in 1949, and the simplified channel form persisted through 1998. We also identified a significant decrease in aquatic and riparian habitat resilience (i.e. resistance to habitat damage and destruction by large floods) between 1937 and 1998. These results provide a basis for prioritizing, locating, and developing designs for alternative flood management approaches that would contribute to the enhancement and restoration of aquatic and riparian habitat along lower Deer Creek.

Tompkins, M. R.; Kondolf, G. M.

2004-12-01

114

Environmental risk of dissolved oxygen depletion of diverted flood waters in river polder systems A quasi-2D flood modelling approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

River polders are retention basins contained by levees alongside rivers into which water from the main river channel is diverted during extreme floods in order to cap the peak discharge of the flood hydrograph and to alleviate downstream flood risk by reducing the water levels. The retained water, however, is stagnant and the organic material in the water and the

Karl-Erich Lindenschmidt; Ina Pech; Martina Baborowski

2009-01-01

115

Assessment of the effectiveness of flood adaptation strategies for HCMC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal cities are vulnerable to flooding, and flood risk to coastal cities will increase due to sea-level rise. Moreover, Asian cities in particular are subject to considerable population growth and associated urban developments, increasing this risk even more. Empirical data on vulnerability and the cost and benefits of flood risk reduction measures are therefore paramount for sustainable development of these cities. This paper presents an approach to explore the impacts of sea-level rise and socio-economic developments on flood risk for the flood-prone District 4 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and to develop and evaluate the effects of different adaptation strategies (new levees, dry- and wet proofing of buildings and elevating roads and buildings). A flood damage model was developed to simulate current and future flood risk using the results from a household survey to establish stage-damage curves for residential buildings. The model has been used to assess the effects of several participatory developed adaptation strategies to reduce flood risk, expressed in expected annual damage (EAD). Adaptation strategies were evaluated assuming combinations of both sea-level scenarios and land-use scenarios. Together with information on costs of these strategies, we calculated the benefit-cost ratio and net present value for the adaptation strategies until 2100, taking into account depreciation rates of 2.5% and 5%. The results of this modelling study indicate that the current flood risk in District 4 is USD 0.31 million per year, increasing up to USD 0.78 million per year in 2100. The net present value and benefit-cost ratios using a discount rate of 5 % range from USD -107 to -1.5 million, and from 0.086 to 0.796 for the different strategies. Using a discount rate of 2.5% leads to an increase in both net present value and benefit-cost ratio. The adaptation strategies wet-proofing and dry-proofing generate the best results using these economic indicators. The information on different strategies will be used by the government of Ho Chi Minh City to determine a new flood protection strategy. Future research should focus on gathering empirical data right after a flood on the occurring damage, as this appears to be the most uncertain factor in the risk assessment.

Lasage, R.; Veldkamp, T. I. E.; de Moel, H.; Van, T. C.; Phi, H. L.; Vellinga, P.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

2014-06-01

116

Battle of Inches: The Spring 2011 Flood along the Ohio River and Upper Mississippi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustained rainfall over the Ohio River Basin in Spring 2011, with records that yielded the wettest April in over a hundred years, led to one of the largest flood events in that region in the last century. Simultaneous heavy rains and runoff within the upper Mississippi River Basin further challenged the flood mitigation efforts by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) and its partner agencies. In coordination with the National Weather Service (NWS) and relying on daily flow forecasts by the regional NWS River Forecast Centers, the USACE used its river hydraulics analysis computer program (HEC-RAS) to predict flood stages along the entire Ohio River and a significant section of the Mississippi River around the Ohio River confluence. Informed by the hydrologic and hydraulic analysis tools, the flood mitigation efforts entailed significant curbing of releases from flood control dams and navigation projects, as well as crucial decisions to activate major floodway bypasses, prevent levee failures, and protect urban centers. This presentation will review the Spring 2011 Flood and the use of the National Weather Service forecast products along with the USACE river hydraulics analysis models as real-time decision support tools in an event that was deemed to be a "Battle of Inches".

Hanbali, F.; Brunner, G. W.; Hanbali, F. U.; Astifan, B. M.

2011-12-01

117

TWENTYFIRST CENTURY LEVEE OVERTOPPING PROJECTIONS FROM  

E-print Network

, in the Delta's southeastern sector. The time- and space-varying differences between the two solutions (VLM00 ground-motion rate map and the most current twenty-first century sea-level rise predictions to project when Delta levees will subside below high-water design thresholds. The study showed that the time

118

Flood frequency in China's Poyang Lake region: trends and teleconnections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poyang Lake in Jiangxi Province is the largest freshwater lake in China and is historically a region of significant floods. Annual events of peak lake stage and of severe floods have increased dramatically during the past few decades. This trend is related primarily to levee construction at the periphery of the lake and along the middle of the Changjiang (Yangtze

David Shankman; Barry D. Keim; Jie Song

2006-01-01

119

The Central European Flood in June 2013: Experiences from a Near-Real Time Disaster Analysis in Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The central European flood in June 2013 once again revealed that complete flood protection is not possible. Inundations caused severe damage to buildings, infrastructure and agricultural lands. Official estimates of total damage in Germany amount to approx. 8bn which is lower than the damage caused by the August 2002 flood - the most expensive natural hazard experienced so far in Germany. Repeated and long lasting precipitation in combination with extremely adverse preconditions induced a large scale flood event. In Germany, particularly the catchment areas of the Danube and Elbe were affected. The June 2013 flood has been the most severe flood event in terms of spatial extent and magnitude of flood peaks in Germany during the last 60 years. Large scale inundation occurred as a consequence of levee breaches near Deggendorf (Danube), Gro Rosenau and Fischbeck (Elbe). The flood has had a great impact on people, transportation and the economy. In many areas more than 50,000 thousand people were evacuated. Electrical grid and local water supply utilities failed during the floods. Furthermore, traffic was disrupted in the interregional transportation network including federal highways and long distance railways. CEDIM analysed and assessed the flood event within its current research activity on near real time forensic disaster analysis (CEDIM FDA: www.cedim.de). This contribution gives an overview about the CEDIM FDA analyses' results. It describes the key hydro-meteorological factors that triggered this extraordinary event and draws comparisons to major flood events in August 2002 and July 1954. Further, it shows the outcomes of a rapid initial impact assessment on the district level using social, economic and institutional indicators which are supplemented with information on the number of people evacuated and transportation disruptions and combined with the magnitude of the event.

Schrter, Kai; Khazai, Bijan; Mhr, Bernhard; Elmer, Florian; Bessel, Tina; Mhrle, Stella; Dittrich, Andr; Kreibich, Heidi; Fohringer, Joachim; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Trieselmann, Werner; Kunz, Michael; Merz, Bruno

2014-05-01

120

The Great Flood of 1993  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During a typical year, levees built along the banks of the Mississippi River keep the river in its channel and out of people's homes and fields. However, in 1993, an unsually persistent configuration of the polar jet stream and tropical high pressure produced thunderstorms and heavy rains that lasted for months. This video segment adapted from a NOVA television broadcast describes the meteorological conditions that created what was then the costliest flooding in United States history.

121

Flood risks and the willingness to purchase flood insurance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer simulation experiments were conducted to determine the effects of alternative sources of uncertainty on the willingness to pay for flood insurance. Two alternative insurance protection schemes were investigated: coinsurance and fixed coverage. The question investigated here is to what extent does the insurance scheme influence how purchasers respond to flood risks? Floods were assumed to be log normally distributed

M. R. Karlinger; E. D. Attanasi

1980-01-01

122

Experimental analysis of the levees safety based on geophysical monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several flood events brought river levees into the focus of attention for some disasters due to their collapse. This phenomena is quite complex to investigate, because of different factors that can affect the stability of levees, among them the non uniformity of material properties, which influencing the permeability of the embankment, might induce high percolation velocity of flux thus triggering the unstability. Thus, to apply a fast and integrate investigation methods with a non-destructive characteristics should have a large interest, if they are able to furnish ready and usable information necessary to hydrogeological models. In order to achieve this goal, the University of Perugia (Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering) and the National Research Council (IRPI and IMAA research institutes) developed a collaborating project on the study of the internal structure of the river embankment by carrying out experiments in laboratory. The purpose of this study is to show the preliminary results of the experimental investigation. The laboratory embankment was built using material coming from a real levee and gathered inside a 1.5m x 1.2m plexiglas box. The box has two compartments: a water reservoir at one hand where a constant water head was reached after some time and a soil simulating the presence of levee. We perform a geoelectrical multichannel acquisition system with three parallel profiles characterized by 16 mini-electrodes connected to georesistivimeter Syscal Pro. An automatic acquisition protocol has been performed to obtain time slice electrical tomographies during the experiments. The geophysical results show the effect of the water table inside the embankment during the wetting and emptying. In order to assess the capability of the geophysical monitoring for addressing the soil parameters estimate, the resistivity results are investigated by using two analytical and one hydraulic numerical models. The analytical models represent a linear solution of Laplace's equation where Dupuit hypothesis holds (the vertical gradients of the flow velocity in the medium are neglected). In particular, the Marchi and Supino solutions are investigated here by assuming the upstream water level variations in the river negligible with respect to the ones inside the groundwater under the steady state condition. Two different seepage fronts are calculated and compared with the ones inferred from the resistivity maps. The experimental data have been also compared with the results computed by a numerical code. The governing equation for the unsaturated-saturated medium is the continuity equation written in terms of the piezometric head unknown while the Brooks-Corey law relates the water content and the relative hydraulic conductivity to the piezometric head. The numerical model is a time splitting technique and the solution is obtained by solving consecutively a convective and a diffusive component. The medium has been discretized in space using a generally unstructured triangular mesh. The governing equations are discretized using the edge centred mixed hybrid finite element scheme. The computational domain is schematized as 1D network of cells located at the middle point of each edge and linked by fictitious channels and the storage capacity is concentrated in the cells. A linear variation of unknown is assumed inside each triangle. The positive outcomes of hydraulic model application have certainly had benefit from the information coming from the geophysical monitoring. Based on these preliminary results it was noticeable as the geophysical monitoring can be conveniently adopted for addressing the levee safety control and to provide information on soil parameters.

Rizzo, Enzo; Valeria, Giampaolo; Mario, Votta; Lapenna, Vincenzo; Moramarco, Tommaso; Aric, Costanza; Camici, S.; Morbidelli, Renato; Sinagra, M.; Tucciarelli, T.

2010-05-01

123

Utilizing Radar Remote Sensing to Assess the Water Extent along River Levees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Every spring, precipitation and snowmelt in the central U.S. leads to high water levels in the Mississippi River and its tributaries, with concurrent flooding and levee damage a near-yearly event. In the spring of 2011, historic water levels led to extensive flooding from Mississippi County, Missouri, to southern Louisiana, necessitating the opening of three major spillways, including the Morganza Spillway north of New Orleans, which diverts water from the Mississippi River through the Atchafalaya Basin of central Louisiana and had not been used since 1973. There is value to NOAA, the agency responsible for flood prediction, and the Army Corp. of Engineers, the agency responsible for flood control, in the application of remote sensing to flood mapping and soil moisture mapping, both along the main rivers and levee systems. We plan to use high resolution radar (NASA UAVSAR - Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar), with a particular focus on increased soil moisture mapping in order to determine how quickly and accurately areas of increased soil moisture content associated with levee seepage and sandboils can be delineated. We have several UAVSAR data sets collected along the Mississippi River during June 2009, April and June 2011, which we have analyzed for soil moisture detection algorithm development during the Spring 2012 term. Our goal for part 2 of the study is to develop an algorithm to detect areas of increased soil moisture, and to finalize flood map end products for decision makers based on an easily applied algorithm that utilizes a standard analysis package for water extent measurement along waterways, which will be usable by non-experts with widely available software.River Gage Datat; As mentioned in the section above, river gage data was utilized to help determine the best UAVSAR datset to use for algorithm and processing methodology creation. The table below shows river gage readings with their corresponding UAVSAR flight ID. The datasets of greatest interest are UAVSAR flights in which the river level was over flood stage for an extended amount of time. The flood river data below was provided by the USACE online river gage database.

Laygo, K.; Madson, A.; O'Connell, K.; Jones, C. E.; Holt, B.

2012-12-01

124

River Floods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This shockwave tool combines animations, text, and simulations in order to teach about floods. Topics addressed in the module include the shape of drainage basins, discharge rates, deposition, runoff, flood frequency, and related issues. Finally, the module allows the user to generate a flood and test different flood control techniques to see how a variety of conditions affect flooding.

Smoothstone; Mifflin, Houghton

125

Some new perspectives on the probabilistic modeling of floods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the design of a flood control system a flood hydrograph realization, corresponding to a stated risk is taken as the hydrograph to be routed through the system. In general, floods come in groups and form multipeaked hydrographs. A multipeaked flood hydrograph (or a group of floods) when routed through a reservoir-levee-wall flood control system may yield a more critical result than routing a single-peaked flood hydrograph even if each of the peaks in the multipeaked hydrograph is smaller than the peak of the single-peaked hydrograph. This is due to the fact that while the earlier floods within a flood group may not be critical for the system, they may still fill the reservoir to a critical level so that the later floods in the flood group are passed by the reservoir directly downstream and, thereby, cause damage downstream. Similar arguments also follow for the flood levees and flood walls on the river reach downstream of a reservoir, since there is a channel storage during the passage of a flood wave through the river channel. Also due to storage in the system, not only the peak discharge stochasticity but the stochasticity of the complete flood hydrograph shape needs to be described. Instead of basing the probabilistic description of flood realizations on a single peak discharge, this paper presents in a mostly graphical fashion some new stochastic models for the complete shapes of generally multipeaked continuous-time flood realizations. First, a point stochastic model of the multistation precipitation process is presented. Using precipitation as the driving process of floods, a three-dimensional point stochastic (3-DPS) model for flood starting times, times to peaks and peak magnitudes is presented. Then a stochastic model for the continuous-time flood realizations, as an extension of the previous 3-DPS model, is discussed.

Kavvas, M. Levent

1987-07-01

126

Classification and formation of lava levees on Mount Etna, Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of the 1975 subterminal lava flows and sections through the larger flank lavas on Mount Etna show that there are four principal types of levees formed in Etnean lavas: initial, accretionary, rubble, and overflow. Initial levees are formed because of the yield strength of these non-Newtonian lavas and are thought to determine channel width. The other types of levees

R. S. J. Sparks; H. Pinkerton; G. Hulme

1976-01-01

127

Mitigation of levee failures using deep mixed columns and geosynthetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stability of levees is critical to the safety of human and structures, especially at high water levels. Levees may fail due to the existence of soft soil foundations or seepage of water through the levees or rapid drawdown. Deep mixing technology has been considered one of the good alternatives to solve foundation and seepage problems while geosynthetics can be used

Jie Han; Jianfeng Chen; Zhenshun Hong; Shuilong Shen

2010-01-01

128

Flood Impacts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Flooding causes more deaths and damage than any other hydro meteorological phenomena. The Weather Service provides statistics on flood-related impacts: flood fatalities by year from present to 1903; flood damage, including kinds and value of damage, annually from present to l903. Other features include: reports of current flood watches and warnings, outlooks for impending flooding, hydrologic conditions, and links to climate information and Weather Service offices.

2010-08-02

129

Status of the Lower Sacramento Valley Flood-Control System within the Context of Its Natural  

E-print Network

, potentially causing backwater effects that could limit diversion of flood discharge into the bypass system levees along the main channels and on dams that reside on the basin periphery. Much less focus is put

California at Santa Barbara, University of

130

Water and Solute Transport in the Shallow Subsurface of a Natural Levee  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In riverine wetlands, river channels are separated from backswamps by natural levees that form adjacent to the channel by sediment deposition during floods. The conventional conceptual framework is that backswamp water is impounded and disconnected from surface flow; however, layered sediments, shrink-swell clays, roots and decayed organic matter, and animal burrows likely form preferential pathways for subsurface flow and may substantially affect water and solute exchange between wetlands and river channels. To test the hypothesis that preferential flow is an important pathway of subsurface water movement through natural levees, we measured hydraulic gradients and solute tracers in a 5 x 5 m grid of 19 shallow (2m) monitoring wells within a large representative elementary volume (300 m3) of natural levee in the Atchafalaya Basin, Louisiana. In addition to measuring transient responses to precipitation, we constructed a small reservoir on the backswamp side of the levee to simulate a seasonal hydraulic gradient from the swamp to the adjacent river channel. Results indicate rapid response of water levels in all monitoring wells to the imposed hydraulic gradient as well as rain events, which included two tropical cyclones. In contrast, tracer response was highly variable, both spatially and across events, indicating a complex relationship between subsurface flow processes and water chemistry. Groundwater chemistry indicated spatially variable flowpaths. In some wells, hydraulic response coincided with a chemical shift toward low-conductivity surface water; however, other wells showed similar hydraulic responses but no change in tracer concentrations or even a shift toward higher-conductivity water that was presumably stored in the soil matrix. This spatial variation in tracer response indicates multiple mechanisms of hydraulic response, each of which has important implications for biogeochemical interactions between backswamps and channels in the shallow subsurface of natural levees.

Newman, A.; Keim, R.

2008-12-01

131

Rethinking the relationship between flood risk perception and flood management.  

PubMed

Although flood risk perceptions and their concomitant motivations for behaviour have long been recognised as significant features of community resilience in the face of flooding events, there has, for some time now, been a poorly appreciated fissure in the accompanying literature. Specifically, rationalist and constructivist paradigms in the broader domain of risk perception provide different (though not always conflicting) contexts for interpreting evidence and developing theory. This contribution reviews the major constructs that have been applied to understanding flood risk perceptions and contextualises these within broader conceptual developments around risk perception theory and contemporary thinking around flood risk management. We argue that there is a need to re-examine and re-invigorate flood risk perception research, in a manner that is comprehensively underpinned by more constructivist thinking around flood risk management as well as by developments in broader risk perception research. We draw attention to an historical over-emphasis on the cognitive perceptions of those at risk to the detriment of a richer understanding of a wider range of flood risk perceptions such as those of policy-makers or of tax-payers who live outside flood affected areas as well as the linkages between these perspectives and protective measures such as state-supported flood insurance schemes. Conclusions challenge existing understandings of the relationship between risk perception and flood management, particularly where the latter relates to communication strategies and the extent to which those at risk from flooding feel responsible for taking protective actions. PMID:24530580

Birkholz, S; Muro, M; Jeffrey, P; Smith, H M

2014-04-15

132

Relationship between canal and levee density and coastal land loss in Louisiana  

SciTech Connect

Nearly 1% of Louisiana's coastal land becomes water each year. This land loss affects everything from wildlife, fisheries, and recreation to the economy and culture. A part of this loss results from natural, unmanageable factors, but manageable factors are also responsible. This report discusses one of the manageable factors: canals and their dredged-material levees. In coastal Louisiana wetlands, canals are constructed primarily to facilitate navigation and oil and gas recovery. The density of canals in this region is now about equal to the natural network of bayous and creeks. The primary effect of these canals and associated levees is to alter the process of flooding and drainage. The influence of canals and their levees on coastal Louisiana erosion rates are modified by local geologic, hydrologic, and biologic interactions. The empirical relationship between canals and erosion is, however, clear; land loss is directly related to canal density. Comparisons with mosquito ditches, which are smaller analogues of canals, reveal similar patterns of wetland changes and suggest management options.

Turner, R.E.

1987-12-01

133

Seasonally Flooded Grasslands -Grand CaymanSeasonally Flooded Grasslands -Grand Cayman 0 1 2 3 4 50.5  

E-print Network

Seasonally Flooded Grasslands - Grand CaymanSeasonally Flooded Grasslands - Grand Cayman 0 1 2 3 4 Protected Areas Seasonally Flooded Grasslands V.A.1.N.g. #12;Seasonally Flooded Grasslands - Little CaymanSeasonally Flooded Grasslands - Little Cayman 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.50.25 Kilometers Cayman Islands National Biodiversity

Exeter, University of

134

Teaching Floods and Flooding Quantitatively  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page helps faculty communicate essential ideas that students struggle with in terms of floods and flooding. It takes into account the concepts of probability and recurrence interval and discusses hydrologic terminology, relations between discharge and stage, and the meaning of the '100 year flood.'

Baer, Eric M.

2008-08-18

135

Landscape Changes and Increasing Flood Frequency in China's Poyang Lake Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jiangxi Province in southeastern China contains Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China. Poyang Lake and the lower sections of the major Jiangxi rivers flowing into the lake often flood during the early summer months. Floodwater can be several meters above the surrounding lowlands during the most severe flood events. Levees at the margins of Poyang Lake and along

David Shankman; Qiaoli Liang

2003-01-01

136

Anthropogenic impact on flood-risk: a large-scale assessment for planning controlled inundation strategies along the River Po  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Flood Directive (2007/60/EC) has fostered the development of innovative and sustainable approaches and methodologies for flood-risk mitigation and management. Furthermore, concerning flood-risk mitigation, the increasing awareness of how the anthropogenic pressures (e.g. demographic and land-use dynamics, uncontrolled urban and industrial expansion on flood-prone area) could strongly increase potential flood damages and losses has triggered a paradigm shift from "defending the territory against flooding" (e.g. by means of levee system strengthening and heightening) to "living with floods" (e.g. promoting compatible land-uses or adopting controlled flooding strategies of areas located outside the main embankments). The assessment of how socio-economic dynamics may influence flood-risk represents a fundamental skill that should be considered for planning a sustainable industrial and urban development of flood-prone areas, reducing their vulnerability and therefore minimizing socio-economic and ecological losses due to large flood events. These aspects, which are of fundamental importance for Institutions and public bodies in charge of Flood Directive requirements, need to be considered through a holistic approach at river basin scale. This study focuses on the evaluation of large-scale flood-risk mitigation strategies for the middle-lower reach of River Po (~350km), the longest Italian river and the largest in terms of streamflow. Due to the social and economical importance of the Po River floodplain (almost 40% of the total national gross product results from this area), our study aims at investigating the potential of combining simplified vulnerability indices with a quasi-2D model for the definition of sustainable and robust flood-risk mitigation strategies. Referring to past (1954) and recent (2006) land-use data sets (e.g. CORINE) we propose simplified vulnerability indices for assessing potential flood-risk of industrial and urbanized flood prone areas taking into account altimetry and population density, and we analyze the modification of flood-risk occurred during last decades due to the demographic dynamics of the River Po floodplains. Flood hazard associated to a high magnitude event (i.e. return period of about 500 year) was estimated by means of a quasi-2D hydraulic model set up for the middle-lower portion of the Po River and for its major tributaries. The results of the study highlight how coupling a large-scale numerical model with the proposed flood-vulnerability indices could be a useful tool for decision-makers when they are called to define sustainable spatial development plans for the study area, or when they need to identify priorities in the organization of civil protection actions during a major flood event that could include the necessity of controlled flooding of flood-prone areas located outside the main embankment system.

Domeneghetti, Alessio; Castellarin, Attilio; Brath, Armando

2013-04-01

137

Application of ground penetrating radar in detecting the hazards and risks of termites and ants in soil levees.  

PubMed

A ground penetrating radar (GPR) technique was used to detect Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus) and red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) hazards and risks (targets) in a soil levee at the London Avenue Canal in New Orleans, LA. To make this assessment, GPR signal scans were examined for features produced by termite or ant activities and potential sources of food and shelter such as nests, tree roots, and voids (tunnels). The total scanned length of the soil levee was 4,125 m. The average velocity and effective depth of the radar penetration was 0.080 m/ns and 0.61 m, respectively. Four hundred twenty-seven targets were identified. Tree roots (38), voids (31), fire ant nests (209), and metal objects (149) were detected, but no Formosan termite carton nests were identified. The lack of identified termite nests may be related to drowning events at the time to the flood. Based on the target density (TD), the two new floodwall and levee sections that were rebuilt or reinforced after they were destroyed by Hurricane Katrina in 2005 were determined to be at low potential risk from termites and ants. A merging target density (MTD) method indicated a high potential risk near one of the breached sections still remains. Foraging and nesting activity of Formosan subterranean termites and red imported fire ants may be a contributory factor to the levee failure at the London Avenue Canal. PMID:19689906

Yang, Xiuhao; Henderson, Gregg; Mao, Lixin; Evans, Ahmad

2009-08-01

138

Floods n' Dams: A Watershed Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an activity meant to illustrate flooding in a watershed as it impinges on human activities. Shows how flood protection can be provided using the natural holding capacity of basins elsewhere in the water system to reduce the impact on the settled flood plain. The activity works well with intermediate and senior level students but can be

Milne, Andrew; Etches, John

1996-01-01

139

Three-dimensional imaging, change detection, and stability assessment during the centerline trench levee seepage experiment using terrestrial light detection and ranging technology, Twitchell Island, California, 2012  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A full scale field seepage test was conducted on a north-south trending levee segment of a now bypassed old meander belt on Twitchell Island, California, to understand the effects of live and decaying root systems on levee seepage and slope stability. The field test in May 2012 was centered on a north-south trench with two segments: a shorter control segment and a longer seepage test segment. The complete length of the trench area measured 40.4 meters (m) near the levee centerline with mature trees located on the waterside and landside of the levee flanks. The levee was instrumented with piezometers and tensiometers to measure positive and negative porewater pressures across the levee after the trench was flooded with water and held at a constant hydraulic head during the seepage testthe results from this component of the experiment are not discussed in this report. We collected more than one billion three-dimensional light detection and ranging (lidar) data points before, during, and after the centerline seepage test to assess centimeter-scale stability of the two trees and the levee crown. During the seepage test, the waterside tree toppled (rotated 20.7 degrees) into the water. The landside tree rotated away from the levee by 5 centimeters (cm) at a height of 2 m on the tree. The paved surface of the levee crown had three regions that showed subsidence on the waterside of the trenchdiscussed as the northern, central, and southern features. The northern feature is an elongate region that subsided 2.1 cm over an area with an average width of 1.35 m that extends 15.8 m parallel to the trench from the northern end of the trench to just north of the trench midpoint, and is associated with a crack 1 cm in height that formed during the seepage test on the trench wall. The central subsidence feature is a semicircular region on the waterside of the trench that subsided by as much as 6.2 cm over an area 3.4 m wide and 11.2 m long. The southern feature is an elongate region that has a maximum subsidence of 3.5 cm over an area 0.75 m wide and 8.1 m long and is associated with a number of small fractures in the pavement that are predominately north-south-trending and parallel to the trench. We determined that there was no significant motion of the levee flank during the last week of the seepage test. We also determined biomorphic parameters for the landside tree, such as the 3D positioning on the levee, tree height, levee parallel/perpendicular cross sectional area, and canopy centroid. These biomorphic parameters were requested to support a University of California Berkeley team studying seepage and stability on the levee. A gridded, 2-cm bare-earth digital elevation model of the levee crown and the landside levee flank from the final terrestrial lidar (T-Lidar) survey provided detailed topographic data for future assessment. Because the T-Lidar was not integrated into the project design, other than an initial courtesy dataset to help characterize the levee surface, our ability to contribute to the overall science goals of the seepage test was limited. Therefore, our analysis focused on developing data collection and processing methodology necessary to align ultra high-resolution T-Lidar data (with an average spot spacing 23 millimeters on the levee crown) from several instrument setup locations to detect, measure, and characterize dynamic centimeter-scale deformation and surface changes during the seepage test.

Bawden, Gerald W.; Howle, James; Bond, Sandra; Shriro, Michelle; Buck, Peter

2014-01-01

140

Cartographic evidence of the disastrous ice flood of 1809 and its aftermath (Danube River, Slovakia).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 18th and early 19th century river maps are important data sources for studying past landscapes. This is not only as a result of improved surveying techniques, but also because they depict landscape during probably the most important climatic and land-use changes since the Middle Ages. In this phase of the increased river activity during the last onset of the so-called Little Ice Age period, several major flood events occured. Local manuscript maps, which often depict the channel in major detail, help us to obtain a better understanding of their geomorphic and other impacts. The catastrophic ice flood, which occured on the Middle Danube river at the end of January 1809 was undoubtedly the most disastrous event of its kind in Slovakia, although it also hit a number of settlements in Lower Austria and Hungary. Several people drowned and the flood also resulted in great damage to settlements and livestock. Devastating effects of this flood particularly as to the towns of Bratislava and Komrno/Komrom were comparable with effects of disastrous floods of February 1830 in Vienna (Austria), March 1838 in Buda/Pest (Hungary) or 1845 flood in Prague (Czech Republic), respectively. In case of the present Slovakian capital Bratislava, on January 29, 1809, two ice barriers suddenly rose the water up to 10 m above the zero level and the river quickly overflowed its banks inundating the low-lying parts of the town. The flood blacked out communications with neighbouring regions. Record-breaking height of water led to breaches of the important right-bank embankment (constructed in 1770s). Through several openings water flooded the right bank, almost completely destroying the adjacent village of Petralka/Engerau. The damage to Vienna highway levee was so massive that it only could be repaired 16 years later, in 1825-6 (although this was also due to Napoleonic wars). The flood also reactivated the Chorvtske rameno anabranch, 33 years after its abandonment. A number of local manuscript maps depict the river before and after this event. Combined with written literary reports, the maps allow us to describe the course, the devastating effects and the aftermath consequences of the 1809 flood precisely, particularly as to the territory of the city of Bratislava itself. Moreover, many of these maps comprise a wealth of information about flood in their detailed explanatory legends and remarks. The most important maps and plans are those currently deposited in the National Archives of Hungary (= maps from the collection of former Governing Council, the central supervisory authority of the Habsburgs for the Hungarian Kingdom), in the Municipial Archives of Bratislava and the Slovak National Archives, respectively. Effects of the 1809 ice flood, as evidenced by historical maps and plans, can be generally summarised as follows: a) direct destruction (by ice floes) or collapse of houses, bridges, buildings, boat mills, groynes and bank revetments b) heavy lateral erosion of the river channel during this single event (then referred to as damage to banks") c) breaches of protective dikes d) formation of new water bodies - temporary lakes - created by spilled water on the landside of levees e) reactivation of upstream entrances of some side channels f) pronounced changes of flooplain configuration g) damage to floodplain forest. This research was supported by the Slovak Scientific Grant agency VEGA (Project N. 1/0362/09).

Pit, P.

2009-04-01

141

Flood Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This map, created by combining data from Google Maps and NASA, shows which land areas would be flooded by sea level rises between 0 and 14 meters. The NASA data set used is only of limited reliability, but the map provides a fascinating view of the consequences of rising sea levels, and the consequent floods of costal areas.

Tingle, Alex; Nasa; Maps, Google; Self-Published

142

Polymer flooding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book covers all aspects of polymer flooding, an enhanced oil recovery method using water soluble polymers to increase the viscosity of flood water, for the displacement of crude oil from porous reservoir rocks. Although this method is becoming increasingly important, there is very little literature available for the engineer wishing to embark on such a project. In the past,

Littmann

1988-01-01

143

Erosional and depositional patterns associated with the 1993 Missouri River floods inferred from SIR-C and TOPSAR radar data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Missouri River floods of 1993 caused significant and widespread damage to the floodplains between Kansas City and St. Louis. Immediately downstream of levee breaks, flood waters scoured the bottoms. As the floodwaters continued, they spread laterally and deposited massive amounts of sand as crevasse splays on top of agricultural fields. We explore the use of radar interferometry and backscatter

N. R. Izenberg; R. E. Arvidson; R. A. Brackett; S. S. Saatchi; G. R. Osburn; J. Dohrenwend

1996-01-01

144

Flood Frequency Curves - Use of information on the likelihood of extreme floods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investment in the infrastructure that reduces flood risk for flood-prone communities must incorporate information on the magnitude and frequency of flooding in that area. Traditionally, that information has been a probability distribution of annual maximum streamflows developed from the historical gaged record at a stream site. Practice in the United States fits a Log-Pearson type3 distribution to the annual maximum flows of an unimpaired streamflow record, using the method of moments to estimate distribution parameters. The procedure makes the assumptions that annual peak streamflow events are (1) independent, (2) identically distributed, and (3) form a representative sample of the overall probability distribution. Each of these assumptions can be challenged. We rarely have enough data to form a representative sample, and therefore must compute and display the uncertainty in the estimated flood distribution. But, is there a wet/dry cycle that makes precipitation less than independent between successive years? Are the peak flows caused by different types of events from different statistical populations? How does the watershed or climate changing over time (non-stationarity) affect the probability distribution floods? Potential approaches to avoid these assumptions vary from estimating trend and shift and removing them from early data (and so forming a homogeneous data set), to methods that estimate statistical parameters that vary with time. A further issue in estimating a probability distribution of flood magnitude (the flood frequency curve) is whether a purely statistical approach can accurately capture the range and frequency of floods that are of interest. A meteorologically-based analysis produces "probable maximum precipitation" (PMP) and subsequently a "probable maximum flood" (PMF) that attempts to describe an upper bound on flood magnitude in a particular watershed. This analysis can help constrain the upper tail of the probability distribution, well beyond the range of gaged data or even historical or paleo-flood data, which can be very important in risk analyses performed for flood risk management and dam and levee safety studies.

Faber, B.

2011-12-01

145

Application of flood monitoring from satellite for insurances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flood monitoring from satellite data provides the opportunity to quickly and precisely overview flooded areas. The extent of the flooding and affected areas can be delivered to water authorities, civil protection agencies or insurances. Evaluations include information to facilitate damage assessment, to better estimate risk in future, and to prepare protection measures. For demonstrating the potential of satellite based evaluations,

H. Bach; F. Appel; K. Fellah; P. de Fraipont

2005-01-01

146

USGS Crews Measure Historic Flooding in Fargo, ND  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientists Chris Laveau and Joel Galloway measure streamflow during historical flooding in Fargo, ND. This information is critical for developing flood forecasts to help protect lives and property....

2009-03-30

147

USGS Crews Measure Historic Flooding in Fargo, ND  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientists Chris Laveau and Joel Galloway measure streamflow during historical flooding in Fargo, ND. This information is critical for developing flood forecasts to help protect lives and property. ...

2009-03-30

148

USGS Crews Measure Historic Flooding in Fargo, ND  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientists continue to monitor streamflow during the historic flooding taking place in Fargo, ND. This information provides critical information used to estimate flood dangers and helps protect lives and property....

2009-03-30

149

Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler Used to Measure Historic Flooding  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientists use an acoustic doppler current profiler to monitor streamflow during the historic flooding in Fargo, ND. This information provides critical information used to estimate flood dangers and helps protect lives and property....

2009-03-30

150

Flood Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how to use and graph real-world stream gage data to create event and annual hydrographs and calculate flood frequency statistics. Using an Excel spreadsheet of real-world event, annual and peak streamflow data, they manipulate the data (converting units, sorting, ranking, plotting), solve problems using equations, and calculate return periods and probabilities. Prompted by worksheet questions, they analyze the runoff data as engineers would. Students learn how hydrographs help engineers make decisions and recommendations to community stakeholders concerning water resources and flooding.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

151

Rivers and Flooding Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understand flooding - why it occurs, how to measure the size and frequency of a flood, the relationship between size and flooding, and how human activity can increase the frequency of flooding events.

Senft, Laurel

152

CONSEQUENCES OF HUMAN-ALTERED FLOODS: LEVEES, FLOODS, AND FLOODPLAIN FORESTS ALONG THE WISCONSIN RIVER. (R826600)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

153

Flood protection in the swamps  

E-print Network

98 C 292 zi, "%j- / / 9- I /9 4 8 C I 4 1 J 0 2 C 1 ~ 2 3 ) I, -. -C. U, OP Otsrportp Hg I ~ 38 / Pl ~AP Io 3 O I 8 d G~d 87. j I * 4: ~:3 W/ N t 3 ? P 3 3 8 TCP EAI, wag s~TN '-'* I SPI 3 R'~7 'g. t J 4 2 sr... 98 C 292 zi, "%j- / / 9- I /9 4 8 C I 4 1 J 0 2 C 1 ~ 2 3 ) I, -. -C. U, OP Otsrportp Hg I ~ 38 / Pl ~AP Io 3 O I 8 d G~d 87. j I * 4: ~:3 W/ N t 3 ? P 3 3 8 TCP EAI, wag s~TN '-'* I SPI 3 R'~7 'g. t J 4 2 sr...

Reesby, Raymond George

2012-06-07

154

Reconciling Environmental and Flood Control Goals on an Arid-Zone River: Case Study of the Limitrophe Region of the Lower Colorado River in the United States and Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arid zone rivers have highly variable flow rates, and flood control projects are needed to protect adjacent property from flood damage. On the other hand, riparian corridors provide important wildlife habitat, especially for birds, and riparian vegetation is adapted to the natural variability in flows on these rivers. While environmental and flood control goals might appear to be at odds, we show that both goals can be accommodated in the Limitrophe Region (the shared border between the United States and Mexico) on the Lower Colorado River. In 1999, the International Boundary and Water Commission proposed a routine maintenance project to clear vegetation and create a pilot channel within the Limitrophe Region to improve flow capacity and delineate the border. In 2000, however, Minute 306 to the international water treaty was adopted, which calls for consideration of environmental effects of IBWC actions. We conducted vegetation and bird surveys within the Limitrophe and found that this river segment is unusually rich in native cottonwood and willow trees, marsh habitat, and resident and migratory birds compared to flow-regulated segments of river. A flood-frequency analysis showed that the existing levee system can easily contain a 100 year flood even if vegetation is not removed, and the existing braided channel system has greater carrying capacity than the proposed pilot channel.

Glenn, Edward P.; Hucklebridge, Kate; Hinojosa-Huerta, Osvel; Nagler, Pamela L.; Pitt, Jennifer

2008-03-01

155

Flooding Exercises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This homework exercise, developed for an undergraduate geology course at Tulane University, leads students through the steps involved in determining the probability that a flood of a given discharge will occur in any given year. Students retrieve discharge data from U.S. Geological Services Internet sites for Dry Creek, LA, Rapid Creek, SD and Red River, ND to make their calculations.

Nelson, Stephen

156

From flood management systems to flood resilient systems: integration of flood resilient technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flooding has always been a major risk world-wide. Humans chose to live and develop settlements close to water (rivers, seas) due to the resources water brings, i.e. food, energy, capacity to economically transport persons and goods, and recreation. However, the risk from flooding, including pluvial flooding, often offsets these huge advantages. Floods sometimes have terrible consequences from both a human and economic point of view. The permanence and growth of urban areas in flood-prone zones despite these risks is a clear indication of the choices of concerned human groups. The observed growing concentration of population along the sea shore, the increase of urban population worldwide, the exponential growth of the world population and possibly climate change are factors that confirm flood will remain a major issue for the next decades. Flood management systems are designed and implemented to cope with such situations. In spite of frequent events, lessons look to be difficult to draw out and progresses are rather slow. The list of potential triggers to improve flood management systems is nevertheless well established: information, education, awareness raising, alert, prevention, protection, feedback from events, ... Many disciplines are concerned which cover a wide range of soft and hard sciences. A huge amount of both printed and electronic literature is available. Regulations are abundant. In spite of all these potentially favourable elements, similar questions spring up after each new significant event: Was the event forecast precise enough? Was the alert system efficient? Why were buildings built in identified flood prone areas? Why did the concerned population not follow instructions? Why did the dike break? What should we do to avoid it happens again? What about damages evaluation, wastes and debris evacuation, infrastructures and buildings repair, activity recovery, temporary relocation of inhabitants, health concerns, insurance concerns, water-resistant materials, vulnerability assessment ? Flood resilient system (FReS) concept has been proposed as a new framework to address flood situations. Such systems intend to better approach such situations from a holistic point of view. FReS encompass ecologic, spatial, structural, social, disaster relief and flood risk aspects. FReS design and implementation conditions have been addressed by the FP7 SMARTeST (Smart Resilience Technology, Systems and Tools) project. The focus of this Project on the use of available and innovative communication, forecasting and flood protection technologies leads to an original contribution which highlights both the scope and the limits of this technology driven approach. These reflexions contribute to the elaboration of guidelines for the design of FReS.

Salagnac, J.-L.; Diez, J.; Tourbier, J.

2012-04-01

157

Uncorrected land-use planning highlighted by flooding: the Alba case study (Piedmont, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alba is a town of over 30 000 inhabitants located along the Tanaro River (Piedmont, northwestern Italy) and is famous for its wine and white truffles. Many important industries and companies are based in Alba, including the famous confectionery group Ferrero. The town suffered considerably from a flood that occurred on 5-6 November 1994. Forty-eight percent of the urban area was inundated, causing severe damage and killing nine people. After the flood, the Alba area was analysed in detail to determine the reasons for its vulnerability. Information on serious floods in this area since 1800 was gathered from official records, state technical office reports, unpublished documents in the municipal archives, and articles published in local and national newspapers. Maps, plans and aerial photographs (since 1954) were examined to reconstruct Alba's urban development over the last two centuries and the planform changes of the Tanaro River. The results were compared with the effects of the November 1994 flood, which was mapped from aerial photographs taken immediately after the flood, field surveys and eyewitness reports. The territory of Alba was subdivided into six categories: residential; public service; industrial, commercial and hotels; sports areas, utilities and standards (public gardens, parks, athletics grounds, private and public sport clubs); aggregate plants and dumps; and agriculture and riverine strip. The six categories were then grouped into three classes with different flooding-vulnerability levels according to various parameters. Using GIS, the three river corridors along the Tanaro identified by the Autorit di Bacino del Fiume Po were overlaid on the three classes to produce a final map of the risk areas. This study shows that the historic floods and their dynamics have not been duly considered in the land-use planning of Alba. The zones that were most heavily damaged in the 1994 flood were those that were frequently affected in the past and sites of more recent urbanisation. Despite recurrent severe flooding of the Tanaro River and its tributaries, areas along the riverbed and its paleochannels have been increasingly used for infrastructure and building (e.g., roads, a municipal dump, a prison, natural aggregate plants, a nomad camp), which has often interfered with the natural spread of the floodwaters. Since the 1994 flood, many remedial projects have been completed along the Tanaro and its tributaries, including levees, bank protection, concrete walls and floodway channels. In spite of these costly projects, some areas remain at high risk for flooding. The method used, which considered historical data, river corridors identified by hydraulic calculations, geomorphological aspects and land-use planning, can indicate with good accuracy flood-prone areas and in consequence to be an useful tool for the coherent planning of urban expansion and the mitigation of flood risk.

Luino, F.; Turconi, L.; Petrea, C.; Nigrelli, G.

2012-07-01

158

Decision support systems for flood scenario elicitation and hazard mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improved management of flood hazards in mountain catchments entails the investigation of large woody debris transport, their impact in terms of bridge clogging, and the combined effect of these phenomena with high flows in mountain rivers. Moreover, the effects of woody debris may combine with those of possible levee failure in the valley bottoms. The contribution reviews the state of the art of models and methods for the characterization of both aspects, and illustrates a blueprint of a decision support system where information on woody debris recruitment, transport capacity of the stream network, cloggability of hydraulic structures and levees are combined with hydrological information to identify the most appropriate scenarios one should consider for precautionary and realistic flood hazard assessment. The decision support system is exemplified with reference to the case study of South Tyrol, Italy.

Pistocchi, Alberto

2013-04-01

159

Effects of long-term flooding on biogeochemistry and vegetation development in floodplains; a mesocosm experiment to study interacting effects of land use and water quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raising safety levees and reinforcing dykes is not a sufficient and sustainable solution to the intense winter and summer floods occurring with increasing frequency in Eastern Europe. An alternative, creating permanently flooded floodplain wetlands, requires improved understanding of ecological consequences. A 9 month mesocosm study (starting in January), under natural light and temperature conditions, was initiated to understand the role

A. M. Banach; K. Banach; R. C. J. H. Peters; R. H. M. Jansen; E. J. W. Visser; Z. Stepniewska; J. G. M. Roelofs; L. P. M. Lamers

2009-01-01

160

Climatological changes in storm surges and river discharges: the impact on flood protection and salt intrusion in the Rhine-Meuse delta.  

E-print Network

flooding, fresh water supply and shipping. The water system in this area is mainly driven by the combined for Inland Water Management and Waste Water Treatment Dept. WST Van Leeuwenhoekweg 20 3316 AV Dordrecht of climatological changes on shipping, has not been examined, since it is expected that the mean water level

Haak, Hein

161

Assessment of big floods in the Eastern Black Sea Basin of Turkey.  

PubMed

In this study, general knowledge and some details of the floods in Eastern Black Sea Basin of Turkey are presented. Brief hydro-meteorological analysis of selected nine floods and detailed analysis of the greatest flood are given. In the studied area, 51 big floods have taken place between 1955-2005 years, causing 258 deaths and nearly US $500,000,000 of damage. Most of the floods have occurred in June, July and August. It is concluded that especially for the rainstorms that have caused significantly damages, the return periods of the rainfall heights and resultant flood discharges have gone up to 250 and 500 years, respectively. A general agreement is observed between the return periods of rains and resultant floods. It is concluded that there has been no significant climate change to cause increases in flood harms. The most important human factors to increase the damage are determined as wrong and illegal land use, deforestation and wrong urbanization and settlement, psychological and technical factors. Some structural and non-structural measures to mitigate flood damages are also included in the paper. Structural measures include dykes and flood levees. Main non-structural measures include flood warning system, modification of land use, watershed management and improvement, flood insurance, organization of flood management studies, coordination between related institutions and education of the people and informing of the stakeholders. PMID:22411030

Yksek, mer; Kankal, Murat; nc, Osman

2013-01-01

162

UPPER DES PLAINES RIVER AND TRIBUTARIES, IL & WI FLOOD RISK MANAGEMENT AND ECOSYSTEM RESTORATION PROJECT  

E-print Network

management (FRM) projects consisting of levees, floodwalls and two floodwater storage reservoirs; non-structural Continuing Authorities Program. Two justified structural FRM projects and additional non-structural FRM; and restore and preserve natural and beneficial floodplain values. The projects will provide structural flood

US Army Corps of Engineers

163

Confronting flood risk: implications for insurance and risk transfer.  

PubMed

The UK floods in late 2000 reinforced an emerging awareness which questioned the long-term sustainability of an exclusive reliance on hard-engineered flood defences to protect the UK population against increased flood risk. The debate has subsequently focused on a broader interpretation of the risks associated with flooding. This paper explores the notion that, although social and technical issues are already being integrated to understand and manage flood, practitioners are now realising the importance of accommodating public hazard understanding and perception of risk into their management models, and there remains a need to fit such ideas to the insurance-based system of flood management in the UK. PMID:16537098

Treby, Emma J; Clark, Michael J; Priest, Sally J

2006-12-01

164

STRATEGIES FOR FLOOD RISK MANAGEMENT A PROCESS PERSPECTIVE  

Microsoft Academic Search

To manage extreme flood events like the Weisseritz flash flood within the Elbe river basin in August 2002 and their adverse\\u000a impacts on people and properties, practitioners and scientists argue for a shift from the traditional paradigm of flood protection\\u000a to flood risk management (Schanze 2002, DKKV 2003, Hall et al. 2003). However, developing a risk-based strategy is a difficult

GRARD HUTTER

165

Flow restoration and protection in Australian rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Since 1857 new Australians have constructed many,thousands of weirs (3600 in the MurrayDarling Basin alone) and flood- plain levee banks, 446 large dams (>10 m crest height) and over 50 intra- and inter-basin water transfer schemes to secure water supplies for human,use. Flow regulation has changed,the hydrology of major rivers on three temporal salesthe flood pulse (days to weeks),

Angela H. Arthington; Bradley J. Pusey

2003-01-01

166

FLOW RESTORATION AND PROTECTION IN AUSTRALIAN RIVERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1857 new Australians have constructed many thousands of weirs (3600 in the Murray-Darling Basin alone) and flood- plain levee banks, 446 large dams (>10 m crest height) and over 50 intra- and inter-basin water transfer schemes to secure water supplies for human use. Flow regulation has changed the hydrology of major rivers on three temporal sales-the flood pulse (days

BRADLEY J. PUSEYb

167

33 CFR 203.51 - Levee owner's manual.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by...

2010-07-01

168

33 CFR 203.51 - Levee owner's manual.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by...

2011-07-01

169

33 CFR 203.51 - Levee owner's manual.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by...

2013-07-01

170

33 CFR 203.51 - Levee owner's manual.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by...

2012-07-01

171

Performance and capacity of river dykes of protection against the floods", through elaboration of performance indicators and decision aid tool in view of the patrimonial assessment of river dykes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

France and more generally the World have to face frequent episodes of devastating floods. The human and material damages are multiplied during the failure of a protection structure. In France the length of dykes is estimated to 7500 kilometers, protecting around 15 000 to 18 000 km and an estimated population between 1.6 to 2 millions. Regrettably, these structures are most of the time old, unidentified, badly maintained, showing signs of weaknesses on numerous occasions. The management of these dikes raises then considerable problems to the decision-makers who are in charge of guaranteeing a maximal safety to the populations at a rational and acceptable management cost. The ambition of the project "Performance and capacity in the service of river dykes of protection against the floods" is to propose to Administrator scientific methods and technical tools for the management of river dykes. These tools will be capable of estimating the capacity in the service of dykes, and to define and organize into a hierarchy the actions of inspection, maintenance and repair. Scientific objectives: To suggest a methodology of evaluation of the performance of river dykes To identify and to understand the causes of variability (spatial and temporal) To analyze the relation between the quality of the data and the quality of the profile of performance To propose a methodology of auscultation and confortation of the information The research work consists in adapting functional analysis based on safety engineering method, in order to precise the role of each rivers dyke's component in regard to the mechanisms of degradation they suffer. It will allow us to identify failure indicators and decision criteria for evaluating the performance of dykes. The criteria will be the basis to develop a multicriteria decision aid tool allowing to determine the hierarchical organization and the selection of the sections of a park of dykes of protection against the floods, according to their performances and to their capacities to the service. Then we will continue the research work to determine the best scales for analyzing spatial and temporal variability of the phenomenon, as well as to test and to improve the quality of the performance indicators. Finally, we shall synthetize and shall integrate the results into a GIS tool for the dykes asset management.

Vuillet, Marc; Peyras, Laurent; Serre, Damien; Diab, Youssef

2010-05-01

172

Implementing the EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC) in Austria: Flood Risk Management Plans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

he Directive 2007/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2007 on the assessment and management of flood risks (EFD) aims at the reduction of the adverse consequences for human health, the environment, cultural heritage and economic activity associated with floods in the Community. This task is to be achieved based on three process steps (1) preliminary flood risk assessment (finalised by the end of 2011), (2) flood hazard maps and flood risk maps (due 2013) and (3) flood risk management plans (due 2015). Currently, an interdisciplinary national working group is defining the methodological framework for flood risk management plans in Austria supported by a constant exchange with international bodies and experts. Referring to the EFD the components of the flood risk management plan are (excerpt): 1. conclusions of the preliminary flood risk assessment 2. flood hazard maps and flood risk maps and the conclusions that can be drawn from those maps 3. a description of the appropriate objectives of flood risk management 4. a summary of measures and their prioritisation aiming to achieve the appropriate objectives of flood risk management The poster refers to some of the major challenges in this process, such as the legal provisions, coordination of administrative units, definition of public relations, etc. The implementation of the EFD requires the harmonisation of legal instruments of various disciplines (e.g. water management, spatial planning, civil protection) enabling a coordinated - and ideally binding - practice of flood risk management. This process is highly influenced by the administrative organisation in Austria - federal, provincial and municipality level. The Austrian approach meets this organisational framework by structuring the development of the flood risk management plan into 3 time-steps: (a) federal blueprint, (b) provincial editing and (c) federal finishing as well as reporting to the European Commission. Each time-step addresses different administrative levels and spatial scales accompanied by the active involvement of interested parties.

Neuhold, Clemens

2013-04-01

173

Flood risks and willingness to purchase flood insurance.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Computer simulation experiments were conducted to determine the effects of alternative sources of uncertainty on the willingness to pay for flood insurance. Two alternative insurance protection schemes were investigated: coinsurance and fixed coverage. The question investigated is to what extent does the insurance scheme influence how purchasers respond to risks? Floods were assumed to be log normally distributed and the effects on the purchase of insurance of uncertainties in the parameters of the distribution were explored using response surface analysis. Results indicate that fixed coverage insurance provisions shift most of the uncertainty in the physical parameters governing natural disaster occurrences away from the insuree and onto the insurer. The results also show that the form of the damage function has little effect on the demand for flood insurance.- Authors

Karlinger, M. R.; Attanasi, E. D.

1980-01-01

174

Flooding of municipal solid waste landfills--an environmental hazard?  

PubMed

Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills pose a long-lasting risk for humans and the environment. While landfill emissions under regular operating conditions are well investigated, landfill behaviour and associated emissions in case of flooding are widely unknown, although damages have been documented. This paper aims at developing a methodology for determining the proportion of MSW landfills endangered by flooding, and at evaluating the impact flooded landfills might have on the environment during a flood event. The risk of flooding of MSW landfills is assessed by using information about flood risk zones. Out of 1064 landfills investigated in Austria, 312 sites or about 30% are located in or next to areas flooded on average once in 200 years. Around 5% of these landfills are equipped with flood protection facilities. Material inventories of 147 landfill sites endangered by flooding are established, and potential emissions during a flood event are estimated by assuming the worst case of complete landfill leaching and erosion. The environmental relevance of emissions during flooding is discussed on the basis of a case study in the western part of Austria. Although environmental hazards need to be assessed on a site- and event-specific basis, the results indicate that flooded MSW landfills represent in general small environmental risks for the period of flooding. The longer term consequences of flooding are discussed in a next paper. PMID:19345983

Laner, David; Fellner, Johann; Brunner, Paul H

2009-06-01

175

Assessment of floodplain vulnerability during extreme mississippi river flood 2011.  

PubMed

Regional change in the variability and magnitude of flooding could be a major consequence of future global climate change. Extreme floods have the capacity to rapidly transform landscapes and expose landscape vulnerabilities through highly variable spatial patterns of inundation, erosion, and deposition. We use the historic activation of the Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway during the Mississippi and Ohio River Flooding of 2011 as a scientifically unique stress experiment to analyze indicators of floodplain vulnerability. We use pre- and postflood airborne Light Detection and Ranging data sets to locate erosional and depositional hotspots over the 540 km(2) agricultural Floodway. While riparian vegetation between the river and the main levee breach likely prevented widespread deposition, localized scour and deposition occurred near the levee breaches. Eroded gullies nearly 1 km in length were observed at a low ridge of a relict meander scar of the Mississippi River. Our flow modeling and spatial mapping analysis attributes this vulnerability to a combination of erodible soils, flow acceleration associated with legacy fluvial landforms, and a lack of woody vegetation to anchor soil and enhance flow resistance. Results from this study could guide future mitigation and adaptation measures in cases of extreme flooding. PMID:24512322

Goodwell, Allison E; Zhu, Zhenduo; Dutta, Debsunder; Greenberg, Jonathan A; Kumar, Praveen; Garcia, Marcelo H; Rhoads, Bruce L; Holmes, Robert R; Parker, Gary; Berretta, David P; Jacobson, Robert B

2014-03-01

176

Flood Loss Model for Austria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new flood model for Austria quantifying fluvial flood losses based on probabilistic event set developed by Impact Forecasting (Aon Benfield's model development centre) was released in June 2011. It was successfully validated with two serious past flood events - August 2002 and August 2005. The model is based on 10 meters cell size digital terrain model with 1cm vertical step and uses daily mean flows from 548 gauge stations of series of average length ~ 60 years. The even set is based on monthly maxima flows correlation, generating 12 stochastic events per year and allows to calculate annual and occurrence exceedance probability loss estimates. The model contains flood extents for more than 24,000 km of modelled river network compatible with HORA project (HOchwasserRisikoflchen Austria) for design flows ranging from 2 to 10,000 years. Model is primarily constructed to work with postal level resolution insurance data reducing positional uncertainty by weighting over more than 2.5 millions address points from Austria Post's ACGeo database. Countrywide flood protections were provided by the Austrian Ministry of Environment. The model was successfully tested with property portfolios of 8 global and local insurance companies and was also successfully validated with August 2002 and August 2005 past events evaluating their return period on the probabilistic simulation basis.

Pun?och?, P.; Podlaha, A.

2012-04-01

177

For assistance with developing a flood library for your community, please contact your local  

E-print Network

that can protect lives and property. Access the Flood Inundation Mapper and available flood inundation map Inundation Mapper... Step 1 - Stream selection The mapping process is initiated by a local community and validation of flood inundation map libraries. Communities use these maps to help protect lives and property

Torgersen, Christian

178

Impact of the Three-Gorges Dam and water transfer project on Changjiang floods Tadanobu Nakayama a,  

E-print Network

deforestation affecting river sedimentation, and shrinking lakes and levee construction that reduced the areas. This integrated approach could help to minimize flood damage and promote better decisions addressing sustain- able and Fang, 2004; Zhao et al., 2005). These include (1) deforestation and soil erosion in the upper reaches

Shankman, David

179

Private investment and government protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hurricane Katrina did massive damage because New Orleans and the Gulf Coast were not appropriately protected. Wherever natural\\u000a disasters threaten, the governmentin its traditional role as public goods providermust decide what level of protection to\\u000a provide to an area. It does so by purchasing protective capital, such as levees for a low-lying city. (Protection also consists\\u000a of prohibiting projects that

Carolyn Kousky; Erzo F. P. Luttmer; Richard J. Zeckhauser

2006-01-01

180

Feedback on flood risk management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For several years, as floods were increasing in South of France, local communities felt deprive to assume their mission of protection and information of citizens, and were looking for assistance in flood management. In term of flood disaster, the fact is that physical protection is necessary but inevitably limited. Tools and structures of assistance to anticipation remain slightly developed. To manage repeated crisis, local authorities need to be able to base their policy against flood on prevention, warnings, post-crisis analysis and feedback from former experience. In this objective, after 3 years of test and improvement since 2003, the initiative Predict-Services was developed in South of France: it aims at helping communities and companies to face repeated flood crisis. The principle is to prepare emergency plans, to organize crisis management and reduce risks; to help and assist communities and companies during crisis to activate and adapt their emergency plans with enough of anticipation; and to analyse floods effects and improve emergency plans afterwards. With the help of Meteo France datas and experts, Predict services helps local communities and companies in decision making for flood management. In order to reduce risks, and to keep the benefits of such an initiative, local communities and companies have to maintain the awareness of risk of the citizens and employees. They also have to maintain their safety plans to keep them constantly operational. This is a part of the message relayed. Companies, Local communities, local government authorities and basin stakeholders are the decision makers. Companies and local communities have to involve themselves in the elaboration of safety plans. They are also completely involved in their activation that is their own responsability. This applies to other local government authorities, like districts one's and basin stakeholders, which participle in the financing community safety plans and adminitrative district which are responsible of the transmission of meteorological alert and of rescue actions. In the crossing of the go-information stemming from the space technology, communication, meteorology, hydraulics and hydrology, Predict-services brings help to local communities in their mission of protection and information to the citizens, for flood problems and helps companies to limit and delete operating losses facing floods. The initiative, developped by BRL, EADS Astrium, in association with Meteo France, has been employed and is functioning on cities of south of France, notably on Montpellier, and also on the scale of catchment area ( BRL is a regional development company, a public private partnership controlled by the local gouvernments of the Languedoc-Roussillon Region). The initiative has to be coordinated with state services to secure continuity and coherence of information. This initiative is developped in dialogue with State services as Mto France, the Ministry for the interior, the Ministry for ecology and the durable development, the Regional Direction of the Environment (DIREN), the Central service of Hydrometeorology and Support to the Forecast of the Floods ( SCHAPI) and service of forecast of rising (SPC). It has been successfully functioning for 5 years with 300 southern cities from South West to South East of France and notably Montpellier and Sommires, famous for it's flood problems on the Vidourle river where no human loss was to regret and where the economic impacts were minimized. Actually developed in cities of South of France, this initiative is to be developed nationaly and very soon internationally. Thanks to the efficiency of it's method, this initiative is also developed in partnership with insurance company involved in prevention actions. After more than 100 events observed and analysed in South of France, the experience gained, allowed PREDICT Services to better anticipate phenomena and also to better manage them. The presentation will expose the feedback of this initiative and lessons learned on risk management.

Moreau, K.; Roumagnac, A.

2009-09-01

181

Flood Risk Management Newsletter 1 December 2011 vol 5 no 2  

E-print Network

damaged MR&T gets emergency repair funds ................................................................6 to National Capital Sections of ASCE and AWRA........................7 Other Links ­ Information, Newsletters to make -- the deliberate flooding of inhabited floodways to relieve pressure on flood protection

US Army Corps of Engineers

182

FLOOD RISK ASSESSMENT IN THE NETHERLANDS WITH FOCUS ON THE EXPECTED DAMAGES AND LOSS OF LIFE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large parts of the Netherlands lie below sea level and are threatened by river floods. The flood depths in some areas can\\u000a therefore become higher than 7 meters. Without the protection of dunes, dikes and hydraulic structures more than half of the\\u000a country would be almost permanently flooded as is shown in Figure 1. Therefore, flood protection has always received

ALEX ROOS; BAS JONKMAN

183

Operational flood management under large-scale extreme conditions, using the example of the Middle Elbe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to precautionary or technical flood protection measures, short-term strategies of the operational management, i.e. the initiation and co-ordination of preventive measures during and\\/or before a flood event are crucially for the reduction of the flood damages. This applies especially for extreme flood events. These events are rare, but may cause a protection measure to be overtopped or even

A. Kron; F. Nestmann; I. Schlter; G. Schdler; C. Kottmeier; M. Helms; R. Mikovec; J. Ihringer; M. Musall; P. Oberle; U. Saucke; A. Bieberstein; J. Dahelka; J. Krejc

2010-01-01

184

Three-Dimensional Simulation of Under-seepage of Meandering Levees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To analyze the under-seepage of a levee, a two-dimensional (2D) vertical cross section model (i.e., SEEP/W) is often used and considered appropriate. However, if the levee is meandering sharply, the under-seepage of the levee is asymmetric to the levee center line. Consequently, a 2-D cross section model may not be valid any more, and a complicated three-dimensional (3-D) model maybe required for more robust analysis of complicated seepage flow. In this study, a 3-D flow model was developed to simulate 3-D under-seepage conditions. Typical angled levees with different angles ranging from obtuse to acute angles were analyzed. The cross section of the levee includes continuation of a fine-grained clay blanket on waterside of the levee. Based on the 3-D modeling results, the average exit gradients from 3-D model simulations are higher than 2-D analyses and vary based on levee angles.

Zhang, J.; Punyamurthula, S.; Chowdhury, K.

2013-12-01

185

A Model for Variable Levee Formation Rates in an Active Lava Flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Channelized lava flows on Mars and the Earth often feature levees and collateral margins that change in volume along the path of the flow. Consistent with field observations of terrestrial flows, this suggests that the rate of levee formation varies with distance and other factors. Previous models have assumed a constant rate of levee growth, specified by a single parameter, lambda. The rate of levee formation for lava flows is a good indicator of the mass eruption rate and rheology of the flow. Insight into levee formation will help us better understand whether or not the effusion rate was constant during an eruption, and once local topography is considered, allows us to look at cooling and/or rheology changes downslope. Here we present a more realistic extension of the levee formation model that treats the rate of levee growth as a function of distance along the flow path. We show how this model can be used with a terrestrial flow and a long lava flow on Mars. The key statement of the new formulation is the rate of transfer from the active component to the levees (or other passive components) through an element dx along the path of the flow. This volumetric transfer equation is presented.

Glaze, L. S.; Baloga, S. M.; Mouginis-Mark, P.; Crisp, J.

2004-01-01

186

Balancing Play, Meaning and Reality: The Design Philosophy of LEVEE PATROLLER  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most serious games have been developed without a proper and comprehensive design theory. To contribute to the development of such a theory, this article presents the underlying design philosophy of LEVEE PATROLLER, a game to train levee patrollers in the Netherlands. This philosophy stipulates that the design of a digital serious game is a

Harteveld, Casper; Guimaraes, Rui; Mayer, Igor S.; Bidarra, Rafael

2010-01-01

187

Feedback on flood risk management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For several years, as floods were increasing in South of France, local communities felt deprive to assume their mission of protection and information of citizens, and were looking for assistance in flood management. In term of flood disaster, the fact is that physical protection is necessary but inevitably limited. Tools and structures of assistance to anticipation remain slightly developed. To manage repeated crisis, local authorities need to be able to base their policy against flood on prevention, warnings, post-crisis analysis and feedback from former experience. In this objective, after 3 years of test and improvement since 2003, the initiative Predict-Services was developped in South of France: it aims at helping communities and companies to face repeated flood crisis. The principle is to prepare emergency plans, to organize crisis management and reduce risks; to help and assist communities and companies during crisis to activate and adapt their emergency plans with enough of anticipation; and to analyse floods effects and improve emergency plans afterwards. In order to reduce risks, and to keep the benefits of such an initiative, local communities and companies have to maintain the awareness of risk of the citizens and employees. They also have to maintain their safety plans to keep them constantly operational. This is a part of the message relayed. Companies, Local communities, local government authorities and basin stakeholders are the decision makers. Companies and local communities have to involve themselves in the elaboration of safety plans. They are also completely involved in their activation that is their own responsability. This applies to other local government authorities, like districts one's and basin stakeholders, which participle in the financing community safety plans and adminitrative district which are responsible of the transmission of meteorological alert and of rescue actions. In the crossing of the go-information stemming from the space technology, communication, meteorology, hydraulics and hydrology, Predict-services brings help to local communities in their mission of protection and information to the citizens, for flood problems and helps companies to limit and delete operating losses facing floods. The initiative, developped by BRL, EADS Astrium, in association with Meteo France, has been employed and is functioning on cities of south of France, notably on Montpellier, and also on the scale of catchment area( BRL is a regional development company, a public private partnership controlled by the local gouvernments of the Languedoc-Roussillon Region). The initiative has to be coordinated with state services to secure continuity and coherence of information. This initiative is developped in dialogue with State services as Mto France, the Ministry for the interior, the Ministry for ecology and the durable development, the Regional Direction of the Environment (DIREN), the Central service of Hydrometeorology and Support to the Forecast of the Floods ( SCHAPI) and service of forecast of rising (SPC). It has been successfully functioning for 5 years with 300 southern cities from South West to South East of France and notably Montpellier and Sommires, famous for its flood problems on the Vidourle river where no human loss was to regret and where the economic impacts were minimized. Actually developed in cities of South of France, this initiative is to be developed nationaly and very soon internationally. Thanks to the efficiency of its method, this initiative is also developed in partnership with insurance company involved in prevention actions. The presentation will expose the feedback of this initiative and lessons learned.

Moreau, K.; Roumagnac, A.

2009-09-01

188

Cost of Flooding  

MedlinePLUS

... Simulator About The National Insurance Program Residential Coverage Commercial Coverage PolicyHolder Resources Preparation & Recovery Agent Site Agent ... devastating testimonials about flooding to our Home Personified commercials. Watch Now Flood Risk Scenarios There are many ...

189

River Flood Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use this animation to learn about floods. You will learn about drainage basins, discharge, hydrographs, floodplain deposition, and infiltration. You will also learn about the frequency of floods and what we are doing to control them.

2002-01-01

190

Steam-flooding  

SciTech Connect

Steam-flooding has become an established recovery technique within the last 20 years. This overview discusses its evolution, methods for selecting and designing steam-floods, constraints, and possible improvements. The term steam-flooding is used here in a general sense. The discussion includes steam soak (cyclic steam injection) and steam drive.

Matthews, C.S.

1983-03-01

191

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM JOHNSTONE RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the JOHNSTONE RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Johnstone River in flood

Greenslade, Diana

192

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM DAINTREE RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the DAINTREE RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Daintree River in flood

Greenslade, Diana

193

Anthropic Modification of The Alluvial Plain and Flood Control In Some Marchean Rivers (central Italy).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fluvial axis of the marchean rivers display an essentially sinuate character, whereas in its terminal portion, where it runs through a wide valley, it assumes an anastomosed form. In the initial portion, where it runs inside the Umbro-Marchean calcareous ridge, the regime is prevalently stream like, while in the arenaceous and clayey hilly belt, it follows a more regular trend. In the middle-lower portion, and especially in summer, the hydrological regime is significantly influenced by the water drawn off for hydroelectric and irrigation purposes. The particular hydrographic and orographic setting of the study territory and the considerable amount of anthropic activity, both in the past and present, are responsible for the frequent and disastrous flooding and flash flooding phenomena that, during intense rainfall, affected vast areas of the middle-terminal portion of the alluvial plain. An analysis of the flooding events of the last years has in fact led to the observation that flooding and flash flooding phenomena, and the damage deriving from them, are connected especially with mistaken management of the territory and subordinately with abundant rainfalls in a short span of time. This includes the following factors: insufficient, or complete absence of works for maintaining natural levees and river beds; the obstruction of watercourses due to building with no respect for adequate hydraulic criteria; an excessive narrowing or straightening of the main river axis, above all in those portions near the mouth; runoff difficulties in the works connecting the main hydrographic network with the secondary one; insufficient disposal capacity or efficiency of the rain water outlet network; insufficient measures, or a lack of planning of measures and/or works for emergency protection systems; widespread situations of hydrogeological accident and slope instability, accentuated by the progressive abandoning of agriculture and repeated occurrence of forest fires. In particular, after the atmospheric events of the April, 1992, November 1998 and September 2000, which caused vast damages, it could be shown that the causes determining the flash flooding, as well as the occurrence of floods with return times of less than 20 years (flow rate of the order of 120 m3/sec) and which are increasing in the last decade, were attributable to four main causes: deviations and artificial banks along the lower valley, dating from 1400 to 1500, for land reclamation and agriculture; 15th century alterations and destruction due to anthropic settlements and more extensive agricultural cultivation; beginning from the year 1900, the building of transversal works to deviate the water for hydroelectric and agricultural purposes with a hydraulic profile rate incompatible with that of the existent hydraulic defenses such as to cause flash floods due to breaking of the banks; underestimation in measuring the fluvial discharge due to indiscriminate and strong exploitations of the aquifers for agriculture during arid periods.

Farabollini, P.; Materazzi, M.

194

Levee crest elevation profiles derived from airborne lidar-based high resolution digital elevation models in south Louisiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study explores the feasibility of using airborne lidar surveys to derive high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) and develop an automated procedure to extract levee longitudinal elevation profiles for both federal levees in Atchafalaya Basin and local levees in Lafourche Parish. Generally, the use of traditional manual surveying methods to map levees is a costly and time consuming process that typically produces cross-levee profiles every few hundred meters, at best. The purpose of our paper is to describe and test methods for extracting levee crest elevations in an efficient, comprehensive manner using high resolution lidar generated DEMs. In addition, the vertical uncertainty in the elevation data and its effect on the resultant estimate of levee crest heights is addressed in an assessment of whether the federal levees in our study meet the USACE minimum height design criteria.

Palaseanu-Lovejoy, Monica; Thatcher, Cindy A.; Barras, John A.

2014-01-01

195

Dartmouth Flood Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Dartmouth Flood Observatory produced this website as "a research tool for detection, mapping, measurement, and analysis of extreme flood events world-wide using satellite remote sensing." Users can learn about the Observatory's use of microwave and optical satellite imaging to determine flooding and extreme low flow conditions for various places throughout the world. Students and researchers can discover how the observatory monitors wetland hydrology for various places. Researchers can find archives of large flooding events from 1985 to the present. The web site features a variety of maps and satellite images of floods. This site is also reviewed in the May 28, 2004 _NSDL Physical Sciences Report_.

196

Severe Flooding in India  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Floods devestated parts of eastern India along the Brahmaputra River in June 2000. In some tributaries of the Brahmaputra, the water reached more than 5 meters (16.5 feet) above flood stage. At least 40 residents died, and the flood waters destroyed a bridge linking the region to the rest of India. High water also threatened endangered Rhinos in Kaziranga National Park. Flooded areas are shown in red in the above image. The map was derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data taken on June 15, 2000. For more information on observing floods with satellites, see: Using Satellites to Keep our Head above Water and the Dartmouth Flood Observatory Image by the Dartmouth Flood Observatory

2002-01-01

197

Flood Frequency Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Flood Frequency Analysis module offers an introduction to the use of flood frequency analysis for flood prediction and planning. Through use of rich illustrations, animations, and interactions, this module explains the basic concepts, underlying issues, and methods for analyzing flood data. Common concepts such as the 100-year flood and return periods as well as issues affecting the statistical representation of floods are discussed. Common flood data analysis methods as well as an overview of design events are also covered. As a foundation topic for the Basic Hydrologic Science course, this module may be taken on its own, but it will also be available as a supporting topic providing factual scientific information to support students in completion of the case-based forecasting modules.

Comet

2006-10-10

198

LESSONS FROM GRAND FORKS :P LANNING NONSTRUCTURAL FLOOD CONTROL MEASURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though the flood of 1997 at Grand Forks, North Dakota, did not take a single life, the people suffered enormous economic damage and such large intangible losses that the city considered itself damaged to the ''core.'' Losses were exacerbated by five surprises. People working to protect themselves as flood stages rose and then to salvage their possessions as waters

L. Douglas James; Scott F. Korom

199

Terrestrial Lidar Datasets of New Orleans, Louisiana, Levee Failures from Hurricane Katrina, August 29, 2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hurricane Katrina made landfall with the northern Gulf Coast on August 29, 2005, as one of the strongest hurricanes on record. The storm damage incurred in Louisiana included a number of levee failures that led to the inundation of approximately 85 percent of the metropolitan New Orleans area. Whereas extreme levels of storm damage were expected from such an event, the catastrophic failure of the New Orleans levees prompted a quick mobilization of engineering experts to assess why and how particular levees failed. As part of this mobilization, civil engineering members of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) performed terrestrial lidar topographic surveys at major levee failures in the New Orleans area. The focus of the terrestrial lidar effort was to obtain precise measurements of the ground surface to map soil displacements at each levee site, the nonuniformity of levee height freeboard, depth of erosion where scour occurred, and distress in structures at incipient failure. In total, we investigated eight sites in the New Orleans region, including both earth and concrete floodwall levee breaks. The datasets extend from the 17th Street Canal in the Orleans East Bank area to the intersection of the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway (GIWW) with the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet (MRGO) in the New Orleans East area. The lidar scan data consists of electronic files containing millions of surveyed points. These points characterize the topography of each levee's postfailure or incipient condition and are available for download through online hyperlinks. The data serve as a permanent archive of the catastrophic damage of Hurricane Katrina on the levee systems of New Orleans. Complete details of the data collection, processing, and georeferencing methodologies are provided in this report to assist in the visualization and analysis of the data by future users.

Collins, Brian D.; Kayen, Robert; Minasian, Diane; Reiss, Thomas

2009-01-01

200

Raising risk preparedness through flood risk communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decade, most European countries have produced risk maps of natural hazards, but little is known about how to communicate these maps most effectively to the public. In October 2011, Zurich's local authorities informed owners of buildings located in the urban flood hazard area about potential flood damage, the probability of flood events and protection measures. The campaign was based on the assumptions that informing citizens increases their risk awareness and that citizens who are aware of risks are more likely to undertake appropriate actions to protect themselves and their property. This study is intended as a contribution to a better understanding the factors influencing flood risk preparedness, with a special focus on the effects of such a one-way risk communication strategy. We conducted a standardized mail survey of 1500 property owners in the hazard areas in Zurich. The questionnaire comprised items measuring respondents' risk awareness, risk preparedness, flood experience, information seeking behaviour, knowledge about flood risk, evaluation of the information material, risk acceptance, kind of property owned, attachment to the property, trust in local authorities, and socio-demographic variables. Multivariate data analysis revealed that the average level of risk awareness and preparedness was low, but our results confirmed that the campaign had a statistically significant effect on the level of preparedness. The main factors influencing the respondents' intention to prepare for a flood were the extent to which they evaluated the information material positively and their risk awareness. Those who had never taken any interest in floods previously were less likely to read the material. For future campaigns, we therefore recommend repeated communication of relevant information tailored to the needs of the target population.

Maidl, E.; Buchecker, M.

2014-01-01

201

Public perception of the risks of floods: implications for communication.  

PubMed

Floods in the U.S. kill an average of 162 people each year and cause $3.4 billion in property damage. Flood control programs have been successful in lowering, but not eliminating, the risks to lives and property. Since the late 1960s, the federal government has emphasized flood insurance as a primary tool for improving location and flood-proofing decisions, as well as for reimbursing flood losses. Since only 12.7% of houses in flood plain areas are covered by flood insurance, the program has been ineffective. We interviewed people living in three communities that had recently been flooded. Most people had little knowledge of the cause of floods or what could be done to prevent damage. People who work and who are better educated know more and are more likely to have flood insurance. Current government publications about flood risks are not likely to be understood by those at risk. There is little effective communication about the nature and magnitude of the risks and what individuals can do to protect their lives and property and lower their financial risks. The risk management program should both emphasize communication and enforcement of the current law requiring people at risk who hold federally funded loans to be insured. PMID:1876725

Lave, T R; Lave, L B

1991-06-01

202

Torrent floodplain mapping and torrent flood control in Serbia in the conditions of economic crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serbia is a country that is endangered by flooding of the largest European river, the Danube and its largest tributaries, as well as by countless torrents. During the 19th and 20th centuries, an imposing scope of protection structures was constructed. The existence of the protection system created the conviction that flood protection was achieved and that it should only be

Z. Gavrilovic; M. Stefanovic

2009-01-01

203

Lab 12 : Flooding II --Predicting and Understanding Flooding Introduction  

E-print Network

1 Lab 12 : Flooding II -- Predicting and Understanding Flooding Introduction Knowledge of the timing of flooding events is important for a variety of planning purposes. The time between floods Efforts to planning for flooding along a particular stream requires a historical record of how the stream

Chen, Po

204

Mapping Coastal Flood Zones for the National Flood Insurance Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) was created by Congress in 1968, and significantly amended in 1973 to reduce loss of life and property caused by flooding, reduce disaster relief costs caused by flooding and make Federally backed flood insurance available to property owners. These goals were to be achieved by requiring building to be built to resist flood damages,

D. Carlton; C. L. Cook; J. Weber

2004-01-01

205

Simulations of Flooding on Pea River and Whitewater Creek in the Vicinity of the Proposed Elba Bypass at Elba, Alabama  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A two-dimensional finite-element surface-water model was used to study the effects of proposed modifications to the State Highway 203 corridor (proposed Elba Bypass/relocated U.S. Highway 84) on water-surface elevations and flow distributions during flooding in the Pea River and Whitewater Creek Basins at Elba, Coffee County, Alabama. Flooding was first simulated for the March 17, 1990, flood, using the 1990 flood-plain conditions to calibrate the model to match measured data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers after the flood. After model calibration, the effects of flooding were simulated for four scenarios: (1) floods having the 50- and 100-year recurrence intervals for the existing flood-plain, bridge, highway, and levee conditions; (2) floods having the 50- and 100-year recurrence intervals for the existing flood-plain and levee conditions with the State Highway 203 embankment and bridge removed; (3) floods having the 50- and 100-year recurrence intervals for the existing flood-plain, bridge, and highway conditions with proposed modifications (elevating) to the levee; and (4) floods having the 50- and 100-year recurrence intervals for the proposed conditions reflecting the Elba Bypass and modified levee. The simulation of floodflow for the Pea River and Whitewater Creek flood of March 17, 1990, in the study reach compared closely to flood profile data obtained after the flood. The flood of March 17, 1990, had an estimated peak discharge of 58,000 cubic feet per second at the gage (just below the confluence) and was estimated to be between a 50-year and 100-year flood event. The estimated peak discharge for Pea River and Whitewater Creek was 40,000 and 42,000 cubic feet per second, respectively. Simulation of floodflows for the 50-year flood (51,400 cubic feet per second) at the gage for existing flood-plain, bridge, highway, and levee conditions indicated that about 31 percent of the peak flow was conveyed by the State Highway 203 bridge over Whitewater Creek, approximately 12 percent overtopped the State Highway 203 embankment, and about 57 percent was conveyed by the Pea River flood plain east of State Highway 125. For this simulation, flow from Pea River (2,380 cubic feet per second) overtopped State Highway 125 and crossed over into the Whitewater Creek flood plain north of State Highway 203, creating one common flood plain. The water-surface elevation estimated at the downstream side of the State Highway 203 bridge crossing Whitewater Creek was 202.82 feet. The girders for both the State Highway 203 and U.S. Highway 84 bridges were partially submerged, but U.S. Highway 84 was not overtopped. For the 100-year flood (63,500 cubic feet per second) at the gage, the simulation indicated that about 25 percent of the peak flow was conveyed by the State Highway 203 bridge over Whitewater Creek, approximately 24 percent overtopped the State Highway 203 embankment, and about 51 percent was conveyed by the Pea River flood plain east of State Highway 125. The existing levee adjacent to Whitewater Creek was overtopped by a flow of 3,200 cubic feet per second during the 100-year flood. For this simulation, flow from Pea River (6,710 cubic feet per second) overtopped State Highway 125 and crossed over into the Whitewater Creek flood plain north of State Highway 203. The water-surface elevation estimated at the downstream side of the State Highway 203 bridge crossing Whitewater Creek was 205.60 feet. The girders for both the State Highway 203 and U.S. Highway 84 bridges were partially submerged, and the west end of the U.S. Highway 84 bridge was overtopped. Simulation of floodflows for the 50-year flood at the gage for existing flood-plain and levee conditions, but with the State Highway 203 embankment and bridge removed, yielded a lower water-surface elevation (202.90 feet) upstream of this bridge than that computed for the existing conditions. For the 100-year flood, the simulation indi

Hedgecock, T. Scott

2003-01-01

206

Biogeochemical and metabolic responses to the flood pulse in a semiarid floodplain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flood pulse inundation of riparian forests alters rates of nutrient retention and organic matter processing in the aquatic ecosystems formed in the forest interior. Along the Middle Rio Grande (New Mexico, USA), impoundment and levee construction have created riparian forests that differ in their inter-flood intervals (IFIs) because some floodplains are still regularly inundated by the flood pulse (i.e., connected), while other floodplains remain isolated from flooding (i.e., disconnected). This research investigates how ecosystem responses to the flood pulse relate to forest IFI by quantifying nutrient and organic matter dynamics in the Rio Grande floodplain during three years of experimental flooding of the disconnected floodplain and during a single year of natural flooding of the connected floodplain. Surface and subsurface conditions in paired sites (control, flood) established in the two floodplain types were monitored to address metabolic and biogeochemical responses. Compared to dry controls, rates of respiration in the flooded sites increased by up to three orders of magnitude during the flood pulse. In the disconnected forest, month-long experimental floods produced widespread anoxia of four-week duration during each of the three years of flooding. In contrast, water in the connected floodplain remained well oxygenated (3-8 ppm). Material budgets for experimental floods showed the disconnected floodplain to be a sink for inorganic nitrogen and suspended solids, but a potential source of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Compared to the main stem of the Rio Grande, flood-water on the connected floodplain contained less nitrate, but comparable concentrations of DOC, phosphate-phosphorus, and ammonium-nitrogen. Results suggest that floodplain IFI drives metabolic and biogeochemical responses during the flood pulse. Impoundment and fragmentation have altered floodplains from a mosaic of patches with variable IFI to a bimodal distribution. Relatively predictable flooding occurs in the connected forest, while inundation of the disconnected forest occurs only as the result of managed application of water. In semiarid floodplains, water is scarce except during the flood pulse. Ecosystem responses to the flood pulse are related to the IFI and other measures of flooding history that help describe spatial variation in ecosystem function.

Valett, H. M.; Baker, M. A.; Morrice, J. A.; Crawford, C. S.; Molles, Jr. , M. C.; Dahm, C. N.; Moyer, D. L.; Thibault, J. R.; Ellis, L. M.

2005-01-01

207

3 Math Fights Flooding Niels Besseling1 Onno Bokhove1 Alla Kolechkina2  

E-print Network

3 Math Fights Flooding Niels Besseling1 Onno Bokhove1 Alla Kolechkina2 Jaap Molenaar3 Ronald van flooding or have negative influences on agriculture and nature. In this research, we study the effects own use. One of its main tasks is to protect the inhabitants against flooding and to manage the water

Rottschäfer, Vivi

208

On the potential of RST approach for a continuous monitoring of flooded areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent decades many efforts have been made in the field of remote sensing for the management of flood risk. In fact, among all natural disasters floods are probably the most frequent, causing high human suffering and large losses. All activities designed to mitigate and manage flood risk, in order to be effective and to help civil protection agencies in

Mariapia Faruolo; Irina Coviello; Teodosio Lacava; Nicola Pergola; Valerio Tramutoli

2010-01-01

209

GEOTECHNICAL RECONNAISSANCE OF THE 2011 FLOOD ON THE LOWER MISSISSIPPI RIVER  

E-print Network

GEOTECHNICAL RECONNAISSANCE OF THE 2011 FLOOD ON THE LOWER MISSISSIPPI RIVER Sand Boil on Protected, Louisiana #12;2011 Mississippi River Flood i June 18, 2012 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION #12;2011 Mississippi River Flood 1 June 18, 2012 1. INTRODUCTION The Spring of 2011 brought heavy

210

Cultural Resources Survey of Three Mississippi River Levee and Revetment Items, Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In September of 1980, Iroquois Research Institute conducted an archeological survey of three levee and revetment items on the Mississippi River in Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana. Two historic sites were discovered. One consisted of an inlet and possible fr...

J. D. Hartley, A. G. Garson, C. R. Brooks, D. H. Edsall, P. B. Eggleston

1982-01-01

211

Levee Failures in the Sacramento - San Joaquin River Delta: Characteristics and Perspectives  

E-print Network

of Middle River between Jones Tract and Victoria Island Showing the Levees Built to Cut Off the Meander Bands with the Original Channel Marked in Blue ......................................................... 59 3.7 Google Earth Image of Venice... of Middle River between Jones Tract and Victoria Island Showing the Levees Built to Cut Off the Meander Bands with the Original Channel Marked in Blue ......................................................... 59 3.7 Google Earth Image of Venice...

Hopf, Frank

2012-02-14

212

Reducing the Effects of Dredged Material Levees on Coastal Marsh Function: Sediment Deposition and Nekton Utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dredged material levees in coastal Louisiana are normally associated with pipeline canals or, more frequently, canals dredged\\u000a through the wetlands to allow access to drilling locations for mineral extraction. The hydrologic impact on marshes behind\\u000a the levee is of concern to coastal resource managers because of the potential impact on sediment transport and deposition,\\u000a and the effect on estuarine organism

Denise J. Reed; Mark S. Peterson; Brian J. Lezina

2006-01-01

213

Ancient Flood Stories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan the teacher will share some ancient flood stories with the class and have them view pictures and discuss the evidence that has been found in the Black Sea. Current theory says that during the Ice Age, the Black Sea was an isolated freshwater lake surrounded by farmland that eventually flooded. Students will practice their creative writing by composing stories about what it might have been like immediately before and during the flood.

214

Alabama district flood plan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this flood plan is to outline and record advance planning for flood emergencies, so that all personnel will know the general plan and have a ready-reference for necessary information. This will ensure that during any flood event, regardless of the extent or magnitude, the resources of the District can be mobilized into a maximum data collection operation with a mimimum of effort.

Hedgecock, T. Scott; Pearman, J. Leroy; Stricklin, Victor E.

2002-01-01

215

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BARRON RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BARRON RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Automatic rainfall station at Brinsmead Contained

Greenslade, Diana

216

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM PROSERPINE RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the PROSERPINE RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Peter Faust Dam

Greenslade, Diana

217

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM PIONEER RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the PIONEER RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding

Greenslade, Diana

218

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM KOLAN RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the KOLAN RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Kolan River at Monduran Contained in this document

Greenslade, Diana

219

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM MAROOCHY RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the MAROOCHY RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Maroochy River at Picnic

Greenslade, Diana

220

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BULLOO RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BULLOO RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Bulloo River at Thargomindah Contained

Greenslade, Diana

221

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM MOOLOOLAH RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the MOOLOOLAH RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Bundilla Alert Station 2007

Greenslade, Diana

222

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM HAUGHTON RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the HAUGHTON RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Haughton River at Hustons

Greenslade, Diana

223

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM FITZROY RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the FITZROY RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. March 2012 - Rockhampton

Greenslade, Diana

224

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM MOONIE RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the MOONIE RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Moonie River at Flinton Contained in this document

Greenslade, Diana

225

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM NICHOLSON RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the NICHOLSON RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Lawn Hill Creek at Lawn Hill

Greenslade, Diana

226

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM FLINDERS RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the FLINDERS RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Cloncurry River at Cloncurry

Greenslade, Diana

227

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM GILBERT RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the GILBERT RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Einasleigh River at Van Lee

Greenslade, Diana

228

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BURDEKIN RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BURDEKIN RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Burdekin Falls Dam Contained

Greenslade, Diana

229

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM NOOSA RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the NOOSA RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Lake Cooroibah Contained in this document

Greenslade, Diana

230

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM NERANG RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the NERANG RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Binna Burra ALERT Station Contained in this document

Greenslade, Diana

231

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM NORMAN RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the NORMAN RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Norman River at Normanton Contained in this document

Greenslade, Diana

232

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM PAROO RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the PAROO RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Paroo River at Eulo Contained in this document

Greenslade, Diana

233

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM DIAMANTINA RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the DIAMANTINA RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Center during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Diamantina

Greenslade, Diana

234

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BURNETT RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BURNETT RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Burnett River at Mundubbera

Greenslade, Diana

235

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM LEICHHARDT RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the LEICHHARDT RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Julius Dam

Greenslade, Diana

236

Flood events Dr. Andre Paquier  

E-print Network

Flood events Dr. Andre Paquier 4.1. Various floods Usually, various kinds of floods are distinguished based on the origin or on the main processes. Basically, the cause of the flood can be overflow floods are typical of steep beds and / or high intensity rainfalls. In mountain areas, they can

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

237

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM WARREGO RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the WARREGO RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Nive River at Biddenham

Greenslade, Diana

238

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM HERBERT RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the HERBERT RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Herbert River at Halifax

Greenslade, Diana

239

Flash Flood Case Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module takes the learner through seven case studies of flash flood events that occurred in the conterminous U.S. between 2003 and 2006. The cases covered include: * 30-31 August 2003: Chase & Lyon Counties, KS * 16-17 September 2004: Macon County, NC * 31 July 2006: Santa Catalina Mountains near Tucson, AZ * 25 December 2003: Fire burn area near San Bernardino, CA * 30 August 2004: Urban flash flood in Richmond, VA * 19-20 August 2003: Urban flash flood in Las Vegas, NV * 9 October 2005: Cheshire County, NH This module assists the learner in applying the concepts covered in the foundation topics of the Basic Hydrologic Sciences course. Some of the specific topics pertinent to these cases are the physical characteristics that make a basin prone to flash floods, basin response to precipitation, flash flood guidance (FFG), the relationship between wildfire and flash floods, and the relationship between urban development and flash floods. Related topics brought out in the cases include radar quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE), the National Weather Service Flash Flood Monitoring and Prediction (NWS FFMP) products, debris flows, impounded water, and interagency communications. The core foundation topics are recommended prerequisite materials since this module assumes some pre-existing knowledge of hydrologic principles. In particular, the Runoff Processes and Flash Flood Processes modules contain material directly related to these cases.

Comet

2007-06-26

240

Potential flood and debris hazards at Cottonwood Cove, Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Clark County, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

At Cottonwood Cove, Nevada, most of the existing dikes at the recreation sites are effective in diverting and routing floodflows, up to and including the 100-year flood, away from people and facilities. The dikes across Ranger Residence Wash and Access Road Wash at the mouth divert floods up to the 50-year recurrence interval away from residential areas. Flow and debris damage in protected areas will be relatively minor minor for floods including the 100-year flood, whereas damage caused by sediment deposition at the mouths of the washes near Lake Mohave could be significant for floods equal to or less than the 100-year flood. The extreme flood, a flood meteorologically and hydrologically possible but so rare as to preclude a frequency estimate, could cause great damage and possible loss of life. The present dikes would be topped or breached by such flooding. (USGS)

Moosburner, Otto

1981-01-01

241

European Flood Awareness System - now operational  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Commission's Communication "Towards a Stronger European Union Disaster Response" adopted and endorsed by the Council in 2010, underpins the importance of strengthening concerted actions for natural disasters including floods, which are amongst the costliest natural disasters in the EU. The European Flood Awareness System (EFAS) contributes in the case of major flood events. to better protection of the European Citizen, the environment, property and cultural heritage. The disastrous floods in Elbe and Danube rivers in 2002 confronted the European Commission with non-coherent flood warning information from different sources and of variable quality, complicating planning and organisation of aid. Thus, the Commission initiated the development of a European Flood Awareness System (EFAS) which is now going operational. EFAS has been developed and tested at the Joint Research Centre, the Commission's in house science service, in close collaboration with the National hydrological and meteorological services, European Civil Protection through the Monitoring and Information Centre (MIC) and other research institutes. EFAS provides Pan-European overview maps of flood probabilities up to 10 days in advance as well as detailed forecasts at stations where the National services are providing real time data. More than 30 hydrological services and civil protection services in Europe are part of the EFAS network. Since 2011, EFAS is part of the COPERNICUS Emergency Management Service, (EMS) and is now an operational service since 2012. The Operational EFAS is being executed by several consortia dealing with different operational aspects: EFAS Hydrological data collection centre REDIAM and ELIMCO- will be collecting historic and realtime discharge and water levels data in support to EFAS EFAS Meteorological data collection centre outsourced but running onsite of JRC Ispra. Will be collecting historic and realtime meteorological data in support to EFAS EFAS Computational centre - European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts - will be running the forecasts, post-processing and operating the EFAS-Information System platform EFAS Dissemination centreSwedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute and Rijkswaterstaat Waterdienst (the Netherlands)analyse the results on a daily basis, assess the situation, and disseminate information to the EFAS partners The European Commission is responsible for contract management. The Joint Research Centre further provides support for EFAS through research and development. Aims of EFAS operational added value early flood forecasting products to hydrological services unique overview products of ongoing and forecast floods in Europe more than 3 days in advance create a European network of operational hydrological services

Alionte Eklund, Cristina.; Hazlinger, Michal; Sprokkereef, Eric; Garcia Padilla, Mercedes; Garcia, Rafael J.; Thielen, Jutta; Salamon, Peter; Pappenberger, Florian

2013-04-01

242

Flood Finder: Mobile-based automated water level estimation and mapping during floods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Every year, Southeast Asia faces numerous flooding disasters, resulting in very high human and economic loss. Responding to a sudden flood is difficult due to the lack of accurate and up-to- date information about the incoming water status. We have developed a mobile application called Flood Finder to solve this problem. Flood Finder allows smartphone users to measure, share and search for water level information at specified locations. The application uses image processing to compute the water level from a photo taken by users. The photo must be of a known reference object with a standard size. These water levels are more reliable and consistent than human estimates since they are derived from an algorithmic measuring function. Flood Finder uploads water level readings to the server, where they can be searched and mapped by other users via the mobile phone app or standard browsers. Given the widespread availability of smartphones in Asia, Flood Finder can provide more accurate and up-to-date information for better preparation for a flood disaster as well as life safety and property protection.

Pongsiriyaporn, B.; Jariyavajee, C.; Laoharawee, N.; Narkthong, N.; Pitichat, T.; Goldin, S. E.

2014-02-01

243

Discover Floods Educators Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Now available as a Download! This valuable resource helps educators teach students about both the risks and benefits of flooding through a series of engaging, hands-on activities. Acknowledging the different roles that floods play in both natural and urban communities, the book helps young people gain a global understanding of this common--and

Project WET Foundation, 2009

2009-01-01

244

Sand boils induced by the 1993 Mississippi River flood: Could they one day be misinterpreted as earthquake-induced liquefaction?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In areas that are seismically active but lacking clear surficial faulting, many paleoearthquake studies depend on the interpretation of ancient liquefaction features (sand blows) as indicators of prehistoric seismicity. Sand blows, however, can be mimicked by nonseismic sand boils formed by water seeping beneath levees during floods. We examined sand boils induced by the Mississippi River flood of 1993 in order to compare their characteristics with sand blows of the New Madrid earthquakes of 1811-1812. We found a number of criteria that allow a distinction between the two types of deposits. (1) Earthquake-induced liquefaction deposits are broadly distributed about an epicentral area, whereas flood-induced sand boils are limited to a narrow band along a river's levee. (2) The conduits of most earthquake-induced sand blows are planar dikes, whereas the conduits of flood-induced sand boils are most commonly tubular. (3) Depression of the preearthquake ground surface is usual for sand blows, not for sand boils. (4) Flood-induced sand boils tend to be better sorted and much finer than sand-blow deposits. (5) Source beds for earthquake-induced deposits occur at a wide range of depths, whereas the source bed for sand boils is always near surface. (6) Materials removed from the walls surrounding the vent of a sand blow are seen inside sand blows, but are rarely seen inside sand boils. In general, flood-induced sand boils examined are interpreted to represent a less-energetic genesis than earthquake-induced liquefaction.

Li, Y.; Craven, J.; Schweig, E. S.; Obermeier, S. F.

1996-01-01

245

Automated determination of flood risk through fragility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change causes an increase in flood risk due to higher water levels in rivers, seas and oceans. It is crucial to understand the effect of the changing water levels on the flood risk to properly manage the effects of climate changes. Practically all existing flood risk models assume a level at which an embankment will no longer preform its water retaining function and fail. In reality, the situation is much more complex. A flood protection embankment can breach many meters before the water reaches the top of the embankment, but it can sometimes also withstand higher water tables without breaching. This paper presents a scientific method for risk assessment and -management that properly takes the strength of the embankment into account. The paper focusses on the determination of the chance of failure of the embankment, given changing water conditions due to climate change. Examples show how this tool can efficiently be used for flood risk management. Flood protection embankments can fail through many different failure mechanisms. The most obvious one is through insufficient height which causes overflow, erosion and finally breach. Other relevant failure mechanisms are, amongst others, macro instability, backwards internal erosion, suffusion and micro instability. The level at which an embankment overtops is easy to determine and therefor usually set equal to the level at which the embankment fails. Recent studies in the Netherlands show, however, that the other failure mechanisms are often dominant, depending on the subsoil conditions. Ignoring these mechanisms give a far too optimistic risk assessment and therefore, these mechanisms must be taken into account. This paper shows an automated methodology to properly represent the strength of flood protection embankments through fragility. A fragility curve is a graph in which the chance of failure of the embankment is plotted against the water level in the river. This database driven methodology uses GIS data to make a representation of the embankment and automatically determines the chances of failure for every relevant failure mechanism at every river water level. When the source database is updated, the fragility curve for the embankment can directly be updated as well to easily adapt to changes. Multiplying this fragility curve with the probability density function of the outside water level directly results in the chance of failure of the flood protection embankment. Scenario studies for different climate changes can easily be performed and be presented in a clear, visual way to the decision maker.

van der Meij, Raymond; Lopez de la Cruz, Juliana

2013-04-01

246

RouterMulticast .Source sends a flooding  

E-print Network

#12;Router RouterMulticast . . . Source Router Router . . .Source sends a flooding in periodic time One router is receiving multicast data service flooding Router Router Router Router Router RouterSource flooding flooding RouterRouter Router RouterSource flooding flooding flooding flooding prune Router

Jang, Ju-Wook

247

Iowa Flood Information System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Iowa Flood Information System (IFIS) is a web-based platform developed by the Iowa Flood Center (IFC) to provide access to flood inundation maps, real-time flood conditions, flood forecasts both short-term and seasonal, flood-related data, information and interactive visualizations for communities in Iowa. The key element of the system's architecture is the notion of community. Locations of the communities, those near streams and rivers, define basin boundaries. The IFIS provides community-centric watershed and river characteristics, weather (rainfall) conditions, and streamflow data and visualization tools. Interactive interfaces allow access to inundation maps for different stage and return period values, and flooding scenarios with contributions from multiple rivers. Real-time and historical data of water levels, gauge heights, and rainfall conditions are available in the IFIS by streaming data from automated IFC bridge sensors, USGS stream gauges, NEXRAD radars, and NWS forecasts. Simple 2D and 3D interactive visualizations in the IFIS make the data more understandable to general public. Users are able to filter data sources for their communities and selected rivers. The data and information on IFIS is also accessible through web services and mobile applications. The IFIS is optimized for various browsers and screen sizes to provide access through multiple platforms including tablets and mobile devices. The IFIS includes a rainfall-runoff forecast model to provide a five-day flood risk estimate for around 500 communities in Iowa. Multiple view modes in the IFIS accommodate different user types from general public to researchers and decision makers by providing different level of tools and details. River view mode allows users to visualize data from multiple IFC bridge sensors and USGS stream gauges to follow flooding condition along a river. The IFIS will help communities make better-informed decisions on the occurrence of floods, and will alert communities in advance to help minimize damage of floods. This presentation provides an overview of the tools and interfaces in the IFIS developed to date to provide a platform for one-stop access to flood related data, visualizations, flood conditions, and forecast.

Demir, I.; Krajewski, W. F.; Goska, R.; Mantilla, R.; Weber, L. J.; Young, N.

2011-12-01

248

Root Development of Salix purpurea L. on Heavily Compacted Levee Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of woody vegetation on levee stability is discussed controversially. On the one hand woody plants improve slope stability, prevent erosion failures and may aid in levee stability. On the other hand it is believed that woody vegetation has negative impacts which are largely related to the rooting system. Hence, root penetration can facilitate water movement - seepage or piping - as well as living and decaying roots can lead to voids and threaten the structural integrity of levees. In general root architecture is known for many plant species, but specific root characteristics and their interaction with soils are influenced by many factors, and therefore poorly understood. Consequently the current research investigates the rooting performance of woody vegetation by singling out a special type of vegetation which is often used within soil bioengineering techniques at river embankments. This vegetation type is a dense stand of shrubby willows (Salix purpurea L.), implemented with brush mattresses. The data is collected from a test site constructed in 2007, 5 km northeast of Vienna, Austria. Part of the test site is a research levee built true to natural scale. The fill material of the levee is a mineral silt-sand-gravel compound classified as silty sand, which was compacted to a dry density of 1.86 g/cm3. The planting of vegetation was applied directly to the compacted levee body using only a thin layer (2-4 cm) of humus topsoil. In 2009 the studies were supplemented with a lysimeter-like setup consisting of a total of 20 containers. The lysimeters were filled homogenously with the same soil as the levees and were consolidated to the same degree of compaction. They were planted similar to the research levees. Within the investigations a comprehensive annual vegetation monitoring program was carried out. Measured aboveground parameters were shoot diameter, shoot length, biomass and leaf area index (LAI). Monitored rooting parameters - examined by excavation - were rooting depth and root mass, complemented with several further rooting parameters obtained from the lysimeters and analyzed by WinRhizo. The proposed contribution will present the results of the vegetation monitoring program. Gained results will be discussed with reference to levee stability.

Lammeranner, W.

2012-04-01

249

Time scales of change in chemical and biological parameters after engineered levee breaches adjacent to Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eight sampling trips were coordinated after engineered levee breaches hydrologically reconnected both Upper Klamath Lake and Agency Lake, Oregon, to adjacent wetlands. The reconnection, by a series of explosive blasts, was coordinated by The Nature Conservancy to reclaim wetlands that had for approximately seven decades been leveed for crop production. Sets of nonmetallic porewater profilers (U.S. Patent 8,051,727 B1; November 8, 2011; http://www.uspto.gov/web/patents/patog/ week45/OG/html/1372-2/US08051727-20111108.html.) were deployed during these trips in November 2007, June 2008, May 2009, July 2009, May 2010, August 2010, June 2011, and July 2011 (table 1). Deployments temporally spanned the annual cyanophyte bloom of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and spatially involved three lake and four wetland sites. Spatial and temporal variation in solute benthic flux was determined by the field team, using the profilers, over an approximately 4-year period beginning 3 days after the levee breaches. The highest flux to the water column of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was detected in the newly flooded wetland, contrasting negative or insignificant DOC fluxes at adjacent lake sites. Over the multiyear study, DOC benthic fluxes dissipated in the reconnected wetlands, converging to values similar to those for established wetlands and to the adjacent lake (table 2). In contrast to DOC, benthic sources of soluble reactive phosphorus, ammonium, dissolved iron and manganese from within the reconnected wetlands were consistently elevated (that is, significant in magnitude relative to riverine and established-wetland sources) indicating a multi-year time scale for certain chemical changes after the levee breaches (table 2). Colonization of the reconnected wetlands by aquatic benthic invertebrates during the study trended toward the assemblages in established wetlands, providing further evidence of a multiyear transition of this area to permanent aquatic habitat (table 3). Both the lake and wetland benthic environments substantively contribute to macro- and micronutrients in the water column. Wetland areas undergoing restoration, and those being used for water storage, function very differently relatively to the established wetland within the Upper Klamath Lake National Wildlife Refuge, adjacent Upper Klamath Lake. Developing long-term management strategies for water quality in the Upper Klamath Basin requires recognition of the multi-year time scales associated with restoring wetlands that provide natural, seasonal ecosystem function and services.

Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Wood, Tamara M.; Parchaso, Francis; Cameron, Jason M.; Asbill, Jessica R.; Carlson, Rick A.; Fend, Steven V.

2012-01-01

250

Ready.Gov for Kids: Floods  

MedlinePLUS

... that can happen within minutes or hours of heavy rainfall, a dam or levee failure, or city drains overflowing Levee/Dam A manmade structure to contain or prevent water from moving Skip footer links The U.S. Department ...

251

Prediction of extreme flood in August 2002 along the Upper-Danube in Hungary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Specific for summer conditions weather situation caused the flood. A cyclone reached the region of Alps, humid air and great instability of stratification produced high precipitation throughout the region in two vawes. The flood has reached historical maxima on the reach between Bratislava Budapest. This is the first flood of this magnitude, which has passed this section of the Danube without breaching the dikes, flood embankments. The peak flow rate attenuated along this section from 10 000 m3s-1 to 8600 m3s-1. Specifics of flood routing conditions are discussed. Barrages and training has changed flood routing patterns along the Austrian and joined Slovak Hungarian sections of the Danube. Increased velocity of wave propagation decreases the impact of superposition of consequent flood waves, but attenuation of flood waves is also less expressed. The most significant impact on the present flood was, that this was the first flood of this magnitude, which has passed this section of the Danube without breaching the flood embankments. Earlier extreme floods including the 1954 and 1965 floods resulted failure of the dikes and spill over of 1.5- 2 million m3 of water to the protected floodplain. This time the flood was contained within the floodberm.

Sthe, L.; Blint, G.; Szlvik, L.

2003-04-01

252

A Hybrid Model for Leveed Lava Flows: Implications for Eruption Styles on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many cehannelized lava flows on the plains of Mars have substantial embanking margins and levees inferred to have been stationary while the central channel was active. Levee formation can be attributed to two end-member processes during emplacement; construction during passage of the flow front and growth along the entire length of the flow while it is active. It is shown here that the amount of lava that can be deposited by the flow front alone is limited. Estimates of the levee volume for many Mars plains flows exceed this limit and must have formed by processes that continued after the passage of the front. Experimental studies of analogous laboratory flows also indicate a combination of both modes of emplacement. A model that combines both modes of levee formation. is presented, including a method for estimating volumetric flow rate, eruption duration, and viscosity. Six lava flows on the plains of the Tharsis volcanic province are used as illustrative examples. Crustal thicknesses for the six flows examined range from 9 to 23 m. Estimated emplacement times required to cool crusts of these thicknesses range from I year to 10 years. Correspondini viscosities are on the order of 10 5-106 Pa s. Effusion rates range from 25 to 840 m 3 s - and are all within the range of terrestrial observations. Therefore, the large leveed plains flows on Mars are not dramatically different in eruption rate or lava viscosity from large terrestrial analogs.

Glaze, Lori S.; Baloga, Stephen M.; Garry, W. Brent; Fagents, Sarah A.; Parcheta, Carolyn

2009-01-01

253

Production and decomposition of forest litter fall on the Apalachicola River flood plain, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Measurements of litter fall (leaves and other particulate organic material) and leaf decomposition were made on the Apalachicola River flood plain in 1979-80. Litter fall was collected monthly in five different forest types in swamp and levee areas. Leaves from 42 species of trees and other plants accounted for 58 percent of total litter fall. The remaining 42 percent was nonleaf material. Average litter fall was 800 grams per square meter per year in the flood plain. Tupelo (Nyssa), baldcypress (Taxodium), and ash (Fraxinus), all swamp-adapted trees, produce over 50 percent of the leaf fall. Common levee species such as sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) and diamond-leaf oak (Quercus laurifolia) are also major contributors to total flood-plain litter fall. Annual flooding of the river provides an important mechanism for mobilization of the litter-fall products. Leaf decomposition rates were greatly reduced in dry environments. Carbon loss was nearly linear over a 6-month period, but nitrogen and phosphorus loss was exponential and nearly complete within 1 month. (USGS)

Elder, J.F.; Cairns, D.J.

1982-01-01

254

FLOOD INSURANCE Future Availability of Consumer Flood Insurance in the  

E-print Network

FLOOD INSURANCE Future Availability of Consumer Flood Insurance in the United Kingdom Floods cause great loss of property, not to mention human misery when they destroy rain or rapid melting of snow will cause the exact same situation again as the flood waters take

Anderson, Jim

255

Seasonal Flood Forecasts and Dynamic Flood Risk Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in predicting seasonal flood peaks\\/volumes conditioned on ocean, atmospheric and land surface conditions offer the scope for dynamic flood risk management. We address a deficiency of the traditional assumption that flood series are stationary, independent and identically distributed (iid). In this study, we evaluate a semi-parametric methodology based on local likelihood estimation for estimating the flood quantiles based

S. Arumugam; U. Lall

2004-01-01

256

Origins of the 1996 controlled flood in Grand Canyon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The March 1996 controlled flood in Grand Canyon resulted from a decade-long evolution in scientific thinking about the appropriate role of floods in management of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. The flood was implemented after 5 consecutive years in which proposals to conduct a similar event were rejected; final implementation of the 1996 flood necessitated revision of the definition of the appropriate basin-wide runoff conditions that would trigger such a flood. The flood partly resulted from a multi-year effort to reform the Colorado River Storage Project Act that had culminated in passage of the Grand Canyon Protection Act in 1992. The flood itself consisted of a 4-day period of steady discharge of 227 m3/s, an 11-hr period of increasing discharge to a peak of 1274 m3/s that lasted for 7 days, a 45-hr period of recession, and a 4-day period of steady discharge at 227 m3/s. This event was partly a demonstration of the potential role of floods in regulated river management and also provided an opportunity for scientists to make measurements about physical and biological processes during flood conditions.

Schmidt, John C.; Andrews, Edmund D.; Wegner, David L.; Patten, Duncan T.; Marzolf, G. Richard; Moody, Thomas O.

257

Flooding could follow wildfires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Summertime wildfires that have already burned about 2.7 million hectares in the United States may cause a double-whammy for property owners by greatly increasing the risk of flooding, according to the Federal Emergency Management Agency or FEMA.FEMA director Joe Allbaugh said, The loss of trees, ground cover, and other vegetation has greatly increased the possibility of flash floods and mudflows. Allbaugh said that land scorched and barren from the loss of natural forest barriers can take decades to recover and result in erosion and devastating floods.

Showstack, Randy

258

Flood: Farming and Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Farmers and rivers have a close, though not always friendly, relationship with one another. Rivers can create prized farmland, but they also flood fields and the communities built alongside them. Farming practices may also contribute to an increase in the magnitude and intensity of river flooding. This video segment explains the issue of flooding as seen in the Mississippi River watershed and suggests possible solutions. The segment is four minutes thirty-eight seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

2011-03-28

259

Flood: Farming and Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Farmers and rivers have a close, though not always friendly, relationship with one another. Rivers can create prized farmland, but they also flood fields and the communities built alongside them. Farming practices may also contribute to an increase in the magnitude and intensity of river flooding. This video segment explains the issue of flooding as seen in the Mississippi River watershed and suggests possible solutions. The segment is four minutes thirty-eight seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

260

FLOOD PROTECTION IN THE TISZA RIVER BASIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tisza River Basin is shared by five nations: Ukraine, Romania, Slovakia, Hungary and Serbia-Montenegro. The river itself\\u000a is the frontier along several kilometers between Ukraine and Romania, Ukraine and Hungary and between Slovakia and Hungary.\\u000a All blessings and all disasters a river can bring are also shared by the five nations. For people living close to the river,\\u000a it

ZOLTAN BALINT; SNDOR TTH

261

Coping with floods: Preparedness, response and recovery of flood-affected residents in  

E-print Network

water flow put moveable contents upstairs protect oil tanks install water pump safeguard domestic = very ineffectively performed measure 2002 2005 2006 2010 2011Year: switch off gas/electricity Figure 3 43 % of all interviewees (2005­2011) gathered information on flood hazards and safety measures

Baer, Christian

262

Overbank Sedimentation from the 2011 Flood along the Lower Mississippi River: Characterization and Comparison of Two Extreme Events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geomorphic effectiveness of extreme events has long been a fundamental topic within Earth sciences. The 2011 flood along the lower Mississippi River (3.2 x 10-6 km2) was an extreme event and presented an ideal opportunity to consider controls on the magnitude and pattern of floodplain sedimentation. The study reach was located between Natchez, Mississippi and St. Francisville, Louisiana, the lowermost reaches of the alluvial valley, and the same location utilized in a well documented sedimentation study from a comparable flood event in 1973. Thus, the 2011 field study provided a rare opportunity to directly compare floodplain sedimentation from two extreme events on Earth's third largest fluvial system. Although flood stage along the Lower Mississippi River is influenced by an extensive levee system the field setting is distinctive because it is not embanked by main-line levees. The field site was flooded for nearly two months, from early May to late June 2011. The flood crest exceeded long standing (> 100 yr) stage heights, including the infamous 1927, 1937, and 1973 events. The maximum discharge at Vicksburg, Mississippi, upstream of the study sites, was 65,695 m3/s, one of the larger discharge events along the Lower Mississippi River. Field work was conducted soon after flood waters receded and before bioturbation disrupted the integrity of the flood deposits. We sampled flood deposits at fifty-five locations within a range of floodplain depositional environments to quantify and qualify the sedimentary, hydrologic, and hydraulic characteristics of the flood, and to make explicit comparison with the 1973 study. The average thickness of flood deposits ranged from < 1 mm to 650 mm, but was highly variable. Although natural levees had the thickest flood deposits several reaches along natural levees had no measureable deposits, despite being inundated by ~4 m of flood water. In such cases the angle of the upstream channel relative to the downstream cutbank is suggested as a possible control on the pattern of sedimentation. Despite the magnitude and duration of the 2011 flood, the overall thickness of flood deposits was not very high and the geologic legacy of the event is likely to be unimpressive. Most sediment samples was < 10 mm in thickness, which could be due to the timing of the flood event superimposed upon an overall declining trend in suspended sediment load. The peak discharge was associated with a suspended sediment load of 727,400 tonnes/day. This is notably lower than the maximum suspended sediment load of 1,046,000 tonnes/day, which likely caused sediment exhaustion because of occurring about two months prior to inundation. The thickness of the 2011 flood deposits were about an order of magnitude less than the 1973 flood deposits (11 to 530 mm). Since the early 1900s the sediment budget of the Lower Mississippi has been fundamentally altered. Suspended sediment loads have declined by more than fifty percent, and could contribute to the overall low amount of sedimentation.

Hudson, P. H.; Heitmuller, F. T.; Kesel, R. H.

2012-04-01

263

Global Floods 1985�2006  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An animated GIF map of major flood events around the world from 1985-2006. Floods are overlaid on a world map, shown as numbered red areas representing the areas the floods affected. Only major floods reported by news services are included in the map.

Observatory, Dartmouth F.; College, Dartmouth

264

Coastal Flooding Assessment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Eric B. Grosfils, Pomona College Summary Students are introduced to Spatial Analyst and 3D Analyst, and use these tools to perform a flooding analysis for the Long Beach area of California. Context Type and level ...

Grosfils, Eric

265

Repairing Your Flooded Home  

MedlinePLUS

... Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the American Red Cross to help flooded property owners. It is designed to be easily copied. Permission to reproduce all or any section of this material is hereby granted and encouraged. ...

266

Ice Age Floods Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes Ice Age glaciers and immense floods of glacial meltwater that swept across the Pacific Northwest (18,000-12,000 years ago and earlier), affecting the landscape from Montana to Washington and Oregon, sculpting the Columbia River Basin, and creating glacial lakes to rival today's Great Lakes. This non-profit institute promotes scientific education about the floods, their causes and impacts. Proposes an interpretive geologic trail linking significant sites.

2011-12-30

267

National Flood Insurance Program: Flood Hazard Mapping  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has created this helpful set of resources for policymakers, elected officials, journalists, and members of the general public who would like to know more about the world of flood hazard mapping. On this site, visitors can find a host of resources and over a dozen thematic links, such as Coastal Projects, Change My Flood Zone Designation, and User Groups. Each link is preceded by a brief introduction to the resource, along with a description of the various items within each link. Visitors shouldn't miss the Online Tutorials offered here, as they include several multimedia instructional resources designed to provide in-depth training on different facets on these programs.

268

Historical Floods in the Northeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site reviews major flooding in the Northeastern United States, as reported by the Northeast River Forecast Center (NERFC), a division of the National Weather Service. It includes photos, rainfall maps, and descriptions of record-breaking floods that occured between the years 1927 and 1996. Descriptions include specific causes of flooding, weather patterns leading up to flooding, as well as results and actions taken due to flooding in the regions discussed.

269

Flood Frequency Analysis: International Edition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Flood frequency analysis uses historical flow records to both estimate the frequency with which floods of a certain magnitude may occur and predict the possible flood magnitude over a certain time period. This module offers a thorough introduction to appropriately constructing the necessary historical data series, calculating the flooding probabilities, and gauging the reliability of the resulting probability values. Methods for assessing flood frequency in basins with limited data are also discussed.

Comet

2010-08-31

270

Outside the Bankfull Realm: Challenges in Developing a Flood-based Management and Restoration Strategy for a Large, Semi-arid River System: Santa Clara River, Ventura County, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

River ecosystem restoration is usually based on re-establishing an equilibrium channel form, with the channel modified to convey the statistical bankfull discharge without quite overtopping. The rationale for bankfull-based strategies has stemmed from geomorphic studies which observed that bankfull flow exhibited a frequency that, over the long-term, transported the greatest total load of sediment, making it the `dominant' or `channel- forming' flow. Such ideas have become pervasive in the popular perception of river geomorphology. In contrast, analysis of sediment transport in the lower Santa Clara River, one of the largest coastal watersheds in Southern California (drainage area 4,212 km2) indicates that the dominant discharge is not the bankfull discharge, but instead the largest flow on record. This characteristic is due to extreme flow variability resulting from an ENSO-influenced semi-arid climate, very high sediment supply from highly erodible bedrock, and significant episodic sediment generation from landslides, earthquakes and wildfires. Channel response to large flows is enhanced because the river is now partially leveed and responding to recent in-channel gravel mining. Challenges for managing and restoring the lower Santa Clara River are, therefore, based less on managing moderate fluctuations around a long-term equilibrium channel morphology, and more on accommodating significant lateral and vertical morphological changes resulting from individual large flood events. At decadal scales, influences on channel form include the intensity of ENSO activity, the balance of flow generated by major tributaries exhibiting different sediment supply characteristics, and a suite of human activities that affect the channel at local spatial scales. Regional influences include legacy impacts from ranching, groundwater abstraction, flow regulation, and the 1928 St. Francis Dam disaster. Urban growth will likely influence future impacts. In this highly dynamic geomorphic context, the management of flood risk might be achieved most cost-effectively using a strategy of `vulnerability modification' (land acquisition, setback levees, easements, zoning) rather than the near-universal strategy of `event modification' (bank-edge levees, bank protection, channelization) that often results in significant impairment of riverine ecosystems. Vulnerability modification also has the potential to provide wide-ranging opportunities for river-floodplain ecosystem restoration including the recovery of species imperiled by regional losses in riparian habitat and, overall, seems especially well- suited to river management in large, semi-arid river systems.

Downs, P. W.; Dusterhoff, S. R.; Sears, W. A.

2006-12-01

271

The Var turbidite system (Ligurian Sea, northwestern Mediterranean)morphology, sediment supply, construction of turbidite levee and sediment waves: implications for hydrocarbon reservoirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Var turbidite system is a small sandy system located in the Ligurian Basin. It was deposited during the Pliocene-Quaternary in a flat-floored basin formed during the Messinian salinity crisis. The system was fed through time by the Var and Paillon canyons that connect directly to the Var and Paillon rivers. It is still active during the present sea-level highstand. Two main mechanisms are responsible for gravity-flow triggering in the Var turbidite system: (1) mass-wasting events affect mainly the upper part of the continental slope, in areas where volumes of fresh sediment delivered by rivers are highest, and result from the under-consolidation state of slope sediments and earthquakes, and (2) high-magnitude river floods resulting from melting of snow and convective rainfall during fall and spring seasons, and generating hyperpycnal turbidity currents at river mouths when the density of freshwater transporting suspended particles exceeds that of ambient seawater. Failure- and flood-induced gravity flows are involved through time in the construction of the Var Sedimentary Ridge, the prominent right-hand levee of the Var system, and sediment waves. Processes of construction of both the Var Ridge and sediment waves are closely connected. Sandy deposits are thick and abundant in the eastern (downchannel) part of the ridge. Their distribution is highly constrained by the strong difference of depositional processes across the sediment waves, potentially resulting through time in the individualization of large and interconnected sand bodies.

Migeon, Sbastien; Mulder, Thierry; Savoye, Bruno; Sage, Franoise

2006-12-01

272

An assessment of derived flood frequency distributions  

E-print Network

Flood Frequency Curve - Turtle Creek. . . FIG. 9. Statistical Flood Frequency Curve - Halls Bayou . . . . . . 51 . . . 51 FIG. 10. Derived Flood Frequency Curves ? South Rocky Creek. . . . . . 53 FIG. 11. Derived Flood Frequency Curves - Briar Creek... . . FIG. 12, Derived Flood Frequency Curves - Turtle Creek. . . FIG. 13. Derived Flood Frequency Curves - Halls Bayou. . . . . . . . . . . . . . FIG. 14. Simulation Flood Frequency Curve ? South Rocky Creek. . . . . . 54 . . . 56 FIG. 15. Simulation...

Raines, Timothy Howard

2012-06-07

273

Effect of Sampling Period on Flood Frequency Distributions in the Susquehanna Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flooding is a devastating natural hazard that claims many human lives and significantly impact regional economies each year. Given the magnitude of flooding impacts, significant resources are dedicated to the development of forecasting models for early warning and evacuation planning, construction of flood defenses (levees/dams) to limit flooding, and the design of civil infrastructure (bridges, culverts, storm sewers) to convey flood flows without failing. In all these cases, it is particularly important to understand the potential flooding risk in terms of both recurrence interval (i.e., return period) and magnitude. Flood frequency analysis (FFA) is a form of risk analysis used to extrapolate the return periods of floods beyond the gauged record. The technique involves using observed annual peak flow discharge data to calculate statistical information such as mean values, standard deviations, skewness, and recurrence intervals. Since discharge data for most catchments have been collected for periods of time less than 100 years, the estimation of the design discharge requires a degree of extrapolation. This study focuses on the assessment and modifications of flood frequency based discharges for sites with limited sampling periods. Here, limited sampling period is intended to capture two issues: (1) limited number of observations to adequately capture the flood frequency signal (i.e., minimum number of annual peaks needed) and (2) climate variability (i.e., sampling period contains primarily wet or dry periods only). Total of 34 gauges (more than 70 years of data) spread throughout the Susquehanna River basin (71,000 sq km) were used to investigate the impact of sampling period on flood frequency distributions. Data subsets ranging from 10 years to the total number of years available were created from the data for each gauging station. To estimate the flood frequency, the Log Pearson Type III distribution was fit to the logarithms of instantaneous annual peak flows following Bulletin 17B guidelines of the U.S. Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data. The resulting flood frequencies from these subsets were compared to the results from the entire record at each gauge. Based on the analysis, the minimum number of years required to obtain a reasonable flood frequency distribution was determined for each gauge. In addition, a method to adjust flood frequency distribution at a given gauging station with limited data based on other locations with longer periods of records was developed.

Kargar, M.; Beighley, R. E.

2010-12-01

274

Meteorology-hydrology study targets Typhoon Nari and Taipei flood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Typhoon Nari struck Taiwan on 16 September 2001, taking 92 lives. Analysis reveals that the storm's heavy rains were due to warmer ocean temperatures, Nari's unique track and slow-moving speed, and the terrain of Taiwan. Analysis further suggests that the heavy rains in Nari contained many small raindrops. The typhoon rains overwhelmed existing flood protection capacities downstream of the Chi-Lung River in a part of Taipei that has no regulatory reservoirs, resulting in major flooding. Preliminary findings underscore several key issues for future study, the goal of which will be to improve quantitative precipitation estimation/prediction, hydrologic modeling, and flood prediction.

Hsiung Sui, Chung; Huang, Ching-Yuang; Tsai, Yi-Ben; Chen, Ching-Sen; Lin, Pay-Liam; Shieh, Shinn-Liang; Li, Ming-Hsu; Liou, Yuei-An; Wang, Tai-Chi Chen; Wu, Ray-Shyan; Liu, Gin-Rong; Chu, Yen-Hsyang

275

Estimating insured residential losses from large flood scenarios on the Tone River, Japan - a data integration approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flooding on the Tone River, which drains the largest catchment area in Japan and is now home to 12 million people, poses significant risk to the Greater Tokyo Area. In April 2010, an expert panel in Japan, the Central Disaster Prevention Council, examined the potential for large-scale flooding and outlined possible mitigation measures in the Greater Tokyo Area. One of the scenarios considered closely mimics the pattern of flooding that occurred with the passage of Typhoon Kathleen in 1947 and would potentially flood some 680 000 households above floor level. Building upon that report, this study presents a Geographical Information System (GIS)-based data integration approach to estimate the insurance losses for residential buildings and contents as just one component of the potential financial cost. Using a range of publicly available data - census information, location reference data, insurance market information and flood water elevation data - this analysis finds that insurance losses for residential property alone could reach approximately 1 trillion JPY (US 12.5 billion). Total insurance losses, including commercial and industrial lines of business, are likely to be at least double this figure with total economic costs being much greater again. The results are sensitive to the flood scenario assumed, position of levee failures, local flood depths and extents, population and building heights. The Average Recurrence Interval (ARI) of the rainfall following Typhoon Kathleen has been estimated to be on the order of 200 yr; however, at this juncture it is not possible to put an ARI on the modelled loss since we cannot know the relative or joint probability of the different flooding scenarios. It is possible that more than one of these scenarios could occur simultaneously or that levee failure at one point might lower water levels downstream and avoid a failure at all other points. In addition to insurance applications, spatial analyses like that presented here have implications for emergency management, the cost-benefit of mitigation efforts and land-use planning.

Okada, T.; McAneney, K. J.; Chen, K.

2011-12-01

276

Uncertainty and sensitivity assessment of flood risk assessments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floods are one of the most frequent and costly natural disasters. In order to protect human lifes and valuable assets from the effect of floods many defensive structures have been build. Despite these efforts economic losses due to catastrophic flood events have, however, risen substantially during the past couple of decades because of continuing economic developments in flood prone areas. On top of that, climate change is expected to affect the magnitude and frequency of flood events. Because these ongoing trends are expected to continue, a transition can be observed in various countries to move from a protective flood management approach to a more risk based flood management approach. In a risk based approach, flood risk assessments play an important role in supporting decision making. Most flood risk assessments assess flood risks in monetary terms (damage estimated for specific situations or expected annual damage) in order to feed cost-benefit analysis of management measures. Such flood risk assessments contain, however, considerable uncertainties. This is the result from uncertainties in the many different input parameters propagating through the risk assessment and accumulating in the final estimate. Whilst common in some other disciplines, as with integrated assessment models, full uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of flood risk assessments are not so common. Various studies have addressed uncertainties regarding flood risk assessments, but have mainly focussed on the hydrological conditions. However, uncertainties in other components of the risk assessment, like the relation between water depth and monetary damage, can be substantial as well. This research therefore tries to assess the uncertainties of all components of monetary flood risk assessments, using a Monte Carlo based approach. Furthermore, the total uncertainty will also be attributed to the different input parameters using a variance based sensitivity analysis. Assessing and visualizing the uncertainties of the final risk estimate will be helpful to decision makers to make better informed decisions and attributing this uncertainty to the input parameters helps to identify which parameters are most important when it comes to uncertainty in the final estimate and should therefore deserve additional attention in further research.

de Moel, H.; Aerts, J. C.

2009-12-01

277

Balancing pedagogy, game and reality components within a unique serious game for training levee inspection  

E-print Network

commercial games create compelling virtual worlds." The need for such an underlying theory has been confirmedBalancing pedagogy, game and reality components within a unique serious game for training levee.R.Bidarra@ewi.tudelft.nl Abstract. Most educational or training games, also referred to as serious games, have been developed

Bidarra, Rafael

278

Estimating magnitude and frequency of floods using the PeakFQ 7.0 program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flood-frequency analysis provides information about the magnitude and frequency of flood discharges based on records of annual maximum instantaneous peak discharges collected at streamgages. The information is essential for defining flood-hazard areas, for managing floodplains, and for designing bridges, culverts, dams, levees, and other flood-control structures. Bulletin 17B (B17B) of the Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data (IACWD; 1982) codifies the standard methodology for conducting flood-frequency studies in the United States. B17B specifies that annual peak-flow data are to be fit to a log-Pearson Type III distribution. Specific methods are also prescribed for improving skew estimates using regional skew information, tests for high and low outliers, adjustments for low outliers and zero flows, and procedures for incorporating historical flood information. The authors of B17B identified various needs for methodological improvement and recommended additional study. In response to these needs, the Advisory Committee on Water Information (ACWI, successor to IACWD; http://acwi.gov/, Subcommittee on Hydrology (SOH), Hydrologic Frequency Analysis Work Group (HFAWG), has recommended modest changes to B17B. These changes include adoption of a generalized method-of-moments estimator denoted the Expected Moments Algorithm (EMA) (Cohn and others, 1997) and a generalized version of the Grubbs-Beck test for low outliers (Cohn and others, 2013). The SOH requested that the USGS implement these changes in a user-friendly, publicly accessible program.

Veilleux, Andrea G.; Cohn, Timothy A.; Flynn, Kathleen M.; Mason, Robert R.; Hummel, Paul R.

2014-01-01

279

Urban flood risk mitigation: from vulnerability assessment to resilient city  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban flood risk mitigation: from vulnerability assessment to resilient city Bruno Barroca1, Damien Serre2 1Laboratory of Urban Engineering, Environment and Building (L G U E H) - Universit de Marne-la-Valle - Ple Ville, 5, Bd Descartes - Btiment Lavoisier - 77454 Marne la Valle Cedex 2 - France 2City of Paris Engineering School, Construction - Environment Department, 15 rue Fnelon, 75010 Paris, France In France, as in Europe and more generally throughout the world, river floods have been increasing in frequency and severity over the last ten years, and there are more instances of rivers bursting their banks, aggravating the impact of the flooding of areas supposedly protected by flood defenses. Despite efforts made to well maintain the flood defense assets, we often observe flood defense failures leading to finally increase flood risk in protected area during major flood events. Furthermore, flood forecasting models, although they benefit continuous improvements, remain partly inaccurate due to uncertainties populated all along data calculation processes. These circumstances obliged stakeholders and the scientific communities to manage flood risk by integrating new concepts like stakes management, vulnerability assessments and more recently urban resilience development. Definitively, the goal is to reduce flood risk by managing of course flood defenses and improving flood forecasting models, but also stakes and vulnerability of flooded areas to achieve urban resilience face to flood events. Vulnerability to flood is essentially concentrated in urban areas. Assessing vulnerability of a city is very difficult. Indeed, urban area is a complex system composed by a sum of technical sub-systems as complex as the urban area itself. Assessing city vulnerability consists in talking into account each sub system vulnerability and integrating all direct and indirect impacts generally depending from city shape and city spatial organization. At this time, although some research activities have been undertaken, there are no specific methods and tools to assess flood vulnerability at the scale of the city. Indeed, by studying literature we can list some vulnerability indicators and a few Geographic Information System (GIS) tools. But generally indicators and GIS are not developed specifically at the city scale: often a regional scale is used. Analyzing vulnerability at this scale needs more accurate and formalized indicators and GIS tools. The second limit of existing GIS is temporal: even if vulnerability could be assessed and localized through GIS, such tools cannot assist city managers in their decision to efficiency recover after a severe flood event. Due to scale and temporal limits, methods and tools available to assess urban vulnerability need large improvements. Talking into account all these considerations and limits, our research is focusing on: vulnerability indicators design; recovery scenarios design; GIS for city vulnerability assessment and recovery scenarios. Dealing with vulnerability indicators, the goal is to design a set of indicators of city sub systems. Sub systems are seen like assets of high value and complex and interdependent infrastructure networks (i.e. power supplies, communications, water, transport etc.). The infrastructure networks are critical for the continuity of economic activities as well as for the people's basic living needs. Their availability is also required for fast and effective recovery after flood disasters. The severity of flood damage therefore largely depends on the degree that both high value assets and critical urban infrastructure are affected, either directly or indirectly. To face the challenge of designing indicators, a functional model of the city system (and sub systems) has to be built to analyze the system response to flood solicitation. Then, a coherent and an efficient set of vulnerability of indicators could be built up. With such methods city stakeholders will be informed on how and how much their systems are vulnerable. It is a first level of inform

Serre, D.; Barroca, B.

2009-04-01

280

The August 2002 flood in Salzburg / Austria experience gained and lessons learned from the ``Flood of the century''?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the {12th} of August 2002 a low pressure system moved slowly from northern Italy towards Slovakia. It continuously carried moist air from the Mediterranean towards the northern rim of the Alps with the effect of wide-spread heavy rainfall in Salzburg and other parts of Austria. Daily precipitation amounts of 100 - 160 mm, in some parts even more, as well as rainfall intensities of 5 - 10 mm/h , combined with well saturated soils lead to a rare flood with a return period of 100 years and more. This rare hydrological event not only caused a national catastrophe with damages of several Billion Euro, but also endangered more than 200,000 people, and even killed some. As floods are dangerous, life-threatening, destructive, and certainly amongst the most frequent and costly natural disasters in terms of human hardship as well as economic loss, a great effort, therefore, has to be made to protect people against negative impacts of floods. In order to achieve this objective, various regulations in land use planning (flood maps), constructive measurements (river regulations and technical constructions) as well as flood warning systems, which are not suitable to prevent big floods, but offer in-time-warnings to minimize the loss of human lives, are used in Austria. HYDRIS (Hydrological Information System for flood forecasting in Salzburg), a modular river basin model, developed at Technical University Vienna and operated by the Hydrological Service of Salzburg, was used during the August 2002 flood providing accurate 3 to 4 hour forecasts within 3 % of the real peak discharge of the fast flowing River Salzach. The August {12^th}} flood was in many ways an exceptional, very fast happening event which took many people by surprise. At the gauging station Salzburg / Salzach (catchment area 4425 {km^2}) it took only eighteen hours from mean annual discharge (178 {m3/s}) to the hundred years flood (2300 {m3/s}). The August flood made clear, that there is a strong need for longer lead times in Salzburg's flood forecasts. Methods to incorporate precipitation forecasts, provided by the Met Office, as well as observations of actual soil conditions, therefore, have to be developed and should enable hydrologists to predict possible scenarios and impacts of floods, forecasted for the next 24 hours. As a further consequence of the August 2002 flood, building regulations, e.g. the use of oil tanks in flood prone areas, have to be checked and were necessary adapted. It is also necessary to make people, who already live in flood prone areas, aware of the dangers of floods. They also need to know about the limits of flood protection measurements and about what happens, if flood protection design values are exceeded. Alarm plans, dissemination of information by using modern communication systems (Internet) as well as communication failure in peak times and co-ordination of rescue units are also a subject to be looked at carefully. The above mentioned measurements are amongst others of a 10 point program, developed by the Government of the Province of Salzburg and at present checked with regards to feasibility. As it is to be expected, that the August 2002 flood was not the last rare one of this century, experience gained should be valuably for the next event.

Wiesenegger, H.

2003-04-01

281

Grain-size segregation and levee formation in geophysical mass flows  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data from large-scale debris-flow experiments are combined with modeling of particle-size segregation to explain the formation of lateral levees enriched in coarse grains. The experimental flows consisted of 10 m3 of water-saturated sand and gravel, which traveled ~80 m down a steeply inclined flume before forming an elongated leveed deposit 10 m long on a nearly horizontal runout surface. We measured the surface velocity field and observed the sequence of deposition by seeding tracers onto the flow surface and tracking them in video footage. Levees formed by progressive downslope accretion approximately 3.5 m behind the flow front, which advanced steadily at ~2 m s-1 during most of the runout. Segregation was measured by placing ~600 coarse tracer pebbles on the bed, which, when entrained into the flow, segregated upwards at ~67.5 cm s-1. When excavated from the deposit these were distributed in a horseshoe-shaped pattern that became increasingly elevated closer to the deposit termination. Although there was clear evidence for inverse grading during the flow, transect sampling revealed that the resulting leveed deposit was strongly graded laterally, with only weak vertical grading. We construct an empirical, three-dimensional velocity field resembling the experimental observations, and use this with a particle-size segregation model to predict the segregation and transport of material through the flow. We infer that coarse material segregates to the flow surface and is transported to the flow front by shear. Within the flow head, coarse material is overridden, then recirculates in spiral trajectories due to size-segregation, before being advected to the flow edges and deposited to form coarse-particle-enriched levees.

Johnson, C. G.; Kokelaar, B. P.; Iverson, R. M.; Logan, M.; LaHusen, R. G.; Gray, J. M. N. T.

2012-01-01

282

Externality Effects Associated with Floods and Flood Plain Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The impact of externalities, where social and private costs and benefits differ, on flood plain management is discussed. The primary externality is the concern that occupation of the flood plain leads to greater social costs than benefits. Information is ...

D. Freshwater

1976-01-01

283

Flood-resilient waterfront development in New York City: bridging flood insurance, building codes, and flood zoning.  

PubMed

Waterfronts are attractive areas for many-often competing-uses in New York City (NYC) and are seen as multifunctional locations for economic, environmental, and social activities on the interface between land and water. The NYC waterfront plays a crucial role as a first line of flood defense and in managing flood risk and protecting the city from future climate change and sea-level rise. The city of New York has embarked on a climate adaptation program (PlaNYC) outlining the policies needed to anticipate the impacts of climate change. As part of this policy, the Department of City Planning has recently prepared Vision 2020: New York City Comprehensive Waterfront Plan for the over 500 miles of NYC waterfront (NYC-DCP, 2011). An integral part of the vision is to improve resilience to climate change and sea-level rise. This study seeks to provide guidance for advancing the goals of NYC Vision 2020 by assessing how flood insurance, flood zoning, and building code policies can contribute to waterfront development that is more resilient to climate change. PMID:21692807

Aerts, Jeroen C J H; Botzen, W J Wouter

2011-06-01

284

FLOOD! Emergency Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this learning module on the theme of flood emergency management. The lesson provided asks students to use Google Earth to determine the relationship between their location and flood risk. A student worksheet is provided for the activity as well as presentation slides. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item. The unit is available in a ZIP file, which contains the individual lesson items.

2012-11-27

285

DIRECT FLOOD DAMAGE MODELING TOWARDS URBAN FLOOD RISK MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

An estimate of losses from future floods is essential to prepare for a disaster and facilitating good decision making at the local, regional, state, and national levels of government. Flood loss estimates provide public and private sector agencies with a basis for planning, zoning, and development regulations, and policy that would reduce the risk posed by hazards. Flood loss estimates

DUSHMANTA DUTTA; SRIKANTHA HERATH; KATUMI MUSIAKE

286

Rapid flood loss estimation for large scale floods in Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid evaluations of flood events are needed for efficient responses both in emergency management and financial appraisal. Beyond that, closely monitoring and documenting the formation and development of flood events and their impacts allows for an improved understanding and in depth analyses of the interplay between meteorological, hydrological, hydraulic and societal causes leading to flood damage. This contribution focuses on the development of a methodology for the rapid assessment of flood events. In the first place, the focus is on the prediction of damage to residential buildings caused by large scale floods in Germany. For this purpose an operational flood event analysis system is developed. This system has basic spatial thematic data available and supports data capturing about the current flood situation. This includes the retrieval of online gauge data and the integration of remote sensing data. Further, it provides functionalities to evaluate the current flood situation, to assess the hazard extent and intensity and to estimate the current flood impact using the flood loss estimation model FLEMOps+r. The operation of the flood event analysis system will be demonstrated for the past flood event from January 2011 with a focus on the Elbe/Saale region. On this grounds, further requirements and potential for improving the information basis as for instance by including hydrological and /or hydraulic model results as well as information from social sensors will be discussed.

Schrter, Kai; Kreibich, Heidi; Merz, Bruno

2013-04-01

287

Probabilistic flood hazard mapping: effects of uncertain boundary conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comprehensive flood risk assessment studies should quantify the global uncertainty in flood hazard estimation, for instance by mapping inundation extents together with their confidence intervals. This appears of particular importance in the case of flood hazard assessments along dike-protected reaches, where the possibility of occurrence of dike failures may considerably enhance the uncertainty. We present a methodology to derive probabilistic flood maps in dike-protected flood prone areas, where several sources of uncertainty are taken into account. In particular, this paper focuses on a 50 km reach of River Po (Italy) and three major sources of uncertainty in hydraulic modelling and flood mapping: uncertainties in the (i) upstream and (ii) downstream boundary conditions, and (iii) uncertainties in dike failures. Uncertainties in the definition of upstream boundary conditions (i.e. design-hydrographs) are assessed through a copula-based bivariate analysis of flood peaks and volumes. Uncertainties in the definition of downstream boundary conditions are characterised by uncertainty in the rating curve with confidence intervals which reflect discharge measurement and interpolation errors. The effects of uncertainties in boundary conditions and randomness of dike failures are assessed by means of the Inundation Hazard Assessment Model (IHAM), a recently proposed hybrid probabilistic-deterministic model that considers three different dike failure mechanisms: overtopping, piping and micro-instability due to seepage. The results of the study show that the IHAM-based analysis enables probabilistic flood hazard mapping and provides decision-makers with a fundamental piece of information for devising and implementing flood risk mitigation strategies in the presence of various sources of uncertainty.

Domeneghetti, A.; Vorogushyn, S.; Castellarin, A.; Merz, B.; Brath, A.

2013-08-01

288

Effects of rating-curve uncertainty on probabilistic flood mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comprehensive flood risk assessment studies should quantify the global uncertainty in flood hazard estimation, for instance by mapping inundation extents together with their confidence intervals. This appears of particular importance in case of flood hazard assessments along dike-protected reaches where the possibility of occurrence of dike failures may considerably enhance the uncertainty. We present a methodology to derive probabilistic flood maps in dike-protected flood prone areas, where several sources of uncertainty are taken into account. In particular, this paper focuses on a 50 km reach of River Po (Italy) and three major sources of uncertainty in hydraulic modelling and flood mapping: uncertainties in the (i) upstream and (ii) downstream boundary conditions, and (iii) uncertainties in dike failures. Uncertainties in the definition of upstream boundary conditions (i.e. design-hydrographs) are assessed by applying different bivariate copula families to model the frequency regime of flood peaks and volumes. Uncertainties in the definition of downstream boundary conditions are characterised by associating the rating-curve used as downstream boundary condition with confidence intervals which reflect discharge measurements errors and interpolation errors. The effects of uncertainties in boundary conditions and randomness of dike failures are assessed by means of the Inundation Hazard Assessment Model (IHAM), a recently proposed hybrid probabilistic-deterministic model that considers three different failure mechanisms: overtopping, piping and micro-instability due to seepage. The results of the study show that the IHAM-based analysis enables probabilistic flood hazard mapping and provides decision makers with a fundamental piece of information for devising and implementing flood risk mitigation strategies in the presence of various sources of uncertainty.

Domeneghetti, A.; Vorogushyn, S.; Castellarin, A.; Merz, B.; Brath, A.

2012-08-01

289

13 CFR 120.170 - Flood insurance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flood insurance. 120.170 Section 120...Laws and Orders 120.170 Flood insurance. Under the Flood Disaster...a loan recipient must obtain flood insurance if any building...

2010-01-01

290

13 CFR 120.170 - Flood insurance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flood insurance. 120.170 Section 120...Laws and Orders 120.170 Flood insurance. Under the Flood Disaster...a loan recipient must obtain flood insurance if any building...

2012-01-01

291

7 CFR 1788.3 - Flood insurance.  

...2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Flood insurance. 1788.3 Section 1788...Insurance Requirements 1788.3 Flood insurance. (a) Borrowers shall purchase and maintain flood insurance for buildings in flood...

2014-01-01

292

7 CFR 1788.3 - Flood insurance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flood insurance. 1788.3 Section 1788...Insurance Requirements 1788.3 Flood insurance. (a) Borrowers shall purchase and maintain flood insurance for buildings in flood...

2013-01-01

293

13 CFR 120.170 - Flood insurance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flood insurance. 120.170 Section 120...Laws and Orders 120.170 Flood insurance. Under the Flood Disaster...a loan recipient must obtain flood insurance if any building...

2013-01-01

294

7 CFR 1788.3 - Flood insurance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flood insurance. 1788.3 Section 1788...Insurance Requirements 1788.3 Flood insurance. (a) Borrowers shall purchase and maintain flood insurance for buildings in flood...

2011-01-01

295

13 CFR 120.170 - Flood insurance.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flood insurance. 120.170 Section 120...Laws and Orders 120.170 Flood insurance. Under the Flood Disaster...a loan recipient must obtain flood insurance if any building...

2014-01-01

296

13 CFR 120.170 - Flood insurance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flood insurance. 120.170 Section 120...Laws and Orders 120.170 Flood insurance. Under the Flood Disaster...a loan recipient must obtain flood insurance if any building...

2011-01-01

297

Probabilistic Flash Flood Forecasting using Stormscale Ensembles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flash flooding is one of the most costly and deadly natural hazards in the US and across the globe. The loss of life and property from flash floods could be mitigated with better guidance from hydrological models, but these models have limitations. For example, they are commonly initialized using rainfall estimates derived from weather radars, but the time interval between observations of heavy rainfall and a flash flood can be on the order of minutes, particularly for small basins in urban settings. Increasing the lead time for these events is critical for protecting life and property. Therefore, this study advances the use of quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs) from a stormscale NWP ensemble system into a distributed hydrological model setting to yield basin-specific, probabilistic flash flood forecasts (PFFFs). Rainfall error characteristics of the individual members are first diagnosed and quantified in terms of structure, amplitude, and location (SAL; Wernli et al., 2008). Amplitude and structure errors are readily correctable due to their diurnal nature, and the fine scales represented by the CAPS QPF members are consistent with radar-observed rainfall, mainly showing larger errors with afternoon convection. To account for the spatial uncertainty of the QPFs, we use an elliptic smoother, as in Marsh et al. (2012), to produce probabilistic QPFs (PQPFs). The elliptic smoother takes into consideration underdispersion, which is notoriously associated with stormscale ensembles, and thus, is good for targeting the approximate regions that may receive heavy rainfall. However, stormscale details contained in individual members are still needed to yield reasonable flash flood simulations. Therefore, on a case study basis, QPFs from individual members are then run through the hydrological model with their predicted structure and corrected amplitudes, but the locations of individual rainfall elements are perturbed within the PQPF elliptical regions using Monte Carlo sampling. This yields an ensemble of flash flood simulations. These simulated flows are compared to historically-based flow thresholds at each grid point to identify basin scales most susceptible to flash flooding, therefore, deriving PFFF products. This new approach is shown to: 1) identify the specific basin scales within the broader regions that are forecast to be impacted by flash flooding based on cell movement, rainfall intensity, duration, and the basin's susceptibility factors such as initial soil moisture conditions; 2) yield probabilistic information about on the forecast hydrologic response; and 3) improve lead time by using stormscale NWP ensemble forecasts.

Hardy, J.; Gourley, J. J.; Kain, J. S.; Clark, A.; Novak, D.; Hong, Y.

2013-12-01

298

A vulnerability function for Mediterranean flash flood risk assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood risk is a major type of environmental hazard jeopardizing human development, and is usually defined as a functional relation between the hazard, such as the physical and statistical aspects of flooding (e.g. return period of a certain flow height, spatial extend of inundation), and the associated vulnerability, i.e. the exposure of people and assets to floods and the susceptibility of the elements at risk to suffer from flood damage. The assessment of vulnerability -from the quantitative point of view- expresses vulnerability as the expected degree of loss for a given element at risk as a consequence of a certain event. It is ranges on a scale from 0 (no damage) to 1 (complete destruction) and focuses on direct flood loss which is estimated by damage or loss functions. A methodology for the development of a vulnerability curve for Mediterranean flash flood risk assessment is presented. This curve is based on a relationship between the intensity of the process and the associated degree of loss of elements at risk. The computation procedure is based on a method combining spatially explicit loss data, data on the value of exposed elements at risk and data on flood intensities on an individual building scale (local scale). The developed methodology is applied for the district of East Attica in Greece, a Mediterranean region influenced by mountain and coastal characteristics of land development. The aim of the study is to provide a valuable tool for the local authorities and the decision makers, a necessary implementation of flood risk management emerging from the requirements laid down in the European Flood Directive, as well as for an assessment of potential costs emerging from future flood events in order to protect individual households.

Karagiorgos, Konstantinos; Hbl, Johannes; Thaler, Thomas; Fuchs, Sven

2014-05-01

299

Ecological and Economic Analysis of Watershed Protection in Eastern Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Watershed protection is one of the many goods and services provided by the world's fast disappearing tropical forests. Among the variety of watershed protection benefits, flood damage alleviation is crucial, particularly in upland watersheds. This study is a rare attempt to estimate flooding alleviation benefits, resulting from the protection of upland forests in Eastern Madagascar. A three stage model is

Randall A. Kramer; Daniel D. Richter; Subhrendu Pattanayak; Narendra P. Sharma

1997-01-01

300

Service Assessment Hurricane Floyd Floods  

E-print Network

Service Assessment Hurricane Floyd Floods of September 1999 mm r u, /"' r U.S.DEPARTMENTOF COMMERCE: Hurricane Floyd Floods of September 1999. Aerial view of Grifton, North Carolina, with flooding from the Neuse River. (Photograph courtesy of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.) #12;Service Assessment Hurricane

301

Flood Hazards - A National Threat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This USGS Fact Sheet (2006-3026) illustrates the national scope of the risk of flooding events in the US. The vast majority of counties have experienced at least one presidential disaster declaration related to flooding since 1965. The fact sheet examines the risks and how USGS scientists are studying floods in order to reduce future risks to the US population, property, and infrastructure.

Usgs

302

Surfactant flooding solution  

SciTech Connect

An aqueous treating solution is disclosed for surfactant flooding operations to increase oil recovery. The treating solution comprises water, one or more surfactants, one or more solubilizers and a sulfonated dicyclopentadiene compound which permits a reduction in the needed quantities of surfactant and solubilizer without loss of surfactant stability and activity or oil recovery efficiency.

Schievelbein, V.H.; Zabczuk, P.

1984-03-20

303

Flooding on Elbe River  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heavy rains in Central Europe over the past few weeks have led to some of the worst flooding the region has witnessed in more than a century. The floods have killed more than 100 people in Germany, Russia, Austria, Hungary, and the Czech Republic and have led to as much as $20 billion in damage. This false-color image of the Elbe River and its tributaries was taken on August 20, 2002, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The floodwaters that inundated Dresden, Germany, earlier this week have moved north. As can be seen, the river resembles a fairly large lake in the center of the image just south of the town of Wittenberg. Flooding was also bad further downriver in the towns of Maqgdeburge and Hitzacker. Roughly 20,000 people were evacuated from their homes in northern Germany. Fifty thousand troops, border police, and technical assistance workers were called in to combat the floods along with 100,000 volunteers. The floodwaters are not expected to badly affect Hamburg, which sits on the mouth of the river on the North Sea. Credit:Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

304

Fast Flooding over Manhattan  

E-print Network

We consider a Mobile Ad-hoc NETwork (MANET) formed by n agents that move at speed V according to the Manhattan Random-Way Point model over a square region of side length L. The resulting stationary (agent) spatial probability distribution is far to be uniform: the average density over the "central zone" is asymptotically higher than that over the "suburb". Agents exchange data iff they are at distance at most R within each other. We study the flooding time of this MANET: the number of time steps required to broadcast a message from one source agent to all agents of the network in the stationary phase. We prove the first asymptotical upper bound on the flooding time. This bound holds with high probability, it is a decreasing function of R and V, and it is tight for a wide and relevant range of the network parameters (i.e. L, R and V). A consequence of our result is that flooding over the sparse and highly-disconnected suburb can be as fast as flooding over the dense and connected central zone. Rather surprisin...

Clementi, Andrea; Silvestri, Riccardo

2010-01-01

305

How should flood risk assessments be done in a changing climate?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growing consensus on climate and land use change means that it is reasonable to assume, at the very least, that flood levels in a region may change. Then why, ask Rosner et al. in a new study, do the dominant risk assessment techniques used to decide whether to build new flood protection infrastructure nearly always start with an assumption of "no trend" in flood behavior?

Schultz, Colin

2014-09-01

306

Torrent floodplain mapping and torrent flood control in Serbia in the conditions of economic crisis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Serbia is a country that is endangered by flooding of the largest European river, the Danube and its largest tributaries, as well as by countless torrents. During the 19th and 20th centuries, an imposing scope of protection structures was constructed. The existence of the protection system created the conviction that flood protection was achieved and that it should only be complemented on a great number of unregulated torrents. Such an opinion and practice are possible only in the countries with powerful economies. However, for almost two decades, Serbia has been going through the conditions of economic crisis. The floods which occurred in Serbia during that period pointed to the problem of maintenance of the existing protection system and to the impossibility of building the new projects. Floodplain mapping, although prescribed by the Law, was postponed because of the high price of the classical geodetic surveying. The postponing of this activity, in the conditions of a stable and good economic situation, was explained by the achieved flood protection on large rivers and by low probability that the system could fail. On the other hand, small torrents were partly regulated in the zones of roads and towns, so in this case also it was thought that the protection was accomplished. It was overlooked that the majority of torrents in Serbia was not regulated by any protection system. Urbanisation was progressing unrestrainedly. The State could not afford the construction of the necessary protection system, so numerous settlements remained at risk, without any protection. Floods did not forgive and forget any mistakes and the awareness of the necessity of collecting the data on floodplains and protection against floods became an indispensable task, but in the conditions of economic crisis, difficult to realise. For this reason, a rational method of floodplain mapping was searched, as well as the method of reducing the damage caused by floods, but not requiring high investments. This paper will present the realised results of low-budget mapping of flood zones of torrents and other waterways and the realised preventive techniques of torrential flood control, which were successfully implemented during the great flood of the Danube in 2006. On that occasion, numerous torrential floods endangered the defence system of the river Danube. Key words: Floodplain, flood, torrent, flood defence.

Gavrilovic, Z.; Stefanovic, M.

2009-04-01

307

Quantifying groundwater recharge from floods in semi-arid environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floods represent an important aquifer recharge component in semi-arid environment. Changes in land use and the creation of artificial barriers to protect land from inundation can considerably influence the amount of aquifer recharge. Despite their importance, mechanisms that control flood recharge are poorly understood. Moreover, groundwater flow models rarely incorporate these processes with an appropriate physics based approach. In this study, we use a fully integrated surface subsurface fluid flow model to quantify changes in flood recharge induced by changes in land use. First, the flow simulations are performed on a synthetic aquifer to understand first order controls on flood recharge. Later, the simulations are extended to a real aquifer located in the lower Namoi aquifer, New South Wales, Australia. The long term groundwater monitoring hydrographs are used to calibrate the aquifer model. Satellite and aero-photographic surveys available both before and after changes in land use enable the comparison of flood extent to groundwater hydrograph response. The results show that the volume of water provided by the floods can represent a significant fraction of the aquifer water balance, and that changes in land use have a considerable effect on it. In addition, the results highlight the importance of treating flood recharge as a non-linear process.

Comunian, A.; Ajami, H.; Kelly, B. F.

2013-12-01

308

The formation of natural levees as a disturbance process significant to the conservation of riverine pastures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disturbances and patch dynamics are inherent to many ecosystems of the world, especially in the riparian zone. This paper\\u000a describes the influence of natural levee overbank deposition on riverine grasslands along the meandering River Dinkel (The\\u000a Netherlands). Here, the rare vegetation type Diantho-Armerietum, characterised by Dianthus deltoides, Thymus pulegioides, Pimpinella saxifraga and Galium verum, has been identified as important to

H. P. Wolfert; P. W. F. M. Hommel; A. H. Prins; M. H. Stam

2002-01-01

309

The future of flood insurance in the UK  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Approximately one in seven properties in the UK (3.6 million homes and businesses) are at risk of flooding. The Adaptation Sub-Committee of the UK Committee on Climate Change reported in 2012 that development on the floodplain grew at a faster rate than elsewhere in England over the past ten years, with one in five properties in the floodplain in areas of significant risk. They concluded that current levels of investment will not keep pace with the increasing risk, noting that without additional action, climate change could almost double the number of properties at significant risk by 2035. Flood insurance can contribute to risk reduction by using pricing or restrictions on availability of cover to discourage new development in flood risk areas, or to encourage the uptake of flood resilience measures. The UK insurance market currently offers flood cover as a standard feature of domestic and small business policies, with central government providing physical protection backed up by financial protection provided by the insurance industry. This approach is unusual in not passing all or part of the flood risk to government schemes. At present, flood insurance in the UK is conducted under a series of informal agreements established between the insurance industry and the Government known as the Statement of Principles. Members of the Association of British Insurers (ABI) currently agree to cover homes at risk of flooding in return for government commitment to manage flood risk. However, this arrangement is now under threat, as the insurance industry is increasingly reluctant to bear the financial burden of flooding alone. The current Statement of Principles ends on 30 June 2013 and will not be renewed. High-risk properties may be unable to obtain insurance after the Statement of Principles expires. Unusually, insurers are arguing against a free market solution, arguing that no country in the world provides universal flood cover without some form of government-led support. The UK insurance industry prefers a risk-pooling approach, while to date the government has not taken a position on the future of flood insurance after 2013.

Horn, Diane

2013-04-01

310

Modelling muddy floods in urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Muddy floods are sediment loaded runoff from agricultural land. The related flooding and mud depositions become a major problem when occuring in settling areas to cover streets, private properties, industrial areas etc. Beside of the psychological strain for the affected residents the costs for mud removal are a burden that has to be considered. Up to now, the threat of muddy floods has poorly been considered in the planing processes of settling or industrial areas. This is because there is no adequate tool to predict the exact places where the mud is transported and where it might be deposited during flash floods. At present the structures of settlements have not been considered in digital elevation models (DEM) wich are used for erosion and deposition modelling. As these structures notably influence surface runoff, it is necessary to develop a method that integrates the elements of settlements into the DEM. We use GIS to alter DEMs with informations about settlement structures (buildings, streets, sidewalks, ditches, walls etc.) and also with information about planed constructions. This altered DEM will than be applied in an event-based soil erosion model (Erosion 3D) that is able to predict both runoff and transported sediment. The aim of this study is to find out runoff and deposition patterns in settlements in case of flash floods, but also to test the impact of changes in the anthropogenic surface due to new constructions. Such a tool would be useful in the planning process of new settlements or industrial areas or to evaluate possible protection measures.

Arvalo, S. A.; Schmidt, J.

2012-04-01

311

Relation between dry granular flow regimes and morphology of deposits: formation of levees in pyroclastic deposits  

E-print Network

Experiments on dry granular matter flowing down an inclined plane are performed in order to study the dynamics of dense pyroclastic flows. The plane is rough, and always wider than the flow, focusing this study on the case of laterally unconfined (free boundary) flows.We found that several flow regimes exist depending on the input fluxand on the inclination of the plane. Each flow regime corresponds to a particular morphology of the associated deposit. In one of these regimes, the flow reaches a steady state, and the deposit exhibits a levee/channel morphology similar to those observed on small pyroclastic flow deposits. The levees result from the combination between lateral static zones on each border of the flow and the drainage of the central part of the flow after the supply stops. Particle segregation featuresare created during the flow, corresponding to those observed on the deposits of pyroclastic flows. Moreover, the measurements of the deposit morphology (thickness of the channel, height of the levees, width of the deposit) are quantitatively related to parameters of the dynamics of the flow (flux, velocity, height of the flow), leading to a way of studying the flow dynamics from only measurements of the deposit. Some attempts to make extensions to natural cases are discussed through experiments introducing the polydispersity of the particle sizes and the particle segregation process.

Gwenaelle Felix; Nathalie Thomas

2003-12-19

312

Hydrology, vegetation, and soils of four north Florida River flood plains with an evaluation of state and federal wetland determinations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study of hydrologic conditions, vegetation, and soils was made in wetland forests of four north Florida streams from 1987 to 1990. The study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation to support State and Federal efforts to improve wetland delineation methodology in flood plains. Plant communities and soils were described and related to topographic position and long-term hydrologic conditions at 10 study plots located on 4 streams. Detailed appendixes give average duration, frequency, and depth of flooding; canopy, subcanopy, and ground-cover vegetation; and taxonomic classification, series, and profile descriptions of soils for each plot. Topographic relief, range in stage, and depth of flooding were greatest on the alluvial flood plain of the Ochlockonee River, the largest of the four streams. Soils were silty in the lower elevations of the flood plain, and tree communities were distinctly different in each topographic zone. The Aucilla River flood plain was dominated by levees and terraces with very few depressions or low backwater areas. Oaks dominated the canopy of both lower and upper terraces of the Aucilla flood plain. Telogia Creek is a blackwater stream that is a major tributary of the Ochlockonee River. Its low, wet flood plain was dominated by Wyssa ogeche (Ogeechee tupelo) trees, had soils with mucky horizons, and was inundated by frequent floods of very short duration. The St. Marks River, a spring-fed stream with high base flow, had the least topographic relief and lowest range in stage of the four streams. St. Marks soils had a higher clay content than the other streams, and limestone bedrock was relatively close to the surface. Wetland determinations of the study plots based on State and Federal regulatory criteria were evaluated. Most State and Federal wetland determinations are based primarily on vegetation and soil characteristics because hydrologic records are usually not available. In this study, plots were located near long-term gaging stations, thus wetland determinations based on plant and soil characteristics could be evaluated at sites where long-term hydrologic conditions were known. Inconsistencies among hydrology, vegetation, and soil determinations were greatest on levee communities of the Ochlockonee and Aucilla River flood plains. Duration of average annual longest flood was almost 2 weeks for both plots. The wetland species list currently used (1991) by the State lacks many ground-cover species common to forested flood plains of north Florida rivers. There were 102 ground-cover species considered upland plants by the State that were present on the nine annually flooded plots of this study. Among them were 34 species that grew in areas continuously flooded for an average of 5 weeks or more each year. Common flood-plain species considered upland plants by the State were: Hypoxis leptocarpa (yellow star-grass), and two woody vines, Brunnichia ovata (ladies' eardrops) and Campsis radicans (trumpet-creeper), which were common in areas flooded continuously for 6 to 9 weeks a year; Sebastiania fruticosa (Sebastian-bush), Chasmanthium laxum (spikegrass), and Panicum dichotomum (panic grass), which typically grew in areas flooded an average of 2 to 3 weeks or more per year; Vitis rotundifolia (muscadine) and Toxicodendron radicans (poison-ivy), usually occurring in areas flooded an average of 1 to 2 weeks a year; and Quercus virginiana (live oak) present most often in areas flooded approximately 1 week a year. Federal wetland regulations (1989) limited wetland jurisdiction to only those areas that are inundated or saturated during the growing season. However, year-round hydrologic records were chosen in this report to describe the influence of hydrology on vegetation, because saturation, inundation, or flowing water can have a variety of both beneficial and adverse effects on flood-plain vegetation at any time of the

Light, H.M.; Darst, M.R.; MacLaughlin, M.T.; Sprecher, S.W.

1993-01-01

313

Flood early warning along the East Coast of Scotland and the Storm of December 2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood warning is at the heart of improved approaches to flood risk management in Scotland. The Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) is committed to reducing the impact of coastal flooding through the provision of reliable and timely flood warnings. They have specifically set out a programme of enhancing coastal flood forecasting through modelling and improved understanding of coastal flooding processes and improved approaches to wind and wave forecasting in coastal and tidal waters. In 2011, SEPA commissioned a project to develop a flood forecasting and warning system for the Firths of Forth and Tay along Scotland's North East coast. The new approach to flood forecasting has just been implemented into the Flood Early Warning System (FEWS) (Cranston and Tavendale, 2012) to contribute to the real-time flood forecasting and warning service from November 2012. The new system enables the prediction of coastal and tidal flooding and allows SEPA to warn people about potential flooding, using the latest advances in coastal modelling. The approach to the forecasting system includes: the transformation of tidal surge forecasts from Leith to 28 flood warning sites along the coast and inside the Firths of Forth and Tay; the transformation of offshore wave forecasts to inshore locations including the Firths of Forth and Tay; and the transformation of inshore wave forecasts to mean wave overtopping forecasts at six key communities at risk. In December 2012, some communities along the east coast of Scotland experienced their most severe storm damage since the Great 1953 Storm. This paper will discuss how the flood forecasting system was developed and how the system was utilised in real time during the recent storm. References Cranston, M. D. and Tavendale, A. C. W. (2012) Advances in operational flood forecasting in Scotland. Proceedings of the ICE - Water Management, 165, 2, 79-87.

Cranston, Michael; Hu, Keming

2013-04-01

314

13 CFR 120.172 - Flood-plain and wetlands management.  

...2014-01-01 false Flood-plain and wetlands management. 120.172 Section 120...Orders 120.172 Flood-plain and wetlands management. (a) All loans must conform...117) and 11990, Protection of Wetlands (3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p....

2014-01-01

315

13 CFR 120.172 - Flood-plain and wetlands management.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Flood-plain and wetlands management. 120.172 Section 120...Orders 120.172 Flood-plain and wetlands management. (a) All loans must conform...117) and 11990, Protection of Wetlands (3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p....

2013-01-01

316

13 CFR 120.172 - Flood-plain and wetlands management.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Flood-plain and wetlands management. 120.172 Section 120...Orders 120.172 Flood-plain and wetlands management. (a) All loans must conform...117) and 11990, Protection of Wetlands (3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p....

2012-01-01

317

13 CFR 120.172 - Flood-plain and wetlands management.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Flood-plain and wetlands management. 120.172 Section 120...Orders 120.172 Flood-plain and wetlands management. (a) All loans must conform...117) and 11990, Protection of Wetlands (3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p....

2011-01-01

318

Flooding in Central China  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the summer of 2002, frequent, heavy rains gave rise to floods and landslides throughout China that have killed over 1,000 people and affected millions. This false-color image of the western Yangtze River and Dongting Lake in central China was acquired on August 21, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. (right) The latest flooding crisis in China centers on Dingtong Lake in the center of the image. Heavy rains have caused it to swell over its banks and swamp lakefront towns in the province of Hunan. As of August 23, 2002, more than 250,000 people have been evacuated, and over one million people have been brought in to fortify the dikes around the lake. Normally the lake would appear much smaller and more defined in the MODIS image. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC.

2002-01-01

319

Flooding in Southeast Texas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Southeast of San Antonio, Texas, rivers that were barely discernible in satellite imagery acquired in late June 2002 by Terra MODIS stand out clearly this Aqua MODIS image from July 24, 2002. Heavy rains during the first week of July brought as much as 2 feet of rain to some places in southeastern Texas, resulting in massive flooding of three major river systems along the Gulf of Mexico. Please note that this story is in relation to the Before the Flooding in Southeast Texas story and are match-framed for dissolves in post production. To visit the relating story, please click on the following link: (http:--svs.gsfc.nasa.gov-vis-a000000-a002500-a002501-index.html).

Rhodes, Greg; Herring, David

2002-08-15

320

Flooding tolerance in halophytes.  

PubMed

Flooding is a common environmental variable with salinity. Submerged organs can suffer from O(2) deprivation and the resulting energy deficits can compromise ion transport processes essential for salinity tolerance. Tolerance of soil waterlogging in halophytes, as in glycophytes, is often associated with the production of adventitious roots containing aerenchyma, and the resultant internal O(2) supply. For some species, shallow rooting in aerobic upper soil layers appears to be the key to survival on frequently flooded soils, although little is known of the anoxia tolerance in halophytes. Halophytic species that inhabit waterlogged substrates are able to regulate their shoot ion concentrations in spite of the hypoxic (or anoxic) medium in which they are rooted, this being in stark contrast with most other plants which suffer when salinity and waterlogging occur in combination. Very few studies have addressed the consequences of submergence of the shoots by saline water; these have, however, demonstrated tolerance of temporary submergence in some halophytes. PMID:18482227

Colmer, Timothy D; Flowers, Timothy J

2008-01-01

321

A Methodology to Support Decision Making in Flood Plan Mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focus of the present document is on specific decision-making aspects of flood risk analysis. A flood is the result of runoff from rainfall in quantities too great to be confined in the low-water channels of streams. Little can be done to prevent a major flood, but we may be able to minimize damage within the flood plain of the river. This broad definition encompasses many possible mitigation measures. Floodplain management considers the integrated view of all engineering, nonstructural, and administrative measures for managing (minimizing) losses due to flooding on a comprehensive scale. The structural measures are the flood-control facilities designed according to flood characteristics and they include reservoirs, diversions, levees or dikes, and channel modifications. Flood-control measures that modify the damage susceptibility of floodplains are usually referred to as nonstructural measures and may require minor engineering works. On the other hand, those measures designed to modify the damage potential of permanent facilities are called non-structural and allow reducing potential damage during a flood event. Technical information is required to support the tasks of problem definition, plan formulation, and plan evaluation. The specific information needed and the related level of detail are dependent on the nature of the problem, the potential solutions, and the sensitivity of the findings to the basic information. Actions performed to set up and lay out the study are preliminary to the detailed analysis. They include: defining the study scope and detail, the field data collection, a review of previous studies and reports, and the assembly of needed maps and surveys. Risk analysis can be viewed as having many components: risk assessment, risk communication and risk management. Risk assessment comprises an analysis of the technical aspects of the problem, risk communication deals with conveying the information and risk management involves the decision process. In the present paper we propose a novel methodology for supporting the priority setting in the assessment of such issues, beyond the typical "expected value" approach. Scientific contribution and management aspects are merged to create a simplified method for plan basin implementation, based on risk and economic analyses. However, the economic evaluation is not the sole criterion for flood-damage reduction plan selection. Among the different criteria that are relevant to the decision process, safety and quality of human life, economic damage, expenses related with the chosen measures and environmental issues should play a fundamental role on the decisions made by the authorities. Some numerical indices, taking in account administrative, technical, economical and risk aspects, are defined and are combined together in a mathematical formula that defines a Priority Index (PI). In particular, the priority index defines a ranking of priority interventions, thus allowing the formulation of the investment plan. The research is mainly focused on the technical factors of risk assessment, providing quantitative and qualitative estimates of possible alternatives, containing measures of the risk associated with those alternatives. Moreover, the issues of risk management are analyzed, in particular with respect to the role of decision making in the presence of risk information. However, a great effort is devoted to make this index easy to be formulated and effective to allow a clear and transparent comparison between the alternatives. Summarizing this document describes a major- steps for incorporation of risk analysis into the decision making process: framing of the problem in terms of risk analysis, application of appropriate tools and techniques to obtain quantified results, use of the quantified results in the choice of structural and non-structural measures. In order to prove the reliability of the proposed methodology and to show how risk-based information can be incorporated into a flood analysis process, its application to some middle italy river basins

Biscarini, C.; di Francesco, S.; Manciola, P.

2009-04-01

322

Future flood risk estimates along the river Rhine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Europe, water management is moving from flood defence to a risk management approach, which takes both the probability and the potential consequences of flooding into account. It is expected that climate change and socio-economic development will lead to an increase in flood risk in the Rhine basin. To optimize spatial planning and flood management measures, studies are needed that quantify future flood risks and estimate their uncertainties. In this paper, we estimated the current and future fluvial flood risk in 2030 for the entire Rhine basin in a scenario study. The change in value at risk is based on two land-use projections derived from a land-use model representing two different socio-economic scenarios. Potential damage was calculated by a damage model, and changes in flood probabilities were derived from two climate scenarios and hydrological modeling. We aggregated the results into seven sections along the Rhine. It was found that the annual expected damage in the Rhine basin may increase by between 54% and 230%, of which the major part (~ three-quarters) can be accounted for by climate change. The highest current potential damage can be found in the Netherlands (110 billion €), compared with the second (80 billion €) and third (62 billion €) highest values in two areas in Germany. Results further show that the area with the highest fluvial flood risk is located in the Lower Rhine in Nordrhein-Westfalen in Germany, and not in the Netherlands, as is often perceived. This is mainly due to the higher flood protection standards in the Netherlands as compared to Germany.

Te Linde, A. H.; Bubeck, P.; Dekkers, J. E. C.; de Moel, H.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

2011-02-01

323

76 FR 25310 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Zoar Levee and Diversion Dam, Dam...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...approximately 54 properties (approximately 98 buildings including dependencies) located inside the levee at or below the elevation 916...Schedules and locations will be announced in local news media. Interested parties should submit contact information...

2011-05-04

324

Increasing resilience through participative flood risk map design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, an increasing number of flood hazards has shown to the European Commission and the Member States of the European Union the importance of flood risk management strategies in order to reduce losses and to protect the environment and the citizens. Exposure to floods as well as flood vulnerability might increase across Europe due to the ongoing economic development in many EU countries. Thus even without taking climate change into account an increase of flood disasters in Europe might be foreseeable. These circumstances have produced a reaction in the European Commission, and a Directive on the Assessment and Management of Flood Risks was issued as one of the three components of the European Action Programme on Flood Risk Management. Floods have the potential to jeopardise economic development, above all due to an increase of human activities in floodplains and the reduction of natural water retention by land use activities. As a result, an increase in the likelihood and adverse impacts of flood events is expected. Therefore, concentrated action is needed at the European level to avoid severe impacts on human life and property. In order to have an effective tool available for gathering information, as well as a valuable basis for priority setting and further technical, financial and political decisions regarding flood risk mitigation and management, it is necessary to provide for the establishment of flood risk maps which show the potential adverse consequences associated with different flood scenarios. So far, hazard and risk maps are compiled in terms of a top-down linear approach: planning authorities take the responsibility to create and implement these maps on different national and local scales, and the general public will only be informed about the outcomes (EU Floods Directive, Article 10). For the flood risk management plans, however, an "active involvement of interested parties" is required, which means at least some kind of multilateral consultation on the management plans that allows stakeholders to discuss relevant issues and to contribute to arguments and propositions put forward by the stakeholders. Through a wider stakeholder participation and more effective communication, awareness of flood risks should be raised. With the term participation diverse voluntary and informal forms of inclusion are summarized (in contrast to legal forms of participation like the status as a party). When discussing the theoretical and practical implications of participation in flood risk management, it is important to make a clear distinction between public and stakeholder participation. The broad public is "everybody" and refers to the participation by non-organised individuals as members of the general public, and specifically to individuals whose profession is not connected to flood risk management. As such, they have to be regarded as lay persons, which, nevertheless, does not mean that these individuals do not have any idea about the hazard they are exposed to or can contribute to the quality of an decision making process. In contrast to professionally interested parties, this group is typically comprised of individuals with different individual perspectives on flood risk management. It is argued that including practical knowledge and perceptions (reflecting values and preferences) into the flood risk management process is - apart from professional assessments (as systematic knowledge) - a milestone towards adequate governance structures in any institutional process with political legitimacy. Neither normative concepts like sustainable development or "Good Governance" nor the European Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC do specify what public participation or the participation of user means in detail. As also scientific literature offers no consistent definition of public participation and stakeholder participation we developed an innovative approach used in the pilot project Krems, Austria. The most innovative step regarding participation was not the methods used for participa

Fuchs, Sven; Spira, Yvonne; Stickler, Therese

2013-04-01

325

TRUCKEE MEADOWS FLOOD CONTROL PROJECT,  

E-print Network

opportunities for fish passage improvements; and (5) identifies a tentatively selected plan. The tentatively Experiment Station (also known as UNR Farms), and levees along Steamboat Creek and Boynton Slough includes riparian habitat plantings as compensatory fish and wildlife mitigation. Fish and wildlife

US Army Corps of Engineers

326

Swiss Re Global Flood Hazard Zones: Know your flood risk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floods, among all natural disasters, have a great damage potential. On a global basis, there is strong evidence of increase in the number of people affected and economic losses due to floods. For example, global insured flood losses have increased by 12% every year since 1970 and this is expected to further increase with growing exposure in the high risk areas close to rivers and coastlines. Recently, the insurance industry has been surprised by the large extent of losses, because most countries lack reliable hazard information. One example has been the 2011 Thailand floods where millions of people were affected and the total economic losses were 30 billion USD. In order to assess the flood risk across different regions and countries, the flood team at Swiss Re based on a Geomorphologic Regression approach, developed in house and patented, produced global maps of flood zones. Input data for the study was obtained from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) elevation data, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) and HydroSHEDS. The underlying assumptions of the approach are that naturally flowing rivers shape their channel and flood plain according to basin inherent forces and characteristics and that the flood water extent strongly depends on the shape of the flood plain. On the basis of the catchment characteristics, the model finally calculates the probability of a location to be flooded or not for a defined return period, which in the current study was set to 100 years. The data is produced at a 90-m resolution for latitudes 60S to 60N. This global product is now used in the insurance industry to inspect, inform and/or insure the flood risk across the world.

Vinukollu, R. K.; Castaldi, A.; Mehlhorn, J.

2012-12-01

327

Modeling Flood Perils and Flood Insurance Program in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taiwan had approximately 3,000 buildings damaged by floods with an economic loss of NT$12.8 billion annually, a figure 4.5 times more than economic losses due to fire damages. Many insurers become extremely cautious when underwriting their flood policies for people living in areas that are frequently struck by floods. The rising damages also trigger the demand for a mandatory national

Ching-Cheng Chang; Wenko Hsu; Ming-Daw Su

2008-01-01

328

Flood Risk Management Newsletter 1 September 2010 vol 4 no 1  

E-print Network

.......................2 Streambank Erosion & Protection PROSPECT Course ­ Online!...................... 8TEN.............................. 8 Flood Control & Coastal Emergencies............4 PROSPECT Courses 2011-Unsubscribe-Feedback-Other ...... 12 Coastal Engineering Research Board (CERB) The Coastal Engineering Research Board (CERB) functions

US Army Corps of Engineers

329

Lessons from Katrina: Flood Management Technology Strategies for the US  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal and riverine flooding and hurricane-driven storms have long plagued those in the United States who live or work on or near the shoreline or the rivers edge. The devastation wrought by Hurricane Katrina brought the challenge of protecting against such events to the political and technical forefront. The predicted impacts of global warming strongly suggest that our floodplains and

Gerald Galloway

2006-01-01

330

Global evidence that deforestation amplifies flood risk and severity in the developing world  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the wide acceptance of forest-protection policies in the developing world comes a requirement for clear demonstrations of how deforestation may erode human well-being and economies. For centuries, it has been believed that forests provide protection against flooding. However, such claims have given rise to a heated polemic, and broad-scale quantitative evidence of the possible role of forests in flood

R EY J. A. B R AD S HAW; N AVJ; OT S. S OD; K E LV; S.-H. PE; BARRY W. B ROOK

2007-01-01

331

Epiphytic diatoms as flood indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydroecology of floodplain lakes is strongly regulated by flood events. The threat of climate warming and increasing human\\u000a activities requires development of scientific methods to quantify changes in the frequency of short-lived flood events, because\\u000a they remain difficult to identify using conventional paleolimnological and monitoring approaches. We developed an approach\\u000a to detect floods in sediment records by comparing the

Johan A. Wiklund; Natalie Bozinovski; Roland I. Hall; Brent B. Wolfe

2010-01-01

332

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM TULLY-MURRAY RIVERS  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the TULLY-MURRAY RIVERS This brochure describes the flood warning system reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Tully River

Greenslade, Diana

333

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM MACINTYRE AND WEIR RIVERS  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the MACINTYRE AND WEIR RIVERS This brochure describes the flood warning. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding

Greenslade, Diana

334

FLOOD PROOFING How to Evaluate Your Options  

E-print Network

FLOOD PROOFING How to Evaluate Your Options Decision Tree us Army Corps of �nqineer';:. -- - - . � r Flood ~ro~~IJ NATIONAL FLOOD PROOFING COMMITTEE July 1993 #12;PREFACE FLOOD PROOFING - How TO EVALUATE YOUR OPTIONS This document has been prepared to help answer the question, "Should flood proofing

US Army Corps of Engineers

335

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM LOGAN & ALBERT RIVERS  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the LOGAN & ALBERT RIVERS This brochure describes the flood warning system reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Looking

Greenslade, Diana

336

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM ROSS, BOHLE & BLACK RIVERS  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the ROSS, BOHLE & BLACK RIVERS This brochure describes the flood warning. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Ross

Greenslade, Diana

337

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM PINE & CABOOLTURE RIVERS  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the PINE & CABOOLTURE RIVERS This brochure describes the flood warning. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Pine

Greenslade, Diana

338

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BREMER RIVER TO IPSWICH  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BREMER RIVER TO IPSWICH This brochure describes the flood warning. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Bremer

Greenslade, Diana

339

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM GEORGINA RIVER & EYRE CREEK  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the GEORGINA RIVER & EYRE CREEK This brochure describes the flood warning. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Eyre

Greenslade, Diana

340

Eye in the Sky: Floods and Dams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides general information about floods and dams. There are sections on the science, the phenomenon, and effects of floods. One video clip shows the Mississippi River at flood and non-flood levels. Another clip shows actual footage of a flood wreaking havoc on a populated area.

341

Amazon flood wave hydraulics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryA bathymetric survey of 575 km of the central Amazon River and one of its tributaries, the Purus, are combined with gauged data to characterise the Amazon flood wave, and for hydraulic modelling of the main channel for the period June 1995-March 1997 with the LISFLOOD-FP and HEC-RAS hydraulic models. Our investigations show that the Amazon flood wave is subcritical and diffusive in character and, due to shallow bed slopes, backwater conditions control significant reach lengths and are present for low and high water states. Comparison of the different models shows that it is necessary to include at least the diffusion term in any model, and the RMSE error in predicted water elevation at all cross sections introduced by ignoring the acceleration and advection terms is of the order of 0.02-0.03 m. The use of a wide rectangular channel approximation introduces an error of 0.10-0.15 m on the predicted water levels. Reducing the bathymetry to a simple bed slope and with mean cross section only, introduces an error in the order of 0.5 m. These results show that when compared to the mean annual amplitude of the Amazon flood wave of 11-12 m, water levels are relatively insensitive to the bathymetry of the channel model. The implication for remote sensing studies of the central Amazon channel, such as those proposed with the Surface Water and Ocean Topography mission (SWOT), is that even relatively crude assumptions regarding the channel bathymetry will be valid in order to derive discharge from water surface slope of the main channel, as long as the mean channel area is approximately correct.

Trigg, Mark A.; Wilson, Matthew D.; Bates, Paul D.; Horritt, Matthew S.; Alsdorf, Douglas E.; Forsberg, Bruce R.; Vega, Maria C.

2009-07-01

342

Genesis of the City Flood Queretaro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1446 the emperor Moctezuma Ihuicamina talked about of the Queretaro region, which was northern border of their empire (From Torquemeda, 1975). Septien (1999, page 17, Volume 1). "The news that came the Otomi region, spoken the good soil fertility of the Quertaro valley, being an attractive to this place". The aims research is show how the from foundation of the prehispanic period the city of Santiago Queretaro was marked by the development and growth, and as fascinating Mexico historical events recorded their urban-hydraulic direction shows a clear symbiosis between the model prehispanic and colonial urban was conceived it as a compact core, it is currently set to modern urbanization, fragmenting the natural system of the hydrologic surface runoff , adapting and adopting solutions that break the natural equilibrium of the valley Queretaro. In the period 1970-2003 in Mexico 1744 floods was reported but in Queretaro occurred only 10 floods because in 22nd place ranking by frequency of floods, Matias Ramirez et al (2006). Since the foundation of Santiago de Quertaro (1455) the changes of uses soils and the construction of channels had caused the strangulation of city, without regarding the natural of the ways of water of the river Quertaro, so occupied by collectors or drains that also constriction the system of urban water of city of Queretaro that breakdowns with the architecture and natural ways of water. Similarly, historical tracking flooding is not only an exploration of public actions on the implementation of protection works, but also updates the concept of cultural heritage, as fixed and cultivates social memory of the preservation of knowledge the territory. Every time a flood comes increasing concern of whether it corresponds to situations already lived. The flood occurred last February 2010 that affected five delegations besides Quertaro Historic Center (Alameda), the Arquitos, Quintas del Marques, among other colonies, is testimony to the current reality of a long history that continues altering the cultural heritage Queretaro and Mexico (Diario de Quertaro, February 3, 2010).

Sosa, E. G.; Salinas, N. R.

2013-12-01

343

Flooding in Central Siberia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mixture of snowmelt and ice jams in late May and June of this year caused the Taz River (left) and the Yenisey River (right) in central Siberia to overflow their banks. The flooding can be seen in this image taken on June 11, 2002, by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra satellite. Normally, the rivers would resemble thin black lines in MODIS imagery. In the false-color images sage green and rusty orange is land, and water is black. Clouds are white and pink. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

344

Linking the historic 2011 Mississippi River flood to coastal wetland sedimentation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wetlands in the Mississippi River deltaic plain are deteriorating in part because levees and control structures starve them of sediment. In Spring of 2011 a record-breaking flood brought discharge on the lower Mississippi River to dangerous levels, forcing managers to divert up to 3500 m3/s-1 of water to the Atchafalaya River Basin. Here we quantify differences between the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River inundation and sediment-plume patterns using field-calibrated satellite data, and assess the impact these outflows had on wetland sedimentation. We characterize hydrodynamics and suspended sediment patterns of the Mississippi River plume using in-situ data collected during the historic flood. We show that the focused, high-momentum jet from the leveed Mississippi delivered sediment far offshore. In contrast, the plume from the Atchafalaya was more diffuse; diverted water inundated a large area; and sediment was trapped within the coastal current. Maximum sedimentation (up to several centimetres) occurred in the Atchafalaya Basin despite the larger sediment load carried by the Mississippi. Minimum accumulation occurred along the shoreline between these river sources. Our findings provide a mechanistic link between river-mouth dynamics and wetland sedimentation patterns that is relevant for plans to restore deltaic wetlands using artificial diversions.

Falcini, Federico; Khan, Nicole S.; Macelloni, Leonardo; Horton, Benjamin P.; Lutken, Carol B.; McKee, Karen L.; Santoleri, Rosalia; Colella, Simone; Li, Chunyan; Volpe, Gianluca; DEmidio, Marco; Salusti, Alessandro; Jerolmack, Douglas J.

2012-01-01

345

Managing rivers: flooding, climate change and the summer 2007 floods  

E-print Network

A M J J A S O N UK England Scotland Wales #12;Summer 2007: what happened? · Average rainfall 2010 Year MeanRainfall(mm) Summer (J,J,A) July Summer 2007: what happened? · Persistent heavy rain dueManaging rivers: flooding, climate change and the summer 2007 floods Trevor Hoey · Over 55000

Glasgow, University of

346

Flood Assessment at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site and the Proposed Hazardous Waste Storage Unit, DOE/Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

A flood assessment at the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) and the proposed Hazardous Waste Storage Unit (HWSU) in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was performed to determine the 100-year flood hazard at these facilities. The study was conducted to determine whether the RWMS and HWSU are located within a 100-year flood hazard as defined by the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and to provide discharges for the design of flood protection.

Schmeltzer, J. S., Millier, J. J., Gustafson, D. L.

1993-01-01

347

Urban flooding and Resilience: concepts and needs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the recent years, a growing interest for resilience has been expressed in the natural disaster mitigation area and especially in the flood related events. The European Union, under the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), has initiated several research initiatives in order to explore this concept especially for the urban environments. Under urban resilience is underlined the ability of system potentially exposed to hazard to resist, respond, recover and reflect up to stage which is enough to preserve level of functioning and structure. Urban system can be resilient to lot of different hazards. Urban resilience is defined as the degree to which cities are able to tolerate some disturbance before reorganizing around a new set of structures and processes (Holling 1973, De Bruijn 2005). The United Nation's International strategy for Disaster Reductions has defined resilience as "the capacity of a system, community or society potentially exposed to hazards to adapt, by resisting or changing in order to reach and maintain an acceptable level of functioning and structure. This is determined by the degree to which the social system is capable of organizing itself to increase this capacity for learning from past disasters for better future protection and to improve risk reduction measures."(UN/ISDR 2004). According to that, system should be able to accept the hazard and be able to recover up to condition that provides acceptable operational level of city structure and population during and after hazard event. Main elements of urban system are built environment and population. Physical characteristic of built environment and social characteristic of population have to be examined in order to evaluate resilience. Therefore presenting methodology for assessing flood resilience in urban areas has to be one of the focal points for the exposed cities. Strategies under flood management planning related to resilience of urban systems are usually regarding controlling runoff volume, increasing capacity of drainage systems, spatial planning, building regulations, etc. Resilience also considers resilience of population to floods and it's measured with time. Assessment of resilience that is focused on population is following bottom-up approach starting from individual and then assessing community level. Building resilience involves also contribution of social networks, increasing response capacity of communities, self-organization, learning and education and cheering adaptation culture. Measures for improving social side of resilience covers: raising public awareness, implementation of flood forecasting and warning, emergency response planning and training, sharing information, education and communication. Most of these aspects are analyzed with the CORFU FP7 project. Collaborative Research on Flood Resilience in Urban areas (CORFU) is a major project involving 17 European and Asian institutions, funded by a grant from the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Programme. The overall aim of CORFU is to enable European and Asian partners to learn from each other through joint investigation, development, implementation and dissemination of short to medium term strategies that will enable more scientifically sound management of the consequences of urban flooding in the future and to develop resilience strategies according to each situation. The CORFU project looks at advanced and novel strategies and provide adequate measures for improved flood management in cities. The differences in urban flooding problems in Asia and in Europe range from levels of economic development, infrastructure age, social systems and decision making processes, to prevailing drainage methods, seasonality of rainfall patterns and climate change trends. The study cases are, in Europe, the cities of Hamburg, Barcelona and Nice, and in Asia, Beijing, Dhaka, Mumbai, Taipei, Seoul and Incheon.

Gourbesville, Ph.

2012-04-01

348

75 FR 50955 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations...Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Atlantic Ocean, Bonny Eagle...Jurisdictions)'' addressed the following flooding sources: Atlantic Ocean, Cape...

2010-08-18

349

77 FR 57066 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations...Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Brier Creek (backwater effects...Incorporated Areas'' addressed the following flooding sources: Brier Creek (backwater...

2012-09-17

350

76 FR 26982 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations...Areas. Specifically, it addresses the flooding source Licking River (Cave Run Lake...Incorporated Areas,'' addressed the flooding source Licking River (Cave Run...

2011-05-10

351

76 FR 12665 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations...Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Hungry Hollow Gulch, Ice House...Incorporated Areas'' addressed the following flooding sources: Hungry Hollow Gulch, Ice...

2011-03-08

352

78 FR 14738 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations...Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Good Spring Creek, Little...Jurisdictions)'' addressed the following flooding sources: Good Spring Creek,...

2013-03-07

353

76 FR 16722 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...70944. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations...Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Deener Creek, Gum Creek Flooding Effects, Little Red River, Overflow...

2011-03-25

354

76 FR 13570 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations...Areas. Specifically, it addresses the flooding source South Creek. DATES: Comments...Incorporated Areas'' addressed the flooding source South Creek. That table...

2011-03-14

355

76 FR 45215 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations...Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Dry Run Creek, Illinois River...Incorporated Areas'' addressed the flooding source Illinois River. That table...

2011-07-28

356

77 FR 51744 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...rule that included an erroneous flooding source name for the Town of Livonia...Coupee Parish, Louisiana. The flooding source name of Bayou Fordoche...Incorporated Areas'' addressed several flooding sources, including Bayou...

2012-08-27

357

78 FR 22221 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations...Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Pea Branch and Reedy Branch...Incorporated Areas'' did not address the flooding sources Pea Branch and Reedy...

2013-04-15

358

76 FR 14360 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations...Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Factory Creek (backwater effects...Incorporated Areas'' addressed the following flooding sources: Factory Creek (Backwater...

2011-03-16

359

77 FR 74142 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations...Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Coal Creek, Coal Creek Overflow...Incorporated Areas'' addressed the following flooding sources: Coal Creek, Coal Creek...

2012-12-13

360

76 FR 26981 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations...Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Cache Creek, Cache Creek Left...County, California'' addressed the flooding source Cache Creek Settling Basin....

2011-05-10

361

77 FR 51743 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations...Virginia. Specifically, it addresses the flooding sources Newmarket Creek, Newmarket Creek...Newport News, Virgina'' addressed the flooding sources Newmarket Creek, Newmarket...

2012-08-27

362

77 FR 15664 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations...Kentucky. Specifically, it addresses the flooding sources Little River (backwater effects...of Cadiz, Kentucky'' addressed the flooding sources Little River (backwater...

2012-03-16

363

77 FR 73398 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations...Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Bailey Ditch (backwater effects...Incorporated Areas'' addressed the following flooding sources: Bailey Ditch (backwater...

2012-12-10

364

76 FR 46716 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations...Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Chapel Drain, Clear Creek...Incorporated Areas'' addressed the following flooding sources: Kelly Creek Tributary,...

2011-08-03

365

46 CFR 28.580 - Unintentional flooding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Unintentional flooding. 28.580 Section 28.580 Shipping...Stability 28.580 Unintentional flooding. (a) Applicability. Except...the assumed damage and unintentional flooding described in paragraphs (d) and...

2011-10-01

366

76 FR 46715 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations...Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Cabin Branch, Franklin Branch...Incorporated Areas'' addressed the following flooding sources: Cabin Branch, Franklin...

2011-08-03

367

75 FR 47751 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations...Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Atlantic Ocean, Bonny Eagle...Incorporated Areas'' addressed the following flooding sources: Atlantic Ocean, Casco...

2010-08-09

368

46 CFR 28.580 - Unintentional flooding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Unintentional flooding. 28.580 Section 28.580 Shipping...Stability 28.580 Unintentional flooding. (a) Applicability. Except...the assumed damage and unintentional flooding described in paragraphs (d) and...

2010-10-01

369

46 CFR 28.580 - Unintentional flooding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Unintentional flooding. 28.580 Section 28.580 Shipping...Stability 28.580 Unintentional flooding. (a) Applicability. Except...the assumed damage and unintentional flooding described in paragraphs (d) and...

2013-10-01

370

76 FR 13571 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations...Areas. Specifically, it addresses the flooding source Shoal Creek. DATES: Comments...Incorporated Areas'' addressed the flooding source Shoal Creek. That table...

2011-03-14

371

77 FR 73393 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The table provided here represents the flooding source, location of referenced elevations...Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Cane Creek (backwater effects...Incorporated Areas'' addressed the following flooding sources: Cane Creek (backwater...

2012-12-10

372

46 CFR 28.580 - Unintentional flooding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Unintentional flooding. 28.580 Section 28.580 Shipping...Stability 28.580 Unintentional flooding. (a) Applicability. Except...the assumed damage and unintentional flooding described in paragraphs (d) and...

2012-10-01

373

75 FR 61373 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). In addition...others to calculate appropriate flood insurance premium rates for new buildings...The corresponding preliminary Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) for the...

2010-10-05

374

76 FR 26976 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). In addition...others to calculate appropriate flood insurance premium rates for new buildings...The corresponding preliminary Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) for the...

2011-05-10

375

76 FR 26978 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). In addition...others to calculate appropriate flood insurance premium rates for new buildings...The corresponding preliminary Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) for the...

2011-05-10

376

75 FR 59188 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). In addition...others to calculate appropriate flood insurance premium rates for new buildings...The corresponding preliminary Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) for the...

2010-09-27

377

75 FR 61371 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). In addition...others to calculate appropriate flood insurance premium rates for new buildings...The corresponding preliminary Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) for the...

2010-10-05

378

76 FR 39063 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). In addition...others to calculate appropriate flood insurance premium rates for new buildings...The corresponding preliminary Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) for the...

2011-07-05

379

75 FR 55527 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). In addition...others to calculate appropriate flood insurance premium rates for new buildings...The corresponding preliminary Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) for the...

2010-09-13

380

76 FR 20606 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). In addition...others to calculate appropriate flood insurance premium rates for new buildings...The corresponding preliminary Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) for the...

2011-04-13

381

76 FR 73534 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). In addition...others to calculate appropriate flood insurance premium rates for new buildings...The corresponding preliminary Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) for the...

2011-11-29

382

76 FR 19005 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). In addition...others to calculate appropriate flood insurance premium rates for new buildings...The corresponding preliminary Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) for the...

2011-04-06

383

76 FR 66887 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The corresponding preliminary Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) for the proposed...Please refer to the revised Flood Insurance Rate Map located at the community...Please refer to the revised Flood Insurance Rate Map located at the...

2011-10-28

384

75 FR 34415 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The corresponding preliminary Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) for the proposed...Please refer to the revised Flood Insurance Rate Map located at the community...Please refer to the revised Flood Insurance Rate Map located at the...

2010-06-17

385

75 FR 75949 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The corresponding preliminary Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) for the proposed...Please refer to the revised Flood Insurance Rate Map located at the community...Please refer to the revised Flood Insurance Rate Map located at the...

2010-12-07

386

Flooding in Southern Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past two weeks, heavy rains have inundated southern Russia, giving rise to floods that killed up to 83 people and drove thousands from their homes. This false-color image acquired on June 23, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite shows some of the worst flooding. The Black Sea is the dark patch in the lower left-hand corner. The city of Krasnodor, Russia, which was one of the cities hardest hit, sits on the western edge of the larger lake on the left side of the image, and Stavropol, which lost more lives than any other city, sits just east of the small cluster of lakes on the right-hand side of the image. Normally, the rivers and smaller lakes in this image cannot even be seen clearly on MODIS imagery. In this false-color image, the ground is green and blue and water is black or dark brown. Clouds come across as pink and white. Credit: Image courtesy Jesse Allen, NASA GSFC, based on data provided by the MODIS Rapid Response System.

2002-01-01

387

Flooding along Danube River  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heavy rains in Central and Eastern Europe over the past few weeks have led to some of the worst flooding the region has witnessed in over a century. The floods have killed more than 100 people in Germany, Russia, Austria, Hungary and the Czech Republic and have led to as much as $20 billion in damage. This false-color image of the Danube River and its tributaries was taken on August 19, 2002, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. Budapest, the capital of Hungary, sits just south of the large bend in the river at the top of the image. Here the water reached levels not seen since 1965. Fortunately, the riverbanks are lined with 33-foot retainer walls throughout the city, so it did not face the same fate as Dresden or Prague along the Elbe River. But as one can see, the floodwaters hit many rural areas farther south. As last reported, the water was receding along the Danube. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC.

2002-01-01

388

NORTHERN NEW ENGLAND COASTAL FLOODING  

Microsoft Academic Search

As ocean levels rise and population increases near the shoreline, coastal flooding continues to become an increasingly important issue. Storm surge and splash-over play a vital role leading to damage along the Maine and New Hampshire coastline. Coastal flood prediction is challenging as complex bathymetry and an irregular coastal configuration dominates this region. To improve this prediction and better conceptualize

John W. Cannon

389

Numerical modeling of self-channeling granular flows and of their levee-channel deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When not laterally confined in valleys, pyroclastic flows create their own channel along the slope by selecting a given flowing width. Furthermore, the lobe-shaped deposits display a very specific morphology with high parallel lateral levees. A numerical model based on Saint Venant equations and the empirical variable friction coefficient proposed by Pouliquen and Forterre (2002) is used to simulate unconfined granular flow over an inclined plane with a constant supply. Numerical simulations successfully reproduce the self-channeling of the granular lobe and the levee-channel morphology in the deposits without having to take into account mixture concepts or polydispersity. Numerical simulations suggest that the quasi-static shoulders bordering the flow are created behind the front of the granular material by the rotation of the velocity field due to the balance between gravity, the two-dimensional pressure gradient, and friction. For a simplified hydrostatic model, competition between the decreasing friction coefficient and increasing surface gradient as the thickness decreases seems to play a key role in the dynamics of unconfined flows. The description of the other disregarded components of the stress tensor would be expected to change the balance of forces. The front's shape appears to be constant during propagation. The width of the flowing channel and the velocity of the material within it are almost steady and uniform. Numerical results suggest that measurement of the width and thickness of the central channel morphology in deposits in the field provides an estimate of the velocity and thickness during emplacement.

Mangeney, A.; Bouchut, F.; Thomas, N.; Vilotte, J. P.; Bristeau, M. O.

2007-06-01

390

Flood risk and insurance loss potential in the Thames Gateway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Thames Gateway, currently Europe's largest regeneration project, is an area of redevelopment located in the South East of England, with Government plans to create up to 160,000 new homes and 180,000 new jobs by 2016. Although the new development is intended to contribute 12bn annually to the economy, the potential flood risk is high, with much of the area situated on Thames tidal floodplain and vulnerable to both storm surges and peak river flows. This poses significant hazard to those inhabiting the area and has raised concern amongst the UK insurance industry, who would be liable for significant financial claims if a large flood event were to occur, particularly with respect to the number of new homes and businesses being built in flood risk areas. Flood risk and the potential damage to both lives and assets in vulnerable areas have gained substantial recognition, in light of recent flooding events, from both governmental agencies and in the public's awareness of flood hazard. This has resulted in a change in UK policy with planning policy for flood risk (PPS25, Planning Policy Statement 25) adopting a more strategic approach to development, as well as a new Flooding and Water Bill which is due for consultation in 2009. The Government and the Association of British Insurers, who represent the UK insurance industry, have also recently changed their Statement of Principles which guides provision of flood insurance in the future. This PhD research project aims to quantify flood risk in the Thames Gateway area with a view to evaluating the insurance loss potential under different insurance and planning scenarios. Using current sources of inundation extent, and incorporating varying insurance penetration rates and degrees of adoption of planning policy and guidance, it focuses on estimating flood risk under these different scenarios. This presentation introduces the development of the project and the theory and methodology which will be used to address the research problem, and presents the initial findings, including an overview of the major developments going ahead in the area and an indication of areas of high asset value and potential for inundation based on topography and standard of protection of defences.

Eldridge, J.; Horn, D.

2009-04-01

391

The interplay between human population dynamics and flooding in Bangladesh: a spatial analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Bangladesh, socio-economic and hydrological processes are both extremely dynamic and inter-related. Human population patterns are often explained as a response, or adaptation strategy, to physical events, e.g. flooding, salt-water intrusion, and erosion. Meanwhile, these physical processes are exacerbated, or mitigated, by diverse human interventions, e.g. river diversion, levees and polders. In this context, this paper describes an attempt to explore the complex interplay between floods and societies in Bangladeshi floodplains. In particular, we performed a spatially-distributed analysis of the interactions between the dynamics of human settlements and flood inundation patterns. To this end, we used flooding simulation results from inundation modelling, LISFLOOD-FP, as well as global datasets of population distribution data, such as the Gridded Population of the World (20 years, from 1990 to 2010) and HYDE datasets (310 years, from 1700 to 2010). The outcomes of this work highlight the behaviour of Bangladeshi floodplains as complex human-water systems and indicate the need to go beyond the traditional narratives based on one-way cause-effects, e.g. climate change leading to migrations.

di Baldassarre, G.; Yan, K.; Ferdous, MD. R.; Brandimarte, L.

2014-09-01

392

Flash Flood Processes: International Edition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Flash floods can occur in nearly any area of the world. A rainfall-induced flash flood is a truly hydrometeorological event: one that depends on both hydrologic and meteorological conditions. Forecasting flash floods involves a detailed understanding of the local hydrologic features and continual monitoring of the current meteorological situation. This module examines both the hydrologic and meteorological processes that often contribute to the development of flash flooding. Common tools and technologies that are used in flash flood monitoring and forecasting, from manual gauging systems to complex radar- and satellite-based runoff models, are explored. This module also examines the strengths and limitations of these technologies, as well as how they are likely to advance in the future.

Comet

2011-02-22

393

Floods on the Minnesota River  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students explore the USGS water website to identify the location of stream gauges on the Minnesota River and the types of data that can be retrieved from the website. They determine which data to download based on the area of interest in the exercise (St. Peter, MN) and import historical flood data into MS Excel. The students use a spreadsheet to rank each flood and calculate a recurrence interval for a given flood, then estimate the discharge and stage of the 100-year flood in St. Peter, MN. The final task is to establish a flood hazard zone on a topographic map of the city of St. Peter. Note: this exercise can be applied to almost any non-dammed river with two or more USGS gaging stations on it. Go to http://water.usgs.gov and select your state from the pull-down menu to view an interactive map of your state's rivers and gaging station locations.

Laabs, Ben

394

Global scale map of the impact of changes in climate and socio-economic conditions on river flood losses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floods pose one of the largest risks to natural hazards globally. In 2012, the global damage from floods was estimated to be about 22 billion. For the first half of 2013, the global damage was estimated to be already 35 billion, being about 47% of the overall losses due to natural hazards. Almost half of this amount was due to river flooding such as the devastating floods in East Germany in May-June 2013. Besides possible increases in frequency and severity of flood events, floods are becoming more damaging due to increases in population and increases in economic utilization of flood prone areas. It is therefore crucial to understand the nature and causes of flood risks and possible changes therein due to climate and socio-economic change. Improved understanding will support adaptation plans and investments, either in new economic activities or in flood protection. On this poster, we show a global scale map of current river flood risk and flood risk changes in the future. The map shows how economic damages and the number of flood-affected people due to river floods will change under several scenarios of combined climate and socio-economic change. Across a number of large river basins, we distinguish the contribution to change in risk by climate change (resulting in an increase in flood hazard) and by socio-economic change (resulting in more impacts of flooding). We compute these risks using a validated model cascade consisting of hydrological flood models and impact models forced by long time series of current and future climate (CMIP5) and socio-economic scenarios in periods around 2030 and 2080. We discuss per basin what the possible implications of the scenarios are.

Winsemius, Hessel; Ward, Philip; Bouwman, Arno; Jongman, Brenden; Van Beek, Rens; Lucas, Paul; Van Vuuren, Detlef; Bierkens, Marc; Ligtvoet, Willem; Kwadijk, Jaap

2014-05-01

395

Developing a Malaysia flood model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Faced with growing exposures in Malaysia, insurers have a need for models to help them assess their exposure to flood losses. The need for an improved management of flood risks has been further highlighted by the 2011 floods in Thailand and recent events in Malaysia. The increasing demand for loss accumulation tools in Malaysia has lead to the development of the first nationwide probabilistic Malaysia flood model, which we present here. The model is multi-peril, including river flooding for thousands of kilometres of river and rainfall-driven surface water flooding in major cities, which may cause losses equivalent to river flood in some high-density urban areas. The underlying hazard maps are based on a 30m digital surface model (DSM) and 1D/2D hydraulic modelling in JFlow and RFlow. Key mitigation schemes such as the SMART tunnel and drainage capacities are also considered in the model. The probabilistic element of the model is driven by a stochastic event set based on rainfall data, hence enabling per-event and annual figures to be calculated for a specific insurance portfolio and a range of return periods. Losses are estimated via depth-damage vulnerability functions which link the insured damage to water depths for different property types in Malaysia. The model provides a unique insight into Malaysian flood risk profiles and provides insurers with return period estimates of flood damage and loss to property portfolios through loss exceedance curve outputs. It has been successfully validated against historic flood events in Malaysia and is now being successfully used by insurance companies in the Malaysian market to obtain reinsurance cover.

Haseldine, Lucy; Baxter, Stephen; Wheeler, Phil; Thomson, Tina

2014-05-01

396

Improving Gas Flooding Efficiency  

SciTech Connect

This study focuses on laboratory studies with related analytical and numerical models, as well as work with operators for field tests to enhance our understanding of and capabilities for more efficient enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Much of the work has been performed at reservoir conditions. This includes a bubble chamber and several core flood apparatus developed or modified to measure interfacial tension (IFT), critical micelle concentration (CMC), foam durability, surfactant sorption at reservoir conditions, and pressure and temperature effects on foam systems.Carbon dioxide and N{sub 2} systems have been considered, under both miscible and immiscible conditions. The injection of CO2 into brine-saturated sandstone and carbonate core results in brine saturation reduction in the range of 62 to 82% brine in the tests presented in this paper. In each test, over 90% of the reduction occurred with less than 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected, with very little additional brine production after 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected. Adsorption of all considered surfactant is a significant problem. Most of the effect is reversible, but the amount required for foaming is large in terms of volume and cost for all considered surfactants. Some foams increase resistance to the value beyond what is practical in the reservoir. Sandstone, limestone, and dolomite core samples were tested. Dissolution of reservoir rock and/or cement, especially carbonates, under acid conditions of CO2 injection is a potential problem in CO2 injection into geological formations. Another potential change in reservoir injectivity and productivity will be the precipitation of dissolved carbonates as the brine flows and pressure decreases. The results of this report provide methods for determining surfactant sorption and can be used to aid in the determination of surfactant requirements for reservoir use in a CO{sub 2}-foam flood for mobility control. It also provides data to be used to determine rock permeability changes during CO{sub 2} flooding due to saturation changes, dissolution, and precipitation.

Reid Grigg; Robert Svec; Zheng Zeng; Alexander Mikhalin; Yi Lin; Guoqiang Yin; Solomon Ampir; Rashid Kassim

2008-03-31

397

Development of regional skews for selected flood durations for the Central Valley Region, California, based on data through water year 2008  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flood-frequency information is important in the Central Valley region of California because of the high risk of catastrophic flooding. Most traditional flood-frequency studies focus on peak flows, but for the assessment of the adequacy of reservoirs, levees, other flood control structures, sustained flood flow (flood duration) frequency data are needed. This study focuses on rainfall or rain-on-snow floods, rather than the annual maximum, because rain events produce the largest floods in the region. A key to estimating flood-duration frequency is determining the regional skew for such data. Of the 50 sites used in this study to determine regional skew, 28 sites were considered to have little to no significant regulated flows, and for the 22 sites considered significantly regulated, unregulated daily flow data were synthesized by using reservoir storage changes and diversion records. The unregulated, annual maximum rainfall flood flows for selected durations (1-day, 3-day, 7-day, 15-day, and 30-day) for all 50 sites were furnished by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Station skew was determined by using the expected moments algorithm program for fitting the Pearson Type 3 flood-frequency distribution to the logarithms of annual flood-duration data. Bayesian generalized least squares regression procedures used in earlier studies were modified to address problems caused by large cross correlations among concurrent rainfall floods in California and to address the extensive censoring of low outliers at some sites, by using the new expected moments algorithm for fitting the LP3 distribution to rainfall flood-duration data. To properly account for these problems and to develop suitable regional-skew regression models and regression diagnostics, a combination of ordinary least squares, weighted least squares, and Bayesian generalized least squares regressions were adopted. This new methodology determined that a nonlinear model relating regional skew to mean basin elevation was the best model for each flood duration. The regional-skew values ranged from -0.74 for a flood duration of 1-day and a mean basin elevation less than 2,500 feet to values near 0 for a flood duration of 7-days and a mean basin elevation greater than 4,500 feet. This relation between skew and elevation reflects the interaction of snow and rain, which increases with increased elevation. The regional skews are more accurate, and the mean squared errors are less than in the Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data's National skew map of Bulletin 17B.

Lamontagne, Jonathan R.; Stedinger, Jery R.; Berenbrock, Charles; Veilleux, Andrea G.; Ferris, Justin C.; Knifong, Donna L.

2012-01-01

398

Cultural Heritage exposed to landslide and flood risk in Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Italy is the country that owns most of the world cultural heritage as it's clear from the list of sites of inestimable value to humanity, prepared by UNESCO under the Convention concerning the protection of the world cultural and natural heritage ratified in 1972. The Italian territory is also particularly prone to natural hazards such as landslides, floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, subsidence and coastal erosion which undermine the protection and preservation of cultural heritage. Aim of the present work is to provide an estimate of architectural, monumental and archaeological heritage exposed to landslide and flood risk at national scale. The input data are: the Italian Cultural Heritage database (Carta del Rischio del patrimonio culturale) realized by ISCR (Central Institute for the Conservation and Restoration); the Italian Landslide Inventory (Progetto IFFI) developed by ISPRA (Italian National Institute for Environmental Protection and Research) and the Regions and Self-Governing Provinces of Italy and the flood hazard zones defined by the Italian River Basin Authorities. Italian landslide inventory contains more than 486,000 landslides affecting an area of about 20,800 km2, equal to 6.9% of Italian territory. In order to estimate the number and type of cultural heritage at risk some GIS processing have been carried out, overlapping information from the above mentioned databases. The analysis provided the following results: Cultural Heritage exposed to landslide risk were estimated to 5.511 (6.6%) while the ones exposed to flood risk results 9.859 (11.7%). Two case studies concerning landslide phenomena affecting important Italian municipalities and the flood risk of historical centre of Rome, have been also analyzed. These results could be used to identify priorities and plan field surveys, detailed studies and monitoring systems, allowing job scheduling of cultural heritage maintenance. This need becomes more and more a necessity taking into account the importance of the Italian cultural heritage and the lack of funds available for its protection and conservation.

Spizzichino, Daniele; Cacace, Carlo; Iadanza, Carla; Trigila, Alessandro

2013-04-01

399

Advances in Global Flood Forecasting Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A trend of increasing number of heavy precipitation events over many regions in the world during the past century has been observed (IPCC, 2007), but conclusive results on a changing frequency or intensity of floods have not yet been established. However, the socio-economic impact particularly of floods is increasing at an alarming trend. Thus anticipation of severe events is becoming a key element of society to react timely to effectively reduce socio-economic damage. Anticipation is essential on local as well as on national or trans-national level since management of response and aid for major disasters requires a substantial amount of planning and information on different levels. Continental and trans-national flood forecasting systems already exist. The European Flood Awareness System (EFAS) has been developed in close collaboration with the National services and is going operational in 2012, enhancing the national forecasting centres with medium-range probabilistic added value information while at the same time providing the European Civil Protection with harmonised information on ongoing and upcoming floods for improved aid management. Building on experiences and methodologies from EFAS, a Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS) has now been developed jointly between researchers from the European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC) and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECWMF). The prototype couples HTESSEL, the land-surface scheme of the ECMWF NWP model with the LISFLOOD hydrodynamic model for the flow routing in the river network. GloFAS is set-up on global scale with horizontal grid spacing of 0.1 degree. The system is driven with 51 ensemble members from VAREPS with a time horizon of 15 days. In order to allow for the routing in the large rivers, the coupled model is run for 45 days assuming zero rainfall after day 15. Comparison with observations have shown that in some rivers the system performs quite well while in others the hydro-meteorological processes are not fully captured and calibration is necessary. Critical thresholds are computed from long-term simulations where the coupled HTESSEL/LISFLOOD model is driven with ERA-Interim data for a period of 21 years.From the longterm runs return periods are estimated against which each flood forecasts are compared. Results are displayed as maps and time series on a web-interface providing global overviews as well as local quantitative information. Major floods such as the ones in South East Asia in September-October 2010 in Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam were well captured by the system: for the lower Mekong River, probabilistic forecasts from the global simulations on the 18th September 2011 showed a probability higher than 40% of exceeding the high alert level from 2nd-4th October, hence 14 days in advance. Collaborations exist between the EU and Brazil to further the system for Brazilian rivers. Next steps include further research and development, rigorous testing and adaptations. calibration of the system with available data, and work on selected case studies for quantitative improvements.

Thielen-del Pozo, J.; Pappenberger, F.; Burek, P.; Alfieri, L.; Kreminski, B.; Muraro, D.

2012-12-01

400

Production and decomposition of forest litter fall on the Apalachicola River flood plain, Florida: Chapter B, Apalachicola River quality assessment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Measurements of litter fall (leaves and other particulate organic material) and leaf decomposition were made on the bottom-land hardwood swamp of the Apalachicola River flood plain in 1979-80. Litter fall was collected monthly from nets located in 16 study plots. The plots represented five forest types in the swamp and levee areas of the Apalachicola River flood plain. Forty-three species of trees, vines, and other plants contributed to the total litter fall, but more than 90 percent of the leaf material originated from 12 species. Nonleaf material made up 42 percent of the total litter fall. Average litter fall was determined to be 800 grams per square meter per year, resulting in an annual deposition of 3.6 ? 105 metric tons of organic material in the 454-square-kilometer flood plain. The levee communities have less tree biomass but greater tree diversity than do swamp communities. The levee vegetation, containing less tree biomass, produces slightly more litter fall per unit of ground surface area than does the swamp vegetation. The swamps are dominated by three genera: tupelo (Nyssa), cypress (Taxodium) and ash (Fraxinus). These genera account for more than 50 percent of the total leaf fall in the flood plain, but they are the least productive, on a weight-perbiomass basis, of any of the 12 major leaf producers. Decomposition rates of leaves from five common floodplain tree species were measured using a standard leaf-bag technique. Leaf decomposition was highly species dependent. Tupelo (Nyssa spp.) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) leaves decomposed completely in 6 months when flooded by river water. Leaves of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) and diamond-leaf oak (Quercus laurifolia) were much more resistant. Water hickory (Carya aquatica) leaves showed intermediate decomposition rates. Decomposition of all species was greatly reduced in dry environments. Carbon and biomass loss rates from the leaves were nearly linear over a 6-month period, but nitrogen and phosphorus leaching was nearly complete within 1 month. Much of the organic substance may be recycled in the forest ecosystem, but annual flooding of the river provides an important mechanism for mobilization of the litter-fall products.

Elder, John F.; Cairns, Duncan J.

1982-01-01

401

1976 Big Thompson flood, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the early evening of July 31, 1976, a large stationary thunderstorm released as much as 7.5 inches of rainfall in about an hour (about 12 inches in a few hours) in the upper reaches of the Big Thompson River drainage. This large amount of rainfall in such a short period of time produced a flash flood that caught residents and tourists by surprise. The immense volume of water that churned down the narrow Big Thompson Canyon scoured the river channel and destroyed everything in its path, including 418 homes, 52 businesses, numerous bridges, paved and unpaved roads, power and telephone lines, and many other structures. The tragedy claimed the lives of 144 people. Scores of other people narrowly escaped with their lives. The Big Thompson flood ranks among the deadliest of Colorado's recorded floods. It is one of several destructive floods in the United States that has shown the necessity of conducting research to determine the causes and effects of floods. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts research and operates a Nationwide streamgage network to help understand and predict the magnitude and likelihood of large streamflow events such as the Big Thompson Flood. Such research and streamgage information are part of an ongoing USGS effort to reduce flood hazards and to increase public awareness.

compiled by Jarrett, R. D.; Vandas, S. J.

2006-01-01

402

Topographic effect on Radio-Magnetotelluric and Slingram signals: application to a levee along the Loire river, France.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the influence of the topography of a levee on the electric and magnetic signals obtained with the Radio-Magnetotelluric method (RMT) and the Slingram method, respectively. For the RMT method, field measurements have been modelled with a finite element commercial software (AC/DC and Radio-Frequency modules of Comsol Multiphysics). A levee situated in Orlans (France) along the Loire river has been considered in order to design a model taking into account the skin depth and the incident wavelength. The effect of the incident electromagnetic field direction has been assessed with two different incident wave directions: BBC 5 from Salford (UK) and France-Inter from Allouis (France). The simulations highlight the tri-dimensional effects of the topography in the apparent resistivity, observed on the crest of the levee, depending on the incident field direction and topography. For the Slingram method, the magnetic field has been simulated using the AC/DC module of Comsol. The ratio of the primary magnetic field on the secondary one, received in a loop is determined above a straight levee. The study aims to show the various responses obtained in function of both vertical and horizontal coil configurations. We show that the signal also depends on the topography and the right configuration of the coils alignment with respect to the levee stretch direction. In this study, a buried gas pipe is also characterized by the two methods. Numerical modelling of 3D electromagnetic effects on geophysical signals helps to interpret the field measurements and offers to the stakeholder an optimized methodology for geophysical surveys on levees.

Duval, Rodolphe; Fauchard, Cyrille; Antoine, Raphael

2014-05-01

403

Geophysical Characterization of the American River Levees, Sacramento, California, using Electromagnetics, Capacitively Coupled Resistivity, and DC Resistivity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A geophysical characterization of a portion of American River levees in Sacramento, California was conducted in May, 2007. Targets of interest included the distribution and thickness of sand lenses that underlie the levees and the depth to a clay unit that underlies the sand. The concern is that the erosion of these sand lenses can lead to levee failure in highly populated areas of Sacramento. DC resistivity (Geometric?s OhmMapper and Advanced Geosciences, Inc.?s SuperSting R8 systems) and electromagnetic surveys (Geophex?s GEM-2) were conducted over a 6 mile length of the levee on roads and bicycle and horse trails. 2-D inversions were conducted on all the geophysical data. The OhmMapper and SuperSting surveys produced consistent inversion results that delineated potential sand and clay units. GEM-2 apparent resistivity data were consistent with the DC inversion results. However, the GEM-2 data could not be inverted due to low electromagnetic response levels, high ambient electromagnetic noise, and large system drifts. While this would not be as large a problem in conductive terrains, it is a problem for a small induction number electromagnetic profiling system such as the GEM-2 in a resistive terrain (the sand lenses). An integrated interpretation of the geophysical data acquired in this investigation is presented in this report that includes delineation of those areas consisting of predominantly sand and those areas consisting predominantly of clay. In general, along most of this part of the American River levee system, sand lenses are located closest to the river and clay deposits are located further away from the river. The interpreted thicknesses of the detected sand deposits are variable and range from 10 ft up to 60 ft. Thus, despite issues with the GEM-2 inversion, this geophysical investigation successfully delineated sand lenses and clay deposits along the American River levee system and the approximate depths to underlying clay zones. The results of this geophysical investigation should help the USACE to maintain the current levee system while also assisting the designers and planners of levee enhancements with the knowledge of what is to be expected from the near-surface geology and where zones of concern may be located.

Asch, Theodore H.; Deszcz-Pan, Maria; Burton, Bethany L.; Ball, Lyndsay B.

2008-01-01

404

Historical hydrology and database on flood events (Apulia, southern Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historical data about floods represent an important tool for the comprehension of the hydrological processes, the estimation of hazard scenarios as a basis for Civil Protection purposes, as a basis of the rational land use management, especially in karstic areas, where time series of river flows are not available and the river drainage is rare. The research shows the importance of the improvement of existing flood database with an historical approach, finalized to collect past or historical floods event, in order to better assess the occurrence trend of floods, in the case for the Apulian region (south Italy). The main source of records of flood events for Apulia was the AVI (the acronym means Italian damaged areas) database, an existing Italian database that collects data concerning damaging floods from 1918 to 1996. The database was expanded consulting newspapers, publications, and technical reports from 1996 to 2006. In order to expand the temporal range further data were collected searching in the archives of regional libraries. About 700 useful news from 17 different local newspapers were found from 1876 to 1951. From a critical analysis of the 700 news collected since 1876 to 1952 only 437 were useful for the implementation of the Apulia database. The screening of these news showed the occurrence of about 122 flood events in the entire region. The district of Bari, the regional main town, represents the area in which the great number of events occurred; the historical analysis confirms this area as flood-prone. There is an overlapping period (from 1918 to 1952) between old AVI database and new historical dataset obtained by newspapers. With regard to this period, the historical research has highlighted new flood events not reported in the existing AVI database and it also allowed to add more details to the events already recorded. This study shows that the database is a dynamic instrument, which allows a continuous implementation of data, even in real time. More details on previous results of this research activity were recently published (Polemio, 2010; Basso et al., 2012; Lonigro et al., 2013) References Basso A., Lonigro T. and Polemio M. (2012) "The improvement of historical database on damaging hydrogeological events in the case of Apulia (Southern Italy)". Rendiconti online della Societ Geologica Italiana, 21: 379-380; Lonigro T., Basso A. and Polemio M. (2013) "Historical database on damaging hydrogeological events in Apulia region (Southern Italy)". Rendiconti online della Societ Geologica Italiana, 24: 196-198; Polemio M. (2010) "Historical floods and a recent extreme rainfall event in the Murgia karstic environment (Southern Italy)". Zeitschrift fr Geomorphologie, 54(2): 195-219.

Lonigro, Teresa; Basso, Alessia; Gentile, Francesco; Polemio, Maurizio

2014-05-01

405

Two-Dimensional Turbulence of Shallow, Plane, Jets and the Development of Subaqueous Levees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of jet theory to the formation of deltas dates back more than 50 years and conceptual models relating river mouth morphologies to jet mechanics were proposed in the 1970s. Despite advances in the understanding of hydrodynamics and stability of shallow plane jets since the 1970s, little progress has been made linking sedimentation patterns to observed jets characteristics. As a result, a morphodynamic explanation of channel formation by a sediment-laden jet entering still water is lacking. We have undertaken a series of experimental studies to investigate the development of leveed channels from sediment-laden jets entering still water. To study sedimentation from shallow jets, we introduce a flow laden with ground plastic particles (sg ~ 1.5) into a 3 by 8 by 0.4 m basin of still water. The inflow aspect ratio is scaled to match the width to depth ratio (5.5) observed in prototype floodplain "tie" channels occurring in lakes along lowland river systems. For all flows in which the inflow discharge is sufficient to entrain the particles into suspension, lateral deposition and levee formation occurs. The location and rate of levee formation, however, directly relates to the local characteristics of the jet. The most rapid, pronounced and continuous levee development occurs in the transition of jet turbulence dominated by 3-dimensional structures to quasi-2-dimensional structures. Three-dimensional turbulence scales with the flow depth and is generated by shear along the channel bed while the 2-D structures scale to the jet width and arise from instabilities generated by shear with and entrainment of zero-momentum ambient fluid along the margins of the jet. The development of 2-D vortices is well documented in laboratory studies of jets and has been observed in many field sites. A common characteristic of these flows, also observed in our experiments, is the "meandering" of the jet centerline associated with the onset of 2-D turbulence due to alternating sweeps of vortices across the body of the jet. The meandering sweeps greatly increases the cross-stream fluctuations in velocity and advect sediment from regions of high velocity, along the jet centerline, into slower moving fluid along the jet margins where particles rapidly settle out of suspension. The location of this transition zone relative to the jet outlet appears to scale with momentum of the inflowing jet. Increasing momentum flux pushes the transition zone basinward and a gap in lateral deposition occurs along regions of the jet dominated by the inflow inertia and 3-D turbulence. To develop a channel capable of propagating its form basinward, it is necessary to close this depositional gap. Decreases in jet momentum to reduce this gap, however, are limited by minimum shear velocity thresholds required to maintain entrainment of sediment in the jet. Therefore the creation of a self-formed channel by a sediment-laden jet depends on a balance between hydrodynamics of the jet and the entrainment and suspension properties of particles carried by the flow.

Rowland, J. C.; Dietrich, W. E.

2005-12-01

406

Parsimonious Flooding in Dynamic Graphs Herv Baumann  

E-print Network

Parsimonious Flooding in Dynamic Graphs Hervé Baumann University Paris Diderot herve bounds on their flooding time -- flooding is the basic mechanism in which every node becoming aware. In this paper, we establish tight bounds on the complexity of flooding for all possible birth rates and death

Fondements et Applications, Université Paris 7

407

Floods in Brno. History, causes and impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Czech Republic the most destructive natural disasters result from floods. Evidence for this may be found in the catastrophic floods of July 1997 and August 2002 and also in a less extended flood at the turn of March and April 2006. These floods appeared after a long, relatively calm period. Cities, which are located on the rivers, are

J. Mackov; R. Brzdil; P. Dobrovoln; M. Halckov; L. Reznckov; K. Frov

2009-01-01

408

Numerical Modeling of Self-Channeling Granular Flows and of Their Levee/Channel Deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When not laterally confined in valleys, pyroclastic flows create their own channel along the slope by selecting a given flowing width. Furthermore, the lobe-shaped deposits display a very specific morphology with high parallel lateral levees. A numerical model based on Saint-Venant equations and Coulomb type behavior is used to simulate unconfined granular flow over an inclined plane with a constant supply. Numerical simulations reproduce the self-channeling of the granular lobe and the levee-channel morphology in the deposits suggesting that neither mixture concepts nor polydispersity is needed for their explanation. Numerical simulations suggest that the quasi-static shoulders bordering the flow are created behind the front of the granular material by the rotation of the velocity field due to the balance between gravity, the 2D pressure gradient and friction. In the case of our simplified hydrostatic model where the stresses on planes normal to the bed are neglected, competition between the decreasing friction coefficient and increasing surface gradient as the thickness decreases seems to play a key role in the dynamics of unconfined flows. The description of the other disregarded components of the stress tensor is expected to change the balance of forces. The shape and velocity of the front appear to be constant during propagation along the inclined plane. The width of the flowing channel and the velocity of the material within it are almost steady and uniform. Numerical results suggest that measurement of the width and thickness of the central channel morphology in deposits in the field provides an estimate of the velocity and thickness during emplacement. As a result, detailed study of geomorphologic features on such deposits should provide insight into the mechanical properties and dynamics of the flow.

Mangeney, A.; Thomas, N.; Bouchut, F.; Bristeau, M.; Vilotte, J.

2006-12-01

409

Flood Resilient Systems and their Application for Flood Resilient Planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the paradigm shift in flood management from traditional to more integrated approaches, and considering the uncertainties of future development due to drivers such as climate change, one of the main emerging tasks of flood managers becomes the development of (flood) resilient cities. It can be achieved by application of non-structural - flood resilience measures, summarised in the 4As: assistance, alleviation, awareness and avoidance (FIAC, 2007). As a part of this strategy, the key aspect of development of resilient cities - resilient built environment can be reached by efficient application of Flood Resilience Technology (FReT) and its meaningful combination into flood resilient systems (FRS). FRS are given as [an interconnecting network of FReT which facilitates resilience (including both restorative and adaptive capacity) to flooding, addressing physical and social systems and considering different flood typologies] (SMARTeST, http://www.floodresilience.eu/). Applying the system approach (e.g. Zevenbergen, 2008), FRS can be developed at different scales from the building to the city level. Still, a matter of research is a method to define and systematise different FRS crossing those scales. Further, the decision on which resilient system is to be applied for the given conditions and given scale is a complex task, calling for utilisation of decision support tools. This process of decision-making should follow the steps of flood risk assessment (1) and development of a flood resilience plan (2) (Manojlovic et al, 2009). The key problem in (2) is how to match the input parameters that describe physical&social system and flood typology to the appropriate flood resilient system. Additionally, an open issue is how to integrate the advances in FReT and findings on its efficiency into decision support tools. This paper presents a way to define, systematise and make decisions on FRS at different scales of an urban system developed within the 7th FP Project SMARTeST. A web based three tier advisory system FLORETO-KALYPSO (http://floreto.wb.tu-harburg.de/, Manojlovic et al, 2009) devoted to support decision-making process at the building level has been further developed to support multi-scale decision making on resilient systems, improving the existing data mining algorithms of the Business Logic tier. Further tuning of the algorithms is to be performed based on the new developments and findings in applicability and efficiency of different FRe Technology for different flood typologies. The first results obtained at the case studies in Greater Hamburg, Germany indicate the potential of this approach to contribute to the multiscale resilient planning on the road to flood resilient cities. FIAC (2007): "Final report form the Awareness and Assistance Sub-committee", FIAC, Scottish Government Zevenbergen C. et al (2008) "Challenges in urban flood management: travelling across spatial and temporal scales", Journal of FRM Volume 1 Issue 2, p 81-88 Manojlovic N., et al (2009): "Capacity Building in FRM through a DSS Utilising Data Mining Approach", Proceed. 8th HIC, Concepcion, Chile, January, 2009

Manojlovic, N.; Gabalda, V.; Antanaskovic, D.; Gershovich, I.; Pasche, E.

2012-04-01

410

Flash Flooding: Exploiting the Capture Effect for Rapid Flooding in Wireless Sensor Networks  

E-print Network

Flash Flooding: Exploiting the Capture Effect for Rapid Flooding in Wireless Sensor Networks,whitehouse}@cs.virginia.edu Abstract--We present the Flash flooding protocol for rapid network flooding in wireless sensor networks. Traditional flooding protocols can be very slow because of neighborhood contention: nodes cannot propagate

Whitehouse, Kamin

411

National flood modelling for insurance purposes: using IFSAR for flood risk estimation in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flood risk poses a major problem for insurers and governments who ultimately pay the financial costs of losses resulting from flood events. Insurers therefore face the problem of how to assess their exposure to floods and how best to price the flood element of their insurance products. This paper looks at the insurance implications of recent flood events in Europe

R. Sanders; F. Shaw; H. Mackay; H. Galy; M. Foote

2005-01-01

412

Flash Flood Early Warning System Reference Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Flash Flood Warning System Reference Guide is intended to promote the implementation of flash flood early warning systems based upon proven and effective methods already in use in flash-flood prone nations around the world. Both governmental and non-governmental decision makers can use it to better understand flash floods and the elements that constitute a robust, end-to-end flash flood early warning system. The guide includes chapters on Flash Flood Science, Flash Flood Forecasting Methods, Monitoring Networks, Technology Infrastructure, Warning Dissemination and Notification, and Community-based Disaster Management, and offers several examples of warning systems.

Comet

2011-10-18

413

5. A Crisis of Confidence: Shifting Stakeholder Perspectives on the  

E-print Network

. About this time, Hurricane Katrina struck in New Orleans, reinforcing concerns over Delta levees levee failure on Lower Jones Tract drew attention to Delta flood risks, a new analysis of the systemic and highlighting that levee expenditures under CALFED had been too modest to offer much new protection. In November

Pasternack, Gregory B.

414

Subglacial floods beneath ice sheets.  

PubMed

Subglacial floods (jkulhlaups) are well documented as occurring beneath present day glaciers and ice caps. In addition, it is known that massive floods have occurred from ice-dammed lakes proximal to the Laurentide ice sheet during the last ice age, and it has been suggested that at least one such flood below the waning ice sheet was responsible for a dramatic cooling event some 8000 years ago. We propose that drainage of lakes from beneath ice sheets will generally occur in a time-periodic fashion, and that such floods can be of severe magnitude. Such hydraulic eruptions are likely to have caused severe climatic disturbances in the past, and may well do so in the future. PMID:16782609

Evatt, G W; Fowler, A C; Clark, C D; Hulton, N R J

2006-07-15

415

Flood control in East Pakistan  

E-print Network

the valley floor. The coarser elements were deposited by the great outwashes i'rom the melting glaciers in the Himalayan Nountain Range where the major rivers have their sources. Subsequent great and seasonal floods passing down the rivers, as they have... functions. They now serve simply as part of the overflow flood reservoirs. The Brahma utra: Originating from the glaciers of the northernmost chain of the Himalayas in southern Tibet, the Brahmaputra flows through the mountains i. n Tibet, through Assam...

Eusufzai, Mohammad Hossain Sekandar Hayat Khan

2012-06-07

416

Flood elevations for the Soleduck River at Sol Duc Hot Springs, Clallam County, Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Elevations and inundation areas of a 100-year flood of the Soleduck River, Washington, were determined by the U.S. Geological Survey for the area in the vicinity of the Sol Duc Hot Springs resort, a public facility in the Olympic National Park that under Federal law must be located beyond or protected from damage by a 100-year flood. Results show that most flooding could be eliminated by raising parts of an existing dike. In general, little flood damage is expected, except at the southern end of an undeveloped airstrip that could become inundated and hazardous due to flow from a tributary. The airstrip is above the 100-year flood of the Soleduck River.

Nelson, L.M.

1983-01-01

417

Oilfield flooding polymer  

DOEpatents

A monomer, polymers containing the monomer, and the use of the polymer in oilfield flooding is disclosed. The subject monomer is represented by the general formula: ##STR1## wherein: n is an integer from 0 to about 4; m is an integer from 0 to about 6; a is an integer equal to at least 1 except where m is equal to 0, a must equal 0 and where m is equal to 1, a must equal 0 or 1; p is an integer from 2 to about 10; b is an integer equal to at least 1 and is of sufficient magnitude that the ratio b/p is at least 0.2; and q is an integer from 0 to 2. The number of hydroxy groups in the monomer is believed to be critical, and therefore the sum of (a+b) divided by the sum (m+p) should be at least 0.2. The moieties linked to the acrylic nitrogen can be joined to provide a ringed structure.

Martin, Fred D. (Socorro, NM); Hatch, Melvin J. (Socorro, NM); Shepitka, Joel S. (Socorro, NM); Donaruma, Lorraine G. (Syosset, NY)

1986-01-01

418

Extreme flooding tolerance in Rorippa.  

PubMed

Low oxygen stress imposed by floods creates a strong selection force shaping plant ecosystems in flood-prone areas. Plants inhabiting these environments adopt various adaptations and survival strategies to cope with increasing water depths. Two Rorippa species, R. sylvestris and R. amphibia that grow in naturally flooded areas, have high submergence tolerance achieved by the so-called quiescence and escape strategies, respectively. In order to dissect the molecular mechanisms involved in these strategies, we investigated submergence-induced changes in gene expression in flooded roots of Rorippa species. There was a higher induction of glycolysis and fermentation genes and faster carbohydrate reduction in R. amphibia, indicating a higher demand for energy potentially leading to faster mortality by starvation. Moreover, R. sylvestris showed induction of genes improving submergence tolerance, potentially enhancing survival in prolonged floods. Additionally, we compared transcript profiles of these 2 tolerant species to relatively intolerant Arabidopsis and found that only Rorippa species induced various inorganic pyrophosphate dependent genes, alternatives to ATP demanding pathways, thereby conserving energy, and potentially explaining the difference in flooding survival between Rorippa and Arabidopsis. PMID:24525961

Akman, Melis; Bhikharie, Amit; Mustroph, Angelika; Sasidharan, Rashmi

2014-01-01

419

Extreme flooding tolerance in Rorippa  

PubMed Central

Low oxygen stress imposed by floods creates a strong selection force shaping plant ecosystems in flood-prone areas. Plants inhabiting these environments adopt various adaptations and survival strategies to cope with increasing water depths. Two Rorippa species, R. sylvestris and R. amphibia that grow in naturally flooded areas, have high submergence tolerance achieved by the so-called quiescence and escape strategies, respectively. In order to dissect the molecular mechanisms involved in these strategies, we investigated submergence-induced changes in gene expression in flooded roots of Rorippa species. There was a higher induction of glycolysis and fermentation genes and faster carbohydrate reduction in R. amphibia, indicating a higher demand for energy potentially leading to faster mortality by starvation. Moreover, R. sylvestris showed induction of genes improving submergence tolerance, potentially enhancing survival in prolonged floods. Additionally, we compared transcript profiles of these 2 tolerant species to relatively intolerant Arabidopsis and found that only Rorippa species induced various inorganic pyrophosphate dependent genes, alternatives to ATP demanding pathways, thereby conserving energy, and potentially explaining the difference in flooding survival between Rorippa and Arabidopsis. PMID:24525961

Akman, Melis; Bhikharie, Amit V; Mustroph, Angelika; Sasidharan, Rashmi

2014-01-01

420

Shore Protection Assessment is an initiative to evaluate how federal shore protection projects performed in the  

E-print Network

season. All four hurricanes caused wind, wave, flooding, and erosion damage, affecting federal shoreShore Protection Assessment is an initiative to evaluate how federal shore protection projects performed in the wake of hurricanes Charley, Frances, Ivan, and Jeanne in 2004. Shore Protection Assessment

US Army Corps of Engineers