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1

The influence of woody plants on the seepage of flood protection levees: Experiences from a test site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The past flood events have once more drawn the attention to the stability and maintenance of flood protection levees. The attention has also been focused on the relationship between vegetation and the structural integrity of dikes. Current standards regard dense turf to be safest vegetation cover for dikes. Many guidelines ban woody vegetation from dikes and levees to provide structural integrity, visual inspection and unhindered flood-fight access. The refusal of woody plants is mainly based on the argument that root penetration of woody plants facilitates water movement along their path. Within the frame of a research project carried out by the Institute of Soil Bioengineering and Landscape Construction (University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna), focusing on woody plants on levees, the effects of small to medium growing woody (shrubby) plants on the seepage are tested. Data are drawn from two natural-scaled research levees. The homogenous levees consist of a mineral silt-sand-gravel and have a fill height of 2.7 m and a slope inclination of 2:3. The tests investigate the impact of woody plants (living brush mattress - transversal) in comparison to compact turf (jute netting mulch seeding). Measured plant parameters, characterising the vegetation structures were shoot lengths, shoot diameters, and above ground biomass. Root growth is investigated in an extra plot area allowing excavation of the plants. Percolation is monitored using seepage monitoring pipes, soil moisture sensors and soil temperature probes, which were build into the embankment during construction. The proposed contribution discusses the effects of woody plants (shrubs) on seepage of flood protection levees. Methodology of research and results after three initial seepage tests are presented.

Lammeranner, W.; Meixner, H.; Florineth, F.

2009-04-01

2

Evaluation of levee setbacks for flood-loss reduction, Middle Mississippi River, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryOne-dimensional hydraulic modeling and flood-loss modeling were used to test the effectiveness of levee setbacks for flood-loss reduction along the Middle Mississippi River (MMR). Four levee scenarios were assessed: (1) the present-day levee configuration, (2) a 1000 m levee setback, (3) a 1500 m levee setback, and (4) an optimized setback configuration. Flood losses were estimated using FEMA's Hazus-MH (Hazards US Multi-Hazard) loss-estimation software on a structure-by-structure basis for a range of floods from the 2- to the 500-year events. These flood-loss estimates were combined with a levee-reliability model to calculate probability-weighted damage estimates. In the simplest case, the levee setback scenarios tested here reduced flood losses compared to current conditions for large, infrequent flooding events but increased flood losses for smaller, more frequent flood events. These increases occurred because levee protection was removed for some of the existing structures. When combined with buyouts of unprotected structures, levee setbacks reduced flood losses for all recurrence intervals. The "optimized" levee setback scenario, involving a levee configuration manually planned to protect existing high-value infrastructure, reduced damages with or without buyouts. This research shows that levee setbacks in combination with buyouts are an economically viable approach for flood-risk reduction along the study reach and likely elsewhere where levees are widely employed for flood control. Designing a levee setback around existing high-value infrastructure can maximize the benefit of the setback while simultaneously minimizing the costs. The optimized levee setback scenario analyzed here produced payback periods (costs divided by benefits) of less than 12 years. With many aging levees failing current inspections across the US, and flood losses spiraling up over time, levee setbacks are a viable solution for reducing flood exposure and flood levels.

Dierauer, Jennifer; Pinter, Nicholas; Remo, Jonathan W. F.

2012-07-01

3

CONSEQUENCES OF HUMAN-ALTERED FLOODS: LEVEES, FLOODS, AND FLOODPLAIN FORESTS ALONG THE WISCONSIN RIVER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flood-control levees are generally thought to increase flood height and ve- locity for a given discharge. While extensive areas of floodplain in the United States are leveed, the ecological impacts of levees have largely been ignored relative to other an- thropogenic impacts to large river floodplains. We examined a century of flood control along the Wisconsin River by comparing simulated

SARAH E. GERGEL; MARK D. DIXON; MONICA G. TURNER

2002-01-01

4

Climate and floods still govern California levee breaks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Even in heavily engineered river systems, climate still governs flood variability and thus still drives many levee breaks and geomorphic changes. We assemble a 155-year record of levee breaks for a major California river system to find that breaks occurred in 25% of years during the 20th Century. A relation between levee breaks and river discharge is present that sets a discharge threshold above which most levee breaks occurred. That threshold corresponds to small floods with recurrence intervals of ???2-3 years. Statistical analysis illustrates that levee breaks and peak discharges cycle (broadly) on a 12-15 year time scale, in time with warm-wet storm patterns in California, but more slowly or more quickly than ENSO and PDO climate phenomena, respectively. Notably, these variations and thresholds persist through the 20th Century, suggesting that historical flood-control effects have not reduced the occurrence or frequency of levee breaks. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

Florsheim, J.L.; Dettinger, M.D.

2007-01-01

5

Mitigation Experiment of Levee Breach by Concrete Block Foot Protection in Chiyoda Experimental Flume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent years have seen a considerably increased incidence of typhoons, torrential rainstorms and other extreme meteorological phenomena due to climate change, thereby raising the risk of large-scale disasters caused by riverine floods. The flood damage is particularly severe when levee breaches occur, so estimating the flood magnitude and providing hazard maps are crucial for risk management. In previous studies, the mechanisum of levee breach was examined and measures to reinforce levee and restrict the overflow rates of protection forest were investigated. However, no appropriate techniques for the implementation of such measures hasn't been established yet. The purpose of this study is to evaluate countermeasures of mitigating levee breach progress and reducing overflow rate. The concept of the countermeasure is to utilize 2 ton of concrete blocks installed on the levee ahead of breaching and expect these blocks to be collapsed and protect the edge of the breached levee. Upon considering this concept, we referred to the findings of previous side-overflow breach experiments performed in the Chiyoda experiment flume, where the levee breach process with state-of-the-art observation devices under highly precise hydraulic conditions. Therefore we performed levee breach experiments in the Chiyoda Experimental Flume. (Large scale experimental flume; width is 30m, length is 1,300m, bed slope is approximately 1/500.) The experimental results highlighted the behavior of the collapsed blocks, effectiveness for mitigating the breach progress, and hydraulic characteristics around blocks. Considerations such as the number of blocks to be used were also clarified.

Tobita, D.; Kakinuma, T.; Yokoyama, H.; Takeda, A.

2013-12-01

6

Flood protection for the Kansas City bannister federal complex  

SciTech Connect

The Bannister Federal Complex is bordered on the east by the Blue River and on the south by Indian Creek. After a flood in 1961 and several near-miss floods, flood protection has been installed. The protection consists of 2,916 feet of concrete flood walls, 8,769 feet of levee, five rolling gates, four stoplog gaps, one hinged pedestrian gate, and one sandbag gap. The flood walls are over 14 feet tall. Construction was started on August 3, 1992 and was completed in early 1995. Architectural treatment was incorporated in the flood walls as well as landscaping to enhance the appearance of the flood protection.

Nolan, J.J.; Williams, R.H. [AlliedSignal, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States). Kansas City Division; Betzen, G.A. [Kansas City Area Office, MO (United States)] [and others

1995-08-01

7

Levee reliability analyses for various flood return periods - a case study in Southern Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, heavy rainfall conditions have caused damages around the world. To prevent damages by floods, levees have often been constructed in prone-to-inundation areas. This study performed reliability analyses for the Chiuliao 1st Levee located in southern Taiwan. The failure-related parameters were the water level, the scouring depth, and the in-situ friction angle. Three major failure mechanisms were considered, including the slope sliding failure of the levee, and the sliding and overturning failures of the retaining wall. When the variabilities of the in-situ friction angle and the scouring depth are considered for various flood return periods, the variations of the factor of safety (FS) for the different failure mechanisms show that the retaining wall sliding and overturning failures are more sensitive to the variability of the friction angle. When the flood return period is greater than 2 years, the levee can undergo slope sliding failure for all values of the water level difference. The results for levee stability analysis considering the variability of different parameters could assist engineers in designing the levee cross sections, especially with potential failure mechanisms in mind.

Huang, W.-C.; Yu, H.-W.; Weng, M.-C.

2015-01-01

8

Monitoring of levees, bridges, pipelines, and other critical infrastructure during the 2011 flooding in the Mississippi River Basin: Chapter J in 2011 floods of the central United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the 2011 Mississippi River Basin flood, the U.S. Geological Survey evaluated aspects of critical river infrastructure at the request of and in support of local, State, and Federal Agencies. Geotechnical and hydrographic data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey at numerous locations were able to provide needed information about 2011 flood effects to those managing the critical infrastructure. These data were collected and processed in a short time frame to provide managers the ability to make a timely evaluation of the safety of the infrastructure and, when needed, to take action to secure and protect critical infrastructure. Critical infrastructure surveyed by the U.S. Geological Survey included levees, bridges, pipeline crossings, power plant intakes and outlets, and an electrical transmission tower. Capacitively coupled resistivity data collected along the flood-protection levees surrounding the Omaha Public Power District Nebraska City power plant (Missouri River Levee Unit R573), mapped the near-subsurface electrical properties of the levee and the materials immediately below it. The near-subsurface maps provided a better understanding of the levee construction and the nature of the lithology beneath the levee. Comparison of the capacitively coupled resistivity surveys and soil borings indicated that low-resistivity value material composing the levee generally is associated with lean clay and silt to about 2 to 4 meters below the surface, overlying a more resistive layer associated with sand deposits. In general, the resistivity structure becomes more resistive to the south and the southern survey sections correlate well with the borehole data that indicate thinner clay and silt at the surface and thicker sand sequences at depth in these sections. With the resistivity data Omaha Public Power District could focus monitoring efforts on areas with higher resistivity values (coarser-grained deposits or more loosely compacted section), which typically are more prone to erosion or scour. Data collected from multibeam echosounder hydrographic surveys at selected bridges aided State agencies in evaluating the structural integrity of the bridges during the flood, by assessing the amount of scour present around piers and abutments. Hydrographic surveys of the riverbed detected scour depths ranging from zero (no scour) to approximately 5.8 meters in some areas adjacent to North Dakota bridge piers, zero to approximately 6 meters near bridge piers in Nebraska, and zero to approximately 10.4 meters near bridge piers in Missouri. Substructural support elements of some bridge piers in North Dakota, Nebraska, and Missouri that usually are buried were exposed to moving water and sediment. At five Missouri bridge piers the depth of scour left less than 1.8 meters of bed material between the bottom of the scour hole and bedrock. State agencies used this information along with bridge design and construction information to determine if reported scour depths would have a substantial effect on the stability of the structure. Multibeam echosounder hydrographic surveys of the riverbed near pipeline crossings did not detect exposed pipelines. However, analysis of the USGS survey data by pipeline companies aided in their evaluation of pipeline safety and led one company to further investigate the safety of their line and assisted another company in getting one offline pipeline back into operation. Multibeam echosounder hydrographic surveys of the banks, riverbed, and underwater infrastructure at Omaha Public Power District power plants documented the bed and scour conditions. These datasets were used by Omaha Public Power District to evaluate the effects that the flood had on operation, specifically to evaluate if scour during the peak of the flood or sediment deposition during the flood recession would affect the water intake structures. Hydrographic surveys at an Omaha Public Power District electrical transmission tower documented scour so that they could evaluate the structural integrity of the tower as well as have the informati

Densmore, Brenda K.; Burton, Bethany L.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Cannia, James C.; Huizinga, Richard J.

2014-01-01

9

Elemental chemistry of sand-boil discharge used to trace variable pathways of seepage beneath levees during the 2011 Mississippi River flood  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water samples were collected from the Mississippi River, from sand boils near the toe of the levee on the Mississippi side of the river, and from actively flowing relief wells shortly after peak stage of the 2011 Mississippi River flood. Two distinct pathways for seepage under the levee were identif...

10

Development of Floating Wave Barriers for Cost Effective Protection of Irrigation Pond Levees  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The earth levees commonly used for irrigation reservoirs are subjected to significant embankment erosion due to wind-generated waves. Large seasonal fluctuations in water level make vegetative bank protection impractical, and other stabilization methods, such as the use of stone or discarded tires, ...

11

Morphological Analyses and Simulated Flood Elevations in a Watershed with Dredged and Leveed Stream Channels, Wheeling Creek, Eastern Ohio  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The USGS, in cooperation with the Ohio Emergency Management Agency, conducted a study in the Wheeling Creek Basin to (1) evaluate and contrast land-cover characteristics from 2001 with characteristics from 1979 and 1992; (2) compare current streambed elevation, slope, and geometry with conditions present in the late 1980s; (3) look for evidence of channel filling and over widening in selected undredged reaches; (4) estimate flood elevations for existing conditions in both undredged and previously dredged reaches; (5) evaluate the height of the levees required to contain floods with selected recurrence intervals in previously dredged reaches; and (6) estimate flood elevations for several hypothetical dredging and streambed aggradation scenarios in undredged reaches. The amount of barren land in the Wheeling Creek watershed has decreased from 20 to 1 percent of the basin area based on land-cover characteristics from 1979 and 2001. Barren lands appear to have been converted primarily to pasture, presumably as a result of surface-mine reclamation. Croplands also decreased from 13 to 8 percent of the basin area. The combined decrease in barren lands and croplands is approximately offset by the increase in pasture. Stream-channel surveys conducted in 1987 and again in 2006 at 21 sites in four previously dredged reaches of Wheeling Creek indicate little change in the elevation, slope, and geometry of the channel at most sites. The mean change in width-averaged bed and thalweg elevations for the 21 cross sections was 0.1 feet. Bankfull widths, mean depths, and cross-sectional areas measured at 12 sites in undredged reaches were compared to estimates determined from regional equations. The mean percentage difference between measured and estimated bankfull widths was -0.2 percent, suggesting that bankfull widths in the Wheeling Creek Basin are generally about the same as regional averages for undisturbed basins of identical drainage area. For bankfull mean depth and cross-sectional area, the mean percentage differences between the measured and estimated values were -16.0 and -11.2, respectively. The predominantly negative bias in differences between the measured and estimated values indicates that bankfull mean depths and cross-sectional areas in studied reaches generally are smaller than the regional trend. This may be an indication of channel filling and over widening or it may reflect insufficient representation in the regional dataset of basins with characteristics like that of Wheeling Creek. Step-backwater models were constructed for four previously dredged reaches to determine the height of levees required to contain floods with recurrence intervals of 2, 10, 50, and 100 years. Existing levees (all of which are uncertified) were found to contain the 100-year flood at only 20 percent of the surveyed cross sections. At the other 80 percent of the surveyed cross sections, levee heights would have to be raised an average of 2.5 feet and as much as 6.3 feet to contain the 100-year flood. Step-backwater models also were constructed for three undredged reaches to assess the impacts of selected dredging and streambed aggradation scenarios on water-surface elevations corresponding to the 2-, 10-, 50-, and 100-year floods. Those models demonstrated that changes in water-surface elevations associated with a given depth of dredging were proportionately smaller for larger floods due to the fact that more of the flood waters are outside of the main channel. For example, 2.0 feet of dredging in the three study reaches would lower the water-surface elevation an average of 1.30 feet for the 2-year flood and 0.64 feet for the 100-year flood.

Sherwood, James M.; Huitger, Carrie A.; Ebner, Andrew D.; Koltun, G.F.

2008-01-01

12

Floods  

MedlinePLUS

... when a levee is breached, or when a dam breaks. Flash floods, which can develop quickly, often ... lying area, near water or downstream from a dam. Although there are no guarantees of safety during ...

13

Blackland's flood warning system protects soldiers  

E-print Network

or FAST uses stream level sensors attached to cell phones to notify Fort Hood Range Control of flooding at six low water crossings. The sensors are part of Blackland Research and Extension Center?s Fort Hood Water Quality Monitoring project, designed... the No. 1 reason for installing the FAST system was ?to protect soldiers by alerting them of dangerous flood conditions.? Equipment and personnel had been lost at low water crossings during storms, he said. Wolfe said the sensors, which constantly...

Wythe, Kathy

2008-01-01

14

Levee being built in Fargo, ND  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The city of Fargo, ND builds levees in preparation for rising flood waters. The height of the levees are built based on flood predictions, made by the National Weather Service using USGS streamflow information. ...

15

Levee and sandbag efforts in Fargo, ND  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The city of Fargo, ND builds levees and prepares sandbags in preparation for rising flood waters. The height of the levees are built based on flood predictions, made by the National Weather Service using USGS streamflow information. ...

16

44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (7) Other design criteria. In...where the levee system has relatively...require that other design criteria and analyses be submitted...this additional information. (c) Operation... For a levee system to be...

2010-10-01

17

Levee Monitoring with Radar Remote Sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics in this presentation are: 1. Overview of radar remote sensing 2. Surface change detection with Differential Interferometric Radar Processing 3. Study of the Sacramento - San Joaquin levees 4. Mississippi River Levees during the Spring 2011 floods.

Jones, Cathleen E.

2012-01-01

18

Geotechnical reconnaissance of the Mississippi River Delta flood-protection system after Hurricane Katrina: Chapter 3C in Science and the storms-the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This article presents the post-Hurricane Katrina conditions of the flood-protection system of levees and floodwalls that failed in the environs of the Mississippi River Delta and New Orleans, La. Damage conditions and suggested mechanisms of failure are presented from the geotechnical point of view.

Luna, Ronaldo; Summers, David; Hoffman, David; Rogers, J. David; Sevi, Adam; Witt, Emitt C.

2007-01-01

19

Directionally drilled crossing constructed under river levee  

SciTech Connect

Shell Pipe Line Corp. recently commenced construction of its 20-inch Delta Loop Pipeline Project in south Louisiana. This line will transport crude oil from Main Pass No. 69 to the existing Shell pump station at Nairn in Plaquemines Parish. NBH, Inc. of New Orleans is prime contractor for this project which involves offshore pipe lay, shallow water marsh lay and a 4,100-foot horizontal directional crossing of the Mississippi River at Nairn which was undertaken by Land and Marine, Inc. of Houston. For past directionally drilled crossings, the New Orleans district of the US Army Corps of Engineers has only allowed drilling operations inside its Mississippi River flood protection levees. No drilling has been undertaken beneath the levees out of concern that the drilling operations could in some way damage their structural integrity. Unfortunately, at this particular location, the drill profile could not be designed placing drilling equipment inside the levee and achieve sufficient burial depth for the installed pipeline. If not allowed to bore beneath the levee, significant additional costs would have been incurred in routing the pipeline to a more suitable location. This paper reviews the design of this drilling operation showing the locations and construction of relief wells and piezometers used to monitor the directional drilling.

Skonberg, E.R. [Land and Marine, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Berry, C.W. [Shell Oil Products Co., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-06-01

20

Protecting Coastal Areas from Flooding by Injecting Solids into the Subsurface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subsidence and sea level rise conspire to increase the risk of flooding in coastal cities throughout the world, and these processes were key contributors to the devastation of New Orleans by hurricane Katrina. Constructing levees and placing fill to raise ground elevations are currently the main options for reducing flooding risks in coastal areas, and both of these options have drawbacks. We suggest that hydromechanical injection of solid compounds suspended in liquid can be used to lift the ground surface and thereby expand the options for protecting such coastal cities as New Orleans, Venice, and Shanghai from flooding. These techniques are broadly related to hydraulic fracturing and compensation grouting, where solid compounds are injected as slurries and cause upward displacements at the ground surface. The equipment and logistics required for hydromechanical solid injection and ground lifting are readily available from current geotechnical and petroleum operations. Hydraulic fractures are routinely created in the upper tens of meters of sediments, where they are filled with a wide range of different proppants for environmental applications. At shallow depths, many of these fractures are sub-parallel to the ground surface and lift their overburden by a few mm to cm, although lifting is not the objective of these fractures. Much larger, vertical displacements, of the order of several meters, could be created in low-cohesion sediments over areas as large as square kilometers. This would be achieved as a result of multiple injections. Injecting solid particulates provides the benefits of a permanent displacement supported by the solids. We have demonstrated that hydraulic fractures will lift the ground surface at shallow depths in Texas near the Sabine River, where the geological setting is generally similar to that of New Orleans (and where, incidentally, hurricane Rita landed in 2005). In these regions, the soft surficial sediments are underlain by relatively stiff Pleistocene deposits, which create in-situ stress conditions favorable for sub-horizontal orientation of hydraulic fractures. Based on the poroelastic effect, these conditions can further be improved by subsurface manipulations of pore fluid. Also, there are many geological examples of natural, sub- horizontal hydraulic fractures. These include multiple igneous sills (e.g., Henry Mountains, Utah) and sand- filled sills intruded into sedimentary formations (e.g., Shetland-Faroe Islands). Techniques that are currently used, or planned, for protecting coastal cities from flood are typically based on the concept of a barrier to the seawater (e.g., levees or water gates). However, the failure of any barrier to flood waters can be catastrophic when the city it protects is below sea level. Hydromechanical injection of solid compounds could permanently lift elevations above a Category 5 hurricane surge, so the risk of a catastrophic failure and subsequent flooding becomes insignificant. We envision that the hydromechanical method can be used in combination with other strategies. For example, in some areas it may be efficient to let most of a city retreat and only lift localized regions of particularly high value, such as airports, port facilities, refineries, historical areas, military bases, etc. In other cases, the protecting equipment itself may begin subsiding (e.g., massive, metal water gates on a soft-sediment foundation). Then, hydromechanical injections could be used to lift the region supporting this equipment.

Germanovich, L. N.; Murdoch, L.

2008-12-01

21

Effects of river reach discretization on the estimation of the probability of levee failure owing to piping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the centuries many societies have preferred to settle down nearby floodplains area and take advantage of the favorable environmental conditions. Due to changing hydro-meteorological conditions, over time, levee systems along rivers have been raised to protect urbanized area and reduce the impact of floods. As expressed by the so called "levee paradox", many societies might to tend to trust these levee protection systems due to an induced sense of safety and, as a consequence, invest even more in urban developing in levee protected flood prone areas. As a result, considering also the increasing number of population around the world, people living in floodplains is growing. However, human settlements in floodplains are not totally safe and have been continuously endangered by the risk of flooding. In fact, failures of levee system in case of flood event have also produced the most devastating disasters of the last two centuries due to the exposure of the developed floodprone areas to risk. In those cases, property damage is certain, but loss of life can vary dramatically with the extent of the inundation area, the size of the population at risk, and the amount of warning time available. The aim of this study is to propose an innovative methodology to estimate the reliability of a general river levee system in case of piping, considering different sources of uncertainty, and analyze the influence of different discretization of the river reach in sub-reaches in the evaluation of the probability of failure. The reliability analysis, expressed in terms of fragility curve, was performed evaluating the probability of failure, conditioned by a given hydraulic load in case of a certain levee failure mechanism, using a Monte Carlo and First Order Reliability Method. Knowing the information about fragility curve for each discrete levee reach, different fragility indexes were introduced. Using the previous information was then possible to classify the river into sub-reaches having different classes of reliability. This methodology was then applied to the Po River where the probability of failure in case of synthetic 100-year return period flood event was additionally calculated. The results of this study pointed out how the fragility classes assessed for the Po are in agreement with the historical observations. Moreover, the choice in the discretization criteria may affect the resulting probability of failure along the river reach. Classifying different levee reaches into different classes of fragility can be then used in a generic river reach where levee geometry is known. Furthermore, the proposed fragility analysis can support probabilistic flood risk mapping, monitoring and planning of maintenance works of levee systems. This study is part of the FP7 European Project KULTURisk.

Mazzoleni, Maurizio; Brandimarte, Luigia; Barontini, Stefano; Ranzi, Roberto

2014-05-01

22

Capacitively coupled resistivity survey of the levee surrounding the Omaha Public Power District Nebraska City Power Plant, June 2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report is a release of digital data from a capacitively coupled resistivity survey conducted on June 13, 2011, on the flood-protection levees surrounding the Omaha Public Power District Nebraska City power plant. The U.S. Geological Survey Crustal Geophysics and Geochemistry Science Center and the Nebraska Water Science Center performed the survey in response to a flood on the Missouri River. A single line of resistivity profiling was completed along the center line of the section of levee 573 that surrounds the power plant.

Burton, Bethany L.; Cannia, James C.

2011-01-01

23

18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for flood plain management. (4) Promote the use of flood insurance by helping localities qualify for the national program. (5) Assist in the development of a modern flood forecasting and warning...

2010-04-01

24

18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for flood plain management. (4) Promote the use of flood insurance by helping localities qualify for the national program. (5) Assist in the development of a modern flood forecasting and warning...

2011-04-01

25

Mapping Flood Protection Benefits from Restored Wetlands at the Urban-Suburban Interface  

EPA Science Inventory

Urbanization exacerbates flooding by increasing runoff and decreasing surface water storage. Restoring wetlands can enhance flood protection while providing a suite of co-benefits such as temperature regulation and access to open space. Spatial modeling of the delivery of flood p...

26

Characterizing Levees using Polarimetric and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring the physical condition of levees is vital in order to protect them from flooding. The dynamics of subsurface water events can cause damage on levee structures which could lead to slough slides, sand boils or through seepage. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technology, due to its high spatial resolution and soil penetration capability, is a good choice to identify such problem areas so that they can be treated to avoid possible catastrophic failure. The radar polarimetric and interferometric data is capable of identifying variations in soil properties of the areas which might cause levee failure. The study area encompasses portion of levees of the lower Mississippi river in the United States. The methodology of this research is mainly categorized into two streams: 1) polarimetric data analysis and classification, and 2) interferometric analysis. Two sources of SAR imagery are used: a) quad-polarized, L-band data from Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) for polarimetric classification, and b) high resolution dual-polarized Terrasar-X data for interferometric analysis. NASA's UAVSAR imagery acquired between 2009 and 2011 are used for the analysis. The polarimetric classification is performed based on the decomposition parameters: entropy (H), anisotropy (A) and alpha (?) and the results detected slough slides on the levees and potential future slides. In the interferometric approach, the Terrasar-X SAR images acquired at different times in the year 2011 are combined into pairs to exploit the phase difference of the signals. The interferometric information is used to find evidence of potential small-scale deformations which could be pre-cursors to levee failure.

Dabbiru, L.; Aanstoos, J. V.; Mahrooghy, M.; Gokaraju, B.; Nobrega, R. A.; Younan, N. H.

2011-12-01

27

Hydrodynamic Modeling and GIS Analysis of the Habitat Potential and Flood Control Benefits of the Restoration of a Leveed Delta Island  

E-print Network

i Hydrodynamic Modeling and GIS Analysis of the Habitat Potential and Flood Control Benefits ...................................................................................................... 15 MIKE 11 Description.................................................................................................... 17 MIKE 11 GIS Description

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

28

Floods  

MedlinePLUS

... resources to educate and inform communities about the importance of flood safety awareness. After The Flood Fact Sheet Outreach Toolkit Materials As a leader in public information response to emergency situations, the ...

29

Tiger Dams Reinforce Baton Rouge Levees  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Tiger Dams line the Baton Rouge Mississippi River levee during the 2011 Flood.  Previously used to prevent oil from reaching Louisiana's coast during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, these Tiger Dams are filled with water and reinforced with sandbags to give the Baton Rouge Mississippi Riv...

30

33 CFR 203.51 - Levee owner's manual.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood...Authority. In accordance with section 202(f) of Public Law 104-303, the Corps will provide a levee owner's...

2010-07-01

31

44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...a flood control restoration zone. (2) A community that...a flood control restoration zone. Such a community is not eligible...under this limitation. (c) Exclusions. The provisions of these...premium rates established for Zone AR shall be the effective...

2010-10-01

32

44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...a flood control restoration zone. (2) A community that...a flood control restoration zone. Such a community is not eligible...under this limitation. (c) Exclusions. The provisions of these...premium rates established for Zone AR shall be the effective...

2011-10-01

33

44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...a flood control restoration zone. (2) A community that...a flood control restoration zone. Such a community is not eligible...under this limitation. (c) Exclusions. The provisions of these...premium rates established for Zone AR shall be the effective...

2012-10-01

34

44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...a flood control restoration zone. (2) A community that...a flood control restoration zone. Such a community is not eligible...under this limitation. (c) Exclusions. The provisions of these...premium rates established for Zone AR shall be the effective...

2013-10-01

35

44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.  

...a flood control restoration zone. (2) A community that...a flood control restoration zone. Such a community is not eligible...under this limitation. (c) Exclusions. The provisions of these...premium rates established for Zone AR shall be the effective...

2014-10-01

36

Levee Health Monitoring With Radar Remote Sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing offers the potential to augment current levee monitoring programs by providing rapid and consistent data collection over large areas irrespective of the ground accessibility of the sites of interest, at repeat intervals that are difficult or costly to maintain with ground-based surveys, and in rapid response to emergency situations. While synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has long been used for subsidence measurements over large areas, applying this technique directly to regional levee monitoring is a new endeavor, mainly because it requires both a wide imaging swath and fine spatial resolution to resolve individual levees within the scene, a combination that has not historically been available. Application of SAR remote sensing directly to levee monitoring has only been attempted in a few pilot studies. Here we describe how SAR remote sensing can be used to assess levee conditions, such as seepage, drawing from the results of two levee studies: one of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta levees in California that has been ongoing since July 2009 and a second that covered the levees near Vicksburg, Mississippi, during the spring 2011 floods. These studies have both used data acquired with NASA's UAVSAR L-band synthetic aperture radar, which has the spatial resolution needed for this application (1.7 m single-look), sufficiently wide imaging swath (22 km), and the longer wavelength (L-band, 0.238 m) required to maintain phase coherence between repeat collections over levees, an essential requirement for applying differential interferometry (DInSAR) to a time series of repeated collections for levee deformation measurement. We report the development and demonstration of new techniques that employ SAR polarimetry and differential interferometry to successfully assess levee health through the quantitative measurement of deformation on and near levees and through detection of areas experiencing seepage. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta levee study, which covers the entire network of more than 1100 miles of levees in the area, has used several sets of in situ data to validate the results. This type of levee health status information acquired with radar remote sensing could provide a cost-effective method to significantly improve the spatial and temporal coverage of levee systems and identify areas of concern for targeted levee maintenance, repair, and emergency response in the future. Our results show, for example, that during an emergency, when time is of the essence, SAR remote sensing offers the potential of rapidly providing levee status information that is effectively impossible to obtain over large areas using conventional monitoring, e.g., through high precision measurements of subcentimeter-scale levee movement prior to failure. The research described here was carried out in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Jones, C. E.; Bawden, G. W.; Deverel, S. J.; Dudas, J.; Hensley, S.; Yun, S.

2012-12-01

37

Flooding and Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, flooding is the nation's most common natural disaster. Some floods develop slowly during an extended period of rain or in a warming trend following a heavy snow. Flash floods can occur quickly, without any visible sign of rain. Catastrophic floods are associated with burst dams and levees,…

National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2011

2011-01-01

38

Protection of Coastal Infrastructure under Rising Flood Risk  

E-print Network

The 2005 hurricane season was particularly damaging to the United States, contributing to significant losses to energy infrastructure—much of it the result of flooding from storm surge during hurricanes Katrina and Rita. ...

Lickley, M.J.

39

The protection of RIVERLIFE by mitigation of flood damages RIVERLIFE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-term development objective of the RIVERLIFE project is to contribute to sustainable human end economic development in the Timis-Bega river basin area as part of the Danube River Basin (DRB), through reinforcing the capacities of Romanian central and local authorities to develop effective mechanisms and tools for integrated river basin management in the Timis-Bega basin. The overall objective of the project is to assist the country in the EU enlargement and accession process to meet the EU requirements of water related Directives with emphasis on the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). The specific objective of the project is to support the WFD implementation process at the level of a sub-unit within the limits of the DRB, through the development of a River Basin Management Plan (RBMP). The project will also facilitate the implementation of the Danube River Protection Convention (DRPC) as an essential element in the implementation of the Directive in the transboundary river basins. Expected outcomes in the recipient country consist of (i) responding to a real hazard problem, which affects the quality of life of many citizens, and (ii) improvement in the environmental conditions in the targeted areas. Flooding is one of the major natural hazards to human society and an important influence on social and economic development for Romania causing financially greater losses per annum on average than any other natural hazard. One key concept of the WFD is the coordination, organization and regulation of water management at the level of river basins. Therefore, river basin districts are shaped in such a way as to include not only the surface run-off through streams and rivers to the sea, but the total area of land and sea together with the associated groundwater and coastal waters. The concept allows even for the small river basins directly discharging into the sea to be combined into one river basin district. As a principle, the complex decisions on the use or interventions in the aquatic systems within the river basin district limits should take place in an integrated and co-coordinated approach as part of the RBMP. The process includes all RBMP plan development phases for Timis-Bega basin from planning and analysis phases to the assessment and the identification of respective programs of measures intended to achieve the defined environmental objectives for the respective river basin. The central administrative tool of the WFD is the River Basin Management Plan, around which all other elements are set. The river basin becomes the basic unit for all water planning and management interventions according with the physical and hydrological boundaries, but not necessary with its political and administrative limits.

Adler, M. J.

2003-04-01

40

Using geophysics to characterize levee stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shallow slough slides have occurred along the river side slope of Mississippi River Levees for over sixty years. Shallow slough slides also occur along smaller levees that protect tributaries of the Mississippi River. This investigation takes place along a section of the Coldwater River Levee, a tributary levee of the Mississippi River. Field observation, soil samples, and geophysical data were collected at two field sites located on the border of Tate and Tunica County, MS. The first site consists of a developed shallow slough slide that had occurred that has not yet been repaired and the second site is a potential slide area. Electromagnetic induction and electrical resistivity tomography were the geophysical methods used to define subsurface conditions that make a levee vulnerable to failure. These electrical methods are sensitive to the electrical conductivity of the soil and therefore depend upon: soil moisture, clay content, pore size distribution as well as larger scale structures at depth such as cracks and fissures. These same physical properties of the soil are also important to assessing the vulnerability of a levee to slough slides. Soil tests and field observations were also implemented in this investigation to describe and classify the soil composition of the levee material. The problem of slough slide occurrence can potentially be reduced if vulnerabilities are located with the help of geophysical techniques.

Dalton, Laura M.

41

The use of airborne geophysics for levee classification and assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research is the first known application into using airborne geophysical methods to evaluate and classify levees. This research is an important step toward developing new technologies and methods to rapidly screen and evaluate earthen flood control levees for safety against flooding. An investigation of airborne geophysical methods was conducted on levees in the lower Rio Grande Valley and involved electromagnetic induction, magnetometer, and LiDAR surveys of the levee system. Airborne EM signatures were analyzed by geologic mapping of floodplain depositional environments, examination of published soils data, and drilling of borings. A geographic information system was developed to manage the various data sets and evaluate historic land use changes and development of the flood control systems to better understand the signatures using airborne methods. This research presents information about the historic basis for evaluating and classifying levees, which is based primarily on the federal perspective and flood control experiences in the lower Mississippi River Valley, where national floodplain engineering methods and standards were developed. This research examines the evolution of today's flood control policy, and the development of engineering assessment procedures, and the application of geophysical methods to provide critical information about levee failure mechanisms and assessment of flood control systems. This research demonstrates that topographic base maps and Sengpiel sections showing the results of electrical conductivity or resistivity surveys at different frequencies along the levee corridor provide accurate and valuable information to determine the composition of floodplain soils and the foundation stratigraphy to assess modes of levee failure, to aid in the placement of borings to obtain material properties of the levee and foundation, and to determine the extent of levee reaches with similar properties for the engineering analysis. The main purpose for segmenting the levee system is for identifying reaches with similar geotechnical properties for an engineering evaluation and to identify areas where anomalous conditions may occur. Airborne geophysical methods offer added benefits and improvements over traditional engineering methods to evaluate levees based solely on evenly spaced borings along the levee right-of-way, where zones of weakness may be missed. The volume of earth being measured by multiple frequency airborne EM techniques corresponds primarily to the foundation of the levee instead of the body of the levee in smaller levees. Ideally, airborne methods would be supplemented with high resolution ground based EM methods to better define anomalous conditions. Data derived from airborne sur-veys are used in a levee screening process developed during this research to rank levees for the most efficient use of limited maintenance resources and subsequently target reaches for focused studies using traditional engineering methods. Airborne EM surveys show that local variations in electrical conductivity occur, and usually corre-spond to abrupt geologic boundaries in the levee foundation associated with different types of depositional environments (i.e., abandoned channel, abandoned course, point bar, flood basin, crevasse splay, chute, etc.).

Dunbar, Joseph B.

2011-12-01

42

Woody Vegetation on Levees? - Research Experiences and Design Suggestions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent flood events in Austria have reawakened practical and scientific interest in the stability of levees. One focus amongst others has been taken on the relationship between vegetation and levee stability with special reference to the role of woody plants. The effects of woody plants are undoubtedly manifold: On the one hand they can potentially have a negative influence and endanger levees, which is why many guidelines ban woody vegetation to preserve stability, visual inspection and unhindered flood-fight access. On the other hand woody vegetation can have several positive impacts on soil stability and which effects prevail depends largely on types and characteristics of plants. This shows how controversially woody plants on levees can be discussed and the strong need for further research in this field. In order to obtain new insights and widen horizons for this controversial issue, a research project carried out by the Institute of Soil Bioengineering and Landscape Construction - at the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna - was launched. This project deals with several aspects of effects of woody plants have on levees and focuses particularly on shrubby woody plants. The examined vegetation type is a dense stand of willows - Purple-Willows (Salix purpurea L.) - commonly used for stabilization of river embankments. The proposed contribution discusses the gained results with reference to levee stability and existing levee vegetation guidelines and gives design suggestions for compatible woody vegetation on levees.

Lammeranner, Walter

2013-04-01

43

Geospatial Information Relevant to the Flood Protection Available on The Mainstream Web  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood protection is one of several disciplines where geospatial data is very important and is a crucial component. Its management, processing and sharing form the foundation for their efficient use; therefore, special attention is required in the development of effective, precise, standardized, and interoperable models for the discovery and publishing of data on the Web. This paper describes the design of a methodology to discover Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) services on the Web and collect descriptive information, i.e., metadata in a geocatalogue. A pilot implementation of the proposed methodology - Geocatalogue of geospatial information provided by OGC services discovered on Google (hereinafter "Geocatalogue") - was used to search for available resources relevant to the area of flood protection. The result is an analysis of the availability of resources discovered through their metadata collected from the OGC services (WMS, WFS, etc.) and the resources they provide (WMS layers, WFS objects, etc.) within the domain of flood protection.

Kliment, Tomáš; Gálová, Linda; ?ura?iová, Renata; Fencík, Róbert; Kliment, Marcel

2014-03-01

44

Towards modelling flood protection investment as a coupled human and natural system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to a number of recent high profile flood events and the apparent threat from global warming, governments and their agencies are under pressure to make proactive investments to protect people living in floodplains. However, adopting a proactive approach as a universal strategy is not affordable. It has been argued that delaying expensive and essentially irreversible capital decisions could be a prudent strategy in situations with high future uncertainty. This paper firstly uses Monte Carlo simulation to explore the performance of proactive and reactive investment strategies using a rational cost-benefit approach in a natural system with varying levels of persistence/interannual variability in Annual Maximum Floods. It is found that, as persistence increases, there is a change in investment strategy optimality from proactive to reactive. This could have implications for investment strategies under the increasingly variable climate that is expected with global warming. As part of the emerging holistic approaches to flood risk management, there is increasing emphasis on stakeholder participation in determining where and when flood protection investments are made, and so flood risk management is becoming more people-centred. As a consequence, multiple actors are involved in the decision-making process, and the social sciences are assuming an increasingly important role in flood risk management. There is a need for modelling approaches which can couple the natural and human system elements. It is proposed that Coupled Human and Natural System (CHANS) modelling could play an important role in understanding the motivations, actions and influence of citizens and institutions and how these impact on the effective delivery of flood protection investment. A framework for using Agent Based Modelling of human activities leading to flood investments is outlined, and some of the challenges associated with implementation are discussed.

O'Connell, P. E.; O'Donnell, G.

2013-06-01

45

Towards modelling flood protection investment as a coupled human and natural system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to a number of recent high-profile flood events and the apparent threat from global warming, governments and their agencies are under pressure to make proactive investments to protect people living in floodplains. However, adopting a proactive approach as a universal strategy is not affordable. It has been argued that delaying expensive and essentially irreversible capital decisions could be a prudent strategy in situations with high future uncertainty. This paper firstly uses Monte Carlo simulation to explore the performance of proactive and reactive investment strategies using a rational cost-benefit approach in a natural system with varying levels of persistence/interannual variability in annual maximum floods. It is found that, as persistence increases, there is a change in investment strategy optimality from proactive to reactive. This could have implications for investment strategies under the increasingly variable climate that is expected with global warming. As part of the emerging holistic approaches to flood risk management, there is increasing emphasis on stakeholder participation in determining where and when flood protection investments are made, and so flood risk management is becoming more people-centred. As a consequence, multiple actors are involved in the decision-making process, and the social sciences are assuming an increasingly important role in flood risk management. There is a need for modelling approaches which can couple the natural and human system elements. It is proposed that coupled human and natural system (CHANS) modelling could play an important role in understanding the motivations, actions and influence of citizens and institutions and how these impact on the effective delivery of flood protection investment. A framework for using agent-based modelling of human activities leading to flood investments is outlined, and some of the challenges associated with implementation are discussed.

O'Connell, P. E.; O'Donnell, G.

2014-01-01

46

Floods  

MedlinePLUS

... Children Safe From Drowning in Flooded Areas Avoiding Carbon Monoxide Poisoning During a Power Outage Driving Through Water After a Disaster Preventing Trench Foot or Immersion Foot Identification and Treatment of Hypothermia Related to Exposure While Working in Cold Water General Information about ...

47

Fragility analysis of flood protection structures in earthquake and flood prone areas around Cologne, Germany for multi-hazard risk assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work presents a methodology for fragility analyses of fluvial earthen dikes in earthquake and flood prone areas. Fragility estimates are being integrated into the multi-hazard (earthquake-flood) risk analysis being undertaken within the framework of the EU FP7 project MATRIX (New Multi-Hazard and Multi-Risk Assessment Methods for Europe) for the city of Cologne, Germany. Scenarios of probable cascading events due to the earthquake-triggered failure of flood protection dikes and the subsequent inundation of surroundings are analyzed for the area between the gauges Andernach and Düsseldorf along the Rhine River. Along this river stretch, urban areas are partly protected by earthen dikes, which may be prone to failure during exceptional floods and/or earthquakes. The seismic fragility of the dikes is considered in terms of liquefaction potential (factor of safety), estimated by the use of the simplified procedure of Seed and Idriss. It is assumed that initiation of liquefaction at any point throughout the earthen dikes' body corresponds to the failure of the dike and, therefore, this should be taken into account for the flood risk calculations. The estimated damage potential of such structures is presented as a two-dimensional surface (as a function of seismic hazard and water level). Uncertainties in geometrical and geotechnical dike parameters are considered within the framework of Monte Carlo simulations. Taking into consideration the spatial configuration of the existing flood protection system within the area under consideration, seismic hazard curves (in terms of PGA) are calculated for sites along the river segment of interest at intervals of 1 km. The obtained estimates are used to calculate the flood risk when considering the temporal coincidence of seismic and flood events. Changes in flood risk for the considered hazard cascade scenarios are quantified and compared to the single-hazard scenarios.

Tyagunov, Sergey; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Munoz Jimenez, Cristina; Parolai, Stefano; Fleming, Kevin; Merz, Bruno; Zschau, Jochen

2013-04-01

48

Based on GIS technology flood disaster assessment study of Fuhe River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood protection of Fuhe river basin has been payed high attention after Changkai-levee crevasse in 2010. This paper constructions a model of flood disaster lose calculation considering flood disaster and social economic developing based on GIS. Firstly social economic indexes have been selected according to characteristics of the urban and the rural. Secondly a mathematical model of flood routing using Finite Volume Method has been made in spacial information grids, the data of inundated depth and flood duration can be extracted from the grids. In the end ,wo calculate the loss by flood disaster losses calculation process model. This paper solves the stacking problem of flood characteristic and administrative boundaries effectively, which makes a development on accuracy of flood disaster assessment.

Wu, Dingding; Zhao, Xinyu; Chen, Jing

2014-01-01

49

There Is Water Everywhere: How News Framing Amplifies the Effect of Ecological Worldviews on Preference for Flooding Protection Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to examine the interactive effect of worldviews and media frames on policy preference. Using flooding as a case study, we examine the interplay of ecological worldviews and news framed as either emphasizing harmony with nature or mastery over nature on individuals' preference for flood protection policy. A total of 255 undergraduate students participated in

Timothy K. F. Fung; Dominique Brossard; Isabella Ng

2011-01-01

50

Reservoir Re-operation, Risk, and Levee Failure Analysis: Mokelumne River Case  

E-print Network

i Reservoir Re-operation, Risk, and Levee Failure Analysis: Mokelumne River Case By PATRICK, Chair Bassam A. Younis Alexander Aue Committee in Charge 2011 #12; ii ABSTRACT Reservoir operation for analyzing a flood episode. Flood hydrograph design is a key component flood control rule design in reservoir

Lund, Jay R.

51

76 FR 78015 - Revised Analysis and Mapping Procedures for Non-Accredited Levees  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FEMA's Flood Insurance Rate Maps. FEMA seeks input on...FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bill Blanton, Levee...Privacy Notice'' link in the footer of http...III. Background FEMA maps flood hazards on Flood Insurance Rate Maps, a tool used to...

2011-12-15

52

Bayesian estimation of levee breach progression in natural rivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During severe flood events, sometime, levee breaches occur in a river reach causing the flooding of the surrounding area. Most levee failures are not instantaneous but they gradually evolve over a period of time: the initial breach progressively increases its depth and enlarges its width. After the failure takes place, even if its location can be known, the breach progression is hard to be recovered. However, if one or more sites monitored with level gauges are located downstream the failure site, the breach time evolution leaves an imprint in these water levels. The knowledge of the breach progression can be useful to better understand the effective dynamics of the failure and to evaluate the breach flood wave in order to simulate the flooding process for forensic purposes among others. In this work an inverse methodology to estimate the progression of an occurred levee breach in a natural river using water level data available at monitored stations downstream the failure is presented. The methodology is based on a Bayesian approach to the inverse problem coupled with geostatistical models to describe the structure of the unknown breach time evolution. The methodology requires a forward hydraulic model of the considered river reach able to accurately reproduce not only the flow routing processes but also the levee breach in terms of progression and outflow discharge. In this work, a 1D forward model (USACE HEC-RAS river analysis system) that solves the unsteady flow De Saint Venant equations has been used. A simplified description of both the depth and the width time evolution of the levee breach has been considered. The methodology has been tested by means of synthetic examples of several levee breaches considering different stressing flood waves and different locations of the observed water levels used as input for the inverse procedure. The results highlight the reliability of the procedure in estimating the progression of the levee breach and consequently the volume of water released. Further studies will be conducted considering more complex descriptions of the levee breaches and the flow field using also 2D flooding models.

Tanda, M.; D'Oria, M.; Mignosa, P.

2013-12-01

53

Levee Decisions and Sustainability for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta  

E-print Network

i Levee Decisions and Sustainability for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Robyn Suddeth, Jeff Mount The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta's fragile levees are subject to several physical realities that make them increasingly prone to failure. State planners face the challenge of preparing for future Delta flooding

Pasternack, Gregory B.

54

Methods for Estimating Magnitude and Frequency of Floods in Rural Basins in the Southeastern United States: South Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

For more than 50 years, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been developing regional regression equations that can be used to estimate flood magnitude and frequency at ungaged sites. Flood magnitude relates to the volume of flow that occurs over some period of time and usually is presented in cubic feet per second. Flood frequency relates to the probability of occurrence of a flood; that is, on average, what is the likelihood that a flood with a specified magnitude will occur in any given year (1 percent chance, 10 percent chance, 50 percent chance, and so on). Such flood estimates are needed for the efficient design of bridges, highway embankments, levees, and other structures near streams. In addition, these estimates are needed for the effective planning and management of land and water resources, to protect lives and property in flood-prone areas, and to determine flood-insurance rates.

Feaster, Toby D.; Gotvald, Anthony J.; Weaver, J. Curtis

2009-01-01

55

Floods of December 1961 in Mississippi and adjoining states  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Widespread floods occurred over parts of Mississippi, Louisiana, and Alabama after heavy rains during December 18, 1961. A series of low-pressure systems produced as much as 19 inches of rainfall in some areas. Heavy rainfall, 7 to 11 inches, on December 10 resulted in outstanding floods on small streams in southern Mississippi and southwestern Alabama. Subsequent rains produced multiple floods on small streams and outstanding floods of prolonged duration along the Big Black, upper Pearl, and lower Tombigbee Rivers in Mississippi. At Jackson, Miss., the Pearl River reached the highest stage known. Along the east bank, flood waters topped or breached some of the levee system protecting the Flowood industrial area, but other parts were saved by extensive reinforcement and by emergency operation of the partially completed dam 10 miles upstream. Additional heavy damage to commercial and industrial property was prevented as a result of these measures. Elsewhere, damage was restricted primarily to secondary highways and bridges. Two lives were lost.

Shell, James D.

1962-01-01

56

Self-formed levees and floodplains in an annular flume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various river channel patterns have been produced in experiments recently, including dynamic meandering. The key to produce more realistical patterns is the formation of levees and sedimentary floodplain. However, experiments to date only produced wide floodplains or bedload-generated levees and overbank splays, but not the classical levee with decaying thickness and particle size away from the channel. The objective of our work is to understand the subtle balance between inundation level, flow velocity and sediment properties, and to design experimental conditions that form levees in channel pattern experiments. We designed and built an annular flume with floodplains, where flow is driven by vanes in the preformed channel. The channel sediment was mobile and developed a transverse bed slope in response to the strong spiral flow. The transverse water surface gradient and the level of inundation controlled the flow on the floodplain. We experimented with sediments varying in diameter and density to obtain levees and floodplain under constant forcing and depth. The flow on the floodplain developed horizontal circulation when shallow relative to the channel, and vertical (spiral) flow when it was deeper. Silt-sized silica flour was either not entrained from the bed onto the floodplain, or suspended so much that the floodplain was covered entirely. A channel-flanking levee only formed in a very narrow range of flow depth and velocity for this sediment. Preliminary tests with low-density sediment did not form levees for channel flow conditions with mobile bed sediment. The difficulty in forming levees, and some numerical modelling with tides, suggest that fluctuating water levels due to floods or tides are conducive to levee formation.

Teske, R.; Kleinhans, M. G.; Roosendaal, C.

2011-12-01

57

Flash Flood Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to NOAA’s National Weather Service, a flash flood is a life-threatening flood that begins within 6 hours--and often within 3 hours--of a causative event. That causative event can be intense rainfall, the failure of a dam, levee, or other structure that is impounding water, or the sudden rise of water level associated with river ice jams. The “Flash Flood Processes” module offers an introduction to the distinguishing features of flash floods, the underlying hydrologic influences and the use of flash flood guidance (FFG) products. Through use of rich illustrations, animations, and interactions, this module explains the differences between flash floods and general floods and examines the hydrologic processes that impact flash flooding risk. In addition, it provides an introduction to the use of flash flood guidance (FFG) products including derivation from ThreshR and rainfall-runoff curves as well as current strengths and limitations.

COMET

2006-11-08

58

Perspectives on screening winter-flood-tolerant woody species in the riparian protection forests of the three gorges reservoir.  

PubMed

The establishment of riparian protection forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is an ideal measure to cope with the eco-environmental problems of the water-level fluctuation zone (WLFZ). Thus, the information for screening winter-flood-tolerant woody plant species is useful for the recovery and re-establishment of the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. Therefore, we discussed the possibilities of constructing and popularizing riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ from several aspects, including the woody plant species distribution in the WLFZ, the survival rate analyses of suitable candidate woody species under controlled flooding conditions, the survival rate investigation of some woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, and the physiological responses of some woody plant species during the recovery stage after winter floods. The results of woody species investigation showed that most woody plant species that existed as annual seedlings in the TGR WLFZ are not suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests. However, arbor species (e.g., Salix matsudana, Populus×canadensis, Morus alba, Pterocarya stenoptera, Taxodium ascendens, and Metasequoia glyptostroboides) and shrub species (e.g., Salix variegata, Distylium chinensis, Lycium chinense, Myricaria laxiflora, and Rosa multiflora) might be considered suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ by survival rate analyses under controlled winter flooding conditions, and survival rate investigations of woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, respectively. Physiological analyses showed that P.×canadensis, M. alba, L. chinense, and S. variegata could develop specific self-repairing mechanisms to stimulate biomass accumulation and carbohydrate synthesis via the increases in chlorophyll pigments and photosynthesis during recovery after winter floods. Our results suggested these woody plant species could endure the winter flooding stress and recover well, and be used as candidate for the construction of riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. PMID:25265326

Yang, Fan; Wang, Yong; Chan, Zhulong

2014-01-01

59

Perspectives on Screening Winter-Flood-Tolerant Woody Species in the Riparian Protection Forests of the Three Gorges Reservoir  

PubMed Central

The establishment of riparian protection forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is an ideal measure to cope with the eco-environmental problems of the water-level fluctuation zone (WLFZ). Thus, the information for screening winter-flood-tolerant woody plant species is useful for the recovery and re-establishment of the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. Therefore, we discussed the possibilities of constructing and popularizing riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ from several aspects, including the woody plant species distribution in the WLFZ, the survival rate analyses of suitable candidate woody species under controlled flooding conditions, the survival rate investigation of some woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, and the physiological responses of some woody plant species during the recovery stage after winter floods. The results of woody species investigation showed that most woody plant species that existed as annual seedlings in the TGR WLFZ are not suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests. However, arbor species (e.g., Salix matsudana, Populus×canadensis, Morus alba, Pterocarya stenoptera, Taxodium ascendens, and Metasequoia glyptostroboides) and shrub species (e.g., Salix variegata, Distylium chinensis, Lycium chinense, Myricaria laxiflora, and Rosa multiflora) might be considered suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ by survival rate analyses under controlled winter flooding conditions, and survival rate investigations of woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, respectively. Physiological analyses showed that P.×canadensis, M. alba, L. chinense, and S. variegata could develop specific self-repairing mechanisms to stimulate biomass accumulation and carbohydrate synthesis via the increases in chlorophyll pigments and photosynthesis during recovery after winter floods. Our results suggested these woody plant species could endure the winter flooding stress and recover well, and be used as candidate for the construction of riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. PMID:25265326

Yang, Fan; Wang, Yong; Chan, Zhulong

2014-01-01

60

Protection against muddy floods: perception for local actors in Alsace (France) of a protection measure (fascines)  

E-print Network

decided to set up, directly on farmlands, micro-structures called "fascines" (faggots of brushwood up requires important investments. We can quote the setting up of dams, the road networks and urban investments. They include measures such as individual measures of protection, measures setting

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

61

Socio-hydrology: conceptualising human-flood interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over history, humankind has tended to settle near streams because of the role of rivers as transportation corridors and the fertility of riparian areas. However, human settlements in floodplains have been threatened by the risk of flooding. Possible responses have been to resettle away and/or modify the river system by building flood control structures. This has led to a complex web of interactions and feedback mechanisms between hydrological and social processes in settled floodplains. This paper is an attempt to conceptualise these interplays for hypothetical human-flood systems. We develop a simple, dynamic model to represent the interactions and feedback loops between hydrological and social processes. The model is then used to explore the dynamics of the human-flood system and the effect of changing individual characteristics, including external forcing such as technological development. The results show that the conceptual model is able to reproduce reciprocal effects between floods and people as well as the emergence of typical patterns. For instance, when levees are built or raised to protect floodplain areas, their presence not only reduces the frequency of flooding, but also exacerbates high water levels. Then, because of this exacerbation, higher flood protection levels are required by society. As a result, more and more flooding events are avoided, but rare and catastrophic events take place.

Di Baldassarre, G.; Viglione, A.; Carr, G.; Kuil, L.; Salinas, J. L.; Blöschl, G.

2013-08-01

62

Socio-hydrology: conceptualising human-flood interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over history, humankind has tended to settle near streams because of the role of rivers as transportation corridors and the fertility of riparian areas. However, human settlements in floodplains have been threatened by the risk of flooding. Possible responses have been to resettle away and/or modify the river system by building flood control structures. This has led to a complex web of interactions and feedback mechanisms between hydrological and social processes in settled floodplains. This paper is an attempt to conceptualise these interplays for hypothetical human-flood systems. We develop a simple, dynamic model to represent the interactions and feedback loops between hydrological and social processes. The model is then used to explore the dynamics of the human-flood system and the effect of changing individual characteristics, including external forcing such as technological development. The results show that the conceptual model is able to reproduce reciprocal effects between floods and people as well as the emergence of typical patterns. For instance, when levees are built or raised to protect floodplain areas, their presence not only reduces the frequency of flooding, but also exacerbates high water levels. Then, because of this exacerbation, higher flood protection levels are required by the society. As a result, more and more flooding events are avoided, but rare and catastrophic events take place.

Di Baldassarre, G.; Viglione, A.; Carr, G.; Kuil, L.; Salinas, J. L.; Blöschl, G.

2013-04-01

63

Estimation of Discharge from Breached Earthfill Levee with Elapsed Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lack of the freeboard of levee has been occurred due to abnormally peaked flood events. Thus, the risk from overtopping of earthfill levee has been remarkably increased. When overflow on levee starts to occur, the breaching gap suddenly grows up at initial stage. As the breach width is extended, the discharge from breached section is also nonlinearly increased. Moreover, if the levee is located through multiple cities, the related damage cannot be predictable. However, researches about the breach mechanism have been focused on the breached shape of levee on the equilibrium state and the study on the development of levee breach is not enough to utilize the prediction of damage itself and select its countermeasure. In this study, the formula for breach discharge was presented to be able to predict that based on hydraulic experimental results. All experiments have been conducted with the movable levee which was the crown width of 0.3 m, the height of 0.3 m, the landside slope of 2:1 (H:V). Breach was induced by the lateral overflow for Froude numbers in main channel from 0.15 to 0.35 with the increment of 0.05. Based on the dimensional analysis with significant parameters such as main channel depth, breach width and discharge coefficient, temporal variation of each parameter was estimated with 25 experimental cases. Finally, the formula for prediction of breach flow due to overtopping failure of levee was presented considering the elapsed time for each Froude number after combing all significant parameters. When Froude number was less than 0.3, the breach discharge occurred to increase with Froude number while it became decreased with Froude number exceeding 0.3, which means the maximum breach discharge was occurred at Froude number = 0.3. It would be explained with the flow diversion caused by the collision of breach flow on the breached section downstream, which decreased the breach discharge into landside for higher Froude number of 0.3. As a future works, when the material of levee is properly considered, results from this study would be able to apply to the prediction and prevention of damage due to levee breach.

Kim, Sooyoung; Yang, Jiro; Song, Chang Geun; Lee, Seung Oh

2014-05-01

64

Mississippi River Flooding 2011: Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This USGS aerial photo mosaic shows a series of levee breaks on the Missouri River during the 1993 flood, which were caused by overtopping. USGS scientists will use measurements from the intentionally breached levee at Birds Point in 2011 to compare with the 1993 levee breach measurements to underst...

65

Mitigating Flood Loss through Local Comprehensive Planning in Florida  

E-print Network

of flood management policies Plan coding protocol 13 for water runoff to go (Floodplain Management Association, 2007). Certain types of flood hazards are associated with or triggered by earthquakes, broken dams and levees, tsunamis or hurricanes...

Kang, Jung Eun

2010-10-12

66

Flooding and Flood Risks  

MedlinePLUS

... to serious flooding. Learn More Understanding flood maps FEMA conducts a Flood Insurance Study and uses this ... Flood risk can and does change over time. FEMA frequently updates flood hazard maps. Learn More Flood ...

67

Flooding in Downtown Minot, N.D.  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

As the Souris River flooded during the early summer of 2011, it overcame levees in the city of Minot, N.D., causing about 11,000 people to evacuate their homes. The record-breaking flood crested on July 25 at over 26,000 cubic feet per second (cfs) and 24 feet - nearly 13 feet over flood s...

68

Socio-economic Evaluation Of Different Alternatives For Flood Protection Within The Rivierenland-project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Netherlands have a tradition of protecting land against flooding from the main rivers Rhine, Meuse and Scheldt by means of an extensive system of dikes. In recent years, however, this approach to protection has been increasingly questioned with re- gard to its sustainability and cost-effectiveness. The argument is that although the continued elevation of dikes may be technically feasible, there are several disadvan- tages to this approach. Firstly, a vast network of dikes requires a very high degree of organisation of water management, in which mistakes can not be afforded. Such a high degree of organisation may not always be maintainable in the future, due to changed economic or political circumstances. Secondly, it may not be the most cost- effective system for maintaining safety in the long term. Thirdly, it may not be the most desirable approach in terms of sustainability. One of the alternatives to contin- ued dike-elevation is the concept 'room for the river' ('ruimte voor de rivier'), which aims to give more space to rivers in the horizontal in stead of the vertical dimen- sion. This approach would reduce the risk of flooding, defined as the product of the probability and the consequences of flooding. In order to explore the long term con- sequences of both alternatives ('dike elevation' and 'room for the river'), the ministry of Verkeer en Waterstaat (Public Works, Transport and Water Management) started the 'Rivierenland'-project. The comparison of the alternatives mentioned was based on a fictitious project to adjust a region of The Netherlands, between the rivers Rhine and Meuse, to the concept of 'room for water'. The consequence of this adjustment would be that safety within that region would no longer be safeguarded by dikes, but by adjusting daily life to the 'demands of the water'. Part of the 'Rivierenland'-project was an analysis of the socio-economic costs and benefits of the alternative approaches. Within this analysis, a study was performed to identify the requirements an economic evaluation of the project-alternatives would have to meet to do justice to the specific characteristics of the project. These specific characteristics were its mere size (both in spatial and in financial terms), the duration and complexity of the decision-making process, and uncertainty about the effects of the alternatives. Requirements for the method to be used were an integrated analysis of the effects and the taking into account of both the short and the long term effects (over a hundred years) of the alternatives. As a result of these characteristics and requirements, the decision-making process in- volves considerations of intra- and intergenerational equity, the discount factor to be used, transparency of the decision-making process to the public and the possibility to adapt the results of the economic evaluation to changing insights and opinions.

Boot, S. P.; van Ast, J. A.

69

Delivery of Ecosystem Benefits at the Urban-Suburban Interface: A Case Study of Flood Protection in the Woonasquatucket River Watershed  

EPA Science Inventory

Urbanization exacerbates flooding by increasing surface runoff and decreasing surface roughness. Restoring wetlands can enhance flood protection while providing a suite of co-benefits such as temperature regulation and access to open space. Spatial modeling of the delivery of flo...

70

Simulation and visualization of flood submergence based on MIKE FLOOD and ArcObjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper takes the plain area of middle reaches of Liaohe River as the study object, and uses the hydrodynamic software MIKE FLOOD to simulate the submergence of levee-overflowing flood. Based on the result of simulation, a flood routing display module is developed by the use of GIS development component ArcObjects and visual programming language C#. The functions of this

Han Min; Zhao Yao

2008-01-01

71

11-14 November 2012 Umbria Region (Central Italy) flood event: from prediction to management for civil protection purposes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following laws and regulations concerning extreme natural events management, the Italian national hydrometeorological early warning system is composed by 21 regional offices (Functional Centres - CF). Umbria Region CF is located in Central Italy and provides early warning, monitoring and decision support systems (DSS) when significant flood/landslide events occur. The alert system is based on hydrometric and rainfall thresholds with detailed procedures for the management of critical events in which different roles of authorities and institutions involved are defined. For the real time flood forecasting system, at the CF several operational hydrological and hydraulic models were developed and implemented for a "dynamic" hazard/risk scenario assessment for Civil Protection DSS, useful also for the development of Flood Risk Management Plans according to the European "Floods Directive" 2007/60. In the period 11th-14th November 2012, a significant flood event occurred in Umbria (as well as Tuscany and northern Lazio). The territory was interested by intense and persistent rainfall; the hydro-meteorological monitoring network recorded locally rainfall depth over 300 mm in 72 hours and, generally, values greater than the seasonal averages all over the region. In the most affected area the recorded rainfall depths correspond to centenarian return period: one-third of the annual mean precipitation occurred in 2-3 days. Almost all rivers in Umbria have been involved, exceeding hydrometric thresholds, and several ones overflowed. Furthermore, in some cases, so high water levels have never been recorded by the hydrometric network. As in the major flood events occurred in the last years, dams (Montedoglio and Corbara dams along Tiber River and Casanuova dam along Chiascio River) and other hydraulic works for flood defense (e.g. along Chiani stream) played a very important mitigation role, storing high water volumes and avoiding the overlap of peak discharges downstream. During the event many emergency interventions were necessary. There were no casualties among the population, but many landslides and flooding occurred causing over 240 million Euros of damages (to hydraulic works, infrastructures, public and commercial facilities, residential buildings, agriculture, etc.) enough to induce the Regional Administration to request declaration of state of emergency to the National Government. The day before the beginning of the event (10th November) QPFs values were high enough to activate "Attention" Phase of Regional Civil Protection System and CF, during the critical phases, provided 24h decision support activities, also through the official web site (www.cfumbria.it), very useful for monitoring and data/info dissemination from the national to the municipality level. The thresholds presented good agreement with direct territorial presidiums observations and the alert system has been tested. The purpose of this work is to highlight what worked well and what did not, in order to improve the early warning and DSS for Civil Protection purposes.

Berni, Nicola; Pandolfo, Claudia; Stelluti, Marco; Zauri, Renato; Ponziani, Francesco; Francioni, Marco; Governatori Leonardi, Federico; Formica, Alessandro; Natazzi, Loredana; Costantini, Sandro

2013-04-01

72

Lessons from Katrina: Flood Management Technology Strategies for the US.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal and riverine flooding and hurricane-driven storms have long plagued those in the United States who live or work on or near the shoreline or the rivers edge. The devastation wrought by Hurricane Katrina brought the challenge of protecting against such events to the political and technical forefront. The predicted impacts of global warming strongly suggest that our floodplains and coastlines could be at greatly increased risk. This presentation will review the development of the U.S. program for providing structural protection, discuss the effectiveness of employing levees, dams, floodways, beach nourishment and storm barriers in this struggle, highlight the changes over the last two decades that have gradually shifted the focus from a structural-only approach to one that includes the non-structural approaches such as wise land use, wetland restoration, relocations, insurance, floodproofing, and emergency warning and evacuation. Using post-Katrina planning as an example, it will explore what new approaches can be taken. Should New Orleans take a 'levees only' approach to its protection? or should attention to New Orleans be part of a coastal Louisiana integrated flood damage reduction and coastal restoration strategy. The nation needs to make changes in its water resources policies and investment strategy to deal with the new threat that it now faces.

Galloway, Gerald

2006-04-01

73

A theoretical and field-based study on the formation and shape of fluvial levees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The natural levees that form on channel margins are important features because they influence sediment transfer between channel and floodplain, and modulate the floodplain accretion rate. Despite this importance, we do not have basic models that predict levee formation or shape. Here we present a coupled theoretical and field-based study on formation and shape of levees. We developed a 1D morphodynamic channel-floodplain model for levee growth. Our model starts from the simplifying assumption of a straight channel and floodplain, each with a uniform width. The model solves conservation of mass for water and sediment along a cross-section perpendicular to the channel and is coupled to an analytical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations that solves for the downstream flood velocity and accounts for turbulent momentum exchange between the channel and floodplain. Model results predict that the necessary conditions for levee formation depend non-linearly on the ratio of channel depth to floodplain depth, and the floodplain Rouse number. If the necessary conditions for levee formation are met, the shape of the levee is controlled by the Peclet-Rouse number. Wider levees form in advection-dominated floodplains (high Peclet number) with easily suspendable grains (low floodplain Rouse number). Diffusion has two important effects on levee width. Firstly, increasing the diffusivity directly increases diffusive sediment transport into the floodplain, which increases levee width. Secondly, increasing diffusivity causes additional turbulent diffusion of momentum from the main channel to the floodplain, which increases the width of the shear layer. A wider shear layer increases the near-channel downstream velocity, which creates more suspended transport and wider levees. We compare our model predictions to levees on reaches of the White River and Muscatatuck River, Indiana, USA. We chose these rivers because the sediment load of the White River is ~5% silt, whereas it is ~80% silt for the Muscatatuck River. Consistent with model predictions, we find that levees on the coarser-grained White River are narrower and much less prevalent compared to the Muscatatuck.

Edmonds, D. A.; Hajek, E. A.

2013-12-01

74

Flooding on the Mighty Mississippi  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week, floodwaters of the Mississippi River crested, leading several counties in Iowa, Minnesota, Illinois, and Wisconsin to declare states of emergency. Floodwaters have reached over 22 feet in Davenport Iowa, closing in on the 1993 record water level. Davenport is perhaps particularly hard hit because it is not equipped with concrete levees, as it relies heavily on its riverfront as a tourist attraction, and city residents feel that levees would create an unsightly barrier. Also, many hydrology experts will agree that levees might not be the wisest choice for flood management because they intensify the flooding downriver. This Week's In the News features Websites dealing with Mississippi River flood data, flood management, and general water resources.Readers who wish to catch up on the situation should browse the first few news sites listed above. The first (1), coming straight from the flood frontlines, is from the Minneapolis Star Tribune giving general news about the Mississippi flood. The next two sites cover the situation in Davenport, IA and the controversy over constructing flood walls. The second site (2) is an article from the Los Angeles Times reviewing the controversy over building flood barriers in Davenport. It mentions how other Iowa towns built levees after the disastrous floods of 1965 while Davenport did not. The third site (3) is a special section of Davenport's Quad City Times entitled Flood 2001. Flood 2001 holds a small archive of recent articles about the flood from the Quad City Times along with other regional papers, hosts an online poll about installing levees, and provides video clips (RealPlayer) and still photos of the flood. It also gives shots from a "floodcam" poised along the banks of the Mississippi. The next few resources house hydrologic data. The US Geological Survey (USGS) posts real-time water data online (4). The plain-text data from all states can be accessed via a clickable map or from lists by state or by station. The National Weather Service's Quad Cities division (the "quad cities" of Davenport, Bettendorf, Moline, and Rock Island straddle the Mississippi River on the Illinois-Iowa border) provides graphs of flood stages of rivers and streams (selected using a clickable map) and real-time weather conditions, forecasts, and flood warnings online (5). Readers will probably encounter the term "100 Year Flood" while reading flood news and stage data. If you are unfamiliar with this term, which refers to the estimated probability that a flood event has a one-in-one hundred chance of occurrence in any given year, this site (7) from an environmental consulting firm gives a nice explanation of the term and its uses. Another educational site comes from the International Rivers Network. About Rivers and Dams (8), gives an overview of the function of dams (for flood control, power generation, water collection) and presents the environmental case against damming of rivers. Other sites related to the environmental impacts of flood control include Cadillac Desert (9), a supplement to the award-winning PBS documentary series on water and the control of nature, and the Powell Consortium (10), a network of research institutions dealing with water management in the arid American West. Another neat site from PBS Online is the supplement to the film "American Experience: Fatal Flood" (11), documenting the 1927 flooding of the Mississippi and its impacts on residents of Greenville, MS. The Fatal Flood site features video clips and interviews with survivors of the 1927 flood.

2001-01-01

75

Exploring high-end climate change scenarios for flood protection of the Netherlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea level rise, changing storm frequency and intensity, and increased river discharge resulting from climate change pose a particular threat to low-lying countries like the Netherlands and create many new challenges for them. With these threats and challenges in mind, the Dutch cabinet established a special committee, the Delta Committee, charged with the development of effective planning-, management- and adaptation strategies for climate proofing the Netherlands. At the request of the Dutch Delta Committee, an international scientific assessment has been carried out to explore high-end climate change scenarios for flood protection of the Netherlands. Upper-bound values and longer-term projections (up to 2200) of climate-induced sea level rise, changing storm surge conditions, and peak discharge of the river Rhine have been considered. The assessment builds on a review of recent studies, model projections and expert opinions. For the scenarios for sea level rise, thermal expansion of the ocean, the shrinking of small glaciers, the Greenland and the Antarctic Ice Sheets, and changes in terrestrial water storage are considered separately, along with their uncertainties. Except for the contribution of the Antarctic Ice Sheet all contributions are assumed to depend (at least in part) on the rise in global mean atmospheric temperature rise. To arrive at a projection for local sea level, elastic and gravity effects of elastic deformation of the Earth's crust arising from mass redistribution due to the melting of land-based ice masses, local expansion differences with respect to the global mean (dominated by ocean circulation changes) and local land movement were accounted for. Depending on the adopted impact of the elastic and gravity effects, a high-end projection for local sea level rise of 0.50 - 1.15 m and 0.05 - 1.25 m is projected for the Dutch coast for 2100. For 2200 these ranges are 1.5 - 4 m and 0.5 - 4.0 m. Besides sea level rise, the height of storm surges and wind waves is extremely important for a low-lying country like the Netherlands. By law, coastal defense has to withstand a water level that occurs only once every 10,000 years. In the assessment for the Delta Committee, this aspect has been addressed by first investigating projected changes in the wind climate on the North Sea from global and regional climate model simulations. In a second step these winds are used to drive storm surge and wind wave models. The results point to changes being small compared to the uncertainty in present-day 10,000 year return values. Finally, the effects of climate change on the discharge of the river Rhine were considered using hydrological models. It was found that average winter flow will increase while summer flows will be reduced to a magnitude depending on the assumed climate change scenario. Peak discharges that are currently being considered very high will become normal. Finally, it was concluded that the current hydraulic properties of the Rhine limit the potential increase of the design discharge substantially.

Hazeleger, W.; Katsman, C.; Sterl, A.; Beersma, J.

2009-04-01

76

Risk to life due to flooding in post-Katrina New Orleans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the catastrophic flooding of New Orleans due to Hurricane Katrina in 2005, the city's hurricane protection system has been improved to provide protection against a hurricane load with a 1/100 per year exceedance frequency. This paper investigates the risk to life in post-Katrina New Orleans. In a flood risk analysis the probabilities and consequences of various flood scenarios have been analyzed for the central area of the city (the metro bowl) to give a preliminary estimate of the risk to life in the post-Katrina situation. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model has been used to simulate flood characteristics of various breaches. The model for estimation of fatality rates is based on the loss of life data for Hurricane Katrina. Results indicate that - depending on the flood scenario - the estimated loss of life in case of flooding ranges from about 100 to nearly 500, with the highest life loss due to breaching of the river levees leading to large flood depths. The probability and consequence estimates are combined to determine the individual risk and societal risk for New Orleans. When compared to risks of other large-scale engineering systems (e.g., other flood prone areas, dams and the nuclear sector) and acceptable risk criteria found in literature, the risks for the metro bowl are found to be relatively high. Thus, despite major improvements to the flood protection system, the flood risk to life of post-Katrina New Orleans is still expected to be significant. Indicative effects of reduction strategies on the risk level are discussed as a basis for further evaluation and discussion.

Miller, A.; Jonkman, S. N.; Van Ledden, M.

2015-01-01

77

Flooded Downtown Minot, N.D. Near the Police Station  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

As the Souris River flooded during the early summer of 2011, it overcame levees in the city of Minot, N.D., causing about 11,000 people to evacuate their homes. The record-breaking flood crested on July 25 at over 26,000 cubic feet per second (cfs) and 24 feet - nearly 13 feet over flood s...

78

Downtown Minot Flooding as Seen From Broadway Bridge  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

As the Souris River flooded during the early summer of 2011, it overcame levees in the city of Minot, N.D., causing about 11,000 people to evacuate their homes. The record-breaking flood crested on July 25 at over 26,000 cubic feet per second (cfs) and 24 feet - nearly 13 feet over flood s...

79

Media Covering Flooding in Downtown Minot, N.D.  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

As the Souris River flooded during the early summer of 2011, it overcame levees in the city of Minot, N.D., causing about 11,000 people to evacuate their homes. The record-breaking flood crested on July 25 at over 26,000 cubic feet per second (cfs) and 24 feet - nearly 13 feet over flood s...

80

Flooded Homes in Downtown Minot, N.D.  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

As the Souris River flooded during the early summer of 2011, it overcame levees in the city of Minot, N.D., causing about 11,000 people to evacuate their homes. The record-breaking flood crested on July 25 at over 26,000 cubic feet per second (cfs) and 24 feet - nearly 13 feet over flood s...

81

River Flooding and Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are presented with a real-life problem of flooding and erosion in the town of Simonton. They must use historical dischage data to determine the future risk of flooding. They must also use historical map data to asses the risk of future losses due to erosion. Using these data, they must dertermine the feasibility of levee systems proposed by the Corp of Engineers. Lastly, they must discuss their assumption and possible sources of error. Has minimal/no quantitative component Uses geophysics to solve problems in other fields

Dupre, Bill

82

Risk to life due to flooding in post-Katrina New Orleans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the catastrophic flooding of New Orleans due to hurricane Katrina in the year 2005, the city's hurricane protection system has been improved to provide protection against a hurricane load with a 1/100 per year exceedance frequency. This paper investigates the risk to life in post-Katrina New Orleans. In a risk-based approach the probabilities and consequences of various flood scenarios have been analyzed for the central area of the city (the metro bowl) to give a preliminary estimate of the risk to life in the post-Katrina situation. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model has been used to simulate flood characteristics of various breaches. The model for estimation of fatality rates is based on the loss of life data for Hurricane Katrina. Results indicate that - depending on the flood scenario - the estimated loss of life in case of flooding ranges from about 100 to nearly 500, with the highest life loss due to breaching of the river levees leading to large flood depths. The probability and consequence estimates are combined to determine the individual risk and societal risk for New Orleans. When compared to risks of other large scale engineering systems (e.g. other flood prone areas, dams and the nuclear sector) and acceptable risk criteria found in literature, the risks for the metro bowl are found to be relatively high. Thus, despite major improvements to the flood protection system, the flood risk of post-Katrina New Orleans is still expected to be significant. Effects of reduction strategies on the risk level are discussed as a basis for further evaluation.

Miller, A.; Jonkman, S. N.; Van Ledden, M.

2014-01-01

83

Cheap Textile Dam Protection of Seaport Cities against Hurricane Storm Surge Waves, Tsunamis, and Other Weather-Related Floods  

E-print Network

Author offers to complete research on a new method and cheap applicatory design for land and sea textile dams. The offered method for the protection of the USA's major seaport cities against hurricane storm surge waves, tsunamis, and other weather-related inundations is the cheapest (to build and maintain of all extant anti-flood barriers) and it, therefore, has excellent prospective applications for defending coastal cities from natural weather-caused disasters. It may also be a very cheap method for producing a big amount of cyclical renewable hydropower, land reclamation from the ocean, lakes, riverbanks, as well as land transportation connection of islands, and islands to mainland, instead of very costly over-water bridges and underwater tunnels.

Alexander Bolonkin

2007-01-04

84

A methodology for urban flood resilience assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Europe, river floods have been increasing in frequency and severity [Szöllösi-Nagy and Zevenbergen, 2005]. Moreover, climate change is expected to exacerbate the frequency and intensity of hydro meteorological disaster [IPCC, 2007]. Despite efforts made to maintain the flood defense assets, we often observe levee failures leading to finally increase flood risk in protected area. Furthermore, flood forecasting models, although benefiting continuous improvements, remain partly inaccurate due to uncertainties arising all along data calculation processes. In the same time, the year 2007 marks a turning point in history: half of the world population now lives in cities (UN-Habitat, 2007). Moreover, the total urban population is expected to double from two to four billion over the next 30 to 35 years (United Nations, 2006). This growing rate is equivalent to the creation of a new city of one million inhabitants every week, and this during the next four decades [Flood resilience Group]. So, this quick urban development coupled with technical failures and climate change have increased flood risk and corresponding challenges to urban flood risk management [Ashley et al., 2007], [Nie et al., 2009]. These circumstances oblige to manage flood risk by integrating new concepts like urban resilience. In recent years, resilience has become a central concept for risk management. This concept has emerged because a more resilient system is less vulnerable to risk and, therefore, more sustainable [Serre et al., 2010]. But urban flood resilience is a concept that has not yet been directly assessed. Therefore, when decision makers decide to use the resilience concept to manage urban flood, they have no tool to help them. That is why this paper proposes a methodology to assess urban flood resilience in order to make this concept operational. Networks affect the well-being of the people and the smooth functioning of services and, more generally, of economical activities. Yet, multiple networks that innervate the city are particularly sensitive to flooding, through their structures and geographic constraints. Because societal functions are highly dependent on networked systems and the operability of these systems can be vulnerable to disasters, there is a need to understand how networked systems are resilient. That is why, considering that networks can be regarded as the "flood gateway" [Lhomme et al., 2009], we will focus on the resilience assessment of these critical networks before urban resilience assessment. The first part of this paper introduce resilience concept to well understand the importance of this concept to manage flood risk and of assessing this resilience. In a second part, this paper presents the use of safety methods to model network system dysfunctions during flood and then to produce resilience indicators. Finally it presents use of graph theory to assess adaptive capacity of these networks. These researches are the first steps toward the development of a GIS tool to optimize preparedness and recovery after a flood event.

Lhomme, Serge; Serre, Damien; Diab, Youssef; Laganier, Richard

2010-05-01

85

Effects of Removal of Riparian Vegetation on Levee Stability on the Sacramento River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new policy of the US Army Corps of Engineers requires that all levee vegetation be removed from federal levees in California. This directive requires levees to be cleared of all vegetation to preserve channel capacity and allow access for inspection and repair. The case for leaving vegetation in place on levees has largely been an environmental one, with concerns regarding removal of habitat and aesthetics. However, stability factors should also be considered. A previous study by Shields and Gray (1992) investigated the effects of vegetation on sandy levee integrity along the Sacramento River, just one such river that is affected by this vegetation-removal policy. Their study showed that even low root concentrations allowed for more stable bank conditions under worst-case conditions for bank stability. In the years since this initial study, modeling of root-reinforcement and streambank stability has improved greatly. This study used geotechnical data collected along the Sacramento River to model the effects of woody and herbaceous vegetation on levee stability using the Bank Stability and Toe Erosion Model developed at the National Sedimentation Laboratory and the root-reinforcement model, RipRoot. Model runs were carried out for a 4 m high levee with 2H: 1V and 3H: 1V slopes, and vegetation growing at different locations on the levee. Levee material was assumed to be a homogeneous, sandy soil, with very low cohesion (0.84 kPa). Three hydrologic conditions were modeled: baseflow conditions, peak of hydrograph, and the most critical bank condition during the receding limb of a hydrograph. Roots were assumed to grow perpendicular to the soil surface, with the additional cohesion due to roots only being added to soil layers in which the roots extended beyond the potential shear surface in that layer. Values for root-reinforcement were calculated using the RipRoot model, using typical root densities, depths and tensile strength measurements for different riparian species measured at sites across the USA. Values of 3, 15, and 20 kPa were added to the banks to represent young saplings, bunch grasses and mature trees respectively. Results showed that the levees were stable without the reinforcing effect of vegetation under all conditions, except under drawdown conditions which are the most critical. In those cases, root-reinforcement increased levee- stability significantly. A 2H: 1V levee had a factor of safety of 0.33 under these conditions without vegetation and a 3H: 1V levee a value of 0.54 (values <1 are unstable). With the addition of vegetation to the levee sides, factor of safety values increased to >1 under all conditions. Reinforcement added by mature trees and bunch grasses provided highest factor of safety values of up to 8.16 and 5.13 for 2H: 1V and 3H: 1V slopes respectively. The findings suggest that root-reinforcement of levees should be taken into account before complete removal of vegetation is carried out along rivers such as the Sacramento River. In cases where levees are composed of largely uncohesive materials, root-reinforcement provides significant support to the soil matrix, whilst additionally reducing shear stresses acting on the soil from flowing water and protecting the levee from rainfall impact and runoff. In deciding the case for removal of levee vegetation, these positive influences of vegetation should be weighted carefully against the desire for increased channel capacity and any possible negative influences of plant roots on levee integrity.

Pollen, N.; Shields, F. D.

2007-12-01

86

A New Approach to Monitoring Coastal Marshes for Persistent Flooding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many areas in coastal Louisiana are below sea level and protected from flooding by a system of natural and man-made levees. Flooding is common when the levees are overtopped by storm surge or rising rivers. Many levees in this region are further stressed by erosion and subsidence. The floodwaters can become constricted by levees and trapped, causing prolonged inundation. Vegetative communities in coastal regions, from fresh swamp forest to saline marsh, can be negatively affected by inundation and changes in salinity. As saltwater persists, it can have a toxic effect upon marsh vegetation causing die off and conversion to open water types, destroying valuable species habitats. The length of time the water persists and the average annual salinity are important variables in modeling habitat switching (cover type change). Marsh type habitat switching affects fish, shellfish, and wildlife inhabitants, and can affect the regional ecosystem and economy. There are numerous restoration and revitalization projects underway in the coastal region, and their effects on the entire ecosystem need to be understood. For these reasons, monitoring persistent saltwater intrusion and inundation is important. For this study, persistent flooding in Louisiana coastal marshes was mapped using MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) time series of a Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). The time series data were derived for 2000 through 2009, including flooding due to Hurricane Rita in 2005 and Hurricane Ike in 2008. Using the NDWI, duration and extent of flooding can be inferred. The Time Series Product Tool (TSPT), developed at NASA SSC, is a suite of software developed in MATLAB(R) that enables improved-quality time series images to be computed using advanced temporal processing techniques. This software has been used to compute time series for monitoring temporal changes in environmental phenomena, (e.g. NDVI times series from MODIS), and was modified and used to compute the NDWI indices and also the Normalized Difference Soil Index (NDSI). Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) water levels from various hydrologic monitoring stations and aerial photography were used to optimize thresholds for MODIS-derived time series of NDWI and to validate resulting flood maps. In most of the profiles produced for post-hurricane assessment, the increase in the NDWI index (from storm surge) is accompanied by a decrease in the vegetation index (NDVI) and then a period of declining water. The NDSI index represents non-green or dead vegetation and increases after the hurricane s destruction of the marsh vegetation. Behavior of these indices over time is indicative of which areas remain flooded, which areas recover to their former levels of vegetative vigor, and which areas are stressed or in transition. Tracking these indices over time shows the recovery rate of vegetation and the relative behavior to inundation persistence. The results from this study demonstrated that identification of persistent marsh flooding, utilizing the tools developed in this study, provided an approximate 70-80 percent accuracy rate when compared to the actual days flooded at the CRMS stations.

Kalcic, M. T.; Undersood, Lauren W.; Fletcher, Rose

2012-01-01

87

Flood trends and river engineering on the Mississippi River system  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Along >4000 km of the Mississippi River system, we document that climate, land-use change, and river engineering have contributed to statistically significant increases in flooding over the past 100-150 years. Trends were tested using a database of >8 million hydrological measurements. A geospatial database of historical engineering construction was used to quantify the response of flood levels to each unit of engineering infrastructure. Significant climate- and/or land use-driven increases in flow were detected, but the largest and most pervasive contributors to increased flooding on the Mississippi River system were wing dikes and related navigational structures, followed by progressive levee construction. In the area of the 2008 Upper Mississippi flood, for example, about 2 m of the flood crest is linked to navigational and flood-control engineering. Systemwide, large increases in flood levels were documented at locations and at times of wing-dike and levee construction. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

Pinter, N.; Jemberie, A.A.; Remo, J.W.F.; Heine, R.A.; Ickes, B.S.

2008-01-01

88

Numerical Modeling of the Effect of Woody Vegetation on Seepage in Levees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A remarkable number and diversity of levees exist in the United States. One controversial and complicated concern is the effect of woody vegetation on the performance of levees. Some really appreciate the trees on levees because they are beautiful and great for the environment and habitat. However, others do not like trees on levees because they can cause defects and get in the way of doing maintenance, especially during the time of floods. This poster will focus on two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) numerical modeling of seepage in levees to determine the effect of woody vegetation on piping and internal erosion of the foundation of the levee. The finite element method is the modeling tool that is used. The approach in the overall modeling study was to select several levees around the country for further analysis. Then for each levee, trees were placed at different locations on the levee. A given root zone from a tree was modeled in three ways: (1) a 6 ft X 5 ft constant hydraulic conductivity zone where the original hydraulic conductivity of the zone was varied from 0.01 to 100.0 times its original value, (2) a randomly generated macropore heterogeneous zone where the hydraulic conductivity was varied from 0.01 to 100.0 times its original value for each finite element in the zone, and (3) a defect in actual root shapes embedded into the root zone where the hydraulic conductivity of the defect was chosen to be 100.0 times that of its original value without the defect. Both steady-state and transient flow simulations were done. Output from the models consisted of equipotentials, velocities, pore pressures, and isosurfaces of potential. From these data, the likelihood of the initiation of sand boils and internal erosion of the levee foundation was determined. Data generated with and without the presence of trees were compared to see possible helpful or detrimental effects of the woody vegetation. A 3-D finite element model was generated by taking a 2-D mesh of a levee cross section consisting of triangular elements (approximately 60,000 elements in one case) and extruding it several times into the third dimension. The 3-D root zone (6 ft X 6 ft X 5 ft) was placed in the middle of this 3-D model just beyond the toe of the levee for the case studied. The macropore model had in its 3-D root zone prism elements of approximately one inch in size in each dimension, and the saturated hydraulic conductivity of each tiny element was randomly varied from 0.01 to 100.0 times its original value. This led to 3-D models having millions of nodes (3,000,000 for one example) and elements (6,000,000 for the same example) and ill-conditioned linear systems of equations to solve. Running this model required the use of high performance, parallel computing. The defects in the roots were also taken to be one inch in width for the 2-D simulations, and having a one inch X one inch horizontal cross section in the 3-D models. The poster will illustrate this modeling experience and provide results of the study. It will show (1) examples of levees, (2) sn example of a 2-D finite element model of a levee cross section, (3) an example of a 3-D macropore root zone, (3) an example of a root embedded in a root zone with a defect, and (4) graphical output results from the 2-D and 3-D models.

Tracy, F. T.; Corcoran, M. K.

2011-12-01

89

Assessment of the effectiveness of flood adaptation strategies for HCMC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal cities are vulnerable to flooding, and flood risk to coastal cities will increase due to sea-level rise. Moreover, Asian cities in particular are subject to considerable population growth and associated urban developments, increasing this risk even more. Empirical data on vulnerability and the cost and benefits of flood risk reduction measures are therefore paramount for sustainable development of these cities. This paper presents an approach to explore the impacts of sea-level rise and socio-economic developments on flood risk for the flood-prone District 4 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and to develop and evaluate the effects of different adaptation strategies (new levees, dry- and wet proofing of buildings and elevating roads and buildings). A flood damage model was developed to simulate current and future flood risk using the results from a household survey to establish stage-damage curves for residential buildings. The model has been used to assess the effects of several participatory developed adaptation strategies to reduce flood risk, expressed in expected annual damage (EAD). Adaptation strategies were evaluated assuming combinations of both sea-level scenarios and land-use scenarios. Together with information on costs of these strategies, we calculated the benefit-cost ratio and net present value for the adaptation strategies until 2100, taking into account depreciation rates of 2.5% and 5%. The results of this modelling study indicate that the current flood risk in District 4 is USD 0.31 million per year, increasing up to USD 0.78 million per year in 2100. The net present value and benefit-cost ratios using a discount rate of 5 % range from USD -107 to -1.5 million, and from 0.086 to 0.796 for the different strategies. Using a discount rate of 2.5% leads to an increase in both net present value and benefit-cost ratio. The adaptation strategies wet-proofing and dry-proofing generate the best results using these economic indicators. The information on different strategies will be used by the government of Ho Chi Minh City to determine a new flood protection strategy. Future research should focus on gathering empirical data right after a flood on the occurring damage, as this appears to be the most uncertain factor in the risk assessment.

Lasage, R.; Veldkamp, T. I. E.; de Moel, H.; Van, T. C.; Phi, H. L.; Vellinga, P.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

2014-06-01

90

USGS Scientist Interviewed by Media in Flooded Minot  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS hydrologist Chris Laveau is interviewed by media from the Broadway Bridge in downtown Minot, N.D. Dikes on the right of the photograph help control flooding in the downtown area. As the Souris River flooded during the early summer of 2011, it overcame levees in the city of Minot, N.D., causing...

91

Topeka, Kansas, Flood Damage Reduction Project 30 January 2009  

E-print Network

Topeka, Kansas, Flood Damage Reduction Project 30 January 2009 Abstract: The recommended plan provides for flood risk management and restores the reliability of the Topeka, Kansas, Levee System located along the Kansas River and tributaries in Shawnee County in northeastern Kansas. The non

US Army Corps of Engineers

92

Kansas Citys, Missouri and Kansas Flood Risk Management Project  

E-print Network

Kansas Citys, Missouri and Kansas Flood Risk Management Project 22 April 2014 ABSTRACT: The existing Kansas Citys, Missouri and Kansas, Flood Risk Management Project consists of seven levee units along both banks of the Missouri and Kansas Rivers in the Kansas City Metropolitan area. The entire

US Army Corps of Engineers

93

Use of geophysical methods to map subsurface features at levee seepage locations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Great Flood of 2011 caused moderate to severe seepage and piping along the Mississippi River levees in Northwest Mississippi. The aim of this thesis was to implement geophysical techniques at two seepage locations in order to give a better understanding of the causes of underseepage and information on how to mitigate the problem. Sites near Rena Lara in Coahoma County and near Francis in Bolivar County were chosen to conduct this survey. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and Electromagnetic Induction (EM) surveys were conducted on and adjacent to levees to identify seepage pathways and any dominant geological features at the sites. Results from geophysical surveys revealed that Francis and Rena Laura each had a prominent geomorphologic feature that was attributing to underseepage. Seepage at Francis was the result of a sand filled channel capped by a clay overburden. Permeable materials at the base of the channel served as a conduit for transporting river water beneath the levee. The seepage surfaced as sand boils where the overlying clay overburden was thin or non-existent. Investigations at the Rena Lara site revealed a large, clay-filled swale extending beneath the levee. The clay within the swale has relatively low horizontal permeability, and concentrated the seepage flow towards more permeable zones on the flanks of the swale. This resulted in the formation of sand boils at the base of the levee. Both geomorphic features at Francis and Rena Lara were identified as surface drainages using remote sensing data. With the assistance of borehole and elevation data, geophysics was successfully used to characterize the features at each site. Properties such as permeability and clay content were derived from responses in electrical conductivity and used to build seepage models at each site. These models will hopefully be considered when determining seepage conditions and mitigation techniques at other sites along the levee.

Brackett, Thomas C.

94

Exploring high-end scenarios for local sea level rise to develop flood protection strategies for a low-lying delta—the Netherlands as an example  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea level rise, especially combined with possible changes in storm surges and increased river discharge resulting from climate\\u000a change, poses a major threat in low-lying river deltas. In this study we focus on a specific example of such a delta: the\\u000a Netherlands. To evaluate whether the country’s flood protection strategy is capable of coping with future climate conditions,\\u000a an assessment

Caroline A. Katsman; A. Sterl; J. J. Beersma; H. W. van den Brink; J. A. Church; W. Hazeleger; R. E. Kopp; D. Kroon; J. Kwadijk; R. Lammersen; J. Lowe; M. Oppenheimer; H.-P. Plag; J. Ridley; H. von Storch; D. G. Vaughan; P. Vellinga; L. L. A. Vermeersen; R. Weisse

2011-01-01

95

USGS Scientist is Interviewed by Media at the Flooded Souris River  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS hydrologist Brent Hanson is interviewed by media at the flooded Souris River in Foxholm, N.D., about 30 miles northwest of Minot. A flooded road can be seen in the background. As the Souris River flooded during the early summer of 2011, it overcame levees in the city of Minot, N.D., causing ab...

96

Levee Decisions and Sustainability for the Delta  

E-print Network

Levee Decisions and Sustainability for the Delta Technical Appendix B Robyn Suddeth Jeffrey F-San Joaquin Delta, prepared by a team of researchers from the Center for Watershed Sciences (University Conclusions 36 References 37 About the Authors 39 #12;#12;v Summary The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta landscape

Pasternack, Gregory B.

97

Wetland Along Levee in Southern Paraguay  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Wetland between levee and Tebicuary river. The Ñeembucú Region is typified by extensive grasslands and wetlands. Near 26°34’52’’S, 56°49’18’’W. (Portion of text from: Guyra Paraguay 2004, Annotated Checklist of the Birds of Paraguay, Paraguay...

98

USGS Streamgage Flooded by Souris River  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The USGS Souris River at Foxholm, N.D. streamgage (center of photo) is half inundated by water about 30 miles northwest of Minot. This water channel, normally only about 30 feet wide, runs through a wildlife preserve. As the Souris River flooded during the early summer of 2011, it overcame levees i...

99

River Levee Change Detection Using Distributed Fiber Optic Strain Sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Since river levee collapse causes great damage, it is socially very important to prevent such disasters by using a monitoring system which can detect changes in the state of a river levee. To investigate the possibility of detecting the collapse of a levee slope at an early stage, we performed an experiment in which we used artificial rainfall and

Hiroshi NARUSE; Yasuomi UCHIYAMA; Toshio KURASHIMA; Shuji UNNO

2000-01-01

100

Cibola High Levee Pond annual report 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This represents the fourth and last annual report of a five year study investigating the early life ecology of the bonytail and razorback sucker at Cibola High Levee Pond. The work in 2004 included: telemetry studies, collection of physical water quality measurements, zooplankton samples, netting fish, the collection of scale samples for aging, predator/prey tank tests and a preliminary analysis of the data base.

Mueller, Gordon A.; Carpenter, Jeanette; Marsh, Paul C.

2005-01-01

101

Water and Solute Transport in the Shallow Subsurface of a Natural Levee  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In riverine wetlands, river channels are separated from backswamps by natural levees that form adjacent to the channel by sediment deposition during floods. The conventional conceptual framework is that backswamp water is impounded and disconnected from surface flow; however, layered sediments, shrink-swell clays, roots and decayed organic matter, and animal burrows likely form preferential pathways for subsurface flow and may substantially affect water and solute exchange between wetlands and river channels. To test the hypothesis that preferential flow is an important pathway of subsurface water movement through natural levees, we measured hydraulic gradients and solute tracers in a 5 x 5 m grid of 19 shallow (2m) monitoring wells within a large representative elementary volume (300 m3) of natural levee in the Atchafalaya Basin, Louisiana. In addition to measuring transient responses to precipitation, we constructed a small reservoir on the backswamp side of the levee to simulate a seasonal hydraulic gradient from the swamp to the adjacent river channel. Results indicate rapid response of water levels in all monitoring wells to the imposed hydraulic gradient as well as rain events, which included two tropical cyclones. In contrast, tracer response was highly variable, both spatially and across events, indicating a complex relationship between subsurface flow processes and water chemistry. Groundwater chemistry indicated spatially variable flowpaths. In some wells, hydraulic response coincided with a chemical shift toward low-conductivity surface water; however, other wells showed similar hydraulic responses but no change in tracer concentrations or even a shift toward higher-conductivity water that was presumably stored in the soil matrix. This spatial variation in tracer response indicates multiple mechanisms of hydraulic response, each of which has important implications for biogeochemical interactions between backswamps and channels in the shallow subsurface of natural levees.

Newman, A.; Keim, R.

2008-12-01

102

Ontogeny of a flood plain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The ontogeny of five flood-plain segments is described for a period of 18 yr following a major flood in 1978 on the Powder River in southeastern Montana. The flood plains developed on relatively elevated sand and gravel deposits left within the channel by the 1978 flood. In cross section, the flood plains resemble benches with well-developed natural levees. Flood-plain growth occurred as sediment was draped onto preexisting surfaces in layers of sand and mud a few centimeters to decimeters thick, resulting in some lateral, but mostly vertical accretion. Annual and biannual measurements indicated that, as the flood-plain segments grew upward, the annual rate of vertical accretion decreased as the partial duration recurrence interval for the threshold or bankfull discharge increased from 0.16 to 1.3 yr. It is clear that a constant recurrence interval for overbank flow cannot be meaningfully assigned to this type of flood-plain ontogeny. These flood plains did not grow on migrating point bars, and vertical accretion at least initially occurred within the channel, rather than across the valley flat during extensive overbank flows. Sediments of these flood plains define narrow, elongated stratigraphic units that border the active channel and onlap older flood-plain deposits. These characteristics are considerably different from those of many facies models for meandering river deposits. Facies similar to those described in this paper are likely to be preserved, thereby providing important evidence in the geologic record for episodes of periodic channel expansion by ancient rivers.

Moody, J.A.; Pizzuto, J.E.; Meade, R.H.

1999-01-01

103

Sulforhodamine B interacts with albumin to lower surface tension and protect against ventilation injury of flooded alveoli.  

PubMed

In the acute respiratory distress syndrome, alveolar flooding by proteinaceous edema liquid impairs gas exchange. Mechanical ventilation is used as a supportive therapy. In regions of the edematous lung, alveolar flooding is heterogeneous, and stress is concentrated in aerated alveoli. Ventilation exacerbates stress concentrations and injuriously overexpands aerated alveoli. Injury degree is proportional to surface tension, T. Lowering T directly lessens injury. Furthermore, as heterogeneous flooding causes the stress concentrations, promoting equitable liquid distribution between alveoli should, indirectly, lessen injury. We present a new theoretical analysis suggesting that liquid is trapped in discrete alveoli by a pressure barrier that is proportional to T. Experimentally, we identify two rhodamine dyes, sulforhodamine B and rhodamine WT, as surface active in albumin solution and investigate whether the dyes lessen ventilation injury. In the isolated rat lung, we micropuncture a surface alveolus, instill albumin solution, and obtain an area with heterogeneous alveolar flooding. We demonstrate that rhodamine dye addition lowers T, reduces ventilation-induced injury, and facilitates liquid escape from flooded alveoli. In vitro we show that rhodamine dye is directly surface active in albumin solution. We identify sulforhodamine B as a potential new therapeutic agent for the treatment of the acute respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:25414246

Kharge, Angana Banerjee; Wu, You; Perlman, Carrie E

2015-02-01

104

Study of Extreme Hydrometeorological Events under Consideration of Climate Change in terms of Flood Protection Design Standard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of Trend and Shift on annual maximum daily data over 500 raingauges with data length of 80 years or longer in the Ohio River Basin U.S. demonstrated a significant increase in variance of the data over time. The area-average increase in standard deviation is 23% for the recent 40 years (1959 - 1998) in comparison with the earlier 40-60 years (1919 or earlier - 1958). This implies that more and more extreme hydrometeorological events such as extreme rainfalls and droughts could be observed in the future years. The centurial flood disaster of August 8-10 2009 in the mid-southern Taiwan caused by Morakot Typhoon and the extraordinary drought lasting from winter 2009 to early summer 2010 wreaking havoc of a vast area of south-west China mainland were two good examples of the extremes. This variation could attribute to climate change. It challenges the hydrologic frequency analysis. Thus, exploration of a robust and reliable approach to precipitation frequency analysis becomes an imminent issue in hydrologic design studies. This paper introduces a novel hydrometeorological approach, the Regional L-moments method (RLM), to rainfall frequency analysis. There are two fatal weaknesses in FA: 1) There is no analytical way to derive a theoretical distribution to best fit the data; 2) The theoretical true value of a frequency such as 50-y or 100-y is unknown forever. The RLM, which is developed based on the order statistics and the concept of hydrometeorological homogeneity, demonstrates unbiasedness of parameter estimates and robust to outliers, and reduces the uncertainties of frequency estimates as well via the real data in Ohio River Basin of the U.S. and in the Taihu Lake Basin of China. Further study indicated that the variation of the frequency estimates such as 10-year, 100-year, 500-year, etc. is not normal as suggested in current textbooks. Actually, the frequency estimates vary asymmetrically from positive skew to negative skew when estimates go through from common frequencies to rare frequencies. Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) is defined as the greatest depth of precipitation for a given duration meteorologically possible for a design watershed or a given storm area at a particular location at a particular time of year, with no allowance made for long-term climate trends (WMO, 2009). The PMP has been widely used by many hydrologists to determine the probable maximum flood (PMF) critical to the design of a variety of hydrological structures and other high profile infrastructures such as nuclear power-generation station with respect to flood-protection, for which a high level safety is required. What is the impact of climate change on PMP estimation? Actually, in the definition of PMP, there is "no allowance made for long-term climate trends" (WMO, 2009). However, when people are talking about impact of climate change on PMP estimation, two things may be taken into account practically: (1) To affect the precipitable water as a result of increase of SST; (2) Effect on the selection of the transposed storm because more extreme storms would occur due to climate change and more potential candidates to be used for storm transposition. The occurrence of a severe rainfall storm could alter the PMP estimates. A good example is the lashing of the Typhoon Morakot of 8 - 10 Aug. 2009 on Taiwan Island that set up new rainfall picture. What is the effect of topography on rainfall is another big issue in PMP estimation. Many observations of precipitation in mountainous areas show a general increase in precipitation with elevation. Practically, the effect of topography on rainfall should be taken into account in PMP estimation and implemented by the storm separation technique. The Step-Duration-Orographic-Intensification-Factor (SDOIF) Method, which was developed based on statistics analysis of extreme rainfalls in the storm area, can practically be used as storm separation technique to decouple the Morakot storm rainfalls into two components, convergence component and orographic component. Then, the convergence co

Lin, B.-Z.

2012-04-01

105

Relationship between canal and levee density and coastal land loss in Louisiana  

SciTech Connect

Nearly 1% of Louisiana's coastal land becomes water each year. This land loss affects everything from wildlife, fisheries, and recreation to the economy and culture. A part of this loss results from natural, unmanageable factors, but manageable factors are also responsible. This report discusses one of the manageable factors: canals and their dredged-material levees. In coastal Louisiana wetlands, canals are constructed primarily to facilitate navigation and oil and gas recovery. The density of canals in this region is now about equal to the natural network of bayous and creeks. The primary effect of these canals and associated levees is to alter the process of flooding and drainage. The influence of canals and their levees on coastal Louisiana erosion rates are modified by local geologic, hydrologic, and biologic interactions. The empirical relationship between canals and erosion is, however, clear; land loss is directly related to canal density. Comparisons with mosquito ditches, which are smaller analogues of canals, reveal similar patterns of wetland changes and suggest management options.

Turner, R.E.

1987-12-01

106

Rethinking the relationship between flood risk perception and flood management.  

PubMed

Although flood risk perceptions and their concomitant motivations for behaviour have long been recognised as significant features of community resilience in the face of flooding events, there has, for some time now, been a poorly appreciated fissure in the accompanying literature. Specifically, rationalist and constructivist paradigms in the broader domain of risk perception provide different (though not always conflicting) contexts for interpreting evidence and developing theory. This contribution reviews the major constructs that have been applied to understanding flood risk perceptions and contextualises these within broader conceptual developments around risk perception theory and contemporary thinking around flood risk management. We argue that there is a need to re-examine and re-invigorate flood risk perception research, in a manner that is comprehensively underpinned by more constructivist thinking around flood risk management as well as by developments in broader risk perception research. We draw attention to an historical over-emphasis on the cognitive perceptions of those at risk to the detriment of a richer understanding of a wider range of flood risk perceptions such as those of policy-makers or of tax-payers who live outside flood affected areas as well as the linkages between these perspectives and protective measures such as state-supported flood insurance schemes. Conclusions challenge existing understandings of the relationship between risk perception and flood management, particularly where the latter relates to communication strategies and the extent to which those at risk from flooding feel responsible for taking protective actions. PMID:24530580

Birkholz, S; Muro, M; Jeffrey, P; Smith, H M

2014-04-15

107

Simulation of Level-I on continuous casting secondary cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The function of continuous casting Level-I foundational automatization is analyzed to get the function of simulator system of Level-I. Based on this, simulator system of Level-I fundamental automatization is established. The simulation data produced by simulation system is transferred to Level-II through Ethernet to realize the data feedback. Simulator provides convenient condition for development of Level-II control system. The model

Cao Jun-min; Pei Hong-xing; Wang Chang-song; Zhang Yu-bao

2009-01-01

108

Seasonally Flooded Grasslands -Grand CaymanSeasonally Flooded Grasslands -Grand Cayman 0 1 2 3 4 50.5  

E-print Network

Seasonally Flooded Grasslands - Grand CaymanSeasonally Flooded Grasslands - Grand Cayman 0 1 2 3 4 Protected Areas Seasonally Flooded Grasslands V.A.1.N.g. #12;Seasonally Flooded Grasslands - Little CaymanSeasonally Flooded Grasslands - Little Cayman 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.50.25 Kilometers Cayman Islands National Biodiversity

Exeter, University of

109

Will human recreational activity on levee trails enhance carnivore activity?  

E-print Network

Will human recreational activity on levee trails enhance carnivore activity? Will human is currently proposed to be opened to human recreational traffic. The levee separates the bay from adjacent of trash and human-related food as a result of human recreational use may attract predators. Alternatively

Johnson, Matthew

110

Anthropogenic impact on flood-risk: a large-scale assessment for planning controlled inundation strategies along the River Po  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Flood Directive (2007/60/EC) has fostered the development of innovative and sustainable approaches and methodologies for flood-risk mitigation and management. Furthermore, concerning flood-risk mitigation, the increasing awareness of how the anthropogenic pressures (e.g. demographic and land-use dynamics, uncontrolled urban and industrial expansion on flood-prone area) could strongly increase potential flood damages and losses has triggered a paradigm shift from "defending the territory against flooding" (e.g. by means of levee system strengthening and heightening) to "living with floods" (e.g. promoting compatible land-uses or adopting controlled flooding strategies of areas located outside the main embankments). The assessment of how socio-economic dynamics may influence flood-risk represents a fundamental skill that should be considered for planning a sustainable industrial and urban development of flood-prone areas, reducing their vulnerability and therefore minimizing socio-economic and ecological losses due to large flood events. These aspects, which are of fundamental importance for Institutions and public bodies in charge of Flood Directive requirements, need to be considered through a holistic approach at river basin scale. This study focuses on the evaluation of large-scale flood-risk mitigation strategies for the middle-lower reach of River Po (~350km), the longest Italian river and the largest in terms of streamflow. Due to the social and economical importance of the Po River floodplain (almost 40% of the total national gross product results from this area), our study aims at investigating the potential of combining simplified vulnerability indices with a quasi-2D model for the definition of sustainable and robust flood-risk mitigation strategies. Referring to past (1954) and recent (2006) land-use data sets (e.g. CORINE) we propose simplified vulnerability indices for assessing potential flood-risk of industrial and urbanized flood prone areas taking into account altimetry and population density, and we analyze the modification of flood-risk occurred during last decades due to the demographic dynamics of the River Po floodplains. Flood hazard associated to a high magnitude event (i.e. return period of about 500 year) was estimated by means of a quasi-2D hydraulic model set up for the middle-lower portion of the Po River and for its major tributaries. The results of the study highlight how coupling a large-scale numerical model with the proposed flood-vulnerability indices could be a useful tool for decision-makers when they are called to define sustainable spatial development plans for the study area, or when they need to identify priorities in the organization of civil protection actions during a major flood event that could include the necessity of controlled flooding of flood-prone areas located outside the main embankment system.

Domeneghetti, Alessio; Castellarin, Attilio; Brath, Armando

2013-04-01

111

Application of ground penetrating radar in detecting the hazards and risks of termites and ants in soil levees.  

PubMed

A ground penetrating radar (GPR) technique was used to detect Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus) and red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) hazards and risks (targets) in a soil levee at the London Avenue Canal in New Orleans, LA. To make this assessment, GPR signal scans were examined for features produced by termite or ant activities and potential sources of food and shelter such as nests, tree roots, and voids (tunnels). The total scanned length of the soil levee was 4,125 m. The average velocity and effective depth of the radar penetration was 0.080 m/ns and 0.61 m, respectively. Four hundred twenty-seven targets were identified. Tree roots (38), voids (31), fire ant nests (209), and metal objects (149) were detected, but no Formosan termite carton nests were identified. The lack of identified termite nests may be related to drowning events at the time to the flood. Based on the target density (TD), the two new floodwall and levee sections that were rebuilt or reinforced after they were destroyed by Hurricane Katrina in 2005 were determined to be at low potential risk from termites and ants. A merging target density (MTD) method indicated a high potential risk near one of the breached sections still remains. Foraging and nesting activity of Formosan subterranean termites and red imported fire ants may be a contributory factor to the levee failure at the London Avenue Canal. PMID:19689906

Yang, Xiuhao; Henderson, Gregg; Mao, Lixin; Evans, Ahmad

2009-08-01

112

Federal Flood Assessment Conference Recommendations and Proceedings  

E-print Network

Continuity of Operations - COO Plan El Paso County Water Improvement District No. 1 24x7 Operation of American Canal System Real time flood monitoring Levee breach repair and control Storm water impact on agricultural drainage system Elephant Butte.... The last time something like this happened in El Paso was July 9, 1881 when 6.5 inches of rain fell at the official measuring site downtown. Additional flooding occurred from the Rio Grande itself (9.3 feet on August 1-2) Which last exceeded its banks...

Reyes, Silvestre; Brock, Peter; Michelsen, Ari

2006-09-06

113

Mississippi River Flooding 2011: Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS Nation Flood Specialist takes a CNN crew on a measurement run at the Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway. USGS scientists are measuring the amount of water spilling into the New Madrid floodway as a result of the recent intentional breaching of the Birds Point Levee in Missouri in support of the Co...

114

Scientists Measure Streamflow near Flooded Minot, N.D.  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientists measure streamflow on a tributary of the Souris River in Foxholm, N.D., about 30 miles northwest of Minot. The team is using an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ACDP) to measure streamflow. As the Souris River flooded during the early summer of 2011, it overcame levees in the city...

115

Teaching floods and flooding quantitatively  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page helps faculty communicate essential ideas that students struggle with in terms of floods and flooding. It takes into account the concepts of probability and recurrence interval and discusses hydrologic terminology, relations between discharge and stage, and the meaning of the '100 year flood.'

Baer, Eric

2007-01-01

116

Sodium-fire protection by space isolation, open catch pan and nitrogen flooding - FFTF Proof Test F5  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large-scale sodium fire extinguishment test was performed to demonstrate the adequacy of the FFTF secondary sodium fire protection system. Twenty-three hundred pounds of sodium at 1100°F were spilled into an air filled cell which had a steel catch pan protecting the concrete floor and walls. The fire was self-extinguished when the oxygen in the relatively leak tight cell was

W. D. Boehmer; R. K. Hilliard

1975-01-01

117

Three-dimensional imaging, change detection, and stability assessment during the centerline trench levee seepage experiment using terrestrial light detection and ranging technology, Twitchell Island, California, 2012  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A full scale field seepage test was conducted on a north-south trending levee segment of a now bypassed old meander belt on Twitchell Island, California, to understand the effects of live and decaying root systems on levee seepage and slope stability. The field test in May 2012 was centered on a north-south trench with two segments: a shorter control segment and a longer seepage test segment. The complete length of the trench area measured 40.4 meters (m) near the levee centerline with mature trees located on the waterside and landside of the levee flanks. The levee was instrumented with piezometers and tensiometers to measure positive and negative porewater pressures across the levee after the trench was flooded with water and held at a constant hydraulic head during the seepage test—the results from this component of the experiment are not discussed in this report. We collected more than one billion three-dimensional light detection and ranging (lidar) data points before, during, and after the centerline seepage test to assess centimeter-scale stability of the two trees and the levee crown. During the seepage test, the waterside tree toppled (rotated 20.7 degrees) into the water. The landside tree rotated away from the levee by 5 centimeters (cm) at a height of 2 m on the tree. The paved surface of the levee crown had three regions that showed subsidence on the waterside of the trench—discussed as the northern, central, and southern features. The northern feature is an elongate region that subsided 2.1 cm over an area with an average width of 1.35 m that extends 15.8 m parallel to the trench from the northern end of the trench to just north of the trench midpoint, and is associated with a crack 1 cm in height that formed during the seepage test on the trench wall. The central subsidence feature is a semicircular region on the waterside of the trench that subsided by as much as 6.2 cm over an area 3.4 m wide and 11.2 m long. The southern feature is an elongate region that has a maximum subsidence of 3.5 cm over an area 0.75 m wide and 8.1 m long and is associated with a number of small fractures in the pavement that are predominately north-south-trending and parallel to the trench. We determined that there was no significant motion of the levee flank during the last week of the seepage test. We also determined biomorphic parameters for the landside tree, such as the 3D positioning on the levee, tree height, levee parallel/perpendicular cross sectional area, and canopy centroid. These biomorphic parameters were requested to support a University of California Berkeley team studying seepage and stability on the levee. A gridded, 2-cm bare-earth digital elevation model of the levee crown and the landside levee flank from the final terrestrial lidar (T-Lidar) survey provided detailed topographic data for future assessment. Because the T-Lidar was not integrated into the project design, other than an initial courtesy dataset to help characterize the levee surface, our ability to contribute to the overall science goals of the seepage test was limited. Therefore, our analysis focused on developing data collection and processing methodology necessary to align ultra high-resolution T-Lidar data (with an average spot spacing 2–3 millimeters on the levee crown) from several instrument setup locations to detect, measure, and characterize dynamic centimeter-scale deformation and surface changes during the seepage test.

Bawden, Gerald W.; Howle, James; Bond, Sandra; Shriro, Michelle; Buck, Peter

2014-01-01

118

Cartographic evidence of the disastrous ice flood of 1809 and its aftermath (Danube River, Slovakia).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 18th and early 19th century river maps are important data sources for studying past landscapes. This is not only as a result of improved surveying techniques, but also because they depict landscape during probably the most important climatic and land-use changes since the Middle Ages. In this phase of the increased river activity during the last onset of the so-called Little Ice Age period, several major flood events occured. Local manuscript maps, which often depict the channel in major detail, help us to obtain a better understanding of their geomorphic and other impacts. The catastrophic ice flood, which occured on the Middle Danube river at the end of January 1809 was undoubtedly the most disastrous event of its kind in Slovakia, although it also hit a number of settlements in Lower Austria and Hungary. Several people drowned and the flood also resulted in great damage to settlements and livestock. Devastating effects of this flood particularly as to the towns of Bratislava and Komárno/Komárom were comparable with effects of disastrous floods of February 1830 in Vienna (Austria), March 1838 in Buda/Pest (Hungary) or 1845 flood in Prague (Czech Republic), respectively. In case of the present Slovakian capital Bratislava, on January 29, 1809, two ice barriers suddenly rose the water up to 10 m above the zero level and the river quickly overflowed its banks inundating the low-lying parts of the town. The flood blacked out communications with neighbouring regions. Record-breaking height of water led to breaches of the important right-bank embankment (constructed in 1770s). Through several openings water flooded the right bank, almost completely destroying the adjacent village of Petržalka/Engerau. The damage to Vienna highway levee was so massive that it only could be repaired 16 years later, in 1825-6 (although this was also due to Napoleonic wars). The flood also reactivated the Chorvátske rameno anabranch, 33 years after its abandonment. A number of local manuscript maps depict the river before and after this event. Combined with written literary reports, the maps allow us to describe the course, the devastating effects and the aftermath consequences of the 1809 flood precisely, particularly as to the territory of the city of Bratislava itself. Moreover, many of these maps comprise a wealth of information about flood in their detailed explanatory legends and remarks. The most important maps and plans are those currently deposited in the National Archives of Hungary (= maps from the collection of former Governing Council, the central supervisory authority of the Habsburgs for the Hungarian Kingdom), in the Municipial Archives of Bratislava and the Slovak National Archives, respectively. Effects of the 1809 ice flood, as evidenced by historical maps and plans, can be generally summarised as follows: a) direct destruction (by ice floes) or collapse of houses, bridges, buildings, boat mills, groynes and bank revetments b) heavy lateral erosion of the river channel during this single event (then referred to as „damage to banks") c) breaches of protective dikes d) formation of new water bodies - temporary lakes - created by spilled water on the landside of levees e) reactivation of upstream entrances of some side channels f) pronounced changes of flooplain configuration g) damage to floodplain forest. This research was supported by the Slovak Scientific Grant agency VEGA (Project N. 1/0362/09).

Pišút, P.

2009-04-01

119

Stream Floods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise is designed to explore the nature of floods and flood prediction. Prediction of flooding relies heavily upon statistical techniques based on historical records of stream behavior. This series of exercises first reviews basic concepts in flood prediction such as calculating the Recurrence Interval (RI), which is the average interval in years between occurrences of two discharges of equal magnitude; and the Weibull equation, which calculates the probability that a given discharge will be exceeded in any particular year. The student then accesses historical data on U.S. stream flow and performs these calculations independently.

Huff, Warren

2000-11-03

120

Channelization and levee construction in Illinois: Review and implications for management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The environmental impact of loss of natural stream and riparian habitat is of concern throughout the United States and Europe. Environmental impacts related to such activities as channelization of and levee construction along streams and rivers are particularly apparent in the Midwestern United States. The objective of the research presented here was to delineate the extent, relative degree of impact, and implications for management of channelization and levee construction along watercourses located in the state of Illinois. According to records maintained through the Illinois Streams Information System data base (Illinois Department of Conservation), nearly 25% of surface water resources in the state have been modified directly by channelization and/or levee construction. Reviews of agency records, elaboration of case histories, interviews with agency personnel, and inspections of impacted sites indicated that these alterations have occurred without the benefit of effective mitigation. Although permit records may provide suggestions for mitigation to be incorporated in the design of a particular project, permits issued generally do not require even minimal instream habitat and bank stabilization efforts in conjunction with channel alteration. Information derived from policy and case study analyses suggests that institutional constraints, rather than lack of particular understanding about mitigation, provide major barriers to protecting the state's surface water resources in terms of regulatory review, policy interpretation and implementation, and project evaluation. Recommendations for environmental management efforts regarding these and similar channel alterations are elaborated from these findings.

Mattingly, Rosanna L.; Herricks, Edwin E.; Johnston, Douglas M.

1993-11-01

121

COMPARISON OF FLOOD PREDICTION MODELS FOR RIVER LOKOJA, NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flood estimation is one of the major aspects of hydrologic design and is the first in planning for flood regulation and protection measures. This research work was aimed at comparing prediction models for forecasting flood occurrences in River Lokoja, located in Kogi State of Nigeria. Relevant climatic data such as rainfalls, flood discharges, river stages of 24 years duration (1980

122

Flood Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This map, created by combining data from Google Maps and NASA, shows which land areas would be flooded by sea level rises between 0 and 14 meters. The NASA data set used is only of limited reliability, but the map provides a fascinating view of the consequences of rising sea levels, and the consequent floods of costal areas.

Tingle, Alex; Nasa; Maps, Google; Self-Published

123

Flood marks of the 1813 flood in the Central Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In August 2013, 200 years have passed since the greatest and most destructive floods known in the Slovak river basins. The flood affected almost the entire territory of Slovakia, northeastern Moravia, south of Poland. River basins of Váh (Orava, Kysuca), Poprad, Nitra, Hron, Torysa, Hornád, upper and middle Vistula, Odra have been most affected. The aim of this paper is to map the flood marks documenting this catastrophic flood in Slovakia. Flood marks and registrations on the 1813 flood in the Váh river basin are characterized by great diversity and are written in Bernolák modification of Slovak, in Latin, German and Hungarian. Their descriptions are stored in municipal chronicles and Slovak and Hungarian state archives. The flood in 1813 devastated the entire Váh valley, as well as its tributaries. Following flood marks were known in the Vah river basin: Dolná Lehota village in the Orava river basin, historical map from 1817 covering the Su?any village and showing three different cross-sections of the Váh river during the 1813 flood, flood mark in the city of Tren?ín, Flood mark in the gate of the Brunovce mansion, cross preserved at the old linden tree at Drahovce, and some records in written documents, e.g. Cifer village. The second part of the study deals with flood marks mapping in the Hron, Hnilec and Poprad River basins, and Vistula River basin in Krakow. On the basis of literary documents and the actual measurement, we summarize the peak flow rates achieved during the floods in 1813 in the profile Hron: Banská Bystrica. According to recent situation the 1813 flood peak was approximately by 1.22 m higher, than the flood in 1974. Also in the Poprad basin is the August 1813 flood referred as the most devastating flood in last 400 years. The position of the flood mark is known, but the building was unfortunately removed later. The water level in 1813 was much higher than the water level during the recent flood in June 2010. In Cracow the water level was by 38 cm lower in May 2010 than during the 1813 flood, but by 5 cm higher than in 1903, and also higher than all the other catastrophic floods that hit Cracow during the last 200 years. The analysis of documentary information is a contribution to the growing pool of material on pre-instrumental floods in Central and Eastern Europe. The long-term flood records may reduce uncertainty in hydrological analyses and contribute to reducing losses of human lives and property. Some historical cases may be used as analogues of the recent floods and very well documented recent events are important for complex understanding of similar past floods Acknowledgement This work was supported by the Science and Technology Assistance Agency under contract No. APVV-0015-10. The paper was prepared during the "Centre of excellence for integrated flood protection of land" (ITMS 26240120004) project implementation supported by the Research & Development Operational Programme funded by the ERDF.

Miklanek, Pavol; Pekárová, Pavla; Halmová, Dana; Pramuk, Branislav; Ba?ová Mitková, Veronika

2014-05-01

124

Flood inundation map library, Fort Kent, Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Severe flooding occurred in northern Maine from April 28 to May 1, 2008, and damage was extensive in the town of Fort Kent (Lombard, 2010). Aroostook County was declared a Federal disaster area on May 9, 2008. The extent of flooding on both the Fish and St. John Rivers during this event showed that the current Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Study (FIS) and Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) (Federal Emergency Management Agency, 1979) were out of date. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study to develop a flood inundation map library showing the areas and depths for a range of flood stages from bankfull to the flood of record for Fort Kent to complement an updated FIS (Federal Emergency Management Agency, in press). Hydrologic analyses that support the maps include computer models with and without the levee and with various depths of backwater on the Fish River. This fact sheet describes the methods used to develop the maps and describes how the maps can be accessed.

Lombard, Pamela J.

2012-01-01

125

Quantifying the morphology and growth of levees in aggrading submarine channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levees are the primary elements of self-formed submarine channels, yet little is know about their morphodynamics. We present field observations of static levee morphology and stratigraphy in addition to laboratory experiments that link levee morphodynamics to turbidity current flow properties. These observations are used to motivate a levee growth model. Using a three-dimensional seismic volume, we mapped the depositional patterns

Kyle M. Straub; David Mohrig

2008-01-01

126

Methodology for Establishment of Integrated Flood Analysis System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood risk management efforts face considerable uncertainty in flood hazard delineation as a consequence of changing climatic conditions including shifts in precipitation, soil moisture, and land uses. These changes can confound efforts to characterize flood impacts over decadal time scales and thus raise questions about the true benefits and drawbacks of alternative flood management projects including those of a structural and non-structural nature. Here we report an integrated flood analysis system that is designed to bring climate change information into flood risk context and characterize flood hazards in both rural and urban areas. Distributed rainfall-runoff model, one-dimensional (1D) NWS-FLDWAV model, 1D Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) and two-dimensional (2D) BreZo model are coupled. Distributed model using the multi-directional flow allocation and real time updating is used for rainfall-runoff analysis in ungauged watershed and its outputs are taken as boundary conditions to the FLDWAV model which was employed for 1D river hydraulic routing and predicting the overflow discharge at levees which were overtopped. In addition, SWMM is chosen to analyze storm sewer flow in urban areas and BreZo is used to estimate the inundation zones, depths and velocities due to the surcharge flow at sewer system or overflow at levees on the land surface. The overflow at FLDWAV or surcharged flow at SWMM becomes point sources in BreZo. Applications in Korea and California are presented.

Kim, B.; Sanders, B. F.; Kim, K.; Han, K.; Famiglietti, J. S.

2012-12-01

127

Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler Used to Measure Historic Flooding  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientists use an acoustic doppler current profiler to monitor streamflow during the historic flooding in Fargo, ND. This information provides critical information used to estimate flood dangers and helps protect lives and property....

2009-03-30

128

USGS Crews Measure Historic Flooding in Fargo, ND  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientists Chris Laveau and Joel Galloway measure streamflow during historical flooding in Fargo, ND. This information is critical for developing flood forecasts to help protect lives and property....

2009-03-30

129

USGS Crews Measure Historic Flooding in Fargo, ND  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientists continue to monitor streamflow during the historic flooding taking place in Fargo, ND. This information provides critical information used to estimate flood dangers and helps protect lives and property....

2009-03-30

130

Computer Simulation of Levee Erosion and Overtopping Mehrad Kamalzare1  

E-print Network

have been developed, considering soil hydraulic conductivity. The models deal with erosion of levees as if passing over a solid surface, not entering the soil, and the total water flow was available for erosion erosion rate tests, the Hole Erosion Test (HET) and Soil Erosion Test (SET), which measure soil

Franklin, W. Randolph

131

Computer Simulation of Levee's Erosion and Overtopping Mehrad KAMALZARE1  

E-print Network

erosion rate tests, the Hole Erosion Test (HET) and Soil Erosion Test (SET), which measure soil. The erosion resistance increases with compaction effort, particularly with fine soils. Present criteria1 Computer Simulation of Levee's Erosion and Overtopping Mehrad KAMALZARE1 , Thomas F. ZIMMIE2

Franklin, W. Randolph

132

Uncorrected land-use planning highlighted by flooding: the Alba case study (Piedmont, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alba is a town of over 30 000 inhabitants located along the Tanaro River (Piedmont, northwestern Italy) and is famous for its wine and white truffles. Many important industries and companies are based in Alba, including the famous confectionery group Ferrero. The town suffered considerably from a flood that occurred on 5-6 November 1994. Forty-eight percent of the urban area was inundated, causing severe damage and killing nine people. After the flood, the Alba area was analysed in detail to determine the reasons for its vulnerability. Information on serious floods in this area since 1800 was gathered from official records, state technical office reports, unpublished documents in the municipal archives, and articles published in local and national newspapers. Maps, plans and aerial photographs (since 1954) were examined to reconstruct Alba's urban development over the last two centuries and the planform changes of the Tanaro River. The results were compared with the effects of the November 1994 flood, which was mapped from aerial photographs taken immediately after the flood, field surveys and eyewitness reports. The territory of Alba was subdivided into six categories: residential; public service; industrial, commercial and hotels; sports areas, utilities and standards (public gardens, parks, athletics grounds, private and public sport clubs); aggregate plants and dumps; and agriculture and riverine strip. The six categories were then grouped into three classes with different flooding-vulnerability levels according to various parameters. Using GIS, the three river corridors along the Tanaro identified by the Autorità di Bacino del Fiume Po were overlaid on the three classes to produce a final map of the risk areas. This study shows that the historic floods and their dynamics have not been duly considered in the land-use planning of Alba. The zones that were most heavily damaged in the 1994 flood were those that were frequently affected in the past and sites of more recent urbanisation. Despite recurrent severe flooding of the Tanaro River and its tributaries, areas along the riverbed and its paleochannels have been increasingly used for infrastructure and building (e.g., roads, a municipal dump, a prison, natural aggregate plants, a nomad camp), which has often interfered with the natural spread of the floodwaters. Since the 1994 flood, many remedial projects have been completed along the Tanaro and its tributaries, including levees, bank protection, concrete walls and floodway channels. In spite of these costly projects, some areas remain at high risk for flooding. The method used, which considered historical data, river corridors identified by hydraulic calculations, geomorphological aspects and land-use planning, can indicate with good accuracy flood-prone areas and in consequence to be an useful tool for the coherent planning of urban expansion and the mitigation of flood risk.

Luino, F.; Turconi, L.; Petrea, C.; Nigrelli, G.

2012-07-01

133

Mathematical modeling of flooding due to river bank failure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modeling of flooding events resulting from bank overflooding and levee breaching is of relevant social and environmental interest. Two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic models integrating the shallow water equations turn out to be very effective tools for the purpose at hand. Many of the available models also use 1D channel elements, fully coupled to the 2D model, to simulate the flow of small channels dissecting the urban and rural areas, and 1D elements, referred to as 1D-links, to efficiently model the flow over levees, road and rail embankments, bunds, the flow through control gates, either free or submerged, and the operation of other hydraulic structures. In this work we propose a physically-based 1D-link to model breach formation and evolution in fluvial levees, and levee failure due to either piping or overtopping. The proposed 1D-link is then embedded in a 1D-2D hydrodynamic model, thus accounting for critical feedbacks between breach formation and changes in the hydrodynamic flow field. The breach model also includes the possibility of simulating breach closure, an important feature particularly in the view of hydraulic risk assessment and management of the emergency. The model is applied to five different case studies and the results of the numerical simulations compare favorably with field observations displaying a good agreement in terms of urban and rural flooded areas, water levels within the channel, final breach widths, and water volumes flowed through the breach.

Viero, Daniele Pietro; D'Alpaos, Andrea; Carniello, Luca; Defina, Andrea

2013-09-01

134

The Global Flood Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, a Global Flood Model (GFM) initiative has been proposed by Willis, UK Met Office, Esri, Deltares and IBM. The idea is to create a global community platform that enables better understanding of the complexities of flood risk assessment to better support the decisions, education and communication needed to mitigate flood risk. The GFM will provide tools for assessing the risk of floods, for devising mitigation strategies such as land-use changes and infrastructure improvements, and for enabling effective pre- and post-flood event response. The GFM combines humanitarian and commercial motives. It will benefit: - The public, seeking to preserve personal safety and property; - State and local governments, seeking to safeguard economic activity, and improve resilience; - NGOs, similarly seeking to respond proactively to flood events; - The insurance sector, seeking to understand and price flood risk; - Large corporations, seeking to protect global operations and supply chains. The GFM is an integrated and transparent set of modules, each composed of models and data. For each module, there are two core elements: a live "reference version" (a worked example) and a framework of specifications, which will allow development of alternative versions. In the future, users will be able to work with the reference version or substitute their own models and data. If these meet the specification for the relevant module, they will interoperate with the rest of the GFM. Some "crowd-sourced" modules could even be accredited and published to the wider GFM community. Our intent is to build on existing public, private and academic work, improve local adoption, and stimulate the development of multiple - but compatible - alternatives, so strengthening mankind's ability to manage flood impacts. The GFM is being developed and managed by a non-profit organization created for the purpose. The business model will be inspired from open source software (eg Linux): - for non-profit usage, the core specifications and reference version of the GFM will be licensed free. - for commercial use, users (such as software companies, engineering companies and business or risk management consultancies) will pay an annual fee, contributing to upkeep and maintenance. The GFM demonstrator will be shown and discussed. The initiative is seeking active involvement of the academic community.

Williams, P.; Huddelston, M.; Michel, G.; Thompson, S.; Heynert, K.; Pickering, C.; Abbott Donnelly, I.; Fewtrell, T.; Galy, H.; Sperna Weiland, F.; Winsemius, H.; Weerts, A.; Nixon, S.; Davies, P.; Schiferli, D.

2012-04-01

135

Floods in Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The first records of floods in Colorado antedated the settlement of the State by about 30 years. These were records of floods on the Arkansas and Republican Rivers in 1826. Other floods noted by traders, hunters and emigrants, some of whom were on their way to the Far West, occurred in 1844 on the Arkansas River, and by inference on the South Platte River. Other early floods were those on the Purgatoire, the Lower Arkansas, and the San Juan Rivers about 1859. The most serious flood since settlement began was that on the Arkansas River during June 1921, which caused the loss of about 100 lives and an estimated property loss of $19,000,000. Many floods of lesser magnitude have occurred, and some of these have caused loss of life and very considerable property damage. Topography is the chief factor in determining the location of storms and resulting floods. These occur most frequently on the eastern slope of the Front Range. In the mountains farther west precipitation is insufficient to cause floods except during periods of melting snow, in June. In the southwestern part of the State, where precipitation during periods of melting snow is insufficient to cause floods, the severest floods yet experienced resulted from heavy rains in September 1909 and October 1911. In the eastern foothills region, usually below an altitude of about 7,500 feet and extending for a distance of about 50 miles east of the mountains, is a zone subject to rainfalls of great intensity known as cloudbursts. These cloudbursts are of short duration and are confined to very small areas. At times the intensity is so great as to make breathing difficult for those exposed to a storm. The areas of intense rainfall are so small that Weather Bureau precipitation stations have not been located in them. Local residents, being cloudburst conscious, frequently measure the rainfall in receptacles in their yards, and such records constitute the only source of information regarding the intensity. A flood resulting from a cloudburst rises so quickly that it is usually described as a 'wall of water.' It has a peak duration of only a few minutes, followed by a rapid subsidence. Nearly 90 cloudburst floods in Colorado are described in varying detail in this report. The earliest recorded cloudburst--called at that time a waterspout--occurred in Golden Gate Gulch, July 14, 1872. The 'wall of water' was described as a 'perpendicular breast of 10 or 12 feet.' A cloudburst flood on Kiowa Creek in May 1878 caused the loss of a standard-gage locomotive, and although search was made by means of long metallic rods, the locomotive was never recovered, as bedrock was about 50 feet below the creek bed. All available information relative to floods in Colorado, beginning with the flood of 1826 on the Arkansas River, is presented in this report, although for many of the earlier floods estimates of discharge are lacking. Floods throughout a large part of the State have occurred in 1844, June 1864, June 1884, May 1894, and June 1921. The highest floods of record were on the larger streams and occurred as follows: South Platte River, June 1921; Rio Grande, June 1927; Colorado River, June and July 1884; San Juan River, October 1911. The greatest floods on the plains streams occurred during May and June 1935 and were caused by cloudbursts. Ranchers living in the vicinity noted rainfalls as high as 24 inches in a 13-hour period, measurements being made in a stock tank. The effect of settlement on channel capacities can be clearly traced. When settlement began, and with it the beginning of the livestock industry, the plains were thickly covered with a luxuriant growth of grasses. With the development of the livestock industry the grass cover was grazed so closely that it afforded little protection against erosion during the violent rains and resulting floods. The intensive grazing packed the soil so hard as to increase greatly the percentage of rainfall that entered the streams. This co

Follansbee, Robert; Sawyer, Leon R.

1948-01-01

136

From flood management systems to flood resilient systems: integration of flood resilient technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flooding has always been a major risk world-wide. Humans chose to live and develop settlements close to water (rivers, seas) due to the resources water brings, i.e. food, energy, capacity to economically transport persons and goods, and recreation. However, the risk from flooding, including pluvial flooding, often offsets these huge advantages. Floods sometimes have terrible consequences from both a human and economic point of view. The permanence and growth of urban areas in flood-prone zones despite these risks is a clear indication of the choices of concerned human groups. The observed growing concentration of population along the sea shore, the increase of urban population worldwide, the exponential growth of the world population and possibly climate change are factors that confirm flood will remain a major issue for the next decades. Flood management systems are designed and implemented to cope with such situations. In spite of frequent events, lessons look to be difficult to draw out and progresses are rather slow. The list of potential triggers to improve flood management systems is nevertheless well established: information, education, awareness raising, alert, prevention, protection, feedback from events, ... Many disciplines are concerned which cover a wide range of soft and hard sciences. A huge amount of both printed and electronic literature is available. Regulations are abundant. In spite of all these potentially favourable elements, similar questions spring up after each new significant event: • Was the event forecast precise enough? • Was the alert system efficient? • Why were buildings built in identified flood prone areas? • Why did the concerned population not follow instructions? • Why did the dike break? • What should we do to avoid it happens again? • What about damages evaluation, wastes and debris evacuation, infrastructures and buildings repair, activity recovery, temporary relocation of inhabitants, health concerns, insurance concerns, water-resistant materials, vulnerability assessment ? Flood resilient system (FReS) concept has been proposed as a new framework to address flood situations. Such systems intend to better approach such situations from a holistic point of view. FReS encompass ecologic, spatial, structural, social, disaster relief and flood risk aspects. FReS design and implementation conditions have been addressed by the FP7 SMARTeST (Smart Resilience Technology, Systems and Tools) project. The focus of this Project on the use of available and innovative communication, forecasting and flood protection technologies leads to an original contribution which highlights both the scope and the limits of this technology driven approach. These reflexions contribute to the elaboration of guidelines for the design of FReS.

Salagnac, J.-L.; Diez, J.; Tourbier, J.

2012-04-01

137

Modeling framework to link climate, hydrology and flood hazards: An application to Sacramento, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The City of Sacramento and the broader delta region may be the most flood vulnerable urbanized area in the United States. Management of flood risk here and elsewhere requires an understanding of flooding hazards, which is in turn linked to California hydrology, climate, development and flood control infrastructure. A modeling framework is presented here to make predictions of flooding hazards (e.g., depth and velocity) at the household scale (personalized flood risk information), and to study how these predictions could change under different climate change, land-use change, and infrastructure adaptation scenarios. The framework couples a statewide hydrologic model (RAPID) that predicts runoff and streamflow to a city-scale hydrodynamic model (BreZo) capable of predicting levee-breach flows and overland flows into urbanized lowlands. Application of the framework to the Sacramento area is presented here, with a focus on data needs, computational demands, results and hazard communication strategies, for selected flooding scenarios.

Kim, B.; David, C. H.; Druffel-Rodriguez, R.; Sanders, B. F.; Famiglietti, J. S.

2013-12-01

138

CONSEQUENCES OF HUMAN-ALTERED FLOODS: LEVEES, FLOODS, AND FLOODPLAIN FORESTS ALONG THE WISCONSIN RIVER. (R826600)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

139

Flooding Exercises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This homework exercise, developed for an undergraduate geology course at Tulane University, leads students through the steps involved in determining the probability that a flood of a given discharge will occur in any given year. Students retrieve discharge data from U.S. Geological Services Internet sites for Dry Creek, LA, Rapid Creek, SD and Red River, ND to make their calculations.

Nelson, Stephen

140

Assessment of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood is one of the most significant natural hazards in Japan. The Tokyo metropolitan area has been affected by several large flood disasters. Therefore, investigating potential flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area is important for development of adaptation strategy for future climate change. We aim to develop a method for evaluating flood risk in Tokyo Metropolitan area by considering effect of historical land use and land cover change, socio-economic change, and climatic change. Ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism in Japan published 'Statistics of flood', which contains data for flood causes, number of damaged houses, area of wetted surface, and total amount of damage for each flood at small municipal level. By using these flood data, we estimated damage by inundation inside a levee for each prefecture based on a statistical method. On the basis of estimated damage, we developed flood risk curves in the Tokyo metropolitan area, representing relationship between damage and exceedance probability of flood for the period 1976-2008 for each prefecture. Based on the flood risk curve, we attempted evaluate potential flood risk in the Tokyo metropolitan area and clarify the cause for regional difference of flood risk. By analyzing flood risk curves, we found out regional differences of flood risk. We identified high flood risk in Tokyo and Saitama prefecture. On the other hand, flood risk was relatively low in Ibaraki and Chiba prefecture. We found that these regional differences of flood risk can be attributed to spatial distribution of entire property value and ratio of damaged housing units in each prefecture.We also attempted to evaluate influence of climate change on potential flood risk by considering variation of precipitation amount and precipitation intensity in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Results shows that we can evaluate potential impact of precipitation change on flood risk with high accuracy by using our methodology. Acknowledgments This study is conducted as part of the research subject "Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change in Water Hazard Assessed Using Regional Climate Scenarios in the Tokyo Region' (National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention; PI: Koji Dairaku) of Research Program on Climate Change Adaptation (RECCA) and was supported by the SOUSEI Program, funded by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Government of Japan

Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.

2013-12-01

141

Flood-carrying capacities and changes in channels of the Lower Puyallup, White, and Carbon Rivers in western Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The flood-carrying capacity of the Puyallup River 's leveed channel from its mouth to the city of Puyallup exceeds the 100-yr-flood discharge at most locations. Upstream from the city of Puyallup the flood-carrying capacity also is less than the 100-yr flood at many locations. In King County the flood-carrying capacity would be greater than the 100-year flood nearly everywhere if the levees were in a good state of repair. The flood-carrying capacity of the leveed Carbon River channel is less than the 100-yr flood at numerous locations. Changes between 1976-77 and 1984 in average channel cross-section elevations for the Puyallup and Carbon Rivers were less than 1 ft at more than one-half of 90 surveyed cross sections and were more than 2 ft at only 5 of them. Changes in average elevations for the White River downstream of the inflow from Lake Tapps rose approximately 2 ft or more at 5 of the 10 surveyed cross sections, but decreased 2 ft or more at nearly one-half of 29 cross sections upstream of the reach. Differences between computed 100-yr floodwater-surface elevations for 1976-77 and 1984 channels are similar to changes in average cross-section elevations. Dense growths of streambank vegetation could increase 100-yr floodwater surface elevations by 1.2 ft. (USGS)

Prych, E.A.

1988-01-01

142

The 1965 Mississippi River flood in Iowa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The great flood of 1965 on the Mississippi River, along the eastern border if the State, exceeded any flood known in 139 years. It cause damages probably in excess of ten millions of dollars in the State of Iowa. Studied now in progress will more thoroughly cover this and other phases of the flood. The underlying cause of the flood was an abnormally cold winter which prevented the melting of an excessive snow cover in the upper reaches of the basin. Heavy rains late in March followed by rapid melting triggered the runoff which caused the floods. Peak discharges experienced ranged from 276,000 cfs (cubic feet per second) at McGregor near the northern boundary of the State to 327,000 cfs at Keokuk near the southern boundary. Tributary streams in Iowa were receding as the main-stem flood peak passed their mouths. The discharge they contributed was generally insignificant except for the larger streams. Flood data compiled for the part of the River along the eastern border include flood discharges, flood elevations, and the frequency of floods of varying magnitudes. They also include the daily or more frequent stage and discharge data for both the Mississippi River and the downstream gaging stations on Iowa tributaries for the period March-May 1965. Sufficient data are presented to permit studied for preparation of plans for protective works and plans for zoning or for flood plain regulation.

Schwob, Harian H.; Myers, Richard E.

1965-01-01

143

Study of movement and seepage along levees using DINSAR and the airborne UAVSAR instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the utility of high resolution synthetic aperture radar for levee monitoring using UAVSAR data collected over the dikes and levees in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and the lower Mississippi River. Our study has focused on detecting and tracking changes that are indicative of potential problem spots, namely deformation of the levees, subsidence along the levee toe, and seepage through the levees, making use of polarimetric and interferometric SAR techniques. Here we present some results of those studies, which show that high resolution, low noise SAR imaging could supplement more traditional ground-based monitoring methods by providing early indicators of seepage and deformation.

Jones, Cathleen E.; Bawden, Gerald; Deverel, Steven; Dudas, Joel; Hensley, Scott; Yun, Sang-Ho

2012-09-01

144

Future flood losses in major coastal cities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood exposure is increasing in coastal cities owing to growing populations and assets, the changing climate, and subsidence. Here we provide a quantification of present and future flood losses in the 136 largest coastal cities. Using a new database of urban protection and different assumptions on adaptation, we account for existing and future flood defences. Average global flood losses in 2005 are estimated to be approximately US$6billion per year, increasing to US$52billion by 2050 with projected socio-economic change alone. With climate change and subsidence, present protection will need to be upgraded to avoid unacceptable losses of US$1trillion or more per year. Even if adaptation investments maintain constant flood probability, subsidence and sea-level rise will increase global flood losses to US$60-63billion per year in 2050. To maintain present flood risk, adaptation will need to reduce flood probabilities below present values. In this case, the magnitude of losses when floods do occur would increase, often by more than 50%, making it critical to also prepare for larger disasters than we experience today. The analysis identifies the cities that seem most vulnerable to these trends, that is, where the largest increase in losses can be expected.

Hallegatte, Stephane; Green, Colin; Nicholls, Robert J.; Corfee-Morlot, Jan

2013-09-01

145

Perception of floods as an important aspect of quality of life and territorial changes in flood areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quality of life in many municipalities in the Czech Republic is affected by coming floods. Since 1997 when a great part of Moravia was affected by an extreme flood situation, much closer attention is paid to floods and flood protection. Flood management is based, besides others, on European flood legislation but it still does not reflect the social perception of flood situations as a common part of the evaluation of flood risk. However, this very perception strongly influences future implementation of flood measures, territorial and social development of the municipality and indirectly the quality of life in the municipality. One of the main problems in flood issue is the financing of anti-flood measures. In view of the fact that financial resources in environmental sphere are limited, preventive anti-flood measures, that can eliminate the impacts of future floods and are not so expensive, assume more importance. Such kind of measures is often suggested for local needs. The necessity to research the social perception of flood in this context is supported by some studies pointing out a still insufficient use of preventive anti-flood measures in the Czech Republic in spite of several extreme floods in the past 20 years. This paper aims at presenting the results of a research which has been done in a model area affected by floods. The aim of this research was to point out the main factors that influence the life in the municipality after flood (including suggested anti-flood measures) and the possibilities and willingness of the inhabitants to change them. The research results have subsequently been supplemented with the same evaluation by the members of local administrations who are important players in post-flood development of the municipality and in dealings with citizens about the suggested anti-flood measures.

Klemešová, Kamila; Andráško, Ivan

2014-05-01

146

Assessment of floodplain vulnerability during extreme Mississippi River flood 2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Regional change in the variability and magnitude of flooding could be a major consequence of future global climate change. Extreme floods have the capacity to rapidly transform landscapes and expose landscape vulnerabilities through highly variable spatial patterns of inundation, erosion, and deposition. We use the historic activation of the Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway during the Mississippi and Ohio River Flooding of 2011 as a scientifically unique stress experiment to analyze indicators of floodplain vulnerability. We use pre- and postflood airborne Light Detection and Ranging data sets to locate erosional and depositional hotspots over the 540 km2 agricultural Floodway. While riparian vegetation between the river and the main levee breach likely prevented widespread deposition, localized scour and deposition occurred near the levee breaches. Eroded gullies nearly 1 km in length were observed at a low ridge of a relict meander scar of the Mississippi River. Our flow modeling and spatial mapping analysis attributes this vulnerability to a combination of erodible soils, flow acceleration associated with legacy fluvial landforms, and a lack of woody vegetation to anchor soil and enhance flow resistance. Results from this study could guide future mitigation and adaptation measures in cases of extreme flooding.

Goodwell, Allison E.; Zhu, Zhenduo; Dutta, Debsunder; Greenberg, Jonathan A.; Kumar, Praveen; Garcia, Marcelo H.; Rhoads, Bruce L.; Holmes, Robert R.; Parker, Gary; Berretta, David P.; Jacobson, Robert B.

2014-01-01

147

PEG Simulation Insight Into the Construction and Cross-Sectional Morphology of Levees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was extruded at constant rates and temperatures into a 75-cm-long tank filled with cold sucrose solution in a series of low-volume (< 2000 mL), short-duration (< 240 s) simulations conducted on underlying slopes ranging from 4-10° degrees with effusion rates of 6-10 mL/s to constrain the development of levees in channeled flows. Upon extrusion, thin slabs of PEG solidify on the surface of the flow. The PEG slabs drift to the lateral flow margins, stall, and accrete, establishing a foundation for a levee system. Distinguishable levees in the PEG channel flows do not form until almost 30-50 s into the simulation. Levee length grows as liquid PEG oozes around the solid down-slope levee end, stalls, and solidifies. After initial emplacement, the levees remain stable entities regardless of their width, and the outer levee margins do not grow laterally through overflow or underflow of PEG. Although miniscule, partially solidified, morsels of PEG do accrete to the inner margin of the levees, total levee width remains relatively constant until effusion at the vent stops and the entire flow surface solidifies. Initial results suggest that levee width is not a linear function of distance from the vent, effusion rate, or underlying slope, although levees are slightly wider, on average, on lower underlying slopes than they are on steeper slopes. Wider levees (> 1 cm) usually comprise a hollow, internal conduit system that PEG can continue to flow through. The most striking feature of the cross-sectional morphology is the concave shape to the inner wall of the levees, regardless of eruption parameters. This concavity conceals a volume of moving liquid wax in the channel, so that the true channel is actually wider than what is observed at the flow surface. General observations of the concave inner walls reveal that height, thickness, and concavity for an individual levee remain fairly constant from the vent to the flow front. Field observations on a selection of channeled flows on the north side of Mauna Ulu, Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, display cross-sections similar to those found in lab simulations, particularly in the concavity of the inner levee walls. Extension of true channel width into hollow levee systems that parallel the main channel beneath the crust of the flow was observed, and in one case, tripled the observed channel width. Additional simulations over a spectrum of conditions will further levee construction and morphology analysis.

Garry, W. B.; Gregg, T. K.

2002-12-01

148

100-Year Flood-It's All About Chance  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the 1960's, the United States government decided to use the 1-percent annual exceedance probability (AEP) flood as the basis for the National Flood Insurance Program. The 1-percent AEP flood was thought to be a fair balance between protecting the public and overly stringent regulation. Because the 1-percent AEP flood has a 1 in 100 chance of being equaled or exceeded in any 1 year, and it has an average recurrence interval of 100 years, it often is referred to as the '100-year flood'. The term '100-year flood' is part of the national lexicon, but is often a source of confusion by those not familiar with flood science and statistics. This poster is an attempt to explain the concept, probabilistic nature, and inherent uncertainties of the '100-year flood' to the layman.

Holmes, Robert R.; Dinicola, Karen

2010-01-01

149

Flood Inundation Mapper  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A powerful new tool for flood response and mitigation are digital geospatial flood-inundation maps that show flood water extent and depth on the land surface. Because floods are the leading cause of natural-disaster losses, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is actively involved in the development of...

150

Flood Plain Management.  

E-print Network

of 1973 is an expanded flood insurance program, intended as a substitute and eventual replacement for Federal disaster relief for flood occurrences. It combines sub- sidized flood insurance for existing development with required insurance based... on actuarial rates for future development in flood-prone areas. An immediate problem for the Federal Insurance Administration (FIA) has been the documentation of !he flood risk for purposes of ratemaking. The U.S. Corps of Engineers is making a limited...

McNeely, John G.; Lacewell, Ronald D.

1976-01-01

151

Flood-inundation map and water-surface profiles for floods of selected recurrence intervals, Consumnes River and Deer Creek, Sacramento County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The damage caused by the January 1997 floods along the Cosumnes River and Deer Creek generated new interest in planning and managing land use in the study area. The 1997 floodflow peak, the highest on record and considered to be a 150-year flood, caused levee failures at 24 locations. In order to provide a technical basis for floodplain management practices, the U.S. Goelogical Survey, in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency, completed a flood-inundation map of the Cosumnes River and Deer Creek drainage from Dillard Road bridge to State Highway 99. Flood frequency was estimated from streamflow records for the Cosumnes River at Michigan Bar and Deer Creek near Sloughhouse. Cross sections along a study reach, where the two rivers generally flow parallel to one another, were used with a step-backwater model (WSPRO) to estimate the water-surface profile for floods of selected recurrence intervals. A flood-inundation map was developed to show flood boundaries for the 100-year flood. Water-surface profiles were developed for the 5-, 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year floods.

Guay, Joel R.; Harmon, Jerry G.; McPherson, Kelly R.

1998-01-01

152

Regional Similarity of Leveed Lava Flows on the Mars Plains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dynamics of lava flow movement are controlled by the fluid interior. Crust, solids, and nondeformable material can only retard the advance or spreading of a lava flow. Figure 1 shows a typical large, channelized lava flow found on the Mars plains. It has been suggested in [I] that such large leveed flows on the Mars plains were emplaced by a balance between the formation and shedding of crust as the flow advances. For the prototypical flow north of Pavonis Mons (Fig. I), such a balance leads to a flow morphology that approximately self-replicates at all locations along the flow path [2,3]. Moreover, most quantitative characteristics of emplacement (e.g., viscosity, volumetric flow rate) of the prototype flow at Pavonis Mons resembled those of large channelized lava flows on Earth. The exception was the relatively long, sustained supply of lava, on the order of a year as opposed to hours or days for terrestrial analogs.

Baloga, Steve M.; Glaze, Lori, S.

2008-01-01

153

Ventura River Flood of February 1992  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On February 12, 1992, a portion of the Ventura River, California, flowed through the Ventura Beach RV Resort which had recently been constructed across a major historically active distributary of the Ventura River delta. State and local land-use planners recognized the flood hazards associated with the site, but decision-makers relied on analytical methods developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and flood-hazard categories developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency, which did not adequately reflect the mobile nature of the Ventura River channel and distributaries. A better understanding of the historical behavior of the Ventura River could have averted the flood damages experienced in 1992. Low intensity recreational, agricultural, or habitat restoration use of the site would minimize potential flood damages and obviate the need for structural flood protection that would impact the river? natural resources. Continued operation of the recreational vehicle park could result in additional flood damages in the relatively near future; recognizing the limitations of the flood-modeling methodologies used for the Ventura Beach RV Resort could prevent similar miscalculations of flood potential in comparable situations.

Keller, Edward A.; Capelli, Mark H.

1992-10-01

154

Operational flood management under large-scale extreme conditions, using the example of the Middle Elbe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to precautionary or technical flood protection measures, short-term strategies of the operational management, i.e. the initiation and co-ordination of preventive measures during and\\/or before a flood event are crucially for the reduction of the flood damages. This applies especially for extreme flood events. These events are rare, but may cause a protection measure to be overtopped or even

A. Kron; F. Nestmann; I. Schlüter; G. Schädler; C. Kottmeier; M. Helms; R. Mikovec; J. Ihringer; M. Musall; P. Oberle; U. Saucke; A. Bieberstein; J. Daåhelka; J. Krejcí

2010-01-01

155

Analyses, Simulations and Physical Modeling Validation of Levee and Embankment Erosion  

E-print Network

Analyses, Simulations and Physical Modeling Validation of Levee and Embankment Erosion Zhongxian; email: zimmit@rpi.edu ABSTRACT We present a computer simulation of hydraulic erosion on levees, dams, and earth embankments, with emphasis on rill and gully initiation and propagation. We focus on erosion

Varela, Carlos

156

SIMULATING LEVEE EROSION WITH PHYSICAL MODELING Jared A. Gross, A.M.ASCE1  

E-print Network

SIMULATING LEVEE EROSION WITH PHYSICAL MODELING VALIDATION Jared A. Gross, A.M.ASCE1 ; Christopher, and general earth embankments. It specifically studies where these erosion features occur, and how long to previous levee erosion analysis, which has primarily concerned the final effects of erosion, such as soil

157

A Model for Variable Levee Formation Rates in an Active Lava Flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Channelized lava flows on Mars and the Earth often feature levees and collateral margins that change in volume along the path of the flow. Consistent with field observations of terrestrial flows, this suggests that the rate of levee formation varies with distance and other factors. Previous models have assumed a constant rate of levee growth, specified by a single parameter, lambda. The rate of levee formation for lava flows is a good indicator of the mass eruption rate and rheology of the flow. Insight into levee formation will help us better understand whether or not the effusion rate was constant during an eruption, and once local topography is considered, allows us to look at cooling and/or rheology changes downslope. Here we present a more realistic extension of the levee formation model that treats the rate of levee growth as a function of distance along the flow path. We show how this model can be used with a terrestrial flow and a long lava flow on Mars. The key statement of the new formulation is the rate of transfer from the active component to the levees (or other passive components) through an element dx along the path of the flow. This volumetric transfer equation is presented.

Glaze, L. S.; Baloga, S. M.; Mouginis-Mark, P.; Crisp, J.

2004-01-01

158

Documenting Tragedy and Resilience: The Importance of Spike Lee's "When the Levees Broke"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spike Lee's documentary, "When the Levees Broke," provides an informative, enduring, and alternative presentation surrounding the human and man-made debacle associated with Hurricane Katrina. Levees centers the voices of survivors and others involved in the weeks during and after the hurricane, historicizes residents' understandings and reactions,…

Foster, Kevin Michael; Blakes, Tifani; McKay, Jenny

2008-01-01

159

Flood inundation simulation in Ajoy River using MIKE-FLOOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control and risk management of floods using non-structural measures such as flood forecasting and flood warning, flood hazard mapping and flood risk zoning are quite effective. Of these, preparation of flood hazard maps and flood plain zoning require flood inundation simulation, for which various numerical models are available, for example, one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D) and 1D-2D-coupled models. In the present

Prashant Kadam; Dhrubajyoti Sen

2012-01-01

160

Flooding and schools: experiences in Hull in 2007.  

PubMed

Hull, a city in the East Riding of Yorkshire, United Kingdom, suffered severe flooding in June 2007, affecting some 8,600 households and most schools. Despite the potential for damage in such disasters, no studies of the effects of floods on teachers and schools in the UK appear to have been published previously. This study analysed the impacts of the floods on teachers in Hull in two stages: first through correspondence with Hull City Council and a mailed questionnaire to 91 head teachers of primary, secondary, and special schools; and second, through in-depth interviews with head teachers from six flooded schools, representing different degrees of flood experience, and a questionnaire completed by eight teachers from the same schools. The findings reveal the importance and the complexity of the role of the school in the wider community in a time of crisis. The study highlights issues concerning preparedness for floods, support for schools, and flood protection for schools. PMID:25231793

Convery, Ian; Carroll, Bob; Balogh, Ruth

2015-01-01

161

Flood fatality hazard and flood damage hazard: combining multiple hazard characteristics into meaningful maps for spatial planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For comprehensive flood risk management, accurate information on flood hazards is crucial. While in the past an estimate of potential flood consequences in large areas was often sufficient to make decisions on flood protection, there currently is an increasing demand to have detailed hazard maps available to be able to consider other risk reducing measures as well. Hazard maps are a prerequisite for spatial planning, but can also support emergency management, the design of flood mitigation measures, and the setting of insurance policies. The increase in flood risks due to population growth and economic development in hazardous areas in the past shows that sensible spatial planning is crucial to prevent risks increasing further. Assigning the least hazardous locations for development or adapting developments to the actual hazard requires comprehensive flood hazard maps. Since flood hazard is a multi-dimensional phenomenon, many different maps could be relevant. Having large numbers of maps to take into account does, however, not make planning easier. To support flood risk management planning we therefore introduce a new approach in which all relevant flood hazard parameters can be combined into two comprehensive maps of flood damage hazard respectively flood fatality hazard.

de Bruijn, K. M.; Klijn, F.; van de Pas, B.; Slager, C. T. J.

2015-01-01

162

Space geodesy: subsidence and flooding in New Orleans.  

PubMed

It has long been recognized that New Orleans is subsiding and is therefore susceptible to catastrophic flooding. Here we present a new subsidence map for the city, generated from space-based synthetic-aperture radar measurements, which reveals that parts of New Orleans underwent rapid subsidence in the three years before Hurricane Katrina struck in August 2005. One such area is next to the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet (MRGO) canal, where levees failed during the peak storm surge: the map indicates that this weakness could be explained by subsidence of a metre or more since their construction. PMID:16738651

Dixon, Timothy H; Amelung, Falk; Ferretti, Alessandro; Novali, Fabrizio; Rocca, Fabio; Dokka, Roy; Sella, Giovanni; Kim, Sang-Wan; Wdowinski, Shimon; Whitman, Dean

2006-06-01

163

Selfsimilar long profiles of aggrading submarine leveed channels: Analytical solution and its application to the Amazon channel  

E-print Network

Selfsimilar long profiles of aggrading submarine leveed channels: Analytical solution and its submarine fans are coursed by welldefined leveed channels constructed by turbidity currents. The channels Submarine Fan, shows encouraging comparisons. The generality and shortcomings of the model assumptions

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

164

Levee crest elevation profiles derived from airborne lidar-based high resolution digital elevation models in south Louisiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study explores the feasibility of using airborne lidar surveys to derive high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) and develop an automated procedure to extract levee longitudinal elevation profiles for both federal levees in Atchafalaya Basin and local levees in Lafourche Parish. Generally, the use of traditional manual surveying methods to map levees is a costly and time consuming process that typically produces cross-levee profiles every few hundred meters, at best. The purpose of our paper is to describe and test methods for extracting levee crest elevations in an efficient, comprehensive manner using high resolution lidar generated DEMs. In addition, the vertical uncertainty in the elevation data and its effect on the resultant estimate of levee crest heights is addressed in an assessment of whether the federal levees in our study meet the USACE minimum height design criteria.

Palaseanu-Lovejoy, Monica; Thatcher, Cindy A.; Barras, John A.

2014-01-01

165

River Flood Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use this animation to learn about floods. You will learn about drainage basins, discharge, hydrographs, floodplain deposition, and infiltration. You will also learn about the frequency of floods and what we are doing to control them.

2002-01-01

166

Cost of Flooding  

MedlinePLUS

... Simulator About The National Insurance Program Residential Coverage Commercial Coverage PolicyHolder Resources Preparation & Recovery Agent Site Agent ... devastating testimonials about flooding to our Home Personified commercials. Watch Now Flood Risk Scenarios There are many ...

167

FLOOD EVENT MAPPING IMAGES  

EPA Science Inventory

OSEI flood products (FLD) include multichannel color composite imagery and single-channel grayscale imagery of enlarged river areas or increased sediment flow. Typically, these events are displayed by comparison to imagery taken when flooding was not occurring....

168

Flooding in Virginia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use a National Weather Service flood forecast, USGS gauging data, and other reports to estimate the maximum storm discharge from the New River and Wolf Creek, two streams in the Southeast U.S. which experienced flooding in November 2003. Topographic and urban maps are used to predict where flooding would occur and to evaluate strategies for reducing flood risk for the residents of the region.

Patrick, Ew

169

Flood Problematic of the City of Ljubljana and the September 2010 Flood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the contribution, the flood protection problematic of the capital of the Republic of Slovenia, the Ljubljana city, is presented. Ljubljana lies in the southern part of the Ljubljana basin, crossing the moor on the south and the north of Ljubljana field. The tectonic subsidence of the area in the geological past has made it an important confluence of the rivers. The area of the City of Ljubljana has a long history of various flood protection measures (e.g. first waterworks in the Ljubljanica River channel by the Romans, Grubar flood canal excavation in 1780 for diversion of Ljubljanica moor floodwaters away from the city center, weir construction on the Ljubljanica River in 1950s for floodwater manipulation and extended widening of the Mali graben channel in the 1970s). However, despite the abovementioned flood protection efforts, many parts of the urban area of the City of Ljubljana is presently heavily threatened by the floods as the one experienced in September 2010. The southern part of the city, particularly in the Ljubljana moor, is exposed to a risk of catastrophic, medium and even small flood events. In the northern part of Ljubljana, at the Sava River area, there is a risk of catastrophic medium floods events. Most heavily endangered is the southern part of the city in the vicinity of the Ljubljanica River and its tributaries. The western part between Podutik and Rožna dolina is endangered by Glinš?ica stream high waters and its tributaries, south western part of of the city (the whole Vi? area) by Gradaš?ica with Horjulka, southern part of the Rudnik suburbs with moor floodwaters and the central and northern part of the Rudnik by tributaries from Golovec and inland waters. The main reasons for the present insufficient flood protection of the City of Ljubljana lies especially in the discontinuities and mutual exclusion of flood protection measures planning and overall spatial development of the urbanized areas. As a consequence, some of the past flood protection measures could no longer function properly due to intensive urbanization of some areas (e.g. the Mali graben channel). On the other hand, some of the urbanized Ljubljanica moor areas are becoming increasingly flood vulnerable due to past long term intensive moor area drainage and consequent slow decreasing of the overall ground levels.

Brilly, M.; Rusjan, S.; Vidmar, A.

2012-04-01

170

Flood Aftermath, Boulder, Colo.  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This flooded culvert is located on Monarch Road just east of the Diagonal Highway in Boulder, Colo. Numerous rivers flooded during a significant September 2013 rain event along Colorado's Front Range, damaging or destroying several USGS streamgages. In response, USGS field crews measured flood...

171

LESSONS FROM GRAND FORKS :P LANNING NONSTRUCTURAL FLOOD CONTROL MEASURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though the flood of 1997 at Grand Forks, North Dakota, did not take a single life, the people suffered enormous economic damage and such large intangible losses that the city considered itself damaged to the ''core.'' Losses were exacerbated by five surprises. People working to protect themselves as flood stages rose and then to salvage their possessions as waters

L. Douglas James; Scott F. Korom

172

Early-season flooding for insect pest control  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In Wisconsin, there is much interest in the spring flood as a means to not only reduce pest populations, but also to facilitate marsh sanitation and provide frost protection. A large-scale field study was undertaken in 2011 to examine how a 30-40 hour spring flood (late May) would affect key insect ...

173

Sugarcane Response to Month and Duration of Preharvest Flood  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Some Florida growers apply 1-day floods about 3 weeks prior to harvest to prevent fires that may ignite on organic soils during preharvest burning of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.). Extending these flood durations could improve sugarcane insect control, freeze protection, soil conservation, and reduce u...

174

Flood routing in channels with flood plains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental data on unsteady flows in a channel with flood plains obtained in a laboratory test facility are presented. Flood flow at the upstream end of the channel was produced by an electrically actuated butterfly valve in the supply pipe. Water level variations were recorded at nine stations along the channel using capacitance probes and a computerized data acquisition system. Tests were conducted for various initial conditions, and duration and peak of the flood wave. Complete data for two tests are presented which may be used to verify numerical models. A one-dimensional numerical model was developed to simulate flood flow. The model solves the St. Venant equations by using the Preissmann four-point implicit finite-difference scheme. The suitability of two procedures for approximating the channel cross-section is investigated: (1) the flow velocity over the flood plains is negligible, the flood plain acts as storage only and does not contribute to the momentum (the flood plains and the main channel are separated by a vertical line at their interface and the division line is not included in the wetted perimeter); (2) the entire channel section contributes to momentum flux, the entire channel section has uniform average flow velocity and the non-uniform velocity is taken into consideration by a momentum coefficient. Although comparisons between the computed and experimental results are satisfactory in both cases, Approximation (1) gives better results than Approximation (2).

Mizanur Rashid, R. S. M.; Hanif Chaudhry, M.

1995-09-01

175

Raising risk preparedness through flood risk communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decade, most European countries have produced risk maps of natural hazards, but little is known about how to communicate these maps most effectively to the public. In October 2011, Zurich's local authorities informed owners of buildings located in the urban flood hazard area about potential flood damage, the probability of flood events and protection measures. The campaign was based on the assumptions that informing citizens increases their risk awareness and that citizens who are aware of risks are more likely to undertake appropriate actions to protect themselves and their property. This study is intended as a contribution to a better understanding the factors influencing flood risk preparedness, with a special focus on the effects of such a one-way risk communication strategy. We conducted a standardized mail survey of 1500 property owners in the hazard areas in Zurich. The questionnaire comprised items measuring respondents' risk awareness, risk preparedness, flood experience, information seeking behaviour, knowledge about flood risk, evaluation of the information material, risk acceptance, kind of property owned, attachment to the property, trust in local authorities, and socio-demographic variables. Multivariate data analysis revealed that the average level of risk awareness and preparedness was low, but our results confirmed that the campaign had a statistically significant effect on the level of preparedness. The main factors influencing the respondents' intention to prepare for a flood were the extent to which they evaluated the information material positively and their risk awareness. Those who had never taken any interest in floods previously were less likely to read the material. For future campaigns, we therefore recommend repeated communication of relevant information tailored to the needs of the target population.

Maidl, E.; Buchecker, M.

2014-01-01

176

Floods: The Awesome Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A newly released publication from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the National Weather Service, and the Red Cross is entitled "Floods: The Awesome Power." The citizen-focused sixteen-page preparedness guide explains "flood-related hazards and suggests life-saving actions you can take." Readers will learn what flash floods are, what to do if youâÂÂre caught in your vehicle during a flash flood, what river floods are, how tropical cyclones create floods, where to get current weather information, what your local community can do to be more prepared for floods, and much more. The graphics rich and non-technical publication with its potentially life-saving information is definitely worth a read.

2002-01-01

177

Flood Frequency Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Flood Frequency Analysis module offers an introduction to the use of flood frequency analysis for flood prediction and planning. Through use of rich illustrations, animations, and interactions, this module explains the basic concepts, underlying issues, and methods for analyzing flood data. Common concepts such as the 100-year flood and return periods as well as issues affecting the statistical representation of floods are discussed. Common flood data analysis methods as well as an overview of design events are also covered. As a foundation topic for the Basic Hydrologic Science course, this module may be taken on its own, but it will also be available as a supporting topic providing factual scientific information to support students in completion of the case-based forecasting modules.

Comet

2006-10-10

178

75 FR 6364 - Process for Requesting a Variance From Vegetation Standards for Levees and Floodwalls  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Review (ATR). d. The ATR leader shall concur or non-concur...coordination with the RIT leader and the HQUSACE Levee Safety Program Manager (LSPM), the USACE Risk...full name, typed) Leader, Agency Technical...

2010-02-09

179

An Active Defense Mechanism for TCP SYN flooding attacks  

E-print Network

Distributed denial-of-service attacks on public servers have recently become a serious problem. To assure that network services will not be interrupted and more effective defense mechanisms to protect against malicious traffic, especially SYN floods. One problem in detecting SYN flood traffic is that server nodes or firewalls cannot distinguish the SYN packets of normal TCP connections from those of a SYN flood attack. Another problem is single-point defenses (e.g. firewalls) lack the scalability needed to handle an increase in the attack traffic. We have designed a new defense mechanism to detect the SYN flood attacks. First, we introduce a mechanism for detecting SYN flood traffic more accurately by taking into consideration the time variation of arrival traffic. We investigate the statistics regarding the arrival rates of both normal TCP SYN packets and SYN flood attack packets. We then describe a new detection mechanism based on these statistics. Through the trace driven approach defense nodes which recei...

Kumarasamy, Saravanan

2012-01-01

180

SeCom - Serious Community 2.0 prevent flooding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a significant need for raising the awareness and building the capacity of water professionals in different water sectors cross Europe. There is also a need for qualified graduates to implement the EU Flood Risk Directive (FRD). The main aim of this work is to prepare and build the capacity of both groups in flood risk management through identifying synergies, sharing knowledge, and strengthen partnerships between universities and different stakeholders(mainly water professionals). The specific objectives are to develop; a) Development of a dynamic and active tool that allows all target-groups/users to assess their knowledge about flood risk management. b) Development of an innovative, active and problem-based learning methodology for flood risk education and training. c)Development of flood related Vocational Education & Training (VET) modules for water professionals (involving the students to gain practical experience). This will include some modules for undergraduate students on flood risk management and protection.

Komma, Juergen; Breuer, Roman; Sewilam, Hani; Concia, Francesca; Aliprandi, Bruno; Siegmund, Sabine; Goossens, Jannis

2013-04-01

181

Sand boils induced by the 1993 Mississippi River flood: Could they one day be misinterpreted as earthquake-induced liquefaction?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In areas that are seismically active but lacking clear surficial faulting, many paleoearthquake studies depend on the interpretation of ancient liquefaction features (sand blows) as indicators of prehistoric seismicity. Sand blows, however, can be mimicked by nonseismic sand boils formed by water seeping beneath levees during floods. We examined sand boils induced by the Mississippi River flood of 1993 in order to compare their characteristics with sand blows of the New Madrid earthquakes of 1811-1812. We found a number of criteria that allow a distinction between the two types of deposits. (1) Earthquake-induced liquefaction deposits are broadly distributed about an epicentral area, whereas flood-induced sand boils are limited to a narrow band along a river's levee. (2) The conduits of most earthquake-induced sand blows are planar dikes, whereas the conduits of flood-induced sand boils are most commonly tubular. (3) Depression of the preearthquake ground surface is usual for sand blows, not for sand boils. (4) Flood-induced sand boils tend to be better sorted and much finer than sand-blow deposits. (5) Source beds for earthquake-induced deposits occur at a wide range of depths, whereas the source bed for sand boils is always near surface. (6) Materials removed from the walls surrounding the vent of a sand blow are seen inside sand blows, but are rarely seen inside sand boils. In general, flood-induced sand boils examined are interpreted to represent a less-energetic genesis than earthquake-induced liquefaction.

Li, Y.; Craven, J.; Schweig, E.S.; Obermeier, S.F.

1996-01-01

182

USE OF MESOSCALE WEATHER FORECASTING FOR EARLY FLOOD WARNING ON EUROPEAN SCALE  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The European Flood Forecasting System project (EFFS) aims at developing a prototype of an integrated European flood forecasting system. This Pan-European early flood warning system is to provide National Water Authorities, Civil Protection Authorities and international aid-organisations with a large lead-time to prepare for possible flood crises. The broad objectives of the still ongoing project are to use operationally

A. de Roo; J. Thielen; B. Gouweleeuw; G. Schmuck

183

Alabama district flood plan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this flood plan is to outline and record advance planning for flood emergencies, so that all personnel will know the general plan and have a ready-reference for necessary information. This will ensure that during any flood event, regardless of the extent or magnitude, the resources of the District can be mobilized into a maximum data collection operation with a mimimum of effort.

Hedgecock, T. Scott; Pearman, J. Leroy; Stricklin, Victor E.

2002-01-01

184

Flash Flood Case Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module takes the learner through seven case studies of flash flood events that occurred in the conterminous U.S. between 2003 and 2006. The cases covered include: * 30-31 August 2003: Chase & Lyon Counties, KS * 16-17 September 2004: Macon County, NC * 31 July 2006: Santa Catalina Mountains near Tucson, AZ * 25 December 2003: Fire burn area near San Bernardino, CA * 30 August 2004: Urban flash flood in Richmond, VA * 19-20 August 2003: Urban flash flood in Las Vegas, NV * 9 October 2005: Cheshire County, NH This module assists the learner in applying the concepts covered in the foundation topics of the Basic Hydrologic Sciences course. Some of the specific topics pertinent to these cases are the physical characteristics that make a basin prone to flash floods, basin response to precipitation, flash flood guidance (FFG), the relationship between wildfire and flash floods, and the relationship between urban development and flash floods. Related topics brought out in the cases include radar quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE), the National Weather Service Flash Flood Monitoring and Prediction (NWS FFMP) products, debris flows, impounded water, and interagency communications. The core foundation topics are recommended prerequisite materials since this module assumes some pre-existing knowledge of hydrologic principles. In particular, the Runoff Processes and Flash Flood Processes modules contain material directly related to these cases.

COMET

2007-06-26

185

Flood frequency in Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Records of peak discharge at 183 sites were used to study flood frequency in Alaska. The vast size of Alaska, its great ranges of physiography, and the lack of data for much of the State precluded a comprehensive analysis of all flood determinants. Peak stream discharges, where gaging-station records were available, were analyzed for 2-year, 5-year, 10-year, 25-year, and 50-year average-recurrence intervals. A regional analysis of the flood characteristics by multiple-regression methods gave a set of equations that can be used to estimate floods of selected recurrence intervals up to 50 years for any site on any stream in Alaska. The equations relate floods to drainage-basin characteristics. The study indicates that in Alaska the 50-year flood can be estimated from 10-year gaging- station records with a standard error of 22 percent whereas the 50-year flood can be estimated from the regression equation with a standard error of 53 percent. Also, maximum known floods at more than 500 gaging stations and miscellaneous sites in Alaska were related to drainage-area size. An envelope curve of 500 cubic feet per second per square mile covered all but 2 floods in the State.

Childers, J.M.

1970-01-01

186

European Flood Awareness System - now operational  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Commission's Communication "Towards a Stronger European Union Disaster Response" adopted and endorsed by the Council in 2010, underpins the importance of strengthening concerted actions for natural disasters including floods, which are amongst the costliest natural disasters in the EU. The European Flood Awareness System (EFAS) contributes in the case of major flood events. to better protection of the European Citizen, the environment, property and cultural heritage. The disastrous floods in Elbe and Danube rivers in 2002 confronted the European Commission with non-coherent flood warning information from different sources and of variable quality, complicating planning and organisation of aid. Thus, the Commission initiated the development of a European Flood Awareness System (EFAS) which is now going operational. EFAS has been developed and tested at the Joint Research Centre, the Commission's in house science service, in close collaboration with the National hydrological and meteorological services, European Civil Protection through the Monitoring and Information Centre (MIC) and other research institutes. EFAS provides Pan-European overview maps of flood probabilities up to 10 days in advance as well as detailed forecasts at stations where the National services are providing real time data. More than 30 hydrological services and civil protection services in Europe are part of the EFAS network. Since 2011, EFAS is part of the COPERNICUS Emergency Management Service, (EMS) and is now an operational service since 2012. The Operational EFAS is being executed by several consortia dealing with different operational aspects: • EFAS Hydrological data collection centre —REDIAM and ELIMCO- will be collecting historic and realtime discharge and water levels data in support to EFAS • EFAS Meteorological data collection centre —outsourced but running onsite of JRC Ispra. Will be collecting historic and realtime meteorological data in support to EFAS • EFAS Computational centre - European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts - will be running the forecasts, post-processing and operating the EFAS-Information System platform • EFAS Dissemination centre—Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute and Rijkswaterstaat Waterdienst (the Netherlands)—analyse the results on a daily basis, assess the situation, and disseminate information to the EFAS partners The European Commission is responsible for contract management. The Joint Research Centre further provides support for EFAS through research and development. Aims of EFAS operational • added value early flood forecasting products to hydrological services • unique overview products of ongoing and forecast floods in Europe more than 3 days in advance • create a European network of operational hydrological services

Alionte Eklund, Cristina.; Hazlinger, Michal; Sprokkereef, Eric; Garcia Padilla, Mercedes; Garcia, Rafael J.; Thielen, Jutta; Salamon, Peter; Pappenberger, Florian

2013-04-01

187

33 CFR 203.50 - Nonstructural alternatives to rehabilitation of flood control works.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...nonstructural project area. (7) Nonstructural...anywhere within the formerly protected area of the flood control...excavated material disposal areas necessary for the project...restrictions placed on formerly protected lands that would...

2010-07-01

188

2011 Spring Flood  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Left to Right: Bill Stiles, Dan Kroes USGS Hydrologist Dan Kroes shows Congressional staffers the difference in turbidity levels of the water in Bayou Sorrel. As the record flood waters of the 2011 flood inundate the Atchafalaya Basin, they begin to flush out the stagnant swamp water, or

189

Discover Floods Educators Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Now available as a Download! This valuable resource helps educators teach students about both the risks and benefits of flooding through a series of engaging, hands-on activities. Acknowledging the different roles that floods play in both natural and urban communities, the book helps young people gain a global understanding of this common--and…

Project WET Foundation, 2009

2009-01-01

190

Total flavonoid of Litsea coreana leve exerts anti-oxidative effects and alleviates focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury  

PubMed Central

In this study, we hypothesized that total flavonoid of Litsea coreana leve (TFLC) protects against focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. TFLC (25, 50, 100 mg/kg) was administered orally to a rat model of focal ischemia/reperfusion injury, while the free radical scavenging agent, edaravone, was used as a positive control drug. Results of neurological deficit scoring, 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining, hematoxylin-eosin staining and biochemical tests showed that TFLC at different doses significantly alleviated cerebral ischemia-induced neurological deficits and histopathological changes, and reduced infarct volume. Moreover, it suppressed the increase in the levels of nitrates plus nitrites, malondialdehyde and lactate dehydrogenase, and it diminished the reduction in gluta-thione, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in-jury. Compared with edaravone, the protective effects of TFLC at low and medium doses (25, 50 mg/kg) against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury were weaker, while the protective effects at high dose (100 mg/kg) were similar. Our experimental findings suggest that TFLC exerts neuroprotective effects against focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats, and that the effects may be asso-ciated with its antioxidant activities. PMID:25206640

Dong, Shuying; Tong, Xuhui; Li, Jun; Huang, Cheng; Hu, Chengmu; Jiao, Hao; Gu, Yuchen

2013-01-01

191

Root Development of Salix purpurea L. on Heavily Compacted Levee Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of woody vegetation on levee stability is discussed controversially. On the one hand woody plants improve slope stability, prevent erosion failures and may aid in levee stability. On the other hand it is believed that woody vegetation has negative impacts which are largely related to the rooting system. Hence, root penetration can facilitate water movement - seepage or piping - as well as living and decaying roots can lead to voids and threaten the structural integrity of levees. In general root architecture is known for many plant species, but specific root characteristics and their interaction with soils are influenced by many factors, and therefore poorly understood. Consequently the current research investigates the rooting performance of woody vegetation by singling out a special type of vegetation which is often used within soil bioengineering techniques at river embankments. This vegetation type is a dense stand of shrubby willows (Salix purpurea L.), implemented with brush mattresses. The data is collected from a test site constructed in 2007, 5 km northeast of Vienna, Austria. Part of the test site is a research levee built true to natural scale. The fill material of the levee is a mineral silt-sand-gravel compound classified as silty sand, which was compacted to a dry density of 1.86 g/cm3. The planting of vegetation was applied directly to the compacted levee body using only a thin layer (2-4 cm) of humus topsoil. In 2009 the studies were supplemented with a lysimeter-like setup consisting of a total of 20 containers. The lysimeters were filled homogenously with the same soil as the levees and were consolidated to the same degree of compaction. They were planted similar to the research levees. Within the investigations a comprehensive annual vegetation monitoring program was carried out. Measured aboveground parameters were shoot diameter, shoot length, biomass and leaf area index (LAI). Monitored rooting parameters - examined by excavation - were rooting depth and root mass, complemented with several further rooting parameters obtained from the lysimeters and analyzed by WinRhizo. The proposed contribution will present the results of the vegetation monitoring program. Gained results will be discussed with reference to levee stability.

Lammeranner, W.

2012-04-01

192

A Hybrid Model for Leveed Lava Flows: Implications for Eruption Styles on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many cehannelized lava flows on the plains of Mars have substantial embanking margins and levees inferred to have been stationary while the central channel was active. Levee formation can be attributed to two end-member processes during emplacement; construction during passage of the flow front and growth along the entire length of the flow while it is active. It is shown here that the amount of lava that can be deposited by the flow front alone is limited. Estimates of the levee volume for many Mars plains flows exceed this limit and must have formed by processes that continued after the passage of the front. Experimental studies of analogous laboratory flows also indicate a combination of both modes of emplacement. A model that combines both modes of levee formation. is presented, including a method for estimating volumetric flow rate, eruption duration, and viscosity. Six lava flows on the plains of the Tharsis volcanic province are used as illustrative examples. Crustal thicknesses for the six flows examined range from 9 to 23 m. Estimated emplacement times required to cool crusts of these thicknesses range from I year to 10 years. Correspondini viscosities are on the order of 10 5-106 Pa s. Effusion rates range from 25 to 840 m 3 s - and are all within the range of terrestrial observations. Therefore, the large leveed plains flows on Mars are not dramatically different in eruption rate or lava viscosity from large terrestrial analogs.

Glaze, Lori S.; Baloga, Stephen M.; Garry, W. Brent; Fagents, Sarah A.; Parcheta, Carolyn

2009-01-01

193

44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...be placed on the effects of wave attack and overtopping on the...result of either currents or waves, and that anticipated erosion...areas); expected wind and wave action; ice loading; impact...devices or mechanical systems for internal drainage, whether...

2012-10-01

194

44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...be placed on the effects of wave attack and overtopping on the...result of either currents or waves, and that anticipated erosion...areas); expected wind and wave action; ice loading; impact...devices or mechanical systems for internal drainage, whether...

2013-10-01

195

44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.  

...be placed on the effects of wave attack and overtopping on the...result of either currents or waves, and that anticipated erosion...areas); expected wind and wave action; ice loading; impact...devices or mechanical systems for internal drainage, whether...

2014-10-01

196

44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...be placed on the effects of wave attack and overtopping on the...result of either currents or waves, and that anticipated erosion...areas); expected wind and wave action; ice loading; impact...devices or mechanical systems for internal drainage, whether...

2011-10-01

197

76 FR 16722 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...following flooding sources: Deener Creek, Gum Creek Flooding Effects, Little Red River...include the following flooding sources: Gum Creek Flooding Effects, Little Red River...upstream of the Rocky Branch confluence. Gum Creek Flooding...

2011-03-25

198

Geophysical characterization of the Lollie Levee near Conway, Arkansas, using capacitively coupled resistivity, coring, and direct push logging  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A geophysical characterization of Lollie Levee near Conway, Arkansas, was conducted in February 2011. A capacitively coupled resistivity survey (using Geometric's OhmMapper) was completed along the top and toe of the 6.7-mile levee. Two-dimensional inversions were conducted on the geophysical data. As a quality-control measure, cores and direct push logs were taken at approximately 1-mile intervals along the levee. The capacitively coupled resistivity survey, the coring, and the direct push logs were used to characterize the geologic materials. Comparison of the cores and the direct push log data, along with published resistivity values, indicates that resistivity values of 200 Ohm-meters or greater represent relatively clean sand, with decreasing resistivity values occurring with increasing silt and clay content. The cores indicated that the levee is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of sand, silt, and clay. The capacitively coupled resistivity sections confirm that the levee is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of high and low resistivity materials and show that the composition of the levee varies spatially. The geologic materials underlying the levee vary spatially as a result of the geologic processes that deposited them. In general, the naturally deposited geologic materials underlying the levee contain a greater amount of low resistivity materials in the southern extent of the levee.

Gillip, Jonathan A.; Payne, Jason D.

2011-01-01

199

Climate change and non-stationary flood risk for the upper Truckee River basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future flood frequency for the upper Truckee River basin (UTRB) is assessed using non-stationary extreme value models and design-life risk methodology. Historical floods are simulated at two UTRB gauge locations, Farad and Reno, using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model and non-stationary Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) models. The non-stationary GEV models are fit to the cool season (November-April) monthly maximum flows using historical monthly precipitation totals and average temperature. Future cool season flood distributions are subsequently calculated using downscaled projections of precipitation and temperature from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP-5) archive. The resulting exceedance probabilities are combined to calculate the probability of a flood of a given magnitude occurring over a specific time period (referred to as flood risk) using recent developments in design-life risk methodologies. This paper provides the first end-to-end analysis using non-stationary GEV methods coupled with contemporary downscaled climate projections to demonstrate the evolution of a flood risk profile over typical design life periods of existing infrastructure that are vulnerable to flooding (e.g., dams, levees, bridges and sewers). Results show that flood risk increases significantly over the analysis period (from 1950 through 2099). This highlights the potential to underestimate flood risk using traditional methodologies that do not account for time-varying risk. Although model parameters for the non-stationary method are sensitive to small changes in input parameters, analysis shows that the changes in risk over time are robust. Overall, flood risk at both locations (Farad and Reno) is projected to increase 10-20% between the historical period 1950 to 1999 and the future period 2000 to 2050 and 30-50% between the same historical period and a future period of 2050 to 2099.

Condon, L. E.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Pruitt, T.

2015-01-01

200

Flood resilience technology, systems and toolls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years there has been a general acceptance that the risk from flooding is increasing, primarily due to increased urbanization and the impact of climate change (Zevenbergen et al, 2010). Flood resilience technology (FRe T) is a term used to describe a collection of technologies, materials and products that are used to protect and allow recovery of buildings, communities and infrastructure from flooding. River or coastal flooding is the focus of the legislation, regulation and guidance that is intended to control development and ensure the risk to new properties is low. However, the cost of building and maintaining primary flood defense systems for rivers and coasts is becoming prohibitive and as such future flood management needs to consider a range of measures to manage risk, in particular improving the resilience of buildings, infrastructure and communities. Surface water flooding is now known to cause as much damage as coastal and riverine flooding combined and is as likely to be experienced by both existing and new developments. Therefore FRe T solutions need to be adaptable and flexible. Previous research has shown that barriers exist to the acceptance and use of FRe T by a range of stakeholders. This includes the need to deploy household level items in time, the uncertainty over the performance of FRe T in actual flood situations or reluctance to adopt new or unknown solutions. Investment by public authorities in FRe Technology in recent years has typically increased in countries such as the UK. However, there has been to date little consideration of the system within which the technology has been employed and there is a lack of tools to assist decision makers. The SMARTeST project (an EU FP7 research project) is addressing the issues involved in FRe technology implementation. The findings of the research will be presented, including case studies where the integrated approaches of technology, systems and tools have been considered. SMARTeST seeks to create an environment for innovation in FRe technology, using new approaches that will reduce the risks involved in function, deployment, performance. The paper will describe how alliances of manufacturers, test houses and research organizations can bring about innovation. (Reference; Zevenbergen C, et al, C22 Book, Urban Flood Management, 2010)

Garvin, S.; Kelly, D.

2012-04-01

201

Sedimentary record of Warta river floods in summer 2010 and winter 2011 nearby Poznan, W Poland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Warta River valley nearby Pozna? (W Poland) represents a meandering lowland river changed during the last 150 years by hydro-engineering works. Floods represent a major natural hazard in the region. However, historical records are not complete - particularly for former rural areas. Thus, sedimentary record may potentially offer additional insights into the flooding history. The big floods in the summer 2010 (the largest during the last 31 years) and winter 2011 offered opportunity to study their sedimentary record. The particular purposes were to identify sedimentary characteristics of summer and winter floods, interpret various phases of particular floods in the record, and assess impact of early post-depositional changes of the flood deposits. The surveys were conducted in six areas just after the floods and were repeated after several months, one and two years. The deposits spatial extent, thickness, surface bedforms and sediment type were assessed in the field. Sediment samples were further investigated for grain size distribution, organic matter content, roundness and sand grains surface features (SEM). The sandy flood deposits mostly build natural levee, side bars (<5 m from the channel bank) or crevasse splays (<40 m). They were up to 10-15 cm thick for the summer and 30-35 cm for the winter flood. The sands were mostly fine grained, well sorted and fine skewed. Their structures were massive with rare cases of climbing ripple lamination and planar cross laminations (only in crevasse splays). Vertical grain size changes in levee deposits revealed pensymmetric and/or reverse grading interpreted as effect of changing velocity during the rising water level. The sand grains were similar to the river channel sands and dominated by polished and sub-rounded quartz grains with preserved dissolution and dulled surface microfeatures. Further from the channel bank (few to few hundreds of meters) only discontinuous up to few mm thick organic rich mud layer was left, which after the summer flood was covered by algal mats. However the mud and mats were quickly reworked by new vegetation. The follow up surveys revealed that the preservation potential of flood deposits is low to moderate (only for sandy deposits). The studied cases proved that in the engineered river channels the major record of floods may be preserved in the levees next to river channel, but not on the flooding terraces. The record of winter flood is composed of slightly coarser and thicker deposits, and it may be due to bigger capacity of sediment transport by the colder water and lower surface friction due to reduced plant cover. The vertical grain size distribution changes may be interpreted in terms of duration and variations during the particular floods. The study was supported by National Science Centre grant No. NN 304 105240.

Skolasi?ska, Katarzyna; Szczuci?ski, Witold; Mitr?ga, Marta; Rotnicka, Joanna; Jagodzi?ski, Robert; Lorenc, Stanis?aw

2013-04-01

202

Laboratory Modeling of Self-Formed Leveed Channels From Sediment-Laden Flows Entering Still Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-formed leveed channels constructed by deposition of suspended sediment from sediment-laden flows entering still water are common features in nature. Such channels drive delta progradation, develop at tidal inlets and occur where mainstem river flows empty into oxbows and blocked valley lakes. Presently there is no theory for the formation of such channels. This lack of theory is partly due to a lack of field or laboratory studies that provide insight about the mechanism controlling these self-formed, propagating channels. The creation of such features in the laboratory, have proved illusive to date. Our ongoing experiments aimed at modeling the formation of floodplain tie channels provide insight into the necessary conditions for levee formation and channel growth. Under conditions of steady water discharge, constant sediment feed rate, unimodal sediment distribution and invariant basin stage we are able to create subaqueous lateral bars (submerged levees) along the margins of a sediment laden jet. Our results highlight the sensitivity of channel formation to issues of scaling and experimental design. In the laboratory, levee formation has only been possible with the use of plastic particles (specific gravity ~1.5); complete bed alluviation and dune formation results from the use of particles with specific gravities of ~ 2.65 across a range grain diameters and shapes. We hypothesize this effect is related to high entrainment thresholds relative to suspension thresholds of small (< 100 mm) natural particles under conditions of reduced turbulence in laboratory scaled flows. Additionally, both the width to depth ratio and the form of the outlet channel introducing the sediment laden flow into the experimental basin exert a strong control on sedimentation pattern and levee growth. Continuing experiments are focused on generating emergent channel levees and a basin ward propagation of the channel by adjusting the form of the feed channel, varying basin stage, and the use of unsteady discharge.

Rowland, J. C.; Dietrich, W. E.

2004-12-01

203

Nogales flood detention study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flooding in Ambos Nogales often exceeds the capacity of the channel and adjacent land areas, endangering many people. The Nogales Wash is being studied to prevent future flood disasters and detention features are being installed in tributaries of the wash. This paper describes the application of the KINEROS2 model and efforts to understand the capacity of these detention features under various flood and urbanization scenarios. Results depict a reduction in peak flow for the 10-year, 1-hour event based on current land use in tributaries with detention features. However, model results also demonstrate that larger storm events and increasing urbanization will put a strain on the features and limit their effectiveness.

Norman, Laura M.; Levick, Lainie; Guertin, D. Phillip; Callegary, James; Guadarrama, Jesus Quintanar; Anaya, Claudia Zulema Gil; Prichard, Andrea; Gray, Floyd; Castellanos, Edgar; Tepezano, Edgar; Huth, Hans; Vandervoet, Prescott; Rodriguez, Saul; Nunez, Jose; Atwood, Donald; Granillo, Gilberto Patricio Olivero; Ceballos, Francisco Octavio Gastellum

2010-01-01

204

Flood: Farming and Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Farmers and rivers have a close, though not always friendly, relationship with one another. Rivers can create prized farmland, but they also flood fields and the communities built alongside them. Farming practices may also contribute to an increase in the magnitude and intensity of river flooding. This video segment explains the issue of flooding as seen in the Mississippi River watershed and suggests possible solutions. The segment is four minutes thirty-eight seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

205

Global Floods 1985�2006  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An animated GIF map of major flood events around the world from 1985-2006. Floods are overlaid on a world map, shown as numbered red areas representing the areas the floods affected. Only major floods reported by news services are included in the map.

Observatory, Dartmouth F.; College, Dartmouth

206

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM PAROO RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the PAROO RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Paroo River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

Greenslade, Diana

207

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM NOOSA RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the NOOSA RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Noosa River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

Greenslade, Diana

208

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BARRON RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BARRON RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Barron River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

Greenslade, Diana

209

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM NORMAN RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the NORMAN RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Norman River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

Greenslade, Diana

210

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BULLOO RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BULLOO RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Bulloo River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

Greenslade, Diana

211

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM NERANG RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the NERANG RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Nerang River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

Greenslade, Diana

212

Dartmouth Flood Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Dartmouth Flood Observatory performs research and collects data on the space-based measurement of surface water "for research, educational, and humanitarian applications." On their homepage visitors are presented with a global map of current flooding, complemented by links to data sets related to historic flood levels from 1985 to the present. Visitors can also click on the "Active Archive of Large Floods" section for additional materials, such as an animation that depicts these mega-events. Moving on, the site also includes a link to the "Space-based Atlas of the Earth's Changing Surface Water". Here visitors can look over sample regional maps, and also look at detailed maps of the Mekong Basin from 2000 to 2006. The site is rounded out with some information about current staff members and a list of their publications.

213

Big Thompson River Flooding  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The USGS Big Thompson River at Loveland streamgage, pictured here, was damaged during the September 2013 Colorado flood event. USGS crews installed a temporary streamgage nearby to compensate for the lag in data....

214

Japan: Tsunami Flooding  

... article title:  Lingering Floods from Tohoku-oki Earthquake Tsunami     View Larger Image The March 11, 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake triggered a deadly and destructive tsunami whose impacts were felt ...

2013-04-16

215

Flood Frequency Analysis: International Edition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Flood frequency analysis uses historical flow records to both estimate the frequency with which floods of a certain magnitude may occur and predict the possible flood magnitude over a certain time period. This module offers a thorough introduction to appropriately constructing the necessary historical data series, calculating the flooding probabilities, and gauging the reliability of the resulting probability values. Methods for assessing flood frequency in basins with limited data are also discussed.

Comet

2010-08-31

216

Ice Age Floods Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Describes Ice Age glaciers and immense floods of glacial meltwater that swept across the Pacific Northwest (18,000-12,000 years ago and earlier), affecting the landscape from Montana to Washington and Oregon, sculpting the Columbia River Basin, and creating glacial lakes to rival the today's Great Lakes. This non-profit institute promotes scientific education about the floods, their causes and impacts. Proposes an interpretive geologic trail linking significant sites.

217

New Orleans Flooding Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation, based on radar topography data captured from the space shuttle, illustrates the vulnerability of New Orleans to flooding. The animation shows the effect of flood ranging from 0 to 9 meters in height, and which portions of the city would be submerged. The animation, which predates Hurricane Katrina, is available as a QuickTime file. Stills are also available in a variety of formats.

NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission

218

National Flood Insurance Program: Flood Hazard Mapping  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has created this helpful set of resources for policymakers, elected officials, journalists, and members of the general public who would like to know more about the world of flood hazard mapping. On this site, visitors can find a host of resources and over a dozen thematic links, such as Coastal Projects, Change My Flood Zone Designation, and User Groups. Each link is preceded by a brief introduction to the resource, along with a description of the various items within each link. Visitors shouldn't miss the Online Tutorials offered here, as they include several multimedia instructional resources designed to provide in-depth training on different facets on these programs.

219

Channel, floodplain, and wetland responses to floods and overbank sedimentation, 1846-2006, Halfway Creek Marsh, Upper Mississippi Valley, Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Conversion of upland forest and prairie vegetation to agricultural land uses, following Euro-American settlement in the Upper Mississippi River System, led to accelerated runoff and soil erosion that subsequently transformed channels, floodplains, and wetlands on bottomlands. Halfway Creek Marsh, at the junction of Halfway Creek and the Mississippi River on Wisconsin's western border, is representative of such historical transformation. This marsh became the focus of a 2005-2006 investigation by scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, the University of Wisconsin- Madison, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, who used an understanding of the historical transformation to help managers identify possible restoration alternatives for Halfway Creek Marsh. Field-scale topographic surveys and sediment cores provided data for reconstructing patterns and rates of historical overbank sedimentation in the marsh. Information culled from historical maps, aerial photographs, General Land Offi ce Survey notes, and other historical documents helped establish the timing of anthropogenic disturbances and document changes in channel patterns. Major human disturbances, in addition to agricultural land uses, included railroad and road building, construction of artifi cial levees, drainage alterations, and repeated dam failures associated with large floods. A volume of approximately 1,400,000 m3, involving up to 2 m of sandy historical overbank deposition, is stored through the upper and lower marshes and along the adjacent margins of Halfway Creek and its principal tributary, Sand Lake Coulee. The estimated overbank sedimentation rate for the entire marsh is ??3,000 m3 yr-1 for the recent period 1994-2006. In spite of reduced surface runoff and soil erosion in recent years, this recent sedimentation rate still exceeds by ??4 times the early settlement (1846-1885) rate of 700 m3 yr-1, when anthropogenic acceleration of upland surface runoff and soil erosion was beginning. The highest rate of historical bottomland sedimentation occurred from 1919 to 1936, when the estimated overbank sedimentation rate was 20,400 m3 yr- 1. This rate exceeded by nearly 30 times the 1846-1886 rate. Artifi cial levees were constructed along the upper reach of Halfway Creek in the marsh during the early twentieth century to restrict fl ooding on the adjacent bottomlands. Anomalously high overbank sedimentation rates subsequently occurred on the fl oodplain between the levees, which also facilitated more effi cient transport of sediment into the lower marsh bottomland. Although overbank sedimentation rates dropped after 1936, corresponding to the widespread adoption of soil-conservation and agricultural best-management practices, the continuation of anomalously high overbank sedimentation between the levees led to increased bank heights and development of a relatively deep channel. The deep cross-section morphology is commonly mistaken as evidence of channel incision; however, this morphology actually resulted from excessive overbank sedimentation. The historical metamorphosis of the Halfway Creek channel and riparian wetlands underscores the importance of understanding the long-term history of channel and fl oodplain evolution when restoration of channels and riparian wetlands are under consideration. Sedimentation patterns and channel morphology for Halfway Creek Marsh probably are representative of other anthropogenically altered riparian wetlands in the Upper Mississippi River System and similar landscapes elsewhere.

Fitzpatrick, F.A.; Knox, J.C.; Schubauer-Berigan, J. P.

2009-01-01

220

An assessment of derived flood frequency distributions  

E-print Network

Flood Frequency Curve - Turtle Creek. . . FIG. 9. Statistical Flood Frequency Curve - Halls Bayou . . . . . . 51 . . . 51 FIG. 10. Derived Flood Frequency Curves ? South Rocky Creek. . . . . . 53 FIG. 11. Derived Flood Frequency Curves - Briar Creek... . . FIG. 12, Derived Flood Frequency Curves - Turtle Creek. . . FIG. 13. Derived Flood Frequency Curves - Halls Bayou. . . . . . . . . . . . . . FIG. 14. Simulation Flood Frequency Curve ? South Rocky Creek. . . . . . 54 . . . 56 FIG. 15. Simulation...

Raines, Timothy Howard

1991-01-01

221

Estimating magnitude and frequency of floods using the PeakFQ 7.0 program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flood-frequency analysis provides information about the magnitude and frequency of flood discharges based on records of annual maximum instantaneous peak discharges collected at streamgages. The information is essential for defining flood-hazard areas, for managing floodplains, and for designing bridges, culverts, dams, levees, and other flood-control structures. Bulletin 17B (B17B) of the Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data (IACWD; 1982) codifies the standard methodology for conducting flood-frequency studies in the United States. B17B specifies that annual peak-flow data are to be fit to a log-Pearson Type III distribution. Specific methods are also prescribed for improving skew estimates using regional skew information, tests for high and low outliers, adjustments for low outliers and zero flows, and procedures for incorporating historical flood information. The authors of B17B identified various needs for methodological improvement and recommended additional study. In response to these needs, the Advisory Committee on Water Information (ACWI, successor to IACWD; http://acwi.gov/, Subcommittee on Hydrology (SOH), Hydrologic Frequency Analysis Work Group (HFAWG), has recommended modest changes to B17B. These changes include adoption of a generalized method-of-moments estimator denoted the Expected Moments Algorithm (EMA) (Cohn and others, 1997) and a generalized version of the Grubbs-Beck test for low outliers (Cohn and others, 2013). The SOH requested that the USGS implement these changes in a user-friendly, publicly accessible program.

Veilleux, Andrea G.; Cohn, Timothy A.; Flynn, Kathleen M.; Mason, Robert R.; Hummel, Paul R.

2014-01-01

222

Koaping River Flood Simulation due to Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Koaping River suffered huge damages from the Typhoon Morakot in 2009 and Typhoon Fanapi in 2010. Climate change will bring huge impacts to nations all over the world. Those impacts including the followings: change in biosphere, long-duration drought, large floods trigger by extreme torrential rain, spatial change in homelands, and food scarcity. The extreme weather induced by climate change is the most direct factor influencing the floods, e.g. the extreme rainfall increases discharge and inundation area, sea level and estuary water level raising induce overbank floods, and land-use abuse and land-slides trigger high concentration of sediment discharge and river bed aggradations. This study aims at the settings of hydrological scenarios due to climate change, evaluation of hydraulic structures (e.g. levees), vulnerability and risk analysis, and adaption strategy and practices. The study area is focused on Kaoping River Basin. First, the hydrological scenarios due to climate change are set. Secondly, based on those scenarios, the hydraulic structures are evaluated. Thirdly, the vulnerability and risk analysis are performed. Last, adaption strategy and action plans are proposed by referencing to actions taken by the Netherlands, Japan, Korea, and USA for improving the capacity of the hydraulic structures of Kaoping River.

Lin, Y. J.; Ma, K. C.; Tan, Y. C.; Chang, T. J.; Lai, J. S.

2012-04-01

223

Microhabitat use by Hyla japonica and Pelophylax porosa brevipoda at Levees in rice paddy areas of Japan.  

PubMed

In Japan, rice paddies have acted as substitute habitats for pond-breeding frogs. However, frog populations are declining due to the loss of habitat and environmental changes in rice paddy areas. Frogs need both aquatic and terrestrial habitats to complete their life history; in rice paddy areas, levees that surround rice paddies provide terrestrial habitats for basking, foraging, and shelter from predators. Studying microhabitat use at levees is important to elucidating the ecological roles of levees and to properly managing them to support frog populations. In this study, we conducted surveys in lowland modernized rice paddy areas in Shiga Prefecture in which a common species, Hyla japonica, and an endangered species, Pelophylax porosa brevipoda, were found. We captured frogs at levees and recorded environmental factors related to levee vegetation, rice paddy conditions, and weather. We constructed generalized linear mixed models to examine the effects of environmental factors on juvenile and adult H. japonica and on small and large juveniles, females, and males of P. p. brevipoda. Our results showed distinct microhabitat uses at levees in different species, sexes, and body sizes. In general, abundance was high at levees with vegetation that provided shelter. The water depth in rice paddies negatively influenced juvenile H. japonica and large juvenile and small female P. p. brevipoda, and positively influenced small male P. p. brevipoda. The maintenance of a mosaic structure of levees was important not only to support frog populations but also to maintain frog diversity in the area. PMID:23646944

Naito, Risa; Sakai, Masaru; Natuhara, Yosihiro; Morimoto, Yukihiro; Shibata, Shozo

2013-05-01

224

Uncertainty and sensitivity assessment of flood risk assessments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floods are one of the most frequent and costly natural disasters. In order to protect human lifes and valuable assets from the effect of floods many defensive structures have been build. Despite these efforts economic losses due to catastrophic flood events have, however, risen substantially during the past couple of decades because of continuing economic developments in flood prone areas. On top of that, climate change is expected to affect the magnitude and frequency of flood events. Because these ongoing trends are expected to continue, a transition can be observed in various countries to move from a protective flood management approach to a more risk based flood management approach. In a risk based approach, flood risk assessments play an important role in supporting decision making. Most flood risk assessments assess flood risks in monetary terms (damage estimated for specific situations or expected annual damage) in order to feed cost-benefit analysis of management measures. Such flood risk assessments contain, however, considerable uncertainties. This is the result from uncertainties in the many different input parameters propagating through the risk assessment and accumulating in the final estimate. Whilst common in some other disciplines, as with integrated assessment models, full uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of flood risk assessments are not so common. Various studies have addressed uncertainties regarding flood risk assessments, but have mainly focussed on the hydrological conditions. However, uncertainties in other components of the risk assessment, like the relation between water depth and monetary damage, can be substantial as well. This research therefore tries to assess the uncertainties of all components of monetary flood risk assessments, using a Monte Carlo based approach. Furthermore, the total uncertainty will also be attributed to the different input parameters using a variance based sensitivity analysis. Assessing and visualizing the uncertainties of the final risk estimate will be helpful to decision makers to make better informed decisions and attributing this uncertainty to the input parameters helps to identify which parameters are most important when it comes to uncertainty in the final estimate and should therefore deserve additional attention in further research.

de Moel, H.; Aerts, J. C.

2009-12-01

225

A comparison of large 18th-century floods on Danube: Vienna - Bratislava - Budapest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The documentation of historic floods can help in better understanding of factors that might cause and contribute to large and extreme flood events. In particular, the analysis of historic floods provides information about flood seasonality, its changes and anthropogenic impacts on river flood regime which in some cases strongly influenced flood behaviour. The main objective of the present contribution is to document large and medium size flood events on Danube in Vienna, Bratislava and Budapest in the 18th century. In the present study, based on contemporary documentary evidence, for each of the three towns a five-scaled flood index series is developed to describe the magnitude and intensity of flood events. According to this classification, the 100-year flood event was characterised by the index value 5, while great destructive floods - depending on their extension, destructivity and further impacts - received the values 4 and 3, respectively. Less significant but still harmful flood events were classified as No. 2, and floods without further specification remained in the lowest category (No. 1). Beside classification issues, seasonality and flood frequency differences between the three towns are as well discussed. The results indicate that a greater number of flood events took place in the last decades of the century, but only a few flood events of the same magnitude are documented simultaneously in all three towns. And whereas in 1775 no winter flood event was reported in Vienna, an important ice jam flood was documented in Bratislava, and a catastrophic ice jam flood event, greatest of the century, occurred in Budapest. In 1787 autumn the greatest flood event of the century occurred in Vienna, while hardly any flood waves were observed at Budapest. While in Vienna, summer (and partly autumn) floods had great importance, in Budapest a large number of ice jam floods were documented. In some cases the differences are likely caused by different hydrometeorological and morphological conditions, but the importance of human impact (e.g. different types and levels of flood protection in the towns, large-scale changes of land use in the catchment area) have to be as well emphasised.

Kiss, Andrea; Parajka, Juraj

2013-04-01

226

The use of seismic tomograms for the identification of internal problems with earthen dams and levees  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

According to the National Inventory of dams (NID, 2009), out of the 84,134 dams in the US, more than 87% (73,423) are earthen dams. The majority of these earthen dams are past or approaching their design life expectancy of 50 years. According to the National committee on Levee Safety (NCLS, 2009),...

227

Effect of water currents on food capture in corals Grade LeveL  

E-print Network

Seamount Habitat Deep-water coral Hard coral Soft coral Zooxanthellae Microhabitat Polyp Nematocysts bac1 Focus Effect of water currents on food capture in corals Grade LeveL 9-12 (Life Science) Focus Question How do water currents affect the food capture by particle feeders? LearninG objectives Students

228

PRELIMINARY DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR EPS-BLOCK GEOFOAM LIGHTWEIGHT FILL IN LEVEES OVERLYING  

E-print Network

PRELIMINARY DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR EPS-BLOCK GEOFOAM LIGHTWEIGHT FILL IN LEVEES OVERLYING SOFT GROUND Final Paper Submitted July 28, 2010 #12;1 PRELIMINARY DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR EPS-BLOCK GEOFOAM LIGHTWEIGHT the load applied to the soft foundation soils. The use of expanded-polystyrene (EPS)-block geofoam

Horvath, John S.

229

Argentine, East Bottoms, Fairfax-Jersey Creek, and North Kansan City Levee Units  

E-print Network

and Tributaries at Kansas Cities, Missouri and Kansas 20 September 2006 Abstract: The Missouri River Rivers. The levee units are located in two states, Kansas and Missouri, and encompass several city over the lower 10 miles of the Kansas River and on the Missouri River from 6.5 miles upstream to 12

US Army Corps of Engineers

230

Numerical modeling of self-channeling granular flows and of their levee-channel deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

When not laterally confined in valleys, pyroclastic flows create their own channel along the slope by selecting a given flowing width. Furthermore, the lobe-shaped deposits display a very specific morphology with high parallel lateral levees. A numerical model based on Saint Venant equations and the empirical variable friction coefficient proposed by Pouliquen and Forterre (2002) is used to simulate unconfined

A. Mangeney; F. Bouchut; N. Thomas; J. P. Vilotte; M. O. Bristeau

2007-01-01

231

Urban flood risk mitigation: from vulnerability assessment to resilient city  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban flood risk mitigation: from vulnerability assessment to resilient city Bruno Barroca1, Damien Serre2 1Laboratory of Urban Engineering, Environment and Building (L G U E H) - Université de Marne-la-Vallée - Pôle Ville, 5, Bd Descartes - Bâtiment Lavoisier - 77454 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2 - France 2City of Paris Engineering School, Construction - Environment Department, 15 rue Fénelon, 75010 Paris, France In France, as in Europe and more generally throughout the world, river floods have been increasing in frequency and severity over the last ten years, and there are more instances of rivers bursting their banks, aggravating the impact of the flooding of areas supposedly protected by flood defenses. Despite efforts made to well maintain the flood defense assets, we often observe flood defense failures leading to finally increase flood risk in protected area during major flood events. Furthermore, flood forecasting models, although they benefit continuous improvements, remain partly inaccurate due to uncertainties populated all along data calculation processes. These circumstances obliged stakeholders and the scientific communities to manage flood risk by integrating new concepts like stakes management, vulnerability assessments and more recently urban resilience development. Definitively, the goal is to reduce flood risk by managing of course flood defenses and improving flood forecasting models, but also stakes and vulnerability of flooded areas to achieve urban resilience face to flood events. Vulnerability to flood is essentially concentrated in urban areas. Assessing vulnerability of a city is very difficult. Indeed, urban area is a complex system composed by a sum of technical sub-systems as complex as the urban area itself. Assessing city vulnerability consists in talking into account each sub system vulnerability and integrating all direct and indirect impacts generally depending from city shape and city spatial organization. At this time, although some research activities have been undertaken, there are no specific methods and tools to assess flood vulnerability at the scale of the city. Indeed, by studying literature we can list some vulnerability indicators and a few Geographic Information System (GIS) tools. But generally indicators and GIS are not developed specifically at the city scale: often a regional scale is used. Analyzing vulnerability at this scale needs more accurate and formalized indicators and GIS tools. The second limit of existing GIS is temporal: even if vulnerability could be assessed and localized through GIS, such tools cannot assist city managers in their decision to efficiency recover after a severe flood event. Due to scale and temporal limits, methods and tools available to assess urban vulnerability need large improvements. Talking into account all these considerations and limits, our research is focusing on: • vulnerability indicators design; • recovery scenarios design; • GIS for city vulnerability assessment and recovery scenarios. Dealing with vulnerability indicators, the goal is to design a set of indicators of city sub systems. Sub systems are seen like assets of high value and complex and interdependent infrastructure networks (i.e. power supplies, communications, water, transport etc.). The infrastructure networks are critical for the continuity of economic activities as well as for the people's basic living needs. Their availability is also required for fast and effective recovery after flood disasters. The severity of flood damage therefore largely depends on the degree that both high value assets and critical urban infrastructure are affected, either directly or indirectly. To face the challenge of designing indicators, a functional model of the city system (and sub systems) has to be built to analyze the system response to flood solicitation. Then, a coherent and an efficient set of vulnerability of indicators could be built up. With such methods city stakeholders will be informed on how and how much their systems are vulnerable. It is a first level of inform

Serre, D.; Barroca, B.

2009-04-01

232

The August 2002 flood in Salzburg / Austria experience gained and lessons learned from the ``Flood of the century''?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the {12th} of August 2002 a low pressure system moved slowly from northern Italy towards Slovakia. It continuously carried moist air from the Mediterranean towards the northern rim of the Alps with the effect of wide-spread heavy rainfall in Salzburg and other parts of Austria. Daily precipitation amounts of 100 - 160 mm, in some parts even more, as well as rainfall intensities of 5 - 10 mm/h , combined with well saturated soils lead to a rare flood with a return period of 100 years and more. This rare hydrological event not only caused a national catastrophe with damages of several Billion Euro, but also endangered more than 200,000 people, and even killed some. As floods are dangerous, life-threatening, destructive, and certainly amongst the most frequent and costly natural disasters in terms of human hardship as well as economic loss, a great effort, therefore, has to be made to protect people against negative impacts of floods. In order to achieve this objective, various regulations in land use planning (flood maps), constructive measurements (river regulations and technical constructions) as well as flood warning systems, which are not suitable to prevent big floods, but offer in-time-warnings to minimize the loss of human lives, are used in Austria. HYDRIS (Hydrological Information System for flood forecasting in Salzburg), a modular river basin model, developed at Technical University Vienna and operated by the Hydrological Service of Salzburg, was used during the August 2002 flood providing accurate 3 to 4 hour forecasts within 3 % of the real peak discharge of the fast flowing River Salzach. The August {12^th}} flood was in many ways an exceptional, very fast happening event which took many people by surprise. At the gauging station Salzburg / Salzach (catchment area 4425 {km^2}) it took only eighteen hours from mean annual discharge (178 {m3/s}) to the hundred years flood (2300 {m3/s}). The August flood made clear, that there is a strong need for longer lead times in Salzburg's flood forecasts. Methods to incorporate precipitation forecasts, provided by the Met Office, as well as observations of actual soil conditions, therefore, have to be developed and should enable hydrologists to predict possible scenarios and impacts of floods, forecasted for the next 24 hours. As a further consequence of the August 2002 flood, building regulations, e.g. the use of oil tanks in flood prone areas, have to be checked and were necessary adapted. It is also necessary to make people, who already live in flood prone areas, aware of the dangers of floods. They also need to know about the limits of flood protection measurements and about what happens, if flood protection design values are exceeded. Alarm plans, dissemination of information by using modern communication systems (Internet) as well as communication failure in peak times and co-ordination of rescue units are also a subject to be looked at carefully. The above mentioned measurements are amongst others of a 10 point program, developed by the Government of the Province of Salzburg and at present checked with regards to feasibility. As it is to be expected, that the August 2002 flood was not the last rare one of this century, experience gained should be valuably for the next event.

Wiesenegger, H.

2003-04-01

233

Flood-plain areas of the Mississippi River, mile 866.8 to mile 888.0, Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Profiles of the regional flood, 500-year flood, and flood-protection elevation have been developed for a 21-mile reach of the Mississippi River. Areas flooded by the regional flood and by the 500-year flood were delineated by photogrammetric mapping techniques and are shown on seven large-scale map sheets. Over 1,300 acres of flood plain are included in the cities of Anoka, Champlin, Coon Rapids, Dayton, Ramsey and Elk River, and in unincorporated areas of Wright County. The flood-outline maps and flood profiles comprise data needed by local units of government to adopt, enforce, and administer flood-plain management regulations along the Mississippi River throughout the study reach. Streamflow data from two gaging stations provided the basis for definition of the regional and 500-year floods. Cross-section data obtained at 83 locations were used to develop a digital computer model of the river. Flood elevation and discharge data from the 1965 flood provided a basis for adjusting the computer model. Information relating the history of floods, formation of ice jams, and duration of flood elevations at Anoka and at Elk River are included. (USGS)

Carlson, George H.; Gue, Lowell C.

1980-01-01

234

Grain-size segregation and levee formation in geophysical mass flows  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data from large-scale debris-flow experiments are combined with modeling of particle-size segregation to explain the formation of lateral levees enriched in coarse grains. The experimental flows consisted of 10 m3 of water-saturated sand and gravel, which traveled ~80 m down a steeply inclined flume before forming an elongated leveed deposit 10 m long on a nearly horizontal runout surface. We measured the surface velocity field and observed the sequence of deposition by seeding tracers onto the flow surface and tracking them in video footage. Levees formed by progressive downslope accretion approximately 3.5 m behind the flow front, which advanced steadily at ~2 m s-1 during most of the runout. Segregation was measured by placing ~600 coarse tracer pebbles on the bed, which, when entrained into the flow, segregated upwards at ~6–7.5 cm s-1. When excavated from the deposit these were distributed in a horseshoe-shaped pattern that became increasingly elevated closer to the deposit termination. Although there was clear evidence for inverse grading during the flow, transect sampling revealed that the resulting leveed deposit was strongly graded laterally, with only weak vertical grading. We construct an empirical, three-dimensional velocity field resembling the experimental observations, and use this with a particle-size segregation model to predict the segregation and transport of material through the flow. We infer that coarse material segregates to the flow surface and is transported to the flow front by shear. Within the flow head, coarse material is overridden, then recirculates in spiral trajectories due to size-segregation, before being advected to the flow edges and deposited to form coarse-particle-enriched levees.

Johnson, C.G.; Kokelaar, B.P.; Iverson, R.M.; Logan, M.; LaHusen, R.G.; Gray, J.M.N.T.

2012-01-01

235

FLOOD INSURANCE Future Availability of Consumer Flood Insurance in the  

E-print Network

FLOOD INSURANCE Future Availability of Consumer Flood Insurance. There is currently a provisional solution in place, an agreement between the insurance industry and the government the government, the insurance industry and consumer advocates move forward based on the best information

Anderson, Jim

236

Probabilistic Flash Flood Forecasting using Stormscale Ensembles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flash flooding is one of the most costly and deadly natural hazards in the US and across the globe. The loss of life and property from flash floods could be mitigated with better guidance from hydrological models, but these models have limitations. For example, they are commonly initialized using rainfall estimates derived from weather radars, but the time interval between observations of heavy rainfall and a flash flood can be on the order of minutes, particularly for small basins in urban settings. Increasing the lead time for these events is critical for protecting life and property. Therefore, this study advances the use of quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs) from a stormscale NWP ensemble system into a distributed hydrological model setting to yield basin-specific, probabilistic flash flood forecasts (PFFFs). Rainfall error characteristics of the individual members are first diagnosed and quantified in terms of structure, amplitude, and location (SAL; Wernli et al., 2008). Amplitude and structure errors are readily correctable due to their diurnal nature, and the fine scales represented by the CAPS QPF members are consistent with radar-observed rainfall, mainly showing larger errors with afternoon convection. To account for the spatial uncertainty of the QPFs, we use an elliptic smoother, as in Marsh et al. (2012), to produce probabilistic QPFs (PQPFs). The elliptic smoother takes into consideration underdispersion, which is notoriously associated with stormscale ensembles, and thus, is good for targeting the approximate regions that may receive heavy rainfall. However, stormscale details contained in individual members are still needed to yield reasonable flash flood simulations. Therefore, on a case study basis, QPFs from individual members are then run through the hydrological model with their predicted structure and corrected amplitudes, but the locations of individual rainfall elements are perturbed within the PQPF elliptical regions using Monte Carlo sampling. This yields an ensemble of flash flood simulations. These simulated flows are compared to historically-based flow thresholds at each grid point to identify basin scales most susceptible to flash flooding, therefore, deriving PFFF products. This new approach is shown to: 1) identify the specific basin scales within the broader regions that are forecast to be impacted by flash flooding based on cell movement, rainfall intensity, duration, and the basin's susceptibility factors such as initial soil moisture conditions; 2) yield probabilistic information about on the forecast hydrologic response; and 3) improve lead time by using stormscale NWP ensemble forecasts.

Hardy, J.; Gourley, J. J.; Kain, J. S.; Clark, A.; Novak, D.; Hong, Y.

2013-12-01

237

Flood Risk and Flood hazard maps - Visualisation of hydrological risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrological models are an important basis of flood forecasting and early warning systems. They provide significant data on hydrological risks. In combination with other modelling techniques, such as hydrodynamic models, they can be used to assess the extent and impact of hydrological events. The new European Flood Directive forces all member states to evaluate flood risk on a catchment scale,

Karl Spachinger; Wolfgang Dorner; Rudolf Metzka; Kamal Serrhini; Sven Fuchs

2008-01-01

238

FLOOD! Emergency Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this learning module on the theme of flood emergency management. The lesson provided asks students to use Google Earth to determine the relationship between their location and flood risk. A student worksheet is provided for the activity as well as presentation slides. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item. The unit is available in a ZIP file, which contains the individual lesson items.

2012-11-27

239

Morphodynamic Scaling of Floodplain Tie Channel Levee Formation From Experimental Sediment-Laden Plane Jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tie channels are self-formed leveed channels common to many lowland floodplain systems across the globe. These channels play a critical role in linking rivers to water bodies across the active floodplain. Despite representing a significant mechanism for sediment dispersal across the floodplain and providing ecologically critical connectivity, these channels have received little study and their formation is poorly understood. The absence of a morphodynamic theory to explain tie channel formation and morphology highlights a broader gap in our understanding of the formation of all types of constructional, leveed channels. To examine the morphodynamics that lead to levee channel formation in lakes or other quiescent bodies of water we conducted scaled experiments of a turbulent, plane jet discharging into a standing body of water. Detailed velocity measurements using an acoustic doppler velocimeter (ADV) were made of a jet with outlet dimensions of 23 cm in width and 5 cm in depth and a discharge of 6.5 L/s flowing across a flat, nonerodible bed into 3 x 8 m basin of water. The hydrodynamic properties of the jet were compared to the location and morphology of levees formed by sediment with varying settling velocities under the same flow conditions. Our results show that variations in lateral diffusive transport create local convergences that, when coupled with an analysis of the local sediment resuspension by turbulent stresses, accurately predict the position of levees along the perimeter of the jet. Intense shearing along the margins of the jet leads to development of large scale turbulent structures, most evident in the meandering of the jet's high velocity core, which influence the magnitude and location of the variations in both the lateral diffusivity and turbulent stresses on the bed. Our analysis looks to quantify the relative roles of these "quasi-two dimensional" turbulent structures compared to the smaller scale three-dimensional turbulence generated by shear with the bed. A scaling for the levee width is introduced based on the lateral diffusion coefficient, the local depth and the settling velocity and is validated by the laboratory measurements.

Rowland, J. C.; Stacey, M.; Dietrich, W. E.; Venditti, J.

2006-12-01

240

Hydraulic analysis of measures for flood mitigation in floodplain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The question of possible flood control and flood mitigation measures and their effects is still challenging. While the effect of purely technical flood control measures such as dams or levees is sufficiently described by using any of widely spread or more specific models, the effectiveness of close-to-nature ones (river restoration, appropriate land use, landscape structure regeneration, etc.) is not adequately verified and quantified. On that account, the benefits and feasibility of integration of the natural potential of floodplains to absorb and transform flood wave is being discussed. In addition, there are many side benefits of close-to-nature measures which are hard to evaluate and include into decision making processes. This contribution presents a part of the study related to river and floodplain restoration and revitalization measures in catchments and their flood-control effect. In the study the possibilities of using one-dimensional (HEC-RAS) and two-dimensional hydraulic mathematical models (FAST2D, DIFEM2D) of steady and unsteady flow for estimation of transformation effects of a floodplain were compared. The comparison of used models was made with respect to computed results and also to the availability of input data, mathematical stability, processes and accuracy demands and time requirements. The above mentioned methods of hydraulic modelling were applied to three case study localities in the Czech Republic. The parts of river channels and their floodplain differ in terms of morphology, river channel form and training situation and land-use. Case study areas were selected to represent the main types of floodplains within the Czech Republic for their further classification related to flood wave transformation potential. The transformation effect is compared not only for the natural state of the floodplain, but also for various theoretical scenarios in each locality. Keywords Hydraulic modelling, flood control, floodplain, storage capacity, river restoration Acknowledgement This paper was created within the project NIVA "Water Retention in Floodplains and Ways of Increasing Water Retention" QH82078, and within Research Project No. MSM6840770002 "Revitalization of water system of the landscape and urban areas under heavy anthropogenic changes" and supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Technical University in Prague, grant No. SGS10/240/OHK1/3T/11.

Valentova, J.; Valenta, P.; Weyskrabova, L.; Dostal, T.

2012-04-01

241

Summary of floods in the United States during 1969  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The most outstanding floods in the United States during 1969 are described in chronological order. The areas most seriously affected by flooding were: Central and southern California (January and February); the upper Midwestern States of North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Iowa, Wisconsin, and Illinois (April); north-central Ohio (July); Mississippi, Alabama, and Virginia (Hurricane Camille in August); and Florida and Georgia (September). Severe floods in central and southern California were caused by three storms during January and February. At least 60 lives were lost. Homes and property were destroyed or damaged, by rainstorms, floods, and mudflows. Many floods approached or exceeded the maximum known. The severe flood damage was due partly to recent home construction in floodprone areas. The April floods in the upper Midwestern States of North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Iowa, Wisconsin, and Illinois were expected because of a large accumulation of snow containing as much as 8 inches of water. Flood-protection procedures, together with cool temperatures, had a mitigating effect on the flood. The floods were the largest since the late 1800's, and their recurrence intervals exceeded 50 years at many of the gaged sites. Estimates of flood damage were about $147 million. More than a million acres of rich agricultural land were inundated, thousands of culverts and bridges were washed out, 23,000 people were forced from their homes and 11 lives were lost in the six-State flood area. Intense rainstorms and wind with gusts as much as 100 miles per hour, July 4-5, caused record floods in north-central Ohio, July 4-8. The storm and floods left trees uprooted, more than $66 million in damage, and 41 deaths. In many places the floods were the largest of record. Together with the wind and rainstorm, the hydrologic conditions were among the most significant experienced in the area. Hurricane Camille was the most intense hurricane on record to enter the United States mainland. It struck the Mississippi-Alabama coast on August 18, with tidal waves as high as 25 feet above mean sea level and wind velocities more than 190 miles per hour. Tidal wave and flood damage was about $1.3 billion. In Mississippi the known dead totaled 139 and 76 other persons were missing. The hurricane intensity decreased as it moved inland until it merged with severe rainstorms over the Appalachian mountains. The intensified hurricane then caused record-breaking floods of streams in a 50-mile-wide area as it moved eastward from Sulphur Springs, W. Va., to Fredericksburg, Va. Total flood damage in Virginia exceeded $116 million. There were 113 known deaths, 102 injuries, and 39 people missing. A tropical storm that was nearly stationary over northwest Florida for about 48 hours, September 20-23 produced record rains and floods. Near Quincy, Fla., the total rainfall for the period exceeded 20 inches. On Little River near Quincy, the peak discharge was nearly twice the previous maximum of record and was three times that of a 50-year flood. Flood damage to agricultural lands, bridges, culverts, and roads was about $1.7 million.

Reid, J.K.; Brice, H.D.; and others

1975-01-01

242

Improvements in fast-response flood modeling: desktop parallel computing and domain tracking  

SciTech Connect

It is becoming increasingly important to have the ability to accurately forecast flooding, as flooding accounts for the most losses due to natural disasters in the world and the United States. Flood inundation modeling has been dominated by one-dimensional approaches. These models are computationally efficient and are considered by many engineers to produce reasonably accurate water surface profiles. However, because the profiles estimated in these models must be superimposed on digital elevation data to create a two-dimensional map, the result may be sensitive to the ability of the elevation data to capture relevant features (e.g. dikes/levees, roads, walls, etc...). Moreover, one-dimensional models do not explicitly represent the complex flow processes present in floodplains and urban environments and because two-dimensional models based on the shallow water equations have significantly greater ability to determine flow velocity and direction, the National Research Council (NRC) has recommended that two-dimensional models be used over one-dimensional models for flood inundation studies. This paper has shown that two-dimensional flood modeling computational time can be greatly reduced through the use of Java multithreading on multi-core computers which effectively provides a means for parallel computing on a desktop computer. In addition, this paper has shown that when desktop parallel computing is coupled with a domain tracking algorithm, significant computation time can be eliminated when computations are completed only on inundated cells. The drastic reduction in computational time shown here enhances the ability of two-dimensional flood inundation models to be used as a near-real time flood forecasting tool, engineering, design tool, or planning tool. Perhaps even of greater significance, the reduction in computation time makes the incorporation of risk and uncertainty/ensemble forecasting more feasible for flood inundation modeling (NRC 2000; Sayers et al. 2000).

Judi, David R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcpherson, Timothy N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Burian, Steven J [UNIV. OF UTAH

2009-01-01

243

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM MOONIE RIVER  

E-print Network

River during flood events. Qualitative flood forecasts are issued whenever widespread minor flood levels issue. Local response organisations Page 2 of 6 04/2014 #12;These include the Councils, Police Bulletins and other weather related data is available on the Bureau's Web page at http

Greenslade, Diana

244

Managed flood releases from reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for environmental flow releases from reservoirs is now widely recognised. However, most attention has been paid to low flow releases during dry periods. Less consideration has been given to generating floods, since floods are considered only as a natural hazard. Work funded by DFID for the World Commission on Dams has highlighted the benefits of flooding to river

M. Acreman

2003-01-01

245

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM JOHNSTONE RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the JOHNSTONE RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Johnstone River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

246

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM FLINDERS RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the FLINDERS RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Flinders River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

247

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM PROSERPINE RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the PROSERPINE RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Proserpine River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins

Greenslade, Diana

248

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM MAROOCHY RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the MAROOCHY RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Maroochy River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

249

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM GILBERT RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the GILBERT RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Gilbert River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

250

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM HERBERT RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the HERBERT RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Herbert River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

251

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM DAINTREE RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the DAINTREE RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Daintree River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

252

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM MOOLOOLAH RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the MOOLOOLAH RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Mooloolah River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

253

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BURDEKIN RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BURDEKIN RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Burdekin River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

254

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM HAUGHTON RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the HAUGHTON RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Haughton River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

255

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM LEICHHARDT RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the LEICHHARDT RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Leichhardt River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins

Greenslade, Diana

256

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BURNETT RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BURNETT RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Burnett River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

257

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM FITZROY RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the FITZROY RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Fitzroy River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

258

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM DIAMANTINA RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the DIAMANTINA RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Diamantina River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins

Greenslade, Diana

259

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM NICHOLSON RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the NICHOLSON RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Nicholson River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

260

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM WARREGO RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the WARREGO RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Warrego River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

Greenslade, Diana

261

Service Assessment Hurricane Floyd Floods  

E-print Network

Service Assessment Hurricane Floyd Floods of September 1999 mm r u, /"' r U.S.DEPARTMENTOF COMMERCE: Hurricane Floyd Floods of September 1999. Aerial view of Grifton, North Carolina, with flooding from the Neuse River. (Photograph courtesy of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.) #12;Service Assessment Hurricane

262

Flood Hazards - A National Threat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This USGS Fact Sheet (2006-3026) illustrates the national scope of the risk of flooding events in the US. The vast majority of counties have experienced at least one presidential disaster declaration related to flooding since 1965. The fact sheet examines the risks and how USGS scientists are studying floods in order to reduce future risks to the US population, property, and infrastructure.

USGS

263

Flood risk management in Italy: challenges and opportunities for the implementation of the EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Italy's recent history is punctuated with devastating flood disasters claiming high death toll and causing vast but underestimated economic, social and environmental damage. The responses to major flood and landslide disasters such as the Polesine (1951), Vajont (1963), Firenze (1966), Valtelina (1987), Piedmont (1994), Crotone (1996), Sarno (1998), Soverato (2000), and Piedmont (2000) events have contributed to shaping the country's flood risk governance. Insufficient resources and capacity, slow implementation of the (at that time) novel risk prevention and protection framework, embodied in the law 183/89 of 18 May 1989, increased the reliance on the response and recovery operations of the civil protection. As a result, the importance of the Civil Protection Mechanism and the relative body of norms and regulation developed rapidly in the 1990s. In the aftermath of the Sarno (1998) and Soverato (2000) disasters, the Department for Civil Protection (DCP) installed a network of advanced early warning and alerting centres, the cornerstones of Italy's preparedness for natural hazards and a best practice worth following. However, deep convective clouds, not uncommon in Italy, producing intense rainfall and rapidly developing localised floods still lead to considerable damage and loss of life that can only be reduced by stepping up the risk prevention efforts. The implementation of the EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC) provides an opportunity to revise the model of flood risk governance and confront the shortcomings encountered during more than 20 yr of organised flood risk management. This brief communication offers joint recommendations towards this end from three projects funded by the 2nd CRUE ERA-NET (http://www.crue-eranet.net/) Funding Initiative: FREEMAN, IMRA and URFlood.

Mysiak, J.; Testella, F.; Bonaiuto, M.; Carrus, G.; De Dominicis, S.; Ganucci Cancellieri, U.; Firus, K.; Grifoni, P.

2013-11-01

264

2011 Spring Flood  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Left to Right: George Arcement USGS Louisiana Water Science Center Director George Arcement looks out onto Lake Murphy on the East Side of the Atchafalaya Basin. During the 2011 record-setting flood, high water levels have flushed out the stagnant waters in the back bayous in the Basin, replacing t...

265

2011 Spring Flood  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Left to Right: George Arcement, Phil Turnipseed USGS Louisiana Water Science Center Director George Arcement and USGS National Wetlands Research Center Director Phil Turnipseed are coordinating USGS efforts in Louisiana to respond to the record-setting 2011 flood. Although fairly new to their posit...

266

2011 Spring Flood  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Left to Right: Dan Kroes, George Arcement, Bill Stiles USGS Louisiana Water Science Center Director George Arcement talks with Congressional staffers about USGS work monitoring the floodwaters in the Atchafalaya Basin. The 2011 flood has caused record levels of water to move through the Basin, pote...

267

2011 Spring Flood  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A USGS streamgage station lies mostly submerged. Following rising floodwaters during the 2011 flood, USGS crews removed sensitive streamgage equipment and replaced them with special, pressure-operated streamgage monitoring equipment that could survive being inundated with water. This streamgage, and...

268

Hydrologic Flood Routing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a short classroom-based BASIC program which routes stream flow through a system of channels and reservoirs. The program is suitable for analyses of open channel conveyance systems, flood detention reservoirs, and combinations of the two. (Author/JN)

Heggen, Richard J.

1982-01-01

269

Flooded Gage House  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Flooded U.S. Geological Survey gage house on the Sheyenne River near Lisbon, North Dakota, April 22, 2011.  At this time streamflow was approximately 7,450 cubic feet per second and gage height (stage) was 21.23 feet.  More information about this streamgage is available online....

270

Ground-water flow beneath levee 35A from conservation area 2B, Broward County, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Conservation Area 2B is an area of recharge for the surficial aquifer system in Broward County. Water stored in the conservation area provides the hydraulic potential for downward flow to the high permeability zone of the Biscayne aquifer. A 5.64 ft head differential (average for the period of record) between water levels in Conservation Area 2B and water levels in the adjacent levee 35A borrow canal causes water to leak into the canal at an average rate of about 0.0022 cu ft per sec per lineal foot of canal and accounts for a loss of 0.013 foot per day of surface water from Conservation Area 2B. Amounts of canal leakage and underflow are constantly changing and are dependent upon the head differential between Conservation Area 2B and the levee 35A borrow canal. (Author 's abstract)

Swayze, L.J.

1988-01-01

271

Teaching land-use planning in a flood prone area with an educational software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Teaching of flood risk mapping and mitigation is a necessary task in geosciences studies. However, there is often a gap between the theoretical hydraulic notions broached during the courses and the possibility to make use of them in practice by the students during supervised computer lab exercises. This is mainly due because professional models/software have a steep learning curve and the lecturer spend most of his time to explain how to make such or such operation with the software. To overcome this shortcoming, an educational software was developed, which is made of three main modules: 1) A user-friendly graphical interface (GUI), allowing for handling geographical data and creating thematic maps (Geographical Information System (GIS) module); 2) A flood model (hydrological and inundation models) part allowing for freeing student as much as possible from the repetitive and tedious tasks related to modeling issues, while keeping reasonable computational time; 3) A land use planning module, which allow for specifying mitigation measures (dikes and levees building, flood retention, renaturation, …) and for evaluating their effects by re-running the flood model. The main goal of this educational software is to provide a smooth approach to the modeling issue, without loosing the focus on the main task which is flood risk reduction.

Metzger, R.; Jaboyedoff, M.

2009-04-01

272

Response of extreme floods in the southwestern United States to climatic variations in the late Holocene  

Microsoft Academic Search

A regional synthesis of paleoflood chronologies on rivers in Arizona and southern Utah reveals that the largest floods over the last 5000 years cluster into distinct time periods that are related to regional and global climatic fluctuations. The flood chronologies were constructed using fine-grained slackwater deposits that accumulate in protected areas along the margins of bedrock canyons and selectively preserve

Lisa L. Ely

1997-01-01

273

13 CFR 120.172 - Flood-plain and wetlands management.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Flood-plain and wetlands management. 120.172 Section 120...Orders § 120.172 Flood-plain and wetlands management. (a) All loans must conform...117) and 11990, “Protection of Wetlands” (3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p....

2012-01-01

274

13 CFR 120.172 - Flood-plain and wetlands management.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Flood-plain and wetlands management. 120.172 Section 120...Orders § 120.172 Flood-plain and wetlands management. (a) All loans must conform...117) and 11990, “Protection of Wetlands” (3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p....

2013-01-01

275

13 CFR 120.172 - Flood-plain and wetlands management.  

...2014-01-01 false Flood-plain and wetlands management. 120.172 Section 120...Orders § 120.172 Flood-plain and wetlands management. (a) All loans must conform...117) and 11990, “Protection of Wetlands” (3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p....

2014-01-01

276

13 CFR 120.172 - Flood-plain and wetlands management.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Flood-plain and wetlands management. 120.172 Section 120...Orders § 120.172 Flood-plain and wetlands management. (a) All loans must conform...117) and 11990, “Protection of Wetlands” (3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p....

2011-01-01

277

75 FR 28778 - Magma Flood Retarding Structure (FRS) Supplemental Watershed Plan, Pinal County, AZ  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Retarding Structure (FRS) Supplemental Watershed Plan, Pinal County, AZ AGENCY: Natural...Retarding Structure (FRS) Supplemental Watershed Plan, Pinal County, Arizona. FOR FURTHER...Domestic Assistance under No. 10.904, Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention,...

2010-05-24

278

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FOR TOTAL-FLOOD HALON 1301 REPLACEMENTS FOR OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION FACILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes an effort to evaluate selected halocarbons as alternative total-flood fire and explosion protectio agents for Alaskan North Slope petroleum processing facilities. Adequate explosion and fire protection of enclosed spaces containing flammable gases and streamin...

279

A 2D simulation model for urban flood management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Floods Directive, which came into force on 26 November 2007, requires member states to assess all their water courses and coast lines for risk of flooding, to map flood extents and assets and humans at risk, and to take adequate and coordinated measures to reduce the flood risk in consultation with the public. Flood Risk Management Plans are to be in place by 2015. There are a number of reasons for the promotion of this Directive, not least because there has been much urban and other infrastructural development in flood plains, which puts many at risk of flooding along with vital societal assets. In addition there is growing awareness that the changing climate appears to be inducing more frequent extremes of rainfall with a consequent increases in the frequency of flooding. Thirdly, the growing urban populations in Europe, and especially in the developing countries, means that more people are being put at risk from a greater frequency of urban flooding in particular. There are urgent needs therefore to assess flood risk accurately and consistently, to reduce this risk where it is important to do so or where the benefit is greater than the damage cost, to improve flood forecasting and warning, to provide where necessary (and possible) flood insurance cover, and to involve all stakeholders in decision making affecting flood protection and flood risk management plans. Key data for assessing risk are water levels achieved or forecasted during a flood. Such levels should of course be monitored, but they also need to be predicted, whether for design or simulation. A 2D simulation model (PriceXD) solving the shallow water wave equations is presented specifically for determining flood risk, assessing flood defense schemes and generating flood forecasts and warnings. The simulation model is required to have a number of important properties: -Solve the full shallow water wave equations using a range of possible solutions; -Automatically adjust the time step and keep it as large as possible while maintaining the stability of the flow calculations; -Operate on a square grid at any resolution while retaining at least some details of the ground topography of the basic grid, the storage, and the form roughness and conveyance of the ground surface; -Account for the overall average ground slope for particular coarse cells; -Have the facility to refine the grid locally; -Have the facility to treat ponds or lakes as single, irregular cells; -Permit prescribed inflows and arbitrary outflows across the boundaries of the model domain or internally, and sources and sinks at any interior cell; -Simulate runoff for spatial rainfall while permitting infiltration; -Use ground surface cover and soil type indices to determine surface roughness, interception and infiltration parameters; -Present results at the basic cell level; -Have the facility to begin a model run with monitored soil moisture data; -Have the facility to hot-start a simulation using dumped data from a previous simulation; -Operate with a graphics cards for parallel processing; -Have the facility to link directly to the urban drainage simulation software such as SWMM through an Open Modelling Interface; -Be linked to the Netherlands national rainfall database for continuous simulation of rainfall-runoff for particular polders and urban areas; -Make the engine available as Open Source together with benchmark datasets; PriceXD forms a key modelling component of an integrated urban water management system consisting of an on-line database and a number of complementary modelling systems for urban hydrology, groundwater, potable water distribution, wastewater and stormwater drainage (separate and combined sewerage), wastewater treatment, and surface channel networks. This will be a 'plug and play' system. By linking the models together, confidence in the accuracy of the above-ground damage and construction costs is comparable to the below-ground costs. What is more, PriceXD can be used to examine additional physical phenomenon such as the interaction between flood flows and

Price, Roland; van der Wielen, Jonathan; Velickov, Slavco; Galvao, Diogo

2014-05-01

280

Increasing resilience through participative flood risk map design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, an increasing number of flood hazards has shown to the European Commission and the Member States of the European Union the importance of flood risk management strategies in order to reduce losses and to protect the environment and the citizens. Exposure to floods as well as flood vulnerability might increase across Europe due to the ongoing economic development in many EU countries. Thus even without taking climate change into account an increase of flood disasters in Europe might be foreseeable. These circumstances have produced a reaction in the European Commission, and a Directive on the Assessment and Management of Flood Risks was issued as one of the three components of the European Action Programme on Flood Risk Management. Floods have the potential to jeopardise economic development, above all due to an increase of human activities in floodplains and the reduction of natural water retention by land use activities. As a result, an increase in the likelihood and adverse impacts of flood events is expected. Therefore, concentrated action is needed at the European level to avoid severe impacts on human life and property. In order to have an effective tool available for gathering information, as well as a valuable basis for priority setting and further technical, financial and political decisions regarding flood risk mitigation and management, it is necessary to provide for the establishment of flood risk maps which show the potential adverse consequences associated with different flood scenarios. So far, hazard and risk maps are compiled in terms of a top-down linear approach: planning authorities take the responsibility to create and implement these maps on different national and local scales, and the general public will only be informed about the outcomes (EU Floods Directive, Article 10). For the flood risk management plans, however, an "active involvement of interested parties" is required, which means at least some kind of multilateral consultation on the management plans that allows stakeholders to discuss relevant issues and to contribute to arguments and propositions put forward by the stakeholders. Through a wider stakeholder participation and more effective communication, awareness of flood risks should be raised. With the term participation diverse voluntary and informal forms of inclusion are summarized (in contrast to legal forms of participation like the status as a party). When discussing the theoretical and practical implications of participation in flood risk management, it is important to make a clear distinction between public and stakeholder participation. The broad public is "everybody" and refers to the participation by non-organised individuals as members of the general public, and specifically to individuals whose profession is not connected to flood risk management. As such, they have to be regarded as lay persons, which, nevertheless, does not mean that these individuals do not have any idea about the hazard they are exposed to or can contribute to the quality of an decision making process. In contrast to professionally interested parties, this group is typically comprised of individuals with different individual perspectives on flood risk management. It is argued that including practical knowledge and perceptions (reflecting values and preferences) into the flood risk management process is - apart from professional assessments (as systematic knowledge) - a milestone towards adequate governance structures in any institutional process with political legitimacy. Neither normative concepts like sustainable development or "Good Governance" nor the European Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC do specify what public participation or the participation of user means in detail. As also scientific literature offers no consistent definition of public participation and stakeholder participation we developed an innovative approach used in the pilot project Krems, Austria. The most innovative step regarding participation was not the methods used for participa

Fuchs, Sven; Spira, Yvonne; Stickler, Therese

2013-04-01

281

Flooding tolerance in halophytes.  

PubMed

Flooding is a common environmental variable with salinity. Submerged organs can suffer from O(2) deprivation and the resulting energy deficits can compromise ion transport processes essential for salinity tolerance. Tolerance of soil waterlogging in halophytes, as in glycophytes, is often associated with the production of adventitious roots containing aerenchyma, and the resultant internal O(2) supply. For some species, shallow rooting in aerobic upper soil layers appears to be the key to survival on frequently flooded soils, although little is known of the anoxia tolerance in halophytes. Halophytic species that inhabit waterlogged substrates are able to regulate their shoot ion concentrations in spite of the hypoxic (or anoxic) medium in which they are rooted, this being in stark contrast with most other plants which suffer when salinity and waterlogging occur in combination. Very few studies have addressed the consequences of submergence of the shoots by saline water; these have, however, demonstrated tolerance of temporary submergence in some halophytes. PMID:18482227

Colmer, Timothy D; Flowers, Timothy J

2008-01-01

282

Flooding in Southeast Texas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Southeast of San Antonio, Texas, rivers that were barely discernible in satellite imagery acquired in late June 2002 by Terra MODIS stand out clearly this Aqua MODIS image from July 24, 2002. Heavy rains during the first week of July brought as much as 2 feet of rain to some places in southeastern Texas, resulting in massive flooding of three major river systems along the Gulf of Mexico. Please note that this story is in relation to the Before the Flooding in Southeast Texas story and are match-framed for dissolves in post production. To visit the relating story, please click on the following link: (http:--svs.gsfc.nasa.gov-vis-a000000-a002500-a002501-index.html).

Rhodes, Greg; Herring, David

2002-08-15

283

Impact of the Three-Gorges Dam and water transfer project on Changjiang floods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing frequency of severe floods on the middle and lower Changjiang (Yangtze) River during the past few decades can be attributed to both abnormal monsoon rainfall and landscape changes that include extensive deforestation affecting river sedimentation, and shrinking lakes and levee construction that reduced the areas available for floodwater storage. The Three-Gorges Dam (TGD) and the South-to-North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP) will also affect frequency and intensity of severe floods in the Poyang Lake region of the middle Changjiang. Process-based National Integrated Catchment-based Eco-hydrology (NICE) model predicts that the TGD will increase flood risk during the early summer monsoon against the original justifications for building the dam, relating to complex river-lake-groundwater interactions. Several scenarios predict that morphological change will increase flood risk around the lake. This indicates the importance of managing both flood discharge and sediment deposition for the entire basin. Further, the authors assessed the impact of sand mining in the lake after its prohibition on the Changjiang, and clarified that alternative scenario of sand mining in lakes currently disconnected from the mainstream would reduce the flood risk to a greater extent than intensive dredging along junction channel. Because dry biomasses simulated by the model were linearly related to the Time-Integrated Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (TINDVI) estimated from satellite images, its decadal gradient during 1982-1999 showed a spatially heterogeneous distribution and generally decreasing trends beside the lakes, indicating that the increases in lake reclamation and the resultant decrease in rice productivity are closely related to the hydrologic changes. This integrated approach could help to minimize flood damage and promote better decisions addressing sustainable development.

Nakayama, Tadanobu; Shankman, David

2013-01-01

284

A new methodology for flood hazard assessment considering dike breaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on development and application of a new modeling approach for a comprehensive flood hazard assessment along protected river reaches considering dike failures. The proposed Inundation Hazard Assessment Model (IHAM) represents a hybrid probabilistic-deterministic model. It comprises three models that are coupled in a dynamic way: (1) 1D unsteady hydrodynamic model for river channel and floodplain between dikes;

S. Vorogushyn; B. Merz; K.-E. Lindenschmidt; H. Apel

2010-01-01

285

Surfactant-Enhanced Low-pH Alkaline Flooding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports sodium bicarbonate investigated as a potential alkaline agent in surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding because it has very little tendency to dissolve silicate minerals. In experiments performed with Wilmington, CA, crude oil and three types of surfactants, the bicarbonate\\/surfactant combination caused a marked lowering of interfacial tension (IFT). Bicarbonate protected the surfactant against divalent cations and reduced adsorption of

Deborah Peru; Philip Lorenz

1990-01-01

286

Lessons from Katrina: Flood Management Technology Strategies for the US  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal and riverine flooding and hurricane-driven storms have long plagued those in the United States who live or work on or near the shoreline or the rivers edge. The devastation wrought by Hurricane Katrina brought the challenge of protecting against such events to the political and technical forefront. The predicted impacts of global warming strongly suggest that our floodplains and

Gerald Galloway

2006-01-01

287

GIS-Based Flood Risk Management for Thermal Power Plants in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Climate projections for the Upper Rhine Region describe a warmer atmosphere and higher evaporation capacity in winter. Therefore,\\u000a a change to more frequent and more extreme runoff in winter may influence the infrastructure of adjacent power plants as they\\u000a need to be protected against floods. In Germany, two different regulations exist to specify the flood protection of companies.\\u000a For coal-fired

Jeannette Schulz

288

Flood inundation modeling using MIKE FLOOD and remote sensing data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coupled 1D-2D hydrodynamic model, MIKE FLOOD was used to simulate the flood inundation extent and flooding depth in the\\u000a delta region of Mahanadi River basin in India. Initially, the 1D model MIKE 11 was calibrated using river water level and\\u000a discharge data of various gauging sites for the monsoon period (June to October) of the year 2002. Subsequently, the

S. Patro; C. Chatterjee; S. Mohanty; R. Singh; N. S. Raghuwanshi

2009-01-01

289

Linking the historic 2011 Mississippi River flood to coastal wetland sedimentation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wetlands in the Mississippi River deltaic plain are deteriorating in part because levees and control structures starve them of sediment. In Spring of 2011 a record-breaking flood brought discharge on the lower Mississippi River to dangerous levels, forcing managers to divert up to 3500 m3/s-1 of water to the Atchafalaya River Basin. Here we quantify differences between the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River inundation and sediment-plume patterns using field-calibrated satellite data, and assess the impact these outflows had on wetland sedimentation. We characterize hydrodynamics and suspended sediment patterns of the Mississippi River plume using in-situ data collected during the historic flood. We show that the focused, high-momentum jet from the leveed Mississippi delivered sediment far offshore. In contrast, the plume from the Atchafalaya was more diffuse; diverted water inundated a large area; and sediment was trapped within the coastal current. Maximum sedimentation (up to several centimetres) occurred in the Atchafalaya Basin despite the larger sediment load carried by the Mississippi. Minimum accumulation occurred along the shoreline between these river sources. Our findings provide a mechanistic link between river-mouth dynamics and wetland sedimentation patterns that is relevant for plans to restore deltaic wetlands using artificial diversions.

Falcini, Federico; Khan, Nicole S.; Macelloni, Leonardo; Horton, Benjamin P.; Lutken, Carol B.; McKee, Karen L.; Santoleri, Rosalia; Colella, Simone; Li, Chunyan; Volpe, Gianluca; D’Emidio, Marco; Salusti, Alessandro; Jerolmack, Douglas J.

2012-01-01

290

Modeling and analysis of the vertical roots distribution in levees - a case study of the third Rhone correction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years the effects of roots on river banks and levees have been the subject of major discussions. The main issue about the presence of woody vegetation on levees is related to the possibility that roots increase internal erosion processes and the superimposed load of large trees compromise the integrity of these structures. However, ecologists and landscape managers argue that eliminating the natural vegetation from the riverbanks also means eliminating biotopes, strengthening anthropisation of the landscape, as well as limiting recreations areas. In the context of the third correction of the Rhone in Switzerland, the discussion on new levee geometries and the implementation of woody vegetation on them, lead to a detailed analysis of this issue for this specific case. The objective of this study was to describe quantitatively the processes and factors that influence the root distribution on levees and test modeling approaches for the simulation of vertical root distribution with laboratory and field data. An extension of an eco-hydrological analytic model that considers climatic and pedological condition for the quantification of vertical root distribution was validated with data provided by the University of Vienna (BOKU) of willows' roots (Salix purpurea) grown under controlled conditions. Furthermore, root distribution data of four transversal sections of a levee near Visp (canton Wallis, Switzerland) was used to validate the model. The positions of the levee's sections were chosen based on the species and dimensions of the woody vegetation. The dominant species present in the sections were birch (Betula pendula) and poplar (Populus nigra). For each section a grid of 50x50 cm was created to count and measure the roots. The results show that vertical distribution of root density under controlled growing conditions has an exponential form, decreasing with increasing soil depth, and can be well described by the eco-hydrological model. Vice versa, field data of vertical roots distribution show a non-exponential function and cannot fully be described by the model. A compacted layer of stones at about 2 m depth is considered as limiting factor for the rooting depth on the analyzed levee. The collected data and the knowledge gained from quantitative analysis represent the starting point for a discussion on new levee geometries and the development of new strategies for the implementation of woody vegetation on levees. A long term monitoring project for the analysis of the effectiveness of new implementation strategies of vegetation on levees, is considered an important prospective for future studies on this topic.

Gianetta, Ivan; Schwarz, Massimiliano; Glenz, Christian; Lammeranner, Walter

2013-04-01

291

Eye in the Sky: Floods and Dams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides general information about floods and dams. There are sections on the science, the phenomenon, and effects of floods. One video clip shows the Mississippi River at flood and non-flood levels. Another clip shows actual footage of a flood wreaking havoc on a populated area.

292

Prospects for development of unified global flood observation and prediction systems (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floods are among the most damaging of natural hazards, with global flood losses in 2011 alone estimated to have exceeded $100B. Historically, flood economic damages have been highest in the developed world (due in part to encroachment on historical flood plains), but loss of life, and human impacts have been greatest in the developing world. However, as the 2011 Thailand floods show, industrializing countries, many of which do not have well developed flood protection systems, are increasingly vulnerable to economic damages as they become more industrialized. At present, unified global flood observation and prediction systems are in their infancy; notwithstanding that global weather forecasting is a mature field. The summary for this session identifies two evolving capabilities that hold promise for development of more sophisticated global flood forecast systems: global hydrologic models and satellite remote sensing (primarily of precipitation, but also of flood inundation). To this I would add the increasing sophistication and accuracy of global precipitation analysis (and forecast) fields from numerical weather prediction models. In this brief overview, I will review progress in all three areas, and especially the evolution of hydrologic data assimilation which integrates modeling and data sources. I will also comment on inter-governmental and inter-agency cooperation, and related issues that have impeded progress in the development and utilization of global flood observation and prediction systems.

Lettenmaier, D. P.

2013-12-01

293

Flood Assessment at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site and the Proposed Hazardous Waste Storage Unit, DOE/Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

A flood assessment at the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) and the proposed Hazardous Waste Storage Unit (HWSU) in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was performed to determine the 100-year flood hazard at these facilities. The study was conducted to determine whether the RWMS and HWSU are located within a 100-year flood hazard as defined by the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and to provide discharges for the design of flood protection.

Schmeltzer, J. S., Millier, J. J., Gustafson, D. L.

1993-01-01

294

Genesis of the City Flood Queretaro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1446 the emperor Moctezuma Ihuicamina talked about of the Queretaro region, which was northern border of their empire (From Torquemeda, 1975). Septien (1999, page 17, Volume 1). "The news that came the Otomi region, spoken the good soil fertility of the Querétaro valley, being an attractive to this place". The aims research is show how the from foundation of the prehispanic period the city of Santiago Queretaro was marked by the development and growth, and as fascinating Mexico historical events recorded their urban-hydraulic direction shows a clear symbiosis between the model prehispanic and colonial urban was conceived it as a compact core, it is currently set to modern urbanization, fragmenting the natural system of the hydrologic surface runoff , adapting and adopting solutions that break the natural equilibrium of the valley Queretaro. In the period 1970-2003 in Mexico 1744 floods was reported but in Queretaro occurred only 10 floods because in 22nd place ranking by frequency of floods, Matias Ramirez et al (2006). Since the foundation of Santiago de Querétaro (1455) the changes of uses soils and the construction of channels had caused the strangulation of city, without regarding the natural of the ways of water of the river Querétaro, so occupied by collectors or drains that also constriction the system of urban water of city of Queretaro that breakdowns with the architecture and natural ways of water. Similarly, historical tracking flooding is not only an exploration of public actions on the implementation of protection works, but also updates the concept of cultural heritage, as fixed and cultivates social memory of the preservation of knowledge the territory. Every time a flood comes increasing concern of whether it corresponds to situations already lived. The flood occurred last February 2010 that affected five delegations besides Querétaro Historic Center (Alameda), the Arquitos, Quintas del Marques, among other colonies, is testimony to the current reality of a long history that continues altering the cultural heritage Queretaro and Mexico (Diario de Querétaro, February 3, 2010).

Sosa, E. G.; Salinas, N. R.

2013-12-01

295

Flood resilience urban territories. Flood resilience urban territories.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flood's impact during the last twenty years on French territory reveals our lack of preparation towards large-extended floods which might cause the stopping of companies' activity, services, or lead to housing unavailability during several months. New Orleans' case has to exemplify us: four years after the disaster, the city still couldn't get back its dynamism. In France, more than 300 towns are flood-exposed. While these towns are the mainspring of territory's development, it is likely that the majority of them couldn't get up quickly after a large-extended flood. Therefore, to understand and improve the urban territory's resilience facing floods is a real stake for territory's development. Urban technical networks supply, unify and irrigate all urban territories' constituents. Characterizing their flood resilience can be interesting to understand better urban resilience. In this context, waste management during and after floods is completely crucial. During a flood, the waste management network can become dysfunctional (roads cut, waste storage installations or waste treatment flooded). How can the mayor respect his obligation to guarantee salubrity and security in his city? In post flood the question is even more problematic. The waste management network presents a real stake for territory's restart. After a flood, building materials, lopped-of branches, furniture, business stocks, farm stocks, mud, rubbles, animal cadavers are wet, mixed, even polluted by hydrocarbons or toxic substances. The waste's volume can be significant. Sanitary and environmental risks can be crucial. In view of this situation, waste's management in post crisis period raises a real problem. What to make of this waste? How to collect it? Where to stock it? How to process it? Who is responsible? Answering these questions is all the more strategic since this waste is the mark of disaster. Thus, cleaning will be the first population's and local actor's reflex in order to forget the flood but also to restart as fast as possible (for example, the clearing of roads is a prerequisite for electricity's restoration which is a vital network for territory's functioning). While the waste management is a main stage of post crisis, these questions are still without answer. The extend of this network influence also leads us to think about the means to prevent from waste production and service's dysfunction. How to develop the territory to limit the floods' impact on the waste management network? Are there techniques or equipments allowing stakeholders to limit these impacts? How to increase population's, entrepreneur's or farmer's awareness to get ready to face floods, to limit the waste production, but also to react well during and after the floods? Throughout means of prevention and thanks to actor's technical and organizational adaptations towards the waste network, or by raising population's awareness and preparation, economic and institutional actors of urban territories might improve the waste's network flood resilience, and thus, cities' flood resilience. Through experience feedbacks about countries recently affected by large-extended floods and field reflection with local actors, the stakes of this PhD research are thus to think about means (1) to maintain the activity out of flood plains during a flood, (2) to increase the waste management network's activity in post crisis period in order to be able to deal with a new waste production both by its quality and its quantity, but also (3) to study the means to prevent this new production. This work will use the concept of urban system to describe urban territory because it allows us to study both its behaviour and functioning. The interest of this methodological choice is to take into account the impacts of the disruption of waste management networks on cities' functioning, and thus, on cities' flood resilience.

Beraud, Hélène; Barroca, Bruno; Hubert, Gilles

2010-05-01

296

The Hurricane-Flood-Landslide Continuum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In August 2004, representatives from NOAA, NASA, the USGS, and other government agencies convened in San Juan, Puerto Rim for a workshop to discuss a proposed research project called the Hurricane-Flood-Landslide Continuum (HFLC). The essence of the HFLC is to develop and integrate tools across disciplines to enable the issuance of regional guidance products for floods and landslides associated with major tropical rain systems, with sufficient lead time that local emergency managers can protect vulnerable populations and infrastructure. All three lead agencies are independently developing precipitation-flood-debris flow forecasting technologies, and all have a history of work on natural hazards both domestically and overseas. NOM has the capability to provide tracking and prediction of storm rainfall, trajectory and landfall and is developing flood probability and magnTtude capabilities. The USGS has the capability to evaluate the ambient stability of natural and man-made landforms, to assess landslide susceptibilities for those landforms, and to establish probabilities for initiation of landslides and debris flows. Additionally, the USGS has well-developed operational capacity for real-time monitoring and reporting of streamflow across distributed networks of automated gaging stations (http://water.usgs.gov/waterwatch/). NASA has the capability to provide sophisticated algorithms for satellite remote sensing of precipitation, land use, and in the future, soil moisture. The Workshop sought to initiate discussion among three agencies regarding their specific and highly complimentary capabilities. The fundamental goal of the Workshop was to establish a framework that will leverage the strengths of each agency. Once a prototype system is developed for example, in relatively data-rich Puerto Rim, it could be adapted for use in data-poor, low-infrastructure regions such as the Dominican Republic or Haiti. This paper provides an overview of the Workshop s goals, presentations and recommendations with respect to the development of the HFLC.

Negri, Andrew J.; Burkardt, Nina; Golden, Joseph H.; Halverson, Jeffrey B.; Huffman, George J.; Larsen, Matthew C.; McGinley, John A.; Updike, Randall G.; Verdin, James P.; Wieczorek, Gerald F.

2005-01-01

297

Urban flooding and Resilience: concepts and needs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the recent years, a growing interest for resilience has been expressed in the natural disaster mitigation area and especially in the flood related events. The European Union, under the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), has initiated several research initiatives in order to explore this concept especially for the urban environments. Under urban resilience is underlined the ability of system potentially exposed to hazard to resist, respond, recover and reflect up to stage which is enough to preserve level of functioning and structure. Urban system can be resilient to lot of different hazards. Urban resilience is defined as the degree to which cities are able to tolerate some disturbance before reorganizing around a new set of structures and processes (Holling 1973, De Bruijn 2005). The United Nation's International strategy for Disaster Reductions has defined resilience as "the capacity of a system, community or society potentially exposed to hazards to adapt, by resisting or changing in order to reach and maintain an acceptable level of functioning and structure. This is determined by the degree to which the social system is capable of organizing itself to increase this capacity for learning from past disasters for better future protection and to improve risk reduction measures."(UN/ISDR 2004). According to that, system should be able to accept the hazard and be able to recover up to condition that provides acceptable operational level of city structure and population during and after hazard event. Main elements of urban system are built environment and population. Physical characteristic of built environment and social characteristic of population have to be examined in order to evaluate resilience. Therefore presenting methodology for assessing flood resilience in urban areas has to be one of the focal points for the exposed cities. Strategies under flood management planning related to resilience of urban systems are usually regarding controlling runoff volume, increasing capacity of drainage systems, spatial planning, building regulations, etc. Resilience also considers resilience of population to floods and it's measured with time. Assessment of resilience that is focused on population is following bottom-up approach starting from individual and then assessing community level. Building resilience involves also contribution of social networks, increasing response capacity of communities, self-organization, learning and education and cheering adaptation culture. Measures for improving social side of resilience covers: raising public awareness, implementation of flood forecasting and warning, emergency response planning and training, sharing information, education and communication. Most of these aspects are analyzed with the CORFU FP7 project. Collaborative Research on Flood Resilience in Urban areas (CORFU) is a major project involving 17 European and Asian institutions, funded by a grant from the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Programme. The overall aim of CORFU is to enable European and Asian partners to learn from each other through joint investigation, development, implementation and dissemination of short to medium term strategies that will enable more scientifically sound management of the consequences of urban flooding in the future and to develop resilience strategies according to each situation. The CORFU project looks at advanced and novel strategies and provide adequate measures for improved flood management in cities. The differences in urban flooding problems in Asia and in Europe range from levels of economic development, infrastructure age, social systems and decision making processes, to prevailing drainage methods, seasonality of rainfall patterns and climate change trends. The study cases are, in Europe, the cities of Hamburg, Barcelona and Nice, and in Asia, Beijing, Dhaka, Mumbai, Taipei, Seoul and Incheon.

Gourbesville, Ph.

2012-04-01

298

Flooding in Central Siberia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mixture of snowmelt and ice jams in late May and June of this year caused the Taz River (left) and the Yenisey River (right) in central Siberia to overflow their banks. The flooding can be seen in this image taken on June 11, 2002, by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra satellite. Normally, the rivers would resemble thin black lines in MODIS imagery. In the false-color images sage green and rusty orange is land, and water is black. Clouds are white and pink. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

299

Storage and flood routing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The basic equations used in flood routing are developed from the law of continuity. In each method the assumptions are discussed to enable the user to select an appropriate technique. In the stage-storage method the storage is related to the mean gage height in the reach under consideration. In the discharge-storage method the storage is determined, from weighted values of inflow and outflow discharge. In the reservoir-storage method the storage is considered as a function of outflow discharge alone. A detailed example is given for each method to illustrate that particular technique.

Carter, R.W.; Godfrey, R.G.

1960-01-01

300

Snowmelt and Floods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The rate that the snow melts is crucial in determining how fast water will reach the streams and rivers and thus, how damaging the flooding may be. This resource provides a step-by-step calculation of the volume of water stored in the snow in the Red River basin. This resource is from PUMAS - Practical Uses of Math and Science - a collection of brief examples created by scientists and engineers showing how math and science topics taught in K-12 classes have real world applications.

301

Floods of Selected Streams in Arkansas, Spring 2008  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Floods can cause loss of life and extensive destruction to property. Monitoring floods and understanding the reasons for their occurrence are the responsibility of many Federal agencies. The National Weather Service, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the U.S. Geological Survey are among the most visible of these agencies. Together, these three agencies collect and analyze floodflow information to better understand the variety of mechanisms that cause floods, and how the characteristics and frequencies of floods vary with time and location. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has monitored and assessed the quantity of streamflow in our Nation's streams since the agency's inception in 1879. Because of ongoing collection and assessment of streamflow data, the USGS can provide information about a range of surface-water issues including the suitability of water for public supply and irrigation and the effects of agriculture and urbanization on streamflow. As part of its streamflow-data collection activities, the USGS measured streamflow in multiple streams during extreme flood events in Arkansas in the spring of 2008. The analysis of streamflow information collected during flood events such as these provides a scientific basis for decision making related to resource management and restoration. Additionally, this information can be used by water-resource managers to better define flood-hazard areas and to design bridges, culverts, dams, levees, and other structures. Water levels (stage) and streamflow (discharge) currently are being monitored in near real-time at approximately 150 locations in Arkansas. The streamflow-gaging stations measure and record hydrologic data at 15-minute or hourly intervals; the data then are transmitted through satellites to the USGS database and displayed on the internet every 1 to 4 hours. Streamflow-gaging stations in Arkansas are part of a network of over 7,500 active streamflow-gaging stations operated by the USGS throughout the United States in cooperation with other Federal, State, and local government agencies. In Arkansas, the major supporters of the streamflow-gaging network are the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Arkansas Natural Resources Commission, Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality, and Arkansas Geological Survey. Many other Federal, State, and local government entities provide additional support for streamflow-gaging stations. It is the combined support of the USGS and all funding partners that make it possible to maintain an adequate streamflow-gaging network in Arkansas. Data collected over the years at streamflow-gaging stations can be used to characterize the relative magnitude of flood events and their statistical frequency of occurrence. These analyses provide water-resource managers with accurate and reliable hydrologic information based on present and historical flow conditions. Continued collection of streamflow data, with consideration of changes in land use, agricultural practices, and climate change, will help scientists to more accurately characterize the magnitude of extreme floods in the future.

Funkhouser, Jaysson E.; Eng, Ken

2009-01-01

302

77 FR 73490 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Elevation (BFE), base flood depth, Special Flood Hazard Area...floodway on the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs), and where applicable...and the respective Community Map Repository address listed in...Page 73491

2012-12-10

303

Surfactant-enhanced low-pH alkaline flooding  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports sodium bicarbonate investigated as a potential alkaline agent in surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding because it has very little tendency to dissolve silicate minerals. In experiments performed with Wilmington, CA, crude oil and three types of surfactants, the bicarbonate/surfactant combination caused a marked lowering of interfacial tension (IFT). Bicarbonate protected the surfactant against divalent cations and reduced adsorption of surfactant and polymer on various minerals. Coreflood test confirm that sodium bicarbonate plus surfactant can be an effective alternative to the high-pH flooding process.

Peru, D.A. (Grace (W.R.) and Co., Columbia, MD (USA). Research Div.); Lorenz, P.B. (National Inst. for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (USA))

1990-08-01

304

Global scale map of the impact of changes in climate and socio-economic conditions on river flood losses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floods pose one of the largest risks to natural hazards globally. In 2012, the global damage from floods was estimated to be about € 22 billion. For the first half of 2013, the global damage was estimated to be already € 35 billion, being about 47% of the overall losses due to natural hazards. Almost half of this amount was due to river flooding such as the devastating floods in East Germany in May-June 2013. Besides possible increases in frequency and severity of flood events, floods are becoming more damaging due to increases in population and increases in economic utilization of flood prone areas. It is therefore crucial to understand the nature and causes of flood risks and possible changes therein due to climate and socio-economic change. Improved understanding will support adaptation plans and investments, either in new economic activities or in flood protection. On this poster, we show a global scale map of current river flood risk and flood risk changes in the future. The map shows how economic damages and the number of flood-affected people due to river floods will change under several scenarios of combined climate and socio-economic change. Across a number of large river basins, we distinguish the contribution to change in risk by climate change (resulting in an increase in flood hazard) and by socio-economic change (resulting in more impacts of flooding). We compute these risks using a validated model cascade consisting of hydrological flood models and impact models forced by long time series of current and future climate (CMIP5) and socio-economic scenarios in periods around 2030 and 2080. We discuss per basin what the possible implications of the scenarios are.

Winsemius, Hessel; Ward, Philip; Bouwman, Arno; Jongman, Brenden; Van Beek, Rens; Lucas, Paul; Van Vuuren, Detlef; Bierkens, Marc; Ligtvoet, Willem; Kwadijk, Jaap

2014-05-01

305

Flooding in Southern Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past two weeks, heavy rains have inundated southern Russia, giving rise to floods that killed up to 83 people and drove thousands from their homes. This false-color image acquired on June 23, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite shows some of the worst flooding. The Black Sea is the dark patch in the lower left-hand corner. The city of Krasnodor, Russia, which was one of the cities hardest hit, sits on the western edge of the larger lake on the left side of the image, and Stavropol, which lost more lives than any other city, sits just east of the small cluster of lakes on the right-hand side of the image. Normally, the rivers and smaller lakes in this image cannot even be seen clearly on MODIS imagery. In this false-color image, the ground is green and blue and water is black or dark brown. Clouds come across as pink and white. Credit: Image courtesy Jesse Allen, NASA GSFC, based on data provided by the MODIS Rapid Response System.

2002-01-01

306

Flooding along Danube River  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heavy rains in Central and Eastern Europe over the past few weeks have led to some of the worst flooding the region has witnessed in over a century. The floods have killed more than 100 people in Germany, Russia, Austria, Hungary and the Czech Republic and have led to as much as $20 billion in damage. This false-color image of the Danube River and its tributaries was taken on August 19, 2002, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. Budapest, the capital of Hungary, sits just south of the large bend in the river at the top of the image. Here the water reached levels not seen since 1965. Fortunately, the riverbanks are lined with 33-foot retainer walls throughout the city, so it did not face the same fate as Dresden or Prague along the Elbe River. But as one can see, the floodwaters hit many rural areas farther south. As last reported, the water was receding along the Danube. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC.

2002-01-01

307

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM KOLAN RIVER  

E-print Network

was completed in 1974, only minor to moderate flooding had been recorded before December 2010. In January 2013/2014 #12;These include the Councils, Police, and State Emergency Services in the local area. Internet/World Wide Web Flood Warnings, River Height Bulletins and other weather related data is available

Greenslade, Diana

308

Post Flood Alternatives Mosquito Flats  

E-print Network

. Mosquito Flats, composite of FEMA flood map and Google Earth imagery. #12;Adding a Second Exit for Mosquito Flats. Base map from Johnson County GIS Online, with 2006 topography and FEMA layers included. #12;Storm Drains The FEMA 100 year flood level is 652 feet at 820 Park Road and 651 at 801 Normandy. As a r

Jones, Douglas W.

309

TRUCKEE MEADOWS FLOOD CONTROL PROJECT,  

E-print Network

the Pre- construction Engineering and Design (PED) phase when changes in real estate costs madeTRUCKEE MEADOWS FLOOD CONTROL PROJECT, NEVADA DRAFT GENERAL REEVALUATION REPORT May 2013 #12;#12;Truckee Meadows Flood Control Project, Nevada Draft General Reevaluation Report May 2013 Prepared by U

US Army Corps of Engineers

310

Cultural Heritage exposed to landslide and flood risk in Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Italy is the country that owns most of the world cultural heritage as it's clear from the list of sites of inestimable value to humanity, prepared by UNESCO under the Convention concerning the protection of the world cultural and natural heritage ratified in 1972. The Italian territory is also particularly prone to natural hazards such as landslides, floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, subsidence and coastal erosion which undermine the protection and preservation of cultural heritage. Aim of the present work is to provide an estimate of architectural, monumental and archaeological heritage exposed to landslide and flood risk at national scale. The input data are: the Italian Cultural Heritage database (Carta del Rischio del patrimonio culturale) realized by ISCR (Central Institute for the Conservation and Restoration); the Italian Landslide Inventory (Progetto IFFI) developed by ISPRA (Italian National Institute for Environmental Protection and Research) and the Regions and Self-Governing Provinces of Italy and the flood hazard zones defined by the Italian River Basin Authorities. Italian landslide inventory contains more than 486,000 landslides affecting an area of about 20,800 km2, equal to 6.9% of Italian territory. In order to estimate the number and type of cultural heritage at risk some GIS processing have been carried out, overlapping information from the above mentioned databases. The analysis provided the following results: Cultural Heritage exposed to landslide risk were estimated to 5.511 (6.6%) while the ones exposed to flood risk results 9.859 (11.7%). Two case studies concerning landslide phenomena affecting important Italian municipalities and the flood risk of historical centre of Rome, have been also analyzed. These results could be used to identify priorities and plan field surveys, detailed studies and monitoring systems, allowing job scheduling of cultural heritage maintenance. This need becomes more and more a necessity taking into account the importance of the Italian cultural heritage and the lack of funds available for its protection and conservation.

Spizzichino, Daniele; Cacace, Carlo; Iadanza, Carla; Trigila, Alessandro

2013-04-01

311

Flash Flood Processes: International Edition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Flash floods can occur in nearly any area of the world. A rainfall-induced flash flood is a truly hydrometeorological event: one that depends on both hydrologic and meteorological conditions. Forecasting flash floods involves a detailed understanding of the local hydrologic features and continual monitoring of the current meteorological situation. This module examines both the hydrologic and meteorological processes that often contribute to the development of flash flooding. Common tools and technologies that are used in flash flood monitoring and forecasting, from manual gauging systems to complex radar- and satellite-based runoff models, are explored. This module also examines the strengths and limitations of these technologies, as well as how they are likely to advance in the future.

COMET

2011-02-22

312

Floods on the Minnesota River  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students explore the USGS water website to identify the location of stream gauges on the Minnesota River and the types of data that can be retrieved from the website. They determine which data to download based on the area of interest in the exercise (St. Peter, MN) and import historical flood data into MS Excel. The students use a spreadsheet to rank each flood and calculate a recurrence interval for a given flood, then estimate the discharge and stage of the 100-year flood in St. Peter, MN. The final task is to establish a flood hazard zone on a topographic map of the city of St. Peter. Note: this exercise can be applied to almost any non-dammed river with two or more USGS gaging stations on it. Go to http://water.usgs.gov and select your state from the pull-down menu to view an interactive map of your state's rivers and gaging station locations.

Ben Laabs

313

Challenges in communicating and using ensemble forecasts in operational flood risk management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following trends in operational weather forecasting, where ensemble prediction systems (EPS) are now increasingly the norm, a number of hydrological and flood forecasting centres internationally have begun to experiment with using similar ensemble methods. Most of the research to date has focused on the substantial technical challenges of developing coupled rainfall-runoff systems to represent the full cascade of uncertainties involved in predicting future flooding. As a consequence much less attention has been given to the communication and eventual use of EPS flood forecasts. Thus, this talk addresses the general understanding and communicative challenges in using EPS in operational flood forecasting. Drawing on a set of 48 semi-structured interviews conducted with flood forecasters, meteorologists and civil protection authorities (CPAs) dispersed across 17 European countries, this presentation pulls out some of the tensions between the scientific development of EPS and their application in flood risk management. The scientific uncertainties about whether or not a flood will occur comprise only part of the wider ‘decision' uncertainties faced by those charged with flood protection, who must also consider questions about how warnings they issue will subsequently be interpreted. By making those first order scientific uncertainties more explicit, ensemble forecasts can sometimes complicate, rather than clarify, the second order decision uncertainties they are supposed to inform.

Nobert, Sébastien; Demeritt, David; Cloke, Hannah

2010-05-01

314

Developing a Malaysia flood model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Faced with growing exposures in Malaysia, insurers have a need for models to help them assess their exposure to flood losses. The need for an improved management of flood risks has been further highlighted by the 2011 floods in Thailand and recent events in Malaysia. The increasing demand for loss accumulation tools in Malaysia has lead to the development of the first nationwide probabilistic Malaysia flood model, which we present here. The model is multi-peril, including river flooding for thousands of kilometres of river and rainfall-driven surface water flooding in major cities, which may cause losses equivalent to river flood in some high-density urban areas. The underlying hazard maps are based on a 30m digital surface model (DSM) and 1D/2D hydraulic modelling in JFlow and RFlow. Key mitigation schemes such as the SMART tunnel and drainage capacities are also considered in the model. The probabilistic element of the model is driven by a stochastic event set based on rainfall data, hence enabling per-event and annual figures to be calculated for a specific insurance portfolio and a range of return periods. Losses are estimated via depth-damage vulnerability functions which link the insured damage to water depths for different property types in Malaysia. The model provides a unique insight into Malaysian flood risk profiles and provides insurers with return period estimates of flood damage and loss to property portfolios through loss exceedance curve outputs. It has been successfully validated against historic flood events in Malaysia and is now being successfully used by insurance companies in the Malaysian market to obtain reinsurance cover.

Haseldine, Lucy; Baxter, Stephen; Wheeler, Phil; Thomson, Tina

2014-05-01

315

Flood characteristics for the Nisqually River and susceptibility of Sunshine Point and Longmire facilities to flooding in Mount Rainier National Park, Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Inundation from 25-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year floods at Sunshine Point and Longmire facilities and the Longmire visitors ' center and ranger station generally is not a serious hazard as long as the existing dikes and banks of the Nisqually River and Tahoma Creek remain intact and flood capacities of the channels are maintained. However, average water velocities during floods are high (as much as 23 ft/sec) and the channel, banks, and some dikes are composed of unstable materials. Sunshine Point campground is particularly susceptible to flooding and damage from Tahoma Creek, and to a lesser extent from the Nisqually River, if large amounts of debris or rock material accumulate in the channels and change the flood elevation or courses of either stream. At Longmire flood inundation or damage from the Nisqually River is much less, but flooding is still possible. There, high ridges upstream protect the several park facilities from the river, but accumulations of debris or rock in the channel could cause flooding from overtopping of dikes or riverbanks. Glacial outburst floods are a matter of serious concern at both Sunshine Point campground and Longmire. Glacial outbursts can and have produced very large flood discharges and transported large quantities of debris and rock materials. Although none have been known to transport these materials from Tahoma Glacier as far as Sunshine Point campground, one in 1955 from Nisqually Glacier (estimated at 70,000 cu ft/sec near the glacier) did appreciably increase the magnitude of the water discharge at Longmire. For safety, campers and visitors need to be advised about the potential flood hazards at both facilities. (Author 's abstract)

Nelson, L.M.

1987-01-01

316

Improving Gas Flooding Efficiency  

SciTech Connect

This study focuses on laboratory studies with related analytical and numerical models, as well as work with operators for field tests to enhance our understanding of and capabilities for more efficient enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Much of the work has been performed at reservoir conditions. This includes a bubble chamber and several core flood apparatus developed or modified to measure interfacial tension (IFT), critical micelle concentration (CMC), foam durability, surfactant sorption at reservoir conditions, and pressure and temperature effects on foam systems.Carbon dioxide and N{sub 2} systems have been considered, under both miscible and immiscible conditions. The injection of CO2 into brine-saturated sandstone and carbonate core results in brine saturation reduction in the range of 62 to 82% brine in the tests presented in this paper. In each test, over 90% of the reduction occurred with less than 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected, with very little additional brine production after 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected. Adsorption of all considered surfactant is a significant problem. Most of the effect is reversible, but the amount required for foaming is large in terms of volume and cost for all considered surfactants. Some foams increase resistance to the value beyond what is practical in the reservoir. Sandstone, limestone, and dolomite core samples were tested. Dissolution of reservoir rock and/or cement, especially carbonates, under acid conditions of CO2 injection is a potential problem in CO2 injection into geological formations. Another potential change in reservoir injectivity and productivity will be the precipitation of dissolved carbonates as the brine flows and pressure decreases. The results of this report provide methods for determining surfactant sorption and can be used to aid in the determination of surfactant requirements for reservoir use in a CO{sub 2}-foam flood for mobility control. It also provides data to be used to determine rock permeability changes during CO{sub 2} flooding due to saturation changes, dissolution, and precipitation.

Reid Grigg; Robert Svec; Zheng Zeng; Alexander Mikhalin; Yi Lin; Guoqiang Yin; Solomon Ampir; Rashid Kassim

2008-03-31

317

Added value flooding products coupling hydraulic modeling and COSMO Sky-Med SAR imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work the real time use of a simplified two dimensional hydraulic model constrained by satellite data for the simulation of flooding events is studied. The main features of such a model are computational speed and simple start-up, with no need to insert complex information but a subset of simplified boundary and initial condition. Those characteristics allow the model to be fast enough to be used in real time for the simulation of flooding events. The model fills the gap of information left by single satellite scenes of flooded area, allowing for the estimation of the maximum flooding extension and magnitude. The static information provided by earth observation (like SAR extension of flooded areas at a certain time) are interpreted in a dynamic consitent way and very useful hydraulic information (e.g., water depth, water speed and the evolution of flooded areas)are provided. The model has been applied in several flooding events occured wordwide. amongst the other activations in the mediterranean areas like Veneto (IT) (October 2010), Basilicata (IT) (March 2011) and Shkoder (January 2010 and December 2010) are considered and compared with larger types of floods like the one of Queensland in December 2010. In the past year the model has been used, by request of Department of Civil Protection, to provide previsions of scenarios to help authority involved in recent Magra flooding, using as input the predicted discharges.

Fiorini, M.; Rudari, R.; Candela, L.; Corina, A.; Boni, G.

2012-04-01

318

Analyses of water, core material, and elutriate samples collected near Sicily Island, Louisiana (Sicily Island area levee project)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Samples consisting of composited core material were collected from five areas by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey to provide data on the impact of proposed channel excavation and levee construction in the Sicily Island area, Louisiana. Samples of receiving water from the five areas, selected to represent the water that will contact the proposed dredged material of the levee fill material, also were collected. Chemical and physical analyses were performed on samples of core material and native water and on elutriate samples of specific core material-receiving water mixtures. The results of these analyses are presented without interpretation. (USGS)

Demcheck, Dennis K.; Dupuy, Alton J.

1980-01-01

319

Characterizing land surface change and levee stability in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta using UAVSAR radar imagery  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The islands of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta have been subject to subsidence since they were first reclaimed from the estuary marshlands starting over 100 years ago, with most of the land currently lying below mean sea level. This area, which is the primary water resource of the state of California, is under constant threat of inundation from levee failure. Since July 2009, we have been imaging the area using the quad-polarimetric UAVSAR L-band radar, with eighteen data sets collected as of April 2011. Here we report results of our polarimetric and differential interferometric analysis of the data for levee deformation and land surface change. ?? 2011 IEEE.

Jones, C.; Bawden, G.; Deverel, S.; Dudas, J.; Hensley, S.

2011-01-01

320

Geophysical Characterization of the American River Levees, Sacramento, California, using Electromagnetics, Capacitively Coupled Resistivity, and DC Resistivity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A geophysical characterization of a portion of American River levees in Sacramento, California was conducted in May, 2007. Targets of interest included the distribution and thickness of sand lenses that underlie the levees and the depth to a clay unit that underlies the sand. The concern is that the erosion of these sand lenses can lead to levee failure in highly populated areas of Sacramento. DC resistivity (Geometric?s OhmMapper and Advanced Geosciences, Inc.?s SuperSting R8 systems) and electromagnetic surveys (Geophex?s GEM-2) were conducted over a 6 mile length of the levee on roads and bicycle and horse trails. 2-D inversions were conducted on all the geophysical data. The OhmMapper and SuperSting surveys produced consistent inversion results that delineated potential sand and clay units. GEM-2 apparent resistivity data were consistent with the DC inversion results. However, the GEM-2 data could not be inverted due to low electromagnetic response levels, high ambient electromagnetic noise, and large system drifts. While this would not be as large a problem in conductive terrains, it is a problem for a small induction number electromagnetic profiling system such as the GEM-2 in a resistive terrain (the sand lenses). An integrated interpretation of the geophysical data acquired in this investigation is presented in this report that includes delineation of those areas consisting of predominantly sand and those areas consisting predominantly of clay. In general, along most of this part of the American River levee system, sand lenses are located closest to the river and clay deposits are located further away from the river. The interpreted thicknesses of the detected sand deposits are variable and range from 10 ft up to 60 ft. Thus, despite issues with the GEM-2 inversion, this geophysical investigation successfully delineated sand lenses and clay deposits along the American River levee system and the approximate depths to underlying clay zones. The results of this geophysical investigation should help the USACE to maintain the current levee system while also assisting the designers and planners of levee enhancements with the knowledge of what is to be expected from the near-surface geology and where zones of concern may be located.

Asch, Theodore H.; Deszcz-Pan, Maria; Burton, Bethany L.; Ball, Lyndsay B.

2008-01-01

321

Contemporary channel-levee systems in active borderland basin plains, California Continental Borderland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Long-range large-scale side-scan (GLORIA) information, other seismic reflection profiling studies, and data from cores in the California Continental Borderland, have defined active levee-channel systems extending basinward from the lower fan of Hueneme-Mugu Submarine Fan, Redondo Submarine Fan, and Santa Cruz Canyon Fan in Santa Monica, San Pedro and Santa Cruz Basins, respectively. The Holocene distributaries have been created by a series of turbidity current events. These distributaries range in length from 10-25 km, and are wide (2-5 km) and low-relief (1-10 m) in their distal parts. They are also active conduits for nepheloid flows. Distributions of sedimentological parameters typically mimic the pattern of levee-channel systems. Organic carbon and biogenic carbonate content roughly outline the systems. Channels are incised in the upper to middle fan areas, and become constructional leveed channels in the lower fan and basin plain as the channel gradient adjusts to maintain a graded profile. Thus sediment gravity flows are generally confined to channels in the upper fan zones, but deposit both channelized and over-bank deposits on the lower fan and basin floor. The deposits show that the canyon-fan activity has continued during a rising sea level phase. It is evident that canyon headward erosion rates have been equal to or greater than the transgression rate, and that the canyon-fan systems have remained linked with their sediment sources. Frequency of events was probably higher, and volumes of the events were often larger, during the glacially lowered sea level episodes. However, turbidity currents of sufficient volume to reach the basin floors continue to occur at century or multi-century intervals. As one progresses headward in each system, the number of flows per length of core increases. Small flows that do not pass beyond the distributaries are much more frequent, and may be decadal in frequency, or even more frequent in the Santa Monica Basin system. These California borderland basins are probably typical of narrow active margins where rate of lateral sea level transgression is less than or equal to the rate of canyon headward erosion. The canyons maintain connections with sediment sources during sea level rise, and the systems therefore are active during the entire sea level cycle. Thus sediment supply is not a simple function of eustacy. This contrasts with the simplified sequence model developed on passive margins where canyons turn off as sea level rises.

Schwalbach, J.R.; Edwards, B.D.; Gorsline, D.S.

1996-01-01

322

Information system on hydrological and geomorphological catastrophes in Italy (SICI): a tool for managing landslide and flood hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1990, we have maintained a database of historical information on landslides and floods in Italy, known as the National Research Council's AVI (Damaged Urban Areas) archive. The database was originally designed to respond to a request of the Minister of Civil Protection, and was aimed at helping the regional assessment of landslide and flood risk in Italy. The database

F. Guzzetti; G. Tonelli

2004-01-01

323

Coupling hydrologic and hydraulic modelling for reliable flood risk mitigation activities in the Upper-Medium Tiber River basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of the recent and serious flood events occurred in latest years in Italy, the interest towards accurate methodology for the evaluation of flood prone areas is continually increasing. In particular, this issue is related to urbanization planning activities, civil protection actions (e.g. hydraulic risk warning systems), and the assessment of hydraulic engineering structures behaviour during severe hydrometeorological conditions.

N. Berni; L. Brocca; L. Giustarini; C. Pandolfo; M. Stelluti; F. Melone; T. Moramarco

2009-01-01

324

Belford proactive flood solutions: scientific evidence to influence local and national policy by multi-purpose runoff management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increased risk from flooding continues to be of concern to governments all around the world and flood protection is becoming more of a challenge. In the UK, climate change projections indicate more extremes within the weather systems. In addition, there is an increased demand for using land in urban areas beside channels. These developments both put pressure on our

M. Wilkinson; P. F. Quinn; J. Jonczyk

2010-01-01

325

Increase in the exposition to floods in the Alicante coast (Valencia region, Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last two decades, Flood episodes along the Alicante coastline have caused important material losses and general disruptions of everyday life in the municipalities affected. We can speak of an increase in the vulnerability to floods chiefly as a result of an increase in exposition. In turn this increase is fundamentally linked to the nature of the recent urbanization process in this area and the corresponding occupation of flood prone land. The province of Alicante occupies one of the first positions in Europe regarding flood risk (ESPON 2006). Even counting with legislation that regulates land uses, processes leading to the occupation of flood risk areas have proven very difficult to manage. In this sense, the Valencia region has enacted legislation such as the Land Use Planning Law of 1989, the Law on Urban Growth Regulations of 1994, and the Planning Regulations of 1998. All these legal pieces attempted to prohibit development in flood prone land declaring this land as "non.urban". New laws such as the Law on Land Use Planning and Landscape protection of 2004, the Law on New Urban Land (2004), and the Decree on Landscape (2006) also consider the need to include the flood hazard in planning activities. Furthermore in 1997, the so-called "Cartography of the flood hazard at the regional level" was elaborated. This mapping exercise was the base for the "Territorial Plan for the Reduction of Flood Risks (PATRICOVA) approved in 2003 and currently the main planning tool for flood management in Valencia. On the other hand, the European Directive 60/2007 pointed towards the need to take into consideration the social perception of Flood risks in order to develop integrated actions of risk management. Accordingly we have undertaken 285 interviews in the coastal communities of Alicante, Calpe and Campello (95 interviews each). We have chosen these municipalities for two reasons: first their significance in population and economic activity terms, and second, their different approach in specific measures to reduce the impact of floods

Olcina, J.; Rico, A. M.; Hernandez, M.; Martínez, E.

2009-09-01

326

1976 Big Thompson flood, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the early evening of July 31, 1976, a large stationary thunderstorm released as much as 7.5 inches of rainfall in about an hour (about 12 inches in a few hours) in the upper reaches of the Big Thompson River drainage. This large amount of rainfall in such a short period of time produced a flash flood that caught residents and tourists by surprise. The immense volume of water that churned down the narrow Big Thompson Canyon scoured the river channel and destroyed everything in its path, including 418 homes, 52 businesses, numerous bridges, paved and unpaved roads, power and telephone lines, and many other structures. The tragedy claimed the lives of 144 people. Scores of other people narrowly escaped with their lives. The Big Thompson flood ranks among the deadliest of Colorado's recorded floods. It is one of several destructive floods in the United States that has shown the necessity of conducting research to determine the causes and effects of floods. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts research and operates a Nationwide streamgage network to help understand and predict the magnitude and likelihood of large streamflow events such as the Big Thompson Flood. Such research and streamgage information are part of an ongoing USGS effort to reduce flood hazards and to increase public awareness.

Jarrett, R. D., (compiler); Vandas, S.J.

2006-01-01

327

Historical hydrology and database on flood events (Apulia, southern Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historical data about floods represent an important tool for the comprehension of the hydrological processes, the estimation of hazard scenarios as a basis for Civil Protection purposes, as a basis of the rational land use management, especially in karstic areas, where time series of river flows are not available and the river drainage is rare. The research shows the importance of the improvement of existing flood database with an historical approach, finalized to collect past or historical floods event, in order to better assess the occurrence trend of floods, in the case for the Apulian region (south Italy). The main source of records of flood events for Apulia was the AVI (the acronym means Italian damaged areas) database, an existing Italian database that collects data concerning damaging floods from 1918 to 1996. The database was expanded consulting newspapers, publications, and technical reports from 1996 to 2006. In order to expand the temporal range further data were collected searching in the archives of regional libraries. About 700 useful news from 17 different local newspapers were found from 1876 to 1951. From a critical analysis of the 700 news collected since 1876 to 1952 only 437 were useful for the implementation of the Apulia database. The screening of these news showed the occurrence of about 122 flood events in the entire region. The district of Bari, the regional main town, represents the area in which the great number of events occurred; the historical analysis confirms this area as flood-prone. There is an overlapping period (from 1918 to 1952) between old AVI database and new historical dataset obtained by newspapers. With regard to this period, the historical research has highlighted new flood events not reported in the existing AVI database and it also allowed to add more details to the events already recorded. This study shows that the database is a dynamic instrument, which allows a continuous implementation of data, even in real time. More details on previous results of this research activity were recently published (Polemio, 2010; Basso et al., 2012; Lonigro et al., 2013) References Basso A., Lonigro T. and Polemio M. (2012) "The improvement of historical database on damaging hydrogeological events in the case of Apulia (Southern Italy)". Rendiconti online della Società Geologica Italiana, 21: 379-380; Lonigro T., Basso A. and Polemio M. (2013) "Historical database on damaging hydrogeological events in Apulia region (Southern Italy)". Rendiconti online della Società Geologica Italiana, 24: 196-198; Polemio M. (2010) "Historical floods and a recent extreme rainfall event in the Murgia karstic environment (Southern Italy)". Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, 54(2): 195-219.

Lonigro, Teresa; Basso, Alessia; Gentile, Francesco; Polemio, Maurizio

2014-05-01

328

Increasing stress on disaster risk finance due to large floods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent major flood disasters have shown that single extreme events can affect multiple countries simultaneously, which puts high pressure on trans-national risk reduction and risk transfer mechanisms. To date, little is known about such flood hazard interdependencies across regions, and the corresponding joint risks at regional to continental scales. Reliable information on correlated loss probabilities is crucial for developing robust insurance schemes and public adaptation funds, and for enhancing our understanding of climate change impacts. Here we show that extreme discharges are strongly correlated across European river basins and that these correlations can, or should, be used in national to continental scale risk assessment. We present probabilistic trends in continental flood risk, and demonstrate that currently observed extreme flood losses could more than double in frequency by 2050 under future climate change and socioeconomic development. The results demonstrate that accounting for tail dependencies leads to higher estimates of extreme losses than estimates based on the traditional assumption of independence between basins. We suggest that risk management for these increasing losses is largely feasible, and we demonstrate that risk can be shared by expanding risk transfer financing, reduced by investing in flood protection, or absorbed by enhanced solidarity between countries. We conclude that these measures have vastly different efficiency, equity and acceptability implications, which need to be taken into account in broader consultation, for which our analysis provides a basis.

Jongman, Brenden; Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan; Feyen, Luc; Aerts, Jeroen; Mechler, Reinhard; Botzen, Wouter; Bouwer, Laurens; Pflug, Georg; Rojas, Rodrigo; Ward, Philip

2014-05-01

329

Flow rule, self-channelization and levees in unconfined granular flows  

E-print Network

Unconfined granular flows along an inclined plane are investigated experimentally. During a long transient, the flow gets confined by quasistatic banks but still spreads laterally towards a well-defined asymptotic state following a nontrivial process. Far enough from the banks a scaling for the depth averaged velocity is obtained, which extends the one obtained for homogeneous steady flows. Close to jamming it exhibits a crossover towards a nonlocal rheology. We show that the levees, commonly observed along the sides of the deposit upon interruption of the flow, disappear for long flow durations. We demonstrate that the morphology of the deposit builds up during the flow, in the form of an underlying static layer, which can be deduced from surface velocity profiles, by imposing the same flow rule everywhere in the flow.

S. Deboeuf; E. Lajeunesse; O. Dauchot; B. Andreotti

2006-04-13

330

Habitat conservation and creation: Invoking the flood-pulse concept to enhance fisheries in the lower Mississippi River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analysis of four years of growth data failed to identify a single temperature or hydrologic variable that consistently accounted for variation in annual growth of catfishes (Ictaluridae). Instead, a composite variable that measured duration of floodplain inundation when water temperature exceeded minima for active feeding was directly related to growth. Results indicated that floodplain inundation have provided little direct energetic benefit to fishes when water temperatures were sub-optimal for active feeding, but floodplain resources were exploited when thermal conditions were sufficient for active feeding and growth. Thus, the flood-pulse concept applies to the lower Mississippi River (LMR) when modified to consider temperature. Managing the existing leveed floodplain to prolong inundation, increase water temperatures during spring flooding, and maintain connectivity of floodplain habitats with the main river channel should benefit fish production in the LMR.

Schramm, H.L., Jr.; Eggleton, M.A.; Mayo, R.M.

2000-01-01

331

Losses of surface runoff, total solids, and nitrogen during bermudagrass establishment on levee embankments.  

PubMed

Nutrient and sediment runoff from newly constructed levee embankments pose a threat to water quality during soft armor vegetation establishment. Research was initiated in 2008 and 2009 to evaluate the effect of bermudagrass ( L.) coverage and N source on nutrient and sediment runoff from levee embankments during establishment. Bermudagrass plots were seeded at 195.3 kg pure live seed ha and fertilized at 50 kg N ha using a water-soluble N source, urea or NH-NO, or slow-release N source, S-coated urea (SCU) or urea formaldehyde (UF), with controls unfertilized. Vegetative cover percentage, time until the onset of runoff, runoff volume, and total solids (TS), NO-N, and NH-N concentrations were measured from simulated and natural rainfall events for 70 d in 2008 and 56 d in 2009. Bermudagrass at 90% grass cover delayed the onset of runoff an additional 441 to 538 s and reduced runoff volumes 74 to 84% of that exhibited at 10% grass cover. Nitrogen fertilizers did not accelerate bermudagrass growth sufficiently, however, to reduce TS loading compared with unfertilized bermudagrass in either year of the study. The application of urea and SCU resulted in cumulative N losses of 2.45 and 3.13 kg ha compared with 1.59 kg ha from the unfertilized bermudagrass in 2008, and 1.73 kg ha from NH-NO vs. 0.24 kg ha from controls in 2009. Only UF increased bermudagrass establishment without increasing cumulative N losses compared with unfertilized bermudagrass. Therefore, the benefit of greater erosion and runoff resistance expected from N-accelerated vegetative growth did not occur but had the unintended consequence of higher N losses when water-soluble N and SCU fertilizers were applied. PMID:21712593

Burwell, Robert W; Beasley, Jeffrey S; Gaston, Lewis A; Borst, Steven M; Sheffield, Ron E; Strahan, Ron E; Munshaw, Gregg C

2011-01-01

332

77 FR 9637 - Process for Requesting a Variance From Vegetation Standards for Levees and Floodwalls; Additional...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...management standards. It should be noted that landside planting berms may be incorporated into...and to see areas of distress on the landside during a flood event, typically the...the waterside slope, the crown, the landside slope, and within 15 feet of the...

2012-02-17

333

Revised Final Independent External Peer Review Report Alton to Gale Organized Levee Districts,  

E-print Network

, Deficiency Corrections) Letter Report by Battelle 505 King Avenue Columbus, OH 43201 for Department, Illinois and Missouri (Continuing, Deficiency Corrections) Letter Report Prepared by Battelle Memorial Institute Prepared for Department of the Army U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Flood Risk Management Planning

US Army Corps of Engineers

334

LOW OZONE-DEPLETING HALOCARBONS AS TOTAL-FLOOD AGENTS: VOLUME 1. CANDIDATE SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

The volume describes an effort to identify chemical fire protection and explosion prevention agents which may replace the ozone-depleting agent Halon-1301 (CF3Br). Halon-1301 is used in total-flood fire protection systems where the agent is released as a gas into an enclosed spac...

335

Water Quality of a Drained Wetland, Caledonia Marsh on Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, after Flooding in 2006  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The unexpected inundation of Caledonia Marsh, a previously drained wetland adjacent to Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, provided an opportunity to observe nutrient release from sediments into the water column of the flooded area and the resulting algal growth. Three sites, with differing proximity to the levee breach that reconnected the area to Upper Klamath Lake, were selected for water sample collection in the marsh. Chlorophyll a concentrations (an indicator of algal biomass) were lowest and dissolved nutrient concentrations were highest at the site farthest from the breach. At the site where chlorophyll a concentrations were lowest, dissolved organic carbon concentrations were highest, and the presence of tannic compounds was indicated by the dark brown color of the water. Both DOC and specific conductance was higher at the site farthest from the breach, which indicated less mixing with Upper Klamath Lake water at that site. Dissolved oxygen concentrations and pH were lowest at the beginning of the sampling period at the site farthest from the levee breach, coincident with the lowest algal growth. Phosphorus concentrations measured in the flooded Caledonia Marsh were greater than median concentrations in Upper Klamath Lake, indicating that phosphorus likely was released from the previously drained wetland soils of the marsh when they were flooded. However, a proportional increase in algal biomass was not measured either in the marsh or in the adjacent bay of the lake. Nitrogen to phosphorus ratios indicated that phosphorus was not limiting to algal growth at the marsh sites, and possibly was not limiting in the adjacent bay either. In terms of nutrient dynamics, wetlands normally function as nutrient sinks. In contrast, the drained wetlands around Upper Klamath Lake cannot be expected to provide that function in the short term after being flooded and may, in fact, be a source of nutrients to the lake instead. The consequences for algal growth in the lake, however, seem to be small.

Lindenberg, Mary K.; Wood, Tamara M.

2009-01-01

336

ADVISORY BASE FLOOD ELEVATIONS (ABFE)  

E-print Network

. NOTE: To get the project grants, the community must have a Flood Mitigation Plan in place. 4. Pre-Disaster with your granting agency to determine if it requires using ABFE during reconstruction. Will it cost my

337

Assessing Flood Risk at Nuclear Power Plants with an Uncertain Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2010 a tsunami severely damaged the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan. As a result, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission directed that a systematic and methodical review of Commission processes and regulations be performed to determine whether the agency should make additional improvements to its regulatory system and to make recommendations to the Commission. Two of the recommendations of the Task Force created to inform the Commission were: establish a logical, systematic, and coherent regulatory framework for adequate protection that appropriately balances defense-in-depth and risk considerations and that the NRC require licensees to reevaluate and upgrade as necessary the design-basis flooding protection of structures, systems, and components for each operating reactor. These recommendations came at the same time as technical discussions about updating approaches to evaluate flood hazard were underway. These discussions included: consideration of climate nonstationarity in flood assessments; transitioning from PMP/PMF assessments to probabilistic flood analyses to better align with risk-informed decision making; and systematic consideration of combined events in flood risk analysis. There is no scientific basis to assume that shifts in long-term mean precipitation and temperature (such as is commonly derived from climate models) relate to flood probability. Flood mechanisms are often more complex and reflect climate pattern anomalies more than mean annual shifts. Instead of discounting historical data due to climatic nonstationarity, it is important to better understand the climate patterns that have triggered floods in the past and to look to climate forecasts to understand the likely changes in the frequency of those historical climate patterns with climate change. It is equally important to have a better understanding of whether climate change will result in flood-generating climate systems heretofore unknown in the particular locale. This presentation will provide a roadmap to ensuring that the flood hazards of existing and future nuclear power plants are well defined.

Wigmosta, M. S.; Vail, L. W.

2011-12-01

338

The Routing and Re-Routing of Difficult Knowledge: Social Studies Teachers Encounter "When the Levees Broke"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author explores the articulations of six social studies student/teachers after a viewing of "When the Levees Broke: A Requiem in Four Acts". The film, a documentary about the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina on the people in and around New Orleans, constitutes an encounter with what Deborah Britzman (1998) calls "difficult…

Garrett, H. James

2011-01-01

339

In Brief: Flood impact map  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have created an interactive “flood impact map.” The map, available at http://www.floodsmart.gov/noaa, features localized, searchable data about the scope and severity of flood events in recent years. Other forecasting and warning tools include those available at http://www.weather.gov/water and NOAA Weather Radio (http://www.nws.noaa.gov/nwr/).

Showstack, Randy

2010-03-01

340

Asphalt deposition in miscible floods  

E-print Network

ASPHALT DEPOSITION IN MISCIBLE FLOODS A Thesis By SYED MIR AHMED HASAN Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas . ASM University partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January, 1964 Major Subject...: Petroleum Engineering ASPHALT DEPOSITION IN MISCIBLE FLOODS A Thesis By SYED MIR AHMED HASAN Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) ommittee Member) Committee Member) Head of Department), (Co 'ttee Member) January, f964...

Hasan, Syed Mir Ahmed

1964-01-01

341

Mississippi River flood of 1927  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An 18-minute silent film documenting the Mississippi River flood of 1927, featuring images of the flood, the damage it caused, the victims who suffered, and the relief efforts that helped rebuild. Although the was poorly transfered to video, it is in relatively good condition, and a shotlist is provided. The file is available as MPEG-4 streams and downloads at two different levels of quality, as well as MPEG-1 and -2 files for download.

Signal Corps of the Mississippi flood of 1927; Archive, Internet

342

Cyber surveillance for flood disasters.  

PubMed

Regional heavy rainfall is usually caused by the influence of extreme weather conditions. Instant heavy rainfall often results in the flooding of rivers and the neighboring low-lying areas, which is responsible for a large number of casualties and considerable property loss. The existing precipitation forecast systems mostly focus on the analysis and forecast of large-scale areas but do not provide precise instant automatic monitoring and alert feedback for individual river areas and sections. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an easy method to automatically monitor the flood object of a specific area, based on the currently widely used remote cyber surveillance systems and image processing methods, in order to obtain instant flooding and waterlogging event feedback. The intrusion detection mode of these surveillance systems is used in this study, wherein a flood is considered a possible invasion object. Through the detection and verification of flood objects, automatic flood risk-level monitoring of specific individual river segments, as well as the automatic urban inundation detection, has become possible. The proposed method can better meet the practical needs of disaster prevention than the method of large-area forecasting. It also has several other advantages, such as flexibility in location selection, no requirement of a standard water-level ruler, and a relatively large field of view, when compared with the traditional water-level measurements using video screens. The results can offer prompt reference for appropriate disaster warning actions in small areas, making them more accurate and effective. PMID:25621609

Lo, Shi-Wei; Wu, Jyh-Horng; Lin, Fang-Pang; Hsu, Ching-Han

2015-01-01

343

The impact of changes in climate and socio-economic conditions on river flood losses at the global scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floods pose one of the largest risks to natural hazards globally. In 2012, the global damage from floods was estimated to be about € 22 billion. For the first half of 2013, the global damage was estimated to be already € 35 billion, being about 47% of the overall losses due to natural hazards. Almost half of this amount was due to river flooding such as the devastating floods in East Germany in May-June 2013. Besides possible increases in frequency and severity of flood events, floods are becoming more damaging due to increases in population and increases in economic utilization of flood prone areas. It is therefore crucial to understand the nature and causes of flood risks and possible changes therein due to climate and socio-economic change. Improved understanding will support adaptation plans and investments, either in new economic activities or in flood protection. In this contribution, we demonstrate, at the global scale, how economic damages and the number of flood-affected people due to river floods will change in several scenarios of combined climate and socio-economic change. Across a number of large river basins, we distinguish the contribution to change in risk by climate change (resulting in an increase in flood hazard) and by socio-economic change (resulting in more impacts of flooding). We compute these risks using a model cascade consisting of hydrological flood models and impact models forced by long time series of current and future climate (CMIP5) and socio-economic scenarios in periods around 2030 and 2080. The method is validated with reported river discharge extremes and reported damage estimates. We discuss the possible implications of the change in risk for humanitarian aid and adaptation requirements.

Winsemius, Hessel; Ward, Philip; Bouwman, Arno; Jongman, Brenden; Van Beek, Rens; Kwadijk, Jaap; Bierkens, Marc; Ligtvoet, Willem; Lucas, Paul; Van Vuuren, Detlef

2014-05-01

344

FLOOD RISK MANAGEMENT FOR SETTING PRIORITIES IN DECISION MAKING  

Microsoft Academic Search

- Risk management as a tool for decision making has found more and more acceptance among scientists, and even for\\u000a planners of flood protection systems. However, a shortcoming of this approach is that at present it only considers risk cost\\u000a as management tool. It is at present the basis for most risk based approaches, which start with hazard maps, which

ERICH J. PLATE

345

Anthropogenic greenhouse gas contribution to UK autumn flood risk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interest in attributing the risk of damaging weather-related events to anthropogenic climate change is increasing[1]. Yet climate models typically used for studying the attribution problem do not resolve weather at scales causing damage[2]. Here we present the first multi-step study that attributes increasing risk of a damaging regional weather-related event to global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The event was the UK flooding of October and November 2000, occurring during the wettest autumn in England & Wales since records began in 1766[3] and inundating several river catchments[4]. Nearly 10,000 properties were flooded and transport services and power supplies severely disrupted, with insured losses estimated at £1.3bn[5,6]. Though the floods were deemed a ‘wake up call' to the impacts of climate change[7], anthropogenic drivers cannot be blamed for this individual event: but they could be blamed for changing its risk[8,9]. Indeed, typically quoted thermodynamic arguments do suggest increased probability of precipitation extremes under anthropogenic warming[10]. But these arguments are too simple[11,12,13] to fully account for the complex weather[4,14] associated with the flooding. Instead we use a Probabilistic Event Attribution framework, to rigorously estimate the contribution of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions to England & Wales Autumn 2000 flood risk. This involves comparing an unprecedented number of daily river runoff realisations for the region, under Autumn 2000 scenarios both with and without the emissions. These realisations are produced using publicly volunteered distributed computing power to generate several thousand seasonal forecast resolution climate model simulations[15,16] that are then fed into a precipitation-runoff model[17,18]. Autumn 2000 flooding is characterised by realisations exceeding the highest daily river runoff for that period, derived from the observational-based ERA-40 re-anaylsis[19]. We find that our climate model adequately represents autumn synoptic conditions, and that our precipitation-runoff model adequately represents England & Wales runoff variability. Moreover, our model results indicate 20th century anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions significantly (at the 10% level) increased England & Wales flood risk in Autumn 2000 and most probably about trebled it. This pilot demonstration of the Probabilistic Event Attribution framework forms the foundation for an ongoing long-term project to provide operational attribution statements for extreme weather-related events worldwide. References: -------------- 1. Hegerl, G.C. et al. Understanding and attributing climate change. In Climate change 2007: The physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [eds Solomon, S. et al.] (Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA) (2007). 2. Stott, P.A. et al. Detection and attribution of climate change: a regional perspective. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, submitted. 3. Alexander, L.V. & Jones, P.D. Updated precipitation series for the U.K. and discussion of recent extremes. Atmos. Sci. Lett. 1, 142-150 (2001). 4. Marsh, T.J. & Dale, M. The UK floods of 2000-2001 : A hydrometeorological appraisal. J. Chartered Inst. Water Environ. Manage. 16, 180-188 (2002). 5. Association of British Insurers. Flooding: A partnership approach to protecting people. http://www.abi.org.uk/Display/File/301/Flooding_-_A_Partnership_Approach_to_Protecting_People.doc (2001). 6. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. To what degree can the October/November 2000 flood events be attributed to climate change? DEFRA FD2304 Final Report, London, 36 pp. (2001). 7. Environment Agency. Lessons learned: Autumn 2000 floods. Environment Agency, Bristol, 56 pp. (2001). 8. Allen, M.R. Liability for climate change. Nature 421, 891-892 (2003). 9. Stone, D.A. & Allen, M.R. The end-to-end attribution problem: From emissions to impacts. Climatic Cha

Pall, Pardeep; Aina, Tolu; Stone, Dáithí; Stott, Peter; Nozawa, Toru; Hilberts, Arno; Lohmann, Dag; Allen, Myles

2010-05-01

346

A comparison of the causes, effects and aftermaths of the coastal flooding of England in 1953 and France in 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides a comparison of the causes, effects and aftermaths of the coastal flooding that occurred on the east coast of England in 1953 and the west coast of France in 2010 that resulted in 307 and 47 deaths respectively. The causes of both events are strikingly similar. Both were caused by a combination of high tides, low atmospheric pressure, high winds and the failure of poorly maintained flood defences. In both cases the number of deaths was related to the vulnerability of the buildings and people. Buildings in the flood zones were often single storey bungalows and the people who died were mostly over 60 yr of age. Both tragedies were national disasters. The 1953 flood in England acted as a catalyst for an acceleration in flood risk management policy and practice. It resulted in: the development of a Storm Tide Warning System for the east coast of England; the setting of new design standards for coastal flood defences; increased investment in improving coastal defences; and a substantial new research effort into coastal processes, protection and forecasting. In France there has also been an episodic shift in flood risk management policy with the focus falling on: control of urban developments in areas at risk of flooding; improved coastal forecasting and warning; strengthening of flood defences; and developing a "culture of risk awareness". This paper outlines the lessons that can be learnt from the two events and provides recommendations concerning how future loss of life as a result of coastal flooding can be reduced.

Lumbroso, D. M.; Vinet, F.

2011-08-01

347

Flood Inundation Modeling for Urban Watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, flood inundation modeling is examined through analyses of major urban floods in Baltimore, MD (USA). Analyses are based on the LISFLOOD-FP model and utilize high-resolution data sets for the channel and valley bottom topography and composition of Dead Run. We examine flood inundation for major flood events on 7 July 2004 and 24 July 2008. For the 7 July 2004 flood event, flood inundation observations are available over a significant portion of the drainage network of the Dead Run watershed. Additional data sets, including high-resolution radar rainfall data sets and stage observations from a network of stream gaging stations, are used to assess spatial heterogeneities of flood response. LISFLOOD-FP inundation representations are compared to FEMA flood inundation maps for the Dead Run study region and used to assess critical modeling elements for flood hazard assessments in urban watersheds.

Fewtrell, T.; Neal, J.; Smith, J.; Bates, P.; Miller, A.; Baeck, M. L.; Villarini, G.

2012-04-01

348

A flood-flow formula for Connecticut  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study of the frequency and magnitude of floods within the Connecticut area is contained in this report. Annual flood discharges for 44 stream-gaging stations whose records range in length from l0 to 40 years are presented and a regional flood-frequency relationship developed based upon the ratios of all floods to the mean annual flood at each of these locations. Definition of this curve for floods of larger recurrence intervals is based upon historical studies of extraordinary floods which have occurred within the area. For ungaged areas, the mean annual flood value may be determined by use of a flood-flow formula based upon the topographic characteristics of drainage area and basin slope. The development of this formula also is included.

Bigwood, B.L.; Thomas, M.P.

1955-01-01

349

Uncertainty of Mitigation Measures to Floods in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As an aspect of the changing climatic conditions and anthropogenic impact; however, floods and torrents have been recently existed in Jeddah, the coastal Saudi city along the Red Sea. Distributed over 28 surface water basins, totaling an area of more than 2500km2, floods cover more than 15% of the area. This is well pronounced in 2009 and 2011, and it was attributed mainly to the torrential rainfall peaks the area witnesses lately. In addition, there is a chaotic urban distribution from the coastal zone to the adjacent mountain chains to the east, where torrential water runs towards the coast. A detailed assessment has been obtained using advanced space tools (e.g. high-resolution satellite images), and the application was carried out on several aspects of these images and at different dates. This was accomplished in combination the applications of geo-spatial systems to induce the mechanism of water flow regime and to identify the major reasons behind the high risk magnitude. Consequently, the geomorphologic and hydrologic parameters for flood occurrence were recognized. In the light of this catastrophic status; however, mitigation measures are rare enough to protect the area under risk. Recently, and after the 2009 and the recurrent 2011 disasters, which were resulted from floods, some mitigation measures have been undertaken and others were proposed. However, there is still uncertainty for an integrated flood control system. This can be viewed from the unsuitability of the selected sites and erroneous applications for flood controls. Besides, there is a lack to: 1) a giant channeling system for the risk area, 2) check dams, 3) ponds for water collection, 4) sediments-fixing controls, 5) traced watercourses. This is in addition to absence of proper legislation to prevent chaotic urban activities along valleys' pathways.

Al Saud, M.

2011-12-01

350

Assess the flood resilience tools integration in the landuse projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite a severe regulation concerning the building in flooding areas, 80% of these areas are already built in the Greater Paris (Paris, Val-de-Marne, Hauts-de-Seine and Seine-Saint-Denis). The land use in flooding area is presented as one of the main solutions to solve the ongoing real estate pressure. For instance some of the industrial wastelands located along the river are currently in redevelopment and residential buildings are planned. So the landuse in the flooding areas is currently a key issue in the development of the Greater Paris area. To deal with floods there are some resilience tools, whether structural (such as perimeter barriers or building aperture barriers, etc) or non structural (such as warning systems, etc.). The technical solutions are available and most of the time efficient1. Still, we notice that these tools are not much implemented. The people; stakeholders and inhabitants, literally seems to be not interested. This papers focus on the integration of resilience tools in urban projects. Indeed one of the blockages in the implementation of an efficient flood risk prevention policy is the lack of concern of the landuse stakeholders and the inhabitants for the risk2. We conducted an important number of interviews with stakeholders involved in various urban projects and we assess, in this communication, to what extent the improvement of the resilience to floods is considered as a main issue in the execution of an urban project? How this concern is maintained or could be maintained throughout the project. Is there a dilution of this concern? In order to develop this topic we rely on a case study. The "Ardoines" is a project aiming at redeveloping an industrial site (South-East Paris), into a project including residential and office buildings and other amenities. In order to elaborate the master plan, the urban planning authority brought together some flood risk experts. According to the comments of the experts, the architect in charge of the landuse elaborated the master plan taking into account the flood risk; reducing vulnerability of the area and improving the resilience in case of floods, towards a threshold plan. We set this case-study back in the French policy context of prevention and protection against floods and in the context of the Greater Paris development. There are two levels of problems: In the case of the Ardoines project, the reduction of vulnerability isn't linked with the improvement of the resilience. Indeed, the stakeholders do not envisage an event worst than the 100-years flood return period, the one taken into account in a flood prevention plan. The regulation is the guide for construction rules but there is no consideration for the crisis management. Moreover, the reduction of vulnerability appears less important than the economical issues in the management of a project. This case study illustrates how the lack of awareness for territorial resilience issues and the lack of interest for flood resilience tools are embedded in the "governance" of the risk in the greater Paris area.

Moulin, E.; Deroubaix, J.-F.

2012-04-01

351

Uncertainty in flood risk mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A flood refers to a sharp increase of water level or volume in rivers and seas caused by sudden rainstorms or melting ice due to natural factors. In this paper, the flooding of riverside urban areas caused by sudden rainstorms will be studied. In this context, flooding occurs when the water runs above the level of the minor river bed and enters the major river bed. The level of the major bed determines the magnitude and risk of the flooding. The prediction of the flooding extent is usually deterministic, and corresponds to the expected limit of the flooded area. However, there are many sources of uncertainty in the process of obtaining these limits, which influence the obtained flood maps used for watershed management or as instruments for territorial and emergency planning. In addition, small variations in the delineation of the flooded area can be translated into erroneous risk prediction. Therefore, maps that reflect the uncertainty associated with the flood modeling process have started to be developed, associating a degree of likelihood with the boundaries of the flooded areas. In this paper an approach is presented that enables the influence of the parameters uncertainty to be evaluated, dependent on the type of Land Cover Map (LCM) and Digital Elevation Model (DEM), on the estimated values of the peak flow and the delineation of flooded areas (different peak flows correspond to different flood areas). The approach requires modeling the DEM uncertainty and its propagation to the catchment delineation. The results obtained in this step enable a catchment with fuzzy geographical extent to be generated, where a degree of possibility of belonging to the basin is assigned to each elementary spatial unit. Since the fuzzy basin may be considered as a fuzzy set, the fuzzy area of the basin may be computed, generating a fuzzy number. The catchment peak flow is then evaluated using fuzzy arithmetic. With this methodology a fuzzy number is obtained for the peak flow, which indicates all possible peak flow values and the possibility of their occurrence. To produce the LCM a supervised soft classifier is used to perform the classification of a satellite image and a possibility distribution is assign to the pixels. These extra data provide additional land cover information at the pixel level and allow the assessment of the classification uncertainty, which is then considered in the identification of the parameters uncertainty used to compute peak flow. The proposed approach was applied to produce vulnerability and risk maps that integrate uncertainty in the urban area of Leiria, Portugal. A SPOT - 4 satellite image and DEMs of the region were used and the peak flow was computed using the Soil Conservation Service method. HEC-HMS, HEC-RAS, Matlab and ArcGIS software programs were used. The analysis of the results obtained for the presented case study enables the order of magnitude of uncertainty on the watershed peak flow value and the identification of the areas which are more susceptible to flood risk to be identified.

Gonçalves, Luisa M. S.; Fonte, Cidália C.; Gomes, Ricardo

2014-05-01

352

Floods in the Skunk River basin, Iowa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Evaluation of flood hazards, and the planning, design, and operation of various facilities on flood plains require information on floods. This report provides information on flood stages and discharges, flood magnitudes and frequency, and flood profiles for the Skunk River and some of its tributaries. It covers the Skunk -- South Skunk Rivers to Ames, and the lower reaches of tributaries as flows: Squaw Creek, 8.2 miles; Indian Creek, 11.6 miles; North Skunk River, 83.2 miles; Cedar Creek, 55.8 miles; and Big Creek, 21.7 miles.

Heinitz, Albert J.; Wiitala, Sulo Werner

1978-01-01

353

Flooding on Russia's Lena River  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nearly every year in the late spring, ice blocks the flow of water at the mouth of the Lena River in northeastern Russia and gives rise to floods across the Siberian plains. This year's floods can be seen in this image taken on June 2, 2002, by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra satellite. The river runs down the left side of the image, and its delta is shrouded in ice (red) at the top of the image. Normally, the river would resemble a thin black line in MODIS imagery. The river, which is Russia's longest, flows 2,641 miles (4,250 kilometers) south to north through Siberia and into the Laptev Sea. In the winter, the river becomes nearly frozen. In the spring, however, water upstream thaws earlier than water at the mouth of the river. As the southern end of the river begins to melt, blocks of ice travel downstream to the still frozen delta, pile up, and often obstruct the flow of water. Flooding doesn't always occur on the same parts of the river. The floods hit further south last year. If the flooding grows severe enough, explosive charges are typically used to break up the ice jams. In these false-color images land areas are a dull, light green or tan, and water is black. Clouds appear pink, and ice comes across as bright red. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

354

Flood trends and population dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the earliest recorded civilizations, such as those in Mesopotamia and Egypt that developed in the fertile floodplains of the Tigris and Euphrates and Nile rivers, humans tend to settle in flood prone areas as they offer favorable conditions for economic development. However, floodplains are also exposed to flood disasters that might cause severe socio-economic and environmental damages not to mention losses of human lives. A flood event turns to be a disaster when it coincides with a vulnerable environment exceeding society's capacity to manage the adverse consequences. This presentation discusses the link between hydrological risk and population change by referring to the outcomes of scientific works recently carried out in Africa and Europe. More specifically, it is shown that the severity of flood disasters, currently affecting more than 100 million people a year, might be seriously exacerbated because of population change. In fact, flood exposure and/or vulnerability might increase because of rapid population growth (and its spatial and temporal dynamics, e.g. urbanization) in the African continent and because of population ageing in many European countries. Lastly, timely and economically sustainable actions to mitigate this increasing hydrological risk are critically evaluated.

Di Baldassarre, G.

2012-04-01

355

Flood frequency analyses with annual and partial flood series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the study was (1) to analyse the influence of time scale of the data on the results, (2) to analyse the relations between discharge, volume and time of flood waves of the Sava river at Litija (Slovenia), (3) to perform flood frequency analyses of peak discharges with annual and partial data series and compare the results and (4) to explore the influence of threshold value by POT method. Calculations and analyses were made for the period 1953-2010. Daily scale data sets (considering also local maximum) were used. The flood frequency analyses were based on anual and partial data series. The differences between daily and hourly time scale data sets were explored. Daily and hourly time scale hydrographs were compared and differences were analysed. Differences were adequately small. Daily time series with included maximums were logical choice because of the length of the daily time series and because hourly time series were not continuous due to gauging equipment failures. Important objective of the study was to analyse the relationship between discharge, volume and duration of flood waves. Baseflow was separated from continuous daily discharge measurements on simple and complex hydrographs. Simple graphical method with three points was used. Many different coefficients like base flow index were calculated and different combinations of correlation coefficient of wave components were examined. Annual maximum series were used to study the relationship between wave components. Flood frequency analyses were made with annual maximum series and partial duration series. Log-normal distribution, Pearson distribution type 3, log-Pearson distribution type 3, Gumbel distribution, exponential distribution, GEV distribution and GL distribution were used for annual maximum series. Simple equation of linear transformation was used to determine the design discharge and procedure which is proposed in Flood Estimation Handbook was used with GEV and GL distribution. Results were then compared with those from partial duration series. Poisson distribution, binomial distribution and negative binomial distribution were used to describe annual number of exceedances and exponential distribution was used to model the magnitude of exceedances. The method of annual series is mostly used in flood frequency analyses in Slovenia because of its simplicity. Main advantages of partial duration series were shown on practical example. Distributions for modeling annual number of peaks over threshold were also compared. Influence of threshold value on analyses results for the partial duration series was also explored. Many suggestions for the choice of the threshold were found in literature. Differences in design flood with various threshold values were analysed. Program Hydrospect was used to determine peaks over threshold data for as many different thresholds as possible.

Bezak, N.; Brilly, M.; Sraj, M.

2012-04-01

356

Comparing flood loss models of different complexity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Any deliberation on flood risk requires the consideration of potential flood losses. In particular, reliable flood loss models are needed to evaluate cost-effectiveness of mitigation measures, to assess vulnerability, for comparative risk analysis and financial appraisal during and after floods. In recent years, considerable improvements have been made both concerning the data basis and the methodological approaches used for the development of flood loss models. Despite of that, flood loss models remain an important source of uncertainty. Likewise the temporal and spatial transferability of flood loss models is still limited. This contribution investigates the predictive capability of different flood loss models in a split sample cross regional validation approach. For this purpose, flood loss models of different complexity, i.e. based on different numbers of explaining variables, are learned from a set of damage records that was obtained from a survey after the Elbe flood in 2002. The validation of model predictions is carried out for different flood events in the Elbe and Danube river basins in 2002, 2005 and 2006 for which damage records are available from surveys after the flood events. The models investigated are a stage-damage model, the rule based model FLEMOps+r as well as novel model approaches which are derived using data mining techniques of regression trees and Bayesian networks. The Bayesian network approach to flood loss modelling provides attractive additional information concerning the probability distribution of both model predictions and explaining variables.

Schröter, Kai; Kreibich, Heidi; Vogel, Kristin; Riggelsen, Carsten; Scherbaum, Frank; Merz, Bruno

2013-04-01

357

Interactive modelling with stakeholders in two cases in flood management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New policies on flood management called Multi-Level Safety (MLS), demand for an integral and collaborative approach. The goal of MLS is to minimize flood risks by a coherent package of protection measures, crisis management and flood resilience measures. To achieve this, various stakeholders, such as water boards, municipalities and provinces, have to collaborate in composing these measures. Besides the many advances this integral and collaborative approach gives, the decision-making environment becomes also more complex. Participants have to consider more criteria than they used to do and have to take a wide network of participants into account, all with specific perspectives, cultures and preferences. In response, sophisticated models are developed to support decision-makers in grasping this complexity. These models provide predictions of flood events and offer the opportunity to test the effectiveness of various measures under different criteria. Recent model advances in computation speed and model flexibility allow stakeholders to directly interact with a hydrological hydraulic model during meetings. Besides a better understanding of the decision content, these interactive models are supposed to support the incorporation of stakeholder knowledge in modelling and to support mutual understanding of different perspectives of stakeholders To explore the support of interactive modelling in integral and collaborate policies, such as MLS, we tested a prototype of an interactive flood model (3Di) with respect to a conventional model (Sobek) in two cases. The two cases included the designing of flood protection measures in Amsterdam and a flood event exercise in Delft. These case studies yielded two main results. First, we observed that in the exploration phase of a decision-making process, stakeholders participated actively in interactive modelling sessions. This increased the technical understanding of complex problems and the insight in the effectiveness of various integral measures. Second, when measures became more concrete, the model played a minor role, as stakeholders were still bounded to goals, responsibilities and budgets of their own organization. Model results in this phase are mainly used in a political way to maximize the goals of particular organizations.

Leskens, Johannes; Brugnach, Marcela

2013-04-01

358

Coastal modelling for flood defence.  

PubMed

This paper reviews practices and trends in hydrodynamic and statistical analyses and modelling in the Netherlands with regard to the risk of coastal flooding. We restrict ourselves to the physical phenomena of tides, storm surges and wind waves. We first give a brief outline of established policy in the Netherlands regarding accepted levels of risk of flooding, and current changes therein. This is followed by a summary of a statistical reanalysis of historical storm-surge data combined with numerical hydrodynamic modelling, aimed at improved estimates of probabilities of occurrence of extreme water levels along the Dutch coast. Recent developments concerning the physical and numerical modelling of inundation of low-lying areas are presented. State-of-the-art modelling of wind waves in coastal areas is also reviewed. Research issues in the area of coastal modelling for flood defence are indicated. PMID:12804260

Battjes, Jurjen A; Gerritsen, Herman

2002-07-15

359

Managing Floods and Resources at the Arroyo Las Positas  

SciTech Connect

Engineers and water resource professionals are challenged with protecting facilities from flood events within environmental resource protection, regulatory, and economic constraints. One case in point is the Arroyo Las Positas (ALP), an intermittent stream that traverses the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. Increased runoff from post-drought rainfall, upstream development, and new perennial discharges from LLNL activities have resulted in increased dry weather flows and wetland vegetation. These new conditions have recently begun to provide improved habitat for the federally threatened California red-legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii; CRLF), but the additional vegetation diminishes the channel's drainage capacity and increases flood risk. When LLNL proposed to re-grade the channel to reestablish the 100-year flood capacity, traditional dredging practices were no longer being advocated by environmental regulatory agencies. LLNL therefore designed a desilting maintenance plan to protect LLNL facility areas from flooding, while minimizing impacts to wetland resources and habitat. The result was a combination of structural upland improvements and the ALP Five Year Maintenance Plan (Maintenance Plan), which includes phased desilting in segments so that the entire ALP is desilted after five years. A unique feature of the Maintenance Plan is the variable length of the segments designed to minimize LLNL's impact on CRLF movement. State and federal permits also added monitoring requirements and additional constraints on desilting activities. Two years into the Maintenance Plan, LLNL is examining the lessons learned on the cost-effectiveness of these maintenance measures and restrictions and reevaluating the direction of future maintenance activities.

Sanchez, L; Van Hattem, M; Mathews, S

2002-03-05

360

78 FR 21590 - Coconino National Forest; Arizona; Flagstaff Watershed Protection Project  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Forest; Arizona; Flagstaff Watershed Protection Project AGENCY: Forest Service...the potential effects of the Flagstaff Watershed Protection Project (FWPP). The analysis...wildfire and subsequent flooding in two watersheds around Flagstaff. Specifically,...

2013-04-11

361

Mekong Floods Fill Tonle Sap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The monsoon season in Southeast Asia brings recurring, often devastating floods to countries in the region, but these floods also play a necessary role in the region's water cycle. These MODIS images centered on Cambodia reveal extensive flooding of the Mekong River, which comes in from Laos in the north, to the right of center in the images, and flows south through Cambodia and southeast through Vietnam to empty into the South China Sea. The true-color image shows the brownish, sediment-laden floodwaters filling the Mekong Delta in southern Cambodia and Vietnam on September 15, 2001. The false color image above has been enhanced to bring out the contrast between the floodwaters and the lands, with sediment-carrying floodwaters in purple. Sediment can be seen flowing into the South China Sea as well. This year's floods have affected over a million people, and 100 people have been killed in Vietnam alone. The monsoon floods bring not only devastation, but renewal. The large body of water just left of center in Cambodia is the Tonle Sap. This shallow lake plays a changing role in the regional water cycle. During the dry season, the stream-fed Tonle Sap drains via the Tonle Sab River into the Mekong River. During the wet season (June-November), flooding of the Mekong reverses the course of the Tonle Sab, roughly tripling the lake's size from about 3000 km2 to about 10,000. When the dry season returns, the lake once again begins to drain into the Mekong Delta, where it provides a flow of fresh water that balances the intrusion of salty seawater into the delta's agricultural lands. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

362

78 FR 52955 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agency Docket No. FEMA-B-1349] Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency...communities where the addition or modification of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA)...

2013-08-27

363

78 FR 8170 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agency Docket No. FEMA-B-1290] Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency...communities where the addition or modification of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA)...

2013-02-05

364

78 FR 48885 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agency Docket No. FEMA-B-1341] Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency...communities where the addition or modification of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA)...

2013-08-12

365

78 FR 32676 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agency Docket No. FEMA-B-1318] Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency...communities where the addition or modification of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA)...

2013-05-31

366

78 FR 14565 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agency Docket No. FEMA-B-1297] Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency...communities where the addition or modification of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA)...

2013-03-06

367

78 FR 29766 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agency [Docket ID FEMA-2013-0002] Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency...New or modified Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA)...

2013-05-21

368

7 CFR 621.45 - Flood insurance studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FEMA), and within the limits of available resources, NRCS...out flood insurance studies of various types under the National Flood Insurance Program (Pub. L. 90-448, 82 Statute...determine the extent and frequency of flooding. The flood...

2011-01-01

369

7 CFR 621.45 - Flood insurance studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FEMA), and within the limits of available resources, NRCS...out flood insurance studies of various types under the National Flood Insurance Program (Pub. L. 90-448, 82 Statute...determine the extent and frequency of flooding. The flood...

2010-01-01

370

7 CFR 621.45 - Flood insurance studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FEMA), and within the limits of available resources, NRCS...out flood insurance studies of various types under the National Flood Insurance Program (Pub. L. 90-448, 82 Statute...determine the extent and frequency of flooding. The flood...

2013-01-01

371

7 CFR 621.45 - Flood insurance studies.  

...FEMA), and within the limits of available resources, NRCS...out flood insurance studies of various types under the National Flood Insurance Program (Pub. L. 90-448, 82 Statute...determine the extent and frequency of flooding. The flood...

2014-01-01

372

7 CFR 621.45 - Flood insurance studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FEMA), and within the limits of available resources, NRCS...out flood insurance studies of various types under the National Flood Insurance Program (Pub. L. 90-448, 82 Statute...determine the extent and frequency of flooding. The flood...

2012-01-01

373

USGS Shoots Video of Flooding Efforts  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS public affairs specialist, Jennifer LaVista prepares to shoot video of USGS efforts during historic flooding in Fargo, ND. The videos can be viewed at http://www.usgs.gov/homepage/science_features/flooding_march09.asp...

2009-04-03

374

A Flooded Field in East Boulder, Colo.  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Numerous rivers flooded during a significant September 2013 rain event along Colorado's Front Range, damaging or destroying several USGS streamgages. In response, USGS field crews measured flood flows, made gage repairs, and assessed sites to replace those gages destroyed. ...

375

Ready.Gov for Kids: Floods  

MedlinePLUS

... very quickly are called flash floods. Visit the FEMA library to learn more about floods Blackouts Drought ... Service Announcements Important Notices Localized Ready Programs Testimonials FEMA Multimedia Library FEMA Document Library Resources & Policies FEMA ...

376

77 FR 50665 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...flooding sources Allegheny River, East Sandy Creek, and Sugar Creek. DATES: Comments...flooding sources Allegheny River, East Sandy Creek, and Sugar Creek. That table contained...Victory. At the confluence of None +949 Sandy Creek. East Sandy...

2012-08-22

377

Flood magnitude and frequency of Little Timber Creek at the culvert on Interstate Route 295, Haddon Heights Township, Camden County, New Jersey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The magnitude and frequency of floods at the Little Timber Creek at the culvert on Interstate 295, at milepost 28.9, in Haddon Heights Township, New Jersey, were determined by using the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Special Report 38 method. Flood-magnitude and -frequency estimates, as well as drainage-basin characteristics, are included in this report. The 100-year-flood estimate is 770 cubic feet per second.

Barringer, T.H.

1996-01-01

378

Characterizing Land Surface Change and Levee Stability in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Using UAVSAR Radar Imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta is one of the primary water sources for the state of California and represents a complex geographical area comprised of tidal marshland, levee rimmed islands that are used primarily for agriculture, and urban encroachment. Land subsidence has dropped many of the Delta islands 3 to >7 meters below mean sea level and requires nearly 1700 km of levees to maintain the integrity of the islands and flow of water through the Delta. The current average subsidence rates for each island varies, with 1.23 cm/yr on Sherman Island and 2.2 cm/yr for Bacon Island, as determined by ground-based instruments located at isolated points in the Delta. The Delta's status as the most critical water resource for the state, an endangered ecosystem, and an area continuously threatened with levee breakage from hydrostatic pressure and the danger of earthquakes on several major faults in the San Francisco area make it a focus of monitoring efforts by both the state and national government. This activity is now almost entirely done by ground-based efforts, but the benefits of using remote sensing for wide scale spatial coverage and frequent temporal coverage is obvious. The UAVSAR airborne polarimetric and differential interferometric L-band synthetic aperture radar system has been used to collected monthly images of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and much of the adjacent Suisun Marsh since July 2009 to characterize levee stability, image spatially varied subsidence, and assess how well the UAVSAR performs in an area with widespread agriculture production.

Jones, Cathleen; Bawden, Gerald; Deverel, Steven; Dudas, Joel; Hensley, Scott

2011-01-01

379

Evaluating Damage Assessment of Breaches Along the Embankments of Indus River during Flood 2010 Using Remote Sensing Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural disasters cause human sufferings and property loss, if not managed properly. It cannot be prevented but their adverse impacts can be reduced through proper planning and disaster mitigation measures. The floods triggered by heavy rains during July 2010 in Pakistan caused swallowing of rivers causing human, agriculture, livestock and property losses in almost all over the country. The heavy rains in upper part of country were attributed to El-Nina effect. Accumulated water in the rivers floodplain overtopped and breached flood protective infrastructure. Flood damage particularly in Sindh province was caused by breaches in the embankments and even after months of flood recession in rivers, flood water affected settled areas in the province. This study evaluates the role of satellite remote sensing particularly in assessment of breaches and consequential damages as well as measures leading to minimize the effects of floods caused by breaches in flood protective infrastructure. More than 50 SPOT-5 imageries had been used for this purpose and breached areas were delineated using pre and post flood imageries, later on rehabilitation work were also monitored. A total 136 breaches were delineated out of which 60 were in the Punjab and 76 in Sindh province. The study demonstrates the potentials of satellite remote sensing for mapping and monitoring natural disasters and devising mitigation strategies.

Ahmad, R.; Daniyal, D.

2013-09-01

380

Hydrogeology and Flooding on the Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hydrogeology and Flooding on the Web reviews internet sites which contain information on water resources and flood events. Resource categories are flooding, weather-related sites, and hydrology. Some site addresses and image galleries are hyper-linked, while others must be manually cut and pasted into the resource user's browser location.

Pamela Gore

1997-02-19

381

Flooded Bridge On The St. John River  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The USGS gages the St. John River at Fort Kent, Maine at Station 01014000. A major flood in 2008 was the highest flow measured at this station, based on record going back to the 1920s. This photo shows the International Bridge in Ft. Kent, right at the water surface of the flooded river. That flood ...

382

February 2001 Flood Warning Services in Victoria  

E-print Network

.3 Management of Data Collection Networks 12 4.4 Emergency Callouts for Network Maintenance 12 4.5 Rating Tables. This approach has covered data collection networks, flood prediction, local level flood plans, flood.13 Archiving of Data and Station History 17 5 State & Commonwealth Level Responsibilities 19 6 Regional Level

Greenslade, Diana

383

USGS 1972 Flood Marker in Keystone, SD  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Mark Anderson, Director of the USGS South Dakota Water Science Center, dedicated a flood marker at the Post Office in Keystone, SD, in June 2012 to commenorate the 40th anniversary of the devastating 1972 flood in the Black Hills of South Dakota. This historic flood set many record pe...

384

Flood Management Scenarios Based on Hydrodynamic Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the scenarios developed to assist in the understanding of possible future situations of the complex river system as a part of knowledge acquisition process. Due to complexity of river system, knowledge acquisition is a major bottleneck to develop an expert system for forecasting flood. Operation of flood control gates has a very important role in flood alleviation.

Ian David

2008-01-01

385

75 FR 52868 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood...No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127...Platte. upstream of Main Street (Base Flood Elevations extend to Bayou...Tributary 3). At Ortego Street (Base +74 Flood Elevations...

2010-08-30

386

77 FR 44650 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Elevation (BFE), base flood depth, Special Flood Hazard Area...floodway on the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs), and where applicable...and the respective Community Map Repository address listed in...accessible online through the FEMA Map Service Center at...

2012-07-30

387

77 FR 58560 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Elevation (BFE), base flood depth, Special Flood Hazard Area...floodway on the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs), and where applicable...and the respective Community Map Repository address listed in...accessible online through the FEMA Map Service Center at...

2012-09-21

388

77 FR 18846 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Elevation (BFE), base flood depth, Special Flood Hazard Area...floodway on the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs), and where applicable...and the respective Community Map Repository address listed in...accessible online through the FEMA Map Service Center at...

2012-03-28

389

78 FR 28888 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Elevation (BFE), base flood depth, Special Flood Hazard Area...floodway on the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs), and where applicable...and the respective Community Map Repository address listed in...accessible online through the FEMA Map Service Center at...

2013-05-16

390

78 FR 5824 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Elevation (BFE), base flood depth, Special Flood Hazard Area...floodway on the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs), and where applicable...and the respective Community Map Repository address listed in...accessible online through the FEMA Map Service Center at...

2013-01-28

391

78 FR 36217 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Elevation (BFE), base flood depth, Special Flood Hazard Area...floodway on the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs), and where applicable...and the respective Community Map Repository address listed in...accessible online through the FEMA Map Service Center at...

2013-06-17

392

78 FR 43908 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Elevation (BFE), base flood depth, Special Flood Hazard Area...floodway on the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs), and where applicable...and the respective Community Map Repository address listed in...accessible online through the FEMA Map Service Center at...

2013-07-22

393

77 FR 18842 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Elevation (BFE), base flood depth, Special Flood Hazard Area...floodway on the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs), and where applicable...and the respective Community Map Repository address listed in...accessible online through the FEMA Map Service Center at...

2012-03-28

394

77 FR 18835 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Elevation (BFE), base flood depth, Special Flood Hazard Area...floodway on the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs), and where applicable...and the respective Community Map Repository address listed in...accessible online through the FEMA Map Service Center at...

2012-03-28

395

78 FR 8181 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Elevation (BFE), base flood depth, Special Flood Hazard Area...floodway on the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs), and where applicable...and the respective Community Map Repository address listed in...accessible online through the FEMA Map Service Center at...

2013-02-05

396

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM ROSS, BOHLE & BLACK RIVERS  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the ROSS, BOHLE & BLACK RIVERS This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Ross, Bohle and Black Rivers. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height

Greenslade, Diana

397

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BURRUM AND CHERWELL RIVERS  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BURRUM AND CHERWELL RIVERS This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Burrum and Cherwell Rivers. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height

Greenslade, Diana

398

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM LOGAN & ALBERT RIVERS  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the LOGAN & ALBERT RIVERS This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Logan and Albert Rivers. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins

Greenslade, Diana

399

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM MACINTYRE AND WEIR RIVERS  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the MACINTYRE AND WEIR RIVERS This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Macintyre and Weir Rivers. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height

Greenslade, Diana

400

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM TULLY-MURRAY RIVERS  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the TULLY-MURRAY RIVERS This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Tully-Murray Rivers. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins

Greenslade, Diana

401

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM PINE & CABOOLTURE RIVERS  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the PINE & CABOOLTURE RIVERS This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Pine and Caboolture Rivers. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height

Greenslade, Diana

402

49 CFR 192.317 - Protection from hazards.  

...The operator must take all practicable steps to protect each transmission line or main from washouts, floods, unstable soil, landslides, or other hazards that may cause the pipeline to move or to sustain abnormal loads. In addition, the operator must...

2014-10-01

403

33 CFR 239.6 - Level of protection.  

...PARTICIPATION IN COVERED FLOOD CONTROL CHANNELS § 239.6 Level of protection...that submergence of entrances to covered channels may have significant impacts on the...require that the covered portion of the channel be enlarged to provide capacity...

2014-07-01

404

49 CFR 192.317 - Protection from hazards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...The operator must take all practicable steps to protect each transmission line or main from washouts, floods, unstable soil, landslides, or other hazards that may cause the pipeline to move or to sustain abnormal loads. In addition, the operator must...

2011-10-01

405

49 CFR 192.317 - Protection from hazards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...The operator must take all practicable steps to protect each transmission line or main from washouts, floods, unstable soil, landslides, or other hazards that may cause the pipeline to move or to sustain abnormal loads. In addition, the operator must...

2013-10-01

406

49 CFR 192.317 - Protection from hazards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...The operator must take all practicable steps to protect each transmission line or main from washouts, floods, unstable soil, landslides, or other hazards that may cause the pipeline to move or to sustain abnormal loads. In addition, the operator must...

2012-10-01

407

Ensemble Flood Forecasting in Africa: A Feasibility Study in the Juba-Shabelle River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last years the African continent has increasingly experienced severe transnational floods that caused substantial socio-economic losses and put enormous pressure on countries across the continent. The planning, coordination and realization of flood prevention, protection and mitigation measures require time, which can be provided through an early flood prediction. In this paper, the transferability of the European Flood Alert System (EFAS) to equatorial African basins is assessed. EFAS achieves early flood warnings for large to medium-size river basins with lead times of 10 days. This is based on probabilistic weather forecasts, the exceedance of alert thresholds and persistence indicators. These methodologies, having been tested for different events and time scales in mid-latitude basins in Europe, are being applied in this paper to the Juba-Shabella river basin, shared between Ethopia and Somalia. A variety of different meteorological data sources have been used, including ERA-40 and CHARM for the calculation of climatologies. The unique re-forecasts of the current operational ECMWF model provided hindcasts of historic flood events. The results show that for the selected flood events a detection rate of 85% was achieved, with a high accuracy in terms of timing and magnitude.

Thiemig, Vera; Pappenberger, Florian; Thielen, Jutta; Gadain, Hussein; de Roo, Ad; Bodis, Katalin; Del Medico, Mauro; Muthusi, Flavian

2010-05-01

408

Facility Flood Response Standard Procedure  

E-print Network

, from minor slips or trips from unseen submerged objects, to the short circuiting of electrical devices source itself can be potentially harmful, especially if it is sewage-related. Floods are disruptive services, custodial, environmental health and safety, risk management, and police are involved, along

Pawlowski, Wojtek

409

Sink Inserts for Flood Prevention  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple, inexpensive insert is described for preventing flooding in lab sinks. The insert is essentially a tube with slots cut into the side that fits snugly into the drain outlet, preventing water buildup and providing additional drainage sites to avoid constriction by small lab items and paper towels.

Fleming, Fraser F.; Bodnar, Daniel J.; Hardesty, David L.

2004-09-01

410

Cosurfactant-Enhanced Alkaline Flooding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many crude oil candidates for enhanced oil recovery by alkaline flooding produce their lowest interfacial tension at very low concentrations of alkali. Alkaline consumption by the rock makes propagation through the oil reservoir of such dilute alkaline solutions prohibitively slow. The dilemma of having to choose between highest displacement efficiency (lowest interfacial tension) and satisfactory displacement rate can be resolved

R. C. Nelson; J. B. Lawson; D. R. Thigpen; G. L. Stegemeier

1984-01-01

411

Post Flood Alternatives Mosquito Flats  

E-print Network

Post Flood Alternatives for Mosquito Flats (an amateur perspective, continued) Douglas Jones 816 for Mosquito Flats to the Iowa City City Council. This document presents a refined version of the preferred for a buyout of floodplain property in Mosquito Flats. Before presenting my recommendation, I will present

Jones, Douglas W.

412

Mantle plumes and flood basalts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the geological, geophysical, and petrological observations that constrain the nature of mantle convection in plumes, and show how theoretical models of mantle plumes have developed over the past three decades. The large volumes of lava emplaced in geologically short periods as flood basalts are generated mainly by decompression melting of abnormally hot mantle brought to the base of

R. S. White; D. P. Mckenzie

1995-01-01

413

The flooding time synchronization protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless sensor network applications, similarly to other distributed systems, often require a scalable time synchronization service enabling data consistency and coordination. This paper describes the Flooding Time Synchronization Protocol (FTSP), especially tailored for applications requiring stringent precision on resource limited wireless platforms. The proposed time synchronization protocol uses low communication bandwidth and it is robust against node and link failures.

Miklós Maróti; Branislav Kusy; Gyula Simon; Ákos Lédeczi

2004-01-01

414

Cation exchange: cemical flooding experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass action equilibria equations provide a good description of cation exchange effects in laboratory floods with solutions containing sodium, calcium, and magnesium cations. These equations can aid in the design of prefloods for surfactant and polymer processes. Cation exchange in the presence of a surfactant system is found to be significantly complicated by interaction between surfactant and divalent cations. The

H. J. Hill; L. W. Lake

1977-01-01

415

Flood monitoring for ungauged rivers: the power of combining space-based monitoring and global forecasting models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood warning systems typically rely on forecasts from national meteorological services and in-situ observations from hydrological gauging stations. This capacity is not equally developed in flood-prone developing countries. Low-cost satellite monitoring systems and global flood forecasting systems can be an alternative source of information for national flood authorities. The Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS) has been develop jointly with the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) and the Joint Research Centre, and it is running quasi operational now since June 2011. The system couples state-of-the art weather forecasts with a hydrological model driven at a continental scale. The system provides downstream countries with information on upstream river conditions as well as continental and global overviews. In its test phase, this global forecast system provides probabilities for large transnational river flooding at the global scale up to 30 days in advance. It has shown its real-life potential for the first time during the flood in Southeast Asia in 2011, and more recently during the floods in Australia in March 2012, India (Assam, September-October 2012) and Chad Floods (August-October 2012).The Joint Research Centre is working on further research and development, rigorous testing and adaptations of the system to create an operational tool for decision makers, including national and regional water authorities, water resource managers, hydropower companies, civil protection and first line responders, and international humanitarian aid organizations. Currently efforts are being made to link GloFAS to the Global Flood Detection System (GFDS). GFDS is a Space-based river gauging and flood monitoring system using passive microwave remote sensing which was developed by a collaboration between the JRC and Dartmouth Flood Observatory. GFDS provides flood alerts based on daily water surface change measurements from space. Alerts are shown on a world map, with detailed reports for individual gauging sites. A comparison of discharge estimates from the Global Flood Detection System (GFDS) and the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS) with observations for representative climatic zones is presented. Both systems have demonstrated strong potential in forecasting and detecting recent catastrophic floods. The usefulness of their combined information on global scale for decision makers at different levels is discussed. Combining space-based monitoring and global forecasting models is an innovative approach and has significant benefits for international river commissions as well as international aid organisations. This is in line with the objectives of the Hyogo and the Post-2015 Framework that aim at the development of systems which involve trans-boundary collaboration, space-based earth observation, flood forecasting and early warning.

Revilla-Romero, Beatriz; Netgeka, Victor; Raynaud, Damien; Thielen, Jutta

2013-04-01

416

Does antecedent precipitation play a role for floods in (small) Swiss catchments?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

River flooding is one of the most devastating natural hazards worldwide. In Switzerland, like in many other regions, the building of flood protection infrastructures is complicated by difficulties in assessing flood risk due to: - The large year-to-year variability in flood losses. The variations amount to several orders of magnitude (see for ex. Hilker et al., 2009). - The non-stationarity of the flood risk at longer time scales. A pronounced decadal variability in flood risk has been observed by Schmocker-Fackel and Naef (2010) and Köplin et al. (2013) show that climate change will induce diverse and complex regional changes in flood risk. A better understanding of flood processes is therefore required in order to better predict changes in flood frequency. It has been hypothesized that flood frequency variations are linked to changes in the atmospheric circulation. Consequently, the whole mechanism chain starting from atmospheric circulation patterns triggering severe precipitation weather and ending with extreme river discharge must be considered. In a step in that direction we characterize precipitation events that triggered observed annual maximum discharges at 120 discharge stations during the last 53 years in Switzerland. The precipitation dataset is a temporally-homogeneous complex interpolation of daily rain gauge data on a 1 by 1 km grid covering the Swiss territory (MeteoSwiss, 2011). We test the relationship between different catchment-averaged precipitation indices and flood occurrence. We explicitly separate antecedent and event-associated precipitation. The preliminary results show that antecedent precipitation (weekly to monthly sums ending 3 days before the event) are no significant flood predictors for most of the catchments. On the other hand, a very strong signal is found for the 1-3 days precipitation sums. Lessons for flood modeling in Swiss catchments is that a strong effort is required in order to represent the flood-associated weather events correctly over a 1-3 day period -particularly the precipitation amounts- whereas antecedent precipitation is not a necessary precondition for flood building. In that sense, flood processes in Switzerland might contrast with extreme drought processes for which longer term precipitation statistics are expected to be important. Hilker, N., A. Badoux, and C. Hegg. 2009. The swiss flood and landslide damage database 1972-2007. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 9, 913-925. Schmocker-Fackel, P., and F. Naef. 2010. More frequent flooding? changes in flood frequency in switzerland since 1850. Journal of hydrology 381, 1-8. 1,3 Köplin, N., Schädler, B., Viviroli, D. and Weingartner, R. 2013. Seasonality and magnitude of floods in Switzerland under future climate change. Hydrol. Process.. doi: 10.1002/hyp.9757 MeteoSwiss. 2011. Documentation of meteoswiss grid-data products. daily precipitation (final analysis): Rhiresd. available online at http://www.meteosuisse.admin.ch/web/de/services/datenportal/gitterdaten/precip.html.

Froidevaux, Paul; Schwanbeck, Jan; Weingartner, Rolf; Chevalier, Clément; Romppainen-Martius, Olivia

2014-05-01

417

Ice jam flooding: a location prediction model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flooding created by ice jamming is a climatically dependent natural hazard frequently affecting cold regions with disastrous results. Basic known physical characteristics which combine in the landscape to create an ice jam flood are modeled on the Cattaraugus Creek Watershed, located in Western New York State. Terrain analysis of topographic features, and the built environment features is conducted using Geographic Information Systems in order to predict the location of ice jam flooding events. The purpose of this modeling is to establish a broadly applicable Watershed scale model for predicting the probable locations of ice jam flooding.location of historic ice jam flooding events

Collins, H. A.

2009-12-01

418

Characterization of remarkable floods in France, a transdisciplinary approach applied on generalized floods of January 1910  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2007 Flood Directive promotes the integration and valorization of historical and significant floods in flood risk management (Flood Directive Text, chapter II, and article 4). Taking into account extreme past floods analysis seems necessary in the mitigation process of vulnerability face to flooding risk. In France, this aspect of the Directive was carried out through the elaboration of Preliminary Flood Risk Assessment (PFRA) and the establishment of a 2000 floods list. From this first list, a sample of 176 floods, considered as remarkable has been selected. These floods were compiled in discussion with local authorities in charge of flood management (Lang et al., 2012) and have to be integrated in priority in local risk management policies. However, a consideration emerges about this classification: how a remarkable flood can be defined? According which criteria can it be considered as remarkable? To answer these questions, a methodology has been established by building an evaluation grid of remarkable floods in France. The primary objective of this grid is to analyze the remarkable flood's characteristics (hydrological and meteorological characteristics, sociological- political and economic impacts), and secondly to propose a classification of significant floods selected in the 2011 PFRA. To elaborate this evaluation grid, several issues had to be taken into account. First, the objective is to allow the comparison of events from various periods. These temporal disparities include the integration of various kinds of data and point out the importance of historical hydrology. It is possible to evaluate accurately the characteristics of recent floods by interpreting quantitative data (for example hydrological records. However, for floods that occurred before the 1960's it is necessary resorting to qualitative information such as written sources is necessary (Coeur, Lang, 2008). In a second part the evaluation grid requires equitable criteria in order not to emphasize one flood typology or one flood dynamic (for example flash floods are often over-represented than slow dynamic floods in existing databases). Thus, the selected criteria have to introduce a general overview of flooding risk in France by integrating all typologies: storm surges, torrential floods, rising groundwater level and resulting to flood, etc. The methodology developed for the evaluation grid is inspired by several scientific works related to historical hydrology (Bradzil, 2006; Benito et al., 2004) or extreme floods classification (Kundzewics et al. 2013; Garnier E., 2005). The referenced information are mainly issued from investigations realized for the PFRA (archives, local data),from internet databases on flooding disasters, and from a complementary bibliography (some scientists such as Maurice Pardé a geographer who largely documented French floods during the 20th century). The proposed classification relies on three main axes. Each axis is associated to a set of criteria, each one related to a score (from 0.5 to 4 points), and pointing out a final remarkability score. • The flood intensity characterizing the flood's hazard level. It is composed of the submersion duration, important to valorize floods with slow dynamics as flooding from groundwater, the event peak discharge's return period, and the presence of factors increasing significantly the hazard level (dykes breaks, log jam, sediment transport…) • The flood severity focuses on economic damages, social and political repercussions, media coverage of the event, fatalities number or eventual flood warning failures. Analyzing the flood consequences is essential in order to evaluate the vulnerability of society at disaster date. • The spatial extension of the flood, which contributes complementary information to the two first axes. The evaluation grid was tested and applied on the sample of 176 remarkable events. Around twenty events (from 1856 to 2010) come out with a high remarkability rate. The January 1910's flood is one of these remarkable floods. This event is foremost known fo

Boudou, Martin; Lang, Michel; Vinet, Freddy; Coeur, Denis

2014-05-01

419

Social attitudes towards floods in Poland - spatial differentiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our paper discusses results of research conducted in Southern Poland focusing on social attitudes towards floods - natural hazards frequently observed in Poland. Lately (e.g. 1997, 2001, 2010) several hundred thousand of people suffered from floods occurring in all examined communities. Presented analyses are based on questionnaire survey in which several criteria were used to select places for studies: objective degree of risk, prior experience of extreme events, size of community, strength of social bonds, social capital and quality of life. Nearly 2000 responses (from 9 communities) were gathered from the survey. Our main research questions were following: - are there differences between attitudes in those communities depending on how frequently they have experienced floods? - does settlement size have an impact on social attitudes towards floods, especially on mitigation behaviour? - are urban inhabitants less adapted to floods be upheld and do rural communities show more activity in the face of natural disasters? - what do information and education policies concerning floods look like? Three dimensions of social attitudes towards natural hazards were analyzed: cognitive (knowledge and awareness of local hazards), emotional (feelings towards hazards, like concern and anxiety); and instrumental (actions taken in response to a potential natural disaster). A combination of these three dimensions produces various types of perception and behaviour towards the perceived hazard (Raaijmakers et al., 2008): ignorance when the local population is unaware of a threat and therefore develops no concern and takes no preventive actions; safety when the local population is aware of a threat, but regards its level as either low or acceptable and is therefore not concerned with the threat and makes no preparations for a disaster; risk reduction when a high level of awareness and concern produces the mechanism of reducing the cognitive dissonance and denial of a disaster threat; the local population resigns from taking protective action or passes the responsibility on to the authorities; control when an aware population takes preventive action that help reduce their concern. Above analyses led to comparison of Polish and European social attitudes towards floods.

Biernacki, W.; Dzia?ek, J.; Bokwa, A.

2012-04-01

420

Documenting the stages and streamflows associated with the 2011 activation of the New Madrid Floodway, Missouri: Chapter E in 2011 floods of the central United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey initiated a substantial effort in the summer of 2011 to measure and document the record-setting floods of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers, including the reach in and near the New Madrid Floodway. The activation of the floodway, which had not occurred since 1937, provided a rare opportunity to collect a unique dataset describing a flood wave downstream from a levee breach as well as the flow through a large floodway. A total of 42 submersible pressure transducers collected time series of water levels while crews collected hundreds of depth, velocity, and streamflow measurements at selected locations in and near the floodway throughout the period from late April to late June. These data are presented in this chapter.

Koenig, Todd A.; Holmes, Robert R.

2013-01-01

421

The flash flood of October 2011 in the Magra River basin (Italy): rainstorm characterisation and flood response analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 25 October 2011, the Magra River, a stream of northwest Italy outflowing into the Ligurian Sea, was affected by a flash flood, which caused severe economic damage and loss of lives. The catchment covers an area of 1717 km2, of which 605 km2 are drained by the Vara River, the major tributary of the Magra River. The flood was caused by an intense rainstorm which lasted approximately 20 hours. The most intense phase lasted about 8 hours, with rainfall amounts up to around 500 mm. The largest rainfall depths (greater than 300 mm) occurred in a narrow southwest - northeast oriented belt covering an area of approximately 400 km2. This flash flood was studied by analysing rainstorm characteristics, runoff response and geomorphic effects. The rainfall fields used in the analysis are based on data from the Settepani weather radar antenna (located at around 100 km from the study basin) and the local rain gauge network. Radar observations and raingauge data were merged to obtain rainfall estimates at 30 min with a resolution of 1 km2. River stage and discharge rating curves are available for few cross-sections on the main channels. Post-flood documentation includes the reconstruction of peak discharge by means of topographic surveys and application of the slope-conveyance method in 34 cross-sections, observations on the geomorphic effects of the event - both in the channel network and on the hillslopes - and the assessment of the timing of the flood based on interviews to eyewitnesses. Regional authorities and local administrations contributed to the documentation of the flood by providing hydrometeorological data, civil protection volunteers accounts, photos and videos recorded during and immediately after the flood. A spatially distributed rainfall-runoff model, fed with rainfall estimates obtained by the radar-derived observations, was used to check the consistency of field-derived peak discharges and to derive the time evolution of the flood. The assessment of unit peak discharges confirmed the severity of the flood, with values up to approximately 20 m3s-1km-2 in catchments up to 10-20 km2. The strong spatial gradients of the precipitation had a major influence on flood response, with large differences in peak discharge between neighbouring catchments. The magnitude of sediment transport processes, featuring as well a large variability among sub-basins, seems to have been controlled both by peak water discharge and by local geomorphological conditions affecting sediment supply, i.e. occurrence of large landslides connected to the channel network. A striking characteristic of the flood event was the recruitment and transport of large amounts of wood elements, deriving mostly from eroded portions of floodplains and islands along the main channels.

Marchi, Lorenzo; Boni, Giorgio; Cavalli, Marco; Comiti, Francesco; Crema, Stefano; Lucía, Ana; Marra, Francesco; Zoccatelli, Davide

2013-04-01

422

A Database of Historical Information on Landslides and Floods in Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the past 12 years we have maintained and updated a database of historical information on landslides and floods in Italy, known as the National Research Council's AVI (Damaged Urban Areas) Project archive. The database was originally designed to respond to a specific request of the Minister of Civil Protection, and was aimed at helping the regional assessment of landslide and flood risk in Italy. The database was first constructed in 1991-92 to cover the period 1917 to 1990. Information of damaging landslide and flood event was collected by searching archives, by screening thousands of newspaper issues, by reviewing the existing technical and scientific literature on landslides and floods in Italy, and by interviewing landslide and flood experts. The database was then updated chiefly through the analysis of hundreds of newspaper articles, and it now covers systematically the period 1900 to 1998, and non-systematically the periods 1900 to 1916 and 1999 to 2002. Non systematic information on landslide and flood events older than 20th century is also present in the database. The database currently contains information on more than 32,000 landslide events occurred at more than 25,700 sites, and on more than 28,800 flood events occurred at more than 15,600 sites. After a brief outline of the history and evolution of the AVI Project archive, we present and discuss: (a) the present structure of the database, including the hardware and software solutions adopted to maintain, manage, use and disseminate the information stored in the database, (b) the type and amount of information stored in the database, including an estimate of its completeness, and (c) examples of recent applications of the database, including a web-based GIS systems to show the location of sites historically affected by landslides and floods, and an estimate of geo-hydrological (i.e., landslide and flood) risk in Italy based on the available historical information.

Guzzetti, F.; Tonelli, G.

2003-04-01