Sample records for flood protection levees

  1. Inland Flood Protection Using Levees-An Engineering Design Challenge

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Melissa Woods

    2012-07-28

    This Engineering Design Challenge is intended to help students apply the concepts of protecting human life from hazardous weather from SC.6.E.7.8 as they build levees to prevent flooding. It is not intended as an initial introduction to this benchmark.

  2. Should Levee Goes Up or Down? A Risk Model for Flood Protection Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, G.; Yu, S.

    2012-12-01

    Many cities, towns, and areas in the world rely on levee systems protecting them from the threat of flood. Levee systems are designed to provide a specific level of flood protection rather than completely avoid the risk. Due to more and more extreme hydrological condition in recent years, people expect raising the height of levees with higher protection standards as an exclusive means of enhancing protection. The levees system actually is not panacea for flood protection. A flood protection infrastructure may increase flood losses, known as "levee effect". From this perspective, if levees are strategically removed or lowered, the result could be reduced flood risk and increased goods and services. Facing current climate condition, should we consider higher or lower levee systems need to be further examined. To answer this ambiguous question, this study develops a conceptual risk model to evaluate the overall performance of levee system. A general decision rule of flood protection standard is proposed for better understanding of this issue. We indicate that the key factor is the ratio of the rate of change of benefit loss to the rate of change of risk increase. According to the conceptual, numerical examples are simulated. The numerical examples apply appropriate flood damage functions and use different probability distributions of flood to demonstrate levee effect and evaluate the result of changing protection standards. The decision is based on the tradeoff of the reduction of current loss and the possible increase of future threat. For most cases, it is found when the flood level increase, the risk decreases much faster than the increase rate of flood loss. As the result, we prove the increase of flood protection standard is beneficial expect some expect some special cases.

  3. Up or Out?--Economic-Engineering Theory of Flood Levee Height and Setback

    E-print Network

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    usually were designed with scant quantitative analy- sis, relying primarily on a few observed flood stages redesign. Economic design of a levee system for flood protection in- volves balancing costs of levee height static conditions, annual peak flood flows usually fit an independent and identical probability

  4. CONSEQUENCES OF HUMAN-ALTERED FLOODS: LEVEES, FLOODS, AND FLOODPLAIN FORESTS ALONG THE WISCONSIN RIVER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SARAH E. GERGEL; MARK D. DIXON; MONICA G. TURNER

    2002-01-01

    Flood-control levees are generally thought to increase flood height and ve- locity for a given discharge. While extensive areas of floodplain in the United States are leveed, the ecological impacts of levees have largely been ignored relative to other an- thropogenic impacts to large river floodplains. We examined a century of flood control along the Wisconsin River by comparing simulated

  5. Flood protection for the Kansas City bannister federal complex

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, J.J.; Williams, R.H. [AlliedSignal, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States). Kansas City Division; Betzen, G.A. [Kansas City Area Office, MO (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    The Bannister Federal Complex is bordered on the east by the Blue River and on the south by Indian Creek. After a flood in 1961 and several near-miss floods, flood protection has been installed. The protection consists of 2,916 feet of concrete flood walls, 8,769 feet of levee, five rolling gates, four stoplog gaps, one hinged pedestrian gate, and one sandbag gap. The flood walls are over 14 feet tall. Construction was started on August 3, 1992 and was completed in early 1995. Architectural treatment was incorporated in the flood walls as well as landscaping to enhance the appearance of the flood protection.

  6. Do dams and levees impact nitrogen cycling? Simulating the effects of flood alterations on floodplain

    E-print Network

    Turner, Monica G.

    to be impacted by future changes in flood probabilities that will likely occur as a result of climate shifts. KeyDo dams and levees impact nitrogen cycling? Simulating the effects of flood alterations topography with a model of hydrology and nitrogen biogeochemistry to simulate floods of different magnitude

  7. Levee reliability analyses for various flood return periods - a case study in Southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, W.-C.; Yu, H.-W.; Weng, M.-C.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, heavy rainfall conditions have caused damages around the world. To prevent damages by floods, levees have often been constructed in prone-to-inundation areas. This study performed reliability analyses for the Chiuliao 1st Levee located in southern Taiwan. The failure-related parameters were the water level, the scouring depth, and the in-situ friction angle. Three major failure mechanisms were considered, including the slope sliding failure of the levee, and the sliding and overturning failures of the retaining wall. When the variabilities of the in-situ friction angle and the scouring depth are considered for various flood return periods, the variations of the factor of safety (FS) for the different failure mechanisms show that the retaining wall sliding and overturning failures are more sensitive to the variability of the friction angle. When the flood return period is greater than 2 years, the levee can undergo slope sliding failure for all values of the water level difference. The results for levee stability analysis considering the variability of different parameters could assist engineers in designing the levee cross sections, especially with potential failure mechanisms in mind.

  8. Monitoring of levees, bridges, pipelines, and other critical infrastructure during the 2011 flooding in the Mississippi River Basin: Chapter J in 2011 floods of the central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Densmore, Brenda K.; Burton, Bethany L.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Cannia, James C.; Huizinga, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    During the 2011 Mississippi River Basin flood, the U.S. Geological Survey evaluated aspects of critical river infrastructure at the request of and in support of local, State, and Federal Agencies. Geotechnical and hydrographic data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey at numerous locations were able to provide needed information about 2011 flood effects to those managing the critical infrastructure. These data were collected and processed in a short time frame to provide managers the ability to make a timely evaluation of the safety of the infrastructure and, when needed, to take action to secure and protect critical infrastructure. Critical infrastructure surveyed by the U.S. Geological Survey included levees, bridges, pipeline crossings, power plant intakes and outlets, and an electrical transmission tower. Capacitively coupled resistivity data collected along the flood-protection levees surrounding the Omaha Public Power District Nebraska City power plant (Missouri River Levee Unit R573), mapped the near-subsurface electrical properties of the levee and the materials immediately below it. The near-subsurface maps provided a better understanding of the levee construction and the nature of the lithology beneath the levee. Comparison of the capacitively coupled resistivity surveys and soil borings indicated that low-resistivity value material composing the levee generally is associated with lean clay and silt to about 2 to 4 meters below the surface, overlying a more resistive layer associated with sand deposits. In general, the resistivity structure becomes more resistive to the south and the southern survey sections correlate well with the borehole data that indicate thinner clay and silt at the surface and thicker sand sequences at depth in these sections. With the resistivity data Omaha Public Power District could focus monitoring efforts on areas with higher resistivity values (coarser-grained deposits or more loosely compacted section), which typically are more prone to erosion or scour. Data collected from multibeam echosounder hydrographic surveys at selected bridges aided State agencies in evaluating the structural integrity of the bridges during the flood, by assessing the amount of scour present around piers and abutments. Hydrographic surveys of the riverbed detected scour depths ranging from zero (no scour) to approximately 5.8 meters in some areas adjacent to North Dakota bridge piers, zero to approximately 6 meters near bridge piers in Nebraska, and zero to approximately 10.4 meters near bridge piers in Missouri. Substructural support elements of some bridge piers in North Dakota, Nebraska, and Missouri that usually are buried were exposed to moving water and sediment. At five Missouri bridge piers the depth of scour left less than 1.8 meters of bed material between the bottom of the scour hole and bedrock. State agencies used this information along with bridge design and construction information to determine if reported scour depths would have a substantial effect on the stability of the structure. Multibeam echosounder hydrographic surveys of the riverbed near pipeline crossings did not detect exposed pipelines. However, analysis of the USGS survey data by pipeline companies aided in their evaluation of pipeline safety and led one company to further investigate the safety of their line and assisted another company in getting one offline pipeline back into operation. Multibeam echosounder hydrographic surveys of the banks, riverbed, and underwater infrastructure at Omaha Public Power District power plants documented the bed and scour conditions. These datasets were used by Omaha Public Power District to evaluate the effects that the flood had on operation, specifically to evaluate if scour during the peak of the flood or sediment deposition during the flood recession would affect the water intake structures. Hydrographic surveys at an Omaha Public Power District electrical transmission tower documented scour so that they could evaluate the structural integrity of the tower as well as have the informati

  9. Levees, Urbanization and Public Perception: Implications for Southeast Louisiana Wetlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacquelyn Marchand

    2009-01-01

    The wetlands of Louisiana have provided protection against floods and storms for thousands of years. With the construction of the Mississippi River levees and increased urbanization the wetlands are quickly disappearing, thus leaving the area vulnerable to hurricane storm surge. Since Hurricane Katrina, levees have been showcased as the only way of fully protecting southeast Louisiana from floods and storms;

  10. FLOOD PROTECTION STRUCTURE ACCREDITATION TASK FORCE More than 21,000 communities across the U.S. and its territories voluntarily participate in the NFIP by

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    FLOOD PROTECTION STRUCTURE ACCREDITATION TASK FORCE BACKGROUND More than 21,000 communities across regulations). Once compliance is demonstrated, the levee system can be accredited on NFIP Flood Insurance Rate Maps and the area behind the accredited levee is designated as Zone X (shaded) on the NFIP maps

  11. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Flood plain management and protection. 801...COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.8 Flood plain management and protection. ...waterways has not discouraged development of flood hazards areas. Major floods cause...

  12. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Flood plain management and protection. 801...COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.8 Flood plain management and protection. ...waterways has not discouraged development of flood hazards areas. Major floods cause...

  13. Variations in natural levee morphology in anastomosed channel flood plain complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Peter N.; Slingerland, Rudy L.; Smith, Norman D.

    2004-07-01

    Natural levees are common features of alluvial river systems, yet their origin and evolution are poorly understood. In this paper, we present morphologic and sedimentologic data from two anastomosed rivers and offer a hypothesis of natural levee growth in these systems based on mechanisms of sediment transport. In settings where floodbasins fill at the same rate as the channel, levees form by turbulent diffusion of suspended sediment away from a high-velocity thread into a floodbasin of relatively stagnant water. The theory of diffusive transport suggests that these levees should be narrow, steep, and display abrupt decreases in grain size due to rapid decreases in carrying capacity with distance into the floodbasin. In environments where an appreciable water surface slope is maintained between the main channel and the floodbasin, levees form by advection of sediment out of the channel and into the floodbasin. Advective transport theory indicates that these levees should be broad and gently sloped, with grain sizes gradually decreasing away from the main channel. Natural levees occurring in the anastomosed reach of the upper Columbia River in SE British Columbia display significantly different morphology from levees in the Cumberland Marshes region of the lower Saskatchewan River in east-central Saskatchewan. At the upper Columbia site, the rise in stage of the floodbasin water nearly keeps up with that of the channel water because of good communication between channel and floodbasins through crevasses. This inhibits the establishment of a water surface slope, and the bulk of the escaping sediment is deposited close to the channel. In contrast, the Cumberland Marshes region is characterized by wide and volumetrically large floodbasins. These conditions keep floodbasin water surface elevations relatively low and maintain an appreciable elevation head between the channel and its floodbasin, fostering levee growth by advective transport.

  14. Morphological Analyses and Simulated Flood Elevations in a Watershed with Dredged and Leveed Stream Channels, Wheeling Creek, Eastern Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherwood, James M.; Huitger, Carrie A.; Ebner, Andrew D.; Koltun, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    The USGS, in cooperation with the Ohio Emergency Management Agency, conducted a study in the Wheeling Creek Basin to (1) evaluate and contrast land-cover characteristics from 2001 with characteristics from 1979 and 1992; (2) compare current streambed elevation, slope, and geometry with conditions present in the late 1980s; (3) look for evidence of channel filling and over widening in selected undredged reaches; (4) estimate flood elevations for existing conditions in both undredged and previously dredged reaches; (5) evaluate the height of the levees required to contain floods with selected recurrence intervals in previously dredged reaches; and (6) estimate flood elevations for several hypothetical dredging and streambed aggradation scenarios in undredged reaches. The amount of barren land in the Wheeling Creek watershed has decreased from 20 to 1 percent of the basin area based on land-cover characteristics from 1979 and 2001. Barren lands appear to have been converted primarily to pasture, presumably as a result of surface-mine reclamation. Croplands also decreased from 13 to 8 percent of the basin area. The combined decrease in barren lands and croplands is approximately offset by the increase in pasture. Stream-channel surveys conducted in 1987 and again in 2006 at 21 sites in four previously dredged reaches of Wheeling Creek indicate little change in the elevation, slope, and geometry of the channel at most sites. The mean change in width-averaged bed and thalweg elevations for the 21 cross sections was 0.1 feet. Bankfull widths, mean depths, and cross-sectional areas measured at 12 sites in undredged reaches were compared to estimates determined from regional equations. The mean percentage difference between measured and estimated bankfull widths was -0.2 percent, suggesting that bankfull widths in the Wheeling Creek Basin are generally about the same as regional averages for undisturbed basins of identical drainage area. For bankfull mean depth and cross-sectional area, the mean percentage differences between the measured and estimated values were -16.0 and -11.2, respectively. The predominantly negative bias in differences between the measured and estimated values indicates that bankfull mean depths and cross-sectional areas in studied reaches generally are smaller than the regional trend. This may be an indication of channel filling and over widening or it may reflect insufficient representation in the regional dataset of basins with characteristics like that of Wheeling Creek. Step-backwater models were constructed for four previously dredged reaches to determine the height of levees required to contain floods with recurrence intervals of 2, 10, 50, and 100 years. Existing levees (all of which are uncertified) were found to contain the 100-year flood at only 20 percent of the surveyed cross sections. At the other 80 percent of the surveyed cross sections, levee heights would have to be raised an average of 2.5 feet and as much as 6.3 feet to contain the 100-year flood. Step-backwater models also were constructed for three undredged reaches to assess the impacts of selected dredging and streambed aggradation scenarios on water-surface elevations corresponding to the 2-, 10-, 50-, and 100-year floods. Those models demonstrated that changes in water-surface elevations associated with a given depth of dredging were proportionately smaller for larger floods due to the fact that more of the flood waters are outside of the main channel. For example, 2.0 feet of dredging in the three study reaches would lower the water-surface elevation an average of 1.30 feet for the 2-year flood and 0.64 feet for the 100-year flood.

  15. Risk Assessment and Management for Interconnected and Interactive Critical Flood Defense Systems

    E-print Network

    Hamedifar, Hamed

    2012-01-01

    a great deal more that comes into play for flood protectionflood protection and levee system that past research has shown to be at greatflood protection and levee system that past research has shown to be at great

  16. Floods

    MedlinePLUS

    ... when a levee is breached, or when a dam breaks. Flash floods, which can develop quickly, often ... lying area, near water or downstream from a dam. Although there are no guarantees of safety during ...

  17. 44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... false Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 ...INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND...

  18. 44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... false Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 ...INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND...

  19. 44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... false Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 ...INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND...

  20. 44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... false Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 ...INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND...

  1. National Levee Database: monitoring, vulnerability assessment and management in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbetta, Silvia; Camici, Stefania; Maccioni, Pamela; Moramarco, Tommaso

    2015-04-01

    A properly designed and constructed levees system can often be an effective device for repelling floodwaters and provide barriers against inundation to protect urbanized and industrial areas. However, the delineation of flooding-prone areas and the related hydraulic hazard mapping taking account of uncertainty (Apel et al., 2008) are usually developed with a scarce consideration of the possible occurrence of levee failures along river channels (Mazzoleni et al., 2014). Indeed, it is well known that flooding is frequently the result of levee failures that can be triggered by several factors, as: (1) overtopping, (2) scouring of the foundation, (3) seepage/piping of levee body/foundation, and (4) sliding of the foundation. Among these failure mechanisms that are influenced by the levee's geometrical configuration, hydraulic conditions (e.g. river level and seepage), and material properties (e.g. permeability, cohesion, porosity, compaction), the piping caused by seepage (ICOLD, http://www.icold-cigb.org) is considered one of the most dominant levee failure mechanisms (Colleselli F., 1994; Wallingford H. R., 2003). The difficulty of estimating the hydraulic parameters to properly describe the seepage line within the body and foundation of the levee implies that the study of the critical flood wave routing is typically carried out by assuming that the levee system is undamaged during the flood event. In this context, implementing and making operational a National Levee Database (NLD), effectively structured and continuously updated, becomes fundamental to have a searchable inventory of information about levees available as a key resource supporting decisions and actions affecting levee safety. The ItaliaN LEvee Database (INLED) has been recently developed by the Research Institute for Geo-Hydrological Protection (IRPI) for the Civil Protection Department of the Presidency of Council of Ministers. INLED has the main focus of collecting comprehensive information about Italian levees and historical breach failures to be exploited in the framework of an operational procedure addressed to the seepage vulnerability assessment of river reaches where the levee system is an important structural measure against flooding. For its structure, INLED is a dynamic geospatial database with ongoing efforts to add levee data from authorities with the charge of hydraulic risk mitigation. In particular, the database is aimed to provide the available information about: i) location and condition of levees; ii) morphological and geometrical properties; iii) photographic documentation; iv) historical levee failures; v) assessment of vulnerability to overtopping and seepage carried out through a procedure based on simple vulnerability indexes (Camici et al. 2014); vi) management, control and maintenance; vii)flood hazard maps developed by assuming the levee system undamaged/damaged during the flood event. Currently, INLED contains data of levees that are mostly located in the Tiber basin, Central Italy. References Apel H., Merz B. & Thieken A.H. Quantification of uncertainties in flood risk assessments. Int J River Basin Manag 2008, 6, (2), 149-162. Camici S,, Barbetta S., Moramarco T., Levee body vulnerability to seepage: the case study of the levee failure along the Foenna stream on 1st January 2006 (central Italy)", Journal of Flood Risk Management, in press. Colleselli F. Geotechnical problems related to river and channel embankments. Rotterdam, the Netherlands: Springer, 1994. H. R.Wallingford Consultants (HRWC). Risk assessment for flood and coastal defence for strategic planning: high level methodology technical report, London, 2003. Mazzoleni M., Bacchi B., Barontini S., Di Baldassarre G., Pilotti M. & Ranzi R. Flooding hazard mapping in floodplain areas affected by piping breaches in the Po River, Italy. J Hydrol Eng 2014, 19, (4), 717-731.

  2. Geophysical applications for levee assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chlaib, Hussein Khalefa

    Levees are important engineering structures that build along the rivers to protect the human lives and shield the communities as well as agriculture lands from the high water level events. Animal burrows, subsurface cavities, and low density (high permeability) zones are weakness features within the levee body that increase its risk of failure. To prevent such failure, continuous monitoring of the structure integrity and early detection of the weakness features must be conducted. Application of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Capacitively Coupled Resistivity (CCR) methods were found to be very effective in assessing the levees and detect zones of weakness within the levee body. GPR was implemented using multi-frequency antennas (200, 400, and 900 MHz) with survey cart/wheel and survey vehicle. The (CCR) method was applied by using a single transmitter and three receivers. Studying the capability and the effectiveness of these methods in levee monitoring, subsurface weakness feature detection, and studying the structure integrity of levees were the main tasks of this dissertation. A set of laboratory experiments was conducted at the Geophysics Laboratory of the University of Arkansas at Little Rock (UALR) to analyze the polarity change in GPR signals in the presence of subsurface voids and water-filled cavities. Also three full scale field expeditions at the Big Dam Bridge (BDB) Levee, Lollie Levee, and Helena Levee in Arkansas were conducted using the GPR technique. This technique was effective in detecting empty, water, and clay filled cavities as well as small scale animal burrows (small rodents). The geophysical work at BDB and Lollie Levees expressed intensive subsurface anomalies which might decrease their integrity while the Helena Levee shows less subsurface anomalies. The compaction of levee material is a key factor affecting piping phenomenon. The structural integrity of the levee partially depends on the density/compaction of the soil layers. A reduction in density or compaction of part of the levee body may create a zone of weakness during a flood. The Energy Variation Method (EVM) was used to detect the changes in electromagnetic (EM) energy reflected from the layers as a measure of the variation in density. Synthetic modeling was conducted to simulate a cross-section of a levee body to study the ground penetrating radar (GPR) signal behavior as it propagates in the model. EVM was calculated from the reflected signal to predict the changes in density (compaction). Comprehensive fieldwork was conducted to collect a 2,500 meter profile along part of the Helena Levee, Helena-West Helena, AR, for possible density variations in the soil using EVM of GPR signals. EVM is clearly capable of detecting changes in the dielectric constant. The association of these changes to the variation in density/compaction allows the EVM method to directly delineate these variations. Using such a robust method will definitely improve the assessment process as applied to levee structure. CCR data was collected to study the electrical resistivity distribution within the levee and its usefulness in levee's assessment. CCR was less effective to detect the animal burrows and other small anomalies due to nature of the method in its limitation of detecting very small features.

  3. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...interest. A balanced flood plain management and protection...needed to reduce the flood hazard to a minimum...safeguard public health, welfare, safety...To foster sound flood plain controls...water resources management, the...

  4. Flood Protection Structure Accreditation Task Force: Interim Report

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Flood Protection Structure Accreditation Task Force: Interim Report January 2, 2013 #12;FLOOD PROTECTION STRUCTURE ACCREDITATION TASK FORCE: INTERIM REPORT Message from the Administrator Structure Accreditation Task Force: Interim Report." This Interim Report was prepared jointly by our two

  5. Blackland's flood warning system protects soldiers 

    E-print Network

    Wythe, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    to help Fort Hood manage its land resources. June Wolfe, assistant research scientist, developed the system after researching and adapting the best technologies available for this use. Wolfe, who works for project leader Dr. Dennis Hoffman, said... the No. 1 reason for installing the FAST system was ?to protect soldiers by alerting them of dangerous flood conditions.? Equipment and personnel had been lost at low water crossings during storms, he said. Wolfe said the sensors, which constantly...

  6. 24 CFR 574.640 - Flood insurance protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flood insurance protection. 574.640 Section...Other Federal Requirements § 574.640 Flood insurance protection. No property...Management Agency (FEMA) as having special flood hazards, unless: (a)(1) The...

  7. 24 CFR 574.640 - Flood insurance protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Flood insurance protection. 574.640 Section...Other Federal Requirements § 574.640 Flood insurance protection. No property...Management Agency (FEMA) as having special flood hazards, unless: (a)(1) The...

  8. Flood Hazard Causes and Flood Protection Recommendations for Belgian River Basins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Etienne Persoons; Marnik Vanclooster; Albert Desmed

    2002-01-01

    The two recent disastrous floods of the river Meuse of December 1993 and January 1995 initiated a thorough discussion about the different aspects of flood protection in Belgium. For helping decision makers in improving the national flood protection policies, an interdisciplinary group of experts was established with members belonging to the academic and the administrative communities. The goal of the

  9. Levee Failures in the Sacramento - San Joaquin River Delta: Characteristics and Perspectives

    E-print Network

    Hopf, Frank

    2012-02-14

    (DRMS), Delta Levee Failures, and Delta AG levee failures since 1950 ...................................... 264 7.9 Comparison of Cumulative Flooded Islands (DRMS), Delta Levee Failures, and Delta AG Levee Failures since 1973...

  10. Economics of Flood Protection in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sujata Gupta; Akram Javed; Divya Datt

    2003-01-01

    The peculiar rainfall pattern in Indiarenders the country highly vulnerable to floods. Forty million hectares of land, roughlyone-eighth of the country's geographical area, is prone to floods. Each year, floods cause extensive damage to life and property, losses being exacerbated by rapid population growth, unplanned development and unchecked environmental degradation. The country has been tackling the problem through structural and

  11. 44 CFR 61.12 - Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal funds...INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.12 Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal...

  12. 44 CFR 61.12 - Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal funds...INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.12 Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal...

  13. 44 CFR 61.12 - Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal funds...INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.12 Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal...

  14. 44 CFR 61.12 - Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal funds...INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.12 Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal...

  15. 44 CFR 61.12 - Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 true Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal funds...INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.12 Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal...

  16. Mississippi River Flood of 2011 and the Activation of the Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway: Observations and Modeling of a Levee Breach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, R. R.; Koenig, T. A.; McDonald, R. R.; Nelson, J. M.; Simoes, F. J.

    2011-12-01

    During 2011, record flooding has occurred in many parts of the central United States. As the flooding reached record levels for the Mississippi-Ohio River confluence at Cairo, Illinois, the 61 kilometer long and 8 kilometer wide Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway (Floodway) was activated to provide a lowering of upstream water levels through a controlled demolition of approximately 3,300 meters of levee at 10:00 PM on May 2, 2011. Prior to activation of the Floodway, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) deployed 38 self-contained stage sensors throughout the Floodway to capture the change in water elevation through time at various locations. From April 29, 2011 to May 24, 2011, daily streamflow measurements were made upstream of the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers, within the Floodway opening and outlets, and on the Mississippi River downstream of the Floodway opening. Additionally, velocity and bathymetric data were collected immediately downstream of the Floodway opening at Birds Point to characterize scour in the Floodway. The data provide a unique look at the impact of a controlled levee breach on river flows and hydraulics. The activation of the Floodway lowered the water level at Cairo, Illinois by 0.44 meters in the first 14 hours, while increasing the streamflow of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers in vicinity of Cairo, Illinois by 9,200 cubic meters per second. On May 2, prior to the activation of the Floodway, the measured combined streamflow of the upper Mississippi and Ohio Rivers at Cairo, Illinois was 52,900 cubic meters per second with the Ohio River contributing 27,700 cubic meters per second. Following the controlled breach of the Birds Point levee (immediately downstream of Cairo, Illinois on the right descending bank) the night of May 2, 2011, the measured combined streamflow at Cairo, Illinois on May 3, 2011 increased to 62,100 cubic meters per second with the Ohio River increasing to 38,100 cubic meters per second, an increase of 10,400 cubic meters per second (37.5-percent increase). The Ohio River streamflow 57 kilometers upstream at Metropolis, Illinois was nearly steady during this time. Our preliminary interpretation is that a flow transient was introduced in the system by an immediate increase in downstream conveyance through the Floodway. The increased conveyance increased the local water slope, increasing the streamflow, particularly on the Ohio River. The inflow and outflow data for the Floodway, time series of water levels at 38 locations in the Floodway, and velocity mapping data collected during operation of the Floodway provide a unique data set to apply and calibrate two-dimensional unsteady- and steady-state hydraulic models, and evaluate how effectively they can be used in a complex flow environment. The USGS IRIC modeling platform is being used to construct both steady and unsteady two-dimensional models of the Floodway. Assuming the two-dimensional models can be successfully applied, these models will provide water-resources managers with simulation capabilities to evaluate the efficacy of future levee breach scenarios in mitigating flood risk.

  17. Geotechnical reconnaissance of the Mississippi River Delta flood-protection system after Hurricane Katrina: Chapter 3C in Science and the storms-the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luna, Ronaldo; Summers, David; Hoffman, David; Rogers, J. David; Sevi, Adam; Witt, Emitt C.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the post-Hurricane Katrina conditions of the flood-protection system of levees and floodwalls that failed in the environs of the Mississippi River Delta and New Orleans, La. Damage conditions and suggested mechanisms of failure are presented from the geotechnical point of view.

  18. A NEW APPROACH TO FLOOD PROTECTION DESIGN AND RIPARIAN MANAGEMENT1

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    A NEW APPROACH TO FLOOD PROTECTION DESIGN AND RIPARIAN MANAGEMENT1 2 Philip B. Williams, California. Abstract: Conventional engineering methods of flood control design focus narrowly processes. Conse- quently, flood control projects are often environmentally disastrous, expensive

  19. Flood Management: A simulation and gaming perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yung-Fang Chen; Edward P. Borodzicz

    While flood management is not a new phenomenon media interest into the effects has increased considerably in the past decades. Typical flood management strategies tend to be protective and dominated by engineering, scientific or technical methodologies. These include structural measures, for example, levees, floodwalls and dyke systems etc; and non-structural measures, for example, the utilization of forecasting systems, early warning

  20. Radar remote sensing for levee health assessment in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, P.; Jones, C. E.; Dudas, J.; Bawden, G. W.; Deverel, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Levees and dikes form extensive flood protection infrastructure that often also serve critical water conveyance functions. We have studied the use of radar remote sensing for providing health assessment of levees, focusing on California's levee system. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, which lies directly east of San Francisco Bay, is an area comprised of tidal marshland and reclaimed land in the form of ~60 islands surrounded by 1700 km of levees. Improved knowledge of subsidence across the region is needed to maintain the integrity of the Delta levee system, which protects the integrity and quality of the state's primary water supply. The western Delta is particularly critical because levee failure in this area would rapidly draw water of high salinity content into the channels conveying the fresh water supply. Here we report on a study that uses radar interferometry to measure the spatially and temporally varied levee movement and subsidence in the area, focusing particularly on Sherman Island, the westernmost island of the Delta. We use data from NASA's L-band (23.79 cm) Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) collected at 6-week average interval from July 2009 through the current day. We show preliminary results for localized movement on and near the levees and for island-scale subsidence and discuss the techniques used for these measurements and how they could contribute to emergency response.

  1. Chapter 15 Flood Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lake Shasta; Sly Creek Reservoirs; Lake Oroville; French Meadows; Hell Hole Reservoirs; Folsom Lake; Lake McClure; Feather Sacramento; Ñ Export; Anderson Reservoir; Lake Perris; Castaic Lake; Diamond Valley Lake; California Aqueduct

    Floods can be very damaging and costly. In order to lessen the effects, numerous practices aim to reduce flood damages. The construction of levees, dams, and reservoirs are common methods of flood damage reduction in California. Levees confine the water flows within a channel. The integrity of a levee and its maximum design flow capacity, dictate the extent of a

  2. Changes in Benefits of Flood Protection Standard under Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, W. H.; Koirala, S.; Yamazaki, D.; Hirabayashi, Y.; Kanae, S.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding potential risk of river flooding under future climate scenarios might be helpful for developing risk management strategies (including mitigation, adaptation). Such analyses are typically performed at the macro scales (e.g., regional, global) where the climate model output could support (e.g., Hirabayashi et al., 2013, Arnell and Gosling, 2014). To understand the potential benefits of infrastructure upgrading as part of climate adaptation strategies, it is also informative to understand the potential impact of different flood protection standards (in terms of return periods) on global river flooding under climate change. In this study, we use a baseline period (forced by observed hydroclimate conditions) and CMIP5 model output (historic and future periods) to drive a global river routing model called CaMa-Flood (Yamazaki et al., 2011) and simulate the river water depth at a spatial resolution of 15 min x 15 min. From the simulated results of baseline period, we use the annual maxima river water depth to fit the Gumbel distribution and prepare the return period-flood risk relationship (involving population and GDP). From the simulated results of CMIP5 model, we also used the annual maxima river water depth to obtain the Gumbel distribution and then estimate the exceedance probability (historic and future periods). We apply the return period-flood risk relationship (above) to the exceedance probability and evaluate the potential risk of river flooding and changes in the benefits of flood protection standard (e.g., 100-year flood of the baseline period) from the past into the future (represented by the representative concentration pathways). In this presentation, we show our preliminary results. References: Arnell, N.W, Gosling, S., N., 2014. The impact of climate change on river flood risk at the global scale. Climatic Change 122: 127-140, doi: 10.1007/s10584-014-1084-5. Hirabayashi et al., 2013. Global flood risk under climate change. Nature Climate Change 3: 816-821, doi: 10.1038/nclimate1911. Yamazaki et al., 2011. A physically based description of floodplain inundation dynamics in a global river routing model. Water Resources Research 47, W04501, doi: 10.1029/2010wr009726.

  3. 2008 Midwest Levee Failure: Erosion Studies 

    E-print Network

    Bernhardt, Michelle Lee

    2011-02-22

    of timesensitive field data and personal observations. This thesis is a study of the performance of the Midwest Levee system during the 2008 flooding events. The goal of the Midwest Levee investigation was to gather and analyze perishable data in an effort...

  4. The Impact of Corps Flood Control Reservoirs in the June 2008 Upper Mississippi Flood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Charley; J. A. Stiman

    2008-01-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers is responsible for a multitude of flood control project on the Mississippi River and its tributaries, including levees that protect land from flooding, and dams to help regulate river flows. The first six months of 2008 were the wettest on record in the upper Mississippi Basin. During the first 2 weeks of June, rainfall

  5. Capacitively coupled resistivity survey of the levee surrounding the Omaha Public Power District Nebraska City Power Plant, June 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Bethany L.; Cannia, James C.

    2011-01-01

    This report is a release of digital data from a capacitively coupled resistivity survey conducted on June 13, 2011, on the flood-protection levees surrounding the Omaha Public Power District Nebraska City power plant. The U.S. Geological Survey Crustal Geophysics and Geochemistry Science Center and the Nebraska Water Science Center performed the survey in response to a flood on the Missouri River. A single line of resistivity profiling was completed along the center line of the section of levee 573 that surrounds the power plant.

  6. Flood Risk and Global Change: Future Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra-Llobet, A.

    2014-12-01

    Global flood risk is increasing in response to population growth in flood-prone areas, human encroachment into natural flood paths (exacerbating flooding in areas formerly out of harm's way), and climate change (which alters variables driving floods). How will societies respond to and manage flood risk in coming decades? Analysis of flood policy evolution in the EU and US demonstrates that changes occurred in steps, in direct response to disasters. After the flood produced by the collapse of Tous Dam in 1982, Spain initiated a systematic assessment of areas of greatest flood risk and civil protection response. The devastating floods on the Elbe and elsewhere in central Europe in 2002 motivated adoption of the EU Floods Directive (2007), which requires member states to develop systematic flood risk maps (now due) and flood risk management plans (due in 2015). The flooding of New Orleans by Hurricane Katrina in 2005 resulted in a nationwide levee-safety assessment and improvements in communicating risk, but overall less fundamental change in US flood management than manifest in the EU since 2007. In the developing world, large (and increasing) concentrations of populations in low-lying floodplains, deltas, and coasts are increasingly vulnerable, and governments mostly ill-equipped to implement fundamental changes in land use to prevent future increases in exposure, nor to develop responses to the current threats. Even in the developed world, there is surprisingly little research on how well residents of flood-prone lands understand their true risk, especially when they are 'protected' by '100-year' levees. Looking ahead, researchers and decision makers should prioritize improvements in flood risk perception, river-basin-scale assessment of flood runoff processes (under current and future climate and land-use conditions) and flood management alternatives, and bridging the disconnect between national and international floodplain management policies and local land-use decisions.

  7. Mapping Flood Protection Benefits from Restored Wetlands at the Urban-Suburban Interface

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urbanization exacerbates flooding by increasing runoff and decreasing surface water storage. Restoring wetlands can enhance flood protection while providing a suite of co-benefits such as temperature regulation and access to open space. Spatial modeling of the delivery of flood p...

  8. Floods

    MedlinePLUS

    ... development can change the natural drainage and create brand new flood risks. That's because new buildings, parking ... the NFIP visit www.FloodSmart.gov . Flood Safety Awareness Week is March 16 to 22, find out ...

  9. Experimental analysis of the levees safety based on geophysical monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enzo Rizzo; Giampaolo Valeria; Votta Mario; Vincenzo Lapenna; Tommaso Moramarco; Costanza Aricò; S. Camici; Renato Morbidelli; M. Sinagra; T. Tucciarelli

    2010-01-01

    Several flood events brought river levees into the focus of attention for some disasters due to their collapse. This phenomena is quite complex to investigate, because of different factors that can affect the stability of levees, among them the non uniformity of material properties, which influencing the permeability of the embankment, might induce high percolation velocity of flux thus triggering

  10. Levee Health Monitoring With Radar Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. E.; Bawden, G. W.; Deverel, S. J.; Dudas, J.; Hensley, S.; Yun, S.

    2012-12-01

    Remote sensing offers the potential to augment current levee monitoring programs by providing rapid and consistent data collection over large areas irrespective of the ground accessibility of the sites of interest, at repeat intervals that are difficult or costly to maintain with ground-based surveys, and in rapid response to emergency situations. While synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has long been used for subsidence measurements over large areas, applying this technique directly to regional levee monitoring is a new endeavor, mainly because it requires both a wide imaging swath and fine spatial resolution to resolve individual levees within the scene, a combination that has not historically been available. Application of SAR remote sensing directly to levee monitoring has only been attempted in a few pilot studies. Here we describe how SAR remote sensing can be used to assess levee conditions, such as seepage, drawing from the results of two levee studies: one of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta levees in California that has been ongoing since July 2009 and a second that covered the levees near Vicksburg, Mississippi, during the spring 2011 floods. These studies have both used data acquired with NASA's UAVSAR L-band synthetic aperture radar, which has the spatial resolution needed for this application (1.7 m single-look), sufficiently wide imaging swath (22 km), and the longer wavelength (L-band, 0.238 m) required to maintain phase coherence between repeat collections over levees, an essential requirement for applying differential interferometry (DInSAR) to a time series of repeated collections for levee deformation measurement. We report the development and demonstration of new techniques that employ SAR polarimetry and differential interferometry to successfully assess levee health through the quantitative measurement of deformation on and near levees and through detection of areas experiencing seepage. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta levee study, which covers the entire network of more than 1100 miles of levees in the area, has used several sets of in situ data to validate the results. This type of levee health status information acquired with radar remote sensing could provide a cost-effective method to significantly improve the spatial and temporal coverage of levee systems and identify areas of concern for targeted levee maintenance, repair, and emergency response in the future. Our results show, for example, that during an emergency, when time is of the essence, SAR remote sensing offers the potential of rapidly providing levee status information that is effectively impossible to obtain over large areas using conventional monitoring, e.g., through high precision measurements of subcentimeter-scale levee movement prior to failure. The research described here was carried out in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  11. Flooding

    MedlinePLUS

    ... con monóxido de carbono. Limit contact with flood water. Flood water may have high levels of raw ... from Centers for Disease Control Alert: Boil Drinking Water If your water may not be safe, bring ...

  12. Flooding and Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, flooding is the nation's most common natural disaster. Some floods develop slowly during an extended period of rain or in a warming trend following a heavy snow. Flash floods can occur quickly, without any visible sign of rain. Catastrophic floods are associated with burst dams and levees,…

  13. Health protection and risks for rescuers in cases of floods.

    PubMed

    Janev Holcer, Nataša; Jeli?i?, Pavle; Grba Bujevi?, Maja; Važani?, Damir

    2015-03-01

    Floods can pose a number of safety and health hazards for flood-affected populations and rescuers and bring risk of injuries, infections, and diseases due to exposure to pathogenic microorganisms and different biological and chemical contaminants. The risk factors and possible health consequences for the rescuers involved in evacuation and rescuing operations during the May 2014 flood crisis in Croatia are shown, as well as measures for the prevention of injuries and illnesses. In cases of extreme floods, divers play a particularly important role in rescuing and first-response activities. Rescuing in contaminated floodwaters means that the used equipment such as diving suits should be disinfected afterwards. The need for securing the implementation of minimal health and safety measures for involved rescuers is paramount. Data regarding injuries and disease occurrences among rescuers are relatively scarce, indicating the need for medical surveillance systems that would monitor and record all injuries and disease occurrences among rescuers in order to ensure sound epidemiological data. The harmful effects of flooding can be reduced by legislation, improvement of flood forecasting, establishing early warning systems, and appropriate planning and education. PMID:25741935

  14. Flood

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Flood site is an experiment with a stream table to see what happens during a flood. It was originally a joint project between a 6th grade class and the Bureau of Economic Geography. There are explanations and photographs of the experimental set up and of students and their observation of rivers forming and the creation of a flood. There is also a worksheet for experimental notes and a sheet containing the experimental method and instructions.

  15. Geospatial Information Relevant to the Flood Protection Available on The Mainstream Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kliment, Tomáš; Gálová, Linda; ?ura?iová, Renata; Fencík, Róbert; Kliment, Marcel

    2014-03-01

    Flood protection is one of several disciplines where geospatial data is very important and is a crucial component. Its management, processing and sharing form the foundation for their efficient use; therefore, special attention is required in the development of effective, precise, standardized, and interoperable models for the discovery and publishing of data on the Web. This paper describes the design of a methodology to discover Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) services on the Web and collect descriptive information, i.e., metadata in a geocatalogue. A pilot implementation of the proposed methodology - Geocatalogue of geospatial information provided by OGC services discovered on Google (hereinafter "Geocatalogue") - was used to search for available resources relevant to the area of flood protection. The result is an analysis of the availability of resources discovered through their metadata collected from the OGC services (WMS, WFS, etc.) and the resources they provide (WMS layers, WFS objects, etc.) within the domain of flood protection.

  16. Floods

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About CDC.gov . Natural Disasters and Severe Weather Earthquakes Being Prepared Emergency Supplies Home Hazards Indoor Safety ... What's New A - Z Index Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes ...

  17. Flood Management and Protection from the Social Point of View: Case Study from Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manukalo, V.; Gerasymenko, H.

    2012-12-01

    Defining Issue According to the statistics presented by the Ministry of Emergencies of Ukraine, river floods have imposed the most severe damages to the sectors of economy and the human communities in Ukraine. But, an adaptability and a vulnerability of Ukrainian society to floods are still poorly understood. Results Presentation In the response to increasing flood losses in the country between 1998 and 2008, the State Hydrometeorological Service of Ukraine, which is subordinate to the Ministry of Emergencies, in the cooperation with the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine have carried out the research study focusing on public views on the problem of river floods for Ukraine. Aims of this study were: a) exploring the main sources of information on water-related hazards and the level of knowledge useful in a flood crisis situation in different groups of peoples; b) learning what the various population groups think of the most significant causes and consequences of flood damages and the role of various central/governmental/ and local authorities in an elaboration and implementation of mitigation measures. Public attitudes towards various prevention and mitigation strategies, as well as sources of emerging conflict were also revealed. The results of study have given a possibility to compare points of view of population groups which: a) living in the low- and high- flood risk areas; b) living in the urban and rural areas; c) having the different levels of education. The responses from 2550 residents have been analyzed and summarized. Among the most important findings of this study can be indicated following: a) on the one hand, the level of knowledge of some aspects of flood problem (impact of climate variation and change, adaptation measures) of the general public should be improved, on the other hand, the most of peoples understand that floods are the significant economical and ecological problem; b) views of the public on the problem differ very much with regard to their regions of residence (low- or high- flood risk areas, cities or villages), education level; c) a lot of peoples don't know distribution of duties between governmental bodies on central and local levels in the field of flood management and protection; d) the most of peoples don't know which Ukrainian governmental bodies are responsible for the elaboration of National adaptation strategy to the expected climate change; e) many recipient estimate as inefficient activities of Ukrainian authorities on local, national and international levels as well as a public participation in the flood management and protection policy. The results of this study have been rather unexpected for Ukrainian central and local governmental bodies responsible for flood management and protection policies. This underlines the importance of having the alternative flood risk management and protection policies studied not only from aspects of technical and economic rational, but also from that of social acceptability, before any decision is made. Practical Application Results of study have been used in preparation of: a) the State Program on the protection against floods in the Dniester, Prut and Siret river basins; b) of the "National Action Plan for Adaptation to Climate Change for period 2011-2015".

  18. Game Theory and Risk-Based Levee System Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, R.; Lund, J. R.; Madani, K.

    2014-12-01

    Risk-based analysis has been developed for optimal levee design for economic efficiency. Along many rivers, two levees on opposite riverbanks act as a simple levee system. Being rational and self-interested, land owners on each river bank would tend to independently optimize their levees with risk-based analysis, resulting in a Pareto-inefficient levee system design from the social planner's perspective. Game theory is applied in this study to analyze decision making process in a simple levee system in which the land owners on each river bank develop their design strategies using risk-based economic optimization. For each land owner, the annual expected total cost includes expected annual damage cost and annualized construction cost. The non-cooperative Nash equilibrium is identified and compared to the social planner's optimal distribution of flood risk and damage cost throughout the system which results in the minimum total flood cost for the system. The social planner's optimal solution is not feasible without appropriate level of compensation for the transferred flood risk to guarantee and improve conditions for all parties. Therefore, cooperative game theory is then employed to develop an economically optimal design that can be implemented in practice. By examining the game in the reversible and irreversible decision making modes, the cost of decision making myopia is calculated to underline the significance of considering the externalities and evolution path of dynamic water resource problems for optimal decision making.

  19. Historical Channel Change on the Upper Gila River, Arizona and New Mexico in Response to Anthropogenic Modifications and Extreme Floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klawon, J. E.; Levish, D. R.

    2003-12-01

    Over the past century, the majority of alluvial reaches along the upper Gila River in Arizona and New Mexico have been leveed in an attempt to protect adjacent property from flood damage. In addition, the demand for irrigation has prompted the construction of diversion dams in these alluvial reaches to divert water for agriculture. Detailed geomorphic mapping and investigation of historical channel change along the upper Gila River reveals that many channel modifications are catalysts for major channel change and can result in catastrophic property loss rather than safeguarding valuable farmland. Channel widths were measured every kilometer for approximately 160 km from Safford Valley, Arizona through Cliff-Gila Valley, New Mexico for eight decades to develop a quantitative analysis of channel change. An overall pattern of channel narrowing and widening coincides with periods of few large floods and periods of multiple large floods, respectively. Furthermore, reaches along the upper Gila River with greater channel modifications have experienced more variation in channel width than reaches with fewer modifications. Although the average width of the upper Gila River is very similar to the width of the 1935 channel, the lateral position of the channel is very different in many reaches. Many channel changes in recent decades are unprecedented in previous historical aerial photography and reveal that the upper Gila River is currently eroding stream banks that are several hundred years to thousands of years old. These changes are consistently associated with artificial channel constrictions, such as levees, bank protection, and bridges, that have been built and rebuilt following large floods and that have accelerated natural channel narrowing during periods of few large floods. Examples of geomorphic responses due to channel modifications along the upper Gila River include lateral erosion upstream of levees and diversion dams, redirection of flow over diversion dams into opposite banks, breaching of levees during floods and resultant erosion behind levees, channel widening downstream of levees, aggradation in leveed reaches, and lateral migration associated with straightened tributary channels.

  20. Flood

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson plan is part of the discoveryschool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on how flooding can occur due to different types of soil and how soils are able to retain rainwater. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, performing extensions, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, audio vocabulary, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

  1. There Is Water Everywhere: How News Framing Amplifies the Effect of Ecological Worldviews on Preference for Flooding Protection Policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy K. F. Fung; Dominique Brossard; Isabella Ng

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the interactive effect of worldviews and media frames on policy preference. Using flooding as a case study, we examine the interplay of ecological worldviews and news framed as either emphasizing harmony with nature or mastery over nature on individuals' preference for flood protection policy. A total of 255 undergraduate students participated in

  2. After the flood is before the next flood - post event review of the Central European Floods of June 2013. Insights, recommendations and next steps for future flood prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szoenyi, Michael; Mechler, Reinhard; McCallum, Ian

    2015-04-01

    In early June 2013, severe flooding hit Central and Eastern Europe, causing extensive damage, in particular along the Danube and Elbe main watersheds. The situation was particularly severe in Eastern Germany, Austria, Hungary and the Czech Republic. Based on the Post Event Review Capability (PERC) approach, developed by Zurich Insurance's Flood Resilience Program to provide independent review of large flood events, we examine what has worked well (best practice) and opportunities for further improvement. The PERC overall aims to thoroughly examine aspects of flood resilience, flood risk management and catastrophe intervention in order to help build back better after events and learn for future events. As our research from post event analyses shows a lot of losses are in fact avoidable by taking the right measures pre-event and these measures are economically - efficient with a return of 4 Euro on losses saved for every Euro invested in prevention on average (Wharton/IIASA flood resilience alliance paper on cost benefit analysis, Mechler et al. 2014) and up to 10 Euros for certain countries. For the 2013 flood events we provide analysis on the following aspects and in general identify a number of factors that worked in terms of reducing the loss and risk burden. 1. Understanding risk factors of the Central European Floods 2013 We review the precursors leading up to the floods in June, with an extremely wet May 2013 and an atypical V-b weather pattern that brought immense precipitation in a very short period to the watersheds of Elbe, Donau and partially the Rhine in the D-A-CH countries and researched what happened during the flood and why. Key questions we asked revolve around which protection and risk reduction approaches worked well and which did not, and why. 2. Insights and recommendations from the post event review The PERC identified a number of risk factors, which need attention if risk is to be reduced over time. • Yet another "100-year flood" - risk perception and understanding of risk in the population. • Residual risk and the levee shadow effect - why the population "felt safe." • What is the overload case and how to implement it in flood protection systems? • Decision-making for the future under uncertainty - how to design to acceptable flood protection levels if we haven't seen yet what's physically possible. 3. How to protect - practical examples Finally, we outline practical examples for reducing the loss burden and risk over time. • "Flood protection hierarchy" - from location choice under a hazard perspective to mobile flood protection. • Risk-based approach and identification of critical infrastructure. • Integrated flood risk management in theory and practical application. • Role of insurance.

  3. Levee Decisions and Sustainability for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta

    E-print Network

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    i Levee Decisions and Sustainability for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Robyn Suddeth, Jeff Mount The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta's fragile levees are subject to several physical realities that make them increasingly prone to failure. State planners face the challenge of preparing for future Delta flooding

  4. Methods for Estimating Magnitude and Frequency of Floods in Rural Basins in the Southeastern United States: South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feaster, Toby D.; Gotvald, Anthony J.; Weaver, J. Curtis

    2009-01-01

    For more than 50 years, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been developing regional regression equations that can be used to estimate flood magnitude and frequency at ungaged sites. Flood magnitude relates to the volume of flow that occurs over some period of time and usually is presented in cubic feet per second. Flood frequency relates to the probability of occurrence of a flood; that is, on average, what is the likelihood that a flood with a specified magnitude will occur in any given year (1 percent chance, 10 percent chance, 50 percent chance, and so on). Such flood estimates are needed for the efficient design of bridges, highway embankments, levees, and other structures near streams. In addition, these estimates are needed for the effective planning and management of land and water resources, to protect lives and property in flood-prone areas, and to determine flood-insurance rates.

  5. Floods of December 1961 in Mississippi and adjoining states

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shell, James D.

    1962-01-01

    Widespread floods occurred over parts of Mississippi, Louisiana, and Alabama after heavy rains during December 18, 1961. A series of low-pressure systems produced as much as 19 inches of rainfall in some areas. Heavy rainfall, 7 to 11 inches, on December 10 resulted in outstanding floods on small streams in southern Mississippi and southwestern Alabama. Subsequent rains produced multiple floods on small streams and outstanding floods of prolonged duration along the Big Black, upper Pearl, and lower Tombigbee Rivers in Mississippi. At Jackson, Miss., the Pearl River reached the highest stage known. Along the east bank, flood waters topped or breached some of the levee system protecting the Flowood industrial area, but other parts were saved by extensive reinforcement and by emergency operation of the partially completed dam 10 miles upstream. Additional heavy damage to commercial and industrial property was prevented as a result of these measures. Elsewhere, damage was restricted primarily to secondary highways and bridges. Two lives were lost.

  6. Robust, multifunctional flood protection zones in the Dutch Rural Riverine area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loon-Steensma, J. M.; Vellinga, P.

    2013-08-01

    This paper reviews the possible functions of robust dikes in the rural riverine areas of the Netherlands. It furthermore reviews and analyses strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats associated with robust, multifunctional flood defense zones in rural riverine zones. The study focused on recent plans and ideas for innovative dike reinforcement at five locations in the Netherlands, supplemented with information obtained in semi-structured interviews with experts and stakeholders. At each of the five locations, suitable robust flood defenses could be identified that would contribute to the envisaged functions and ambitions for the respective areas. Primary strengths of the robust, multifunctional approach were identified as combined uses of limited space, a longer-term focus, and greater safety. The new approach offers opportunities as well, in particular, with regard to tasks, problems, and objectives related to infrastructure, land-use planning, nature and landscape protection, and development. These provide possibilities for co-financing as well.

  7. IAHR Europe Congress, Book of Proceedings, 2014, Porto -Portugal. ISBN 978-989-96479-2-3 THE RISK ANALYSIS OF LEVEE SYSTEMS

    E-print Network

    risk analysis. An analytical method of levee systems risk analysis integrating functional analysis and historical performance rarely exist. Most levees form only part of complex flood defence systems that may THE RISK ANALYSIS OF LEVEE SYSTEMS RÉMY TOURMENT(1), MICHAEL WALLIS(2), BRUNO BEULLAC(1), ANDREAS

  8. The impact of different soil bioengineering techniques on the surface erosion of levees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Lammeranner; H. Meixner; F. Florineth

    2009-01-01

    The recent flood events have once more drawn attention to the stability and maintenance of river levees. Subsequently, the attention has also been focused on the prevention of erosion by hydraulic forces in case of flooding or overtopping. Vegetation can limit the soil detaching capacity of flowing water, by their retarding effects on runoff and velocity as well as the

  9. Flash Flood Processes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-14

    According to NOAA’s National Weather Service, a flash flood is a life-threatening flood that begins within 6 hours--and often within 3 hours--of a causative event. That causative event can be intense rainfall, the failure of a dam, levee, or other structure that is impounding water, or the sudden rise of water level associated with river ice jams. The “Flash Flood Processes” module offers an introduction to the distinguishing features of flash floods, the underlying hydrologic influences and the use of flash flood guidance (FFG) products. Through use of rich illustrations, animations, and interactions, this module explains the differences between flash floods and general floods and examines the hydrologic processes that impact flash flooding risk. In addition, it provides an introduction to the use of flash flood guidance (FFG) products including derivation from ThreshR and rainfall-runoff curves as well as current strengths and limitations.

  10. Perspectives on Screening Winter-Flood-Tolerant Woody Species in the Riparian Protection Forests of the Three Gorges Reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Yong; Chan, Zhulong

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of riparian protection forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is an ideal measure to cope with the eco-environmental problems of the water-level fluctuation zone (WLFZ). Thus, the information for screening winter-flood-tolerant woody plant species is useful for the recovery and re-establishment of the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. Therefore, we discussed the possibilities of constructing and popularizing riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ from several aspects, including the woody plant species distribution in the WLFZ, the survival rate analyses of suitable candidate woody species under controlled flooding conditions, the survival rate investigation of some woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, and the physiological responses of some woody plant species during the recovery stage after winter floods. The results of woody species investigation showed that most woody plant species that existed as annual seedlings in the TGR WLFZ are not suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests. However, arbor species (e.g., Salix matsudana, Populus×canadensis, Morus alba, Pterocarya stenoptera, Taxodium ascendens, and Metasequoia glyptostroboides) and shrub species (e.g., Salix variegata, Distylium chinensis, Lycium chinense, Myricaria laxiflora, and Rosa multiflora) might be considered suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ by survival rate analyses under controlled winter flooding conditions, and survival rate investigations of woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, respectively. Physiological analyses showed that P.×canadensis, M. alba, L. chinense, and S. variegata could develop specific self-repairing mechanisms to stimulate biomass accumulation and carbohydrate synthesis via the increases in chlorophyll pigments and photosynthesis during recovery after winter floods. Our results suggested these woody plant species could endure the winter flooding stress and recover well, and be used as candidate for the construction of riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. PMID:25265326

  11. Operational tools to help stakeholders to protect and alert municipalities facing uncertainties and changes in karst flash floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrell Estupina, V.; Raynaud, F.; Bourgeois, N.; Kong-A-Siou, L.; Collet, L.; Haziza, E.; Servat, E.

    2015-06-01

    Flash floods are often responsible for many deaths and involve many material damages. Regarding Mediterranean karst aquifers, the complexity of connections, between surface and groundwater, as well as weather non-stationarity patterns, increase difficulties in understanding the basins behaviour and thus warning and protecting people. Furthermore, given the recent changes in land use and extreme rainfall events, knowledge of the past floods is no longer sufficient to manage flood risks. Therefore the worst realistic flood that could occur should be considered. Physical and processes-based hydrological models are considered among the best ways to forecast floods under diverse conditions. However, they rarely match with the stakeholders' needs. In fact, the forecasting services, the municipalities, and the civil security have difficulties in running and interpreting data-consuming models in real-time, above all if data are uncertain or non-existent. To face these social and technical difficulties and help stakeholders, this study develops two operational tools derived from these models. These tools aim at planning real-time decisions given little, changing, and uncertain information available, which are: (i) a hydrological graphical tool (abacus) to estimate flood peak discharge from the karst past state and the forecasted but uncertain intense rainfall; (ii) a GIS-based method (MARE) to estimate the potential flooded pathways and areas, accounting for runoff and karst contributions and considering land use changes. Then, outputs of these tools are confronted to past and recent floods and municipalities observations, and the impacts of uncertainties and changes on planning decisions are discussed. The use of these tools on the recent 2014 events demonstrated their reliability and interest for stakeholders. This study was realized on French Mediterranean basins, in close collaboration with the Flood Forecasting Services (SPC Med-Ouest, SCHAPI, municipalities).

  12. Mississippi River Flooding 2011: Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This USGS aerial photo mosaic shows a series of levee breaks on the Missouri River during the 1993 flood, which were caused by overtopping. USGS scientists will use measurements from the intentionally breached levee at Birds Point in 2011 to compare with the 1993 levee breach measurements to underst...

  13. Mitigating Flood Loss through Local Comprehensive Planning in Florida

    E-print Network

    Kang, Jung Eun

    2010-10-12

    of flood management policies Plan coding protocol 13 for water runoff to go (Floodplain Management Association, 2007). Certain types of flood hazards are associated with or triggered by earthquakes, broken dams and levees, tsunamis or hurricanes...

  14. Reducing the effects of dredged material levees on coastal marsh function: sediment deposition and nekton utilization.

    PubMed

    Reed, Denise J; Peterson, Mark S; Lezina, Brian J

    2006-05-01

    Dredged material levees in coastal Louisiana are normally associated with pipeline canals or, more frequently, canals dredged through the wetlands to allow access to drilling locations for mineral extraction. The hydrologic impact on marshes behind the levee is of concern to coastal resource managers because of the potential impact on sediment transport and deposition, and the effect on estuarine organism access to valuable nursery habitat. This study examined the effects of gaps in dredged material levees, compared to continuous levees and natural channel banks, on these two aspects of marsh function. Field studies for sediment deposition were conducted biweekly for a year, and nekton samples were collected in spring and fall. Variation in nekton density among study areas and landscape types was great in part because of the inherent sampling gear issues and in part because of differences in characteristics among areas. Nekton densities were generally greater in natural compared to leveed and gapped landscapes. Differences in landscape type did not explain patterns in sediment deposition. The gaps examined appear to be too restrictive of marsh flooding to provide efficient movements of floodwaters onto the marsh during moderate flooding events. The "trapping" effect of the levees increases sediment deposition during extreme events. Gapping material levees may be an effective method of partially restoring upper marsh connection to nekton, but this method may work best in lower elevation marshes where nekton use is greater. PMID:16508806

  15. Flooding in Downtown Minot, N.D.

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    As the Souris River flooded during the early summer of 2011, it overcame levees in the city of Minot, N.D., causing about 11,000 people to evacuate their homes. The record-breaking flood crested on July 25 at over 26,000 cubic feet per second (cfs) and 24 feet - nearly 13 feet over flood s...

  16. Delivery of Ecosystem Benefits at the Urban-Suburban Interface: A Case Study of Flood Protection in the Woonasquatucket River Watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urbanization exacerbates flooding by increasing surface runoff and decreasing surface roughness. Restoring wetlands can enhance flood protection while providing a suite of co-benefits such as temperature regulation and access to open space. Spatial modeling of the delivery of flo...

  17. Evaluating Functionality and Sustainability of River widenings at the Kamp River\\/Austria concerning to flood protection and aquatic ecology including a numerical sensitivity test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hauer Christoph; Schober Bernhard; Habersack Helmut

    The catastrophic flood events of the years 2002 and 2005 in Central Europe showed clearly the necessity to act in terms of flood protection. The meaning of floodplain areas and the errors in land use management of the past became obvious by the occurred extraordinary discharges. Unfortunately a high use pressure exists in the surrounding of rivers and the important

  18. Socio-economic Evaluation Of Different Alternatives For Flood Protection Within The Rivierenland-project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boot, S. P.; van Ast, J. A.

    The Netherlands have a tradition of protecting land against flooding from the main rivers Rhine, Meuse and Scheldt by means of an extensive system of dikes. In recent years, however, this approach to protection has been increasingly questioned with re- gard to its sustainability and cost-effectiveness. The argument is that although the continued elevation of dikes may be technically feasible, there are several disadvan- tages to this approach. Firstly, a vast network of dikes requires a very high degree of organisation of water management, in which mistakes can not be afforded. Such a high degree of organisation may not always be maintainable in the future, due to changed economic or political circumstances. Secondly, it may not be the most cost- effective system for maintaining safety in the long term. Thirdly, it may not be the most desirable approach in terms of sustainability. One of the alternatives to contin- ued dike-elevation is the concept 'room for the river' ('ruimte voor de rivier'), which aims to give more space to rivers in the horizontal in stead of the vertical dimen- sion. This approach would reduce the risk of flooding, defined as the product of the probability and the consequences of flooding. In order to explore the long term con- sequences of both alternatives ('dike elevation' and 'room for the river'), the ministry of Verkeer en Waterstaat (Public Works, Transport and Water Management) started the 'Rivierenland'-project. The comparison of the alternatives mentioned was based on a fictitious project to adjust a region of The Netherlands, between the rivers Rhine and Meuse, to the concept of 'room for water'. The consequence of this adjustment would be that safety within that region would no longer be safeguarded by dikes, but by adjusting daily life to the 'demands of the water'. Part of the 'Rivierenland'-project was an analysis of the socio-economic costs and benefits of the alternative approaches. Within this analysis, a study was performed to identify the requirements an economic evaluation of the project-alternatives would have to meet to do justice to the specific characteristics of the project. These specific characteristics were its mere size (both in spatial and in financial terms), the duration and complexity of the decision-making process, and uncertainty about the effects of the alternatives. Requirements for the method to be used were an integrated analysis of the effects and the taking into account of both the short and the long term effects (over a hundred years) of the alternatives. As a result of these characteristics and requirements, the decision-making process in- volves considerations of intra- and intergenerational equity, the discount factor to be used, transparency of the decision-making process to the public and the possibility to adapt the results of the economic evaluation to changing insights and opinions.

  19. Integrating adaptive behaviour in large-scale flood risk assessments: an Agent-Based Modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haer, Toon; Aerts, Jeroen

    2015-04-01

    Between 1998 and 2009, Europe suffered over 213 major damaging floods, causing 1126 deaths, displacing around half a million people. In this period, floods caused at least 52 billion euro in insured economic losses making floods the most costly natural hazard faced in Europe. In many low-lying areas, the main strategy to cope with floods is to reduce the risk of the hazard through flood defence structures, like dikes and levees. However, it is suggested that part of the responsibility for flood protection needs to shift to households and businesses in areas at risk, and that governments and insurers can effectively stimulate the implementation of individual protective measures. However, adaptive behaviour towards flood risk reduction and the interaction between the government, insurers, and individuals has hardly been studied in large-scale flood risk assessments. In this study, an European Agent-Based Model is developed including agent representatives for the administrative stakeholders of European Member states, insurers and reinsurers markets, and individuals following complex behaviour models. The Agent-Based Modelling approach allows for an in-depth analysis of the interaction between heterogeneous autonomous agents and the resulting (non-)adaptive behaviour. Existing flood damage models are part of the European Agent-Based Model to allow for a dynamic response of both the agents and the environment to changing flood risk and protective efforts. By following an Agent-Based Modelling approach this study is a first contribution to overcome the limitations of traditional large-scale flood risk models in which the influence of individual adaptive behaviour towards flood risk reduction is often lacking.

  20. Agricultural aircraft and thermal imaging - from detecting sand boils at the levee to irrigation management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal imaging has many potential uses from aerial platforms. A thermal imaging camera was brought into service to detect potential leakage and sand boils at the Mississippi River levee during the flood period of April and May, 2011. This camera was mounted on an agricultural aircraft and operated ...

  1. Lessons from Katrina: Flood Management Technology Strategies for the US.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, Gerald

    2006-04-01

    Coastal and riverine flooding and hurricane-driven storms have long plagued those in the United States who live or work on or near the shoreline or the rivers edge. The devastation wrought by Hurricane Katrina brought the challenge of protecting against such events to the political and technical forefront. The predicted impacts of global warming strongly suggest that our floodplains and coastlines could be at greatly increased risk. This presentation will review the development of the U.S. program for providing structural protection, discuss the effectiveness of employing levees, dams, floodways, beach nourishment and storm barriers in this struggle, highlight the changes over the last two decades that have gradually shifted the focus from a structural-only approach to one that includes the non-structural approaches such as wise land use, wetland restoration, relocations, insurance, floodproofing, and emergency warning and evacuation. Using post-Katrina planning as an example, it will explore what new approaches can be taken. Should New Orleans take a 'levees only' approach to its protection? or should attention to New Orleans be part of a coastal Louisiana integrated flood damage reduction and coastal restoration strategy. The nation needs to make changes in its water resources policies and investment strategy to deal with the new threat that it now faces.

  2. Flood Risk Management Newsletter 1 May 2012 vol 5 no 3

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Flood Risk Management Newsletter 1 May 2012 vol 5 no 3 coll Table of Contents Alexander named Levees ­ Reducing the Public's Risk from Floods .....................................................2 Department World Water Day Event ....9 Conferences .................................................. 15

  3. Flood protection effect of the existing and projected reservoirs in the Amur River basin: evaluation by the hydrological modeling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motovilov, Y.; Danilov-Danilyan, V.; Dod, E.; Kalugin, A.

    2015-06-01

    Hydrological modeling system was developed as a tool addressed supporting flood risk management by the existing and projected reservoirs in the Amur River basin. The system includes the physically-based semi-distributed model of runoff generation ECOMAG coupled with a hydrodynamic MIKE-11 model to simulate channel flow in the main river. The case study was carried out for the middle part of the Amur River where large reservoirs are located on the Zeya and Bureya Rivers. The models were calibrated and validated using streamflow measuruments at the different gauges of the main river and its tributaries. Numerical experiments were carried out to assess the effect of the existing Zeya and Bureya reservoirs regulation on 850 km stretch of the middle Amur River stage. It was shown that in the absence of the reservoirs, the water levels downstream of the Zeya and Bureya Rivers would be 0.5-1.5 m higher than the levels measured during the disastrous flood of 2013. Similar experiments were carried out to assess possible flood protection effect of new projected reservoirs on the Zeya and Bureya Rivers.

  4. Insights from socio-hydrology modelling on dealing with flood risk: roles of collective memory, risk-taking attitude and trust (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viglione, A.; Di Baldassarre, G.; Brandimarte, L.; Kuil, L.; Carr, G.; Salinas, J.; Scolobig, A.

    2013-12-01

    The risk coping culture of a community plays a major role in decision making in urban flood plains. While flood awareness is not necessarily linked to being prepared to face flooding at an individual level, the connection at the community level seems to be stronger through creating policy and initiating protection works. In this work we analyse, in a conceptual way, the interplay of community risk coping culture, flooding damage and economic growth. We particularly focus on three aspects: (i) collective memory, i.e., the capacity of the community to keep the awareness of flooding high; (ii) risk-taking attitude, i.e., the amount of risk a community is collectively willing to expose themselves to; and (iii) trust of people in risk protection measures. We use a dynamic model that represents the feedbacks between the hydrological and social system components. The model results indicate that, on one hand, by under perceiving the risk of flooding (because of short collective memory and too much trust in flood protection structures) in combination with a high risk-attitude, community survival is severely limited because of destruction caused by flooding. On the other hand, high perceived risk (long memory and lack of trust in flood protection structures) relative to the actual risk leads to lost economic opportunities and recession. There are many optimal scenarios for survival and economic growth, but greater certainty of survival plus economic growth can be achieved by ensuring community has accurate risk perception (memory neither too long nor too short and trust in flood protection neither too great nor too low) combined with a low to moderate risk-taking attitude. Interestingly, the model gives rise to situations in which the development of the community in the floodplain is path dependent, i.e., the history of flooding may lead to its growth or recession. Schematic of human adjustments to flooding: (a) settling away from the river; (b) raising levees/dikes.

  5. 33 CFR 208.10 - Local flood protection works; maintenance and operation of structures and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Operation. Whenever high water conditions impend, all gates...inspected a short time before water reaches the invert of the...necessary to prevent inflow of flood water. All drainage structures in...are adequately covered with paint; (iii) All movable...

  6. 33 CFR 208.10 - Local flood protection works; maintenance and operation of structures and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Operation. Whenever high water conditions impend, all gates...inspected a short time before water reaches the invert of the...necessary to prevent inflow of flood water. All drainage structures in...are adequately covered with paint; (iii) All movable...

  7. 33 CFR 208.10 - Local flood protection works; maintenance and operation of structures and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Operation. Whenever high water conditions impend, all gates...inspected a short time before water reaches the invert of the...necessary to prevent inflow of flood water. All drainage structures in...are adequately covered with paint; (iii) All movable...

  8. Participatory integrated assessment of flood protection measures for climate adaptation in Dhaka

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anika Nasra Haque; Stelios Grafakos; Marijk Huijsman

    2012-01-01

    Dhaka is one of the largest megacities in the world and its population is growing rapidly. Due to its location on a deltaic plain, the city is extremely prone to detrimental flooding, and risks associated with this are expected to increase further in the coming years due to global climate change impacts as well as the high rate of urbanization

  9. Personal protective equipment, hygiene behaviours and occupational risk of illness after July 2011 flood in Copenhagen, Denmark.

    PubMed

    Wójcik, O P; Holt, J; Kjerulf, A; Müller, L; Ethelberg, S; Mølbak, K

    2013-08-01

    Incidence of various diseases can increase following a flood. We aimed to identify professionals in Copenhagen who became ill after contact with 2 July 2011 floodwater/sediment and determine risks and protective factors associated with illness. We conducted a cohort study of employees engaged in post-flood management activities. Participants completed a questionnaire collecting information about demographics, floodwater/sediment exposure, compliance with standard precautions, and symptoms of illness. Overall, 257 professionals participated, with 56 (22%) cases. Risk of illness was associated with not washing hands after floodwater/sediment contact [relative risk (RR) 2?45], exposure to floodwater at work and home (RR 2?35), smoking (RR 1?92), direct contact with floodwater (RR 1?86), and eating/drinking when in contact with floodwater (RR 1?77). Professionals need to follow standard precautions when in contact with floodwater/sediment, especially proper hand hygiene after personal protective equipment use and before eating/drinking and smoking. PMID:22989427

  10. Flooding on the Mighty Mississippi

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This week, floodwaters of the Mississippi River crested, leading several counties in Iowa, Minnesota, Illinois, and Wisconsin to declare states of emergency. Floodwaters have reached over 22 feet in Davenport Iowa, closing in on the 1993 record water level. Davenport is perhaps particularly hard hit because it is not equipped with concrete levees, as it relies heavily on its riverfront as a tourist attraction, and city residents feel that levees would create an unsightly barrier. Also, many hydrology experts will agree that levees might not be the wisest choice for flood management because they intensify the flooding downriver. This Week's In the News features Websites dealing with Mississippi River flood data, flood management, and general water resources.Readers who wish to catch up on the situation should browse the first few news sites listed above. The first (1), coming straight from the flood frontlines, is from the Minneapolis Star Tribune giving general news about the Mississippi flood. The next two sites cover the situation in Davenport, IA and the controversy over constructing flood walls. The second site (2) is an article from the Los Angeles Times reviewing the controversy over building flood barriers in Davenport. It mentions how other Iowa towns built levees after the disastrous floods of 1965 while Davenport did not. The third site (3) is a special section of Davenport's Quad City Times entitled Flood 2001. Flood 2001 holds a small archive of recent articles about the flood from the Quad City Times along with other regional papers, hosts an online poll about installing levees, and provides video clips (RealPlayer) and still photos of the flood. It also gives shots from a "floodcam" poised along the banks of the Mississippi. The next few resources house hydrologic data. The US Geological Survey (USGS) posts real-time water data online (4). The plain-text data from all states can be accessed via a clickable map or from lists by state or by station. The National Weather Service's Quad Cities division (the "quad cities" of Davenport, Bettendorf, Moline, and Rock Island straddle the Mississippi River on the Illinois-Iowa border) provides graphs of flood stages of rivers and streams (selected using a clickable map) and real-time weather conditions, forecasts, and flood warnings online (5). Readers will probably encounter the term "100 Year Flood" while reading flood news and stage data. If you are unfamiliar with this term, which refers to the estimated probability that a flood event has a one-in-one hundred chance of occurrence in any given year, this site (7) from an environmental consulting firm gives a nice explanation of the term and its uses. Another educational site comes from the International Rivers Network. About Rivers and Dams (8), gives an overview of the function of dams (for flood control, power generation, water collection) and presents the environmental case against damming of rivers. Other sites related to the environmental impacts of flood control include Cadillac Desert (9), a supplement to the award-winning PBS documentary series on water and the control of nature, and the Powell Consortium (10), a network of research institutions dealing with water management in the arid American West. Another neat site from PBS Online is the supplement to the film "American Experience: Fatal Flood" (11), documenting the 1927 flooding of the Mississippi and its impacts on residents of Greenville, MS. The Fatal Flood site features video clips and interviews with survivors of the 1927 flood.

  11. Media Covering Flooding in Downtown Minot, N.D.

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    As the Souris River flooded during the early summer of 2011, it overcame levees in the city of Minot, N.D., causing about 11,000 people to evacuate their homes. The record-breaking flood crested on July 25 at over 26,000 cubic feet per second (cfs) and 24 feet - nearly 13 feet over flood s...

  12. Downtown Minot Flooding as Seen From Broadway Bridge

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    As the Souris River flooded during the early summer of 2011, it overcame levees in the city of Minot, N.D., causing about 11,000 people to evacuate their homes. The record-breaking flood crested on July 25 at over 26,000 cubic feet per second (cfs) and 24 feet - nearly 13 feet over flood s...

  13. Flooded Homes in Downtown Minot, N.D.

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    As the Souris River flooded during the early summer of 2011, it overcame levees in the city of Minot, N.D., causing about 11,000 people to evacuate their homes. The record-breaking flood crested on July 25 at over 26,000 cubic feet per second (cfs) and 24 feet - nearly 13 feet over flood s...

  14. Flooded Downtown Minot, N.D. Near the Police Station

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    As the Souris River flooded during the early summer of 2011, it overcame levees in the city of Minot, N.D., causing about 11,000 people to evacuate their homes. The record-breaking flood crested on July 25 at over 26,000 cubic feet per second (cfs) and 24 feet - nearly 13 feet over flood s...

  15. River Flooding and Erosion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bill Dupre

    Students are presented with a real-life problem of flooding and erosion in the town of Simonton. They must use historical dischage data to determine the future risk of flooding. They must also use historical map data to asses the risk of future losses due to erosion. Using these data, they must dertermine the feasibility of levee systems proposed by the Corp of Engineers. Lastly, they must discuss their assumption and possible sources of error. Has minimal/no quantitative component Uses geophysics to solve problems in other fields

  16. Geomorphic Response to Global Warming in the Anthropocene: Levee Breaches in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florsheim, J. L.; Dettinger, M.; Malamud-Roam, F.; Ingram, B.; Mount, J.

    2006-12-01

    Geomorphic processes in rivers are likely to be influenced by global warming through alterations of flood, erosion, and sedimentation processes and rates. In California's Sierra Nevada, warming scenarios imply future increases in magnitudes and durations (and changes in timing) of floods as snow packs diminish and rainfall runoff increasingly dominates flow into the Central Valley fluvial system. Geomorphic processes are likely to differ from processes that dominated during the Holocene due to the influence both of projected global warming and land use alterations including levee construction that narrows and separates Sacramento-San Joaquin Rivers and tributaries from floodplains and flow regulation downstream of numerous large dams. Whereas Holocene floods induced overbank flow and avulsion processes that led to vertical floodplain accretion and variability of stages in aggrading multiple-channel systems, modern floods largely transport flow and sediment within incised channels confined by levees. Because the scenarios of warming are developed at coarse scales, only an understanding of the relations between large-scale hydrology and climate on the one hand, and the incidence of levee breaches on the other, will make it possible to project likely geomorphic responses to future warming and flooding. A historical record of catastrophic levee breaks on the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers has been developed to allow analyses of these connections. In the current work, we develop statistical relations between historical levee break events and flow discharge, as well as with climatic phenomena such as El Nino and La Nina phases of the ENSO cycle, positive and negative phases of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and seasonal propensities towards "pineapple-express" storms. Preliminary results suggest strong relations between levee breaches and discharge, but poor relations to ENSO. Further investigation of these data will provide insight to help inform models and river management policy that addresses rates and magnitudes of erosion and sedimentation.

  17. Mississippi River Flooding 2011: Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Inflow/outflow of the levee breach near New Madrid, MO. USGS scientists are measuring the amount of water spilling into the New Madrid floodway as a result of the recent intentional breaching of the Birds Point Levee in Missouri in support of the Corps of Engineers operation. When flooding happens, ...

  18. Effect of bank protection measures, Stehekin River, Chelan County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, L.M.

    1986-01-01

    An investigation of the lower Stehekin River was conducted to study the effects on flood elevations and velocities from four bank protection and flood prevention measures that are being contemplated as a means of reducing erosional losses of river bank property. These measures are: bank armoring, armored revetment levees, spur dikes, and redevelopment of old cutoff channels. The banks at seven study sites could be armored without adverse effect on the flood velocities and elevations. The largest increases due to armoring--up to 1.6 ft/sec in velocity and 1 ft in elevation--occurred in the vicinity of sites 5, 6, and 7 where the gradient of the river channel is about 50 ft/mi and the velocities are high to begin with (about 6 to 13 ft/sec). The use of a levee in conjunction with armoring on the northeast bank from sites 5 to 7 would increase the velocities as much as 2.8 ft/sec and increase the elevation as much as 1 ft, but it would also provide some flood protection to the east bank, which is frequently inundated. Spur dikes were considered a practical alternative only at site 3, where reduced bank erosion may occur without aggravating flood inundation or erosion elsewhere. The rerouting of flood flow through an old cutoff channel near site 1 increased the velocity by 3.2 ft/sec and the elevation by 1 ft for the 100-year flood; however, it would move floodwater away from residential property where bank erosion is a problem. The few other old channels that shortcut river bends where much erosion occurs are apparently already part of the channel during floods. (Author 's abstract)

  19. A methodology for urban flood resilience assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhomme, Serge; Serre, Damien; Diab, Youssef; Laganier, Richard

    2010-05-01

    In Europe, river floods have been increasing in frequency and severity [Szöllösi-Nagy and Zevenbergen, 2005]. Moreover, climate change is expected to exacerbate the frequency and intensity of hydro meteorological disaster [IPCC, 2007]. Despite efforts made to maintain the flood defense assets, we often observe levee failures leading to finally increase flood risk in protected area. Furthermore, flood forecasting models, although benefiting continuous improvements, remain partly inaccurate due to uncertainties arising all along data calculation processes. In the same time, the year 2007 marks a turning point in history: half of the world population now lives in cities (UN-Habitat, 2007). Moreover, the total urban population is expected to double from two to four billion over the next 30 to 35 years (United Nations, 2006). This growing rate is equivalent to the creation of a new city of one million inhabitants every week, and this during the next four decades [Flood resilience Group]. So, this quick urban development coupled with technical failures and climate change have increased flood risk and corresponding challenges to urban flood risk management [Ashley et al., 2007], [Nie et al., 2009]. These circumstances oblige to manage flood risk by integrating new concepts like urban resilience. In recent years, resilience has become a central concept for risk management. This concept has emerged because a more resilient system is less vulnerable to risk and, therefore, more sustainable [Serre et al., 2010]. But urban flood resilience is a concept that has not yet been directly assessed. Therefore, when decision makers decide to use the resilience concept to manage urban flood, they have no tool to help them. That is why this paper proposes a methodology to assess urban flood resilience in order to make this concept operational. Networks affect the well-being of the people and the smooth functioning of services and, more generally, of economical activities. Yet, multiple networks that innervate the city are particularly sensitive to flooding, through their structures and geographic constraints. Because societal functions are highly dependent on networked systems and the operability of these systems can be vulnerable to disasters, there is a need to understand how networked systems are resilient. That is why, considering that networks can be regarded as the "flood gateway" [Lhomme et al., 2009], we will focus on the resilience assessment of these critical networks before urban resilience assessment. The first part of this paper introduce resilience concept to well understand the importance of this concept to manage flood risk and of assessing this resilience. In a second part, this paper presents the use of safety methods to model network system dysfunctions during flood and then to produce resilience indicators. Finally it presents use of graph theory to assess adaptive capacity of these networks. These researches are the first steps toward the development of a GIS tool to optimize preparedness and recovery after a flood event.

  20. One health and force health protection during foreign humanitarian assistance operations: 2010 Pakistan flood relief.

    PubMed

    Burke, Ronald L

    2013-01-01

    Restrictions on the number of troops that could enter Pakistan in support of the 2010 flood relief efforts limited the type and number of deployed medical personnel. Although this created the potential for mission gaps, the assigned personnel were able to perform additional functions beyond those normally associated with their particular health specialty to help close these gaps, which was largely made possible due to prior cross-training and predeployment refresher training. Given the rapid and unpredictable nature of disaster response, future foreign humanitarian assistance operations may face similar issues with assigned personnel. Promotion of the One Health concept through instruction and training will help to increase awareness among US Army Medical Department personnel about the roles and functions of health specialties, facilitate the identification of critical gaps during deployments, and provide personnel with the knowledge and skills needed to address them. PMID:23277449

  1. CANAL AND RIVER BANK STABILISATION FOR PROTECTION AGAINST FLASH FLOOD AND SEA WATER INTRUSION IN CENTRAL VIETNAM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Thu; I. Sobey; P. Truong

    Quang Ngai, a coastal province in central Vietnam, is prone to flash flood caused by high annual rainfall, with 70% (2300mm\\/yr) falling over three months and steep terrain resulting in high velocity water flows. This often leads to flash floods in mountainous areas and large scale flooding in low-lying areas. The high velocity flows and flooding cause severe erosion on

  2. Mesoscale Connectivity Through a Natural Levee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, A.; Keim, R.

    2009-12-01

    In riverine wetlands, river channels are generally separated from backswamps by natural levees; however, macropores that are ubiquitous in field soils form preferential pathways for subsurface flow and allow potentially substantial water and solute exchange between wetlands and river channels. Often a complex and dynamic system of stage-dependent surface connections provides extensive surface connectivity, so hydraulic gradients are ephemeral and small. We designed a field experiment to test the hypothesis that preferential flow mechanisms allow flow velocities sufficient to transport water through the shallow subsurface of natural levees under imposed gradients of 3 cm and 30 cm. Using a simple linear system modeling approach, we analyzed breakthrough curves of natural and active tracers within a natural levee in the Atchafalaya River Basin, Louisiana. Results indicate that flow velocity varies spatially within the natural levee, with the fastest travel times on the order of 0.1 m/s under the smaller hydraulic gradient and more than 1 m/s under the larger gradient. This suggests that under natural conditions, solute exchange through natural levees occurs on a time scale that is meaningful to basin-scale biogeochemical processes.

  3. Feedback on flood risk management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Moreau; A. Roumagnac

    2009-01-01

    For several years, as floods were increasing in South of France, local communities felt deprive to assume their mission of protection and information of citizens, and were looking for assistance in flood management. In term of flood disaster, the fact is that physical protection is necessary but inevitably limited. Tools and structures of assistance to anticipation remain slightly developed. To

  4. A New Approach to Monitoring Coastal Marshes for Persistent Flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalcic, M. T.; Underwood, L. W.; Fletcher, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    Many areas in coastal Louisiana are below sea level and protected from flooding by a system of natural and man-made levees. Flooding is common when the levees are overtopped by storm surge or rising rivers. Many levees in this region are further stressed by erosion and subsidence. The floodwaters can become constricted by levees and trapped, causing prolonged inundation. Vegetative communities in coastal regions, from fresh swamp forest to saline marsh, can be negatively affected by inundation and changes in salinity. As saltwater persists, it can have a toxic effect upon marsh vegetation causing die off and conversion to open water types, destroying valuable species habitats. The length of time the water persists and the average annual salinity are important variables in modeling habitat switching (cover type change). Marsh type habitat switching affects fish, shellfish, and wildlife inhabitants, and can affect the regional ecosystem and economy. There are numerous restoration and revitalization projects underway in the coastal region, and their effects on the entire ecosystem need to be understood. For these reasons, monitoring persistent saltwater intrusion and inundation is important. For this study, persistent flooding in Louisiana coastal marshes was mapped using MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) time series of a Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). The time series data were derived for 2000 through 2009, including flooding due to Hurricane Rita in 2005 and Hurricane Ike in 2008. Using the NDWI, duration and extent of flooding can be inferred. The Time Series Product Tool (TSPT), developed at NASA SSC, is a suite of software developed in MATLAB® that enables improved-quality time series images to be computed using advanced temporal processing techniques. This software has been used to compute time series for monitoring temporal changes in environmental phenomena, (e.g. NDVI times series from MODIS), and was modified and used to compute the NDWI indices and also the Normalized Difference Soil Index (NDSI). Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) water levels from various hydrologic monitoring stations and aerial photography were used to optimize thresholds for MODIS-derived time series of NDWI and to validate resulting flood maps. In most of the profiles produced for post-hurricane assessment, the increase in the NDWI index (from storm surge) is accompanied by a decrease in the vegetation index (NDVI) and then a period of declining water. The NDSI index represents non-green or dead vegetation and increases after the hurricane's destruction of the marsh vegetation. Behavior of these indices over time is indicative of which areas remain flooded, which areas recover to their former levels of vegetative vigor, and which areas are stressed or in transition. Tracking these indices over time shows the recovery rate of vegetation and the relative behavior to inundation persistence. The results from this study demonstrated that identification of persistent marsh flooding, utilizing the tools developed in this study, provided an approximate 70-80 percent accuracy rate when compared to the actual days flooded at the CRMS stations.

  5. A New Approach to Monitoring Coastal Marshes for Persistent Flooding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalcic, M. T.; Undersood, Lauren W.; Fletcher, Rose

    2012-01-01

    Many areas in coastal Louisiana are below sea level and protected from flooding by a system of natural and man-made levees. Flooding is common when the levees are overtopped by storm surge or rising rivers. Many levees in this region are further stressed by erosion and subsidence. The floodwaters can become constricted by levees and trapped, causing prolonged inundation. Vegetative communities in coastal regions, from fresh swamp forest to saline marsh, can be negatively affected by inundation and changes in salinity. As saltwater persists, it can have a toxic effect upon marsh vegetation causing die off and conversion to open water types, destroying valuable species habitats. The length of time the water persists and the average annual salinity are important variables in modeling habitat switching (cover type change). Marsh type habitat switching affects fish, shellfish, and wildlife inhabitants, and can affect the regional ecosystem and economy. There are numerous restoration and revitalization projects underway in the coastal region, and their effects on the entire ecosystem need to be understood. For these reasons, monitoring persistent saltwater intrusion and inundation is important. For this study, persistent flooding in Louisiana coastal marshes was mapped using MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) time series of a Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). The time series data were derived for 2000 through 2009, including flooding due to Hurricane Rita in 2005 and Hurricane Ike in 2008. Using the NDWI, duration and extent of flooding can be inferred. The Time Series Product Tool (TSPT), developed at NASA SSC, is a suite of software developed in MATLAB(R) that enables improved-quality time series images to be computed using advanced temporal processing techniques. This software has been used to compute time series for monitoring temporal changes in environmental phenomena, (e.g. NDVI times series from MODIS), and was modified and used to compute the NDWI indices and also the Normalized Difference Soil Index (NDSI). Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) water levels from various hydrologic monitoring stations and aerial photography were used to optimize thresholds for MODIS-derived time series of NDWI and to validate resulting flood maps. In most of the profiles produced for post-hurricane assessment, the increase in the NDWI index (from storm surge) is accompanied by a decrease in the vegetation index (NDVI) and then a period of declining water. The NDSI index represents non-green or dead vegetation and increases after the hurricane s destruction of the marsh vegetation. Behavior of these indices over time is indicative of which areas remain flooded, which areas recover to their former levels of vegetative vigor, and which areas are stressed or in transition. Tracking these indices over time shows the recovery rate of vegetation and the relative behavior to inundation persistence. The results from this study demonstrated that identification of persistent marsh flooding, utilizing the tools developed in this study, provided an approximate 70-80 percent accuracy rate when compared to the actual days flooded at the CRMS stations.

  6. Numerical Modeling of the Effect of Woody Vegetation on Seepage in Levees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tracy, F. T.; Corcoran, M. K.

    2011-12-01

    A remarkable number and diversity of levees exist in the United States. One controversial and complicated concern is the effect of woody vegetation on the performance of levees. Some really appreciate the trees on levees because they are beautiful and great for the environment and habitat. However, others do not like trees on levees because they can cause defects and get in the way of doing maintenance, especially during the time of floods. This poster will focus on two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) numerical modeling of seepage in levees to determine the effect of woody vegetation on piping and internal erosion of the foundation of the levee. The finite element method is the modeling tool that is used. The approach in the overall modeling study was to select several levees around the country for further analysis. Then for each levee, trees were placed at different locations on the levee. A given root zone from a tree was modeled in three ways: (1) a 6 ft X 5 ft constant hydraulic conductivity zone where the original hydraulic conductivity of the zone was varied from 0.01 to 100.0 times its original value, (2) a randomly generated macropore heterogeneous zone where the hydraulic conductivity was varied from 0.01 to 100.0 times its original value for each finite element in the zone, and (3) a defect in actual root shapes embedded into the root zone where the hydraulic conductivity of the defect was chosen to be 100.0 times that of its original value without the defect. Both steady-state and transient flow simulations were done. Output from the models consisted of equipotentials, velocities, pore pressures, and isosurfaces of potential. From these data, the likelihood of the initiation of sand boils and internal erosion of the levee foundation was determined. Data generated with and without the presence of trees were compared to see possible helpful or detrimental effects of the woody vegetation. A 3-D finite element model was generated by taking a 2-D mesh of a levee cross section consisting of triangular elements (approximately 60,000 elements in one case) and extruding it several times into the third dimension. The 3-D root zone (6 ft X 6 ft X 5 ft) was placed in the middle of this 3-D model just beyond the toe of the levee for the case studied. The macropore model had in its 3-D root zone prism elements of approximately one inch in size in each dimension, and the saturated hydraulic conductivity of each tiny element was randomly varied from 0.01 to 100.0 times its original value. This led to 3-D models having millions of nodes (3,000,000 for one example) and elements (6,000,000 for the same example) and ill-conditioned linear systems of equations to solve. Running this model required the use of high performance, parallel computing. The defects in the roots were also taken to be one inch in width for the 2-D simulations, and having a one inch X one inch horizontal cross section in the 3-D models. The poster will illustrate this modeling experience and provide results of the study. It will show (1) examples of levees, (2) sn example of a 2-D finite element model of a levee cross section, (3) an example of a 3-D macropore root zone, (3) an example of a root embedded in a root zone with a defect, and (4) graphical output results from the 2-D and 3-D models.

  7. Optimal and centralized reservoir management for drought and flood protection via Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming on the Upper Seine-Aube River system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiavico, Mattia; Raso, Luciano; Dorchies, David; Malaterre, Pierre-Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Seine river region is an extremely important logistic and economic junction for France and Europe. The hydraulic protection of most part of the region relies on four controlled reservoirs, managed by EPTB Seine-Grands Lacs. Presently, reservoirs operation is not centrally coordinated, and release rules are based on empirical filling curves. In this study, we analyze how a centralized release policy can face flood and drought risks, optimizing water system efficiency. The optimal and centralized decisional problem is solved by Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming (SDDP) method, minimizing an operational indicator for each planning objective. SDDP allows us to include into the system: 1) the hydrological discharge, specifically a stochastic semi-distributed auto-regressive model, 2) the hydraulic transfer model, represented by a linear lag and route model, and 3) reservoirs and diversions. The novelty of this study lies on the combination of reservoir and hydraulic models in SDDP for flood and drought protection problems. The study case covers the Seine basin until the confluence with Aube River: this system includes two reservoirs, the city of Troyes, and the Nuclear power plant of Nogent-Sur-Seine. The conflict between the interests of flood protection, drought protection, water use and ecology leads to analyze the environmental system in a Multi-Objective perspective.

  8. Flooding and Flood Risks

    MedlinePLUS

    ... based on a number of factors: rainfall, river-flow and tidal-surge data, topography, flood-control measures, and changes due to building and development. Flood-hazard maps have been created to show different degrees of ...

  9. 33 CFR 209.220 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209.220 Section...ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.220 Flood control regulations. (a) Local protection...the maintenance and operation of local flood protection works are contained...

  10. 33 CFR 209.220 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209.220 Section...ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.220 Flood control regulations. (a) Local protection...the maintenance and operation of local flood protection works are contained...

  11. 33 CFR 209.220 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209.220 Section...ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.220 Flood control regulations. (a) Local protection...the maintenance and operation of local flood protection works are contained...

  12. 33 CFR 209.220 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209.220 Section...ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.220 Flood control regulations. (a) Local protection...the maintenance and operation of local flood protection works are contained...

  13. 33 CFR 209.220 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209.220 Section...ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.220 Flood control regulations. (a) Local protection...the maintenance and operation of local flood protection works are contained...

  14. Flood trends and river engineering on the Mississippi River system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pinter, N.; Jemberie, A.A.; Remo, J.W.F.; Heine, R.A.; Ickes, B.S.

    2008-01-01

    Along >4000 km of the Mississippi River system, we document that climate, land-use change, and river engineering have contributed to statistically significant increases in flooding over the past 100-150 years. Trends were tested using a database of >8 million hydrological measurements. A geospatial database of historical engineering construction was used to quantify the response of flood levels to each unit of engineering infrastructure. Significant climate- and/or land use-driven increases in flow were detected, but the largest and most pervasive contributors to increased flooding on the Mississippi River system were wing dikes and related navigational structures, followed by progressive levee construction. In the area of the 2008 Upper Mississippi flood, for example, about 2 m of the flood crest is linked to navigational and flood-control engineering. Systemwide, large increases in flood levels were documented at locations and at times of wing-dike and levee construction. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Levee Decisions and Sustainability for the Delta

    E-print Network

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    Levee Decisions and Sustainability for the Delta Technical Appendix B Robyn Suddeth Jeffrey F-San Joaquin Delta, prepared by a team of researchers from the Center for Watershed Sciences (University Conclusions 36 References 37 About the Authors 39 #12;#12;v Summary The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta landscape

  16. Wetland Along Levee in Southern Paraguay

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Wetland between levee and Tebicuary river. The Ñeembucú Region is typified by extensive grasslands and wetlands. Near 26°34’52’’S, 56°49’18’’W. (Portion of text from: Guyra Paraguay 2004, Annotated Checklist of the Birds of Paraguay, Paraguay...

  17. 76 FR 72961 - Flood Hazard Determinations (Including Flood Elevation Determinations)-Change in Notification and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ...Management Agency [Docket ID FEMA-2011-0030] Flood Hazard Determinations (Including Flood Elevation Determinations)--Change in Notification...SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, the...

  18. USGS Scientist Interviewed by Media in Flooded Minot

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS hydrologist Chris Laveau is interviewed by media from the Broadway Bridge in downtown Minot, N.D. Dikes on the right of the photograph help control flooding in the downtown area. As the Souris River flooded during the early summer of 2011, it overcame levees in the city of Minot, N.D., causing...

  19. Topeka, Kansas, Flood Damage Reduction Project 30 January 2009

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Topeka, Kansas, Flood Damage Reduction Project 30 January 2009 Abstract: The recommended plan provides for flood risk management and restores the reliability of the Topeka, Kansas, Levee System located along the Kansas River and tributaries in Shawnee County in northeastern Kansas. The non

  20. Kansas Citys, Missouri and Kansas Flood Risk Management Project

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Kansas Citys, Missouri and Kansas Flood Risk Management Project 22 April 2014 ABSTRACT: The existing Kansas Citys, Missouri and Kansas, Flood Risk Management Project consists of seven levee units along both banks of the Missouri and Kansas Rivers in the Kansas City Metropolitan area. The entire

  1. THE GREAT USA FLOOD OF 1993

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lee W. Larson

    From May through September of 1993, major and\\/or record flooding occurred in the Mississippi River basin across the states of North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Wisconsin, and Illinois. Fifty flood deaths occurred, and damages approached $15 billion (15,000 million U.S. dollars.) Hundreds of levees failed along the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers. The magnitude and severity of

  2. USGS Scientist is Interviewed by Media at the Flooded Souris River

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS hydrologist Brent Hanson is interviewed by media at the flooded Souris River in Foxholm, N.D., about 30 miles northwest of Minot. A flooded road can be seen in the background. As the Souris River flooded during the early summer of 2011, it overcame levees in the city of Minot, N.D., causing ab...

  3. The Great Flood of 1993

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    During a typical year, levees built along the banks of the Mississippi River keep the river in its channel and out of people's homes and fields. However, in 1993, an unsually persistent configuration of the polar jet stream and tropical high pressure produced thunderstorms and heavy rains that lasted for months. This video segment adapted from a NOVA television broadcast describes the meteorological conditions that created what was then the costliest flooding in United States history.

  4. Satellite imagery maps Hurricane Katrina-induced flooding and oil slicks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rykhus, Russell P.

    In the early morning of 29 August 2005, Hurricane Katrina made landfall near Buras, Louisiana, as a Category 4 hurricane. With wind speeds of about 233 kilometers per hour, a storm surge of 8.5 meters, and heavy rains, Katrina pounded the U.S. Gulf Coast states of Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi with lifethreatening flooding and destruction. Katrina's high winds and storm surge breached the levees protecting New Orleans, a city located below sea level, and flooded approximately 80% of the city.Katrina also caused major damage to the region's oil and natural gas production and refining capabilities. On 2 September 2005, the Associated Press reported that Katrina had damaged 58 oil platforms, 30 of which were reported lost; one damaged platform had been blown nearly 100 km from its original location.

  5. Hydrologic effects of area B flood control plan on urbanization of Dade County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kohout, F.A.; Hartwell, J.H.

    1967-01-01

    Swampy low land (Area B) that fringes the Everglades west of Metropolitan Miami, Florida (Area A) probably will be urbanized in the future. Area B will be protected from flooding by huge pumps that will pump water westward from Area B over a levee system into Conservation Area 3B. The total capacity of the pumps will be about 13,400 cubic feet per second which is sufficient to lower water levels 2 inches per day in the 203 square miles of Area B. As this capacity is about equal to the highest gravity-flow discharge to the ocean through existing canals of the Miami area, a great potential. will exist, not only for control of floods, but also for beneficial control and management of a major segment of the water resources in southeastern Florida.

  6. Mesoscale connectivity through a natural levee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, A. E.; Keim, R. F.

    2012-06-01

    Natural levees are potentially locally important zones of lateral seepage between stream channels and floodplain backswamps because their relatively coarser soils provide pathways of high hydraulic conductivity in an otherwise low conductivity system. Therefore, understanding the rates and mechanisms of subsurface exchange of water and solutes through natural levees may be necessary for understanding biogeochemical cycling in floodplains. We measured imposed hydraulic gradients and solute tracers in 19 shallow monitoring wells within a 580 m3 volume of natural levee in the Atchafalaya Basin, Louisiana. We modeled residence time distributions of pressure and tracers using a simple linear system to quantify spatially variable transport velocities and infer dominant flow mechanisms at a mesoscale. The spatial mean velocity of pressure transport was faster than the mean velocity of tracer transport by two orders of magnitude (1.7 × 10-2 and 4.6 × 10-4 m s-1, respectively), and the variance of pressure velocities was less than the variance of tracer velocities by seven orders of magnitude (1.4 × 104 min2 and 7.9 × 1011 min2, respectively). Higher spatial variability of tracer velocities compared to pressure velocities indicates different functioning mechanisms of mass versus energy transport and suggests preferential flow. Effective hydraulic conductivities, which ranged in magnitude from 10-1 to 106 and from 10-1 to 103 m d-1 for pressure and tracers, respectively, were higher than would be predicted by soil texture. We conclude that, in this fine-grained system, preferential flowpaths control water and solute exchange through natural levees. These findings are important for future studies of water and solute cycling in riverine wetlands, and rates of exchange may be particularly useful for modeling water and nutrient budgets in similar systems.

  7. Mesoscale connectivity through a natural levee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, A. E.; Keim, R. F.

    2013-02-01

    Natural levees are potentially locally important zones of lateral seepage between stream channels and floodplain backswamps, because their relatively coarser soils provide pathways of high hydraulic conductivity in an otherwise low conductivity system. Therefore, understanding the rates and mechanisms of subsurface exchange of water and solutes through natural levees may be necessary for understanding biogeochemical cycling in floodplains. We measured imposed hydraulic gradients and solute tracers in 19 shallow monitoring wells within a 580 m3 volume of natural levee in the Atchafalaya Basin, Louisiana. We modeled residence time distributions of pressure and tracers using a simple linear system to quantify spatially variable transport velocities and infer dominant flow mechanisms at a mesoscale. The spatial mean velocity of pressure transport was faster than the mean velocity of tracer transport by two orders of magnitude (1.7 × 10-2 and 4.6 × 10-4 m s-1, respectively), and the variance of pressure velocities was less than the variance of tracer velocities by seven orders of magnitude (1.4 × 104 min2 and 7.9 × 1011 min2, respectively). Higher spatial variability of tracer velocities compared to pressure velocities indicates different functioning mechanisms of mass versus energy transport and suggests preferential flow. Effective hydraulic conductivities, which ranged in magnitude from 10-1 to 103 m d-1, were higher than would be predicted by soil texture. We conclude that, in this fine-grained system, preferential flow paths control water and solute exchange through natural levees. These findings are important for future studies of water and solute cycling in riverine wetlands, and rates of exchange may be particularly useful for modeling water and nutrient budgets in similar systems.

  8. USGS Streamgage Flooded by Souris River

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The USGS Souris River at Foxholm, N.D. streamgage (center of photo) is half inundated by water about 30 miles northwest of Minot. This water channel, normally only about 30 feet wide, runs through a wildlife preserve. As the Souris River flooded during the early summer of 2011, it overcame levees i...

  9. Flood risk changes emerging from the feedbacks between physical and social processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viglione, Alberto; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Carr, Gemma; Kuil, Linda; Yan, Kun; Brandimarte, Luigia; Blöschl, Günter

    2015-04-01

    To explore changes in flood risk, we propose a novel approach whereby the mutual interactions and continuous feedbacks between floods and societies are explicitly accounted for. We apply this approach by using a socio-hydrological model and simulate the behavior of societies that cope with flooding by either building levees or dikes or resettling out of flood-prone areas. We show that this novel approach is able to capture (and explain) spontaneous dynamics, such as adaptation and levee effects, which often emerge from the interplay between physical and social processes. Moreover, the implementation of this approach provides fascinating insights for flood risk management. For instance, when coupled dynamics are accounted for, flood-poor periods can be more dangerous for societies than flood-rich periods because they lower the collective memory of flooding and therefore reduce societal resilience to flooding.

  10. Math Fights Flooding Niels Besseling

    E-print Network

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    in the coming years, the charac- teristics of the rainfall will change. This can potentially cause floodingMath Fights Flooding Niels Besseling Onno Bokhove Alla Kolechkina Jaap Molenaar§ Ronald van Nooyen those taxes for its own use. One of its main tasks is to protect the inhabitants against flooding

  11. Water and Solute Transport in the Shallow Subsurface of a Natural Levee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, A.; Keim, R.

    2008-12-01

    In riverine wetlands, river channels are separated from backswamps by natural levees that form adjacent to the channel by sediment deposition during floods. The conventional conceptual framework is that backswamp water is impounded and disconnected from surface flow; however, layered sediments, shrink-swell clays, roots and decayed organic matter, and animal burrows likely form preferential pathways for subsurface flow and may substantially affect water and solute exchange between wetlands and river channels. To test the hypothesis that preferential flow is an important pathway of subsurface water movement through natural levees, we measured hydraulic gradients and solute tracers in a 5 x 5 m grid of 19 shallow (2m) monitoring wells within a large representative elementary volume (300 m3) of natural levee in the Atchafalaya Basin, Louisiana. In addition to measuring transient responses to precipitation, we constructed a small reservoir on the backswamp side of the levee to simulate a seasonal hydraulic gradient from the swamp to the adjacent river channel. Results indicate rapid response of water levels in all monitoring wells to the imposed hydraulic gradient as well as rain events, which included two tropical cyclones. In contrast, tracer response was highly variable, both spatially and across events, indicating a complex relationship between subsurface flow processes and water chemistry. Groundwater chemistry indicated spatially variable flowpaths. In some wells, hydraulic response coincided with a chemical shift toward low-conductivity surface water; however, other wells showed similar hydraulic responses but no change in tracer concentrations or even a shift toward higher-conductivity water that was presumably stored in the soil matrix. This spatial variation in tracer response indicates multiple mechanisms of hydraulic response, each of which has important implications for biogeochemical interactions between backswamps and channels in the shallow subsurface of natural levees.

  12. The President`s Floodplan Management Action Plan: Formulating a watershed and ecosystem approach to flood hazard mitigation and resource protection

    SciTech Connect

    McShane, J. [Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The Great Midwest Flood of 1993 focused the attention of the Nation on the human and environmental costs associated with decades of efforts to control flooding, unwise land-use decisions, and the loss and degradation of the natural resources and functions of floodplains. The disaster can also be attributed to the single purpose decision-making process and fragmented planning at all levels of government, inconsistent statutory madates, and conflicting jurisdictional responsibilities. The Executive Office of the President established a Floodplain Management Review Committee to determine the major causes and consequences of the flood and to evaluate the performance of existing floodplain management and related watershed programs. The report, Sharing the Challenge: Floodplain Management into the 21st Century, included 90 recommendations to improve floodplain management and water resources planning including the need for a more comprehensive, coordinated approach to floodplain and watershed management. Preparation of the 1994 document A Unified National Program for Floodplain Management commenced prior to the Midwest Flood of 1993 and was completed, coincidentally, concurrently with the Review Committee`s report Sharing the Challenge. Both reports urge the formulation of a more comprehensive, watershed approach to managing human activities and protecting natural systems to ensure the long term viability of riparian ecosystems and the sustainable development of riverine communities. Both reports recognize that effective floodplain management will reduce the financial burdens placed upon all levels of government to compensate property owners and governments for flood losses caused by unwise land use decisions by individuals, as well as governments. This paper focuses on the fundamental changes in Federal floodplain management policies and programs that are emerging that will affect how as a Nation manage and use our floodplain resources into the 21st Century.

  13. The world’s maximum observed floods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reginald W Herschy

    2002-01-01

    Knowledge of large floods is essential in addressing problems in civil engineering works especially those concerning water resources management and the susceptibility of flooding of structures in or in the vicinity of rivers. The design of flood protection works rely on the extent of these extreme events. Recent world flood discharges collected for the revised International Association of Hydrological Sciences

  14. River Floods

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Smoothstone

    This shockwave tool combines animations, text, and simulations in order to teach about floods. Topics addressed in the module include the shape of drainage basins, discharge rates, deposition, runoff, flood frequency, and related issues. Finally, the module allows the user to generate a flood and test different flood control techniques to see how a variety of conditions affect flooding.

  15. Evaluation of the Structure of Levee Transitions on Wave Runup and Overtopping by Physical Modeling

    E-print Network

    Oaks, Drake Benjamin

    2011-08-08

    Coastal regions are continually plagued by high water levels induced by river flooding or hurricane induced storm surges. As with any protective structure, it is essential to understand potential problematic regions which could result in a...

  16. Relationship between canal and levee density and coastal land loss in Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.E.

    1987-12-01

    Nearly 1% of Louisiana's coastal land becomes water each year. This land loss affects everything from wildlife, fisheries, and recreation to the economy and culture. A part of this loss results from natural, unmanageable factors, but manageable factors are also responsible. This report discusses one of the manageable factors: canals and their dredged-material levees. In coastal Louisiana wetlands, canals are constructed primarily to facilitate navigation and oil and gas recovery. The density of canals in this region is now about equal to the natural network of bayous and creeks. The primary effect of these canals and associated levees is to alter the process of flooding and drainage. The influence of canals and their levees on coastal Louisiana erosion rates are modified by local geologic, hydrologic, and biologic interactions. The empirical relationship between canals and erosion is, however, clear; land loss is directly related to canal density. Comparisons with mosquito ditches, which are smaller analogues of canals, reveal similar patterns of wetland changes and suggest management options.

  17. Flood Impacts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Flooding causes more deaths and damage than any other hydro meteorological phenomena. The Weather Service provides statistics on flood-related impacts: flood fatalities by year from present to 1903; flood damage, including kinds and value of damage, annually from present to l903. Other features include: reports of current flood watches and warnings, outlooks for impending flooding, hydrologic conditions, and links to climate information and Weather Service offices.

  18. 33 CFR 209.300 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209.300 Section...ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.300 Flood control regulations. (a) Regulations for the operation and maintenance of local flood protection works approved by the...

  19. 33 CFR 209.300 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209.300 Section...ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.300 Flood control regulations. (a) Regulations for the operation and maintenance of local flood protection works approved by the...

  20. Seasonally Flooded Grasslands -Grand CaymanSeasonally Flooded Grasslands -Grand Cayman 0 1 2 3 4 50.5

    E-print Network

    Exeter, University of

    Seasonally Flooded Grasslands - Grand CaymanSeasonally Flooded Grasslands - Grand Cayman 0 1 2 3 4 Protected Areas Seasonally Flooded Grasslands V.A.1.N.g. #12;Seasonally Flooded Grasslands - Little CaymanSeasonally Flooded Grasslands - Little Cayman 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.50.25 Kilometers Cayman Islands National Biodiversity

  1. FLOOD! Engineered Flood Controls

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this learning module on the theme of flood management. The unit "contains a variety of offerings for a unit on flood engineering controls including background information, outside resources and three learning activities." A number of activities are included which would be useful for environmental engineering students. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item. The unit is available in a ZIP file, which contains the individual lesson items.

  2. Will human recreational activity on levee trails enhance carnivore activity?

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Matthew

    before- after-control-impact (BACI) experiment. RESULTS · Simulated human recreational activityWill human recreational activity on levee trails enhance carnivore activity? Will human is currently proposed to be opened to human recreational traffic. The levee separates the bay from adjacent

  3. Three-dimensional imaging, change detection, and stability assessment during the centerline trench levee seepage experiment using terrestrial light detection and ranging technology, Twitchell Island, California, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bawden, Gerald W.; Howle, James; Bond, Sandra; Shriro, Michelle; Buck, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A full scale field seepage test was conducted on a north-south trending levee segment of a now bypassed old meander belt on Twitchell Island, California, to understand the effects of live and decaying root systems on levee seepage and slope stability. The field test in May 2012 was centered on a north-south trench with two segments: a shorter control segment and a longer seepage test segment. The complete length of the trench area measured 40.4 meters (m) near the levee centerline with mature trees located on the waterside and landside of the levee flanks. The levee was instrumented with piezometers and tensiometers to measure positive and negative porewater pressures across the levee after the trench was flooded with water and held at a constant hydraulic head during the seepage test—the results from this component of the experiment are not discussed in this report. We collected more than one billion three-dimensional light detection and ranging (lidar) data points before, during, and after the centerline seepage test to assess centimeter-scale stability of the two trees and the levee crown. During the seepage test, the waterside tree toppled (rotated 20.7 degrees) into the water. The landside tree rotated away from the levee by 5 centimeters (cm) at a height of 2 m on the tree. The paved surface of the levee crown had three regions that showed subsidence on the waterside of the trench—discussed as the northern, central, and southern features. The northern feature is an elongate region that subsided 2.1 cm over an area with an average width of 1.35 m that extends 15.8 m parallel to the trench from the northern end of the trench to just north of the trench midpoint, and is associated with a crack 1 cm in height that formed during the seepage test on the trench wall. The central subsidence feature is a semicircular region on the waterside of the trench that subsided by as much as 6.2 cm over an area 3.4 m wide and 11.2 m long. The southern feature is an elongate region that has a maximum subsidence of 3.5 cm over an area 0.75 m wide and 8.1 m long and is associated with a number of small fractures in the pavement that are predominately north-south-trending and parallel to the trench. We determined that there was no significant motion of the levee flank during the last week of the seepage test. We also determined biomorphic parameters for the landside tree, such as the 3D positioning on the levee, tree height, levee parallel/perpendicular cross sectional area, and canopy centroid. These biomorphic parameters were requested to support a University of California Berkeley team studying seepage and stability on the levee. A gridded, 2-cm bare-earth digital elevation model of the levee crown and the landside levee flank from the final terrestrial lidar (T-Lidar) survey provided detailed topographic data for future assessment. Because the T-Lidar was not integrated into the project design, other than an initial courtesy dataset to help characterize the levee surface, our ability to contribute to the overall science goals of the seepage test was limited. Therefore, our analysis focused on developing data collection and processing methodology necessary to align ultra high-resolution T-Lidar data (with an average spot spacing 2–3 millimeters on the levee crown) from several instrument setup locations to detect, measure, and characterize dynamic centimeter-scale deformation and surface changes during the seepage test.

  4. Flood Visualizations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center SVS

    A lengthy listing of all of NASA's Scientific Visualization Studio visualizations that have flood as a keyword. The listing includes many visualizations of specific flood instances, as well as visualizations of floods caused by hurricanes. The visualizations are available in a wide variety of formats.

  5. Scientists Measure Streamflow near Flooded Minot, N.D.

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS scientists measure streamflow on a tributary of the Souris River in Foxholm, N.D., about 30 miles northwest of Minot. The team is using an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ACDP) to measure streamflow. As the Souris River flooded during the early summer of 2011, it overcame levees in the city...

  6. Mississippi River Flooding 2011: Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Inflow Breech at Birds Point-New Madrid floodway. USGS scientists are measuring the amount of water spilling into the New Madrid floodway as a result of the recent intentional breaching of the Birds Point Levee in Missouri in support of the Corps of Engineers operation. When flooding happens, USGS f...

  7. Mississippi River Flooding 2011: Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS field crew inside the Birds Point-New Madrid floodway. USGS scientists are measuring the amount of water spilling into the New Madrid floodway as a result of the recent intentional breaching of the Birds Point Levee in Missouri in support of the Corps of Engineers operation. When flooding happe...

  8. Mississippi River Flooding 2011: Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS scientists are measuring the amount of water spilling into the New Madrid floodway as a result of the recent intentional breaching of the Birds Point Levee in Missouri in support of the Corps of Engineers operation. When flooding happens, USGS field crews are among the first to respond. During ...

  9. Mississippi River Flooding 2011: Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    National Guard checkpoint at Birds Point-New Madrid floodway. USGS scientists are measuring the amount of water spilling into the New Madrid floodway as a result of the recent intentional breaching of the Birds Point Levee in Missouri in support of the Corps of Engineers operation. When flooding hap...

  10. Mississippi River Flooding 2011: Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Inflow breach at Birds Point-New Madrid floodway. USGS scientists are measuring the amount of water spilling into the New Madrid floodway as a result of the recent intentional breaching of the Birds Point Levee in Missouri in support of the Corps of Engineers operation. When flooding happens, USGS f...

  11. Mississippi River Flooding 2011: Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Inflow breach at Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway. USGS scientists are measuring the amount of water spilling into the New Madrid floodway as a result of the recent intentional breaching of the Birds Point Levee in Missouri in support of the Corps of Engineers operation. When flooding happens, USGS f...

  12. Mississippi River Flooding 2011: Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS Nation Flood Specialist takes a CNN crew on a measurement run at the Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway. USGS scientists are measuring the amount of water spilling into the New Madrid floodway as a result of the recent intentional breaching of the Birds Point Levee in Missouri in support of the Co...

  13. Mississippi River Flooding 2011: Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS National Flood Specialist answers questions for CNN at the Birds Point-NewMadrid Floodway. USGS scientists are measuring the amount of water spilling into the New Madrid floodway as a result of the recent intentional breaching of the Birds Point Levee in Missouri in support of the Corps of Engi...

  14. 13 CFR 120.170 - Flood insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flood insurance. 120.170 Section 120.170 Business...Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.170 Flood insurance. Under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Sec....

  15. 13 CFR 120.170 - Flood insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flood insurance. 120.170 Section 120.170 Business...Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.170 Flood insurance. Under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Sec....

  16. Three dimensional numerical modeling of flow and pollutant transport in a flooding area of 2008 US Midwest Flood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper presents the development and application of a three-dimensional numerical model for simulating the flow field and pollutant transport in a flood zone near the confluence of the Mississippi River and Iowa River in Oakville, Iowa. Due to a levee breaching along the Iowa River during the US ...

  17. Effects of flooding duration on species richness, floristic composition and forest structure in river margin habitat in Amazonian blackwater floodplain forests: implications for future design of protected areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leandro Valle Ferreira

    2000-01-01

    Rivers in central Amazonia experience annual water-level fluctuations of up to 14?m, flooding vast areas of adjacent forest for periods ranging from a few to 270 days per year. At different sites, variation in the duration and type of flooding results in a mosaic of habitats that includes lakes, grasslands, forests, and streams. To study the effects of flood duration

  18. FLOOD! Natural Flood Controls

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this learning module on the theme of flood management. The unit "contains a set of activities that ask students to investigate the characteristics of drainage basins of rivers in order to understand the relationships between landscape and the movement of water across the landscape surface." Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item. The unit is available in a ZIP file, which contains the individual lesson items.

  19. Teaching Floods and Flooding Quantitatively

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Baer, Eric M.

    This page helps faculty communicate essential ideas that students struggle with in terms of floods and flooding. It takes into account the concepts of probability and recurrence interval and discusses hydrologic terminology, relations between discharge and stage, and the meaning of the '100 year flood.'

  20. Effectiveness of water infrastructure for river flood management - Part 1: Flood hazard assessment using hydrological models in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusyev, M. A.; Kwak, Y.; Khairul, M. I.; Arifuzzaman, M. B.; Magome, J.; Sawano, H.; Takeuchi, K.

    2015-06-01

    This study introduces a flood hazard assessment part of the global flood risk assessment (Part 2) conducted with a distributed hydrological Block-wise TOP (BTOP) model and a GIS-based Flood Inundation Depth (FID) model. In this study, the 20 km grid BTOP model was developed with globally available data on and applied for the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM) river basin. The BTOP model was calibrated with observed river discharges in Bangladesh and was applied for climate change impact assessment to produce flood discharges at each BTOP cell under present and future climates. For Bangladesh, the cumulative flood inundation maps were produced using the FID model with the BTOP simulated flood discharges and allowed us to consider levee effectiveness for reduction of flood inundation. For the climate change impacts, the flood hazard increased both in flood discharge and inundation area for the 50- and 100-year floods. From these preliminary results, the proposed methodology can partly overcome the limitation of the data unavailability and produces flood~maps that can be used for the nationwide flood risk assessment, which is presented in Part 2 of this study.

  1. Stream Floods

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Warren Huff

    2000-11-03

    This exercise is designed to explore the nature of floods and flood prediction. Prediction of flooding relies heavily upon statistical techniques based on historical records of stream behavior. This series of exercises first reviews basic concepts in flood prediction such as calculating the Recurrence Interval (RI), which is the average interval in years between occurrences of two discharges of equal magnitude; and the Weibull equation, which calculates the probability that a given discharge will be exceeded in any particular year. The student then accesses historical data on U.S. stream flow and performs these calculations independently.

  2. Estimated Benefits of IBWC Rio Grande Flood-Control Projects in the United States

    E-print Network

    Sturdivant, Allen W.; Lacewell, Ronald D.; Michelsen, Ari M.; Rister, M. Edward; Assadian, Naomi; Eriksson, Marian; Freeman, Roger; Jacobs, Jennifer H.; Madison, W. Tom; McGuckin, James T.; Morrison, Wendy; Robinson, John R.C.; Staats, Chris; Sheng, Zhuping; Srinivasan, R.; Villalobos, Joshua I.

    geographic extent of the river-levee and floodway-levee system, an innovative approach was developed to conduct a rapid economic assessment of an IBWC flood-control infrastructure failure along the Rio Grande. The estimate of the potential damages (or... / at American Dam El Paso, TX. above / below Rio Conchos Rio Grande City, TX. - - River Floodway - total miles of levee 130 93 15.18 102 340.18 - miles at risk of being overtopped 10 12 1.25 38 61.25 - miles subject to encroachment 60 38 1.25 64 163.25a...

  3. 24 CFR 1000.38 - What flood insurance requirements are applicable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What flood insurance requirements are applicable...ACTIVITIES General § 1000.38 What flood insurance requirements are applicable? Under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973,...

  4. 24 CFR 1000.38 - What flood insurance requirements are applicable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What flood insurance requirements are applicable...ACTIVITIES General § 1000.38 What flood insurance requirements are applicable? Under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973,...

  5. 24 CFR 1000.38 - What flood insurance requirements are applicable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What flood insurance requirements are applicable...ACTIVITIES General § 1000.38 What flood insurance requirements are applicable? Under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973,...

  6. 24 CFR 1000.38 - What flood insurance requirements are applicable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What flood insurance requirements are applicable...ACTIVITIES General § 1000.38 What flood insurance requirements are applicable? Under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973,...

  7. 24 CFR 1000.38 - What flood insurance requirements are applicable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What flood insurance requirements are applicable...ACTIVITIES General § 1000.38 What flood insurance requirements are applicable? Under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973,...

  8. Flood Maps

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Alex Tingle

    This map, created by combining data from Google Maps and NASA, shows which land areas would be flooded by sea level rises between 0 and 14 meters. The NASA data set used is only of limited reliability, but the map provides a fascinating view of the consequences of rising sea levels, and the consequent floods of costal areas.

  9. Cost of Flooding

    MedlinePLUS

    Floodsmart.gov The official site of the National Flood Insurance Program Call toll free: 1-888-379- ... Term(s): Home What Causes Flooding Coastal Flooding Defining Flood Risks Understanding Flood Maps Undergoing a Map Change ...

  10. Flood enhancement through flood control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criss, Robert E.; Shock, Everett L.

    2001-10-01

    Flood stages for constant discharge have increased 2 4 m over the past century at numerous locations in the Mississippi River basin. However, no increases are observed on rivers such as the Meramec and the upper Missouri, which have been spared extensive river engineering projects. Flood-stage increases on the middle Mississippi River and lower Missouri River are mostly attributable to channelization.

  11. Urban sprawl and flooding in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rantz, S.E.

    1970-01-01

    The floods of January 1969 in south-coastal California provide a timely example of the effect of urban sprawl on flood damage. Despite recordbreaking, or near recordbreaking, stream discharges, damage was minimal in the older developed areas that are protected against inundation and debris damage by carefully planned flood-control facilities, including debris basins and flood-conveyance channels. By contrast, heavy damage occurred in areas of more recent urban sprawl, where the hazards of inundation and debris or landslide damage have not been taken into consideration, and where the improvement and development of drainage or flood-control facilities have not kept pace with expanding urbanization.

  12. 76 FR 7508 - National Flood Insurance Program, Policy Wording Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ...SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 61...1660-AA70 National Flood Insurance Program...Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION...the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) provides...insurance protection against flood damage to...

  13. Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler Used to Measure Historic Flooding

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS scientists use an acoustic doppler current profiler to monitor streamflow during the historic flooding in Fargo, ND. This information provides critical information used to estimate flood dangers and helps protect lives and property....

  14. USGS Crews Measure Historic Flooding in Fargo, ND

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS scientists Chris Laveau and Joel Galloway measure streamflow during historical flooding in Fargo, ND. This information is critical for developing flood forecasts to help protect lives and property....

  15. USGS Crews Measure Historic Flooding in Fargo, ND

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS scientists continue to monitor streamflow during the historic flooding taking place in Fargo, ND. This information provides critical information used to estimate flood dangers and helps protect lives and property....

  16. USGS Crews Measure Historic Flooding in Fargo, ND

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS scientists monitor streamflow during the historic flooding taking place in Fargo, ND. This information provides critical information used to estimate flood dangers and helps protect lives and property....

  17. USGS Crews Measure Historic Flooding in Fargo, ND

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS scientists Chris Laveau and Joel Galloway measure streamflow during historical flooding in Fargo, ND. This information is critical for developing flood forecasts to help protect lives and property. ...

  18. Flood Risk and Flood hazard maps - Visualisation of hydrological risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spachinger, Karl; Dorner, Wolfgang; Metzka, Rudolf; Serrhini, Kamal; Fuchs, Sven

    2008-11-01

    Hydrological models are an important basis of flood forecasting and early warning systems. They provide significant data on hydrological risks. In combination with other modelling techniques, such as hydrodynamic models, they can be used to assess the extent and impact of hydrological events. The new European Flood Directive forces all member states to evaluate flood risk on a catchment scale, to compile maps of flood hazard and flood risk for prone areas, and to inform on a local level about these risks. Flood hazard and flood risk maps are important tools to communicate flood risk to different target groups. They provide compiled information to relevant public bodies such as water management authorities, municipalities, or civil protection agencies, but also to the broader public. For almost each section of a river basin, run-off and water levels can be defined based on the likelihood of annual recurrence, using a combination of hydrological and hydrodynamic models, supplemented by an analysis of historical records and mappings. In combination with data related to the vulnerability of a region risk maps can be derived. The project RISKCATCH addressed these issues of hydrological risk and vulnerability assessment focusing on the flood risk management process. Flood hazard maps and flood risk maps were compiled for Austrian and German test sites taking into account existing national and international guidelines. These maps were evaluated by eye-tracking using experimental graphic semiology. Sets of small-scale as well as large-scale risk maps were presented to test persons in order to (1) study reading behaviour as well as understanding and (2) deduce the most attractive components that are essential for target-oriented risk communication. A cognitive survey asking for negative and positive aspects and complexity of each single map complemented the experimental graphic semiology. The results indicate how risk maps can be improved to fit the needs of different user groups. Recommendations were developed of how to provide stakeholder-oriented information on hydrological risks.

  19. Reconciling Environmental and Flood Control Goals on an Arid-Zone River: Case Study of the Limitrophe Region of the Lower Colorado River in the United States and Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, Edward P.; Hucklebridge, Kate; Hinojosa-Huerta, Osvel; Nagler, Pamela L.; Pitt, Jennifer

    2008-03-01

    Arid zone rivers have highly variable flow rates, and flood control projects are needed to protect adjacent property from flood damage. On the other hand, riparian corridors provide important wildlife habitat, especially for birds, and riparian vegetation is adapted to the natural variability in flows on these rivers. While environmental and flood control goals might appear to be at odds, we show that both goals can be accommodated in the Limitrophe Region (the shared border between the United States and Mexico) on the Lower Colorado River. In 1999, the International Boundary and Water Commission proposed a routine maintenance project to clear vegetation and create a pilot channel within the Limitrophe Region to improve flow capacity and delineate the border. In 2000, however, Minute 306 to the international water treaty was adopted, which calls for consideration of environmental effects of IBWC actions. We conducted vegetation and bird surveys within the Limitrophe and found that this river segment is unusually rich in native cottonwood and willow trees, marsh habitat, and resident and migratory birds compared to flow-regulated segments of river. A flood-frequency analysis showed that the existing levee system can easily contain a 100 year flood even if vegetation is not removed, and the existing braided channel system has greater carrying capacity than the proposed pilot channel.

  20. Crowdsourcing detailed flood data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walliman, Nicholas; Ogden, Ray; Amouzad*, Shahrzhad

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decade the average annual loss across the European Union due to flooding has been 4.5bn Euros, but increasingly intense rainfall, as well as population growth, urbanisation and the rising costs of asset replacements, may see this rise to 23bn Euros a year by 2050. Equally disturbing are the profound social costs to individuals, families and communities which in addition to loss of lives include: loss of livelihoods, decreased purchasing and production power, relocation and migration, adverse psychosocial effects, and hindrance of economic growth and development. Flood prediction, management and defence strategies rely on the availability of accurate information and flood modelling. Whilst automated data gathering (by measurement and satellite) of the extent of flooding is already advanced it is least reliable in urban and physically complex geographies where often the need for precise estimation is most acute. Crowdsourced data of actual flood events is a potentially critical component of this allowing improved accuracy in situations and identifying the effects of local landscape and topography where the height of a simple kerb, or discontinuity in a boundary wall can have profound importance. Mobile 'App' based data acquisition using crowdsourcing in critical areas can combine camera records with GPS positional data and time, as well as descriptive data relating to the event. This will automatically produce a dataset, managed in ArcView GIS, with the potential for follow up calls to get more information through structured scripts for each strand. Through this local residents can provide highly detailed information that can be reflected in sophisticated flood protection models and be core to framing urban resilience strategies and optimising the effectiveness of investment. This paper will describe this pioneering approach that will develop flood event data in support of systems that will advance existing approaches such as developed in the in the UK in the more generalised RASP project (DEFRA and the Environment Agency), and in line with the expressed needs of the ABI (Association of British Insurers) and National Flood Forum. The detailed data produced will also support improved flood risk assessment for the provision of affordable insurance.

  1. Floods in Colombia (2009-2011): rethinking our response to climatic variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canon Barriga, J. E.

    2011-12-01

    The alternating El Niño-La Niña events of 2009-2011 are clear examples of the extreme weather variability that we can expect from climate-change conditions around the world. This presentation will discuss the impact that such events have had already in Colombia and will suggest ways to deal with similar events in the future. In less than a year the country passed from a dry El Niño (in which the system of reservoirs for water supply and hydropower dropped to critical levels) to a wet La Niña (in which a heavy, sustained rainy period caused landslides and major floods in most of the floodplains and main cities and put the reservoirs to work at their maximum capacity). As a result of the rains, several levees, bridges and roads across the country failed or collapsed, prompting the government to declare a state of emergency and to propose an ambitious plan for the reconstruction of the country's infrastructure in the following years. Many of the effects of these floods, which occur seasonally at lower scales, were magnified by the increasing human occupation of wetlands and floodplains due to different economic interests and by decades of transformation of forested areas in the mountains for pastures and cattle-growing. We drawn several lessons from these alternate occurrence of weather extremes: 1) reservoirs, for instance, may not be resilient to the occurrence of a single period of severe dryness and have a limited capacity to control floods during seasons of heavy rain; 2) alternating weather extremes may leave governments with limited time to respond within the regular seasonal cycle and solutions may be delayed and unreliable (as the PDO enters in a negative phase in the coming years, La Niña events and wetter than normal conditions in the country are likely to become more frequent, extending the rainy season cycle); 3) several years of deforestation in the cordillera have increased erosive processes and sediment loads making the rivers more difficult to predict or forecast; 4) levees and invasive channel works create a false sense of security and require better local specifications and studies (i.e., of discharge, sediment loads and geomorphological evolution in a non-stationary framework), as well as maintenance, constant monitoring and law enforcement to protect floodplain areas; 5) mountain reforestation is essential to mitigate these impacts, along with river-friendly solutions, including the relocation of communities and incentives for changes in the vocational use of land toward practices that harmonize with the ecosystems and with the seasonal nature of floods. These lessons would likely also apply to other countries in tropical regions characterized by similar weather patterns and levels of social development.

  2. CONSEQUENCES OF HUMAN-ALTERED FLOODS: LEVEES, FLOODS, AND FLOODPLAIN FORESTS ALONG THE WISCONSIN RIVER. (R826600)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  3. Mathematical modeling of flooding due to river bank failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viero, Daniele Pietro; D'Alpaos, Andrea; Carniello, Luca; Defina, Andrea

    2013-09-01

    Modeling of flooding events resulting from bank overflooding and levee breaching is of relevant social and environmental interest. Two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic models integrating the shallow water equations turn out to be very effective tools for the purpose at hand. Many of the available models also use 1D channel elements, fully coupled to the 2D model, to simulate the flow of small channels dissecting the urban and rural areas, and 1D elements, referred to as 1D-links, to efficiently model the flow over levees, road and rail embankments, bunds, the flow through control gates, either free or submerged, and the operation of other hydraulic structures. In this work we propose a physically-based 1D-link to model breach formation and evolution in fluvial levees, and levee failure due to either piping or overtopping. The proposed 1D-link is then embedded in a 1D-2D hydrodynamic model, thus accounting for critical feedbacks between breach formation and changes in the hydrodynamic flow field. The breach model also includes the possibility of simulating breach closure, an important feature particularly in the view of hydraulic risk assessment and management of the emergency. The model is applied to five different case studies and the results of the numerical simulations compare favorably with field observations displaying a good agreement in terms of urban and rural flooded areas, water levels within the channel, final breach widths, and water volumes flowed through the breach.

  4. Decision support systems for flood scenario elicitation and hazard mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pistocchi, Alberto

    2013-04-01

    Improved management of flood hazards in mountain catchments entails the investigation of large woody debris transport, their impact in terms of bridge clogging, and the combined effect of these phenomena with high flows in mountain rivers. Moreover, the effects of woody debris may combine with those of possible levee failure in the valley bottoms. The contribution reviews the state of the art of models and methods for the characterization of both aspects, and illustrates a blueprint of a decision support system where information on woody debris recruitment, transport capacity of the stream network, cloggability of hydraulic structures and levees are combined with hydrological information to identify the most appropriate scenarios one should consider for precautionary and realistic flood hazard assessment. The decision support system is exemplified with reference to the case study of South Tyrol, Italy.

  5. Flood protection in the swamps

    E-print Network

    Reesby, Raymond George

    1958-01-01

    \\ fl I I Ta 1, I V R r / / IE '2 / / f P / CV E U' 8 I' S A / I IS P 0 Ul ie '5 s~p / /C '7 /5/ fo *, / . I 'C I e n e-r- eovaf s de 3h/ ~ ~Pl /, ~l 2 fy 7/. c of le 5 rlo I '-so III Es~:~ SABINE RIVER WATERSHED PLAN... 949o C 9$ &rn Ug 0 Q '0 X. A C f 0 Z /ooc/ o s /9(3 /44- /4A/gy /5O 15C I(2 ICP I (4 I So 192 2o4 2(o 2(k /o 222 22 / 234-j 24o 18, 200 (9, 2oo (9, 8oC) 20( 075 Iq 825 ((7, goo ('(, ooo I'I 4oo (9 loo Ig, too...

  6. Flood protection in the swamps 

    E-print Network

    Reesby, Raymond George

    1958-01-01

    I g7 O 29'(2 (o. /O 13, 144 159C 5 19, 2. 91 23, 85( 31, 342 33, 7(R 3 &, 9 (3 3S, 49' 4(, g75 q3, e'2. . 4C, 091 4g, 9&2 33, 122, S5, lg/I. ~l 975 C3 21& ao, 374 47PEOBA // o o / //(///5 D 48/ c // s /((o +& (. -/ F//67 &&&6P... 0 24 32 4o So 12o lao z4o 3 20 4oo 4go lo 2o 50 loO 150 2oO 2 Qo goo 0' C- O 0 22 44 88 I lo 2 '2 0 IS 30 12 lg 24- 53 10 l (CO 2 14 27+ 4. 30 5(35 '7 4o I laz 1449 179c l 34 Z 29$ g 59 M &3 42. 71 05...

  7. Rivers and Flooding Lab

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Laurel Senft

    Understand flooding - why it occurs, how to measure the size and frequency of a flood, the relationship between size and flooding, and how human activity can increase the frequency of flooding events.

  8. Flood-carrying capacities and changes in channels of the Lower Puyallup, White, and Carbon Rivers in western Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prych, E.A.

    1988-01-01

    The flood-carrying capacity of the Puyallup River 's leveed channel from its mouth to the city of Puyallup exceeds the 100-yr-flood discharge at most locations. Upstream from the city of Puyallup the flood-carrying capacity also is less than the 100-yr flood at many locations. In King County the flood-carrying capacity would be greater than the 100-year flood nearly everywhere if the levees were in a good state of repair. The flood-carrying capacity of the leveed Carbon River channel is less than the 100-yr flood at numerous locations. Changes between 1976-77 and 1984 in average channel cross-section elevations for the Puyallup and Carbon Rivers were less than 1 ft at more than one-half of 90 surveyed cross sections and were more than 2 ft at only 5 of them. Changes in average elevations for the White River downstream of the inflow from Lake Tapps rose approximately 2 ft or more at 5 of the 10 surveyed cross sections, but decreased 2 ft or more at nearly one-half of 29 cross sections upstream of the reach. Differences between computed 100-yr floodwater-surface elevations for 1976-77 and 1984 channels are similar to changes in average cross-section elevations. Dense growths of streambank vegetation could increase 100-yr floodwater surface elevations by 1.2 ft. (USGS)

  9. Assessment of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.

    2013-12-01

    Flood is one of the most significant natural hazards in Japan. The Tokyo metropolitan area has been affected by several large flood disasters. Therefore, investigating potential flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area is important for development of adaptation strategy for future climate change. We aim to develop a method for evaluating flood risk in Tokyo Metropolitan area by considering effect of historical land use and land cover change, socio-economic change, and climatic change. Ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism in Japan published 'Statistics of flood', which contains data for flood causes, number of damaged houses, area of wetted surface, and total amount of damage for each flood at small municipal level. By using these flood data, we estimated damage by inundation inside a levee for each prefecture based on a statistical method. On the basis of estimated damage, we developed flood risk curves in the Tokyo metropolitan area, representing relationship between damage and exceedance probability of flood for the period 1976-2008 for each prefecture. Based on the flood risk curve, we attempted evaluate potential flood risk in the Tokyo metropolitan area and clarify the cause for regional difference of flood risk. By analyzing flood risk curves, we found out regional differences of flood risk. We identified high flood risk in Tokyo and Saitama prefecture. On the other hand, flood risk was relatively low in Ibaraki and Chiba prefecture. We found that these regional differences of flood risk can be attributed to spatial distribution of entire property value and ratio of damaged housing units in each prefecture.We also attempted to evaluate influence of climate change on potential flood risk by considering variation of precipitation amount and precipitation intensity in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Results shows that we can evaluate potential impact of precipitation change on flood risk with high accuracy by using our methodology. Acknowledgments This study is conducted as part of the research subject "Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change in Water Hazard Assessed Using Regional Climate Scenarios in the Tokyo Region' (National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention; PI: Koji Dairaku) of Research Program on Climate Change Adaptation (RECCA) and was supported by the SOUSEI Program, funded by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Government of Japan

  10. 75 FR 68710 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ...The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) makes...with section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...criteria for floodplain management in floodprone areas in...encouraged to review the proof Flood Insurance Study and FIRM...Siskiyou County Public Health and Community...

  11. Study of movement and seepage along levees using DINSAR and the airborne UAVSAR instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Cathleen E.; Bawden, Gerald; Deverel, Steven; Dudas, Joel; Hensley, Scott; Yun, Sang-Ho

    2012-09-01

    We have studied the utility of high resolution synthetic aperture radar for levee monitoring using UAVSAR data collected over the dikes and levees in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and the lower Mississippi River. Our study has focused on detecting and tracking changes that are indicative of potential problem spots, namely deformation of the levees, subsidence along the levee toe, and seepage through the levees, making use of polarimetric and interferometric SAR techniques. Here we present some results of those studies, which show that high resolution, low noise SAR imaging could supplement more traditional ground-based monitoring methods by providing early indicators of seepage and deformation.

  12. Flood Analysis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students learn how to use and graph real-world stream gage data to create event and annual hydrographs and calculate flood frequency statistics. Using an Excel spreadsheet of real-world event, annual and peak streamflow data, they manipulate the data (converting units, sorting, ranking, plotting), solve problems using equations, and calculate return periods and probabilities. Prompted by worksheet questions, they analyze the runoff data as engineers would. Students learn how hydrographs help engineers make decisions and recommendations to community stakeholders concerning water resources and flooding.

  13. Climate Change and Water Resources Management: Adaptations for Flood Control and Water Supply

    E-print Network

    Lund, Jay R.

    locations in the inter-tied water system of California are analyzed. Increasing winter flows and decreasing setback for height and flood levee re-design rules are first analyzed under static climatic and economic to Professor Michael R. Caputo for his valuable helps on optimal control. Thanks go to Dr. Marion W. Jenkins

  14. Assessment of big floods in the Eastern Black Sea Basin of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yüksek, Ömer; Kankal, Murat; Üçüncü, Osman

    2013-01-01

    In this study, general knowledge and some details of the floods in Eastern Black Sea Basin of Turkey are presented. Brief hydro-meteorological analysis of selected nine floods and detailed analysis of the greatest flood are given. In the studied area, 51 big floods have taken place between 1955-2005 years, causing 258 deaths and nearly US $500,000,000 of damage. Most of the floods have occurred in June, July and August. It is concluded that especially for the rainstorms that have caused significantly damages, the return periods of the rainfall heights and resultant flood discharges have gone up to 250 and 500 years, respectively. A general agreement is observed between the return periods of rains and resultant floods. It is concluded that there has been no significant climate change to cause increases in flood harms. The most important human factors to increase the damage are determined as wrong and illegal land use, deforestation and wrong urbanization and settlement, psychological and technical factors. Some structural and non-structural measures to mitigate flood damages are also included in the paper. Structural measures include dykes and flood levees. Main non-structural measures include flood warning system, modification of land use, watershed management and improvement, flood insurance, organization of flood management studies, coordination between related institutions and education of the people and informing of the stakeholders. PMID:22411030

  15. SUTTER BASIN, SUTTER & BUTTE COUNTIES, CA FLOOD RISK MANAGEMENT PROJECT

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    SUTTER BASIN, SUTTER & BUTTE COUNTIES, CA FLOOD RISK MANAGEMENT PROJECT 22 October 2013 ABSTRACT the risk to property damage due to flooding to the Sutter Basin area located in the Sutter and Butte Protection Board (CVFPB) and the Sutter Butte Flood Control Agency (SBFCA). The Sutter Basin is a 326-square

  16. Flood Cleanup

    MedlinePLUS

    ... epa.gov/naturalevents/hurricanes EPA's Office of Children’s Health - in the Aftermath of Floods - http://yosemite.epa.gov/ochp/ochpweb.nsf/content/ ... Carbon Monoxide Information Natural Emergencies [ en ... Federal Emergency Management Agency ( www.fema.gov ) Hurricane Response and Recovery ...

  17. Flooding Exercises

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stephen Nelson

    This homework exercise, developed for an undergraduate geology course at Tulane University, leads students through the steps involved in determining the probability that a flood of a given discharge will occur in any given year. Students retrieve discharge data from U.S. Geological Services Internet sites for Dry Creek, LA, Rapid Creek, SD and Red River, ND to make their calculations.

  18. 76 FR 43966 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ...River, Prairie Creek, and School Creek. DATES: Comments are...with section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, 42...River, Prairie Creek, and School Creek. That table contained...657 downstream of Farm Road. School...

  19. 77 FR 18837 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ...unrelated to the flood hazard determinations also will...32922. City of Cocoa Beach...33314. Town of Hillsboro Beach...Hillsboro Mile, Hillsboro Beach, FL 33062. Town of...Department of Natural Resource Protection, 218...

  20. Processing of laser radar data for the extraction of an along-the-levee-crown elevation profile for levee remediation studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Bishop; Thomas E. McGill; Stacy R. Taylor

    2004-01-01

    Using LiDAR data collected on the levees along the Rio Grande River in New Mexico and Texas, an algorithm has been developed to automatically extract longitudinal elevation profiles. This algorithm consists of a series of filters, interpretation of geophysical properties, and digitized levee centerlines. The series of filters, in order of operation, include an alignment buffer filter, bare-earth filter, sampling

  1. The August 2002 flood in Prague

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marešová, I.; Mareš, K.; Vogel, T.

    2003-04-01

    In August 2002 the Czech Republic was struck by the largest flood in its history with the destruction of more than 1000 houses, tens of km of roads and dozens of bridges. The reconstruction of the country will take more than 2 years. The catastrophic flood was caused by two rainfall events following rapidly one after the other. Saturated basins and full river channels after the first rainstorm caused the highest water stages and discharges ever recorded in a number of river profiles in the country. In Prague two floods coincided, with run-off from the Vltava river cascade meeting the flood wave from the Berounka river. The floods in the Czech Republic and in Prague are still being assessed. The water level of this flood surpassed the flood marks from the last century by 70 - 100 cm. At the present time the value of the discharge in Prague is evaluated as 5200 {m^3 s-1}, whereas {Q100} is considered to be 3700 {m3s-1}. The Vltava in Prague is a trained river, protected by embankments ({Q50} and {Q20}) and protective dykes ({Q100} and {Q20}). In addition, a significant role in the flood protection of Prague was played by the manipulation of the dams of the Vltava river cascade, and by a new element - mobile walls protecting the historically valuable Old Town of Prague on the right bank of the Vltava. A conception for improving the flood protection of Prague was ready in the form of a design at the end of the {20th} century. It was ready for use in 2000, when the way in which it should be built was also checked. The calculation for the level of the mobile wall was based on mathematical modeling of the course of a hundred year flood in Prague. However, the mobile walls were constructed 50 cm higher than the calculated flood levels. During the flood, the water levels reached about 20 cm, and in some places only about 5 cm, below the top of the mobile walls, but the mobile walls were not overtopped. Mobile walls were not used on the left bank of the Prague city center. This is the location of the Lesser Town of Prague and Kampa, in particular, which lies below Prague Castle, the most picturesque part of Prague, with historical buildings from the {14 - 19th} century. Flood protection by mobile walls in this part of the city continues to be a topic of discussion among proponents of different opinions. Although the building structures were not protected, there was no damage to them or to their stability. Greater damage was caused to the interiors of the buildings. Unfortunately, the barriers in Karlín and Holesovice, residential areas from the {18th} and {19th} century, originally built for workers, were very seriously destroyed. The flood water level there was about 3 meters above ground level. Three houses collapsed during the flood, and dozens of houses are still not habitable because of their endangered stability. As a consequence of the flood, Prague encountered a range of other problems: a flooded waste water treatment plant, areas flooded through the sewerage system, flooded theatres, archives, and serious flooding at the zoo. A problem arose due to suffusion behind the mobile walls which led to the destruction of the roads where public trams and private cars operate. This problem, together with the flooded underground railway network, caused very serious problems and the near collapse of the traffic network in Prague.

  2. Linking flow properties of partially channelized turbidity currents to the morphodynamics and texture of submarine levees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, K. M.; Esposito, C.; Kuykendall, J.

    2011-12-01

    Levees are the primary elements of self-formed submarine channels, yet in comparison to channel thalwegs little is known about their morphodynamics. Motivated by observations of levee stratigraphy in seismic data and levee morphodynamics observed in physical experiments we have developed a levee growth model. This model couples a simple advection settling scheme for suspended sediment with a vertical suspended sediment profile for partially-channelized turbidity currents. Use of an advection-settling scheme is supported by small advection length scales for settling sediment in overbanking flows compared to most levee widths. The channelized (parent) suspended sediment concentration profile in our model is defined for multiple grain sizes using a two-layer method. Suspended sediment concentration below the height of the velocity maximum is defined by the Rouse equation, while the concentration above this height is defined by a near-Gaussian relationship. In our model only the current fraction situated above the elevation of the levee crest is used in the advection settling calculation. As a result early levee growth is associated with coarse and relatively stratified overbanking flow compared to later periods of growth when channel relief is greater. We use this model to link channelized flow properties to both levee morphology and texture. The evolution of levee morphology, specifically levee taper, is shown to depend on the Rouse number of the parent flow with high Rouse number flows corresponding to steep levees. Initial exploration of levee texture has focused on the distribution of particle diameters in the parent flows. We find that a flow composed of a narrow distribution of particle diameters results in a coarser levee than a flow with the same median grain size but broader particle size distribution.

  3. The spatial and temporal variability of residential real estate values in response to flooding.

    PubMed

    Montz, B E; Tobin, G A

    1988-12-01

    A relationship between residential property values and the incidence of flooding is represented, using a case study of two Californian communities that were flooded following a levee break. Analysis of the real estate market before and after the flood shows that the flood was capitalized into housing values, whereby both list and selling prices dropped immediately and have recently begun to recover. However, recovery of the market is not uniform throughout the floodplain. Houses that suffered eighteen inches of water recovered to near pre-flood values in less than one year. In contrast, houses that had approximately ten feet of water in them have not recovered to the same extent, indicating that capitalization and recovery do not occur evenly. These findings suggest that policies and programs should address these spatial and temporal differences in recovery, which are expected to vary with different flood frequencies and magnitudes. PMID:20958665

  4. PEG Simulation Insight Into the Construction and Cross-Sectional Morphology of Levees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garry, W. B.; Gregg, T. K.

    2002-12-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was extruded at constant rates and temperatures into a 75-cm-long tank filled with cold sucrose solution in a series of low-volume (< 2000 mL), short-duration (< 240 s) simulations conducted on underlying slopes ranging from 4-10° degrees with effusion rates of 6-10 mL/s to constrain the development of levees in channeled flows. Upon extrusion, thin slabs of PEG solidify on the surface of the flow. The PEG slabs drift to the lateral flow margins, stall, and accrete, establishing a foundation for a levee system. Distinguishable levees in the PEG channel flows do not form until almost 30-50 s into the simulation. Levee length grows as liquid PEG oozes around the solid down-slope levee end, stalls, and solidifies. After initial emplacement, the levees remain stable entities regardless of their width, and the outer levee margins do not grow laterally through overflow or underflow of PEG. Although miniscule, partially solidified, morsels of PEG do accrete to the inner margin of the levees, total levee width remains relatively constant until effusion at the vent stops and the entire flow surface solidifies. Initial results suggest that levee width is not a linear function of distance from the vent, effusion rate, or underlying slope, although levees are slightly wider, on average, on lower underlying slopes than they are on steeper slopes. Wider levees (> 1 cm) usually comprise a hollow, internal conduit system that PEG can continue to flow through. The most striking feature of the cross-sectional morphology is the concave shape to the inner wall of the levees, regardless of eruption parameters. This concavity conceals a volume of moving liquid wax in the channel, so that the true channel is actually wider than what is observed at the flow surface. General observations of the concave inner walls reveal that height, thickness, and concavity for an individual levee remain fairly constant from the vent to the flow front. Field observations on a selection of channeled flows on the north side of Mauna Ulu, Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, display cross-sections similar to those found in lab simulations, particularly in the concavity of the inner levee walls. Extension of true channel width into hollow levee systems that parallel the main channel beneath the crust of the flow was observed, and in one case, tripled the observed channel width. Additional simulations over a spectrum of conditions will further levee construction and morphology analysis.

  5. Newton's Apple: Floods

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lesson plan on floods provides background information, compares the roles of wetlands and flood plains in a river's natural flood control with the pros and cons of engineered flood control. Includes glossary, resources and additional sources of information, discussion questions. Student activity demonstrates water movement on a wide flood plain and narrow channel.

  6. Flood Plain Management. 

    E-print Network

    McNeely, John G.; Lacewell, Ronald D.

    1976-01-01

    characteristics fairly representative for the en- tire length of each reach. Flood frequency data for the various streams in the study are developed from dis- charge-frequency relationships based on regionalized hydrologic analyses. Using the peak discharges... Contents Introduction.. .................................... 4 Agricultural Flood Plain Management ............... Flood Hazard Studies ............................. Federal Flood Insurance .......................... 11 Flood Insurance...

  7. Implementing the EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC) in Austria: Flood Risk Management Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhold, Clemens

    2013-04-01

    he Directive 2007/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2007 on the assessment and management of flood risks (EFD) aims at the reduction of the adverse consequences for human health, the environment, cultural heritage and economic activity associated with floods in the Community. This task is to be achieved based on three process steps (1) preliminary flood risk assessment (finalised by the end of 2011), (2) flood hazard maps and flood risk maps (due 2013) and (3) flood risk management plans (due 2015). Currently, an interdisciplinary national working group is defining the methodological framework for flood risk management plans in Austria supported by a constant exchange with international bodies and experts. Referring to the EFD the components of the flood risk management plan are (excerpt): 1. conclusions of the preliminary flood risk assessment 2. flood hazard maps and flood risk maps and the conclusions that can be drawn from those maps 3. a description of the appropriate objectives of flood risk management 4. a summary of measures and their prioritisation aiming to achieve the appropriate objectives of flood risk management The poster refers to some of the major challenges in this process, such as the legal provisions, coordination of administrative units, definition of public relations, etc. The implementation of the EFD requires the harmonisation of legal instruments of various disciplines (e.g. water management, spatial planning, civil protection) enabling a coordinated - and ideally binding - practice of flood risk management. This process is highly influenced by the administrative organisation in Austria - federal, provincial and municipality level. The Austrian approach meets this organisational framework by structuring the development of the flood risk management plan into 3 time-steps: (a) federal blueprint, (b) provincial editing and (c) federal finishing as well as reporting to the European Commission. Each time-step addresses different administrative levels and spatial scales accompanied by the active involvement of interested parties.

  8. Assessment of floodplain vulnerability during extreme Mississippi River flood 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodwell, Allison E.; Zhu, Zhenduo; Dutta, Debsunder; Greenberg, Jonathan A.; Kumar, Praveen; Garcia, Marcelo H.; Rhoads, Bruce L.; Holmes, Robert R.; Parker, Gary; Berretta, David P.; Jacobson, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Regional change in the variability and magnitude of flooding could be a major consequence of future global climate change. Extreme floods have the capacity to rapidly transform landscapes and expose landscape vulnerabilities through highly variable spatial patterns of inundation, erosion, and deposition. We use the historic activation of the Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway during the Mississippi and Ohio River Flooding of 2011 as a scientifically unique stress experiment to analyze indicators of floodplain vulnerability. We use pre- and postflood airborne Light Detection and Ranging data sets to locate erosional and depositional hotspots over the 540 km2 agricultural Floodway. While riparian vegetation between the river and the main levee breach likely prevented widespread deposition, localized scour and deposition occurred near the levee breaches. Eroded gullies nearly 1 km in length were observed at a low ridge of a relict meander scar of the Mississippi River. Our flow modeling and spatial mapping analysis attributes this vulnerability to a combination of erodible soils, flow acceleration associated with legacy fluvial landforms, and a lack of woody vegetation to anchor soil and enhance flow resistance. Results from this study could guide future mitigation and adaptation measures in cases of extreme flooding.

  9. Flood Modelling in Jakarta 

    E-print Network

    Diamantidis, Georgios

    2009-11-26

    Flooding is a major issue that affects the well being of a big part of the global population. This project is concerned with flooding caused by extreme rainfall events. Its aim is the development of a flood prediction ...

  10. Prospects for Season-ahead Global Flood Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D.; Block, P. J.; Ward, P.

    2014-12-01

    Flood events rank as one of the most destructive natural hazards, with associated global economic losses increasing starkly over the past half century. This has drawn attention to prospects for flood forecasts to protect life and livelihoods. Typical forecasts emphasize the short-term (hours to days) scale to inform immediate response action. Longer-range forecasts, on the order of months to seasons, however, could compliment short-range forecasts by focusing on disaster preparedness. Initially, we define key flood seasons globally, at grid and basin scales, which are most likely to contain the most severe annual flood using observational (GRDC) and model (PCR-GLOBWB) streamflow data over 1958-2000. Model-defined flood seasons strongly agree (89% of time) with flood seasons defined through observations. Model-defined flood seasons were also qualitatively verified with actual flood records over 1985-2008 from the Dartmouth Flood Observatory records. Subsequently we have begun investigating the effects of inter-annual climate variability on seasonal maximum floods, particularly how ENSO and other large-scale phenomena may modulate discharge and flood severity. Skillful relationship have led to preliminary seasonal global flood forecast models, at the basin scale, providing early (season-ahead) flood probabilities, flood extent, and estimated damages.

  11. Ecological response to and management of increased flooding caused by climate change.

    PubMed

    Poff, N LeRoy

    2002-07-15

    River channels and their flood plains are among the most naturally dynamic ecosystems on earth, in large part due to periodic flooding. The components of a river's natural flood regime (magnitude, frequency, duration and timing of peak flows) interact to maintain great habitat heterogeneity and to promote high species diversity and ecosystem productivity. Flood regimes vary within and among rivers, depending on catchment size, geology and regional hydroclimatology. Geographic variation in contemporary flood regimes results in river-to-river variation in ecosystem structure, and therefore in potential river ecosystem response to increased future flooding. The greater the deviation in flood regime from contemporary or recent historical conditions, the greater the expected ecological alteration. Ecological response will also depend on how extensively humans have altered natural river dynamics through land-use practices. Examples of human-caused changes in flood regime (e.g. urbanization, agricultural practices) provide analogues to explore the ecological implications of region-specific climate change. In many settings where humans have severely modified rivers (e.g. through leveeing), more frequent larger floods will work to re-establish connections with severed flood-plain and riparian wetlands in human-dominated river valleys. Developing and implementing non-structural flood-management policies based on ecological principles can benefit river ecosystems, as well as human society. PMID:12804262

  12. Decreasing flood risk perception in Porto Alegre - Brazil and its influence on water resource management decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allasia, D. G.; Tassi, R.; Bemfica, D.; Goldenfum, J. A.

    2015-06-01

    Porto Alegre is the capital and largest city in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul in Southern Brazil with approximately 1.5 million inhabitants. The city lies on the eastern bank of the Guaiba Lake, formed by the convergence of five rivers and leading to the Lagoa dos Patos, a giant freshwater lagoon navigable by even the largest of ships. This river junction has become an important alluvial port as well as a chief industrial and commercial centre. However, this strategic location resulted in severe damage because of its exposure to flooding from the river system, affecting the city in the years 1873, 1928, 1936, 1941 and 1967. In order to reduce flood risk, a complex system of levees and pump stations was implemented during 1960s and 1970s. Since its construction, not a single large flood event occurred. However, in recent years, the levees in the downtown region of Porto Alegre were severally criticized by city planners and population. Several projects have been proposed to demolish the Mauá Wall due to the false perception of lack of flood risk. Similar opinions and reactions against flood infrastructure have been observed in other cities in Brazil, such as Itajaí and Blumenau, with disastrous consequences. This paper illustrates how the perception of flood risk in Porto Alegre has changed over recent years as a result of flood infrastructure, and how such changes in perceptions can influence water management decisions.

  13. 100-Year Flood-It's All About Chance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, Robert R.; Dinicola, Karen

    2010-01-01

    In the 1960's, the United States government decided to use the 1-percent annual exceedance probability (AEP) flood as the basis for the National Flood Insurance Program. The 1-percent AEP flood was thought to be a fair balance between protecting the public and overly stringent regulation. Because the 1-percent AEP flood has a 1 in 100 chance of being equaled or exceeded in any 1 year, and it has an average recurrence interval of 100 years, it often is referred to as the '100-year flood'. The term '100-year flood' is part of the national lexicon, but is often a source of confusion by those not familiar with flood science and statistics. This poster is an attempt to explain the concept, probabilistic nature, and inherent uncertainties of the '100-year flood' to the layman.

  14. Flood risk changes over centuries in Rome: an empirical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Saccà, Smeralda; Tito Aronica, Giuseppe; Grimaldi, Salvatore; Crisci, Massimiliano

    2015-04-01

    Over centuries, the development of the historical city of Rome -close to one of the largest Italian rivers, the Tiber- has been intertwined with the magnitude and frequency of flooding events. The ancient Rome mostly developed on the (seven) hills, while the Tiber's floodplain was mainly exploited for agricultural purposes. A few small communities did settle in the riparian areas of the Tiber, but they had a relatively peaceful relationships with the frequent occurrence of flooding events. Nowadays, numerous people live in modern districts in the Tiber's floodplain, unaware of their exposure to potentially catastrophic flooding. The main goal of this research is to explore the dynamics of changing flood risk over the centuries between these two extreme pictures of the ancient and contemporary Rome. To this end, we carried out a socio-hydrological study by exploiting long time series of physical (flooding, river morphology) and social (urbanization, population dynamics) processes together with information about human interactions with the environment (flood defense structures). This empirical analysis showed how human and physical systems have been co-evolving over time, while being abruptly altered by the occurrence of extreme events. For instance, a large flooding event occurred in 1870 and contributed to the constructions of levees, which in turn facilitated the development of new urban areas in the Tiber's floodplain, while changed the societal memory of floods as well as the communities' perception of risk. This research work was also used to test the hypotheses of recent-developed models conceptualizing the interplay between floods and societies and simulating the long-term behavior of coupled human-water systems. The outcomes of this test provided interesting insights about the dynamics of flood risk, which are expected to support a better anticipation of future changes.

  15. SUBJECT: APPLICATION FOR GRANT FUNDS FOR THE CALIFORNIA RIVER PARKWAYS GRANT PROGRAM UNDER THE SAFE DRINKING WATER, WATER QUALITY AND SUPPLY, FLOOD CONTROL, RIVER AND COASTAL PROTECTION BOND ACT OF 2006 (Proposition 84) TO IMPROVE WATER QUALITY IN HANNS PARK, VALLEJO THROUGH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RONALD J. MATHESON; DANIEL T. TAFOLLA; CREEK RESTORATION

    SUMMARY The District, in partnership with the City of Vallejo and the Greater Vallejo Recreation District, is the lead agency to apply for grant funds from the California River Parkways grant program under the Safe Drinking Water, Water Quality and Supply, Flood Control, River and Coastal Protection Bond Act of 2006 (Proposition 84). Note: This grant application is a re-submission

  16. Analyses, Simulations and Physical Modeling Validation of Levee and Embankment Erosion

    E-print Network

    Varela, Carlos

    Analyses, Simulations and Physical Modeling Validation of Levee and Embankment Erosion Zhongxian; email: zimmit@rpi.edu ABSTRACT We present a computer simulation of hydraulic erosion on levees, dams, and earth embankments, with emphasis on rill and gully initiation and propagation. We focus on erosion

  17. SIMULATING LEVEE EROSION WITH PHYSICAL MODELING Jared A. Gross, A.M.ASCE1

    E-print Network

    SIMULATING LEVEE EROSION WITH PHYSICAL MODELING VALIDATION Jared A. Gross, A.M.ASCE1 ; Christopher, and general earth embankments. It specifically studies where these erosion features occur, and how long to previous levee erosion analysis, which has primarily concerned the final effects of erosion, such as soil

  18. Documenting Tragedy and Resilience: The Importance of Spike Lee's "When the Levees Broke"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Kevin Michael; Blakes, Tifani; McKay, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    Spike Lee's documentary, "When the Levees Broke," provides an informative, enduring, and alternative presentation surrounding the human and man-made debacle associated with Hurricane Katrina. Levees centers the voices of survivors and others involved in the weeks during and after the hurricane, historicizes residents' understandings and reactions,…

  19. What Consumers Need to Know about Food and Water Safety during Hurricanes, Power Outages, and Floods

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What Consumers Need to Know About Food and Water Safety During Hurricanes, Power Outages, and Floods << Protect ... they are thoroughly cooked. When Flooding Occurs — Keep Water Safe Follow these steps to keep your WATER ...

  20. Study of Movement and Seepage Along Levees Using DINSAR and the Airborne UAVSAR Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Cathleen E.; Bawden, Gerald; Deverel, Steven; Dudas, Joel; Hensley, Scott

    2012-01-01

    We have studied the utility of high resolution SAR (synthetic aperture radar) for levee monitoring using UAVSAR (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar) data collected along the dikes and levees in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and along the lower Mississippi River. Our study has focused on detecting and tracking changes that are indicative of potential problem spots, namely deformation of the levees, subsidence along the levee toe, and seepage through the levees, making use of polarimetric and interferometric SAR techniques. Here was present some results of those studies, which show that high resolution, low noise SAR imaging could supplement more traditional ground-based monitoring methods by providing early indicators of seepage and deformation.

  1. Flood Inundation Mapper

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A powerful new tool for flood response and mitigation are digital geospatial flood-inundation maps that show flood water extent and depth on the land surface. Because floods are the leading cause of natural-disaster losses, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is actively involved in the development of...

  2. Flood of Evidence

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Tenenbaum

    2000-03-16

    This article is a Why Files report on the increase in "natural" disasters from floods, probably the most destructive type of natural disaster. The article notes that in constant dollars, the cost in 1998 alone exceeded the economic toll of the entire decade of the 1980s. Evidence is cited that inundations reflect human action rather than simply rainfall amounts. The report covers: furious floods (including possible human-induced causes), too many floods (recent flood events), do fewer trees create more floods?, wetlands and floods, and flood prevention: the engineering structure or earthmover approach. Six scientists and researchers were interviewed for this report.

  3. Ventura River Flood of February 1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Edward A.; Capelli, Mark H.

    1992-10-01

    On February 12, 1992, a portion of the Ventura River, California, flowed through the Ventura Beach RV Resort which had recently been constructed across a major historically active distributary of the Ventura River delta. State and local land-use planners recognized the flood hazards associated with the site, but decision-makers relied on analytical methods developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and flood-hazard categories developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency, which did not adequately reflect the mobile nature of the Ventura River channel and distributaries. A better understanding of the historical behavior of the Ventura River could have averted the flood damages experienced in 1992. Low intensity recreational, agricultural, or habitat restoration use of the site would minimize potential flood damages and obviate the need for structural flood protection that would impact the river? natural resources. Continued operation of the recreational vehicle park could result in additional flood damages in the relatively near future; recognizing the limitations of the flood-modeling methodologies used for the Ventura Beach RV Resort could prevent similar miscalculations of flood potential in comparable situations.

  4. Selfsimilar long profiles of aggrading submarine leveed channels: Analytical solution and its application to the Amazon channel

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Selfsimilar long profiles of aggrading submarine leveed channels: Analytical solution and its submarine fans are coursed by welldefined leveed channels constructed by turbidity currents. The channels Submarine Fan, shows encouraging comparisons. The generality and shortcomings of the model assumptions

  5. 76 FR 25310 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Zoar Levee and Diversion Dam, Dam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ...Environmental Impact Statement for the Zoar Levee and Diversion Dam, Dam Safety Modification Study, Tuscarawas County, OH AGENCY...reliability risks associated with Zoar Levee and Diversion Dam. These high hazard structures do not meet current...

  6. Plant defense after flooding.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Fu-Chiun; Shih, Ming-Che

    2013-11-01

    Since the first study of hypoxic response in plants with cDNA microarray in 2002, the number of hypoxia-responsive genes has grown to more than 2000. However, to date, only small numbers of hypoxia-responsive genes are known to confer hypoxic resistance. Most investigations in this area have focused on identifying which genes are responsive and then characterized how these genes are induced during hypoxia, but the roles of numerous genes in hypoxic response are still unknown. In our recent study, we demonstrated that a group of genes are induced by submergence to trigger plant immunity, which is a response to protect plants against a higher probability of pathogen infection during or after flooding. This work offered a brand new perspective, i.e., that hypoxia-responsive genes can be induced for reasons other than conferring hypoxic resistance. Possible reasons why these responses were triggered are discussed herein. PMID:24300693

  7. Terrestrial Lidar Datasets of New Orleans, Louisiana, Levee Failures from Hurricane Katrina, August 29, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, Brian D.; Kayen, Robert; Minasian, Diane; Reiss, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina made landfall with the northern Gulf Coast on August 29, 2005, as one of the strongest hurricanes on record. The storm damage incurred in Louisiana included a number of levee failures that led to the inundation of approximately 85 percent of the metropolitan New Orleans area. Whereas extreme levels of storm damage were expected from such an event, the catastrophic failure of the New Orleans levees prompted a quick mobilization of engineering experts to assess why and how particular levees failed. As part of this mobilization, civil engineering members of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) performed terrestrial lidar topographic surveys at major levee failures in the New Orleans area. The focus of the terrestrial lidar effort was to obtain precise measurements of the ground surface to map soil displacements at each levee site, the nonuniformity of levee height freeboard, depth of erosion where scour occurred, and distress in structures at incipient failure. In total, we investigated eight sites in the New Orleans region, including both earth and concrete floodwall levee breaks. The datasets extend from the 17th Street Canal in the Orleans East Bank area to the intersection of the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway (GIWW) with the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet (MRGO) in the New Orleans East area. The lidar scan data consists of electronic files containing millions of surveyed points. These points characterize the topography of each levee's postfailure or incipient condition and are available for download through online hyperlinks. The data serve as a permanent archive of the catastrophic damage of Hurricane Katrina on the levee systems of New Orleans. Complete details of the data collection, processing, and georeferencing methodologies are provided in this report to assist in the visualization and analysis of the data by future users.

  8. Flooding and schools: experiences in Hull in 2007.

    PubMed

    Convery, Ian; Carroll, Bob; Balogh, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Hull, a city in the East Riding of Yorkshire, United Kingdom, suffered severe flooding in June 2007, affecting some 8,600 households and most schools. Despite the potential for damage in such disasters, no studies of the effects of floods on teachers and schools in the UK appear to have been published previously. This study analysed the impacts of the floods on teachers in Hull in two stages: first through correspondence with Hull City Council and a mailed questionnaire to 91 head teachers of primary, secondary, and special schools; and second, through in-depth interviews with head teachers from six flooded schools, representing different degrees of flood experience, and a questionnaire completed by eight teachers from the same schools. The findings reveal the importance and the complexity of the role of the school in the wider community in a time of crisis. The study highlights issues concerning preparedness for floods, support for schools, and flood protection for schools. PMID:25231793

  9. Flood fatality hazard and flood damage hazard: combining multiple hazard characteristics into meaningful maps for spatial planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruijn, K. M.; Klijn, F.; van de Pas, B.; Slager, C. T. J.

    2015-06-01

    For comprehensive flood risk management, accurate information on flood hazards is crucial. While in the past an estimate of potential flood consequences in large areas was often sufficient to make decisions on flood protection, there is currently an increasing demand to have detailed hazard maps available to be able to consider other risk-reducing measures as well. Hazard maps are a prerequisite for spatial planning, but can also support emergency management, the design of flood mitigation measures, and the setting of insurance policies. The increase in flood risks due to population growth and economic development in hazardous areas in the past shows that sensible spatial planning is crucial to prevent risks increasing further. Assigning the least hazardous locations for development or adapting developments to the actual hazard requires comprehensive flood hazard maps. Since flood hazard is a multi-dimensional phenomenon, many different maps could be relevant. Having large numbers of maps to take into account does not, however, make planning easier. To support flood risk management planning we therefore introduce a new approach in which all relevant flood hazard parameters can be combined into two comprehensive maps of flood damage hazard and flood fatality hazard.

  10. Anthropic Modification of The Alluvial Plain and Flood Control In Some Marchean Rivers (central Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farabollini, P.; Materazzi, M.

    The fluvial axis of the marchean rivers display an essentially sinuate character, whereas in its terminal portion, where it runs through a wide valley, it assumes an anastomosed form. In the initial portion, where it runs inside the Umbro-Marchean calcareous ridge, the regime is prevalently stream like, while in the arenaceous and clayey hilly belt, it follows a more regular trend. In the middle-lower portion, and especially in summer, the hydrological regime is significantly influenced by the water drawn off for hydroelectric and irrigation purposes. The particular hydrographic and orographic setting of the study territory and the considerable amount of anthropic activity, both in the past and present, are responsible for the frequent and disastrous flooding and flash flooding phenomena that, during intense rainfall, affected vast areas of the middle-terminal portion of the alluvial plain. An analysis of the flooding events of the last years has in fact led to the observation that flooding and flash flooding phenomena, and the damage deriving from them, are connected especially with mistaken management of the territory and subordinately with abundant rainfalls in a short span of time. This includes the following factors: insufficient, or complete absence of works for maintaining natural levees and river beds; the obstruction of watercourses due to building with no respect for adequate hydraulic criteria; an excessive narrowing or straightening of the main river axis, above all in those portions near the mouth; runoff difficulties in the works connecting the main hydrographic network with the secondary one; insufficient disposal capacity or efficiency of the rain water outlet network; insufficient measures, or a lack of planning of measures and/or works for emergency protection systems; widespread situations of hydrogeological accident and slope instability, accentuated by the progressive abandoning of agriculture and repeated occurrence of forest fires. In particular, after the atmospheric events of the April, 1992, November 1998 and September 2000, which caused vast damages, it could be shown that the causes determining the flash flooding, as well as the occurrence of floods with return times of less than 20 years (flow rate of the order of 120 m3/sec) and which are increasing in the last decade, were attributable to four main causes: · deviations and artificial banks along the lower valley, dating from 1400 to 1500, for land reclamation and agriculture; · 15th century alterations and destruction due to anthropic settlements and more extensive agricultural cultivation; · beginning from the year 1900, the building of transversal works to deviate the water for hydroelectric and agricultural purposes with a hydraulic profile rate incompatible with that of the existent hydraulic defenses such as to cause flash floods due to breaking of the banks; · underestimation in measuring the fluvial discharge due to indiscriminate and strong exploitations of the aquifers for agriculture during arid periods.

  11. Coping with floods: Preparedness, response and recovery of flood-affected residents in

    E-print Network

    Baer, Christian

    61 2 3 4 5 safeguard documents and valuables protect the building against inflowing water redirect water flow put moveable contents upstairs protect oil tanks install water pump safeguard domestic flood in August 2002 caused losses of 11.6 billion and hence the highest loss due to natural hazards

  12. Torrent floodplain mapping and torrent flood control in Serbia in the conditions of economic crisis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Gavrilovic; M. Stefanovic

    2009-01-01

    Serbia is a country that is endangered by flooding of the largest European river, the Danube and its largest tributaries, as well as by countless torrents. During the 19th and 20th centuries, an imposing scope of protection structures was constructed. The existence of the protection system created the conviction that flood protection was achieved and that it should only be

  13. Severe Weather 101: Flood Basics

    MedlinePLUS

    Severe Weather 101 Flood Basics What is flooding? Flooding is an overflowing of water onto land that is normally dry. Floods can happen during heavy rains, when ocean waves come on shore, when snow melts too fast, ...

  14. 75 FR 6364 - Process for Requesting a Variance From Vegetation Standards for Levees and Floodwalls

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ...anonymous access system, which means...Headquarters, Engineering and Construction...NEPA for our Civil Works programs...E. Chief, Engineering and Construction Directorate of Civil Works. Enclosure...of the levee system. (attachment...squ] (e) An engineering analysis...

  15. River Flood Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    Use this animation to learn about floods. You will learn about drainage basins, discharge, hydrographs, floodplain deposition, and infiltration. You will also learn about the frequency of floods and what we are doing to control them.

  16. FLOOD EVENT MAPPING IMAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    OSEI flood products (FLD) include multichannel color composite imagery and single-channel grayscale imagery of enlarged river areas or increased sediment flow. Typically, these events are displayed by comparison to imagery taken when flooding was not occurring....

  17. Souris River Flooding

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Souris River flooding many homes in Minot, ND. The Souris River went over the large dikes along 5th Ave and Edwards Ave in Minot, ND. Photo taken by USGS personnel during a FEMA Flood Inundation Mapping Project....

  18. Removal of arthropods in the spring “trash floods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flooding of cranberry marshes is a common practice in the spring. It is intended primarily to clean out detritus while protecting against frost danger. The water is sometimes held for longer periods to reduce pest populations. We examined the detritus being hauled off of flooded beds for any evidenc...

  19. Early-season flooding for insect pest control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Wisconsin, there is much interest in the spring flood as a means to not only reduce pest populations, but also to facilitate marsh sanitation and provide frost protection. A large-scale field study was undertaken in 2011 to examine how a 30-40 hour spring flood (late May) would affect key insect ...

  20. Flood scour monitoring system using fiber Bragg grating sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yung Bin Lin; Jihn Sung Lai; Kuo Chun Chang; Lu Sheng Li

    2006-01-01

    The exposure and subsequent undermining of pier\\/abutment foundations through the scouring action of a flood can result in the structural failure of a bridge. Bridge scour is one of the leading causes of bridge failure. Bridges subject to periods of flood\\/high flow require monitoring during those times in order to protect the traveling public. In this study, an innovative scour

  1. FLOOD RESPONSE PLAN River Flood Guide

    E-print Network

    Lennard, William N.

    , CCPS Campus Community Police Service 76.0 If flood waters are rising contact Housing to alert Medway, until barricaded. Arrange shuttle from Huron Lot. Notify Parking Manager Campus Community Police Service in the flooded areas (PPD and ITS); f) communicating with the Campus Community concerning disruptions and safety

  2. FLOODS CAUSES, MANAGEMENT AND RELIEF

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Adamson

    SYNOPSIS: This paper provides an overview of the flooding problem, flood management and flood relief in Ireland. The paper begins with an examination of the causes of flooding, and in particular, the human activities that can increase flood risk. This leads into a review of the current concepts involved in managing present and future flood risk. The design and implementation

  3. AN INTEGRATED APPROACH FOR ASSESSMENT OF LEVEES IN THE LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph B. Dunbar; James E. Stefanov; Michael J. Bishop; José L. Llopis; William L. Murphy; Robert F. Ballard

    The U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) and the U. S. Section of the International Boundary and Water Commission (U.S. IBWC) have undertaken an integrated condition assessment of 270 miles of U.S. IBWC levees and their foundations in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. The purpose of this assessment is to detect levee reaches that lack integrity,

  4. Geosynthetic Reinforcement for Riverside Slope Stability of Levees Due to Rapid Drawdown

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jie Han; Jianfeng Chen; Zhenshun Hong

    Stability of levees depends on a number of factors. Riverside slope instability due to rapid drawdown after storms or other\\u000a events is one of the factors contributing to possible failure of levees. Rapid drawdown would create difference in water head,\\u000a which generates seepage force to destabilize the slope. Geosynthetics have been successfully used to stabilize natural and\\u000a man-made slopes and

  5. Flooding in Virginia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Drew Patrick

    In this activity, students use a National Weather Service flood forecast, USGS gauging data, and other reports to estimate the maximum storm discharge from the New River and Wolf Creek, two streams in the Southeast U.S. which experienced flooding in November 2003. Topographic and urban maps are used to predict where flooding would occur and to evaluate strategies for reducing flood risk for the residents of the region.

  6. Validation of a Global Hydrodynamic Flood Inundation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, P. D.; Smith, A.; Sampson, C. C.; Alfieri, L.; Neal, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    In this work we present first validation results for a hyper-resolution global flood inundation model. We use a true hydrodynamic model (LISFLOOD-FP) to simulate flood inundation at 1km resolution globally and then use downscaling algorithms to determine flood extent and depth at 90m spatial resolution. Terrain data are taken from a custom version of the SRTM data set that has been processed specifically for hydrodynamic modelling. Return periods of flood flows along the entire global river network are determined using: (1) empirical relationships between catchment characteristics and index flood magnitude in different hydroclimatic zones derived from global runoff data; and (2) an index flood growth curve, also empirically derived. Bankful return period flow is then used to set channel width and depth, and flood defence impacts are modelled using empirical relationships between GDP, urbanization and defence standard of protection. The results of these simulations are global flood hazard maps for a number of different return period events from 1 in 5 to 1 in 1000 years. We compare these predictions to flood hazard maps developed by national government agencies in the UK and Germany using similar methods but employing detailed local data, and to observed flood extent at a number of sites including St. Louis, USA and Bangkok in Thailand. Results show that global flood hazard models can have considerable skill given careful treatment to overcome errors in the publicly available data that are used as their input.

  7. 2011 Spring Flood

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A camp lies flooded on the edge of the Florida Gas Canal. Rising floodwaters during the 2011 flood have inundated many hunting camps and residences. Flooded even before the additional water from the Morganza Spillway arrived, these camps were built on land that is usually well above the water level ...

  8. Flood Frequency Analysis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sheila Roberts

    This assignment asks students to do a flood frequency analysis to determine the size and stage of various floods and determine if the town of Crawford, OH is likely to be flooded or not. Outcomes: learn to work with quantitative data, learn to use Excel, be able to use USGS data.

  9. Biogeochemical and metabolic responses to the flood pulse in a semiarid floodplain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valett, H.M.; Baker, M.A.; Morrice, J.A.; Crawford, C.S.; Molles, M.C., Jr.; Dahm, C. N.; Moyer, D.L.; Thibault, J.R.; Ellis, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    Flood pulse inundation of riparian forests alters rates of nutrient retention and organic matter processing in the aquatic ecosystems formed in the forest interior. Along the Middle Rio Grande (New Mexico, USA), impoundment and levee construction have created riparian forests that differ in their inter-flood intervals (IFIs) because some floodplains are still regularly inundated by the flood pulse (i.e., connected), while other floodplains remain isolated from flooding (i.e., disconnected). This research investigates how ecosystem responses to the flood pulse relate to forest IFI by quantifying nutrient and organic matter dynamics in the Rio Grande floodplain during three years of experimental flooding of the disconnected floodplain and during a single year of natural flooding of the connected floodplain. Surface and subsurface conditions in paired sites (control, flood) established in the two floodplain types were monitored to address metabolic and biogeochemical responses. Compared to dry controls, rates of respiration in the flooded sites increased by up to three orders of magnitude during the flood pulse. In the disconnected forest, month-long experimental floods produced widespread anoxia of four-week duration during each of the three years of flooding. In contrast, water in the connected floodplain remained well oxygenated (3-8 ppm). Material budgets for experimental floods showed the disconnected floodplain to be a sink for inorganic nitrogen and suspended solids, but a potential source of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Compared to the main stem of the Rio Grande, flood-water on the connected floodplain contained less nitrate, but comparable concentrations of DOC, phosphate-phosphorus, and ammonium-nitrogen. Results suggest that floodplain IFI drives metabolic and biogeochemical responses during the flood pulse. Impoundment and fragmentation have altered floodplains from a mosaic of patches with variable IFI to a bimodal distribution. Relatively predictable flooding occurs in the connected forest, while inundation of the disconnected forest occurs only as the result of managed application of water. In semiarid floodplains, water is scarce except during the flood pulse. Ecosystem responses to the flood pulse are related to the IFI and other measures of flooding history that help describe spatial variation in ecosystem function.

  10. Dartmouth Flood Observatory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Dartmouth Flood Observatory produced this website as "a research tool for detection, mapping, measurement, and analysis of extreme flood events world-wide using satellite remote sensing." Users can learn about the Observatory's use of microwave and optical satellite imaging to determine flooding and extreme low flow conditions for various places throughout the world. Students and researchers can discover how the observatory monitors wetland hydrology for various places. Researchers can find archives of large flooding events from 1985 to the present. The web site features a variety of maps and satellite images of floods. This site is also reviewed in the May 28, 2004 _NSDL Physical Sciences Report_.

  11. The Impact of a Flood Retarding Structure on Watershed Runoff Under Dry, Average, and Wet Climatic States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. W. van Liew

    2002-01-01

    Flood damage to agricultural lands during the late 1930s and early 1940s prompted passage of the Federal Flood Control Act of 1944 (P.L. 78-534) and the Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention Act (P.L. 83-566) of 1953. As a result of these flood abatement programs, the USDA SCS constructed about 2,500 flood retarding structures (FRSs) in the State of Oklahoma to

  12. Floods: The Awesome Power

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    A newly released publication from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the National Weather Service, and the Red Cross is entitled "Floods: The Awesome Power." The citizen-focused sixteen-page preparedness guide explains "flood-related hazards and suggests life-saving actions you can take." Readers will learn what flash floods are, what to do if youâ??re caught in your vehicle during a flash flood, what river floods are, how tropical cyclones create floods, where to get current weather information, what your local community can do to be more prepared for floods, and much more. The graphics rich and non-technical publication with its potentially life-saving information is definitely worth a read.

  13. Flood Frequency Analysis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-14

    The Flood Frequency Analysis module offers an introduction to the use of flood frequency analysis for flood prediction and planning. Through use of rich illustrations, animations, and interactions, this module explains the basic concepts, underlying issues, and methods for analyzing flood data. Common concepts such as the 100-year flood and return periods as well as issues affecting the statistical representation of floods are discussed. Common flood data analysis methods as well as an overview of design events are also covered. As a foundation topic for the Basic Hydrologic Science course, this module may be taken on its own, but it will also be available as a supporting topic providing factual scientific information to support students in completion of the case-based forecasting modules.

  14. Severe Flooding in India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Floods devestated parts of eastern India along the Brahmaputra River in June 2000. In some tributaries of the Brahmaputra, the water reached more than 5 meters (16.5 feet) above flood stage. At least 40 residents died, and the flood waters destroyed a bridge linking the region to the rest of India. High water also threatened endangered Rhinos in Kaziranga National Park. Flooded areas are shown in red in the above image. The map was derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data taken on June 15, 2000. For more information on observing floods with satellites, see: Using Satellites to Keep our Head above Water and the Dartmouth Flood Observatory Image by the Dartmouth Flood Observatory

  15. An Active Defense Mechanism for TCP SYN flooding attacks

    E-print Network

    Kumarasamy, Saravanan

    2012-01-01

    Distributed denial-of-service attacks on public servers have recently become a serious problem. To assure that network services will not be interrupted and more effective defense mechanisms to protect against malicious traffic, especially SYN floods. One problem in detecting SYN flood traffic is that server nodes or firewalls cannot distinguish the SYN packets of normal TCP connections from those of a SYN flood attack. Another problem is single-point defenses (e.g. firewalls) lack the scalability needed to handle an increase in the attack traffic. We have designed a new defense mechanism to detect the SYN flood attacks. First, we introduce a mechanism for detecting SYN flood traffic more accurately by taking into consideration the time variation of arrival traffic. We investigate the statistics regarding the arrival rates of both normal TCP SYN packets and SYN flood attack packets. We then describe a new detection mechanism based on these statistics. Through the trace driven approach defense nodes which recei...

  16. SeCom - Serious Community 2.0 prevent flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komma, Juergen; Breuer, Roman; Sewilam, Hani; Concia, Francesca; Aliprandi, Bruno; Siegmund, Sabine; Goossens, Jannis

    2013-04-01

    There is a significant need for raising the awareness and building the capacity of water professionals in different water sectors cross Europe. There is also a need for qualified graduates to implement the EU Flood Risk Directive (FRD). The main aim of this work is to prepare and build the capacity of both groups in flood risk management through identifying synergies, sharing knowledge, and strengthen partnerships between universities and different stakeholders(mainly water professionals). The specific objectives are to develop; a) Development of a dynamic and active tool that allows all target-groups/users to assess their knowledge about flood risk management. b) Development of an innovative, active and problem-based learning methodology for flood risk education and training. c)Development of flood related Vocational Education & Training (VET) modules for water professionals (involving the students to gain practical experience). This will include some modules for undergraduate students on flood risk management and protection.

  17. USE OF MESOSCALE WEATHER FORECASTING FOR EARLY FLOOD WARNING ON EUROPEAN SCALE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. de Roo; J. Thielen; B. Gouweleeuw; G. Schmuck

    SUMMARY The European Flood Forecasting System project (EFFS) aims at developing a prototype of an integrated European flood forecasting system. This Pan-European early flood warning system is to provide National Water Authorities, Civil Protection Authorities and international aid-organisations with a large lead-time to prepare for possible flood crises. The broad objectives of the still ongoing project are to use operationally

  18. 44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...be placed on the effects of wave attack and overtopping on the...result of either currents or waves, and that anticipated erosion...areas); expected wind and wave action; ice loading; impact...devices or mechanical systems for internal drainage, whether...

  19. 44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...be placed on the effects of wave attack and overtopping on the...result of either currents or waves, and that anticipated erosion...areas); expected wind and wave action; ice loading; impact...devices or mechanical systems for internal drainage, whether...

  20. 44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...be placed on the effects of wave attack and overtopping on the...result of either currents or waves, and that anticipated erosion...areas); expected wind and wave action; ice loading; impact...devices or mechanical systems for internal drainage, whether...

  1. 44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...be placed on the effects of wave attack and overtopping on the...result of either currents or waves, and that anticipated erosion...areas); expected wind and wave action; ice loading; impact...devices or mechanical systems for internal drainage, whether...

  2. 44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...be placed on the effects of wave attack and overtopping on the...result of either currents or waves, and that anticipated erosion...areas); expected wind and wave action; ice loading; impact...devices or mechanical systems for internal drainage, whether...

  3. Mapping Coastal Flood Zones for the National Flood Insurance Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Carlton; C. L. Cook; J. Weber

    2004-01-01

    The National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) was created by Congress in 1968, and significantly amended in 1973 to reduce loss of life and property caused by flooding, reduce disaster relief costs caused by flooding and make Federally backed flood insurance available to property owners. These goals were to be achieved by requiring building to be built to resist flood damages,

  4. Time scales of change in chemical and biological parameters after engineered levee breaches adjacent to Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Wood, Tamara M.; Parchaso, Francis; Cameron, Jason M.; Asbill, Jessica R.; Carlson, Rick A.; Fend, Steven V.

    2012-01-01

    Eight sampling trips were coordinated after engineered levee breaches hydrologically reconnected both Upper Klamath Lake and Agency Lake, Oregon, to adjacent wetlands. The reconnection, by a series of explosive blasts, was coordinated by The Nature Conservancy to reclaim wetlands that had for approximately seven decades been leveed for crop production. Sets of nonmetallic porewater profilers (U.S. Patent 8,051,727 B1; November 8, 2011; http://www.uspto.gov/web/patents/patog/ week45/OG/html/1372-2/US08051727-20111108.html.) were deployed during these trips in November 2007, June 2008, May 2009, July 2009, May 2010, August 2010, June 2011, and July 2011 (table 1). Deployments temporally spanned the annual cyanophyte bloom of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and spatially involved three lake and four wetland sites. Spatial and temporal variation in solute benthic flux was determined by the field team, using the profilers, over an approximately 4-year period beginning 3 days after the levee breaches. The highest flux to the water column of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was detected in the newly flooded wetland, contrasting negative or insignificant DOC fluxes at adjacent lake sites. Over the multiyear study, DOC benthic fluxes dissipated in the reconnected wetlands, converging to values similar to those for established wetlands and to the adjacent lake (table 2). In contrast to DOC, benthic sources of soluble reactive phosphorus, ammonium, dissolved iron and manganese from within the reconnected wetlands were consistently elevated (that is, significant in magnitude relative to riverine and established-wetland sources) indicating a multi-year time scale for certain chemical changes after the levee breaches (table 2). Colonization of the reconnected wetlands by aquatic benthic invertebrates during the study trended toward the assemblages in established wetlands, providing further evidence of a multiyear transition of this area to permanent aquatic habitat (table 3). Both the lake and wetland benthic environments substantively contribute to macro- and micronutrients in the water column. Wetland areas undergoing restoration, and those being used for water storage, function very differently relatively to the established wetland within the Upper Klamath Lake National Wildlife Refuge, adjacent Upper Klamath Lake. Developing long-term management strategies for water quality in the Upper Klamath Basin requires recognition of the multi-year time scales associated with restoring wetlands that provide natural, seasonal ecosystem function and services.

  5. Methods to quantify seepage beneath Levee 30, Miami-Dade County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sonenshein, R.S.

    2001-01-01

    A two-dimensional, cross-sectional, finite-difference, ground-water flow model and a simple application of Darcy?s law were used to quantify ground-water flow (from a wetlands) beneath Levee 30 in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Geologic and geophysical data, vertical seepage data from the wetlands, canal discharge data, ground-water-level data, and surface-water-stage data collected during 1995 and 1996 were used as boundary conditions and calibration data for the ground-water flow model and as input for the analytical model. Vertical seepage data indicated that water from the wetlands infiltrated the subsurface, near Levee 30, at rates ranging from 0.033 to 0.266 foot per day when the gates at the control structures along Levee 30 canal were closed. During the same period, stage differences between the wetlands (Water Conservation Area 3B) and Levee 30 canal ranged from 0.11 to 1.27 feet. A layer of low-permeability limestone, located 7 to 10 feet below land surface, restricts vertical flow between the surface water in the wetlands and the ground water. Based on measured water-level data, ground-water flow appears to be generally horizontal, except in the direct vicinity of the canal. The increase in discharge rate along a 2-mile reach of the Levee 30 canal ranged from 9 to 30 cubic feet per second per mile and can be attributed primarily to ground-water inflow. Flow rates in Levee 30 canal were greatest when the gates at the control structures were open. The ground-water flow model data were compared with the measured ground-water heads and vertical seepage from the wetlands. Estimating the horizontal ground-water flow rate beneath Levee 30 was difficult owing to the uncertainty in the horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the main flow zone of the Biscayne aquifer. Measurements of ground-water flows into Levee 30 canal, a substantial component of the water budget, were also uncertain, which lessened the ability to validate the model results. Because of vertical flows near Levee 30 canal and a very low hydraulic gradient east of the canal, a simplified Darcian approach simulated with the ground-water flow model does not accurately estimate the horizontal ground-water flow rate. Horizontal ground-water flow rates simulated with the ground-water flow model (for a 60-foot-deep by 1-foot-wide section of the Biscayne aquifer) ranged from 150 to 450 cubic feet per day west of Levee 30 and from 15 to 170 cubic feet per day east of Levee 30 canal. Vertical seepage from the wetlands, within 500 feet of Levee 30, generally accounted for 10 to 15 percent of the total horizontal flow beneath the levee. Simulated horizontal ground-water flow was highest during the wet season and when the gates at the control structures were open.

  6. A Hybrid Model for Leveed Lava Flows: Implications for Eruption Styles on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaze, Lori S.; Baloga, Stephen M.; Garry, W. Brent; Fagents, Sarah A.; Parcheta, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    Many cehannelized lava flows on the plains of Mars have substantial embanking margins and levees inferred to have been stationary while the central channel was active. Levee formation can be attributed to two end-member processes during emplacement; construction during passage of the flow front and growth along the entire length of the flow while it is active. It is shown here that the amount of lava that can be deposited by the flow front alone is limited. Estimates of the levee volume for many Mars plains flows exceed this limit and must have formed by processes that continued after the passage of the front. Experimental studies of analogous laboratory flows also indicate a combination of both modes of emplacement. A model that combines both modes of levee formation. is presented, including a method for estimating volumetric flow rate, eruption duration, and viscosity. Six lava flows on the plains of the Tharsis volcanic province are used as illustrative examples. Crustal thicknesses for the six flows examined range from 9 to 23 m. Estimated emplacement times required to cool crusts of these thicknesses range from I year to 10 years. Correspondini viscosities are on the order of 10 5-106 Pa s. Effusion rates range from 25 to 840 m 3 s - and are all within the range of terrestrial observations. Therefore, the large leveed plains flows on Mars are not dramatically different in eruption rate or lava viscosity from large terrestrial analogs.

  7. ADVISORY BASE FLOOD ELEVATIONS (ABFE)

    E-print Network

    ADVISORY BASE FLOOD ELEVATIONS (ABFE) DURING REBUILDING What are the Advisory Base Flood Elevations (ABFE)? Answer: This is the NEW Base Flood Elevation for rebuilding. It has the same definition of the Base Flood Elevation based on recent storm events. In other words, it is updating the Base Flood

  8. Effect of Desiccation Cracks on Earth Embankments 

    E-print Network

    Khandelwal, Siddharth

    2012-07-11

    Levees are earth structures used for flood protection. Due to their easy availability and low permeability, clays are the most common material used for the construction of levees. Clays are susceptible to desiccation cracks when subjected to long...

  9. Alabama district flood plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedgecock, T. Scott; Pearman, J. Leroy; Stricklin, Victor E.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this flood plan is to outline and record advance planning for flood emergencies, so that all personnel will know the general plan and have a ready-reference for necessary information. This will ensure that during any flood event, regardless of the extent or magnitude, the resources of the District can be mobilized into a maximum data collection operation with a mimimum of effort.

  10. Geophysical characterization of the Lollie Levee near Conway, Arkansas, using capacitively coupled resistivity, coring, and direct push logging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillip, Jonathan A.; Payne, Jason D.

    2011-01-01

    A geophysical characterization of Lollie Levee near Conway, Arkansas, was conducted in February 2011. A capacitively coupled resistivity survey (using Geometric's OhmMapper) was completed along the top and toe of the 6.7-mile levee. Two-dimensional inversions were conducted on the geophysical data. As a quality-control measure, cores and direct push logs were taken at approximately 1-mile intervals along the levee. The capacitively coupled resistivity survey, the coring, and the direct push logs were used to characterize the geologic materials. Comparison of the cores and the direct push log data, along with published resistivity values, indicates that resistivity values of 200 Ohm-meters or greater represent relatively clean sand, with decreasing resistivity values occurring with increasing silt and clay content. The cores indicated that the levee is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of sand, silt, and clay. The capacitively coupled resistivity sections confirm that the levee is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of high and low resistivity materials and show that the composition of the levee varies spatially. The geologic materials underlying the levee vary spatially as a result of the geologic processes that deposited them. In general, the naturally deposited geologic materials underlying the levee contain a greater amount of low resistivity materials in the southern extent of the levee.

  11. RASOR flood modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckers, Joost; Buckman, Lora; Bachmann, Daniel; Visser, Martijn; Tollenaar, Daniel; Vatvani, Deepak; Kramer, Nienke; Goorden, Neeltje

    2015-04-01

    Decision making in disaster management requires fast access to reliable and relevant information. We believe that online information and services will become increasingly important in disaster management. Within the EU FP7 project RASOR (Rapid Risk Assessment and Spatialisation of Risk) an online platform is being developed for rapid multi-hazard risk analyses to support disaster management anywhere in the world. The platform will provide access to a plethora of GIS data that are relevant to risk assessment. It will also enable the user to run numerical flood models to simulate historical and newly defined flooding scenarios. The results of these models are maps of flood extent, flood depths and flow velocities. The RASOR platform will enable to overlay historical event flood maps with observations and Earth Observation (EO) imagery to fill in gaps and assess the accuracy of the flood models. New flooding scenarios can be defined by the user and simulated to investigate the potential impact of future floods. A series of flood models have been developed within RASOR for selected case study areas around the globe that are subject to very different flood hazards: • The city of Bandung in Indonesia, which is prone to fluvial flooding induced by heavy rainfall. The flood hazard is exacerbated by land subsidence. • The port of Cilacap on the south coast of Java, subject to tsunami hazard from submarine earthquakes in the Sunda trench. • The area south of city of Rotterdam in the Netherlands, prone to coastal and/or riverine flooding. • The island of Santorini in Greece, which is subject to tsunamis induced by landslides. Flood models have been developed for each of these case studies using mostly EO data, augmented by local data where necessary. Particular use was made of the new TanDEM-X (TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurement) product from the German Aerospace centre (DLR) and EADS Astrium. The presentation will describe the flood models and the flooding scenarios that can be defined by the RASOR end user to support risk management in each area. Ongoing work for three more case studies (Haiti, Po valley in Italy and Jakarta, Indonesia) will also be discussed.

  12. Flash Flood Case Studies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COMET

    2007-06-26

    This module takes the learner through seven case studies of flash flood events that occurred in the conterminous U.S. between 2003 and 2006. The cases covered include: * 30-31 August 2003: Chase & Lyon Counties, KS * 16-17 September 2004: Macon County, NC * 31 July 2006: Santa Catalina Mountains near Tucson, AZ * 25 December 2003: Fire burn area near San Bernardino, CA * 30 August 2004: Urban flash flood in Richmond, VA * 19-20 August 2003: Urban flash flood in Las Vegas, NV * 9 October 2005: Cheshire County, NH This module assists the learner in applying the concepts covered in the foundation topics of the Basic Hydrologic Sciences course. Some of the specific topics pertinent to these cases are the physical characteristics that make a basin prone to flash floods, basin response to precipitation, flash flood guidance (FFG), the relationship between wildfire and flash floods, and the relationship between urban development and flash floods. Related topics brought out in the cases include radar quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE), the National Weather Service Flash Flood Monitoring and Prediction (NWS FFMP) products, debris flows, impounded water, and interagency communications. The core foundation topics are recommended prerequisite materials since this module assumes some pre-existing knowledge of hydrologic principles. In particular, the Runoff Processes and Flash Flood Processes modules contain material directly related to these cases.

  13. Flood frequency in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childers, J.M.

    1970-01-01

    Records of peak discharge at 183 sites were used to study flood frequency in Alaska. The vast size of Alaska, its great ranges of physiography, and the lack of data for much of the State precluded a comprehensive analysis of all flood determinants. Peak stream discharges, where gaging-station records were available, were analyzed for 2-year, 5-year, 10-year, 25-year, and 50-year average-recurrence intervals. A regional analysis of the flood characteristics by multiple-regression methods gave a set of equations that can be used to estimate floods of selected recurrence intervals up to 50 years for any site on any stream in Alaska. The equations relate floods to drainage-basin characteristics. The study indicates that in Alaska the 50-year flood can be estimated from 10-year gaging- station records with a standard error of 22 percent whereas the 50-year flood can be estimated from the regression equation with a standard error of 53 percent. Also, maximum known floods at more than 500 gaging stations and miscellaneous sites in Alaska were related to drainage-area size. An envelope curve of 500 cubic feet per second per square mile covered all but 2 floods in the State.

  14. Hydraulic analyses of water-surface profiles in the vicinity of the Coamo Dam and Highway 52 Bridge, southern Puerto Rico; flood analyses as related to the flood of October 7, 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, K.G.; Quinones-Marquez, Ferdinand; Gonzalez, Ralph

    1987-01-01

    The magnitude, frequency and extent of the flood of October 7, 1985 at the Rio Coamo in the vicinity of the Coamo Dam and Highway 52 bridge in southern Puerto Rico, were investigated. The observed flood profiles were used to calibrate a step-backwater model. The calibrated model was then used to investigate several alternative flow conditions in the vicinity of the bridge. The peak discharge of the flood at the Highway 52 bridge was 72,000 cu ft/sec. This peak discharge was determined from the peak computed at a reach in the vicinity of the Banos de Coamo, about 1.2 mi upstream from the bridge. The computed discharge at the Banos de Coamo of 66,000 cu ft/sec was adjusted to the dam and bridge location by multiplying it by the ratio of the drainage areas raised to the 0.83 power. The flood had a recurrence interval of about 100 yr, exceeding all previously known floods at the site. The flood overtopped the spillway and levee of the Coamo Dam just upstream of Highway 52. The flow over the spillway was 54,000 cu ft/sec. Flow over the levee was about 18,000 cu ft/sec. About 10,000 cu ft/sec of the flow over the levee returned to the main channel at the base of the embankment at the northeast approach to the bridge. The remaining 8,000 cu ft/sec flowed south through the underpass on Highway 153. The embankment and shoulder on the northern span of the bridge were eroded with the eventual collapse of the approach slab. (Author 's abstract)

  15. Advances in Regionalising Flood Probabilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralf Merz

    \\u000a Flood regionalisation methods are used to estimate floods of a given excedance probability, such as the 100-year flood, in\\u000a ungauged catchments, i.e. catchments, where no local streamflow data are available. They can also be used to improve flood\\u000a estimates from local data in gauged catchments. The main idea of flood regionalisation methods is to transfer flood information\\u000a from hydrologically similar

  16. Discover Floods Educators Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Now available as a Download! This valuable resource helps educators teach students about both the risks and benefits of flooding through a series of engaging, hands-on activities. Acknowledging the different roles that floods play in both natural and urban communities, the book helps young people gain a global understanding of this common--and…

  17. Flooded Wild Rice River

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Wild Rice River at Great Bend North Dakota, streamflow 1,890 cubic feet per second.  Photograph taken during spring 2010 flooding looking downstream of the bridge which was clogged with debris.  The river also had flooded over the road approaching the bridge....

  18. Caustic steam flooding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Tiab; C. U. Okoye; M. M. Osman

    1981-01-01

    A laboratory study was undertaken to investigate the potential of improving tertiary oil recovery of intermediate to heavy oils by using caustic soda as a chemical additive in water flooding and steam flooding. Seven aspects of this study were examined. In all the cases, the process was started with a fresh and similarly water and oil saturated sandpack. The results

  19. Detecting SYN Flooding Attacks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haining Wang; Danlu Zhang; Kang G. Shin

    2002-01-01

    We propose a simple and robust mechanism for de- tecting SYN flooding attacks. Instead of monitoring the ongoing traffic at the front end (like firewall or proxy) or a victim server itself, we detect the SYN flooding attacks at leaf routers that con- nect end hosts to the Internet. The simplicity of our detection mechanism lies in its statelessness and

  20. Validation of a global hydrodynamic flood inundation model against high resolution observation data of urban flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Paul; Sampson, Chris; Smith, Andy; Neal, Jeff

    2015-04-01

    In this work we present further validation results for a hyper-resolution global flood inundation model. We use a true hydrodynamic model that uses highly efficient numerical algorithms (LISFLOOD-FP) to simulate flood inundation at ~1km resolution globally and then use downscaling algorithms to determine flood extent and water depth at 3 seconds of arc spatial resolution (~90m at the equator). The global model has ~150 million cells and requires ~180 hours of CPU time for a 10 year simulation period. Terrain data are taken from a custom version of the SRTM data set that has been processed specifically for hydrodynamic modelling. Return periods of flood flows along the entire global river network are determined using: (1) empirical relationships between catchment characteristics and index flood magnitude in different hydroclimatic zones derived from global runoff data; and (2) an index flood growth curve, also empirically derived. Bankful return period flow is then used to set channel width and depth, and flood defence impacts are modelled using empirical relationships between GDP, urbanization and defence standard of protection. The results of these simulations are global flood hazard maps for a number of different return period events from 1 in 5 to 1 in 1000 years. This method has already been show to compare well to return period flood hazard maps derived from models built with high resolution and accuracy local data (Sampson et al., submitted), yet the output from the global flood model has not yet been compared to real flood observations. Whilst the spatial resolution of the global model is high given the size of the model domain, ~1km resolution is still coarse compared to the models typically used to simulate urban flooding and the data typically used to validate these (~25m or less). Comparison of the global model to real-world observations or urban flooding therefore represents an exceptionally stringent test of model skill. In this paper we therefore compare predictions from the global model to high resolution observations for two major urban flood events that occurred in the UK over the last decade: Carlisle in 2005 and Tewkesbury in 2007. In the case of Carlisle the validation data consist of ~150 post-flood observations of maximum water level with a vertical accuracy of ~10-15cm. For Tewkesbury we have available a series of remotely sensed images of the flood development and recession obtained from a variety of airborne and satellite platforms. For each site we estimate use official estimates of the return period of each event to select the appropriate global flood hazard map and compare this to the high resolution observations using appropriate performance metrics. We then benchmark the performance of the global model against simulations of these floods obtained using bespoke local models driven by ground gauged boundary conditions and with terrain derived from ~1m resolution airborne LiDAR data. Sampson, C.C., Smith, A.M., Bates, P.D., Neal, J.C., Alfieri, L. and Freer, J.E. (submitted). A High Resolution Global Flood Hazard Model. Water Resources Research.

  1. SCHADEX METHOD FOR ESCHADEX METHOD FOR ESCHADEX METHOD FOR ESCHADEX METHOD FOR EXTREME FLOOD ESTIMATXTREME FLOOD ESTIMATXTREME FLOOD ESTIMATXTREME FLOOD ESTIMATIONIONIONION

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SCHADEX METHOD FOR ESCHADEX METHOD FOR ESCHADEX METHOD FOR ESCHADEX METHOD FOR EXTREME FLOOD ESTIMATXTREME FLOOD ESTIMATXTREME FLOOD ESTIMATXTREME FLOOD ESTIMATIONIONIONION :::: OVERVIEW used to compute extreme flood risk for dam spillway design, in particular by EDF. Since its origins

  2. Flood-Related Eye Care Precautions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vision > Flood-Related Eye Care Precautions Flood-Related Eye Care Precautions As flooding continues to expand across ... lens wearers to avoid exposure to flood-related eye infections and complications Avoid contact with flood waters. ...

  3. Holocene flood plain soil formation in the lower Mississippi River Valley: Implications for the interpretation of alluvial paleosols

    SciTech Connect

    Aslan, A. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences); Autin, W.J. (Louisiana Geological Survey, Baton Rouge, LA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Holocene Mississippi River flood soils representing different depositional environments and ages were sampled along three east-west transects between Vicksburg, MS and Baton Rouge, LA. Flood plain soil development is primarily controlled by episodic flood plain sedimentation and ground water table fluctuations as evidenced by relatively thick cumulative soil profiles with abundant mottles, nodules, and slickensides. Within flood plain deposits of similar age, profile, development is best expressed in moderately-drained silty and sandy soils in natural levee and point bar ridge environmental that occur within and adjacent to meander belts. Soils in natural levee and point bar ridge environments greater than 3 ka generally are acidic and have better-developed Bt horizons and brighter mottles than their younger counterparts. In addition to being acidic and brightly mottled, older back swamp soils have larger and more abundant slickensides and iron nodules. This study suggests that alluvial paleosols formed in aggradational settings may be better suited for interpreting flood plain depositional histories and paleohydrology than climate. Parameters such as solum thickness and clay and carbonate accumulations, routinely used to estimate relative time and climatic effects on soil development in Quaternary studies of stable geomorphic surfaces, may not be applicable to ancient alluvial deposits that reflect continuous sediment aggradation.

  4. Flood Response Along a Drainage Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meierdiercks, K. L.; Smith, J. A.; Miller, A. J.; Baeck, M.

    2007-12-01

    Flooding in urban areas is complex. As water overtops stream banks, it comes into contact with structural obstacles on the land surface, such as bridge constrictions, that dominate flow pathways. Furthermore, at small, or local, spatial scales, other hydraulic controls such as pipe surcharge and stormwater management ponds play a significant role in flood response. A major obstacle towards a better understanding of how these controls impact flood response is the scarcity of data available to characterize them. One watershed where both hydraulic and hydrologic data is available is the Dead Run watershed in Metropolitan Baltimore, Maryland. Dead Run is a research watershed of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study (BES), part of the Long Term Ecological Research network established by the National Science Foundation. Dead Run geospatial data is available through the BES and Baltimore County; hydrologic data was collected by the authors during field campaigns in the 2003-2005 field seasons; and hydraulic information including storm drain pipes, stormwater management ponds, and bridge constrictions was digitized by the author. The availability of this data in Dead Run allows us to detail not only the impact of impervious surfaces and hydrologic forcing on flood response, but also structural aspects of the urban drainage network. In this study, we integrate the three types of observations - geospatial, hydrologic, and hydraulic - to characterize drainage network structure along Dead Run's tributaries. We use these characterizations and the Environmental Protection Agency's Stormwater Management Model (EPA SWMM) to estimate the 10- and 100-year floods over the drainage network. Analyses focus on two extreme floods in Dead Run: the 7 July 2004 and 28 June 2005 events. Results highlight the importance of incorporating drainage network structure into the models we use to predict flooding in urban environments.

  5. Relationship between canal and levee density and coastal land loss in Louisiana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1987-01-01

    Nearly 1% of Louisiana's coastal land becomes water each year. This land loss affects everything from wildlife, fisheries, and recreation to the economy and culture. A part of this loss results from natural, unmanageable factors, but manageable factors are also responsible. This report discusses one of the manageable factors: canals and their dredged-material levees. In coastal Louisiana wetlands, canals are

  6. Breach in the 9th Ward Levee, New Orleans August 2005 GettyImages

    E-print Network

    Womeldorf, Carole

    choices of a world under unprecedented stress. #12;Recent engineering headlines: · Inadequate levees breached due to Katrina · Engineers fail to convince management of risk of Columbia's return to earth students to handle tough engineering questions? · Can our teaching of engineering fundamentals be more

  7. Evaluation of the Structure of Levee Transitions on Wave Runup and Overtopping by Physical Modeling 

    E-print Network

    Oaks, Drake Benjamin

    2011-08-08

    -dimensional wave basin to evaluate this hypothesis, and the detailed results of this assessment are presented within this thesis. From the physical model testing, analysis of the data reveals that the overtopping rates of the levee transition tend to be larger than...

  8. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid/vapor traffic that produce increased contact area and lead to substantial increases in separation efficiency – which translates to a 10% increase in energy efficiency on a BTU/bbl basis. The Flooding Predictor™ operates on the principle that between five to sixty minutes in advance of a flooding event, certain column variables experience an oscillation, a pre-flood pattern. The pattern recognition system of the Flooding Predictor™ utilizes the mathematical first derivative of certain column variables to identify the column’s pre-flood pattern(s). This pattern is a very brief, highly repeatable, simultaneous movement among the derivative values of certain column variables. While all column variables experience negligible random noise generated from the natural frequency of the process, subtle pre-flood patterns are revealed among sub-sets of the derivative values of column variables as the column approaches its hydraulic limit. The sub-set of column variables that comprise the pre-flood pattern is identified empirically through in a two-step process. First, 2ndpoint’s proprietary off-line analysis tool is used to mine historical data for pre-flood patterns. Second, the column is flood-tested to fine-tune the pattern recognition for commissioning. Then the Flooding Predictor™ is implemented as closed-loop advanced control strategy on the plant’s distributed control system (DCS), thus automating control of the column at its hydraulic limit.

  9. Probable maximum flood control; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    DeGabriele, C.E.; Wu, C.L. [Bechtel National, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1991-11-01

    This study proposes preliminary design concepts to protect the waste-handling facilities and all shaft and ramp entries to the underground from the probable maximum flood (PMF) in the current design configuration for the proposed Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) repository protection provisions were furnished by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USSR) or developed from USSR data. Proposed flood protection provisions include site grading, drainage channels, and diversion dikes. Figures are provided to show these proposed flood protection provisions at each area investigated. These areas are the central surface facilities (including the waste-handling building and waste treatment building), tuff ramp portal, waste ramp portal, men-and-materials shaft, emplacement exhaust shaft, and exploratory shafts facility.

  10. The contribution of spatial images in the prevention of natural flood risk and its effects on human societies

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    and populations, particularly through increased flooding. These affect more and more great citiesThe contribution of spatial images in the prevention of natural flood risk and its effects on human and environmental. Reduce damage and protect populations at risk of flooding is essential. This relationship "nature

  11. Adaptive strategies to tolerate prolonged flooding in seedlings of floodplain and upland populations of Himatanthus sucuuba, a Central Amazon tree

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristiane Silva Ferreira; Maria Teresa F. Piedade; Augusto César Franco; José Francisco Carvalho Gonçalves; Wolfgang J. Junk

    2009-01-01

    Long-term flooding imposes a strong selection pressure on plants for the development of protective mechanisms to alleviate the harmful effects of hypoxic and anoxic conditions. This is particularly critical in the Amazonian floodplains where plants withstand annual periods of flooding lasting 7 months and mean flooding amplitude reaching 10m or more. Himatanthus sucuuba (Apocynaceae) is a tree that is found

  12. Protecting mobile devices from TCP flooding attacks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yogesh Prem Swami; Hannes Tschofenig

    2006-01-01

    Network firewalls have played a crucial role in reducing unwanted traffic by blocking unsolicited incoming data. However, for many new environments, (such as in peer-to-peer networks and certain new scenarios where wireless terminals act as servers) not all unsolicited data can be blocked. In wireline networks, this problem can partially be solved by opening dedicated pinholes in the network firewalls

  13. Blackland's flood warning system protects soldiers

    E-print Network

    Wythe, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    to help Fort Hood manage its land resources. June Wolfe, assistant research scientist, developed the system after researching and adapting the best technologies available for this use. Wolfe, who works for project leader Dr. Dennis Hoffman, said...

  14. Grain-size segregation and levee formation in geophysical mass flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.G.; Kokelaar, B.P.; Iverson, R.M.; Logan, M.; LaHusen, R.G.; Gray, J.M.N.T.

    2012-01-01

    Data from large-scale debris-flow experiments are combined with modeling of particle-size segregation to explain the formation of lateral levees enriched in coarse grains. The experimental flows consisted of 10 m3 of water-saturated sand and gravel, which traveled ~80 m down a steeply inclined flume before forming an elongated leveed deposit 10 m long on a nearly horizontal runout surface. We measured the surface velocity field and observed the sequence of deposition by seeding tracers onto the flow surface and tracking them in video footage. Levees formed by progressive downslope accretion approximately 3.5 m behind the flow front, which advanced steadily at ~2 m s-1 during most of the runout. Segregation was measured by placing ~600 coarse tracer pebbles on the bed, which, when entrained into the flow, segregated upwards at ~6–7.5 cm s-1. When excavated from the deposit these were distributed in a horseshoe-shaped pattern that became increasingly elevated closer to the deposit termination. Although there was clear evidence for inverse grading during the flow, transect sampling revealed that the resulting leveed deposit was strongly graded laterally, with only weak vertical grading. We construct an empirical, three-dimensional velocity field resembling the experimental observations, and use this with a particle-size segregation model to predict the segregation and transport of material through the flow. We infer that coarse material segregates to the flow surface and is transported to the flow front by shear. Within the flow head, coarse material is overridden, then recirculates in spiral trajectories due to size-segregation, before being advected to the flow edges and deposited to form coarse-particle-enriched levees.

  15. Emotions, trust, and perceived risk: affective and cognitive routes to flood preparedness behavior.

    PubMed

    Terpstra, Teun

    2011-10-01

    Despite the prognoses of the effects of global warming (e.g., rising sea levels, increasing river discharges), few international studies have addressed how flood preparedness should be stimulated among private citizens. This article aims to predict Dutch citizens' flood preparedness intentions by testing a path model, including previous flood hazard experiences, trust in public flood protection, and flood risk perceptions (both affective and cognitive components). Data were collected through questionnaire surveys in two coastal communities (n= 169, n= 244) and in one river area community (n= 658). Causal relations were tested by means of structural equation modeling (SEM). Overall, the results indicate that both cognitive and affective mechanisms influence citizens' preparedness intentions. First, a higher level of trust reduces citizens' perceptions of flood likelihood, which in turn hampers their flood preparedness intentions (cognitive route). Second, trust also lessens the amount of dread evoked by flood risk, which in turn impedes flood preparedness intentions (affective route). Moreover, the affective route showed that levels of dread were especially influenced by citizens' negative and positive emotions related to their previous flood hazard experiences. Negative emotions most often reflected fear and powerlessness, while positive emotions most frequently reflected feelings of solidarity. The results are consistent with the affect heuristic and the historical context of Dutch flood risk management. The great challenge for flood risk management is the accommodation of both cognitive and affective mechanisms in risk communications, especially when most people lack an emotional basis stemming from previous flood hazard events. PMID:21477090

  16. Development of flood index by characterisation of flood hydrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Biswa; Suman, Asadusjjaman

    2015-04-01

    In recent years the world has experienced deaths, large-scale displacement of people, billions of Euros of economic damage, mental stress and ecosystem impacts due to flooding. Global changes (climate change, population and economic growth, and urbanisation) are exacerbating the severity of flooding. The 2010 floods in Pakistan and the 2011 floods in Australia and Thailand demonstrate the need for concerted action in the face of global societal and environmental changes to strengthen resilience against flooding. Due to climatological characteristics there are catchments where flood forecasting may have a relatively limited role and flood event management may have to be trusted upon. For example, in flash flood catchments, which often may be tiny and un-gauged, flood event management often depends on approximate prediction tools such as flash flood guidance (FFG). There are catchments fed largely by flood waters coming from upstream catchments, which are un-gauged or due to data sharing issues in transboundary catchments the flow of information from upstream catchment is limited. Hydrological and hydraulic modelling of these downstream catchments will never be sufficient to provide any required forecasting lead time and alternative tools to support flood event management will be required. In FFG, or similar approaches, the primary motif is to provide guidance by synthesising the historical data. We follow a similar approach to characterise past flood hydrographs to determine a flood index (FI), which varies in space and time with flood magnitude and its propagation. By studying the variation of the index the pockets of high flood risk, requiring attention, can be earmarked beforehand. This approach can be very useful in flood risk management of catchments where information about hydro-meteorological variables is inadequate for any forecasting system. This paper presents the development of FI and its application to several catchments including in Kentucky in the USA, Oc-gok Basin in Republic of Korea and the haor region of Bangladesh. Keywords: flood index, flood risk management, flood characteristics

  17. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM NOOSA RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the NOOSA RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Noosa River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

  18. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BARRON RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BARRON RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Barron River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

  19. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BULLOO RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BULLOO RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Bulloo River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

  20. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM NERANG RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the NERANG RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Nerang River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

  1. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM NORMAN RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the NORMAN RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Norman River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

  2. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM PAROO RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the PAROO RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Paroo River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

  3. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM KOLAN RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the KOLAN RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Kolan River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

  4. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM PIONEER RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the PIONEER RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River. Pioneer River at Mirani Contained in this document is information about: (Last updated April 2014) Flood

  5. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM MOONIE RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the MOONIE RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Moonie River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

  6. Global Floods 1985?2006

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dartmouth Flood Observatory

    An animated GIF map of major flood events around the world from 1985-2006. Floods are overlaid on a world map, shown as numbered red areas representing the areas the floods affected. Only major floods reported by news services are included in the map.

  7. Flood: Farming and Erosion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Farmers and rivers have a close, though not always friendly, relationship with one another. Rivers can create prized farmland, but they also flood fields and the communities built alongside them. Farming practices may also contribute to an increase in the magnitude and intensity of river flooding. This video segment explains the issue of flooding as seen in the Mississippi River watershed and suggests possible solutions. The segment is four minutes thirty-eight seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

  8. Nogales flood detention study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norman, Laura M.; Levick, Lainie; Guertin, D. Phillip; Callegary, James; Guadarrama, Jesus Quintanar; Anaya, Claudia Zulema Gil; Prichard, Andrea; Gray, Floyd; Castellanos, Edgar; Tepezano, Edgar; Huth, Hans; Vandervoet, Prescott; Rodriguez, Saul; Nunez, Jose; Atwood, Donald; Granillo, Gilberto Patricio Olivero; Ceballos, Francisco Octavio Gastellum

    2010-01-01

    Flooding in Ambos Nogales often exceeds the capacity of the channel and adjacent land areas, endangering many people. The Nogales Wash is being studied to prevent future flood disasters and detention features are being installed in tributaries of the wash. This paper describes the application of the KINEROS2 model and efforts to understand the capacity of these detention features under various flood and urbanization scenarios. Results depict a reduction in peak flow for the 10-year, 1-hour event based on current land use in tributaries with detention features. However, model results also demonstrate that larger storm events and increasing urbanization will put a strain on the features and limit their effectiveness.

  9. Regional flood frequency analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, V.P.

    1987-01-01

    This book, the fourth of a four volume set, contains five sections encompassing major aspects of regional flood frequency analysis. Each section starts usually with an invited state-of-the-art paper followed by contributed papers. The first section provides an assessment of regional flood frequency analysis. Methods for performing regional frequency analysis for ungaged watersheds are presented in Section 2. More discussion on regional frequency analysis is provided in Section 3. Selection and comparison of regional frequency methods are dealt with in Section 4; these are of great interest to the user. Increasing attention is being focused these days on paleohydrologic flood analysis. This topic is covered in Section 5.

  10. A comparison of large 18th-century floods on Danube: Vienna - Bratislava - Budapest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Andrea; Parajka, Juraj

    2013-04-01

    The documentation of historic floods can help in better understanding of factors that might cause and contribute to large and extreme flood events. In particular, the analysis of historic floods provides information about flood seasonality, its changes and anthropogenic impacts on river flood regime which in some cases strongly influenced flood behaviour. The main objective of the present contribution is to document large and medium size flood events on Danube in Vienna, Bratislava and Budapest in the 18th century. In the present study, based on contemporary documentary evidence, for each of the three towns a five-scaled flood index series is developed to describe the magnitude and intensity of flood events. According to this classification, the 100-year flood event was characterised by the index value 5, while great destructive floods - depending on their extension, destructivity and further impacts - received the values 4 and 3, respectively. Less significant but still harmful flood events were classified as No. 2, and floods without further specification remained in the lowest category (No. 1). Beside classification issues, seasonality and flood frequency differences between the three towns are as well discussed. The results indicate that a greater number of flood events took place in the last decades of the century, but only a few flood events of the same magnitude are documented simultaneously in all three towns. And whereas in 1775 no winter flood event was reported in Vienna, an important ice jam flood was documented in Bratislava, and a catastrophic ice jam flood event, greatest of the century, occurred in Budapest. In 1787 autumn the greatest flood event of the century occurred in Vienna, while hardly any flood waves were observed at Budapest. While in Vienna, summer (and partly autumn) floods had great importance, in Budapest a large number of ice jam floods were documented. In some cases the differences are likely caused by different hydrometeorological and morphological conditions, but the importance of human impact (e.g. different types and levels of flood protection in the towns, large-scale changes of land use in the catchment area) have to be as well emphasised.

  11. Estimating magnitude and frequency of floods using the PeakFQ 7.0 program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veilleux, Andrea G.; Cohn, Timothy A.; Flynn, Kathleen M.; Mason, Robert R.; Hummel, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    Flood-frequency analysis provides information about the magnitude and frequency of flood discharges based on records of annual maximum instantaneous peak discharges collected at streamgages. The information is essential for defining flood-hazard areas, for managing floodplains, and for designing bridges, culverts, dams, levees, and other flood-control structures. Bulletin 17B (B17B) of the Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data (IACWD; 1982) codifies the standard methodology for conducting flood-frequency studies in the United States. B17B specifies that annual peak-flow data are to be fit to a log-Pearson Type III distribution. Specific methods are also prescribed for improving skew estimates using regional skew information, tests for high and low outliers, adjustments for low outliers and zero flows, and procedures for incorporating historical flood information. The authors of B17B identified various needs for methodological improvement and recommended additional study. In response to these needs, the Advisory Committee on Water Information (ACWI, successor to IACWD; http://acwi.gov/, Subcommittee on Hydrology (SOH), Hydrologic Frequency Analysis Work Group (HFAWG), has recommended modest changes to B17B. These changes include adoption of a generalized method-of-moments estimator denoted the Expected Moments Algorithm (EMA) (Cohn and others, 1997) and a generalized version of the Grubbs-Beck test for low outliers (Cohn and others, 2013). The SOH requested that the USGS implement these changes in a user-friendly, publicly accessible program.

  12. Flood-prone areas and land-use planning; selected examples from the San Francisco Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waananen, Arvi O.; Limerinos, J.T.; Kockelman, W.J.; Spangle, W.E.; Blair, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    The common goal of flood-plain regulation and use is protecting life, minimizing public expenditures, and reducing flood loss. A comprehensive program combining structural and nonstructural measures can yield substantial benefits and may present a practical approach for managing a flood plain. A review of flood-plain planning, management, and regulation in the San Francisco Bay region, Calif., as shown by a study of Napa County , demonstrates complex multijurisdictional involvements. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. Flood Frequency Analysis: International Edition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COMET

    2010-08-31

    Flood frequency analysis uses historical flow records to both estimate the frequency with which floods of a certain magnitude may occur and predict the possible flood magnitude over a certain time period. This module offers a thorough introduction to appropriately constructing the necessary historical data series, calculating the flooding probabilities, and gauging the reliability of the resulting probability values. Methods for assessing flood frequency in basins with limited data are also discussed.

  14. Historical Floods in the Northeast

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site reviews major flooding in the Northeastern United States, as reported by the Northeast River Forecast Center (NERFC), a division of the National Weather Service. It includes photos, rainfall maps, and descriptions of record-breaking floods that occured between the years 1927 and 1996. Descriptions include specific causes of flooding, weather patterns leading up to flooding, as well as results and actions taken due to flooding in the regions discussed.

  15. Preventing flooding or regulating flood levels?: Case studies on perception of flood alleviation in Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harun Rasid

    1993-01-01

    Based on a systematic sample survey among the residents of two contrasting floodplain environments - the Tista floodplain (a shallow flood area) and the Ganges-Brahmaputra floodplain (a deep flood area) - this study tests a central hypothesis that the floodplain residents of Bangladesh preferred regulation of flood levels as the main flood alleviation measure. The study found that, despite significant

  16. Souris River Flooding

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Souris River flooding a road near Sherwood, North Dakota.On June 23, 2011, USGS personnel were there to measure the streamflow. Streamflow was approximately 27,100 cubic feet per second, stage approximately 27.98 feet....

  17. Dartmouth Flood Observatory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Dartmouth Flood Observatory performs research and collects data on the space-based measurement of surface water "for research, educational, and humanitarian applications." On their homepage visitors are presented with a global map of current flooding, complemented by links to data sets related to historic flood levels from 1985 to the present. Visitors can also click on the "Active Archive of Large Floods" section for additional materials, such as an animation that depicts these mega-events. Moving on, the site also includes a link to the "Space-based Atlas of the Earth's Changing Surface Water". Here visitors can look over sample regional maps, and also look at detailed maps of the Mekong Basin from 2000 to 2006. The site is rounded out with some information about current staff members and a list of their publications.

  18. Coastal Flooding Assessment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Eric Grosfils

    Eric B. Grosfils, Pomona College Summary Students are introduced to Spatial Analyst and 3D Analyst, and use these tools to perform a flooding analysis for the Long Beach area of California. Context Type and level ...

  19. Flooding the market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Diane; McShane, Michael

    2013-11-01

    A flood insurance market with risk-based prices in the UK will only stimulate climate change adaptation if it is part of a wider strategy that includes land-use planning, building regulations and water management.

  20. Characterizing the impacts of water resources infrastructure, humans, and hydrologic nonstationarity on changes in flood risk across the Himalaya region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tullos, D. D.

    2014-12-01

    As flood control infrastructure reaches its design life, and climate change, population growth, and urban migration increase flood risk, the historical paradigm of store-then-release floodwaters behind rigid infrastructure is of decreasing physical and socioeconomic value. Instead, a new paradigm of sustainable flood management is emerging, which can be framed in the context of three elements that can contribute to and/or mitigate flood risk: 1) water resources infrastructure, 2) policies and socioeconomics, and 3) changing climates and land use. In this presentation, I present the results of analysis on the role of these three elements in contributing to flood risk of the Sutlej River (India) and the Koshi River (Nepal) basins for six historical flood events. The Himalaya region was selected based on the a) increasing intensity of monsoonal rains, b) increasing prevalence of glacial lake outburst floods, c) water resources management that achieves short-term development goals but lacks long-term sustainability, and d) other socio-economic, environmental, and geopolitical factors. I develop and apply a flood risk management framework that is based on metrics for characterizing the losses associated with the three elements contributing to major floods in the Himalaya region. Derived from a variety of data sources, results highlight how, across different hydrogeologic settings and various flood magnitudes, the largest influences on high flood losses are associated with inflexible water resources infrastructure and inappropriate development and flood management policies. Particularly for the most destructive events, which are generally associated with landslides and other natural hazards in this region, the effectiveness of some types of traditional and inflexible flood management infrastructure, including large dams and levees, is limited. As opposed to the probability of a particular flood event, findings illustrate the importance of the damages side of the flood risk equation, which is often the most controllable but disregarded element of flood risk management. In addition, results lead to a hypothesized matrix of appropriate flood management strategies for the types of flood events that occur in the hydrogeology and cultural settings of high mountain areas and the lowlands to which they drain.

  1. Koaping River Flood Simulation due to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y. J.; Ma, K. C.; Tan, Y. C.; Chang, T. J.; Lai, J. S.

    2012-04-01

    The Koaping River suffered huge damages from the Typhoon Morakot in 2009 and Typhoon Fanapi in 2010. Climate change will bring huge impacts to nations all over the world. Those impacts including the followings: change in biosphere, long-duration drought, large floods trigger by extreme torrential rain, spatial change in homelands, and food scarcity. The extreme weather induced by climate change is the most direct factor influencing the floods, e.g. the extreme rainfall increases discharge and inundation area, sea level and estuary water level raising induce overbank floods, and land-use abuse and land-slides trigger high concentration of sediment discharge and river bed aggradations. This study aims at the settings of hydrological scenarios due to climate change, evaluation of hydraulic structures (e.g. levees), vulnerability and risk analysis, and adaption strategy and practices. The study area is focused on Kaoping River Basin. First, the hydrological scenarios due to climate change are set. Secondly, based on those scenarios, the hydraulic structures are evaluated. Thirdly, the vulnerability and risk analysis are performed. Last, adaption strategy and action plans are proposed by referencing to actions taken by the Netherlands, Japan, Korea, and USA for improving the capacity of the hydraulic structures of Kaoping River.

  2. A Terminating Channel-Levee System on the Middle Bengal Fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, T.; Schwenk, T.; Keil, H.; Spiess, V.

    2007-12-01

    The Bay of Bengal is fully covered by the Bengal Fan, the largest submarine fan on Earth. This fan is fed by the Ganges-Brahmaputra river system, which dewaters the Himalaya and transports huge amounts of sediment to the Bengal Basin and Bengal Shelf. From there, the sediments are transported to the deep sea fan by turbidity currents starting in a deeply incised shelf canyon. These turbidity currents build up channel-levee systems being the main architectural features on the Bengal Fan. Therefore the Bengal Fan is ideal to study not only the erosional and climatic history of the Himalayas, but also the structure of channel-levee systems to understand depositional processes on submarine fans in detail. During Cruise SO188-1, carried out in June 2006 with the German Research Vessel Sonne, a terminating channel-levee system on the middle Bengal Fan was studied by collecting multichannel seismic data, Parasound sediment echosounder data and bathymetric data. The aim of the study was to image the changing morphology and architecture of a terminating system and to test the hypothesis if a depositional lobe has developed here. The bathymetric data show that the channel terminates by bifurcating into short distributaries. However, another small channel appears south-east of the bifurcation, and a further small channel is identified to the east. Additionally, the seismic and acoustic data reveal several small completely refilled channels in the study area, which are only partially leveed. These observations indicates that the pattern of the channel-levee systems is here even more complicated than expected and that a succession of erosion and refilling has controlled the deposition. By tracking the channel to the north until its next avulsion point, the channel could be mapped by using the swath sounding system over a distance of 300 nm. This (to our knowledge) unique dataset of a surface channel on the Bengal Fan reveals significant changes of shape and relief of the channel and large variations in terms of sinuosity. Future work should parameterize these variations to try to reconstruct the properties of the turbidity currents which have built this channel-levee system.

  3. Ice Age Floods Institute

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Describes Ice Age glaciers and immense floods of glacial meltwater that swept across the Pacific Northwest (18,000-12,000 years ago and earlier), affecting the landscape from Montana to Washington and Oregon, sculpting the Columbia River Basin, and creating glacial lakes to rival the today's Great Lakes. This non-profit institute promotes scientific education about the floods, their causes and impacts. Proposes an interpretive geologic trail linking significant sites.

  4. New Orleans Flooding Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission

    This animation, based on radar topography data captured from the space shuttle, illustrates the vulnerability of New Orleans to flooding. The animation shows the effect of flood ranging from 0 to 9 meters in height, and which portions of the city would be submerged. The animation, which predates Hurricane Katrina, is available as a QuickTime file. Stills are also available in a variety of formats.

  5. The August 2002 flood in Salzburg / Austria experience gained and lessons learned from the ``Flood of the century''?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesenegger, H.

    2003-04-01

    On the {12th} of August 2002 a low pressure system moved slowly from northern Italy towards Slovakia. It continuously carried moist air from the Mediterranean towards the northern rim of the Alps with the effect of wide-spread heavy rainfall in Salzburg and other parts of Austria. Daily precipitation amounts of 100 - 160 mm, in some parts even more, as well as rainfall intensities of 5 - 10 mm/h , combined with well saturated soils lead to a rare flood with a return period of 100 years and more. This rare hydrological event not only caused a national catastrophe with damages of several Billion Euro, but also endangered more than 200,000 people, and even killed some. As floods are dangerous, life-threatening, destructive, and certainly amongst the most frequent and costly natural disasters in terms of human hardship as well as economic loss, a great effort, therefore, has to be made to protect people against negative impacts of floods. In order to achieve this objective, various regulations in land use planning (flood maps), constructive measurements (river regulations and technical constructions) as well as flood warning systems, which are not suitable to prevent big floods, but offer in-time-warnings to minimize the loss of human lives, are used in Austria. HYDRIS (Hydrological Information System for flood forecasting in Salzburg), a modular river basin model, developed at Technical University Vienna and operated by the Hydrological Service of Salzburg, was used during the August 2002 flood providing accurate 3 to 4 hour forecasts within 3 % of the real peak discharge of the fast flowing River Salzach. The August {12^th}} flood was in many ways an exceptional, very fast happening event which took many people by surprise. At the gauging station Salzburg / Salzach (catchment area 4425 {km^2}) it took only eighteen hours from mean annual discharge (178 {m3/s}) to the hundred years flood (2300 {m3/s}). The August flood made clear, that there is a strong need for longer lead times in Salzburg's flood forecasts. Methods to incorporate precipitation forecasts, provided by the Met Office, as well as observations of actual soil conditions, therefore, have to be developed and should enable hydrologists to predict possible scenarios and impacts of floods, forecasted for the next 24 hours. As a further consequence of the August 2002 flood, building regulations, e.g. the use of oil tanks in flood prone areas, have to be checked and were necessary adapted. It is also necessary to make people, who already live in flood prone areas, aware of the dangers of floods. They also need to know about the limits of flood protection measurements and about what happens, if flood protection design values are exceeded. Alarm plans, dissemination of information by using modern communication systems (Internet) as well as communication failure in peak times and co-ordination of rescue units are also a subject to be looked at carefully. The above mentioned measurements are amongst others of a 10 point program, developed by the Government of the Province of Salzburg and at present checked with regards to feasibility. As it is to be expected, that the August 2002 flood was not the last rare one of this century, experience gained should be valuably for the next event.

  6. Fews-Risk: A step towards risk-based flood forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Daniel; Eilander, Dirk; de Leeuw, Annemargreet; Diermanse, Ferdinand; Weerts, Albrecht; de Bruijn, Karin; Beckers, Joost; Boelee, Leonore; Brown, Emma; Hazlewood, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Operational flood prediction and the assessment of flood risk are important components of flood management. Currently, the model-based prediction of discharge and/or water level in a river is common practice for operational flood forecasting. Based on the prediction of these values decisions about specific emergency measures are made within operational flood management. However, the information provided for decision support is restricted to pure hydrological or hydraulic aspects of a flood. Information about weak sections within the flood defences, flood prone areas and assets at risk in the protected areas are rarely used in a model-based flood forecasting system. This information is often available for strategic planning, but is not in an appropriate format for operational purposes. The idea of FEWS-Risk is the extension of existing flood forecasting systems with elements of strategic flood risk analysis, such as probabilistic failure analysis, two dimensional flood spreading simulation and the analysis of flood impacts and consequences. Thus, additional information is provided to the decision makers, such as: • Location, timing and probability of failure of defined sections of the flood defence line; • Flood spreading, extent and hydraulic values in the hinterland caused by an overflow or a breach flow • Impacts and consequences in case of flooding in the protected areas, such as injuries or casualties and/or damages to critical infrastructure or economy. In contrast with purely hydraulic-based operational information, these additional data focus upon decision support for answering crucial questions within an operational flood forecasting framework, such as: • Where should I reinforce my flood defence system? • What type of action can I take to mend a weak spot in my flood defences? • What are the consequences of a breach? • Which areas should I evacuate first? This presentation outlines the additional required workflows towards risk-based flood forecasting systems. In a cooperation between HR Wallingford and Deltares, the extended workflows are being integrated into the Delft-FEWS software system. Delft-FEWS provides modules for managing the data handling and forecasting process. Results of a pilot study that demonstrates the new tools are presented. The value of the newly generated information for decision support during a flood event is discussed.

  7. Ground-water flow beneath levee 35A from conservation area 2B, Broward County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swayze, L.J.

    1988-01-01

    Conservation Area 2B is an area of recharge for the surficial aquifer system in Broward County. Water stored in the conservation area provides the hydraulic potential for downward flow to the high permeability zone of the Biscayne aquifer. A 5.64 ft head differential (average for the period of record) between water levels in Conservation Area 2B and water levels in the adjacent levee 35A borrow canal causes water to leak into the canal at an average rate of about 0.0022 cu ft per sec per lineal foot of canal and accounts for a loss of 0.013 foot per day of surface water from Conservation Area 2B. Amounts of canal leakage and underflow are constantly changing and are dependent upon the head differential between Conservation Area 2B and the levee 35A borrow canal. (Author 's abstract)

  8. Probabilistic flood hazard mapping: effects of uncertain boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domeneghetti, A.; Vorogushyn, S.; Castellarin, A.; Merz, B.; Brath, A.

    2013-08-01

    Comprehensive flood risk assessment studies should quantify the global uncertainty in flood hazard estimation, for instance by mapping inundation extents together with their confidence intervals. This appears of particular importance in the case of flood hazard assessments along dike-protected reaches, where the possibility of occurrence of dike failures may considerably enhance the uncertainty. We present a methodology to derive probabilistic flood maps in dike-protected flood prone areas, where several sources of uncertainty are taken into account. In particular, this paper focuses on a 50 km reach of River Po (Italy) and three major sources of uncertainty in hydraulic modelling and flood mapping: uncertainties in the (i) upstream and (ii) downstream boundary conditions, and (iii) uncertainties in dike failures. Uncertainties in the definition of upstream boundary conditions (i.e. design-hydrographs) are assessed through a copula-based bivariate analysis of flood peaks and volumes. Uncertainties in the definition of downstream boundary conditions are characterised by uncertainty in the rating curve with confidence intervals which reflect discharge measurement and interpolation errors. The effects of uncertainties in boundary conditions and randomness of dike failures are assessed by means of the Inundation Hazard Assessment Model (IHAM), a recently proposed hybrid probabilistic-deterministic model that considers three different dike failure mechanisms: overtopping, piping and micro-instability due to seepage. The results of the study show that the IHAM-based analysis enables probabilistic flood hazard mapping and provides decision-makers with a fundamental piece of information for devising and implementing flood risk mitigation strategies in the presence of various sources of uncertainty.

  9. The formation of natural levees as a disturbance process significant to the conservation of riverine pastures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. P. Wolfert; P. W. F. M. Hommel; A. H. Prins; M. H. Stam

    2002-01-01

    Disturbances and patch dynamics are inherent to many ecosystems of the world, especially in the riparian zone. This paper\\u000a describes the influence of natural levee overbank deposition on riverine grasslands along the meandering River Dinkel (The\\u000a Netherlands). Here, the rare vegetation type Diantho-Armerietum, characterised by Dianthus deltoides, Thymus pulegioides, Pimpinella saxifraga and Galium verum, has been identified as important to

  10. A vulnerability function for Mediterranean flash flood risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagiorgos, Konstantinos; Hübl, Johannes; Thaler, Thomas; Fuchs, Sven

    2014-05-01

    Flood risk is a major type of environmental hazard jeopardizing human development, and is usually defined as a functional relation between the hazard, such as the physical and statistical aspects of flooding (e.g. return period of a certain flow height, spatial extend of inundation), and the associated vulnerability, i.e. the exposure of people and assets to floods and the susceptibility of the elements at risk to suffer from flood damage. The assessment of vulnerability -from the quantitative point of view- expresses vulnerability as the expected degree of loss for a given element at risk as a consequence of a certain event. It is ranges on a scale from 0 (no damage) to 1 (complete destruction) and focuses on direct flood loss which is estimated by damage or loss functions. A methodology for the development of a vulnerability curve for Mediterranean flash flood risk assessment is presented. This curve is based on a relationship between the intensity of the process and the associated degree of loss of elements at risk. The computation procedure is based on a method combining spatially explicit loss data, data on the value of exposed elements at risk and data on flood intensities on an individual building scale (local scale). The developed methodology is applied for the district of East Attica in Greece, a Mediterranean region influenced by mountain and coastal characteristics of land development. The aim of the study is to provide a valuable tool for the local authorities and the decision makers, a necessary implementation of flood risk management emerging from the requirements laid down in the European Flood Directive, as well as for an assessment of potential costs emerging from future flood events in order to protect individual households.

  11. Erosional and depositional patterns associated with the 1993 Missouri River floods inferred from SIR-C and TOPSAR radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izenberg, N. R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Brackett, R. A.; Saatchi, S. S.; Osburn, G. R.; Dohrenwend, J.

    1996-10-01

    The Missouri River floods of 1993 caused significant and widespread damage to the floodplains between Kansas City and St. Louis. Immediately downstream of levee breaks, flood waters scoured the bottoms. As the floodwaters continued, they spread laterally and deposited massive amounts of sand as crevasse splays on top of agricultural fields. We explore the use of radar interferometry and backscatter data for quantitative estimation of scour and deposition for Jameson Island/Arrow Rock Bottoms and Lisbon Bottoms, two bottoms that were heavily damaged during the floods and subsequently abandoned. Shuttle imaging radar C (SIR-C) L band (24 cm) HH (horizontally transmitted and horizontally received) radar backscatter data acquired in October 1994 were used together with a distorted Born approximation canopy scattering model to determine that the abundance of natural leafy forbs controlled the magnitude of backscatter for former agricultural fields. Forb areal density was found to be inversely correlated with thickness of sand deposited during the floods, presumably because thick sands prevented roots from reaching nutrient rich, moist bottoms soils. Using the inverse relationship, a lower bound for the mass of sand added was found to be 6.3 million metric tons over the 17 km2 study area. Digital elevation data from topographic synthetic aperture radar (TOPSAR) C band (5.6 cm) interferometric observations acquired in August 1994 were compared to a series of elevation profiles collected on the ground. Vertical errors in TOPSAR were estimated to range from 1 to 2 m, providing enough accuracy to generate an estimate of total mass (4.7 million metric tons) removed during erosion of levees and scour of the bottoms terrains. Net accretion of material to the study areas is consistent with the geologic record of major floods where sediment-laden floodwaters crested over natural levees, initially scoured into the bottoms, and then deposited sands as crevasse splays as the flows spread out and slowed by frictional dissipation. The addition of artificial levees to the Missouri River system has undoubtedly enhanced flood damage, although quantitative estimation of the degree of enhancement will require additional work.

  12. Management of hazardous waste at RCRA facilities during the flood of `93 -- Methods used and lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, T.; Jacko, R.B. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    1996-11-01

    During the summer of 1993, the state of Iowa experienced severe flooding that caused the release of many hazardous materials into the environment. Six months after the flood, the Iowa section of the RCRA branch, US EPA Region 7, sent inspectors to survey every RCRA facility in Iowa. Information was gathered through questionnaires to determine the flood`s impact and to learn potential lessons that could be beneficial in future flood disasters. The objective of this project was to use the information gathered to determine effective storage methods and emergency procedures for handling hazardous material during flood disasters. Additional data were obtained through record searches, phone interviews, and site visits. Data files and statistics were analyzed, then the evident trends and specific insights observed were utilized to create recommendations for RCRA facilities in the flood plain and for the federal EPA and state regulatory agencies. The recommendations suggest that RCRA regulated facilities in the flood plain should: employ the safest storage methods possible; have a flood emergency plan that includes the most effective release prevention available; and take advantage of several general suggestions for flood protection. The recommendations suggest that the federal EPA and state regulatory agencies consider: including a provision requiring large quantity generators of hazardous waste in the flood plain to include flood procedures in the contingency plans; establishing remote emergency storage areas during the flood disasters; encouraging small quantity generators (SQGs) within the flood plain to establish flood contingency plans; and promoting sound flood protection engineering practices for all RCRA facilities in the flood plain.

  13. 78 FR 5822 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1292] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  14. 77 FR 44651 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1261] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  15. 77 FR 74859 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1276] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  16. 77 FR 44650 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1259] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  17. 77 FR 29678 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1251] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  18. 78 FR 20343 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1304] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  19. 78 FR 58334 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1342] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  20. 78 FR 49277 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1345] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  1. 77 FR 27076 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1254] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  2. 77 FR 40627 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1258] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  3. 77 FR 55856 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1266] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  4. 78 FR 49278 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1332] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  5. 78 FR 28891 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1312] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  6. 78 FR 20339 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1301] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  7. 77 FR 39721 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1256] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  8. 78 FR 43910 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1339] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  9. 78 FR 36215 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1321] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  10. 77 FR 76501 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1282] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  11. 7 CFR 1788.3 - Flood insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flood insurance. 1788.3 Section 1788...Borrower Insurance Requirements § 1788.3 Flood insurance. (a) Borrowers shall purchase and maintain flood insurance for buildings in flood...

  12. 77 FR 18839 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1243] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  13. 78 FR 36222 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1326] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  14. 77 FR 58562 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1267] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  15. 78 FR 43906 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1330] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  16. 78 FR 21143 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1307] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  17. 78 FR 57646 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1343] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  18. 78 FR 36212 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1323] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  19. 77 FR 18844 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1236] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  20. 78 FR 48888 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1344] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  1. 78 FR 48701 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1340] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  2. 78 FR 32679 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1309] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  3. 77 FR 67016 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1272] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  4. 76 FR 73537 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ...above State City/town/county Source of flooding Location ** ground...Unincorporated Areas of Mono County, California...Depth in feet above Flooding source(s) Location...the west. Unnamed flooding source (flooding Approximately...

  5. 7 CFR 1788.3 - Flood insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flood insurance. 1788.3 Section 1788...Borrower Insurance Requirements § 1788.3 Flood insurance. (a) Borrowers shall purchase and maintain flood insurance for buildings in flood...

  6. 7 CFR 1788.3 - Flood insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Flood insurance. 1788.3 Section 1788...Borrower Insurance Requirements § 1788.3 Flood insurance. (a) Borrowers shall purchase and maintain flood insurance for buildings in flood...

  7. 7 CFR 1788.3 - Flood insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flood insurance. 1788.3 Section 1788...Borrower Insurance Requirements § 1788.3 Flood insurance. (a) Borrowers shall purchase and maintain flood insurance for buildings in flood...

  8. 76 FR 16722 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ...sources: Deener Creek, Gum Creek Flooding Effects, Little Red River, Overflow Creek...flooding sources: Gum Creek Flooding Effects, Little Red River, Overflow Creek...Branch confluence. Gum Creek Flooding Effects...Railroad. Little Red...

  9. Hydraulic analysis of measures for flood mitigation in floodplain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentova, J.; Valenta, P.; Weyskrabova, L.; Dostal, T.

    2012-04-01

    The question of possible flood control and flood mitigation measures and their effects is still challenging. While the effect of purely technical flood control measures such as dams or levees is sufficiently described by using any of widely spread or more specific models, the effectiveness of close-to-nature ones (river restoration, appropriate land use, landscape structure regeneration, etc.) is not adequately verified and quantified. On that account, the benefits and feasibility of integration of the natural potential of floodplains to absorb and transform flood wave is being discussed. In addition, there are many side benefits of close-to-nature measures which are hard to evaluate and include into decision making processes. This contribution presents a part of the study related to river and floodplain restoration and revitalization measures in catchments and their flood-control effect. In the study the possibilities of using one-dimensional (HEC-RAS) and two-dimensional hydraulic mathematical models (FAST2D, DIFEM2D) of steady and unsteady flow for estimation of transformation effects of a floodplain were compared. The comparison of used models was made with respect to computed results and also to the availability of input data, mathematical stability, processes and accuracy demands and time requirements. The above mentioned methods of hydraulic modelling were applied to three case study localities in the Czech Republic. The parts of river channels and their floodplain differ in terms of morphology, river channel form and training situation and land-use. Case study areas were selected to represent the main types of floodplains within the Czech Republic for their further classification related to flood wave transformation potential. The transformation effect is compared not only for the natural state of the floodplain, but also for various theoretical scenarios in each locality. Keywords Hydraulic modelling, flood control, floodplain, storage capacity, river restoration Acknowledgement This paper was created within the project NIVA "Water Retention in Floodplains and Ways of Increasing Water Retention" QH82078, and within Research Project No. MSM6840770002 "Revitalization of water system of the landscape and urban areas under heavy anthropogenic changes" and supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Technical University in Prague, grant No. SGS10/240/OHK1/3T/11.

  10. Flood Hazards: Communicating Hydrology and Complexity to the Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, R. R.; Blanchard, S. F.; Mason, R. R.

    2010-12-01

    Floods have a major impact on society and the environment. Since 1952, approximately 1,233 of 1,931 (64%) Federal disaster declarations were due directly to flooding, with an additional 297 due to hurricanes which had associated flooding. Although the overall average annual number of deaths due to flooding has decreased in the United States, the average annual flood damage is rising. According to the Munich Reinsurance Company in their publication “Schadenspiegel 3/2005”, during 1990s the world experienced as much as $500 billion in economic losses due to floods, highlighting the serious need for continued emphasis on flood-loss prevention measures. Flood-loss prevention has two major elements: mitigation (including structural flood-control measures and land-use planning and regulation) and risk awareness. Of the two, increasing risk awareness likely offers the most potential for protecting lives over the near-term and long-term sustainability in the coming years. Flood-risk awareness and risk-aware behavior is dependent on communication, involving both prescriptive and educational measures. Prescriptive measures (for example, flood warnings and stormwater ordinances) are and have been effective, but there is room for improvement. New communications technologies, particularly social media utilizing mobile, smart phones and text devices, for example, could play a significant role in increasing public awareness of long-term risk and near-term flood conditions. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), for example, the Federal agency that monitors the Nation’s rivers, recently released a new service that can better connect the to the public to information about flood hazards. The new service, WaterAlert (URL: http://water.usgs.gov/wateralert/), allows users to set flood notification thresholds of their own choosing for any USGS real-time streamgage. The system then sends emails or text messages to subscribers whenever the threshold conditions are met, as often as the user specifies. In the future, with new GPS enabled cell-phones, notifications could be sent to users based on their proximity to flood hazards. Educational measures also should communicate the hydrologic underpinnings and uncertainties of the complex science of flood hydrology in an understandable manner to a non-technical public. Education can be especially beneficial and important for those in a policy-making role or those who find themselves in an area of potential flood hazards. Case studies, such as the fatal June 11, 2010 flash flood on the Little Missouri River in Arkansas, if presented in a way that the public will absorb, powerfully illustrate the importance of flood hazard awareness and the cost of living unaware. Additionally, such crucial points as the connection between the accuracy of flood-probability estimates and the density (and longevity) of the basic data sources (such as the USGS streamgage or the National Weather Service raingage networks) and the residual risks that both communities and individuals face have to continually be stressed to the general public and policy makers alike. In short, success in flood hazards communication (both prescriptive warnings and education) requires a fusion of the social sciences and hydrology.

  11. Improvements in fast-response flood modeling: desktop parallel computing and domain tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Judi, David R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcpherson, Timothy N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Burian, Steven J [UNIV. OF UTAH

    2009-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly important to have the ability to accurately forecast flooding, as flooding accounts for the most losses due to natural disasters in the world and the United States. Flood inundation modeling has been dominated by one-dimensional approaches. These models are computationally efficient and are considered by many engineers to produce reasonably accurate water surface profiles. However, because the profiles estimated in these models must be superimposed on digital elevation data to create a two-dimensional map, the result may be sensitive to the ability of the elevation data to capture relevant features (e.g. dikes/levees, roads, walls, etc...). Moreover, one-dimensional models do not explicitly represent the complex flow processes present in floodplains and urban environments and because two-dimensional models based on the shallow water equations have significantly greater ability to determine flow velocity and direction, the National Research Council (NRC) has recommended that two-dimensional models be used over one-dimensional models for flood inundation studies. This paper has shown that two-dimensional flood modeling computational time can be greatly reduced through the use of Java multithreading on multi-core computers which effectively provides a means for parallel computing on a desktop computer. In addition, this paper has shown that when desktop parallel computing is coupled with a domain tracking algorithm, significant computation time can be eliminated when computations are completed only on inundated cells. The drastic reduction in computational time shown here enhances the ability of two-dimensional flood inundation models to be used as a near-real time flood forecasting tool, engineering, design tool, or planning tool. Perhaps even of greater significance, the reduction in computation time makes the incorporation of risk and uncertainty/ensemble forecasting more feasible for flood inundation modeling (NRC 2000; Sayers et al. 2000).

  12. Flood risk management in Italy: challenges and opportunities for the implementation of the EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mysiak, J.; Testella, F.; Bonaiuto, M.; Carrus, G.; De Dominicis, S.; Ganucci Cancellieri, U.; Firus, K.; Grifoni, P.

    2013-11-01

    Italy's recent history is punctuated with devastating flood disasters claiming high death toll and causing vast but underestimated economic, social and environmental damage. The responses to major flood and landslide disasters such as the Polesine (1951), Vajont (1963), Firenze (1966), Valtelina (1987), Piedmont (1994), Crotone (1996), Sarno (1998), Soverato (2000), and Piedmont (2000) events have contributed to shaping the country's flood risk governance. Insufficient resources and capacity, slow implementation of the (at that time) novel risk prevention and protection framework, embodied in the law 183/89 of 18 May 1989, increased the reliance on the response and recovery operations of the civil protection. As a result, the importance of the Civil Protection Mechanism and the relative body of norms and regulation developed rapidly in the 1990s. In the aftermath of the Sarno (1998) and Soverato (2000) disasters, the Department for Civil Protection (DCP) installed a network of advanced early warning and alerting centres, the cornerstones of Italy's preparedness for natural hazards and a best practice worth following. However, deep convective clouds, not uncommon in Italy, producing intense rainfall and rapidly developing localised floods still lead to considerable damage and loss of life that can only be reduced by stepping up the risk prevention efforts. The implementation of the EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC) provides an opportunity to revise the model of flood risk governance and confront the shortcomings encountered during more than 20 yr of organised flood risk management. This brief communication offers joint recommendations towards this end from three projects funded by the 2nd CRUE ERA-NET (http://www.crue-eranet.net/) Funding Initiative: FREEMAN, IMRA and URFlood.

  13. 33 CFR 203.49 - Rehabilitation of Hurricane and Shore Protection Projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rehabilitation of Hurricane and Shore Protection...RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works...Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program §...

  14. 33 CFR 203.49 - Rehabilitation of Hurricane and Shore Protection Projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rehabilitation of Hurricane and Shore Protection...RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works...Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program §...

  15. 33 CFR 203.49 - Rehabilitation of Hurricane and Shore Protection Projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rehabilitation of Hurricane and Shore Protection...RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works...Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program §...

  16. 33 CFR 203.49 - Rehabilitation of Hurricane and Shore Protection Projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rehabilitation of Hurricane and Shore Protection...RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works...Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program §...

  17. 33 CFR 203.49 - Rehabilitation of Hurricane and Shore Protection Projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rehabilitation of Hurricane and Shore Protection...RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works...Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program §...

  18. Costs and benefits of adapting to river floods at the global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Philip; Aerts, Jeroen; Botzen, Wouter; Hallegatte, Stephane; Jongman, Brenden; Kind, Jarl; Scussolini, Paolo; Winsemius, Hessel

    2015-04-01

    It is well known that the economic losses associated with flooding are huge; for example in 2012 alone the economic losses from flooding exceeded 19 billion. As a result, different models have been developed to assess global scale flood risk. Recently, these have been used in several studies to assess current flood risk at the global scale, and to project how risk may increase as a result of climate change and/or socioeconomic development. In most regions, these studies show rapid increases in risk into the future, and therefore call for urgent adaptation. However, to date no studies have attempted to assess the costs of carrying out such adaptation, nor the benefits. In this paper, we therefore present the first global scale estimate of the costs and benefits of adapting to increased river flood risk caused by factors such as climate change and socioeconomic development. For this study, we concentrate on structural adaptation measures, such as dikes, designed to prevent flood hazard up to a certain design standard. We address two questions: 1. What would be the costs and benefits of maintaining current flood protection standards, accounting for future climate and socioeconomic change until 2100? 2. What flood protection standards would be required by 2100 to keep future flood risk constant at today's levels? And what would be the costs and benefits associated with this? In this paper, we will present our first global estimates of the costs and benefits of adaptation to increased flood risk, as well as maps of these findings per country and river basin. We present the results under 4 emission scenarios (RCPs), 5 socioeconomic scenarios (SSPs), and under several assumptions relating to total potential flood damages, discount rates, construction costs, maintenance costs, and so forth. The research was carried out using the GLOFRIS modelling cascade. This global flood risk model calculates flood risk in terms of annual expected damage, and has been developed and validated over the past few years. For this study we have extended GLOFRIS by developing a module that calculates the costs and benefits of adaptation by increasing dike flood protection standards. In brief, this is carried out by calculating, per cell, the length of dikes that would be required to provide flood protection, multiplying this with the change in dike height that would be required to offer a certain flood protection standard, and multiplying this with data on the costs of dike construction and maintenance.

  19. 13 CFR 120.172 - Flood-plain and wetlands management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Flood-plain and wetlands management. 120.172 Section 120...Orders § 120.172 Flood-plain and wetlands management. (a) All loans must conform...117) and 11990, “Protection of Wetlands” (3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p....

  20. 13 CFR 120.172 - Flood-plain and wetlands management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Flood-plain and wetlands management. 120.172 Section 120...Orders § 120.172 Flood-plain and wetlands management. (a) All loans must conform...117) and 11990, “Protection of Wetlands” (3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p....

  1. FLOOD! Emergency Management

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this learning module on the theme of flood emergency management. The lesson provided asks students to use Google Earth to determine the relationship between their location and flood risk. A student worksheet is provided for the activity as well as presentation slides. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item. The unit is available in a ZIP file, which contains the individual lesson items.

  2. Flood producing mechanism identification in Otava river

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Vlasák

    2009-01-01

    Variability of flood causes is strongly determined by geographic environment of catchment area. Identification of unique flood characteristics such as seasonality, precipitation pattern, or typical interference of flood peaks at river confluences could be very useful for flood forecasting and control. Analysis of historical flood causes is proved method to get this knowledge. Paper describes compilation and analysis of Flood

  3. Agricultural damages and losses from ARkStorm scenario flooding in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wein, Anne; David Mitchell; Peters, Jeff; John Rowden; Johnny Tran; Alessandra Corsi; Dinitz, Laura B.

    2015-01-01

    Scientists designed the ARkStorm scenario to challenge the preparedness of California communities for widespread flooding with a historical precedence and increased likelihood under climate change. California is an important provider of vegetables, fruits, nuts, and other agricultural products to the nation. This study analyzes the agricultural damages and losses pertaining to annual crops, perennial crops, and livestock in California exposed to ARkStorm flooding. Statewide, flood damage is incurred on approximately 23% of annual crop acreage, 5% of perennial crop acreage, and 5% of livestock, e.g., dairy, feedlot, and poultry, acreage. The sum of field repair costs, forgone income, and product replacement costs span $3.7 and $7.1 billion (2009) for a range of inundation durations. Perennial crop loss estimates dominate, and the vulnerability of orchards and vineyards has likely increased with recent expansion. Crop reestablishment delays from levee repair and dewatering more than double annual crop losses in the delta islands, assuming the fragile system does not remain permanently flooded. The exposure of almost 200,000 dairy cows to ARkStorm flooding poses livestock evacuation challenges. Read More: http://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/%28ASCE%29NH.1527-6996.0000174

  4. Epic Flooding in Georgia, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gotvald, Anthony J.; McCallum, Brian E.

    2010-01-01

    Metropolitan Atlanta-September 2009 Floods * The epic floods experienced in the Atlanta area in September 2009 were extremely rare. Eighteen streamgages in the Metropolitan Atlanta area had flood magnitudes much greater than the estimated 0.2-percent (500-year) annual exceedance probability. * The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) reported that 23 counties in Georgia were declared disaster areas due to this flood and that 16,981 homes and 3,482 businesses were affected by floodwaters. Ten lives were lost in the flood. The total estimated damages exceed $193 million (H.E. Longenecker, Federal Emergency Management Agency, written commun., November 2009). * On Sweetwater Creek near Austell, Ga., just north of Interstate 20, the peak stage was more than 6 feet higher than the estimated peak stage of the 0.2-percent (500-year) flood. Flood magnitudes in Cobb County on Sweetwater, Butler, and Powder Springs Creeks greatly exceeded the estimated 0.2-percent (500-year) floods for these streams. * In Douglas County, the Dog River at Ga. Highway 5 near Fairplay had a peak stage nearly 20 feet higher than the estimated peak stage of the 0.2-percent (500-year) flood. * On the Chattahoochee River, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gage at Vinings reached the highest level recorded in the past 81 years. Gwinnett, De Kalb, Fulton, and Rockdale Counties also had record flooding. South Georgia March and April 2009 Floods * The March and April 2009 floods in South Georgia were smaller in magnitude than the September floods but still caused significant damage. * No lives were lost in this flood. Approximately $60 million in public infrastructure damage occurred to roads, culverts, bridges and a water treatment facility (Joseph T. McKinney, Federal Emergency Management Agency, written commun., July 2009). * Flow at the Satilla River near Waycross, exceeded the 0.5-percent (200-year) flood. Flows at seven other stations in South Georgia exceeded the 1-percent (100-year) flood.

  5. Modeling Flood Dynamics Along the Super-Elevated Channel Belt of the Yellow River, China, over the Last 3,000 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Overeem, I.; Kettner, A. J.; Gao, S.; Syvitski, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    During the much of the 20th Century, the Yellow River, China, carried between 1.1 and 1.6 Gt y-1 of sediment derived from the over-used Loess Plateau. A portion of this sediment load accumulates inside the artificial levees, reducing the accommodation space and subsequently building up the modern channel-belt >10m above the surrounding floodplains. Historical levees often failed along the older Yellow River courses resulting in >1000 floods in 3000 yrs. In the last millennium, the river has shifted its lower course every ~25 years, breached its levees once a year; in mid 17th century up to 3 breaches occurred per year. A novel methodology is employed to quantitatively reconstruct and interpret flood dynamics on the Yellow River. A reduced-complexity model is developed to explore how climate change and human activity affect levee breaches and river avulsions. The model integrates yearly morphological change along a channel belt with daily river fluxes, and hourly evolution of levee breaches. The model calculates breach characteristics at the scale of 100yr and 200km. To cope with the sparseness in historical records and to incorporate the complex and uncertain nature of flood behavior, 17,118 experiments are conducted to explore dominant factors controlling flood frequency and their likely values in historical times. Model sensitivity analyses reveal that under natural conditions, super-elevation of the channel belt dominates flood frequency. However, when there is significant human-accelerated basin erosion and breach repair, the dominant factors shift to a combination of mean annual precipitation, super-elevation, critical shear stress of weak channel banks, and the interval between breach initiation and its repair. With human perturbation, breaching became more sensitive to precipitation and channel bank strength. Applying uncertainty analyses, the most likely values of the dominant factors for six historical periods between 850BC and 1839AD are explored and used to quantitatively reconstruct the history of Yellow River floods. During 850BC-1839AD when the sediment load increased fourfold, the major breach recurrence interval was shortened from more than 500 years to less than 6 years, and the breach outflow rate increased ~27 times.

  6. Landscape Vulnerability Analysis from Historic Lower Mississippi River Flood in 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwell, A. E.; Zhu, Z.; Dutta, D.; Greenberg, J.; Kumar, P.; Garcia, M. H.; Rhoads, B. L.; Parker, G.; Berretta, D.; Holmes, R. R.

    2012-12-01

    This study presents the results of a landscape vulnerability analysis of the Birds Point New Madrid Floodway in southeastern Missouri. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers intentionally inundated 500 square kilometers of agricultural floodplain in May of 2011 as an emergency flood control measure. We use pre-flood (2005) and post-flood (2011) high resolution Lidar data to establish the landscape impact of the levee breach on the floodplain. The Lidar DEMs were corrected for flight line errors using a Fourier filtering technique, and then subtracted to obtain a differential DEM of erosion and deposition patterns. We use soil erosion characteristics, AVIRIS remote sensing data, and 2D floodplain modeling to analyze the three components of vulnerability: sensitivity, exposure, and adaptive capacity. HydroSed2D (Liu, Landry and García 2008), a 2D flow model, is implemented to simulate flow depths and speeds, or flood exposure, over the entire floodway, as well as smaller sections at increased resolution using a nested grid. We classify woody vegetation based on AVIRIS remote sensing data, and represent vegetated regions in the model as varied values of the Manning's n coefficient. Soil erodibility, vegetation, topography, and flow characteristics are compared to observed landscape changes within the floodplain. Overall, the floodway showed a remarkable resilience to an extreme flood event. When compared to levee breaches on similar rivers in other floods, the lack of newly deposited sediment is noticeable and likely attributable to the presence of a substantial riparian corridor between the main channel of the Mississippi River and the floodway. Although many meander scars indicating former channels of the Mississippi River are apparent in the topography, only one, known as O'Bryan Ridge, experienced high volumes of erosion and deposition due to the flooding. The vulnerability analysis supports the hypothesis this high impact is due to a combination of vulnerability factors such as high flow speed, few localized patches of vegetation, and high soil erodibility at this ridge compared to other similar meander scars. The methodology of this analysis can be used to locate regions of high vulnerability in future floodplain management and flood control, and mitigate potentially catastrophic landscape change.

  7. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM PROSERPINE RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the PROSERPINE RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Proserpine River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins

  8. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM JOHNSTONE RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the JOHNSTONE RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Johnstone River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

  9. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM HAUGHTON RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the HAUGHTON RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Haughton River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

  10. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM DIAMANTINA RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the DIAMANTINA RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Diamantina River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins

  11. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM MOOLOOLAH RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the MOOLOOLAH RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Mooloolah River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

  12. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM HERBERT RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the HERBERT RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Herbert River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

  13. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM NICHOLSON RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the NICHOLSON RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Nicholson River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

  14. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BURDEKIN RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BURDEKIN RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Burdekin River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

  15. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM MAROOCHY RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the MAROOCHY RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Maroochy River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

  16. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM LEICHHARDT RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the LEICHHARDT RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Leichhardt River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins

  17. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM FITZROY RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the FITZROY RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Fitzroy River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

  18. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BURNETT RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BURNETT RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Burnett River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

  19. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM DAINTREE RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the DAINTREE RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Daintree River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

  20. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM FLINDERS RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the FLINDERS RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Flinders River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

  1. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM WARREGO RIVER

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the WARREGO RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology for the Warrego River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued

  2. Flood Hazards - A National Threat

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    USGS

    This USGS Fact Sheet (2006-3026) illustrates the national scope of the risk of flooding events in the US. The vast majority of counties have experienced at least one presidential disaster declaration related to flooding since 1965. The fact sheet examines the risks and how USGS scientists are studying floods in order to reduce future risks to the US population, property, and infrastructure.

  3. TRUCKEE MEADOWS FLOOD CONTROL PROJECT,

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    TRUCKEE MEADOWS FLOOD CONTROL PROJECT, NEVADA DRAFT GENERAL REEVALUATION REPORT May 2013 #12;#12;Truckee Meadows Flood Control Project, Nevada Draft General Reevaluation Report May 2013 Prepared by U Meadows Flood Control Project, Nevada 5/15/2013 Draft General Reevaluation Report EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  4. Service Assessment Hurricane Floyd Floods

    E-print Network

    Service Assessment Hurricane Floyd Floods of September 1999 mm r u, /"' r U.S.DEPARTMENTOF COMMERCE: Hurricane Floyd Floods of September 1999. Aerial view of Grifton, North Carolina, with flooding from the Neuse River. (Photograph courtesy of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.) #12;Service Assessment Hurricane

  5. The hurricane-flood-landslide continuum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Negri, A.J.; Burkardt, N.; Golden, J.H.; Halverson, J.B.; Huffman, G.J.; Larsen, M.C.; McGinley, J.A.; Updike, R.G.; Verdin, J.P.; Wieczorek, G.F.

    2005-01-01

    In August 2004, representatives from NOAA, NASA, the US Geological Survey (USGS), as well as other government agencies and academic institutions convened in San Juan, Puerto Rico, at a workshop to discuss a proposed research project called the Hurricane-Flood-Landslide Continuum (HFLC). The purpose of the HFLC is to develop and integrate the multidisciplinary tools needed to issue regional guidance products for floods and landslide associated with major tropical rain systems with sufficient lead time that local emergency managers can notify vulnerable populations and protect infrastructure. The workshop sought to initiate discussion among these agencies about their highly complementary capabilities, and to establish a framework to leverage the strengths of each agency. Once a prototype system is developed, it could be adapted for use in regions that have a high frequency of tropical disturbances.

  6. The Stanford Flood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leighton, Philip D.

    1979-01-01

    Describes, from the flood to the start of freeze-drying operations, the preservation efforts of Stanford University regarding books damaged by water in the Green Library in November 1978. Planning, action, and mopping-up activities are chronicled, and 20 suggestions are offered as guidance in future similar situations. (JD)

  7. Improving Gas Flooding Efficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reid Grigg; Robert Svec; Zheng Zeng; Alexander Mikhalin; Yi Lin; Guoqiang Yin; Solomon Ampir; Rashid Kassim

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on laboratory studies with related analytical and numerical models, as well as work with operators for field tests to enhance our understanding of and capabilities for more efficient enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Much of the work has been performed at reservoir conditions. This includes a bubble chamber and several core flood apparatus developed or modified to measure

  8. Hydrologic Flood Routing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heggen, Richard J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses a short classroom-based BASIC program which routes stream flow through a system of channels and reservoirs. The program is suitable for analyses of open channel conveyance systems, flood detention reservoirs, and combinations of the two. (Author/JN)

  9. Improving Sugarcane Flood Tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) of Florida is often exposed to high water tables and periodic floods. Growers are concerned that elevated water tables for prolonged periods and during certain phases of growth reduce yields. However, these wet conditions help co...

  10. Flood Recurrence Intervals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Norlene Emerson

    This lab activity has students use stream discharge data obtained from the USGS Water Resources Division web site in order to calculate recurrence intervals for a local stream. Using the recurrence data generated, the students then make recommendations to the residents of a local town as to what they might do to reduce their loss from the effects of frequent flooding in their community.

  11. After the Flood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2007-01-01

    When floodwater swept through the McVities biscuit factory in Carlisle in January 2005 few were confident that it would reopen. The factory, in the Caldewgate area of the city, was one of the first casualties of the flood, as water, nine feet deep in places, coursed trough the food preparation areas, destroying equipment and covering everything in…

  12. Flooding, Pollution And Agriculture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joe Howe; Iain White

    2003-01-01

    There has been a noticeable silence amongst environmental studies concerning the relationship between agriculture, flooding and pollution. This paper, which emerges from research funded by the Economic and Social Research Council and United Utilities, attempts to redress this neglect and stimulate both debate and research in to this important area. Utilising research undertaken in the UK, the contention underlying this

  13. Flooded Gage House

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Flooded U.S. Geological Survey gage house on the Sheyenne River near Lisbon, North Dakota, April 22, 2011.  At this time streamflow was approximately 7,450 cubic feet per second and gage height (stage) was 21.23 feet.  More information about this streamgage is available online....

  14. Flooding on Elbe River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Heavy rains in Central Europe over the past few weeks have led to some of the worst flooding the region has witnessed in more than a century. The floods have killed more than 100 people in Germany, Russia, Austria, Hungary, and the Czech Republic and have led to as much as $20 billion in damage. This false-color image of the Elbe River and its tributaries was taken on August 20, 2002, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The floodwaters that inundated Dresden, Germany, earlier this week have moved north. As can be seen, the river resembles a fairly large lake in the center of the image just south of the town of Wittenberg. Flooding was also bad further downriver in the towns of Maqgdeburge and Hitzacker. Roughly 20,000 people were evacuated from their homes in northern Germany. Fifty thousand troops, border police, and technical assistance workers were called in to combat the floods along with 100,000 volunteers. The floodwaters are not expected to badly affect Hamburg, which sits on the mouth of the river on the North Sea. Credit:Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  15. 75 FR 28778 - Magma Flood Retarding Structure (FRS) Supplemental Watershed Plan, Pinal County, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ...Retarding Structure (FRS) Supplemental Watershed Plan, Pinal County, AZ AGENCY: Natural...Retarding Structure (FRS) Supplemental Watershed Plan, Pinal County, Arizona. FOR FURTHER...Domestic Assistance under No. 10.904, Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention,...

  16. A Methodology to Support Decision Making in Flood Plan Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biscarini, C.; di Francesco, S.; Manciola, P.

    2009-04-01

    The focus of the present document is on specific decision-making aspects of flood risk analysis. A flood is the result of runoff from rainfall in quantities too great to be confined in the low-water channels of streams. Little can be done to prevent a major flood, but we may be able to minimize damage within the flood plain of the river. This broad definition encompasses many possible mitigation measures. Floodplain management considers the integrated view of all engineering, nonstructural, and administrative measures for managing (minimizing) losses due to flooding on a comprehensive scale. The structural measures are the flood-control facilities designed according to flood characteristics and they include reservoirs, diversions, levees or dikes, and channel modifications. Flood-control measures that modify the damage susceptibility of floodplains are usually referred to as nonstructural measures and may require minor engineering works. On the other hand, those measures designed to modify the damage potential of permanent facilities are called non-structural and allow reducing potential damage during a flood event. Technical information is required to support the tasks of problem definition, plan formulation, and plan evaluation. The specific information needed and the related level of detail are dependent on the nature of the problem, the potential solutions, and the sensitivity of the findings to the basic information. Actions performed to set up and lay out the study are preliminary to the detailed analysis. They include: defining the study scope and detail, the field data collection, a review of previous studies and reports, and the assembly of needed maps and surveys. Risk analysis can be viewed as having many components: risk assessment, risk communication and risk management. Risk assessment comprises an analysis of the technical aspects of the problem, risk communication deals with conveying the information and risk management involves the decision process. In the present paper we propose a novel methodology for supporting the priority setting in the assessment of such issues, beyond the typical "expected value" approach. Scientific contribution and management aspects are merged to create a simplified method for plan basin implementation, based on risk and economic analyses. However, the economic evaluation is not the sole criterion for flood-damage reduction plan selection. Among the different criteria that are relevant to the decision process, safety and quality of human life, economic damage, expenses related with the chosen measures and environmental issues should play a fundamental role on the decisions made by the authorities. Some numerical indices, taking in account administrative, technical, economical and risk aspects, are defined and are combined together in a mathematical formula that defines a Priority Index (PI). In particular, the priority index defines a ranking of priority interventions, thus allowing the formulation of the investment plan. The research is mainly focused on the technical factors of risk assessment, providing quantitative and qualitative estimates of possible alternatives, containing measures of the risk associated with those alternatives. Moreover, the issues of risk management are analyzed, in particular with respect to the role of decision making in the presence of risk information. However, a great effort is devoted to make this index easy to be formulated and effective to allow a clear and transparent comparison between the alternatives. Summarizing this document describes a major- steps for incorporation of risk analysis into the decision making process: framing of the problem in terms of risk analysis, application of appropriate tools and techniques to obtain quantified results, use of the quantified results in the choice of structural and non-structural measures. In order to prove the reliability of the proposed methodology and to show how risk-based information can be incorporated into a flood analysis process, its application to some middle italy river basins

  17. Submarine fan and channel levee deposits in the Lower Cretaceous Bogota trough, Colombian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimpirev, Christo; Sarmiento, Gustavo

    1993-08-01

    Bogota trough in the Cordillera Oriental of Colombia was an elongate NE/SW oriented Lower Cretaceous basin. It was one of the main depocentres in the northern Andes during earliest Cretaceous time. Six lithofacies and three facies associations are recognised, based on four detailed stratigraphic sections situated in the western portion of the trough. Sedimentation in the basin comprised channel levee, fan lobe and outer fan-basin plain (?) depositional environments. Channel-levee complexes without a well-developed fan-growth pattern were more proximal to the sediment supply. In more distal settings, the migrating channels evolved into suprafan lobes. Their sediments were covered by outer fan-basin plain (?) deposits at a time of retrogradation of the fan system. The evolution in the basin continued with progradation and development of depositional lobes and channel-fill middle fan environments. The western portion of the trough was situated near to the zone of convergence between the Nazca and the South American plates and the main sediment supply derived from the Paleo-central Cordillera, which in early Cretaceous time consisted of an uplifted Jurassic plutonic arc. This active margin defined the coexistence of small sand-rich radial fans and channel-levee complexes. In the eastern portion of the basin main source area, the stable Guayana shield determined the existence of a larger fan system of a hybrid type between radial and elongate fans. Despite the differences between the two fan systems in eastern and western portions of the trough, the observed retrogradational and progradational sequences are similar.

  18. Increasing resilience through participative flood risk map design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Sven; Spira, Yvonne; Stickler, Therese

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of flood hazards has shown to the European Commission and the Member States of the European Union the importance of flood risk management strategies in order to reduce losses and to protect the environment and the citizens. Exposure to floods as well as flood vulnerability might increase across Europe due to the ongoing economic development in many EU countries. Thus even without taking climate change into account an increase of flood disasters in Europe might be foreseeable. These circumstances have produced a reaction in the European Commission, and a Directive on the Assessment and Management of Flood Risks was issued as one of the three components of the European Action Programme on Flood Risk Management. Floods have the potential to jeopardise economic development, above all due to an increase of human activities in floodplains and the reduction of natural water retention by land use activities. As a result, an increase in the likelihood and adverse impacts of flood events is expected. Therefore, concentrated action is needed at the European level to avoid severe impacts on human life and property. In order to have an effective tool available for gathering information, as well as a valuable basis for priority setting and further technical, financial and political decisions regarding flood risk mitigation and management, it is necessary to provide for the establishment of flood risk maps which show the potential adverse consequences associated with different flood scenarios. So far, hazard and risk maps are compiled in terms of a top-down linear approach: planning authorities take the responsibility to create and implement these maps on different national and local scales, and the general public will only be informed about the outcomes (EU Floods Directive, Article 10). For the flood risk management plans, however, an "active involvement of interested parties" is required, which means at least some kind of multilateral consultation on the management plans that allows stakeholders to discuss relevant issues and to contribute to arguments and propositions put forward by the stakeholders. Through a wider stakeholder participation and more effective communication, awareness of flood risks should be raised. With the term participation diverse voluntary and informal forms of inclusion are summarized (in contrast to legal forms of participation like the status as a party). When discussing the theoretical and practical implications of participation in flood risk management, it is important to make a clear distinction between public and stakeholder participation. The broad public is "everybody" and refers to the participation by non-organised individuals as members of the general public, and specifically to individuals whose profession is not connected to flood risk management. As such, they have to be regarded as lay persons, which, nevertheless, does not mean that these individuals do not have any idea about the hazard they are exposed to or can contribute to the quality of an decision making process. In contrast to professionally interested parties, this group is typically comprised of individuals with different individual perspectives on flood risk management. It is argued that including practical knowledge and perceptions (reflecting values and preferences) into the flood risk management process is - apart from professional assessments (as systematic knowledge) - a milestone towards adequate governance structures in any institutional process with political legitimacy. Neither normative concepts like sustainable development or "Good Governance" nor the European Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC do specify what public participation or the participation of user means in detail. As also scientific literature offers no consistent definition of public participation and stakeholder participation we developed an innovative approach used in the pilot project Krems, Austria. The most innovative step regarding participation was not the methods used for participa

  19. Flood Risk Assessment as a Part of Integrated Flood and Drought Analysis. Case Study: Southern Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabnakorn, Saowanit; Suryadi, Fransiscus X.; de Fraiture, Charlotte

    2015-04-01

    Flood and drought are two main meteorological catastrophes that have created adverse consequences to more than 80% of total casualties universally, 50% by flood and 31% by drought. Those natural hazards have the tendency of increasing frequency and degree of severity and it is expected that climate change will exacerbate their occurrences and impacts. In addition, growing population and society interference are the other key factors that pressure on and exacerbate the adverse impacts. Consequently, nowadays, the loss from any disasters becomes less and less acceptable bringing about more people's consciousness on mitigation measures and management strategies and policies. In general, due to the difference in their inherent characteristics and time occurrences flood and drought mitigation and protection have been separately implemented, managed, and supervised by different group of authorities. Therefore, the objective of this research is to develop an integrated mitigation measure or a management policy able to surmount both problems to acceptable levels and is conveniently monitored by the same group of civil servants which will be economical in both short- and long-term. As aforementioned of the distinction of fundamental peculiarities and occurrence, the assessment processes of floods and droughts are separately performed using their own specific techniques. In the first part of the research flood risk assessment is focused in order to delineate the flood prone area. The study area is a river plain in southern Thailand where flooding is influenced by monsoon and depression. The work is mainly concentrated on physically-based computational modeling and an assortment of tools was applied for: data completion, areal rainfall interpolation, statistical distribution, rainfall-runoff analysis and flow model simulation. The outcome from the simulation can be concluded that the flood prone areas susceptible to inundation are along the riparian areas, particularly at the estuary downstream. Although the quantity of runoff increases slightly, the flooded areas downstream rises up significantly. After taking vulnerability map into account, the area with high risk of flooding where the decision makers should pay more attention on is at the downstream near the convergence of the river due to high vulnerability exposing to flood hazard. The anomaly of continuous high intensity of rainfall was the main cause of flooding. However, in respect of the information from casualties through the questionnaire, a lack of maintenance of the floodway was another factor exacerbating the impacts. The ambiguities of a sufficiency of drainage capacity and the water releasing from the dam are existent. This testimony affirms that societal interference is playing the major role in the degree of increasing losses from weather-climate extremes. The findings will be used for further study, especially for the proper land use planning and zoning which is lacking in many developing countries. Therefore, land use planning and adaptation might be part of a flood mitigation plan in conjunction with the structural measures.

  20. Mediterranean Firestorm, are extreme wildfires a specular aspect of floods?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Fiorucci; L. Molini; A. Parodi

    2010-01-01

    Severe weather and rainfall extremes predictors are a long standing issue for risk mitigation and civil protection purposes, analogously this work is focused on finding precursors for extreme wildfires throughout Mediterranean regions. Mediterranean storm are usually related with extreme precipitation and consequent floods. In this paper we propose to consider extreme wildfires in the Mediterranean as a specular aspect of

  1. A new methodology for flood hazard assessment considering dike breaches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Vorogushyn; B. Merz; K.-E. Lindenschmidt; H. Apel

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on development and application of a new modeling approach for a comprehensive flood hazard assessment along protected river reaches considering dike failures. The proposed Inundation Hazard Assessment Model (IHAM) represents a hybrid probabilistic-deterministic model. It comprises three models that are coupled in a dynamic way: (1) 1D unsteady hydrodynamic model for river channel and floodplain between dikes;

  2. Flood Assessment at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site and the Proposed Hazardous Waste Storage Unit, DOE/Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Schmeltzer, J. S.; Millier, J. J.; Gustafson, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    A flood assessment at the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) and the proposed Hazardous Waste Storage Unit (HWSU) in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was performed to determine the 100-year flood hazard at these facilities. The study was conducted to determine whether the RWMS and HWSU are located within a 100-year flood hazard as defined by the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and to provide discharges for the design of flood protection.

  3. Effects of anthropogenic land-subsidence on river flood hazard: a case study in Ravenna, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carisi, Francesca; Domeneghetti, Alessio; Castellarin, Attilio

    2015-04-01

    Can differential land-subsidence significantly alter the river flooding dynamics, and thus flood risk in flood prone areas? Many studies show how the lowering of the coastal areas is closely related to an increase in the flood-hazard due to more important tidal flooding and see level rise. On the contrary, the literature on the relationship between differential land-subsidence and possible alterations to riverine flood-hazard of inland areas is still sparse, while several areas characterized by significant land-subsidence rates during the second half of the 20th century experienced an intensification in both inundation magnitude and frequency. This study investigates the possible impact of a significant differential ground lowering on flood hazard in proximity of Ravenna, which is one of the oldest Italian cities, former capital of the Western Roman Empire, located a few kilometers from the Adriatic coast and about 60 km south of the Po River delta. The rate of land-subsidence in the area, naturally in the order of a few mm/year, dramatically increased up to 110 mm/year after World War II, primarily due to groundwater pumping and a number of deep onshore and offshore gas production platforms. The subsidence caused in the last century a cumulative drop larger than 1.5 m in the historical center of the city. Starting from these evidences and taking advantage of a recent digital elevation model of 10m resolution, we reconstructed the ground elevation in 1897 for an area of about 65 km2 around the city of Ravenna. We referred to these two digital elevation models (i.e. current topography and topographic reconstruction) and a 2D finite-element numerical model for the simulation of the inundation dynamics associated with several levee failure scenarios along embankment system of the river Montone. For each scenario and digital elevation model, the flood hazard is quantified in terms of water depth, speed and dynamics of the flooding front. The comparison enabled us to quantify alterations to the flooding hazard due to large and rapid differential land-subsidence, shedding some light on whether to consider anthropogenic land-subsidence among the relevant human-induced drivers of flood-risk change.

  4. Identification of flood-rich and flood-poor periods in flood series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mediero, Luis; Santillán, David; Garrote, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Recently, a general concern about non-stationarity of flood series has arisen, as changes in catchment response can be driven by several factors, such as climatic and land-use changes. Several studies to detect trends in flood series at either national or trans-national scales have been conducted. Trends are usually detected by the Mann-Kendall test. However, the results of this test depend on the starting and ending year of the series, which can lead to different results in terms of the period considered. The results can be conditioned to flood-poor and flood-rich periods located at the beginning or end of the series. A methodology to identify statistically significant flood-rich and flood-poor periods is developed, based on the comparison between the expected sampling variability of floods when stationarity is assumed and the observed variability of floods in a given series. The methodology is applied to a set of long series of annual maximum floods, peaks over threshold and counts of annual occurrences in peaks over threshold series observed in Spain in the period 1942-2009. Mediero et al. (2014) found a general decreasing trend in flood series in some parts of Spain that could be caused by a flood-rich period observed in 1950-1970, placed at the beginning of the flood series. The results of this study support the findings of Mediero et al. (2014), as a flood-rich period in 1950-1970 was identified in most of the selected sites. References: Mediero, L., Santillán, D., Garrote, L., Granados, A. Detection and attribution of trends in magnitude, frequency and timing of floods in Spain, Journal of Hydrology, 517, 1072-1088, 2014.

  5. Prospects for development of unified global flood observation and prediction systems (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    Floods are among the most damaging of natural hazards, with global flood losses in 2011 alone estimated to have exceeded $100B. Historically, flood economic damages have been highest in the developed world (due in part to encroachment on historical flood plains), but loss of life, and human impacts have been greatest in the developing world. However, as the 2011 Thailand floods show, industrializing countries, many of which do not have well developed flood protection systems, are increasingly vulnerable to economic damages as they become more industrialized. At present, unified global flood observation and prediction systems are in their infancy; notwithstanding that global weather forecasting is a mature field. The summary for this session identifies two evolving capabilities that hold promise for development of more sophisticated global flood forecast systems: global hydrologic models and satellite remote sensing (primarily of precipitation, but also of flood inundation). To this I would add the increasing sophistication and accuracy of global precipitation analysis (and forecast) fields from numerical weather prediction models. In this brief overview, I will review progress in all three areas, and especially the evolution of hydrologic data assimilation which integrates modeling and data sources. I will also comment on inter-governmental and inter-agency cooperation, and related issues that have impeded progress in the development and utilization of global flood observation and prediction systems.

  6. Flooding tolerance in halophytes.

    PubMed

    Colmer, Timothy D; Flowers, Timothy J

    2008-01-01

    Flooding is a common environmental variable with salinity. Submerged organs can suffer from O(2) deprivation and the resulting energy deficits can compromise ion transport processes essential for salinity tolerance. Tolerance of soil waterlogging in halophytes, as in glycophytes, is often associated with the production of adventitious roots containing aerenchyma, and the resultant internal O(2) supply. For some species, shallow rooting in aerobic upper soil layers appears to be the key to survival on frequently flooded soils, although little is known of the anoxia tolerance in halophytes. Halophytic species that inhabit waterlogged substrates are able to regulate their shoot ion concentrations in spite of the hypoxic (or anoxic) medium in which they are rooted, this being in stark contrast with most other plants which suffer when salinity and waterlogging occur in combination. Very few studies have addressed the consequences of submergence of the shoots by saline water; these have, however, demonstrated tolerance of temporary submergence in some halophytes. PMID:18482227

  7. Flooding in Southeast Texas

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Greg Rhodes

    2002-08-15

    Southeast of San Antonio, Texas, rivers that were barely discernible in satellite imagery acquired in late June 2002 by Terra MODIS stand out clearly this Aqua MODIS image from July 24, 2002. Heavy rains during the first week of July brought as much as 2 feet of rain to some places in southeastern Texas, resulting in massive flooding of three major river systems along the Gulf of Mexico. Please note that this story is in relation to the Before the Flooding in Southeast Texas story and are match-framed for dissolves in post production. To visit the relating story, please click on the following link: (http:--svs.gsfc.nasa.gov-vis-a000000-a002500-a002501-index.html).

  8. Cerberus Flood Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    16 October 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows streamlined landforms carved by catastrophic floods that occurred in the eastern Cerberus region, some time in the distant martian past.

    Location near: 15.1oN, 193.5oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  9. REGIONAL FLOOD FREQUENCY ANALYSIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAN ROSBJERG

    - Annual maximum series from a group of catchments in a region are assumed to follow the Extreme Value Type I (Gumbel)\\u000a distribution with either a common coefficient of variation or a common L-coefficient of variation as basis for estimation\\u000a of extreme events using the index-flood method. The at-site mean value of the annual maxima is used as the indexflood

  10. Eye in the Sky: Floods and Dams

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site provides general information about floods and dams. There are sections on the science, the phenomenon, and effects of floods. One video clip shows the Mississippi River at flood and non-flood levels. Another clip shows actual footage of a flood wreaking havoc on a populated area.

  11. Land Use Interpretation in Flood Damage Estimation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon Michelle Metzler

    2011-01-01

    This thesis examines the role of geographic land use interpretation in flood damage estimation. Sample flood data were drawn from the 1998 flood event along San Francisquito Creek in northern Santa Clara County, California. Spatial flood data for the event were collected from the Santa Clara Valley Water District (the District); depth-damage factors and the flood damage equations were both

  12. Flood inundation mapping using NOAA AVHRR data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjay K. Jain; Arun K. Saraf; Ajanta Goswami; Tanvear Ahmad

    2006-01-01

    The river Brahmputra flowing through the state of Assam (India) floods every year. The analysis of spatial extent and temporal pattern of flood-inundated areas is of prime importance for mitigation of floods. With the development of remote sensing techniques, flood mapping for large areas can be done easily. In case of flood affected area mapping of large area it will

  13. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM GEORGINA RIVER & EYRE CREEK

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the GEORGINA RIVER & EYRE CREEK This brochure describes the flood warning. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Eyre

  14. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM BREMER RIVER TO IPSWICH

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the BREMER RIVER TO IPSWICH This brochure describes the flood warning. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding. Bremer

  15. February 2001 Flood Warning Services in Victoria

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    February 2001 Flood Warning Services in Victoria Arrangements for VICTORIAN FLOOD WARNING CONSULTATIVE COMMITTEE #12;Arrangements for Flood Warning Services in Victoria VICTORIAN FLOOD WARNING, `Geelong Advertiser' Title page: Bulleen Road at the Yarra River, Melbourne. Flooding a long time ago

  16. FLOOD PROOFING Techniques, Programs, and References

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    -----. .. .-.-..- FLOOD PROOFING Techniques, Programs, and References May 2000 m us Army Corps of Engineers® #12;FLOOD PROOFING TECHNIQUES, PROGRAMS, AND REFERENCES Preface Flood proofing is an important Flood Plain Management technique that can be used to reduce flood damage to buildings

  17. FLOOD PROOFING How to Evaluate Your Options

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    FLOOD PROOFING How to Evaluate Your Options Decision Tree us Army Corps of £nqineer';:. -- - - . · r Flood ~ro~~IJ NATIONAL FLOOD PROOFING COMMITTEE July 1993 #12;PREFACE FLOOD PROOFING - How TO EVALUATE YOUR OPTIONS This document has been prepared to help answer the question, "Should flood proofing

  18. Multireservoir operations for flood management in Tanshui River basin, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, X.; van Gelder, P. H. A. J. M.; Sloff, C. J.; Prinsen, G.; Vrijling, J. K.

    2012-04-01

    This study assesses the effectiveness of the reservoir system under different design flood events based on SOBEK-RIVER modeling package. The balanced water level index is introduced to deal with the optimal approach for joint reservoir operations. The simulation results suggest that SOBEK-RIVER significantly facilitates the model establishment for studying the propagation of floods through different flood events. It is also found in this study that the joint operation policy performs better during flood emergencies by minimizing flood damage for downstream area. The approach is applied to the Tanshui River which is located in the north of Taiwan and consists of three major tributaries: Tahan River, Hsintien River and Keelung River. Two reservoirs (Shihmen and Festui) are located in the upstream (Tahan and Hsintien) for regulating water release to protect downstream areas from floods during typhoon strikes. To simulate the flood process, the river mouth is selected as the downstream boundary while the inflow into the river basin is controlled by the precipitation. The frequency-duration relationships derived from recorded intense bursts of rainfall of various durations are used to design the precipitation hydrographs. The storm tide distribution in the river mouth is analyzed with Monte Carlo simulations of the tide and storm surge distribution at river mouth to determine the occurrence probabilities of the extreme storm tides. All the scenario designs are based on the available data from typhoon Nari of the year 2001. The study models the flood behavior by the SOBEK-RIVER modeling system which was developed by DELTARES. The proposed procedure in this study involves three modules which are a rainfall runoff model, a reservoir operation model and a channel routing model respectively.

  19. Two-dimensional hydrodynamic flood modelling for populated valley areas of Russian rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belikov, V. V.; Krylenko, I. N.; Alabyan, A. M.; Sazonov, A. A.; Glotko, A. V.

    2015-06-01

    Results of flood modelling for three cities located in different parts of Russia: (1) Veliky Ustyug at the Northern Dvina river (Europe); (2) Mezhdurechensk at the Tom river (Siberia); and (3) Blagoveschensk at the Amur river (Far East) are presented. The two-dimensional hydrodynamic model of flow in channels and on floodplain STREAM_2D on the basis of the numerical solution of two-dimensional Saint-Venant equations on a hybrid curvilinear quadrangular and rectangular mesh was used for the simulations. Verification of the model through a comparison of simulated inundated areas with outlines of flooded zones from satellite images for known hydrologic situations demonstrate close correspondence (relative errors of 7-12% in terms of the area for peaks of the analysed floods). Analyses of embankment influence of large-scale levees on the water flow demonstrate that, in some cases, water levels could rise by more than 1 m and the patterns of the flooding zones could significantly differ.

  20. Development of regional skews for selected flood durations for the Central Valley Region, California, based on data through water year 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamontagne, Jonathan R.; Stedinger, Jery R.; Berenbrock, Charles; Veilleux, Andrea G.; Ferris, Justin C.; Knifong, Donna L.

    2012-01-01

    Flood-frequency information is important in the Central Valley region of California because of the high risk of catastrophic flooding. Most traditional flood-frequency studies focus on peak flows, but for the assessment of the adequacy of reservoirs, levees, other flood control structures, sustained flood flow (flood duration) frequency data are needed. This study focuses on rainfall or rain-on-snow floods, rather than the annual maximum, because rain events produce the largest floods in the region. A key to estimating flood-duration frequency is determining the regional skew for such data. Of the 50 sites used in this study to determine regional skew, 28 sites were considered to have little to no significant regulated flows, and for the 22 sites considered significantly regulated, unregulated daily flow data were synthesized by using reservoir storage changes and diversion records. The unregulated, annual maximum rainfall flood flows for selected durations (1-day, 3-day, 7-day, 15-day, and 30-day) for all 50 sites were furnished by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Station skew was determined by using the expected moments algorithm program for fitting the Pearson Type 3 flood-frequency distribution to the logarithms of annual flood-duration data. Bayesian generalized least squares regression procedures used in earlier studies were modified to address problems caused by large cross correlations among concurrent rainfall floods in California and to address the extensive censoring of low outliers at some sites, by using the new expected moments algorithm for fitting the LP3 distribution to rainfall flood-duration data. To properly account for these problems and to develop suitable regional-skew regression models and regression diagnostics, a combination of ordinary least squares, weighted least squares, and Bayesian generalized least squares regressions were adopted. This new methodology determined that a nonlinear model relating regional skew to mean basin elevation was the best model for each flood duration. The regional-skew values ranged from -0.74 for a flood duration of 1-day and a mean basin elevation less than 2,500 feet to values near 0 for a flood duration of 7-days and a mean basin elevation greater than 4,500 feet. This relation between skew and elevation reflects the interaction of snow and rain, which increases with increased elevation. The regional skews are more accurate, and the mean squared errors are less than in the Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data's National skew map of Bulletin 17B.

  1. Contemporary channel-levee systems in active borderland basin plains, California Continental Borderland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwalbach, J.R.; Edwards, B.D.; Gorsline, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    Long-range large-scale side-scan (GLORIA) information, other seismic reflection profiling studies, and data from cores in the California Continental Borderland, have defined active levee-channel systems extending basinward from the lower fan of Hueneme-Mugu Submarine Fan, Redondo Submarine Fan, and Santa Cruz Canyon Fan in Santa Monica, San Pedro and Santa Cruz Basins, respectively. The Holocene distributaries have been created by a series of turbidity current events. These distributaries range in length from 10-25 km, and are wide (2-5 km) and low-relief (1-10 m) in their distal parts. They are also active conduits for nepheloid flows. Distributions of sedimentological parameters typically mimic the pattern of levee-channel systems. Organic carbon and biogenic carbonate content roughly outline the systems. Channels are incised in the upper to middle fan areas, and become constructional leveed channels in the lower fan and basin plain as the channel gradient adjusts to maintain a graded profile. Thus sediment gravity flows are generally confined to channels in the upper fan zones, but deposit both channelized and over-bank deposits on the lower fan and basin floor. The deposits show that the canyon-fan activity has continued during a rising sea level phase. It is evident that canyon headward erosion rates have been equal to or greater than the transgression rate, and that the canyon-fan systems have remained linked with their sediment sources. Frequency of events was probably higher, and volumes of the events were often larger, during the glacially lowered sea level episodes. However, turbidity currents of sufficient volume to reach the basin floors continue to occur at century or multi-century intervals. As one progresses headward in each system, the number of flows per length of core increases. Small flows that do not pass beyond the distributaries are much more frequent, and may be decadal in frequency, or even more frequent in the Santa Monica Basin system. These California borderland basins are probably typical of narrow active margins where rate of lateral sea level transgression is less than or equal to the rate of canyon headward erosion. The canyons maintain connections with sediment sources during sea level rise, and the systems therefore are active during the entire sea level cycle. Thus sediment supply is not a simple function of eustacy. This contrasts with the simplified sequence model developed on passive margins where canyons turn off as sea level rises.

  2. The Hurricane-Flood-Landslide Continuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negri, Andrew J.; Burkardt, Nina; Golden, Joseph H.; Halverson, Jeffrey B.; Huffman, George J.; Larsen, Matthew C.; McGinley, John A.; Updike, Randall G.; Verdin, James P.; Wieczorek, Gerald F.

    2005-01-01

    In August 2004, representatives from NOAA, NASA, the USGS, and other government agencies convened in San Juan, Puerto Rim for a workshop to discuss a proposed research project called the Hurricane-Flood-Landslide Continuum (HFLC). The essence of the HFLC is to develop and integrate tools across disciplines to enable the issuance of regional guidance products for floods and landslides associated with major tropical rain systems, with sufficient lead time that local emergency managers can protect vulnerable populations and infrastructure. All three lead agencies are independently developing precipitation-flood-debris flow forecasting technologies, and all have a history of work on natural hazards both domestically and overseas. NOM has the capability to provide tracking and prediction of storm rainfall, trajectory and landfall and is developing flood probability and magnTtude capabilities. The USGS has the capability to evaluate the ambient stability of natural and man-made landforms, to assess landslide susceptibilities for those landforms, and to establish probabilities for initiation of landslides and debris flows. Additionally, the USGS has well-developed operational capacity for real-time monitoring and reporting of streamflow across distributed networks of automated gaging stations (http://water.usgs.gov/waterwatch/). NASA has the capability to provide sophisticated algorithms for satellite remote sensing of precipitation, land use, and in the future, soil moisture. The Workshop sought to initiate discussion among three agencies regarding their specific and highly complimentary capabilities. The fundamental goal of the Workshop was to establish a framework that will leverage the strengths of each agency. Once a prototype system is developed for example, in relatively data-rich Puerto Rim, it could be adapted for use in data-poor, low-infrastructure regions such as the Dominican Republic or Haiti. This paper provides an overview of the Workshop s goals, presentations and recommendations with respect to the development of the HFLC.

  3. Urban flooding and Resilience: concepts and needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourbesville, Ph.

    2012-04-01

    During the recent years, a growing interest for resilience has been expressed in the natural disaster mitigation area and especially in the flood related events. The European Union, under the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), has initiated several research initiatives in order to explore this concept especially for the urban environments. Under urban resilience is underlined the ability of system potentially exposed to hazard to resist, respond, recover and reflect up to stage which is enough to preserve level of functioning and structure. Urban system can be resilient to lot of different hazards. Urban resilience is defined as the degree to which cities are able to tolerate some disturbance before reorganizing around a new set of structures and processes (Holling 1973, De Bruijn 2005). The United Nation's International strategy for Disaster Reductions has defined resilience as "the capacity of a system, community or society potentially exposed to hazards to adapt, by resisting or changing in order to reach and maintain an acceptable level of functioning and structure. This is determined by the degree to which the social system is capable of organizing itself to increase this capacity for learning from past disasters for better future protection and to improve risk reduction measures."(UN/ISDR 2004). According to that, system should be able to accept the hazard and be able to recover up to condition that provides acceptable operational level of city structure and population during and after hazard event. Main elements of urban system are built environment and population. Physical characteristic of built environment and social characteristic of population have to be examined in order to evaluate resilience. Therefore presenting methodology for assessing flood resilience in urban areas has to be one of the focal points for the exposed cities. Strategies under flood management planning related to resilience of urban systems are usually regarding controlling runoff volume, increasing capacity of drainage systems, spatial planning, building regulations, etc. Resilience also considers resilience of population to floods and it's measured with time. Assessment of resilience that is focused on population is following bottom-up approach starting from individual and then assessing community level. Building resilience involves also contribution of social networks, increasing response capacity of communities, self-organization, learning and education and cheering adaptation culture. Measures for improving social side of resilience covers: raising public awareness, implementation of flood forecasting and warning, emergency response planning and training, sharing information, education and communication. Most of these aspects are analyzed with the CORFU FP7 project. Collaborative Research on Flood Resilience in Urban areas (CORFU) is a major project involving 17 European and Asian institutions, funded by a grant from the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Programme. The overall aim of CORFU is to enable European and Asian partners to learn from each other through joint investigation, development, implementation and dissemination of short to medium term strategies that will enable more scientifically sound management of the consequences of urban flooding in the future and to develop resilience strategies according to each situation. The CORFU project looks at advanced and novel strategies and provide adequate measures for improved flood management in cities. The differences in urban flooding problems in Asia and in Europe range from levels of economic development, infrastructure age, social systems and decision making processes, to prevailing drainage methods, seasonality of rainfall patterns and climate change trends. The study cases are, in Europe, the cities of Hamburg, Barcelona and Nice, and in Asia, Beijing, Dhaka, Mumbai, Taipei, Seoul and Incheon.

  4. Surfactant-enhanced low-pH alkaline flooding

    SciTech Connect

    Peru, D.A. (Grace (W.R.) and Co., Columbia, MD (USA). Research Div.); Lorenz, P.B. (National Inst. for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (USA))

    1990-08-01

    This paper reports sodium bicarbonate investigated as a potential alkaline agent in surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding because it has very little tendency to dissolve silicate minerals. In experiments performed with Wilmington, CA, crude oil and three types of surfactants, the bicarbonate/surfactant combination caused a marked lowering of interfacial tension (IFT). Bicarbonate protected the surfactant against divalent cations and reduced adsorption of surfactant and polymer on various minerals. Coreflood test confirm that sodium bicarbonate plus surfactant can be an effective alternative to the high-pH flooding process.

  5. Geophysical Characterization of the American River Levees, Sacramento, California, using Electromagnetics, Capacitively Coupled Resistivity, and DC Resistivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asch, Theodore H.; Deszcz-Pan, Maria; Burton, Bethany L.; Ball, Lyndsay B.

    2008-01-01

    A geophysical characterization of a portion of American River levees in Sacramento, California was conducted in May, 2007. Targets of interest included the distribution and thickness of sand lenses that underlie the levees and the depth to a clay unit that underlies the sand. The concern is that the erosion of these sand lenses can lead to levee failure in highly populated areas of Sacramento. DC resistivity (Geometric?s OhmMapper and Advanced Geosciences, Inc.?s SuperSting R8 systems) and electromagnetic surveys (Geophex?s GEM-2) were conducted over a 6 mile length of the levee on roads and bicycle and horse trails. 2-D inversions were conducted on all the geophysical data. The OhmMapper and SuperSting surveys produced consistent inversion results that delineated potential sand and clay units. GEM-2 apparent resistivity data were consistent with the DC inversion results. However, the GEM-2 data could not be inverted due to low electromagnetic response levels, high ambient electromagnetic noise, and large system drifts. While this would not be as large a problem in conductive terrains, it is a problem for a small induction number electromagnetic profiling system such as the GEM-2 in a resistive terrain (the sand lenses). An integrated interpretation of the geophysical data acquired in this investigation is presented in this report that includes delineation of those areas consisting of predominantly sand and those areas consisting predominantly of clay. In general, along most of this part of the American River levee system, sand lenses are located closest to the river and clay deposits are located further away from the river. The interpreted thicknesses of the detected sand deposits are variable and range from 10 ft up to 60 ft. Thus, despite issues with the GEM-2 inversion, this geophysical investigation successfully delineated sand lenses and clay deposits along the American River levee system and the approximate depths to underlying clay zones. The results of this geophysical investigation should help the USACE to maintain the current levee system while also assisting the designers and planners of levee enhancements with the knowledge of what is to be expected from the near-surface geology and where zones of concern may be located.

  6. Characterizing land surface change and levee stability in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta using UAVSAR radar imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, C.; Bawden, G.; Deverel, S.; Dudas, J.; Hensley, S.

    2011-01-01

    The islands of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta have been subject to subsidence since they were first reclaimed from the estuary marshlands starting over 100 years ago, with most of the land currently lying below mean sea level. This area, which is the primary water resource of the state of California, is under constant threat of inundation from levee failure. Since July 2009, we have been imaging the area using the quad-polarimetric UAVSAR L-band radar, with eighteen data sets collected as of April 2011. Here we report results of our polarimetric and differential interferometric analysis of the data for levee deformation and land surface change. ?? 2011 IEEE.

  7. Production and decomposition of forest litter fall on the Apalachicola River flood plain, Florida: Chapter B, Apalachicola River quality assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elder, John F.; Cairns, Duncan J.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of litter fall (leaves and other particulate organic material) and leaf decomposition were made on the bottom-land hardwood swamp of the Apalachicola River flood plain in 1979-80. Litter fall was collected monthly from nets located in 16 study plots. The plots represented five forest types in the swamp and levee areas of the Apalachicola River flood plain. Forty-three species of trees, vines, and other plants contributed to the total litter fall, but more than 90 percent of the leaf material originated from 12 species. Nonleaf material made up 42 percent of the total litter fall. Average litter fall was determined to be 800 grams per square meter per year, resulting in an annual deposition of 3.6 ? 105 metric tons of organic material in the 454-square-kilometer flood plain. The levee communities have less tree biomass but greater tree diversity than do swamp communities. The levee vegetation, containing less tree biomass, produces slightly more litter fall per unit of ground surface area than does the swamp vegetation. The swamps are dominated by three genera: tupelo (Nyssa), cypress (Taxodium) and ash (Fraxinus). These genera account for more than 50 percent of the total leaf fall in the flood plain, but they are the least productive, on a weight-perbiomass basis, of any of the 12 major leaf producers. Decomposition rates of leaves from five common floodplain tree species were measured using a standard leaf-bag technique. Leaf decomposition was highly species dependent. Tupelo (Nyssa spp.) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) leaves decomposed completely in 6 months when flooded by river water. Leaves of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) and diamond-leaf oak (Quercus laurifolia) were much more resistant. Water hickory (Carya aquatica) leaves showed intermediate decomposition rates. Decomposition of all species was greatly reduced in dry environments. Carbon and biomass loss rates from the leaves were nearly linear over a 6-month period, but nitrogen and phosphorus leaching was nearly complete within 1 month. Much of the organic substance may be recycled in the forest ecosystem, but annual flooding of the river provides an important mechanism for mobilization of the litter-fall products.

  8. Flood Risk Due to Hurricane Flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivera, Francisco; Hsu, Chih-Hung; Irish, Jennifer

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we evaluated the expected economic losses caused by hurricane inundation. We used surge response functions, which are physics-based dimensionless scaling laws that give surge elevation as a function of the hurricane's parameters (i.e., central pressure, radius, forward speed, approach angle and landfall location) at specified locations along the coast. These locations were close enough to avoid significant changes in surge elevations between consecutive points, and distant enough to minimize calculations. The probability of occurrence of a surge elevation value at a given location was estimated using a joint probability distribution of the hurricane parameters. The surge elevation, at the shoreline, was assumed to project horizontally inland within a polygon of influence. Individual parcel damage was calculated based on flood water depth and damage vs. depth curves available for different building types from the HAZUS computer application developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Parcel data, including property value and building type, were obtained from the county appraisal district offices. The expected economic losses were calculated as the sum of the products of the estimated parcel damages and their probability of occurrence for the different storms considered. Anticipated changes for future climate scenarios were considered by accounting for projected hurricane intensification, as indicated by sea surface temperature rise, and sea level rise, which modify the probability distribution of hurricane central pressure and change the baseline of the damage calculation, respectively. Maps of expected economic losses have been developed for Corpus Christi in Texas, Gulfport in Mississippi and Panama City in Florida. Specifically, for Port Aransas, in the Corpus Christi area, it was found that the expected economic losses were in the range of 1% to 4% of the property value for current climate conditions, of 1% to 8% for the 2030's and of 1% to 14% for the 2080's.

  9. 78 FR 77481 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ...FEMA-B-1352] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations...Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION...These proposed flood hazard determinations...with the floodplain management criteria required...entities. These flood hazard determinations...meet the floodplain management requirements...

  10. 78 FR 72920 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ...FEMA-B-1351] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations...Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION...These proposed flood hazard determinations...with the floodplain management criteria required...entities. These flood hazard determinations...meet the floodplain management requirements...

  11. 76 FR 50952 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1210] Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal...the proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications...comment regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by...

  12. 75 FR 29246 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1104] Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal...the proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications...comment regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by...

  13. Flood management benefits of USGS streamgaging program

    E-print Network

    Fleskes, Joe

    Flood management benefits of USGS streamgaging program October 19, 2006 National Hydrologic Warning ................................................................................................................. 6 What are the information needs for flood management in the US?........................................ 13 What is the benefit of meeting the information need for flood management project design

  14. 76 FR 8986 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ...Regulatory Flexibility Act. As flood elevation determinations are...Administrative practice and procedure, Flood insurance, Reporting and recordkeeping...Great Miami River...Please refer to the revised Flood Insurance Rate Map located...

  15. 75 FR 43479 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ...Please refer to the revised Flood Insurance Rate Map located...Please refer to the revised Flood Insurance Rate Map located...Street....... None +175 Great Pond Tributary...Please refer to the revised Flood Insurance Rate Map...

  16. 75 FR 78926 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ...Regulatory Flexibility Act. As flood elevation determinations...practice and procedure, Flood insurance, Reporting...upstream of Symmes Road. Great Miami River...confluence with Gregory Creek. Great Miami River...Assistance No. 97.022, ``Flood Insurance.'')...

  17. 77 FR 66737 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ...Base Flood Elevation Changes +6-22 Unincorporated...Base Flood Elevation Changes +10-14...Base Flood Elevation Changes +8-12 Unincorporated...Unincorporated Areas of upstream of the Great Pee Williamsburg County....

  18. Ready.Gov for Kids: Floods

    MedlinePLUS

    ... library to learn more about floods Blackouts Drought Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Home Fires Hurricanes Landslides/Debris ... FEMA YouTube FEMA Blog Disaster Types Hurricanes Floods Earthquakes Wildfires Tornadoes Home Fires Blackouts Biological Threats Ready. ...

  19. Flood precautionary behaviour of private households in Can Tho city in the Mekong Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreibich, Heidi; Gani Adnan, Sarfaraz; Thi Chinh, Do; Bubeck, Philip

    2015-04-01

    Flood risk is high and it is projected to increase in many places due to the effects of climate change and the on-going intensification of human activities in risk-prone areas. These projections and the considerable uncertainties associated with these developments increasingly require integrated approaches in flood risk management. In addition to flood protection, private precautionary measures aim at reducing the potential negative consequences of floods. Thus, insights into flood precautionary behaviour are important. This study is grounded on the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT), which refers to the cognitive process that people undergo when evaluating their own ability to avoid a certain risk. Results of a survey among 858 flood-prone households in Can Tho city in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam are presented. It is shown that flood-coping appraisal is an important variable in terms of precautionary behaviour. Thus, risk communication should focus more on the potential of precautionary measures to effectively reduce flood damage, as well as on information about how to implement such measures in practice.

  20. Recent advances in flood forecasting and flood risk assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Arduino; P. Reggiani; E. Todini

    2005-01-01

    Recent large floods in Europe have led to increased interest in research and development of flood forecasting systems. Some of these events have been provoked by some of the wettest rainfall periods on record which has led to speculation that such extremes are attributable in some measure to anthropogenic global warming and represent the beginning of a period of higher

  1. Argentine, East Bottoms, Fairfax-Jersey Creek, and North Kansan City Levee Units

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    and Tributaries at Kansas Cities, Missouri and Kansas 20 September 2006 Abstract: The Missouri River and Tributaries at Kansas Cities project was authorized by the Flood Control Act of 1936, and modified. The project area is located in the Kansas City metropolitan area at the confluence of the Missouri and Kansas

  2. Flood Frequency Estimates and Documented and Potential Extreme Peak Discharges in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tortorelli, Robert L.; McCabe, Lan P.

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge of the magnitude and frequency of floods is required for the safe and economical design of highway bridges, culverts, dams, levees, and other structures on or near streams; and for flood plain management programs. Flood frequency estimates for gaged streamflow sites were updated, documented extreme peak discharges for gaged and miscellaneous measurement sites were tabulated, and potential extreme peak discharges for Oklahoma streamflow sites were estimated. Potential extreme peak discharges, derived from the relation between documented extreme peak discharges and contributing drainage areas, can provide valuable information concerning the maximum peak discharge that could be expected at a stream site. Potential extreme peak discharge is useful in conjunction with flood frequency analysis to give the best evaluation of flood risk at a site. Peak discharge and flood frequency for selected recurrence intervals from 2 to 500 years were estimated for 352 gaged streamflow sites. Data through 1999 water year were used from streamflow-gaging stations with at least 8 years of record within Oklahoma or about 25 kilometers into the bordering states of Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, New Mexico, and Texas. These sites were in unregulated basins, and basins affected by regulation, urbanization, and irrigation. Documented extreme peak discharges and associated data were compiled for 514 sites in and near Oklahoma, 352 with streamflow-gaging stations and 162 at miscellaneous measurements sites or streamflow-gaging stations with short record, with a total of 671 measurements.The sites are fairly well distributed statewide, however many streams, large and small, have never been monitored. Potential extreme peak-discharge curves were developed for streamflow sites in hydrologic regions of the state based on documented extreme peak discharges and the contributing drainage areas. Two hydrologic regions, east and west, were defined using 98 degrees 15 minutes longitude as the dividing line.

  3. Flood hazard probability mapping method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalantari, Zahra; Lyon, Steve; Folkeson, Lennart

    2015-04-01

    In Sweden, spatially explicit approaches have been applied in various disciplines such as landslide modelling based on soil type data and flood risk modelling for large rivers. Regarding flood mapping, most previous studies have focused on complex hydrological modelling on a small scale whereas just a few studies have used a robust GIS-based approach integrating most physical catchment descriptor (PCD) aspects on a larger scale. The aim of the present study was to develop methodology for predicting the spatial probability of flooding on a general large scale. Factors such as topography, land use, soil data and other PCDs were analysed in terms of their relative importance for flood generation. The specific objective was to test the methodology using statistical methods to identify factors having a significant role on controlling flooding. A second objective was to generate an index quantifying flood probability value for each cell, based on different weighted factors, in order to provide a more accurate analysis of potential high flood hazards than can be obtained using just a single variable. The ability of indicator covariance to capture flooding probability was determined for different watersheds in central Sweden. Using data from this initial investigation, a method to subtract spatial data for multiple catchments and to produce soft data for statistical analysis was developed. It allowed flood probability to be predicted from spatially sparse data without compromising the significant hydrological features on the landscape. By using PCD data, realistic representations of high probability flood regions was made, despite the magnitude of rain events. This in turn allowed objective quantification of the probability of floods at the field scale for future model development and watershed management.

  4. The Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iceland, Charles

    2015-04-01

    As population growth and economic growth take place, and as climate change accelerates, many regions across the globe are finding themselves increasingly vulnerable to flooding. A recent OECD study of the exposure of the world's large port cities to coastal flooding found that 40 million people were exposed to a 1 in 100 year coastal flood event in 2005, and the total value of exposed assets was about US 3,000 billion, or 5% of global GDP. By the 2070s, those numbers were estimated to increase to 150 million people and US 35,000 billion, or roughly 9% of projected global GDP. Impoverished people in developing countries are particularly at risk because they often live in flood-prone areas and lack the resources to respond. WRI and its Dutch partners - Deltares, IVM-VU University Amsterdam, Utrecht University, and PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency - are in the initial stages of developing a robust set of river flood and coastal storm surge risk measures that show the extent of flooding under a variety of scenarios (both current and future), together with the projected human and economic impacts of these flood scenarios. These flood risk data and information will be accessible via an online, easy-to-use Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer. We will also investigate the viability, benefits, and costs of a wide array of flood risk reduction measures that could be implemented in a variety of geographic and socio-economic settings. Together, the activities we propose have the potential for saving hundreds of thousands of lives and strengthening the resiliency and security of many millions more, especially those who are most vulnerable. Mr. Iceland will present Version 1.0 of the Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer and provide a preview of additional elements of the Analyzer to be released in the coming years.

  5. Flooding in Central Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A mixture of snowmelt and ice jams in late May and June of this year caused the Taz River (left) and the Yenisey River (right) in central Siberia to overflow their banks. The flooding can be seen in this image taken on June 11, 2002, by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra satellite. Normally, the rivers would resemble thin black lines in MODIS imagery. In the false-color images sage green and rusty orange is land, and water is black. Clouds are white and pink. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  6. Snowmelt and Floods

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The rate that the snow melts is crucial in determining how fast water will reach the streams and rivers and thus, how damaging the flooding may be. This resource provides a step-by-step calculation of the volume of water stored in the snow in the Red River basin. This resource is from PUMAS - Practical Uses of Math and Science - a collection of brief examples created by scientists and engineers showing how math and science topics taught in K-12 classes have real world applications.

  7. Tharsis Flood Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    17 July 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows channels carved by catastrophic floods in the Tharsis region of Mars. This area is located northwest of the volcano, Jovis Tholus, and east of the large martian volcano, Olympus Mons. The terrain is presently mantled with fine dust.

    Location near: 20.8oN, 118.8oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  8. Floods in Central China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This pair of true- and false-color images from the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows flooding in central China on July 4, 2002. In the false-color image vegetation appears orange and water appears dark blue to black. Because of the cloud cover and the fact that some of the water is filled with sediment, the false-color image provides a clearer picture of where rivers have exceeded their banks and lakes have risen. The river in this image is the Yangtze River, and the large lake is the Poyang Hu. Credits: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  9. Flooding and Fire Ants 

    E-print Network

    Nester, Paul

    2008-08-05

    and Fire Ants Fire ant baits should not be used immediately af- ter a flood. They are slow acting and ineffective at this time because worker ants are not foraging for food. If you are stung, use an over-the-counter medi- cine for insect bites or stings... within the first 15 to 20 minutes. Some people report that the irrita- tion of a fire ant sting can be relieved by applying a 50:50 solution of bleach and water. Other home remedies include ammonia, meat tenderizer, tea tree oil and camphor...

  10. Floods in the Raccoon River basin, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinitz, Albert J.

    1980-01-01

    Evaluation of flood hazards, and the planning, design, and operation of various facilities on flood plains requires information on floods. This report provides information on flood stages and discharges, flood magnitude and frequency, bench mark data, and flood profiles for the Raccoon River and some of its tributaries. Ir covers the Raccoon River, the North Raccoon River to the northern boundary of Sac County and the lower reaches of the Middle and South Raccoon Rivers.

  11. Predicting Flood Hazards in Systems with Multiple Flooding Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luke, A.; Schubert, J.; Cheng, L.; AghaKouchak, A.; Sanders, B. F.

    2014-12-01

    Delineating flood zones in systems that are susceptible to flooding from a single mechanism (riverine flooding) is a relatively well defined procedure with specific guidance from agencies such as FEMA and USACE. However, there is little guidance in delineating flood zones in systems that are susceptible to flooding from multiple mechanisms such as storm surge, waves, tidal influence, and riverine flooding. In this study, a new flood mapping method which accounts for multiple extremes occurring simultaneously is developed and exemplified. The study site in which the method is employed is the Tijuana River Estuary (TRE) located in Southern California adjacent to the U.S./Mexico border. TRE is an intertidal coastal estuary that receives freshwater flows from the Tijuana River. Extreme discharge from the Tijuana River is the primary driver of flooding within TRE, however tide level and storm surge also play a significant role in flooding extent and depth. A comparison between measured flows at the Tijuana River and ocean levels revealed a correlation between extreme discharge and ocean height. Using a novel statistical method based upon extreme value theory, ocean heights were predicted conditioned up extreme discharge occurring within the Tijuana River. This statistical technique could also be applied to other systems in which different factors are identified as the primary drivers of flooding, such as significant wave height conditioned upon tide level, for example. Using the predicted ocean levels conditioned upon varying return levels of discharge as forcing parameters for the 2D hydraulic model BreZo, the 100, 50, 20, and 10 year floodplains were delineated. The results will then be compared to floodplains delineated using the standard methods recommended by FEMA for riverine zones with a downstream ocean boundary.

  12. Added value flooding products coupling hydraulic modeling and COSMO Sky-Med SAR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorini, M.; Rudari, R.; Candela, L.; Corina, A.; Boni, G.

    2012-04-01

    In this work the real time use of a simplified two dimensional hydraulic model constrained by satellite data for the simulation of flooding events is studied. The main features of such a model are computational speed and simple start-up, with no need to insert complex information but a subset of simplified boundary and initial condition. Those characteristics allow the model to be fast enough to be used in real time for the simulation of flooding events. The model fills the gap of information left by single satellite scenes of flooded area, allowing for the estimation of the maximum flooding extension and magnitude. The static information provided by earth observation (like SAR extension of flooded areas at a certain time) are interpreted in a dynamic consitent way and very useful hydraulic information (e.g., water depth, water speed and the evolution of flooded areas)are provided. The model has been applied in several flooding events occured wordwide. amongst the other activations in the mediterranean areas like Veneto (IT) (October 2010), Basilicata (IT) (March 2011) and Shkoder (January 2010 and December 2010) are considered and compared with larger types of floods like the one of Queensland in December 2010. In the past year the model has been used, by request of Department of Civil Protection, to provide previsions of scenarios to help authority involved in recent Magra flooding, using as input the predicted discharges.

  13. Belford proactive flood solutions: scientific evidence to influence local and national policy by multi-purpose runoff management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Wilkinson; P. F. Quinn; J. Jonczyk

    2010-01-01

    The increased risk from flooding continues to be of concern to governments all around the world and flood protection is becoming more of a challenge. In the UK, climate change projections indicate more extremes within the weather systems. In addition, there is an increased demand for using land in urban areas beside channels. These developments both put pressure on our

  14. Information system on hydrological and geomorphological catastrophes in Italy (SICI): a tool for managing landslide and flood hazards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Guzzetti; G. Tonelli

    2004-01-01

    Since 1990, we have maintained a database of historical information on landslides and floods in Italy, known as the National Research Council's AVI (Damaged Urban Areas) archive. The database was originally designed to respond to a request of the Minister of Civil Protection, and was aimed at helping the regional assessment of landslide and flood risk in Italy. The database

  15. Flood scour monitoring system using fiber Bragg grating sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yung Bin; Lai, Jihn Sung; Chang, Kuo Chun; Li, Lu Sheng

    2006-12-01

    The exposure and subsequent undermining of pier/abutment foundations through the scouring action of a flood can result in the structural failure of a bridge. Bridge scour is one of the leading causes of bridge failure. Bridges subject to periods of flood/high flow require monitoring during those times in order to protect the traveling public. In this study, an innovative scour monitoring system using button-like fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors was developed and applied successfully in the field during the Aere typhoon period in 2004. The in situ FBG scour monitoring system has been demonstrated to be robust and reliable for real-time scour-depth measurements, and to be valid for indicating depositional depth at the Dadu Bridge. The field results show that this system can function well and survive a typhoon flood.

  16. Flooding in Southern Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Over the past two weeks, heavy rains have inundated southern Russia, giving rise to floods that killed up to 83 people and drove thousands from their homes. This false-color image acquired on June 23, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite shows some of the worst flooding. The Black Sea is the dark patch in the lower left-hand corner. The city of Krasnodor, Russia, which was one of the cities hardest hit, sits on the western edge of the larger lake on the left side of the image, and Stavropol, which lost more lives than any other city, sits just east of the small cluster of lakes on the right-hand side of the image. Normally, the rivers and smaller lakes in this image cannot even be seen clearly on MODIS imagery. In this false-color image, the ground is green and blue and water is black or dark brown. Clouds come across as pink and white. Credit: Image courtesy Jesse Allen, NASA GSFC, based on data provided by the MODIS Rapid Response System.

  17. Flooding along Danube River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Heavy rains in Central and Eastern Europe over the past few weeks have led to some of the worst flooding the region has witnessed in over a century. The floods have killed more than 100 people in Germany, Russia, Austria, Hungary and the Czech Republic and have led to as much as $20 billion in damage. This false-color image of the Danube River and its tributaries was taken on August 19, 2002, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. Budapest, the capital of Hungary, sits just south of the large bend in the river at the top of the image. Here the water reached levels not seen since 1965. Fortunately, the riverbanks are lined with 33-foot retainer walls throughout the city, so it did not face the same fate as Dresden or Prague along the Elbe River. But as one can see, the floodwaters hit many rural areas farther south. As last reported, the water was receding along the Danube. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC.

  18. The Routing and Re-Routing of Difficult Knowledge: Social Studies Teachers Encounter "When the Levees Broke"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, H. James

    2011-01-01

    The author explores the articulations of six social studies student/teachers after a viewing of "When the Levees Broke: A Requiem in Four Acts". The film, a documentary about the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina on the people in and around New Orleans, constitutes an encounter with what Deborah Britzman (1998) calls "difficult…

  19. Floods on the Minnesota River

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ben Laabs

    Students explore the USGS water website to identify the location of stream gauges on the Minnesota River and the types of data that can be retrieved from the website. They determine which data to download based on the area of interest in the exercise (St. Peter, MN) and import historical flood data into MS Excel. The students use a spreadsheet to rank each flood and calculate a recurrence interval for a given flood, then estimate the discharge and stage of the 100-year flood in St. Peter, MN. The final task is to establish a flood hazard zone on a topographic map of the city of St. Peter. Note: this exercise can be applied to almost any non-dammed river with two or more USGS gaging stations on it. Go to http://water.usgs.gov and select your state from the pull-down menu to view an interactive map of your state's rivers and gaging station locations.

  20. Flash Flood Processes: International Edition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COMET

    2011-02-22

    Flash floods can occur in nearly any area of the world. A rainfall-induced flash flood is a truly hydrometeorological event: one that depends on both hydrologic and meteorological conditions. Forecasting flash floods involves a detailed understanding of the local hydrologic features and continual monitoring of the current meteorological situation. This module examines both the hydrologic and meteorological processes that often contribute to the development of flash flooding. Common tools and technologies that are used in flash flood monitoring and forecasting, from manual gauging systems to complex radar- and satellite-based runoff models, are explored. This module also examines the strengths and limitations of these technologies, as well as how they are likely to advance in the future.

  1. Modeling of end-pumped quasi-three-leve1 lasers by using a M2 factor and cw operation of tunable Yb:YAG miniature lasers

    E-print Network

    Byer, Robert L.

    Modeling of end-pumped quasi-three-leve1 lasers by using a M2 factor and cw operation of tunable Yb:YAG miniature lasers Takunori TAIRA, Jiro Saikawa, Masato OHTAKA and Takao KOBAYASHI Faculty of Engineering been presented for diode-laser pumpedquasi-three-leve1lasersby includingthe effect of pump-beam quality

  2. Developing a Malaysia flood model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haseldine, Lucy; Baxter, Stephen; Wheeler, Phil; Thomson, Tina

    2014-05-01

    Faced with growing exposures in Malaysia, insurers have a need for models to help them assess their exposure to flood losses. The need for an improved management of flood risks has been further highlighted by the 2011 floods in Thailand and recent events in Malaysia. The increasing demand for loss accumulation tools in Malaysia has lead to the development of the first nationwide probabilistic Malaysia flood model, which we present here. The model is multi-peril, including river flooding for thousands of kilometres of river and rainfall-driven surface water flooding in major cities, which may cause losses equivalent to river flood in some high-density urban areas. The underlying hazard maps are based on a 30m digital surface model (DSM) and 1D/2D hydraulic modelling in JFlow and RFlow. Key mitigation schemes such as the SMART tunnel and drainage capacities are also considered in the model. The probabilistic element of the model is driven by a stochastic event set based on rainfall data, hence enabling per-event and annual figures to be calculated for a specific insurance portfolio and a range of return periods. Losses are estimated via depth-damage vulnerability functions which link the insured damage to water depths for different property types in Malaysia. The model provides a unique insight into Malaysian flood risk profiles and provides insurers with return period estimates of flood damage and loss to property portfolios through loss exceedance curve outputs. It has been successfully validated against historic flood events in Malaysia and is now being successfully used by insurance companies in the Malaysian market to obtain reinsurance cover.

  3. High-Resolution 3-D Flood Information From Radar Imagery for Flood Hazard Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guy Schumann; Renaud Hostache; Christian Puech; Lucien Hoffmann; Patrick Matgen; Florian Pappenberger; Laurent Pfister

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a remote-sensing-based steady-state flood inundation model to improve preventive flood-management strategies and flood disaster management. The Regression and Elevation-based Flood Information eXtraction (REFIX) model is based on regression analysis and uses a remotely sensed flood extent and a high-resolution floodplain digital elevation model to compute flood depths for a given flood event. The root mean squared error

  4. Flood warnings, flood disaster assessments, and flood hazard reduction: the roles of orbital remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brakenridge, G. R.; Anderson, E.; Nghiem, S. V.; Caquard, S.; Shabaneh, T. B.

    2003-01-01

    Orbital remote sensing of the Earth is now poised to make three fundamental contributions towards reducing the detrimental effects of extreme floods. Effective Flood warning requires frequent radar observation of the Earth's surface through cloud cover. In contrast, both optical and radar wavelengths will increasingly be used for disaster assessment and hazard reduction.

  5. Historical hydrology and database on flood events (Apulia, southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonigro, Teresa; Basso, Alessia; Gentile, Francesco; Polemio, Maurizio

    2014-05-01

    Historical data about floods represent an important tool for the comprehension of the hydrological processes, the estimation of hazard scenarios as a basis for Civil Protection purposes, as a basis of the rational land use management, especially in karstic areas, where time series of river flows are not available and the river drainage is rare. The research shows the importance of the improvement of existing flood database with an historical approach, finalized to collect past or historical floods event, in order to better assess the occurrence trend of floods, in the case for the Apulian region (south Italy). The main source of records of flood events for Apulia was the AVI (the acronym means Italian damaged areas) database, an existing Italian database that collects data concerning damaging floods from 1918 to 1996. The database was expanded consulting newspapers, publications, and technical reports from 1996 to 2006. In order to expand the temporal range further data were collected searching in the archives of regional libraries. About 700 useful news from 17 different local newspapers were found from 1876 to 1951. From a critical analysis of the 700 news collected since 1876 to 1952 only 437 were useful for the implementation of the Apulia database. The screening of these news showed the occurrence of about 122 flood events in the entire region. The district of Bari, the regional main town, represents the area in which the great number of events occurred; the historical analysis confirms this area as flood-prone. There is an overlapping period (from 1918 to 1952) between old AVI database and new historical dataset obtained by newspapers. With regard to this period, the historical research has highlighted new flood events not reported in the existing AVI database and it also allowed to add more details to the events already recorded. This study shows that the database is a dynamic instrument, which allows a continuous implementation of data, even in real time. More details on previous results of this research activity were recently published (Polemio, 2010; Basso et al., 2012; Lonigro et al., 2013) References Basso A., Lonigro T. and Polemio M. (2012) "The improvement of historical database on damaging hydrogeological events in the case of Apulia (Southern Italy)". Rendiconti online della Società Geologica Italiana, 21: 379-380; Lonigro T., Basso A. and Polemio M. (2013) "Historical database on damaging hydrogeological events in Apulia region (Southern Italy)". Rendiconti online della Società Geologica Italiana, 24: 196-198; Polemio M. (2010) "Historical floods and a recent extreme rainfall event in the Murgia karstic environment (Southern Italy)". Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, 54(2): 195-219.

  6. Loudon surfactant flood pilot--overview and update

    SciTech Connect

    Bragg, J.R.; Canning, J.W.; Gale, W.W.

    1983-03-01

    A successful surfactant (microemulsion) flood pilot test in a watered-out portion of the Weiler sand, Loudon Field, Illinois (USA) was completed in October, 1981. The microemulsion system tested was designed to be effective in the presence of highsalinity formation water containing 104,000 ppm (mg/1) total dissolved solids (TDS) without use of a preflush. The test was conducted in a single, 0.68acre (2752 m/sup 2/) 5-spot operated in a manner that approximated a confined pattern. The test was highly successful, recovering 60% of the oil remaining after waterflood. Cores from a post-flood well drilled within the pattern have confirmed the low final oil saturations and low surfactant retention achieved in the flood. Although oil recovery was excellent, loss of mobility control in the polymer drive bank and premature breakthrough of lower-salinity drive water were observed part-way through the test. Laboratory and field studies conducted since flood termination have confirmed that loss was caused by bacterial degradation of the xanthan biopolymer used. Several biocides were tested in the laboratory and in a field injection experiment to determine their effectiveness against the bacteria contaminating the pilot. Formaldehyde was shown to kill bacteria within the formation, have negligible absorption on reservoir rock, and permit propagation of undegraded polymer. Based on these test results, formaldehyde should protect xanthan biopolymer from bacterial degradation in future microemulsion floods at Loudon.

  7. Improving Gas Flooding Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Reid Grigg; Robert Svec; Zheng Zeng; Alexander Mikhalin; Yi Lin; Guoqiang Yin; Solomon Ampir; Rashid Kassim

    2008-03-31

    This study focuses on laboratory studies with related analytical and numerical models, as well as work with operators for field tests to enhance our understanding of and capabilities for more efficient enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Much of the work has been performed at reservoir conditions. This includes a bubble chamber and several core flood apparatus developed or modified to measure interfacial tension (IFT), critical micelle concentration (CMC), foam durability, surfactant sorption at reservoir conditions, and pressure and temperature effects on foam systems.Carbon dioxide and N{sub 2} systems have been considered, under both miscible and immiscible conditions. The injection of CO2 into brine-saturated sandstone and carbonate core results in brine saturation reduction in the range of 62 to 82% brine in the tests presented in this paper. In each test, over 90% of the reduction occurred with less than 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected, with very little additional brine production after 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected. Adsorption of all considered surfactant is a significant problem. Most of the effect is reversible, but the amount required for foaming is large in terms of volume and cost for all considered surfactants. Some foams increase resistance to the value beyond what is practical in the reservoir. Sandstone, limestone, and dolomite core samples were tested. Dissolution of reservoir rock and/or cement, especially carbonates, under acid conditions of CO2 injection is a potential problem in CO2 injection into geological formations. Another potential change in reservoir injectivity and productivity will be the precipitation of dissolved carbonates as the brine flows and pressure decreases. The results of this report provide methods for determining surfactant sorption and can be used to aid in the determination of surfactant requirements for reservoir use in a CO{sub 2}-foam flood for mobility control. It also provides data to be used to determine rock permeability changes during CO{sub 2} flooding due to saturation changes, dissolution, and precipitation.

  8. Protection 1 Protection1

    E-print Network

    Lampson, Butler W.

    Protection 1 Protection1 Butler W. Lampson Xerox Corporation Palo Alto, California Abstract Abstract models are given which reflect the properties of most existing mechanisms for enforcing protection are explicated in terms of the model and implementations. Introduction `Protection'is a general term for all

  9. Protection 1 Protection 1

    E-print Network

    Lampson, Butler W.

    Protection 1 Protection 1 Butler W. Lampson Xerox Corporation Palo Alto, California Abstract Abstract models are given which reflect the properties of most existing mechanisms for enforcing protection are explicated in terms of the model and implementations. Introduction `Protection'is a general term for all

  10. Multivariate probabilistic regional envelopes of extreme floods

    E-print Network

    Vogel, Richard M.

    from REC, MVE and an index-flood approach. We document that MVEs outperform RECs and provide flood quantile estimates at ungaged sites that are nearly as reliable as index flood quantiles. ª 2007 Elsevier BMultivariate probabilistic regional envelopes of extreme floods Attilio Castellarin a,*, Richard M

  11. Multivariate probabilistic regional envelopes of extreme floods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Attilio Castellarin; Richard M. Vogel; Nicholas C. Matalas

    2007-01-01

    Recently probabilistic regional envelope curves of extreme floods (RECs) were introduced along with an estimator of the exceedance probability of a REC that accounts for the impact of correlation among flood sequences. The dependence of traditional envelope curves on drainage area alone impacts their reliability for estimating the design-flood. We introduce multivariate regional envelopes (MVEs) of extreme floods which are

  12. Managing rivers: flooding, climate change and the summer 2007 floods

    E-print Network

    Glasgow, University of

    2001 2003 2005 J,J,A 2007 North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO): pressure difference anomaly between Iceland: flood risk and climate change UKCIP 2002 predictions of annual rainfall change #12;The long-term context

  13. FLOOD WARNING This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Commonwealth Bureau of

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    FLOOD WARNING in QUEENSLAND This brochure describes the flood warning system operated for managing and responding to flood disasters to understand the flood warning system. More details are given in flood at Surat, Queensland. January 1996. Photo courtesy of Wimera Aviation. Contained in this document

  14. FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM This brochure describes the flood warning system operated by the Australian Government,

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    Services in the local area. Internet/World Wide Web Flood Warnings, River Height Bulletins and otherFLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the MARY RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning

  15. Water Quality of a Drained Wetland, Caledonia Marsh on Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, after Flooding in 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindenberg, Mary K.; Wood, Tamara M.

    2009-01-01

    The unexpected inundation of Caledonia Marsh, a previously drained wetland adjacent to Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, provided an opportunity to observe nutrient release from sediments into the water column of the flooded area and the resulting algal growth. Three sites, with differing proximity to the levee breach that reconnected the area to Upper Klamath Lake, were selected for water sample collection in the marsh. Chlorophyll a concentrations (an indicator of algal biomass) were lowest and dissolved nutrient concentrations were highest at the site farthest from the breach. At the site where chlorophyll a concentrations were lowest, dissolved organic carbon concentrations were highest, and the presence of tannic compounds was indicated by the dark brown color of the water. Both DOC and specific conductance was higher at the site farthest from the breach, which indicated less mixing with Upper Klamath Lake water at that site. Dissolved oxygen concentrations and pH were lowest at the beginning of the sampling period at the site farthest from the levee breach, coincident with the lowest algal growth. Phosphorus concentrations measured in the flooded Caledonia Marsh were greater than median concentrations in Upper Klamath Lake, indicating that phosphorus likely was released from the previously drained wetland soils of the marsh when they were flooded. However, a proportional increase in algal biomass was not measured either in the marsh or in the adjacent bay of the lake. Nitrogen to phosphorus ratios indicated that phosphorus was not limiting to algal growth at the marsh sites, and possibly was not limiting in the adjacent bay either. In terms of nutrient dynamics, wetlands normally function as nutrient sinks. In contrast, the drained wetlands around Upper Klamath Lake cannot be expected to provide that function in the short term after being flooded and may, in fact, be a source of nutrients to the lake instead. The consequences for algal growth in the lake, however, seem to be small.

  16. Flash Flood Early Warning System Reference Guide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COMET

    2011-10-18

    The Flash Flood Warning System Reference Guide is intended to promote the implementation of flash flood early warning systems based upon proven and effective methods already in use in flash-flood prone nations around the world. Both governmental and non-governmental decision makers can use it to better understand flash floods and the elements that constitute a robust, end-to-end flash flood early warning system. The guide includes chapters on Flash Flood Science, Flash Flood Forecasting Methods, Monitoring Networks, Technology Infrastructure, Warning Dissemination and Notification, and Community-based Disaster Management, and offers several examples of warning systems.

  17. Living together flash-floods: the Versilia (Italy) case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporali, Enrica; Pileggi, Tiziana; Gruntfest, Eve; Ruin, Isabelle; Federici, Giorgio

    2010-05-01

    The phenomena involved in extreme flash-flood events are complex and their prediction is affected by a given degree of uncertainty that makes the warning communication very difficult to achieve. The promotion of the natural hazards perception and the improvement in warning communication, aimed at human life losses reduction, became extremely important to accomplish. As a case study the Versilia river basin, in North - West Tuscany, Central Italy, prone to frequent flash-flood events, is considered. In the area, as stated from Santini (a local historian of XIX century), since 1386 existed special statutes, imposing rivers maintenance for protection against floods. Historical data testify also that the biggest flood events have occurred in the years 1774, 1885, 1902 and 1996. The last event is the one deeply analyzed and better documented. It was exceptional, the consequences on the population were dramatic, and the effects on building and infrastructures were catastrophic. With reference to the Versilia region, a geographic database for flood risk assessment, integrating diachronic data with the results of hydrological and sedimentological modeling, and integrating different competencies, is implemented. The purpose is to provide valuable aid to flash-floods prediction, risk assessment, structural and non-structural mitigation measures. As a first attempt, the combination of all the information available on the history of floods of Versilia region and model results, together with human exposure to flash-flood risk, is also explored. The aim is to investigate the detailed hydrometeorological circumstances that lead to accidental casualties and to better understand the predominant physical factors of risk. In the framework of enhancing natural hazards perception, a very particular educational experience, dedicated to the personnel that work on the territory with different roles and in different fields (i.e. municipal and provincial police, national forest body, voluntary associations, etc.), that in the early warning and in emergency states can be involved in the warning system and the Civil Protection Activities, is also described. The Versilia area, in the days around last Christmas (25-28 December 2009), has been hit again by a series of intense weather events. The rainfall and instability data, as well as the interventions, of these last events, have been acquired and are being processing. The aim is to analyze and verify the impacts on the territory and on the population, also in terms of communities' behavior, risk perception and capacity to cope.

  18. 78 FR 21590 - Coconino National Forest; Arizona; Flagstaff Watershed Protection Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ...National Forest; Arizona; Flagstaff Watershed Protection Project AGENCY: Forest Service...the potential effects of the Flagstaff Watershed Protection Project (FWPP). The analysis...wildfire and subsequent flooding in two watersheds around Flagstaff. Specifically,...

  19. Evaluation of the use of reach transmissivity to quantify leakage beneath Levee 31N, Miami-Dade County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nemeth, Mark S.; Wilcox, Walter M.; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.

    2000-01-01

    A coupled ground- and surface-water model (MODBRANCH) was developed to estimate ground-water flow beneath Levee 31N in Miami-Dade County, Florida, and to simulate hydrologic conditions in the surrounding area. The study included compilation of data from monitoring stations, measurement of vertical seepage rates in wetlands, and analysis of the hydrogeologic properties of the ground-water aquifer within the study area. In addition, the MODBRANCH code was modified to calculate the exchange between surface-water channels and ground water using a relation based on the concept of reach transmissivity. The modified reach-transmissivity version of the MODBRANCH code was successfully tested on three simple problems with known analytical solutions. It was also tested and determined to function adequately on one field problem that had previously been solved using the unmodified version of the software. The modified version of MODBRANCH was judged to have performed satisfactorily, and it required about 60 percent as many iterations to reach a solution. Additionally, its input parameters are more physically-based and less dependent on model-grid spacing. A model of the Levee 31N area was developed and used with the original and modified versions of MODBRANCH, which produced similar output. The mean annual modeled ground-water heads differed by only 0.02 foot, and the mean annual canal discharge differed by less than 1.0 cubic foot per second. Seepage meters were used to quantify vertical seepage rates in the Everglades wetlands area west of Levee 31N. A comparison between results from the seepage meters and from the computer model indicated substantial differences that seemed to be a result of local variations in the hydraulic properties in the topmost part of the Biscayne aquifer. The transmissivity of the Biscayne aquifer was estimated to be 1,400,000 square feet per day in the study area. The computer model was employed to simulate seepage of ground water beneath Levee 31N. Modeled seepage rates were usually between 100 and 400 cubic feet per day per foot of levee, but extreme values ranged from about -200 to 500 cubic feet per day (positive values indicate eastward seepage beneath the levee). The modeled seepage results were used to develop an algorithm to estimate seepage based on head differential at selected monitoring stations. The algorithm was determined to adequately predict ground-water seepage.

  20. 33 CFR 239.6 - Level of protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PARTICIPATION IN COVERED FLOOD CONTROL CHANNELS § 239.6 Level of protection. Evaluation of the above items may indicate that submergence of entrances to covered channels may have significant impacts on the level of flooding. The requirements of EO 11988 and...