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Sample records for floor field cellular

  1. Some properties of the floor field cellular automata evacuation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwizdałła, Tomasz M.

    2015-02-01

    We study the process of evacuation of pedestrians from the room with the given arrangement of doors and obstacles by using the cellular automata technique. The technique which became quite popular is characterized by the discretization of time as well as space. For such a discretized space we use so-called floor field model which generally corresponds to the description of every cell by some monotonic function of distance between this cell and the closest exit. We study several types of effects. We start from some general features of model like the kind of a neighborhood or the factors disrupting the motion. Then we analyze the influence of asymmetry and size on the evacuation time. Finally we show characteristics concerning different arrangements of exits and include a particular approach to the proxemics effects. The scaling analyses help us to distinguish these cases which just reflect the geometry of the system and those which depend also on the simulation properties. All calculations are performed for a wide range of initial densities corresponding to different occupation rates as described by the typical crowd counting techniques.

  2. Calibrating floor field cellular automaton models for pedestrian dynamics by using likelihood function optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovreglio, Ruggiero; Ronchi, Enrico; Nilsson, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    The formulation of pedestrian floor field cellular automaton models is generally based on hypothetical assumptions to represent reality. This paper proposes a novel methodology to calibrate these models using experimental trajectories. The methodology is based on likelihood function optimization and allows verifying whether the parameters defining a model statistically affect pedestrian navigation. Moreover, it allows comparing different model specifications or the parameters of the same model estimated using different data collection techniques, e.g. virtual reality experiment, real data, etc. The methodology is here implemented using navigation data collected in a Virtual Reality tunnel evacuation experiment including 96 participants. A trajectory dataset in the proximity of an emergency exit is used to test and compare different metrics, i.e. Euclidean and modified Euclidean distance, for the static floor field. In the present case study, modified Euclidean metrics provide better fitting with the data. A new formulation using random parameters for pedestrian cellular automaton models is also defined and tested.

  3. A floor field cellular automaton for crowd evacuation considering different walking abilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Zhijian; Zhou, Xiaodong; Zhu, Kongjin; Chen, Yanqiu; Zhuang, Yifan; Hu, Yuqi; Yang, Lizhong; Chen, Changkun; Li, Jian

    2015-02-01

    It has been hard to model a crowd evacuation process considering different walking abilities using a synchronous cellular automaton. That is because the cross and the overlaps of routes have to be taken into consideration and the conflicts resolution between pedestrians is more complex. However, the desired velocities of evacuees might be quite different due to the discrepancies of the physiological function, including age, gender, physical state, and the psychological behavior, such as the perception and reflection to the dangers. Additionally, an evacuee might change his desired velocity constantly to adapt to the changing evacuation environment. Thus, a multi-velocities floor field cellular automaton model was established in this paper. Using little CPU time, a dense crowd evacuation simulation with tiny varied velocity can be conducted very well. Significant discrepancies between the single-velocity evacuation and the multi-velocities evacuation were observed. The plateaus, where the exit flow rate is rather low, can be well predicted by a dimensionless parameter describing the congestion level of the evacuation system. The crowd evacuation time almost depends on the low desired velocity evacuees, though the proportion is not high. We also observed that faster evacuees make the evacuation system easily approaching to the jam.

  4. Crater Floor Dune Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    Our final dune image shows a small dune field inside an unnamed crater south of Nili Fossae.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 20.6, Longitude 79 East (281 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  5. Simulation of Pedestrian Dynamic Using a Vector Floor Field Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun; Hou, Zhongsheng; Zhan, Minghui

    2013-04-01

    Simulation of complex scenarios and multi-direction pedestrian flow is a main challenge to microscopic model of pedestrian movement. It is an issue to simulate real pedestrian traffic with great fidelity while keeping its computational cost at an acceptable level. This paper reports on an improved floor field model called vector floor field model to simulate pedestrian flows in some basic scenarios. In this model, vectorization of static floor field and dynamic floor field are used to indicate preference directions and the pedestrian flow tendency, respectively. Pedestrian transition depends on both their preference directions and tendency. The simulations in some basic scenarios are conducted, quantitative comparison to the record of practical experiments and standard floor field model is given as well, and the results indicate the effectivity of this model. An adjusted static vector floor field is also proposed to simulate pedestrian flow in turning scenario. The vector floor field model is also sufficient to simulate some essential features in pedestrian dynamic, such as lane formation. This model can be widely used in the simulation of multi-direction pedestrian at turning, crossing and other junctions.

  6. Influence of electric field on cellular migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guido, Isabella; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    Cells have the ability to detect continuous current electric fields (EFs) and respond to them with a directed migratory movement. Dictyostelium discoideum (D.d.) cells, a key model organism for the study of eukaryotic chemotaxis, orient and migrate toward the cathode under the influence of an EF. The underlying sensing mechanism and whether it is shared by the chemotactic response pathway remains unknown. Whereas genes and proteins that mediate the electric sensing as well as that define the migration direction have been previously investigated in D.d. cells, a deeper knowledge about the cellular kinematic effects caused by the EF is still lacking. Here we show that besides triggering a directional bias the electric field influences the cellular kinematics by accelerating the movement of cells along their path. We found that the migratory velocity of the cells in an EF increases linearly with the exposure time. Through the analysis of the PI3K and Phg2 distribution in the cytosol and of the cellular adherence to the substrate we aim at elucidating whereas this speed up effect in the electric field is due to either a molecular signalling or the interaction with the substrate. This work is part of the MaxSynBio Consortium which is jointly funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research of Germany and the Max Planck Society.

  7. Upper critical field of cellular magnesium diboride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinenko, V. A.

    2007-08-01

    A cellular superconducting material consisting of thin (1 20 μm) MgB2-x layers and magnesium granules of about 100 μm has been produced. The critical temperature T c of this superconductor decreases with the thickness of the MgB2-x layers. In unalloyed magnesium diboride, the curvature of the temperature dependence of the upper critical field H c2(T) changes gradually from downward to pronounced upward as the temperature T c decreases from 38 to 36 K.

  8. Experimental Investigation of Porous-floor Effects on Cavity Flow Fields at Supersonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Floyd J., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a passive-venting system to modify the flow field characteristics of a rectangular-box cavity at supersonic speeds. The passive-venting system consists of a porous floor with a vent chamber beneath the floor. For certain cavity length-to-height ratios, this configuration allowed high-pressure air at the rear of the cavity to vent to the forward part of the cavity, thereby modifying the cavity flow field. The wind-tunnel model consisted of a flat plate that housed a cavity mounted on a balance such that only the cavity drag was measured. The cavity height remained constant, and the length varied with rectangular-block inserts. Both solid-and porous-floor cavities were tested for comparison at Mach numbers of 1.60, 1.90, 2.16, and 2.86. These results showed that the passive-venting system did modify the cavity flow field. In order to determine the type flow field which existed for the porous-floor configuration, pressures were measured inside the cavity at the same conditions and for the same configurations as those used in the drag tests. Pressure data were also obtained with stores mounted in the cavity. These results, along with Schlieren photographs and the tabulated data, are presented to document the porous-floor cavity flow field.

  9. Cellular membrane potentials induced by alternating fields

    PubMed Central

    Grosse, Constantino; Schwan, Herman P.

    1992-01-01

    Membrane potentials induced by external alternating fields are usually derived assuming that the membrane is insulating, that the cell has no surface conductance, and that the potentials are everywhere solutions of the Laplace equation. This traditional approach is reexamined taking into account membrane conductance, surface admittance, and space charge effects. We find that whenever the conductivity of the medium outside the cell is low, large corrections are needed. Thus, in most of the cases where cells are manipulated by external fields (pore formation, cell fusion, cell rotation, dielectrophoresis) the field applied to the cell membrane is significantly reduced, sometimes practically abolished. This could have a strong bearing on present theories of pore formation, and of the influence of weak electric fields on membranes. PMID:19431866

  10. Cellular automata based byte error correcting codes over finite fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köroğlu, Mehmet E.; Şiap, İrfan; Akın, Hasan

    2012-08-01

    Reed-Solomon codes are very convenient for burst error correction which occurs frequently in applications, but as the number of errors increase, the circuit structure of implementing Reed-Solomon codes becomes very complex. An alternative solution to this problem is the modular and regular structure of cellular automata which can be constructed with VLSI economically. Therefore, in recent years, cellular automata have became an important tool for error correcting codes. For the first time, cellular automata based byte error correcting codes analogous to extended Reed-Solomon codes over binary fields was studied by Chowdhury et al. [1] and Bhaumik et al. [2] improved the coding-decoding scheme. In this study cellular automata based double-byte error correcting codes are generalized from binary fields to primitive finite fields Zp.

  11. Measurement of low frequency magnetic fields from digital cellular telephones

    SciTech Connect

    Linde, T.; Mild, K.H.

    1997-05-01

    All previous discussions about possible health effects in connection with the use of digital cellular telephones have been focused on the microwaves. However, the pulsed transmitting mode causes pulsed currents in the phone and the battery pack, which give rise to concomitant magnetic fields. Digital cellular telephones using the GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) transmit information in bursts of microwaves. This pulsed transmitting mode causes the battery current and currents in the electronics of the apparatus to be pulsed. These pulsed currents produce corresponding pulsed magnetic fields near the phones. A study to determine the magnitude of these fields involved two models of digital telephones. The highest value of the magnetic flux density was 1.8 {micro}T (rms).

  12. GPU-based parallel method of temperature field analysis in a floor heater with a controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forenc, Jaroslaw

    2016-06-01

    A parallel method enabling acceleration of the numerical analysis of the transient temperature field in an air floor heating system is presented in this paper. An initial-boundary value problem of the heater regulated by an on/off controller is formulated. The analogue model is discretized using the implicit finite difference method. The BiCGStab method is used to compute the obtained system of equations. A computer program implementing simultaneous computations on CPUand GPU(GPGPUtechnology) was developed. CUDA environment and linear algebra libraries (CUBLAS and CUSPARSE) are used by this program. The time of computations was reduced eight times in comparison with a program executed on the CPU only. Results of computations are presented in the form of time profiles and temperature field distributions. An influence of a model of the heat transfer coefficient on the simulation of the system operation was examined. The physical interpretation of obtained results is also presented.Results of computations were verified by comparing them with solutions obtained with the use of a commercial program - COMSOL Mutiphysics.

  13. The Sea-Floor Mapping Facility at the U.S. Geological Survey Woods Hole Field Center, Woods Hole, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deusser, Rebecca E.; Schwab, William C.; Denny, Jane F.

    2002-01-01

    Researchers of the sea-floor mapping facility at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Woods Hole Field Center in Woods Hole, Mass., use state-of-the-art technology to produce accurate geologic maps of the sea floor. In addition to basic bathymetry and morphology, sea-floor maps may contain information about the distribution of sand resources, patterns of coastal erosion, pathways of pollutant transport, and geologic controls on marine biological habitats. The maps may also show areas of human impacts, such as disturbance by bottom fishing and pollution caused by offshore waste disposal. The maps provide a framework for scientific research and provide critical information to decisionmakers who oversee resources in the coastal ocean.

  14. Effects of nanosecond pulse electric fields on cellular elasticity.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Diganta; Asmar, Anthony; Stacey, Michael

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the effects of a single 60 nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) of low (15 kV/cm) and high (60 kV/cm) field strengths on cellular morphology and membrane elasticity in Jurkat cells using fluorescent microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We performed force displacement measurements on cells using AFM and calculated the Young's modulus for membrane elasticity. Differential effects were observed depending upon pulsing conditions. We found that a single nsPEF of low field strength did not induce any apparent cytoskeletal breakdown and had minor morphological changes. Interestingly, force measurements and calculation of Young's modulus showed a significant decrease in membrane elasticity. A single nsPEF of high field strength induced stark morphological changes due to disruption of the actin cytoskeleton and a marked decrease in elasticity likely caused by irreversible membrane damage. We suggest that the cellular morphology is mainly dependent on stabilization by the actin cytoskeleton, while the elasticity changes are partially dependent on the cytoskeletal integrity. PMID:25732004

  15. Magnetogenetics: Remote Control of Cellular Signaling with Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Jeremy P.

    Means for temporally regulating gene expression and cellular activity are invaluable for elucidating the underlying physiological processes and have therapeutic implications. Here we report the development of a system for remote regulation of gene expression by low frequency radiowaves (RF) or by a static magnetic field. We accomplished this by first adding iron oxide nanoparticles - either exogenously or as genetically encoded ferritin/ferric oxyhydroxide particle. These particles have been designed with affinity to the plasma membrane ion channel Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) by a conjugated antibody. Application of a magnetic field stimulates the particle to gate the ion channel and this, in turn, initiates calcium-dependent transgene expression. We first demonstrated in vitro that TRPV1 can be actuated to cause calcium flux into the cell by directly applying a localized magnetic field. In mice expressing these genetically encoded components, application of external magnetic field caused remote stimulation of insulin transgene expression and significantly lowered blood glucose. In addition, we are investigating mechanisms by which iron oxide nanoparticles can absorb RF, and transduce this energy to cause channel opening. This robust, repeatable method for remote cellular regulation in vivo may ultimately have applications in basic science, as well as in technology and therapeutics.

  16. CFD wind tunnel test: Field velocity patterns of wind on a building with a refuge floor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, C. K.; Yuen, K. K.; Lam, K. M.; Lo, S. M.

    2005-10-01

    This paper reports a CFD wind tunnel study of wind patterns on a square-plan building with a refuge floor at its mid-height level. In this study, a technique of using calibrated power law equations of velocity and turbulent intensity applied as the boundary conditions in CFD wind tunnel test is being evaluated by the physical wind tunnel data obtained by the Principal Author with wind blowing perpendicularly on the building without a refuge floor. From the evaluated results, an optimised domain of flow required to produce qualitative agreement between the wind tunnel data and simulated results is proposed in this paper. Simulated results with the evaluated technique are validated by the wind tunnel data obtained by the Principal Author. The results contribute to an understanding of the fundamental behaviour of wind flow in a refuge floor when wind is blowing perpendicularly on the building. Moreover, the results reveal that the designed natural ventilation of a refuge floor may not perform desirably when the wind speed on the level is low. Under this situation, the refuge floor may become unsafe if smoke was dispersed in the leeward side of the building at a level immediately below the refuge floor.

  17. Evidences of the static magnetic field influence on cellular systems.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Wendell Wagner Campos; Costa, Romero Marcos Pedrosa Brandão; Fernandes, Thiago de Salazar E; Porto, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo

    2016-05-01

    Efforts to elucidate the doubtful character of the static magnetic field (SMF) influence on living cells have been made, although the topic still faces controversies because confusing reports in the scientific literature. This study intended to collect the most relevant issues separated by different topics (relating the SMF to its action on cellular systems) and analyze how the many field intensities, cell types and exposure time would affect the cell or intracellular structures. The analysis was based in the search in online databases aiming to give a general view of how the data can show conformity. It is proposed that scientists have been searching for linearity in what is actually a well characterized nonlinear system and two outputs are considered: the high sensitivity of parameters in which specific cell responses are generated and also the complexity and particularity of each cellular system. It is possible to trigger effects from a SMF, however in a stochastic way and depending on the cell system. PMID:26975790

  18. A Sea Floor Survey of the Sleipner Field to Monitor CO2 Migration

    SciTech Connect

    Mark A. Zumberge

    2005-12-31

    In the North Sea natural gas production field at Sleipner, CO{sub 2} is being separated from natural gas and injected into an underground saline aquifer, known as the Utsira formation, for environmental purposes. In this study, gravity measurements were made over the Sleipner CO{sub 2} injection site in 2002 and again in 2005 on top of 30 concrete benchmarks on the seafloor to study the behavior and physical properties of the injected CO{sub 2}. As the gas is injected, pore space water is replaced by gas, altering the bulk density of the formation. This results in a change in gravitational acceleration observed on the overlying sea floor. Our gravity measurements show a repeatability of 4.3 {micro}Gal for 2003 and 3.5 {micro}Gal for 2005. Forward models of the gravity change are calculated based on both 3-D seismic data and reservoir simulation models from other studies. These forward models indicate that the magnitude of maximum gravity change is primarily related to CO{sub 2} density rather than flow geometry. The time-lapse gravity observations best fit a high temperature forward model based on the seismically determined CO{sub 2} geometry, suggesting that the 3-D reflection seismics are imaging the geometry of the injected CO{sub 2}, and that the in situ CO{sub 2} density is around 530 kg/m{sup 3}. Uncertainty in determining the average density using this technique is estimated to be {+-}65 kg/m{sup 3} (95% confidence), however, additional seismic surveys are needed before final conclusions can be drawn. Future gravity measurements will put better constraints on the CO{sub 2} density and continue to map out the CO{sub 2} flow.

  19. A Computational Model of Cellular Response to Modulated Radiation Fields

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, Stephen J.; Butterworth, Karl T.; McGarry, Conor K.; Trainor, Colman; O'Sullivan, Joe M.; Hounsell, Alan R.; Prise, Kevin M.

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To develop a model to describe the response of cell populations to spatially modulated radiation exposures of relevance to advanced radiotherapies. Materials and Methods: A Monte Carlo model of cellular radiation response was developed. This model incorporated damage from both direct radiation and intercellular communication including bystander signaling. The predictions of this model were compared to previously measured survival curves for a normal human fibroblast line (AGO1522) and prostate tumor cells (DU145) exposed to spatially modulated fields. Results: The model was found to be able to accurately reproduce cell survival both in populations which were directly exposed to radiation and those which were outside the primary treatment field. The model predicts that the bystander effect makes a significant contribution to cell killing even in uniformly irradiated cells. The bystander effect contribution varies strongly with dose, falling from a high of 80% at low doses to 25% and 50% at 4 Gy for AGO1522 and DU145 cells, respectively. This was verified using the inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor aminoguanidine to inhibit the bystander effect in cells exposed to different doses, which showed significantly larger reductions in cell killing at lower doses. Conclusions: The model presented in this work accurately reproduces cell survival following modulated radiation exposures, both in and out of the primary treatment field, by incorporating a bystander component. In addition, the model suggests that the bystander effect is responsible for a significant portion of cell killing in uniformly irradiated cells, 50% and 70% at doses of 2 Gy in AGO1522 and DU145 cells, respectively. This description is a significant departure from accepted radiobiological models and may have a significant impact on optimization of treatment planning approaches if proven to be applicable in vivo.

  20. The Effect of Gravity Fields on Cellular Gene Expression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, Millie

    1999-01-01

    Early theoretical analysis predicted that microgravity effects on the isolated cell would be minuscule at the subcellular level; however, these speculations have not proven true in the real world. Astronauts experience a significant bone and muscle loss in as little as 2 weeks of spaceflight and changes are seen at the cellular level soon after exposure to microgravity. Changes in biological systems may be primarily due to the lack of gravity and the resulting loss of mechanical stress on tissues and cells. Recent ground and flight studies examining the effects of gravity or mechanical stress on cells demonstrate marked changes in gene expression when relatively small changes in mechanical forces or gravity fields were made. Several immediate early genes (IEG) like c-fos and c-myc are induced by mechanical stimulation within minutes. In contrast, several investigators report that the absence of mechanical forces during space flight result in decreased sera response element (SRE) activity and attenuation of expression of IEGs such as c-fos, c-jun and cox-2 mRNAs. Clearly, these early changes in gene expression may have long term consequences on mechanically sensitive cells. In our early studies on STS-56, we reported four major changes in the osteoblast; 1) prostaglandin synthesis in flight, 2) changes in cellular morphology, 3) altered actin cytoskeleton and 4) reduced osteoblast growth after four days exposure to microgravity. Initially, it was believed that changes in fibronectin (FN) RNA, FN protein synthesis or subsequent FN matrix formation might account for the changes in cytoskeleton and/ or reduction of growth. However our recent studies on Biorack (STS-76, STS-81 and STS-84), using ground and in-flight 1-G controls, demonstrated that fibronectin synthesis and matrix formation were normal in microgravity. In addition, in our most recent Biorack paper, our laboratory has documented that relative protein synthesis and mRNA synthesis are not changed after 24

  1. Transient electrical field across cellular membranes: pulsed electric field treatment of microbial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timoshkin, I. V.; MacGregor, S. J.; Fouracre, R. A.; Crichton, B. H.; Anderson, J. G.

    2006-02-01

    The pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment of liquid and pumpable products contaminated with microorganisms has attracted significant interest from the pulsed power and bioscience research communities particularly because the inactivation mechanism is non-thermal, thereby allowing retention of the original nutritional and flavour characteristics of the product. Although the biological effects of PEF have been studied for several decades, the physical mechanisms of the interaction of the fields with microorganisms is still not fully understood. The present work is a study of the dynamics of the electrical field both in a PEF treatment chamber with dielectric barriers and in the plasma (cell) membrane of a microbial cell. It is shown that the transient process can be divided into three physical phases, and models for these phases are proposed and briefly discussed. The complete dynamics of the time development of the electric field in a spherical dielectric shell representing the cellular membrane is then obtained using an analytical solution of the Ohmic conduction problem. It was found that the field in the membrane reaches a maximum value that could be two orders of magnitude higher than the original Laplacian electrical field in the chamber, and this value was attained in a time comparable to the field relaxation time in the chamber. Thus, the optimal duration of the field during PEF treatment should be equal to such a time.

  2. Third Floor Plan, Second Floor Plan, First Floor Plan, Ground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Third Floor Plan, Second Floor Plan, First Floor Plan, Ground Floor Plan, West Bunkhouse - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  3. Mercury isotopic composition of hydrothermal systems in the Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field and Guaymas Basin sea-floor rift

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherman, L.S.; Blum, J.D.; Nordstrom, D.K.; McCleskey, R.B.; Barkay, T.; Vetriani, C.

    2009-01-01

    To characterize mercury (Hg) isotopes and isotopic fractionation in hydrothermal systems we analyzed fluid and precipitate samples from hot springs in the Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field and vent chimney samples from the Guaymas Basin sea-floor rift. These samples provide an initial indication of the variability in Hg isotopic composition among marine and continental hydrothermal systems that are controlled predominantly by mantle-derived magmas. Fluid samples from Ojo Caliente hot spring in Yellowstone range in δ202Hg from - 1.02‰ to 0.58‰ (± 0.11‰, 2SD) and solid precipitate samples from Guaymas Basin range in δ202Hg from - 0.37‰ to - 0.01‰ (± 0.14‰, 2SD). Fluid samples from Ojo Caliente display mass-dependent fractionation (MDF) of Hg from the vent (δ202Hg = 0.10‰ ± 0.11‰, 2SD) to the end of the outflow channel (&delta202Hg = 0.58‰ ± 0.11‰, 2SD) in conjunction with a decrease in Hg concentration from 46.6pg/g to 20.0pg/g. Although a small amount of Hg is lost from the fluids due to co-precipitation with siliceous sinter, we infer that the majority of the observed MDF and Hg loss from waters in Ojo Caliente is due to volatilization of Hg0(aq) to Hg0(g) and the preferential loss of Hg with a lower δ202Hg value to the atmosphere. A small amount of mass-independent fractionation (MIF) was observed in all samples from Ojo Caliente (Δ199Hg = 0.13‰ ±1 0.06‰, 2SD) but no significant MIF was measured in the sea-floor rift samples from Guaymas Basin. This study demonstrates that several different hydrothermal processes fractionate Hg isotopes and that Hg isotopes may be used to better understand these processes.

  4. A SEA FLOOR GRAVITY SURVEY OF THE SLEIPNER FIELD TO MONITOR CO2 MIGATION

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Zumberge

    2003-06-13

    At the Sleipner gas field, excess CO{sub 2} is sequestered and injected underground into a porous saline aquifer 1000 m below the seafloor. A high precision micro-gravity survey was carried out on the seafloor to monitor the injected CO{sub 2}. A repeatability of 5 {micro}Gal in the station averages was observed. This is considerably better than pre-survey expectations. These data will serve as the baseline for time-lapse gravity monitoring of the Sleipner CO{sub 2} injection site. Simple modeling of the first year data give inconclusive results, thus a more detailed approach is needed. Work towards this is underway.

  5. Free Quantum Field Theory from Quantum Cellular Automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisio, Alessandro; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo; Tosini, Alessandro

    2015-10-01

    After leading to a new axiomatic derivation of quantum theory (see D'Ariano et al. in Found Phys, 2015), the new informational paradigm is entering the domain of quantum field theory, suggesting a quantum automata framework that can be regarded as an extension of quantum field theory to including an hypothetical Planck scale, and with the usual quantum field theory recovered in the relativistic limit of small wave-vectors. Being derived from simple principles (linearity, unitarity, locality, homogeneity, isotropy, and minimality of dimension), the automata theory is quantum ab-initio, and does not assume Lorentz covariance and mechanical notions. Being discrete it can describe localized states and measurements (unmanageable by quantum field theory), solving all the issues plaguing field theory originated from the continuum. These features make the theory an ideal framework for quantum gravity, with relativistic covariance and space-time emergent solely from the interactions, and not assumed a priori. The paper presents a synthetic derivation of the automata theory, showing how the principles lead to a description in terms of a quantum automaton over a Cayley graph of a group. Restricting to Abelian groups we show how the automata recover the Weyl, Dirac and Maxwell dynamics in the relativistic limit. We conclude with some new routes about the more general scenario of non-Abelian Cayley graphs. The phenomenology arising from the automata theory in the ultra-relativistic domain and the analysis of corresponding distorted Lorentz covariance is reviewed in Bisio et al. (Found Phys 2015, in this same issue).

  6. “Nanosized Voltmeter” Enables Cellular-Wide Electric Field Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Tyner, Katherine M.; Kopelman, Raoul; Philbert, Martin A.

    2007-01-01

    Previously, all biological measurements of intracellular electric fields (E fields), using voltage dyes or patch/voltage clamps, were confined to cellular membranes, which account for <0.1% of the total cellular volume. These membrane-dependent techniques also frequently require lengthy calibration steps for each cell or cell type measured. A new 30-nm “photonic voltmeter”, 1000-fold smaller than existing voltmeters, enables, to our knowledge, the first complete three-dimensional E field profiling throughout the entire volume of living cells. These nanodevices are calibrated externally and then applied for E field determinations inside any live cell or cellular compartment, with no further calibration steps. The results indicate that the E fields from the mitochondrial membranes penetrate much deeper into the cytosol than previously estimated, indicating that, electrically, the cytoplasm cannot be described as a simple homogeneous solution, as often approximated, but should rather be thought of as a complex, heterogeneous hydrogel, with distinct microdomains. PMID:17513359

  7. A Sea Floor Gravity Survey of the Sleipner Field to Monitor CO2 Migration

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Zumberge

    2011-09-30

    Carbon dioxide gas (CO{sub 2}) is a byproduct of many wells that produce natural gas. Frequently the CO{sub 2} separated from the valuable fossil fuel gas is released into the atmosphere. This adds to the growing problem of the climatic consequences of greenhouse gas contamination. In the Sleipner North Sea natural gas production facility, the separated CO{sub 2} is injected into an underground saline aquifer to be forever sequestered. Monitoring the fate of such sequestered material is important - and difficult. Local change in Earth's gravity field over the injected gas is one way to detect the CO{sub 2} and track its migration within the reservoir over time. The density of the injected gas is less than that of the brine that becomes displaced from the pore space of the formation, leading to slight but detectable decrease in gravity observed on the seafloor above the reservoir. Using equipment developed at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, we have been monitoring gravity over the Sleipner CO{sub 2} sequestration reservoir since 2002. We surveyed the field in 2009 in a project jointly funded by a consortium of European oil and gas companies and the US Department of Energy. The value of gravity at some 30 benchmarks on the seafloor, emplaced at the beginning of the monitoring project, was observed in a week-long survey with a remotely operated vehicle. Three gravity meters were deployed on the benchmarks multiple times in a campaign-style survey, and the measured gravity values compared to those collected in earlier surveys. A clear signature in the map of gravity differences is well correlated with repeated seismic surveys.

  8. A SEA FLOOR GRAVITY SURVEY OF THE SLEIPNER FIELD TO MONITOR CO2 MIGRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Zuberge; Scott Nooner; Glenn Sasagawa

    2003-11-17

    Since 1996, excess CO{sub 2} from the Sleipner natural gas field has been sequestered and injected underground into a porous saline aquifer 1000 m below the seafloor. In 2002, we carried out a high precision micro-gravity survey on the seafloor in order to monitor the injected CO{sub 2}. A repeatability of 5 {micro}Gal in the station averages was observed. This is considerably better than pre-survey expectations. These data will serve as the baseline for time-lapse gravity monitoring of the Sleipner CO{sub 2} injection site. A three-week trip to Statoil Research Centre in Trondheim, Norway, was made in the summer of 2003. This visit consisted of gathering data and collaborating with scientists working on the Sleipner project. The trip ended with a presentation of the seafloor gravity results to date at a SACS2 (Saline Aquifer CO{sub 2} Storage 2) meeting. This meeting provided the perfect opportunity to meet and gather information from the world's experts on the Sleipner project.

  9. A SEA FLOOR GRAVITY SURVEY OF THE SLEIPNER FIELD TO MONITOR CO2 MIGRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Zumberge; Scott Nooner; Ola Eiken

    2004-11-29

    Since 1996, excess CO{sub 2} from the Sleipner natural gas field has been sequestered and injected underground into a porous saline aquifer 1000 m below the seafloor. In 2002, we carried out a high precision micro-gravity survey on the seafloor in order to monitor the injected CO{sub 2}. A repeatability of 5 {micro}Gal in the station averages was observed. This is considerably better than pre-survey expectations. These data will serve as the baseline for time-lapse gravity monitoring of the Sleipner CO{sub 2} injection site. A repeat survey has been scheduled for the summer of 2005. This report covers 3/18/04 to 9/19/04. During this time, we participated in several CO{sub 2} sequestration-related meetings and conferences. On March 29, 2004, we participated in the 2004 Carbon Sequestration Project Review Meeting for the Department of Energy in Pittsburgh, PA. During the week of May 2, 2004, we attended and presented at the Third Annual Conference on Carbon Capture and Sequestration in Alexandria, VA. Finally, during the week of August 8, 2004, we took part in the U.S.-Norway, CO{sub 2} Summer School in Santa Fe, NM. Additional modeling was also completed, examining the seismic velocity pushdown estimates from the gravity models and the expected deformation of the seafloor due to the injected CO{sub 2}.

  10. A SEA FLOOR GRAVITY SURVEY OF THE SLEIPNER FIELD TO MONITOR CO2 MIGRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Zumberge; Scott Nooner

    2005-07-11

    Since 1996, excess CO{sub 2} from the Sleipner natural gas field has been sequestered and injected underground into a porous saline aquifer 1000 m below the seafloor. In 2002, we carried out a high precision micro-gravity survey on the seafloor in order to monitor the injected CO{sub 2}. A repeatability of 5 {micro}Gal in the station averages was observed. This is considerably better than pre-survey expectations. These data will serve as the baseline for time-lapse gravity monitoring of the Sleipner CO{sub 2} injection site. A repeat survey has been scheduled for the summer of 2005. This report covers 9/19/04 to 3/18/05. During this time, gravity and pressure modeling were completed and work graduate student Scott Nooner began writing his Ph.D. dissertation, of which this work is a the major part. Improvements to the gravimeters are also underway that will hopefully increase the measurement precision.

  11. A Sea Floor Gravity Survey of the Sleipner Field to Monitor CO2 Migration

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Zumberge; Scott Nooner

    2005-12-13

    Since 1996, excess CO{sub 2} from the Sleipner natural gas field has been sequestered and injected underground into a porous saline aquifer 1000 m below the seafloor. In 2002, we carried out a high precision micro-gravity survey on the seafloor in order to monitor the injected CO{sub 2}. A repeatability of 4.3 {micro}Gal in the station averages was observed. This is considerably better than pre-survey expectations. These data will serve as the baseline for time-lapse gravity monitoring of the Sleipner CO{sub 2} injection site. This report covers 3/19/05 to 9/18/05. During this time, gravity and pressure modeling were completed and graduate student Scott Nooner finished his Ph.D. dissertation, of which this work is a major part. Three new ROVDOG (Remotely Operated Vehicle deployable Deep Ocean Gravimeter) instruments were also completed with funding from Statoil. The primary changes are increased instrument precision and increased data sampling rate. A second gravity survey was carried out from August to September of 2005, allowing us to begin examining the time-lapse gravity changes caused by the injection of CO{sub 2} into the underground aquifer, known as the Utsira formation. Preliminary processing indicates a repeatability of 3.6 {micro}Gal, comparable to the baseline survey.

  12. A SEA FLOOR GRAVITY SURVEY OF THE SLEIPNER FIELD TO MONITOR CO2 MIGRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Zumberge; Scott Nooner; Glenn Sasagawa

    2004-05-19

    Since 1996, excess CO{sub 2} from the Sleipner natural gas field has been sequestered and injected underground into a porous saline aquifer 1000 m below the seafloor. In 2002, we carried out a high precision micro-gravity survey on the seafloor in order to monitor the injected CO{sub 2}. A repeatability of 5 {micro}Gal in the station averages was observed. This is considerably better than pre-survey expectations. These data will serve as the baseline for time-lapse gravity monitoring of the Sleipner CO{sub 2} injection site. A repeat survey has been scheduled for the summer of 2005. This report covers 9/19/03 to 3/18/04. During this time, significant advancement in the 3-D gravity forward modeling code was made. Testing of the numerical accuracy of the code was undertaken using both a sheet of mass and a frustum of a cone for test cases. These were chosen because of our ability to do an analytic calculation of gravity for comparison. Tests were also done to determine the feasibility of using point mass approximations rather than cuboids for the forward modeling code. After determining that the point mass approximation is sufficient (and over six times faster computationally), several CO{sub 2} models were constructed and the time-lapse gravity signal was calculated from each. From these models, we expect to see a gravity change ranging from 3-16 {micro}Gal/year, depending on reservoir conditions and CO{sub 2} geometry. While more detailed modeling needs to be completed, these initial results show that we may be able to learn a great deal about the state of the CO{sub 2} from the time-lapse gravity results. Also, in December of 2003, we presented at the annual AGU meeting in San Francisco.

  13. ELF (extremely-low-frequency) field interactions at the animal, tissue and cellular levels

    SciTech Connect

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1990-10-01

    A description is given of the fundamental physical properties of extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields, and the mechanisms through which these fields interact with the human body at a macroscopic level. Biological responses to ELF fields at the tissue, cellular and molecular levels are summarized, including new evidence that ELF field exposure produces alterations in gene expression and the cytoplasmic concentrations of specific proteins.

  14. Defining the Molecular-Cellular-Field Continuum of Mercury Detoxification

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Susan M.

    2014-09-04

    Hg is of special interest to DOE due to past use at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Its facile redox [Hg2+/0] chemistry, bonding to carbon [e.g. MeHg+] and unique physical properties [e.g., Hg0 volatility] underlie a complex global Hg cycle involving biotic and abiotic chemical and physical transport and transformations in soils, sediments, waterways and the atmosphere. Facultative and anaerobic bacteria make MeHg+, which is neurotoxic to wildlife and humans. Sustainable stewardship requires eliminating both MeHg+ and even more toxic Hg2+, which is also the substrate for methylation. The proteins encoded by the mer locus in aerobic and facultative mercury resistant (HgR) bacteria convert soil or waterborne Hg2+ or MeHg+ to less toxic, gaseous Hg0. HgR microbes live in highly Hg-contaminated sites and depress MeHg+ formation >500-fold in such zones. So, enhancing the capacity of natural HgR microbes to remove Hg2+/MeHg+ from wetlands and waterways is a logical component of contaminated site stewardship. To apply enhancement in the field requires knowing how the HgR pathway works including the metabolic demands it makes on the cell, i.e., the entire cell is the relevant catalytic unit. HgR loci occur in metabolically diverse bacteria and unique mer-host co-evolution has been found. In this project we extended our previous studies of mer enzymes in γ-proteobacteria, which are abundant in high Hg areas of the ORR to include studies of mer enzymes from HgR α-proteobacteria and HgR actinobacteria, which also increase in the high Hg regions of the ORR. Specifically, we (1) examined interactions between structural compoenents of MerA and MerB enzymes from γ-proteobacteria, (2) investigated effects of mutations on kinetic efficiency of Hg2+ reduction by γ-proteobacterial MerA, (3) cloned and performed initital characterization of MerA and MerB enzymes from Streptomyces lividans, an actinobacterium, (4) cloned and performed initial characterization of a fused Mer

  15. Cooling Floor AC Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Lu; Hao, Ding; Hong, Zhang; Ce, Gao Dian

    The present HVAC equipments for the residential buildings in the Hot-summer-and-Cold-winter climate region are still at a high energy consuming level. So that the high efficiency HVAC system is an urgently need for achieving the preset government energy saving goal. With its advantage of highly sanitary, highly comfortable and uniform of temperature field, the hot-water resource floor radiation heating system has been widely accepted. This paper has put forward a new way in air-conditioning, which combines the fresh-air supply unit and such floor radiation system for the dehumidification and cooling in summer or heating in winter. By analyze its advantages and limitations, we found that this so called Cooling/ Heating Floor AC System can improve the IAQ of residential building while keep high efficiency quality. We also recommend a methodology for the HVAC system designing, which will ensure the reduction of energy cost of users.

  16. Floors: Selection and Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeley, Bernard

    Flooring for institutional, commercial, and industrial use is described with regard to its selection, care, and maintenance. The following flooring and subflooring material categories are discussed--(1) resilient floor coverings, (2) carpeting, (3) masonry floors, (4) wood floors, and (5) "formed-in-place floors". The properties, problems,…

  17. Occupational exposure to electric and magnetic fields during tasks at ground or floor level at 110 kV substations in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Korpinen, Leena; Pääkkönen, Rauno

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to investigate occupational exposure to electric and magnetic fields during tasks at ground or floor level at 110 kV substations in Finland and to compare the measured values to Directive 2013/35/EU. Altogether, 347 electric field measurements and 100 magnetic field measurements were performed. The average value of all electric fields was 2.3 kV/m (maximum 6.4 kV/m) and that of magnetic fields was 5.8 µT (maximum 51.0 µT). It can be concluded that the electric and magnetic field exposure at ground or floor level is typically below the low action levels of Directive 2013/35/EU. The transposition of the directive will not create new needs to modify the work practice of the evaluated tasks, which can continue to be performed as before. However, for workers with medical implants, the exposure may be high enough to cause interference. PMID:27075421

  18. Occupational exposure to electric and magnetic fields during tasks at ground or floor level at 110 kV substations in Finland.

    PubMed

    Korpinen, Leena; Pääkkönen, Rauno

    2016-09-01

    The aim was to investigate occupational exposure to electric and magnetic fields during tasks at ground or floor level at 110 kV substations in Finland and to compare the measured values to Directive 2013/35/EU. Altogether, 347 electric field measurements and 100 magnetic field measurements were performed. The average value of all electric fields was 2.3 kV/m (maximum 6.4 kV/m) and that of magnetic fields was 5.8 µT (maximum 51.0 µT). It can be concluded that the electric and magnetic field exposure at ground or floor level is typically below the low action levels of Directive 2013/35/EU. The transposition of the directive will not create new needs to modify the work practice of the evaluated tasks, which can continue to be performed as before. However, for workers with medical implants, the exposure may be high enough to cause interference. PMID:27075421

  19. Bioelectrorheological model of the cell. 5. Electrodestruction of cellular membrane in alternating electric field.

    PubMed Central

    Pawłowski, P; Szutowicz, I; Marszałek, P; Fikus, M

    1993-01-01

    Recently proposed analysis of the extensil stress developed in a cellular membrane subjected to an alternating electric field (Pawłowski, P., and M. Fikus, 1993. Bioelectrorheological model of the cell. 4. Analysis of the extensil deformation of the membrane in an alternating field. Biophys. J. 65:535-540) was applied in calculations of extensil stress threshold values, sigma eo[d], producing experimentally observed electrodestruction of cells within the frequency range of 7 x 10(1) - 3 x 10(5) Hz. It was shown that the susceptibility (s[d] = 1/sigma eo[d]), of the membrane to this process varies with field frequency and depends on the type of cells. Electrodestruction is facilitated in the 10(5)-Hz field. A rheological hypothesis explaining the experimentally observed dependence of membrane stability on electric field frequency was proposed and successfully tested for two other phenomena: electroporation and electrofusion. PMID:8369458

  20. Bioelectrorheological model of the cell. 5. Electrodestruction of cellular membrane in alternating electric field.

    PubMed

    Pawłowski, P; Szutowicz, I; Marszałek, P; Fikus, M

    1993-07-01

    Recently proposed analysis of the extensil stress developed in a cellular membrane subjected to an alternating electric field (Pawłowski, P., and M. Fikus, 1993. Bioelectrorheological model of the cell. 4. Analysis of the extensil deformation of the membrane in an alternating field. Biophys. J. 65:535-540) was applied in calculations of extensil stress threshold values, sigma eo[d], producing experimentally observed electrodestruction of cells within the frequency range of 7 x 10(1) - 3 x 10(5) Hz. It was shown that the susceptibility (s[d] = 1/sigma eo[d]), of the membrane to this process varies with field frequency and depends on the type of cells. Electrodestruction is facilitated in the 10(5)-Hz field. A rheological hypothesis explaining the experimentally observed dependence of membrane stability on electric field frequency was proposed and successfully tested for two other phenomena: electroporation and electrofusion. PMID:8369458

  1. Cellular and molecular pathways of extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic field interactions with living systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenforde, T. S.

    1992-06-01

    There is growing evidence that environmental electric and magnetic fields in the extremely-low-frequency (ELF) band below 300 Hz can influence biological functions by mechanisms that are only poorly understood at the present time. The primary objectives of this paper are to review the physical properties of ELF fields, their interactions with living systems at the tissue, cellular, and subcellular levels, and the key role of cell membranes in the transduction of signals from imposed ELF fields. Topics of discussion include signal-to-noise ratios for single cells and cell aggregates, resonance phenomena involving a combination of static and ELF magnetic fields, and the possible influence of ELF fields on molecular signaling pathways that involve membrane receptors and cytoplasmic second messengers.

  2. Cellular and molecular pathways of extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic field interactions with living systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1992-06-01

    There is growing evidence that environmental electric and magnetic fields in the extremely-low-frequency (ELF) band below 300 Hz can influence biological functions by mechanisms that are only poorly understood at the present time. The primary objectives of this paper are to review the physical properties of ELF fields, their interactions with living systems at the tissue, cellular, and subcellular levels, and the key role of cell membranes ;in the transduction of signals from imposed ELF fields. Topics of discussion include signal-to-noise ratios for single cells and cell aggregates, resonance phenomena involving a combination of static and ELF magnetic fields, and the possible influence of ELF fields on molecular signaling pathways that involve membrane receptors and cytoplasmic second messengers.

  3. Chronic pelvic floor dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Dee; Sarton, Julie

    2014-10-01

    The successful treatment of women with vestibulodynia and its associated chronic pelvic floor dysfunctions requires interventions that address a broad field of possible pain contributors. Pelvic floor muscle hypertonicity was implicated in the mid-1990s as a trigger of major chronic vulvar pain. Painful bladder syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, and temporomandibular jaw disorder are known common comorbidities that can cause a host of associated muscular, visceral, bony, and fascial dysfunctions. It appears that normalizing all of those disorders plays a pivotal role in reducing complaints of chronic vulvar pain and sexual dysfunction. Though the studies have yet to prove a specific protocol, physical therapists trained in pelvic dysfunction are reporting success with restoring tissue normalcy and reducing vulvar and sexual pain. A review of pelvic anatomy and common findings are presented along with suggested physical therapy management. PMID:25108498

  4. Precise Estimation of Cellular Radio Electromagnetic Field in Elevators and EMI Impact on Implantable Cardiac Pacemakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Louis-Ray; Hikage, Takashi; Nojima, Toshio

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the possible impact of cellular phones' signals on implantable cardiac pacemakers in elevators. This is achieved by carrying out precise numerical simulations based on the Finite-Difference-Time-Domain method to examine the electromagnetic fields in elevator models. In order to examine the realistic and complicated situations where humans are present in the elevator, we apply the realistic homogeneous human phantom and cellular radios operating in the frequency bands 800MHz, 1.5GHz and 2GHz. These computed results of field strength inside the elevator are compared with a certain reference level determined from the experimentally obtained maximum interference distance of implantable cardiac pacemakers. This enables us to carry out a quantitative evaluation of the EMI risk to pacemakers by cellular radio transmission. The results show that for the case when up to 5 mobile radio users are present in the elevator model used, there is no likelihood of pacemaker malfunction for the frequency bands 800MHz, 1.5GHz and 2GHz.

  5. Effect of Floor Space Allowance on Pig Productivity across Stages of Growth: A Field-scale Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joon H.; Choi, Hong L.; Heo, Yong J.; Chung, Yoon P.

    2016-01-01

    A total of 152 pig farms were randomly selected from the five provinces in South Korea. During the experiment, the average temperature and relative humidity was 24.7°C and 74% in summer and 2.4°C and 53% in winter, respectively. The correlation between floor space allowance (FSA) and productivity index was analyzed, including non-productive sow days (NPD), number of weaners (NOW), survival rate (SR), appearance rate of A-grade pork (ARA), and days at a slaughter weight of 110 kg (d-SW) at different growth stages. The objectives of the present study were i) to determine the effect of FSA on the pig productivity index and ii) to suggest the minimum FSA for pigs based on scientific baseline data. For the pregnant sow, NPD could be decreased if pregnant sows were raised with a medium level (M) of FSA (3.10 to 3.67 m2/head) while also keeping the pig house clean which improves hygiene, and operating the ventilation system properly. For the farrowing sows, the NOW tended to decrease as the FSA increased. Similarly, a high level of FSA (H) is significantly negative with weaner SR of farrowing sows (p-value = 0.017), indicating this FSA tends to depress SR. Therefore, a FSA of 2.30 to 6.40 m2/head (very low) could be appropriate for weaners because a limited space can provide a sense of security and protection from external interruptions. The opposite trend was observed that an increase in floor space (>1.12 m2/head) leads to increase the SR of growing pigs. For the fattening pigs, H level of FSA was negatively correlated with SR, but M level of FSA was positively correlated with SR, indicating that SR tended to increase with the FSA of 1.10 to 1.27 m2/head. In contrast, ARA of male fattening pigs showed opposite results. H level of FSA (1.27 to 1.47 m2/head) was suggested to increase productivity because ARA was most affected by H level of space allowance with positive correlation (R2 = 0.523). The relationship between the FSA and d-SW of fattening pigs was hard to

  6. Effect of Floor Space Allowance on Pig Productivity across Stages of Growth: A Field-scale Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joon H; Choi, Hong L; Heo, Yong J; Chung, Yoon P

    2016-05-01

    A total of 152 pig farms were randomly selected from the five provinces in South Korea. During the experiment, the average temperature and relative humidity was 24.7°C and 74% in summer and 2.4°C and 53% in winter, respectively. The correlation between floor space allowance (FSA) and productivity index was analyzed, including non-productive sow days (NPD), number of weaners (NOW), survival rate (SR), appearance rate of A-grade pork (ARA), and days at a slaughter weight of 110 kg (d-SW) at different growth stages. The objectives of the present study were i) to determine the effect of FSA on the pig productivity index and ii) to suggest the minimum FSA for pigs based on scientific baseline data. For the pregnant sow, NPD could be decreased if pregnant sows were raised with a medium level (M) of FSA (3.10 to 3.67 m(2)/head) while also keeping the pig house clean which improves hygiene, and operating the ventilation system properly. For the farrowing sows, the NOW tended to decrease as the FSA increased. Similarly, a high level of FSA (H) is significantly negative with weaner SR of farrowing sows (p-value = 0.017), indicating this FSA tends to depress SR. Therefore, a FSA of 2.30 to 6.40 m(2)/head (very low) could be appropriate for weaners because a limited space can provide a sense of security and protection from external interruptions. The opposite trend was observed that an increase in floor space (>1.12 m(2)/head) leads to increase the SR of growing pigs. For the fattening pigs, H level of FSA was negatively correlated with SR, but M level of FSA was positively correlated with SR, indicating that SR tended to increase with the FSA of 1.10 to 1.27 m(2)/head. In contrast, ARA of male fattening pigs showed opposite results. H level of FSA (1.27 to 1.47 m(2)/head) was suggested to increase productivity because ARA was most affected by H level of space allowance with positive correlation (R(2) = 0.523). The relationship between the FSA and d-SW of fattening pigs was

  7. Role of cytoskeleton and elastic moduli in cellular response to nanosecond pulsed electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Gary L.; Roth, Caleb; Tolstykh, Gleb; Kuipers, Marjorie; Ibey, Bennett L.

    2013-02-01

    Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) are known to increase cell membrane permeability to small molecules in accordance with dosages. As previous work has focused on nsPEF exposures in whole cells, electrodeformation may contribute to this induced-permeabilization in addition to other biological mechanisms. Here, we hypothesize that cellular elasticity, based upon the cytoskeleton, affects nsPEF-induced decrease in cellular viability. Young's moduli of various types of cells have been calculated from atomic force microscopy (AFM) force curve data, showing that CHO cells are stiffer than non-adherent U937 and Jurkat cells, which are more susceptible to nsPEF exposure. To distinguish any cytoskeletal foundation for these observations, various cytoskeletal reagents were applied. Inhibiting actin polymerization significantly decreased membrane integrity, as determined by relative propidium uptake and phosphatidylserine externalization, upon exposure at 150 kV/cm with 100 pulses of 10 ns pulse width. Exposure in the presence of other drugs resulted in insignificant changes in membrane integrity and 24-hour viability. However, Jurkat cells showed greater lethality than latrunculin-treated CHO cells of comparable elasticity. From these results, it is postulated that cellular elasticity rooted in actin-membrane interaction is only a minor contributor to the differing responses of adherent and non-adherent cells to nsPEF insults.

  8. Three-dimensional cellular-level imaging using full-field optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Dubois, A; Moneron, G; Grieve, K; Boccara, A C

    2004-04-01

    An ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography (OCT) system has been developed for cellular-level imaging of biological media. The system is based on a Linnik interference microscope illuminated with a tungsten halogen lamp, associated with a high-resolution CCD camera. En face tomographic images are produced in real time, with the best spatial resolution ever achieved in OCT (0.7 microm x 0.9 microm, axial x transverse). A shot-noise limited detection sensitivity of 80 dB can be reached with an acquisition time per image of 1 s. Images of animal ophthalmic biopsies and vegetal tissues are shown. PMID:15128200

  9. Hypersensitivity to RF fields emitted from CDMA cellular phones: a provocation study.

    PubMed

    Nam, Ki Chang; Lee, Ju Hyung; Noh, Hyung Wook; Cha, Eun Jong; Kim, Nam Hyun; Kim, Deok Won

    2009-12-01

    With the number of cellular phone users rapidly increasing, there is a considerable amount of public concern regarding the effects that electromagnetic fields (EMFs) from cellular phones have on health. People with self-attributed electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) complain of subjective symptoms such as headaches, insomnia, and memory loss, and attribute these symptoms to radio frequency (RF) radiation from cellular phones and/or base stations. However, EHS is difficult to diagnose because it relies on a person's subjective judgment. Various provocation studies have been conducted on EHS caused by Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) phones in which heart rate and blood pressure or subjective symptoms were investigated. However, there have been few sham-controlled provocation studies on EHS with Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) phones where physiological parameters, subjective symptoms, and perception of RF radiation for EHS and non-EHS groups were simultaneously investigated. In this study, two volunteer groups of 18 self-reported EHS and 19 non-EHS persons were tested for both sham and real RF exposure from CDMA cellular phones with a 300 mW maximum exposure that lasted half an hour. We investigated not only the physiological parameters such as heart rate, respiration rate, and heart rate variability (HRV), but also various subjective symptoms and the perception of EMF. In conclusion, RF exposure did not have any effects on physiological parameters or subjective symptoms in either group. As for EMF perception, there was no evidence that the EHS group better perceived EMF than the non-EHS group. PMID:19551766

  10. Real time kinetic flow cytometry measurements of cellular parameter changes evoked by nanosecond pulsed electric field.

    PubMed

    Orbán, Csaba; Pérez-García, Esther; Bajnok, Anna; McBean, Gethin; Toldi, Gergely; Blanco-Fernandez, Alfonso

    2016-05-01

    Nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) is a novel method to increase cell proliferation rate. The phenomenon is based on the microporation of cellular organelles and membranes. However, we have limited information on the effects of nsPEF on cell physiology. Several studies have attempted to describe the effects of this process, however no real time measurements have been conducted to date. In this study we designed a model system which allows the measurement of cellular processes before, during and after nsPEF treatment in real time. The system employs a Vabrema Mitoplicator(TM) nsPEF field generating instrument connected to a BD Accuri C6 cytometer with a silicon tube led through a peristaltic pump. This model system was applied to observe the effects of nsPEF in mammalian C6 glioblastoma (C6 glioma) and HEK-293 cell lines. Viability (using DRAQ7 dye), intracellular calcium levels (using Fluo-4 dye) and scatter characteristics were measured in a kinetic manner. Data were analyzed using the FACSKin software. The viability and morphology of the investigated cells was not altered upon nsPEF treatment. The response of HEK-293 cells to ionomycin as positive control was significantly lower in the nsPEF treated samples compared to non-treated cells. This difference was not observed in C6 cells. FSC and SSC values were not altered significantly by the nsPEF treatment. Our results indicate that this model system is capable of reliably investigating the effects of nsPEF on cellular processes in real time. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:26990601

  11. Quantum field as a quantum cellular automaton: The Dirac free evolution in one dimension

    SciTech Connect

    Bisio, Alessandro; D’Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Tosini, Alessandro

    2015-03-15

    We present a quantum cellular automaton model in one space-dimension which has the Dirac equation as emergent. This model, a discrete-time and causal unitary evolution of a lattice of quantum systems, is derived from the assumptions of homogeneity, parity and time-reversal invariance. The comparison between the automaton and the Dirac evolutions is rigorously set as a discrimination problem between unitary channels. We derive an exact lower bound for the probability of error in the discrimination as an explicit function of the mass, the number and the momentum of the particles, and the duration of the evolution. Computing this bound with experimentally achievable values, we see that in that regime the QCA model cannot be discriminated from the usual Dirac evolution. Finally, we show that the evolution of one-particle states with narrow-band in momentum can be efficiently simulated by a dispersive differential equation for any regime. This analysis allows for a comparison with the dynamics of wave-packets as it is described by the usual Dirac equation. This paper is a first step in exploring the idea that quantum field theory could be grounded on a more fundamental quantum cellular automaton model and that physical dynamics could emerge from quantum information processing. In this framework, the discretization is a central ingredient and not only a tool for performing non-perturbative calculation as in lattice gauge theory. The automaton model, endowed with a precise notion of local observables and a full probabilistic interpretation, could lead to a coherent unification of a hypothetical discrete Planck scale with the usual Fermi scale of high-energy physics. - Highlights: • The free Dirac field in one space dimension as a quantum cellular automaton. • Large scale limit of the automaton and the emergence of the Dirac equation. • Dispersive differential equation for the evolution of smooth states on the automaton. • Optimal discrimination between the

  12. Magnetic fields and cancer: animal and cellular evidence--an overview.

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, B

    1995-01-01

    A few animal studies on the possible carcinogenic effect of magnetic fields have been published. They have been designed to reveal a possible tumor promotion obtained by applying continuous or pulsed alternating fields at flux densities varying between 0.5 microT and 30 mT on mice or rats initiated with different initiators. One study with 2 mT applied on DMBA-initiated mice may suggest a copromotive effect together with the promoter TPA. Another study on rats suggests an inhibitory effect by a magnetic field on rat liver foci formation, induced with DENA. Cell studies show that magnetic fields at some frequencies, amplitudes, and wave forms interact with biological systems. Thus effects have been seen, e.g., on enzymes related to growth regulation, on calcium balance in the cell, on gene expression, and on pineal metabolism and its excretion of the oncostatic melatonin. Cellular and physiologic studies thus suggest effects that may be related to cell multiplication and tumor promotion. PMID:7614950

  13. Theoretical analyses of cellular transmembrane voltage in suspensions induced by high-frequency fields.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yong; Wang, Changzhen; Peng, Ruiyun; Wang, Lifeng; Hu, Xiangjun

    2015-04-01

    A change of the transmembrane voltage is considered to cause biophysical and biochemical responses in cells. The present study focuses on the cellular transmembrane voltage (Δφ) induced by external fields. We detail analytical equations for the transmembrane voltage induced by external high-frequency (above the relaxation frequency of the cell membrane) fields on cells of a spherical shape in suspensions and layers. At direct current (DC) and low frequencies, the cell membrane was assumed to be non-conductive under physiologic conditions. However, with increasing frequency, the permittivity of the cytoplasm/extracellular medium and conductivity of the membrane must be accounted for. Our main work is to extend application of the analytical solution of Δφ to the high-frequency range. We first introduce the transmembrane voltage generated by DC and low-frequency exposures on a single cell. Then, we focus on cell suspensions exposed to high-frequency fields. Using the effective medium theory and the reasonable assumption, the approximate analytical solution of Δφ on cells in suspensions and layers can be derived. Phenomenological effective medium theory equations cannot be used to calculate the local electric field of cell suspensions, so we raised a possible solution based on the Bergman theory. PMID:25528063

  14. Magnetic fields and cancer: Animal and cellular evidence--an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Holmberg, B.

    1995-03-01

    A few animal studies on the possible carcinogenic effect of magnetic fields have been published. They have been designed to reveal a possible tumor promotion obtained by applying continuous or pulsed alternating fields at flux densities varying between 0.5 {mu}T and 30 mT on mice or rats initiated with different initiators. One study with 2 mT applied on DMBA-initiated mice may suggest a copromotive effect together with the promoter TPA. Another study on rats suggests an inhibitory effect by a magnetic field on rat liver foci formation, induced with DENA. Cell studies show that magnetic fields at some frequencies, amplitudes, and wave forms interact with biological systems. Thus effects have been seen, e.g., on enzymes related to growth regulation, on calcium balance in the cell, on gene expression, and on pineal metabolism and its excretion of the oncostatic melatonin. Cellular and physiologic studies thus suggest effects that may be related to cell multiplication and tumor promotion. 64 refs.

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Dynamic Pelvic Floor

    MedlinePlus

    ... a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed pictures of the pelvic floor, ... powerful magnetic field, radio frequency pulses and a computer to produce detailed pictures of organs, soft tissues, ...

  16. Cleaning up Floor Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Richard; McLean, Doug

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how educational-facility maintenance departments can cut costs in floor cleaning through careful evaluation of floor equipment and products. Tips for choosing carpet detergents are highlighted. (GR)

  17. Signal processing for molecular and cellular biological physics: an emerging field

    PubMed Central

    Little, Max A.; Jones, Nick S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in our ability to watch the molecular and cellular processes of life in action—such as atomic force microscopy, optical tweezers and Forster fluorescence resonance energy transfer—raise challenges for digital signal processing (DSP) of the resulting experimental data. This article explores the unique properties of such biophysical time series that set them apart from other signals, such as the prevalence of abrupt jumps and steps, multi-modal distributions and autocorrelated noise. It exposes the problems with classical linear DSP algorithms applied to this kind of data, and describes new nonlinear and non-Gaussian algorithms that are able to extract information that is of direct relevance to biological physicists. It is argued that these new methods applied in this context typify the nascent field of biophysical DSP. Practical experimental examples are supplied. PMID:23277603

  18. Signal processing for molecular and cellular biological physics: an emerging field.

    PubMed

    Little, Max A; Jones, Nick S

    2013-02-13

    Recent advances in our ability to watch the molecular and cellular processes of life in action--such as atomic force microscopy, optical tweezers and Forster fluorescence resonance energy transfer--raise challenges for digital signal processing (DSP) of the resulting experimental data. This article explores the unique properties of such biophysical time series that set them apart from other signals, such as the prevalence of abrupt jumps and steps, multi-modal distributions and autocorrelated noise. It exposes the problems with classical linear DSP algorithms applied to this kind of data, and describes new nonlinear and non-Gaussian algorithms that are able to extract information that is of direct relevance to biological physicists. It is argued that these new methods applied in this context typify the nascent field of biophysical DSP. Practical experimental examples are supplied. PMID:23277603

  19. Elucidating the Function of Penetratin and a Static Magnetic Field in Cellular Uptake of Magnetic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Suman; Smith, Carol Anne; del Pino, Pablo; de la Fuente, Jesus M.; Mullin, Margaret; Hursthouse, Andrew; Stirling, David; Berry, Catherine C.

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology plays an increasingly important role in the biomedical arena. In particular, magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs) have become important tools in molecular diagnostics, in vivo imaging and improved treatment of disease, with the ultimate aim of producing a more theranostic approach. Due to their small sizes, the nanoparticles can cross most of the biological barriers such as the blood vessels and the blood brain barrier, thus providing ubiquitous access to most tissues. In all biomedical applications maximum nanoparticle uptake into cells is required. Two promising methods employed to this end include functionalization of mNPs with cell-penetrating peptides to promote efficient translocation of cargo into the cell and the use of external magnetic fields for enhanced delivery. This study aimed to compare the effect of both penetratin and a static magnetic field with regards to the cellular uptake of 200 nm magnetic NPs and determine the route of uptake by both methods. Results demonstrated that both techniques increased particle uptake, with penetratin proving more cell specific. Clathrin- medicated endocytosis appeared to be responsible for uptake as shown via PCR and western blot, with Pitstop 2 (known to selectively block clathrin formation) blocking particle uptake. Interestingly, it was further shown that a magnetic field was able to reverse or overcome the blocking, suggesting an alternative route of uptake. PMID:24275948

  20. FIRST FLOOR FRONT ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FIRST FLOOR FRONT ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED-- NOTE PRESENCE OF SECOND FLOOR WINDOWS (THE LATTER FLOOR WAS REMOVED MANY YEARS AGO), See also PA-1436 B-12 - Kid-Physick House, 325 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE SECOND FLOOR STAIR HALL. NOTE THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF THE SECOND FLOOR STAIR HALL. NOTE THE TONGUE-AND-GROOVE WOOD FLOORING AND THE WINDOW ABOVE THE STAIR LANDING. VIEW FACING SOUTH. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type D, 111 Beard Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  2. Hydration in discrete water. A mean field, cellular automata based approach to calculating hydration free energies.

    PubMed

    Setny, Piotr; Zacharias, Martin

    2010-07-01

    A simple, semiheuristic solvation model based on a discrete, BCC grid of solvent cells has been presented. The model utilizes a mean field approach for the calculation of solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interaction energies and a cellular automata based algorithm for the prediction of solvent distribution in the presence of solute. The construction of the effective Hamiltonian for a solvent cell provides an explicit coupling between orientation-dependent water-solute electrostatic interactions and water-water hydrogen bonding. The water-solute dispersion interaction is also explicitly taken into account. The model does not depend on any arbitrary definition of the solute-solvent interface nor does it use a microscopic surface tension for the calculation of nonpolar contributions to the hydration free energies. It is demonstrated that the model provides satisfactory predictions of hydration free energies for drug-like molecules and is able to reproduce the distribution of buried water molecules within protein structures. The model is computationally efficient and is applicable to arbitrary molecules described by atomistic force field. PMID:20552986

  3. Quantum field as a quantum cellular automaton: The Dirac free evolution in one dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisio, Alessandro; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Tosini, Alessandro

    2015-03-01

    We present a quantum cellular automaton model in one space-dimension which has the Dirac equation as emergent. This model, a discrete-time and causal unitary evolution of a lattice of quantum systems, is derived from the assumptions of homogeneity, parity and time-reversal invariance. The comparison between the automaton and the Dirac evolutions is rigorously set as a discrimination problem between unitary channels. We derive an exact lower bound for the probability of error in the discrimination as an explicit function of the mass, the number and the momentum of the particles, and the duration of the evolution. Computing this bound with experimentally achievable values, we see that in that regime the QCA model cannot be discriminated from the usual Dirac evolution. Finally, we show that the evolution of one-particle states with narrow-band in momentum can be efficiently simulated by a dispersive differential equation for any regime. This analysis allows for a comparison with the dynamics of wave-packets as it is described by the usual Dirac equation. This paper is a first step in exploring the idea that quantum field theory could be grounded on a more fundamental quantum cellular automaton model and that physical dynamics could emerge from quantum information processing. In this framework, the discretization is a central ingredient and not only a tool for performing non-perturbative calculation as in lattice gauge theory. The automaton model, endowed with a precise notion of local observables and a full probabilistic interpretation, could lead to a coherent unification of a hypothetical discrete Planck scale with the usual Fermi scale of high-energy physics.

  4. Active and relict sea-floor hydrothermal mineralization at the TAG hydrothermal field, Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    SciTech Connect

    Rona, P.A. . Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Labs.); Hannington, M.D. ); Raman, C.V. ); Thompson, G.; Tivey, M.K.; Humphris, S.E. ); Lalou, C. . Lab. CNRS-CEA); Petersen, S. Aachen Univ. of Technology )

    1993-12-01

    The TAG hydrothermal field is a site of major active and inactive volcanic-hosted hydrothermal mineralization in the rift valley of the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 26[degree]N. The axial high is the principal locus of present magmatic intrusions. The TAG field contains three main areas of present and past hydrothermal activity: (1) an actively venting high-temperature sulfide mound; (2) two former high-temperature vent areas; (3) a zone of low-temperature venting and precipitation of Fe and Mn oxide deposits. The volcanic centers occur at the intersections between ridge axis-parallel normal faults and projected axis-transverse transfer faults. The intersections of these active fault systems may act as conduits both for magmatic intrusions from sources beneath the axial high that build the volcanic centers and for hydrothermal upwelling that taps the heat sources. Radiometric dating of sulfide samples and manganese crusts in the hydrothermal zones and dating of sediments intercalated with pillow lava flows in the volcanic center adjacent to the active sulfide mound indicate multiple episodes of hydrothermal activity throughout the field driven by heat supplied by episodic intrusions over a period of at least 140 [times] 10[sup 3] yr. The sulfide deposits are built by juxtaposition and superposition during relatively long residence times near episodic axial heat sources counterbalanced by mass wasting in the tectonically active rift valley of the slow-spreading oceanic ridge. Hydrothermal reworking of a relict hydrothermal zone by high-temperature hydrothermal episodes has recrystallized sulfides and concentrated the first visible primary gold reported in a deposit at an oceanic ridge.

  5. Cellular processes involved in human epidermal cells exposed to extremely low frequency electric fields.

    PubMed

    Collard, J-F; Hinsenkamp, M

    2015-05-01

    We observed on different tissues and organisms a biological response after exposure to pulsed low frequency and low amplitude electric or electromagnetic fields but the precise mechanism of cell response remains unknown. The aim of this publication is to understand, using bioinformatics, the biological relevance of processes involved in the modification of gene expression. The list of genes analyzed was obtained after microarray protocol realized on cultures of human epidermal explants growing on deepidermized human skin exposed to a pulsed low frequency electric field. The directed acyclic graph on a WebGestalt Gene Ontology module shows six categories under the biological process root: "biological regulation", "cellular process", "cell proliferation", "death", "metabolic process" and "response to stimulus". Enriched derived categories are coherent with the type of in vitro culture, the stimulation protocol or with the previous results showing a decrease of cell proliferation and an increase of differentiation. The Kegg module on WebGestalt has highlighted "cell cycle" and "p53 signaling pathway" as significantly involved. The Kegg website brings out interactions between FoxO, MAPK, JNK, p53, p38, PI3K/Akt, Wnt, mTor or NF-KappaB. Some genes expressed by the stimulation are known to have an exclusive function on these pathways. Analyses performed with Pathway Studio linked cell proliferation, cell differentiation, apoptosis, cell cycle, mitosis, cell death etc. with our microarrays results. Medline citation generated by the software and the fold change variation confirms a diminution of the proliferation, activation of the differentiation and a less well-defined role of apoptosis or wound healing. Wnt and DKK functional classes, DKK1, MACF1, ATF3, MME, TXNRD1, and BMP-2 genes proposed in previous publications after a manual analysis are also highlighted with other genes after Pathway Studio automatic procedure. Finally, an analysis conducted on a list of genes

  6. Residual Separation of Magnetic Fields Using a Cellular Neural Network Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albora, A. M.; Özmen, A.; Uçan, O. N.

    - In this paper, a Cellular Neural Network (CNN) has been applied to a magnetic regional/residual anomaly separation problem. CNN is an analog parallel computing paradigm defined in space and characterized by the locality of connections between processing neurons. The behavior of the CNN is defined by the template matrices A, B and the template vector I. We have optimized weight coefficients of these templates using Recurrent Perceptron Learning Algorithm (RPLA). The advantages of CNN as a real-time stochastic method are that it introduces little distortion to the shape of the original image and that it is not effected significantly by factors such as the overlap of power spectra of residual fields. The proposed method is tested using synthetic examples and the average depth of the buried objects has been estimated by power spectrum analysis. Next the CNN approach is applied to magnetic data over the Golalan chromite mine in Elazig which lies East of Turkey. This area is among the largest and richest chromite masses of the world. We compared the performance of CNN to classical derivative approaches.

  7. Development of a carbon nanotube field emission based microbeam cellular irradiator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordelon, David E.

    Microbeam irradiation has been a growing area of interest in recent years. Microbeam techniques provide radiobiology researchers with the capability of irradiating cells and even subcellular regions with precise doses over precise time intervals. A variety of systems exist using beams of various ions, X-rays, as well as electrons. Multiple locations are irradiated by scanning the particle or photon beam or by translating the cell targets over the beam. While each of these has its own advantages no one has yet demonstrated a multi-beam system, which could increase experimental efficiency and versatility. We have been working to develop a carbon nanotube (CNT) based multi-pixel cellular irradiator to demonstrate this as yet unfulfilled possibility. Formation of the microbeam via carbon nanotube field emission represents a great advantage in that the beam generation can take place in a compact area, has significant advantages over thermionic electron generation, and is readily scaleable using microfabrication methods. Use of CNT based electron field emission along with other microfabrication techniques will readily facilitate the development of a multi-pixel system and allows for a greater degree of miniaturization as compared to other systems, particularly those based on particle accelerators. The CNT based system provides reliable, controllable electron beams with excellent dose rate capabilities. With the potential for smaller, more accessible systems this project demonstrates a development that could make microbeam irradiation available to a broader group of scientists, accelerating the growth of knowledge about the effects and use of radiation on cells and the human body.

  8. Quality Matters: Systematic Analysis of Endpoints Related to “Cellular Life” in Vitro Data of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Simkó, Myrtill; Remondini, Daniel; Zeni, Olga; Scarfi, Maria Rosaria

    2016-01-01

    Possible hazardous effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) at low exposure levels are controversially discussed due to inconsistent study findings. Therefore, the main focus of the present study is to detect if any statistical association exists between RF-EMF and cellular responses, considering cell proliferation and apoptosis endpoints separately and with both combined as a group of “cellular life” to increase the statistical power of the analysis. We searched for publications regarding RF-EMF in vitro studies in the PubMed database for the period 1995–2014 and extracted the data to the relevant parameters, such as cell culture type, frequency, exposure duration, SAR, and five exposure-related quality criteria. These parameters were used for an association study with the experimental outcome in terms of the defined endpoints. We identified 104 published articles, from which 483 different experiments were extracted and analyzed. Cellular responses after exposure to RF-EMF were significantly associated to cell lines rather than to primary cells. No other experimental parameter was significantly associated with cellular responses. A highly significant negative association with exposure condition-quality and cellular responses was detected, showing that the more the quality criteria requirements were satisfied, the smaller the number of detected cellular responses. According to our knowledge, this is the first systematic analysis of specific RF-EMF bio-effects in association to exposure quality, highlighting the need for more stringent quality procedures for the exposure conditions. PMID:27420084

  9. Quality Matters: Systematic Analysis of Endpoints Related to "Cellular Life" in Vitro Data of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure.

    PubMed

    Simkó, Myrtill; Remondini, Daniel; Zeni, Olga; Scarfi, Maria Rosaria

    2016-01-01

    Possible hazardous effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) at low exposure levels are controversially discussed due to inconsistent study findings. Therefore, the main focus of the present study is to detect if any statistical association exists between RF-EMF and cellular responses, considering cell proliferation and apoptosis endpoints separately and with both combined as a group of "cellular life" to increase the statistical power of the analysis. We searched for publications regarding RF-EMF in vitro studies in the PubMed database for the period 1995-2014 and extracted the data to the relevant parameters, such as cell culture type, frequency, exposure duration, SAR, and five exposure-related quality criteria. These parameters were used for an association study with the experimental outcome in terms of the defined endpoints. We identified 104 published articles, from which 483 different experiments were extracted and analyzed. Cellular responses after exposure to RF-EMF were significantly associated to cell lines rather than to primary cells. No other experimental parameter was significantly associated with cellular responses. A highly significant negative association with exposure condition-quality and cellular responses was detected, showing that the more the quality criteria requirements were satisfied, the smaller the number of detected cellular responses. According to our knowledge, this is the first systematic analysis of specific RF-EMF bio-effects in association to exposure quality, highlighting the need for more stringent quality procedures for the exposure conditions. PMID:27420084

  10. Effects of 900 MHz electromagnetic field emitted by cellular phones on electrocardiograms of guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Meral, I; Tekintangac, Y; Demir, H

    2014-02-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted by cellular phones (CPs) on electrocardiograms (ECGs) of guinea pigs. A total of 30 healthy guinea pigs weighing 500-800 g were used. After 1 week of adaptation period, animals were randomly divided into two groups: control group (n = 10) and EMF-exposed group (n = 20). Control guinea pigs were housed in a separate room without exposing them to EMFs of CPs. Animals in second group were exposed to 890-915 MHz EMF (217 Hz of pulse rate, 2 W of maximum peak power and 0.95 wt kg(-1) of specific absorption rate) for 12 h day(-1) (11 h 45 min stand-by and 15 min speaking mode) for 30 days. ECGs of guinea pigs in both the groups were recorded by a direct writing electrocardiograph at the beginning and 10th, 20th and 30th days of the experiment. All ECGs were standardized at 1 mV = 10 mm and with a chart speed of 50 mm sec(-1). Leads I, II, III, lead augmented vector right (aVR), lead augmented vector left (aVL) and lead augmented vector foot (aVF) were recorded. The durations and amplitudes of waves on the trace were measured in lead II. The data were expressed as mean with SEM. It was found that 12 h day(-1) EMF exposure for 30 days did not have any significant effects on ECG findings of guinea pigs. However, this issue needed to be further investigated in a variety of perspectives, such as longer duration of exposure to be able to elucidate the effects of mobile phone-induced EMFs on cardiovascular functions. PMID:24220873

  11. School Flooring Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, John

    2012-01-01

    With all of the hype that green building is receiving throughout the school facility-management industry, it's easy to overlook some elements that may not be right in front of a building manager's nose. It is helpful to examine the role floor covering plays in a green building project. Flooring is one of the most significant and important systems…

  12. Floors: Care and Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post Office Dept., Washington, DC.

    Guidelines, methods and policies regarding the care and maintenance of post office building floors are overviewed in this handbook. Procedures outlined are concerned with maintaining a required level of appearance without wasting manpower. Flooring types and characteristics and the particular cleaning requirements of each type are given along with…

  13. Maximizing Hard Floor Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steger, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Explains the maintenance options available for hardwood flooring that can help ensure long life cycles and provide inviting spaces. Developing a maintenance system, knowing the type of traffic that the floor must endure, using entrance matting, and adhering to manufacturers guidelines are discussed. Daily, monthly or quarterly, and long-term…

  14. FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED-- NOTE PRESENCE OF SECOND FLOOR WINDOWS AT LEFT. See also PA-1436 B-6 - Kid-Physick House, 325 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED-- NOTE PRESENCE OF SECOND FLOOR WINDOWS AT LEFT. See also PA-1436 B-13 - Kid-Physick House, 325 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. Electric currents and fields induced in cells in the human brain by radiation from hand-held cellular telephones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Ronold W. P.

    2000-01-01

    After a review of recent work on the interaction of electromagnetic fields from cellular telephones with the human head, the structural and radiating properties of two common types of transceivers are determined. These include the impedance and current amplitude distribution of the antennas. The tangential electric field maintained by the antennas on the adjacent surface of the head is next determined. From this, the electric field propagating through the skull into the brain is analyzed and, from it, the electric field in spherical and long cylindrical cells is determined. It ranges from 27 to 13.5 V/m in the first 3 cm inside the skull. Of interest is the fact that the induced field in the interior of all cells, regardless of their shape, is the same as the incident field in the brain. It is hoped that biomedical scientists will review these results and determine possible biological effects.

  17. Pelvic floor muscle training exercises

    MedlinePlus

    Pelvic floor muscle training exercises are a series of exercises designed to strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor. ... Pelvic floor muscle training exercises are recommended for: Women ... Men with urinary stress incontinence after prostate surgery ...

  18. 5. STAIR FROM SECOND FLOOR TO THIRD FLOOR, FROM NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. STAIR FROM SECOND FLOOR TO THIRD FLOOR, FROM NORTHWEST. Note extreme thin construction of support and outline of well ellipse on floor. Stair to first floor has been removed - Saltus-Habersham House, 802 Bay Street, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

  19. Activation-dependent and biphasic electromagnetic field effects: Model based on cooperative enzyme kinetics in cellular signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Eichwald, C.; Walleczek, J.

    1996-12-31

    Experiments on field exposure effects of extremely-low-frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) on biological systems have shown that, in many cases, the biological-functional status is of fundamental importance for an effective interaction. For example, studies of calcium uptake regulation in cells of the immune system, particularly in T lymphocytes, have revealed that, depending on the degree of cellular activation, either stimulatory, inhibitory, or no field exposure effects are observed for identical field parameters. A brief summary of the experimental findings is given, and a theoretical approach is presented that accounts in a qualitative manner for EMF exposure effects (1) that depend on the degree of cellular activation and (2) that exhibit a biphasic response behavior (stimulation/inhibition). In the model, biochemical stimulation of the cell results in activation of specific signaling pathways that regulate calcium dynamics in the cell (calcium release from intracellular calcium stores and capacitive calcium entry). The authors assume that, controlled by these pathways, a specific EMF-sensitive enzyme system becomes activated. The activated enzyme, in turn, exhibit a feedback control on the signal processes, thus leading to a modulation of calcium entry. This modulation may affect other cellular processes that are calcium dependent (e.g., DNA synthesis). Magnetic field exposure is assumed to alter the kinetics of a specific step within the enzyme-reaction cycle in accord with the radical-pair mechanism, although the formulism is not restricted to this specific example. Results show that inclusion of cooperative steps within the enzyme-reaction cycle provides a theoretical basis that enables a simple description of a biphasic response behavior to EMF exposure.

  20. Bioelectrorheological model of the cell. 4. Analysis of the extensil deformation of cellular membrane in alternating electric field.

    PubMed Central

    Pawłowski, P; Fikus, M

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of the angular distribution of extensil mechanical stress, sigma e, generated in cytoplasmic membranes by an external oscillating electric field, is presented. Theoretical considerations show that sigma e is directly proportional to the local relative increase in membrane area and/or to the local relative decrease in its thickness. The magnitude of this stress depends on the position of the analyzed point of the membrane in relation to field direction. The maximal value, sigma eo, is reached at the cell "poles." The magnitude of sigma eo depends on electric and geometric parameters (in particular on field frequency) of the system studied. The foregoing analysis can be applied to quantitatively describe the destabilizing effects of the electric field on the cellular membrane, leading to its poration, fusion, and destruction. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:8369457

  1. Urinary neopterin, a non-invasive marker of mammalian cellular immune activation, is highly stable under field conditions

    PubMed Central

    Heistermann, Michael; Higham, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Studying immunity and immune function in ecology and evolution requires field studies, but there has been a dearth of non-invasive markers of immune activation available for studying large wild mammals. Recently, we analytically and biologically validated the measurement of urinary neopterin (NEO), a biomarker of cellular immune activation, in captive macaques. However, applying this to free-ranging settings is complicated by issues involving sample collection, processing, storage, and transport. Here, we collected urine samples from captive macaques and undertook experiments simulating common field issues. We tested the effects on urinary NEO sample measurements following: dirt and faecal contamination; storage at room temperature; differences in processing and long-term storage methods (freezing, lyophilising, blotting onto filter paper); and freeze-thaw cycles. Our results show that concentrations of urinary NEO are highly stable – they are not affected by soil or faecal contamination, can be collected on filter paper and stored for many months frozen or lyophilised with minimal effect, and are resistant to multiple 24 hr freeze-thaws. With the addition of a biocidal preservative, concentrations are even stable at room temperature for long periods. Urinary NEO is remarkably resilient, and is highly suitable for non-invasive field studies of cellular immune responses in wild large mammals. PMID:26549509

  2. Increased cellular uptake of biocompatible superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles into malignant cells by an external magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Prijic, Sara; Scancar, Janez; Romih, Rok; Cemazar, Maja; Bregar, Vladimir B; Znidarsic, Andrej; Sersa, Gregor

    2010-07-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are used as delivery systems for different therapeutics including nucleic acids for magnetofection-mediated gene therapy. The aim of our study was to evaluate physicochemical properties, biocompatibility, cellular uptake and trafficking pathways of the custom-synthesized SPIONs for their potential use in magnetofection. Custom-synthesized SPIONs were tested for size, shape, crystalline composition and magnetic behavior using a transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffractometer and magnetometer. SPIONs were dispersed in different aqueous media to obtain ferrofluids, which were tested for pH and stability using a pH meter and zetameter. Cytotoxicity was determined using the MTS and clonogenic assays. Cellular uptake and trafficking pathways were qualitatively evaluated by transmission electron microscopy and quantitatively by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. SPIONs were composed of an iron oxide core with a diameter of 8-9 nm, coated with a 2-nm-thick layer of silica. SPIONs, dispersed in 0.9% NaCl solution, resulted in a stable ferrofluid at physiological pH for several months. SPIONs were not cytotoxic in a broad range of concentrations and were readily internalized into different cells by endocytosis. Exposure to neodymium-iron-boron magnets significantly increased the cellular uptake of SPIONs, predominantly into malignant cells. The prepared SPIONs displayed adequate physicochemical and biomedical properties for potential use in magnetofection. Their cellular uptake was dependent on the cell type, and their accumulation within the cells was dependent on the duration of exposure to an external magnetic field. PMID:20602230

  3. Increased Cellular Uptake of Biocompatible Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles into Malignant Cells by an External Magnetic Field

    PubMed Central

    Prijic, Sara; Scancar, Janez; Romih, Rok; Cemazar, Maja; Bregar, Vladimir B.; Znidarsic, Andrej

    2010-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are used as delivery systems for different therapeutics including nucleic acids for magnetofection-mediated gene therapy. The aim of our study was to evaluate physicochemical properties, biocompatibility, cellular uptake and trafficking pathways of the custom-synthesized SPIONs for their potential use in magnetofection. Custom-synthesized SPIONs were tested for size, shape, crystalline composition and magnetic behavior using a transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffractometer and magnetometer. SPIONs were dispersed in different aqueous media to obtain ferrofluids, which were tested for pH and stability using a pH meter and zetameter. Cytotoxicity was determined using the MTS and clonogenic assays. Cellular uptake and trafficking pathways were qualitatively evaluated by transmission electron microscopy and quantitatively by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. SPIONs were composed of an iron oxide core with a diameter of 8–9 nm, coated with a 2-nm-thick layer of silica. SPIONs, dispersed in 0.9% NaCl solution, resulted in a stable ferrofluid at physiological pH for several months. SPIONs were not cytotoxic in a broad range of concentrations and were readily internalized into different cells by endocytosis. Exposure to neodymium-iron-boron magnets significantly increased the cellular uptake of SPIONs, predominantly into malignant cells. The prepared SPIONs displayed adequate physicochemical and biomedical properties for potential use in magnetofection. Their cellular uptake was dependent on the cell type, and their accumulation within the cells was dependent on the duration of exposure to an external magnetic field. PMID:20602230

  4. Pelvic Floor Disorders Network

    MedlinePlus

    ... to develop and perform research studies related to women with pelvic floor disorders. In this way, studies can be done more quickly than if the medical centers were working alone. Doctors, nurses, other health care workers, and support staff all play important roles.The ...

  5. Modulation of hydrogen peroxide production in cellular systems by low level magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Martino, Carlos F; Castello, Pablo R

    2011-01-01

    Increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and an altered redox status have long been observed in cancer cells, suggesting that ROS might be involved in the development of these cells. However, recent studies suggest that inducing an excess of ROS in cancer cells can be exploited for therapeutic benefits. Cancer cells in advanced stage tumors frequently exhibit multiple genetic alterations and high oxidative stress, suggesting that it might be possible to preferentially modulate the development of these cells by controlling their ROS production. Low levels of ROS are also important for the development and survival of normal cells. In this manuscript, we present data on the influence of the suppression of the Earth's magnetic field (low level magnetic fields or LLF) which magnitudes range from 0.2 µT to 2 µT on the modulation of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in human fibrosarcoma cancer cell line HT1080, pancreatic AsPC-1 cancer cell line, and bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAEC) exposed to geomagnetic field (control; 45 µT-60 µT). Reduction of the Earth's magnetic field suppressed H(2)O(2) production in cancer cells and PAEC. The addition of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic MnTBAP inhibited the magnetic field effect. Modulating ROS production by magnetic fields may open new venues of biomedical research and therapeutic strategies. PMID:21887222

  6. 16. SANDSORTING BUILDING, FIRST FLOOR, MEZZANINE ON LEFT (BELOW FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. SAND-SORTING BUILDING, FIRST FLOOR, MEZZANINE ON LEFT (BELOW FLOOR ARE CONCRETE AND STORAGE BINS), LOOKING NORTH - Mill "C" Complex, Sand-Sorting Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  7. Detail view of floor mosaic in first floor lobby ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of floor mosaic in first floor lobby - St. Elizabeths Hospital, Hitchcock Hall, 2700 Martin Luther King Jr. Avenue, Southeast, 588-604 Redwood Street, Southeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. Two and Three Bedroom Units: First Floor Plan, Second Floor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Two and Three Bedroom Units: First Floor Plan, Second Floor Plan, South Elevation (As Built), North Elevation (As Built), East Elevation (As Built), East Elevation (Existing), North Elevation (Existing) - Aluminum City Terrace, East Hill Drive, New Kensington, Westmoreland County, PA

  9. STIRLING'S QUARTERS SMALL BARN: FIRST FLOOR PLAN; SECOND FLOOR PLAN; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STIRLING'S QUARTERS SMALL BARN: FIRST FLOOR PLAN; SECOND FLOOR PLAN; SOUTH ELEVATION; EAST ELEVATION; NORTH ELEVATION; WEST ELEVATION. - Stirling's Quarters, 555 Yellow Springs Road, Tredyffrin Township, Valley Forge, Chester County, PA

  10. First floor lobby, showing stairs to ground floor Fitzsimons ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    First floor lobby, showing stairs to ground floor - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Main Hospital Building, Charlie Kelly Boulevard, North side, at intersection of Sharon A. Lane Drive, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  11. Stairwell from first floor to ground floor Fitzsimons General ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Stairwell from first floor to ground floor - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Main Hospital Building, Charlie Kelly Boulevard, North side, at intersection of Sharon A. Lane Drive, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  12. Railing detail, stairs from first floor to ground floor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Railing detail, stairs from first floor to ground floor - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Main Hospital Building, Charlie Kelly Boulevard, North side, at intersection of Sharon A. Lane Drive, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  13. Electric Field Modulation of Semiconductor Quantum Dot Photoluminescence: Insights Into the Design of Robust Voltage-Sensitive Cellular Imaging Probes.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Clare E; Susumu, Kimihiro; Stewart, Michael H; Oh, Eunkeu; Mäkinen, Antti J; O'Shaughnessy, Thomas J; Kushto, Gary; Wolak, Mason A; Erickson, Jeffrey S; Efros, Alexander L; Huston, Alan L; Delehanty, James B

    2015-10-14

    The intrinsic properties of quantum dots (QDs) and the growing ability to interface them controllably with living cells has far-reaching potential applications in probing cellular processes such as membrane action potential. We demonstrate that an electric field typical of those found in neuronal membranes results in suppression of the QD photoluminescence (PL) and, for the first time, that QD PL is able to track the action potential profile of a firing neuron with millisecond time resolution. This effect is shown to be connected with electric-field-driven QD ionization and consequent QD PL quenching, in contradiction with conventional wisdom that suppression of the QD PL is attributable to the quantum confined Stark effect. PMID:26414396

  14. Bacterial growth rates are influenced by cellular characteristics of individual species when immersed in electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Tessaro, Lucas W E; Murugan, Nirosha J; Persinger, Michael A

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) have negative effects on the rate of growth of bacteria. In the present study, two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative species were exposed to six magnetic field conditions in broth cultures. Three variations of the 'Thomas' pulsed frequency-modulated pattern; a strong-static "puck" magnet upwards of 5000G in intensity; a pair of these magnets rotating opposite one another at ∼30rpm; and finally a strong dynamic magnetic field generator termed the 'Resonator' with an average intensity of 250μT were used. Growth rate was discerned by optical density (OD) measurements every hour at 600nm. ELF-EMF conditions significantly affected the rates of growth of the bacterial cultures, while the two static magnetic field conditions were not statistically significant. Most interestingly, the 'Resonator' dynamic magnetic field increased the rates of growth of three species (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli), while slowing the growth of one (Serratia marcescens). We suggest that these effects are due to individual biophysical characteristics of the bacterial species. PMID:25721476

  15. Interior, view of third floor room, with original flooring, camera ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, view of third floor room, with original flooring, camera facing northwest, this was typical of the rooms on the third floor before the rehabilitation by the Navy in the 1950s and 1960s - Naval Training Station, Senior Officers' Quarters District, Quarters No. 4, Naval Station Treasure Island, 4 Whiting Way, Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. CAST FLOOR WITH VIEW OF TORPEDO LADLE (BENEATH CAST FLOOR) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CAST FLOOR WITH VIEW OF TORPEDO LADLE (BENEATH CAST FLOOR) AND KEEPERS OF THE CAST HOUSE FLOOR, S.L. KIMBROUGH AND DAVID HOLMES. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Blast Furnace No. 8, North of Valley Road, West of Ensley-Pleasant Grove Road, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

  17. 49. TOP FLOOR OF 1852 WING LOOKING EAST. FLOOR COVERING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. TOP FLOOR OF 1852 WING LOOKING EAST. FLOOR COVERING INDICATES ANGLE OF INTERSECTION BETWEEN THIS AND THE EARLIER WING. NOTE ALSO CHANGE IN ORIENTATION OF COLUMNS AND HANGING LIGHT FIXTURE. BRIGHT AREA AT CEILING IN MIDDLE DISTANCE INDICATES SKYLIGHT. THIS FLOOR ADDED CA. 1880. - Boston Manufacturing Company, 144-190 Moody Street, Waltham, Middlesex County, MA

  18. Cellular defibrillation: interaction of micro-scale electric fields with voltage-gated ion channels.

    PubMed

    Kargol, Armin; Malkinski, Leszek; Eskandari, Rahmatollah; Carter, Maya; Livingston, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    We study the effect of micro-scale electric fields on voltage-gated ion channels in mammalian cell membranes. Such micro- and nano-scale electric fields mimic the effects of multiferroic nanoparticles that were recently proposed [1] as a novel way of controlling the function of voltage-sensing biomolecules such as ion channels. This article describes experimental procedures and initial results that reveal the effect of the electric field, in close proximity of cells, on the ion transport through voltage-gated ion channels. We present two configurations of the whole-cell patch-clamping apparatus that were used to detect the effect of external stimulation on ionic currents and discuss preliminary results that indicate modulation of the ionic currents consistent with the applied stimulus. PMID:26067055

  19. Cellular basis for singing motor pattern generation in the field cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus DeGeer)

    PubMed Central

    Schöneich, Stefan; Hedwig, Berthold

    2012-01-01

    The singing behavior of male crickets allows analyzing a central pattern generator (CPG) that was shaped by sexual selection for reliable production of species-specific communication signals. After localizing the essential ganglia for singing in Gryllus bimaculatus, we now studied the calling song CPG at the cellular level. Fictive singing was initiated by pharmacological brain stimulation. The motor pattern underlying syllables and chirps was recorded as alternating spike bursts of wing-opener and wing-closer motoneurons in a truncated wing nerve; it precisely reflected the natural calling song. During fictive singing, we intracellularly recorded and stained interneurons in thoracic and abdominal ganglia and tested their impact on the song pattern by intracellular current injections. We identified three interneurons of the metathoracic and first unfused abdominal ganglion that rhythmically de- and hyperpolarized in phase with the syllable pattern and spiked strictly before the wing-opener motoneurons. Depolarizing current injection in two of these opener interneurons caused additional rhythmic singing activity, which reliably reset the ongoing chirp rhythm. The closely intermeshing arborizations of the singing interneurons revealed the dorsal midline neuropiles of the metathoracic and three most anterior abdominal neuromeres as the anatomical location of singing pattern generation. In the same neuropiles, we also recorded several closer interneurons that rhythmically hyper- and depolarized in the syllable rhythm and spiked strictly before the wing-closer motoneurons. Some of them received pronounced inhibition at the beginning of each chirp. Hyperpolarizing current injection in the dendrite revealed postinhibitory rebound depolarization as one functional mechanism of central pattern generation in singing crickets. PMID:23170234

  20. Pelvic Organ Prolapse: New Concepts in Pelvic Floor Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Pedro A; Wai, Clifford Y

    2016-03-01

    As the field of reconstructive pelvic surgery continues to evolve, with descriptions of new procedures to repair pelvic organ prolapse, it remains imperative to maintain a functional understanding of pelvic floor anatomy and support. The goal of this review was to provide a focused, conceptual approach to differentiating anatomic defects contributing to prolapse in the various compartments of the vagina. Rather than provide exhaustive descriptions of pelvic floor anatomy, basic pelvic floor anatomy is reviewed, new and historical concepts of pelvic floor support are discussed, and relevance to the surgical management of specific anatomic defects is addressed. PMID:26880505

  1. Cellular response to exogenous electromagnetic fields. Annual report, October 1986-September 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, R.; Henderson, A.S.

    1987-09-21

    This research has determined that extremely-low-frequency (ELF) (100-Hz) electromagnetic (EM) fields induce alterations in transcription and translation in dipteran (Drosophila, Sciara) and human (HL60, IB4) cells. Transcriptional autoradiography and endoreplicated chromosomes, as well as analyses of sucrose density-gradient profiles, shows increased uptake of /sup 3/H uridine into RNA following exposure of cells to sinusoidal and asymmetric quasi-rectangular signals for time periods up to 60 minutes. Biochemical analyses (sucrose density gradients, oligo (d) T columns) have demonstrated that the RNA affected by signal stimulation is in the messenger-RNA size class. Quantitative and qualitative alterations also occur in polypeptide synthesis following EM-field stimulation. Major differences are noted from control among all sets analyzed with respect to new and augmented, as well as suppressed and deleted polypeptides. Using hybridization analysis, there is preliminary evidence that cell-specific transcripts are augmented.

  2. In vitro testing of cellular response to ultra high frequency electromagnetic field radiation.

    PubMed

    Pavicic, Ivan; Trosic, Ivancica

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether low-level, ultra high frequency (UHF) irradiation of 935 MHz influences the cell structure and growth of V79 cells. UHF field was generated inside a Gigahertz Transversal Electromagnetic Mode cell (GTEM-cell) with a Hewlett-Packard signal generator. The electric field strength was 8.2+/-0.3 V/cm and the average specific absorption rate (SAR) was calculated to be 0.12 W/kg. Cell samples were cultivated in a humidified atmosphere at 37 degrees C with 5% CO2. Prepared cell samples were exposed to a 935 MHz continuous wave frequency field for 1, 2, and 3 h. The structure of microtubule proteins has been determined using the immunocytochemical method. Cell growth was determined by cell counts for each hour of exposure during five post-exposure days. Negative- and positive-cell controls were included into the experimental procedure. In comparison with control cells, the microtubule structure clearly altered after 3h of irradiation (p<0.05). Significantly decreased growth was noted in cells exposed for 3h three days after irradiation (p<0.05). It seems that the 935 MHz, low-level UHF radiation affects microtubule proteins, which consequently may obstruct cell growth. PMID:18513921

  3. INTERIOR VIEW OF SECOND FLOOR STAIR HALL. SHOWING THE IRON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF SECOND FLOOR STAIR HALL. SHOWING THE IRON STAIR RAILS AND NEWEL POSTS WITH INCISED LINES. NOTE THE TONGUE-AND-GROOVE WOOD FLOORING. VIEW FACING EAST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type L, 702 Julian Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  4. 6. Photographic copy of floor plan drawing, dated August 18, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photographic copy of floor plan drawing, dated August 18, 1968, Department of the Air Force Air Defense Command Installations, in possession of Selfridge Base Museum, Mt. Clemens, Michigan. FLOOR PLAN BLDG. 1585. - Selfridge Field, Building No. 1585, South of East Joy Boulevard, west of Taxiway C, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  5. 9. Photographic copy of first and second floor plans, undated, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photographic copy of first and second floor plans, undated, Department of the Air Force, Air Defense Command Installations, Washington, D.C., in possession of Selfridge Base Museum, Mt. Clemens, Michigan. FLOOR PLANS. - Selfridge Field, Building No. 509, Sugarbush Road east of West Perimeter Road, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  6. 7. Photographic copy of floor plan drawing, dated September 26, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photographic copy of floor plan drawing, dated September 26, 1975, Selfridge ANG Base, in possession of Selfridge Base Museum, Mt. Clemens, Michigan. FLOOR PLAN BLDG. 1583. - Selfridge Field, Building Nos. 1582, 1583, 1584, South of East Joy Boulevard, west of Taxiway C, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  7. 6. Photographic copy of floor plan drawing, dated August 10, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photographic copy of floor plan drawing, dated August 10, 1968, Selfridge ANG Base, in possession of Selfridge Base Museum, Mt. Clemens, Michigan. FLOOR PLANS BLDGS. 1582 & 1584. - Selfridge Field, Building Nos. 1582, 1583, 1584, South of East Joy Boulevard, west of Taxiway C, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  8. Photographic copy of floor plan drawing, dated March 7, 1968, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of floor plan drawing, dated March 7, 1968, Department of the Air Force Air Defense Command Installations, in possession of Selfridge Base Museum, Mt. Clemens, Michigan. FLOOR PLAN BLDG. 1575 - Selfridge Field, Building No. 1575, South of East Joy Boulevard, west of Taxiway C, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  9. INTERIOR VIEW OF BATHROOM 1, SECOND FLOOR. NOTE THE ORIGINAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF BATHROOM 1, SECOND FLOOR. NOTE THE ORIGINAL MOSAIC PATTERN FLOOR TILE, TILE WAINSCOT, CERAMIC ACCESSORIES, AND SINGLE-PANEL DOOR TO LINEN CLOSET. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type K, 304 Sixth Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  10. Regulation of cellular function via electromagnetic field frequency and extracellular environment: A theoretical- experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghian, Toloo; Sheikh, Abdul; Narmoneva, Daria; Kogan, Andrei

    2015-03-01

    Application of external electric field (EF) as a non-pharmacological, non-invasive tool to control cell function is of great therapeutic interest. We developed a theoretical-experimental approach to investigate the biophysical mechanisms of EF interaction with cells in electrode-free physiologically-relevant configuration. Our numerical results demonstrated that EF frequency is the major parameter to control cell response to EF. Non-oscillating or low-frequency EF leads to charge accumulation on the cell surface membrane that may mediate membrane initiated cell responses. In contrast, high-frequency EF penetrates the cell membrane and reaches cell cytoplasm, where it may directly activate intracellular responses. The theoretical predictions were confirmed in our experimental studies of the effects of applied EF on vascular cell function. Results show that non-oscillating EF increases vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression while field polarity controls cell adhesion rate. High-frequency, but not low frequency, EF provides differential regulation of cytoplasmic focal adhesion kinase and VEGF expression depending on the substrate, with increased expression in cells cultured on RGD-rich synthetic hydrogels, and decreased expression for matrigel culture. The authors acknowledge the financial support from the NSF (DMR-1206784 & DMR-0804199 to AK); the NIH (1R21 DK078814-01A1 to DN) and the University of Cincinnati (Interdisciplinary Faculty Research Support Grant to DN and AK).

  11. Interactions of Pedestrians Interlaced in T-Shaped Structure Using a Modified Multi-Field Cellular Automaton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Zhijian; Yang, Lizhong; Rao, Ping; Zhang, Taolin

    2013-04-01

    Little work has been done before in the study of separating pedestrian flow interlaced. Under open boundaries, the interaction of separating pedestrian flow interlaced in a T-shaped structure was simulated, using a modified multi-field cellular automaton updating synchronously. The free-jammed phase transition diagram of pedestrian flow and principles of the pedestrian interference were obtained. The movement of pedestrians is free flow in the low entrance density. While it is a complete jammed flow with the entrance density increasing to a certain level and little difference existing between the left moving probability and the right moving probability. Thus, the dominant factor influencing pedestrian flow is the interference of opposite pedestrian flows due to changing movement directions. And it is changing to an incomplete jammed flow with this difference increasing. Thus, the dominant factor is changing to the interference of the coincident pedestrian flow and the limitation of the bottleneck.

  12. Dynamical studies of model membrane and cellular response to nanosecond, high-intensity pulsed electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qin

    The dynamics of electroporation of biological cells subjected to nanosecond, high intensity pulses are studied based on a coupled scheme involving the current continuity and Smoluchowski equations. The improved pore formation energy model includes a dependence on pore population and density. It also allows for variable surface tension and incorporates the effects of finite conductivity on the electrostatic correction term, which was not considered by the simple energy models in the literature. It is shown that E(r) becomes self-adjusting with variations in its magnitude and profile. The whole scheme is self-consistent and dynamic. An electromechanical analysis based on thin-shell theory is presented to analyze cell shape changes in response to external electric fields. The calculations demonstrate that at large fields, the spherical cell geometry can be modified, and even ellipsoidal forms may not be appropriate to account for the resulting shape. It is shown that, in keeping with reports in the literature, the final shape depends on membrane thickness. This has direct implications for tissues in which significant molecular restructuring can occur. This study is also focused on obtaining qualitative predictions of pulse width dependence to apoptotic cell irreversibility that has been observed experimentally. The analysis couples a distributed electrical model for current flow with the Smoluchowski equation to provide self-consistent, time-dependent transmembrane voltages. The model captures the essence of the experimentally observed pulse-width dependence, and provides a possible physical picture that depends only on the electrical trigger. Different cell responses of normal and malignant (Farage) tonsillar B-cell are also compared and discussed. It is shown that subjecting a cell to an ultrashort, high-intensity electric pulse is the optimum way for reversible intracellular manipulation. Finally, a simple but physical atomistic model is presented for molecular

  13. Modular Flooring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thate, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The modular flooring system (MFS) was developed to provide a portable, modular, durable carpeting solution for NASA fs Robotics Alliance Project fs (RAP) outreach efforts. It was also designed to improve and replace a modular flooring system that was too heavy for safe use and transportation. The MFS was developed for use as the flooring for various robotics competitions that RAP utilizes to meet its mission goals. One of these competitions, the FIRST Robotics Competition (FRC), currently uses two massive rolls of broadloom carpet for the foundation of the arena in which the robots are contained during the competition. The area of the arena is approximately 30 by 72 ft (approximately 9 by 22 m). This carpet is very cumbersome and requires large-capacity vehicles, and handling equipment and personnel to transport and deploy. The broadloom carpet sustains severe abuse from the robots during a regular three-day competition, and as a result, the carpet is not used again for competition. Similarly, broadloom carpets used for trade shows at convention centers around the world are typically discarded after only one use. This innovation provides a green solution to this wasteful practice. Each of the flooring modules in the previous system weighed 44 lb (.20 kg). The improvements in the overall design of the system reduce the weight of each module by approximately 22 lb (.10 kg) (50 %), and utilize an improved "module-to-module" connection method that is superior to the previous system. The MFS comprises 4-by-4-ft (.1.2-by- 1.2-m) carpet module assemblies that utilize commercially available carpet tiles that are bonded to a lightweight substrate. The substrate surface opposite from the carpeted surface has a module-to-module connecting interface that allows for the modules to be connected, one to the other, as the modules are constructed. This connection is hidden underneath the modules, creating a smooth, co-planar flooring surface. The modules are stacked and strapped

  14. External stimulation by nanosecond pulsed electric fields to enhance cellular uptake of nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, Samantha; Beier, Hope T.; Ibey, Bennett L.; Nash, Kelly

    2015-03-01

    As an increasing number of studies use gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for potential medicinal, biosensing and therapeutic applications, the synthesis and use of readily functional, bio-compatible nanoparticles is receiving much interest. For these efforts, the particles are often taken up by the cells to allow for optimum sensing or therapeutic measures. This process typically requires incubation of the particles with the cells for an extended period. In an attempt to shorten and control this incubation, we investigated whether nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) exposure of cells will cause a controlled uptake of the particles. NsPEF are known to induce the formation of nanopores in the plasma membrane, so we hypothesized that by controlling the number, amplitude or duration of the nsPEF exposure, we could control the size of the nanopores, and thus control the particle uptake. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells were incubated sub-10 nm AuNPs with and without exposure to 600-ns electrical pulses. Contrary to our hypothesis, the nsPEF exposure was found to actually decrease the particle uptake in the exposed cells. This result suggests that the nsPEF exposure may be affecting the endocytotic pathway and processes due to membrane disruption.

  15. High frequency application of nanosecond pulsed electric fields alters cellular membrane disruption and fluorescent dye uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steelman, Zachary A.; Tolstykh, Gleb P.; Beier, Hope T.; Ibey, Bennett L.

    2016-03-01

    Cells exposed to nanosecond-pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) exhibit a wide variety of nonspecific effects, including blebbing, swelling, intracellular calcium bursts, apoptotic and necrotic cell death, formation of nanopores, and depletion of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (PIP2) to induce activation of the inositol trisphosphate/diacylglycerol pathway. While several studies have taken place in which multiple pulses were delivered to cells, the effect of pulse repetition rate (PRR) is not well understood. To better understand the effects of PRR, a laser scanning confocal microscope was used to observe CHO-K1 cells exposed to ten 600ns, 200V pulses at varying repetition rates (5Hz up to 500KHz) in the presence of either FM 1-43, YO-PRO-1, or Propidium Iodide (PI) fluorescent dyes, probes frequently used to indicate nanoporation or permeabilization of the plasma membrane. Dye uptake was monitored for 30 seconds after pulse application at a rate of 1 image/second. In addition, a single long pulse of equivalent energy (200V, 6 μs duration) was applied to test the hypothesis that very fast PRR will approximate the biological effects of a single long pulse of equal energy. Upon examination of the data, we found strong variation in the relationship between PRR and uptake in each of the three dyes. In particular, PI uptake showed little frequency dependence, FM 1-43 showed a strong inverse relationship between frequency and internal cell fluorescence, and YO-PRO-1 exhibited a "threshold" point of around 50 KHz, after which the inverse trend observed in FM 1-43 was seen to reverse itself. Further, a very high PRR of 500 KHz only approximated the biological effects of a single 6 μs pulse in cells stained with YO-PRO-1, suggesting that uptake of different dyes may proceed by different physical mechanisms.

  16. Cell viability studies and operation in cellular culture medium of n-type organic field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barra, M.; Viggiano, D.; Di Capua, R.; Di Girolamo, F.; Santoro, F.; Taglialatela, M.; Cassinese, A.

    2012-02-01

    The possibility of the fabrication of organic devices suitable to be applied in bio-sensing fields depends largely on the availability of organic compounds displaying robust electrical properties even in aqueous solutions and effective biocompatibility features. In this paper, we report about the good cellular biocompatibility and the electrical response stability in an ionic medium of n-type organic transistors based on the recently developed PDI-8CN2 oligomer. The biocompatibility has been tested by analyzing the adhesion and viability of two different cell lines, human epithelial HeLa cells and murine neuronal F11 cells, on PDI-8CN2 films grown by organic molecular beam deposition (OMBD) on SiO2 substrates. The effect of film thickness on cell attachment was also tested. Uncoated SiO2 substrates were used as control surfaces and sexithiophene (T6) as device testing control. Moreover, the possible toxicity of -CN groups of PDI-8CN2 was tested on HeLa cell cultures, using PDI-8 and T6 molecules as controls. Results showed that, although at high concentration these organic compounds are toxic in solution, if they are presented in form of film, cell lines can attach and grow on them. The electrical response stability of PDI-8CN2 transistors in a cellular culture medium characterized by high concentrations of ionic species has been also investigated. For this purpose, low-voltage operation devices with VGS ranging from -5 V to 5 V, able to strongly reduce the influence of Faradaic currents coming from the electrical operation in an highly ionic environment, have been fabricated on 35 nm thick SiO2 layers and electrically characterized. These results are useful to experimentally define the main critical issues to be further addressed for the fabrication of reliable bio-sensors based on organic transistors.

  17. [Pelvic floor muscle training and pelvic floor disorders in women].

    PubMed

    Thubert, T; Bakker, E; Fritel, X

    2015-05-01

    Our goal is to provide an update on the results of pelvic floor rehabilitation in the treatment of urinary incontinence and genital prolapse symptoms. Pelvic floor muscle training allows a reduction of urinary incontinence symptoms. Pelvic floor muscle contractions supervised by a healthcare professional allow cure in half cases of stress urinary incontinence. Viewing this contraction through biofeedback improves outcomes, but this effect could also be due by a more intensive and prolonged program with the physiotherapist. The place of electrostimulation remains unclear. The results obtained with vaginal cones are similar to pelvic floor muscle training with or without biofeedback or electrostimulation. It is not known whether pelvic floor muscle training has an effect after one year. In case of stress urinary incontinence, supervised pelvic floor muscle training avoids surgery in half of the cases at 1-year follow-up. Pelvic floor muscle training is the first-line treatment of post-partum urinary incontinence. Its preventive effect is uncertain. Pelvic floor muscle training may reduce the symptoms associated with genital prolapse. In conclusion, pelvic floor rehabilitation supervised by a physiotherapist is an effective short-term treatment to reduce the symptoms of urinary incontinence or pelvic organ prolapse. PMID:25921509

  18. 9. LOOKING FROM FLOOR 1 UP THROUGH OPENING TO FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. LOOKING FROM FLOOR 1 UP THROUGH OPENING TO FLOOR 2; OPENING IN THE FLOOR IS TO ALLOW THE RUNNER STONES TO BE FLIPPED OVER FOR SHARPENING; AT THE FIRST FLOOR ARE THE POSTS SUPPORTING THE BRIDGEBEAMS ON WHICH THE BRIDGE TREES PIVOT; THE CENTER POST RISES ABOVE THE STONES TO RECEIVE THE FOOT BEARING OF THE UPRIGHT SHAFT; ALSO SEEN ARE THE STONE SPINDLWS, UNDER SIDES OF THE BED STONES, STONE NUT AND GREAT SPUR WHEEL. - Pantigo Windmill, James Lane, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

  19. Floor of Juventae Chasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 30 May 2002) Juventae Chasma is an enormous box canyon (250 km X 100 km) which opens to the north and forms the outflow channel Maja Vallis. Most Martian outflow channels such as Maja, Kasei, and Ares Valles begin at point sources such as box canyons and chaotic terrain and then flow unconfined into a basin region. This image captures a portion of the western floor of Juventae Chasma and shows a wide variety of landforms. Conical hills, mesas, buttes and plateaus of layered material dominate this scene and seem to be 'swimming' in vast sand sheets. The conical hills have a spur and gully topography associated with them while the flat topped buttes and mesas do not. This may be indicative of different materials that compose each of these landforms or it could be that the flat-topped layer has been completely eroded off of the conical hills thereby exposing a different rock type. Both the conical hills and flat-topped buttes and mesas have extensive scree slopes (heaps of eroded rock and debris). Ripples, which are inferred to be dunes, can also be seen amongst the hills. No impact craters can be seen in this image, indicating that the erosion and transport of material down the canyon wall and across the floor is occurring at a relatively rapid rate, so that any craters that form are rapidly buried or eroded.

  20. Photographic copy of floor plan, undated, Civil Engineers Office, in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of floor plan, undated, Civil Engineers Office, in possession of Selfridge Base Civil Engineers Office, Mt. Clemens, Michigan - Selfridge Field, Building No. 833, West of Mulberry Street north of George Avenue, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  1. BATHROOM OFF BEDROOM AT NORTHEAST CORNER OF GROUND FLOOR, NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BATHROOM OFF BEDROOM AT NORTHEAST CORNER OF GROUND FLOOR, NORTH WING. SHOWERS STAND SEPARATELY FROM BATHTUBS IN FACILITY NO. 299 - Hamilton Field, Base Commander's Quarters, 299 Casa Grande Real, Novato, Marin County, CA

  2. 7. GROUND FLOOR, NORTHEAST PARLOR, LOOKING TOWARD EAST WALL, VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. GROUND FLOOR, NORTHEAST PARLOR, LOOKING TOWARD EAST WALL, VIEW SHOWING WOODEN FLOORBOARDS, FIREPLACE AND MANTEL, OVERMANTEL, CORNICE AND PILASTER STRIPS AND FURNISHINGS - Clover Fields, Forman's Lodge Road, Wye Mills, Talbot County, MD

  3. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE STAIRWAY TO THE SECOND FLOOR IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF THE STAIRWAY TO THE SECOND FLOOR IN THE LIVING ROOM. SHOWING THE IRON RAILING AND RECESSED BOOKCASE. VIEW FACING WEST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type M, 113 Beard Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  4. INTERIOR VIEW OF BATHROOM 1 SHOWING THE MOSAICPATTERN TILE FLOOR. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF BATHROOM 1 SHOWING THE MOSAIC-PATTERN TILE FLOOR. CERAMIC TILE WAINSCOT, AND CERAMIC ACCESSORIES. VIEW FACING NORTH. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type H, 208 Sixth Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  5. 15. Photographic copy of floor plan, not dated, in possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photographic copy of floor plan, not dated, in possession of Selfridge Base Museum, Mt. Clemens, Michigan. - Selfridge Field, Building No. 1050, Northwest corner of Doolittle Avenue & D Street; Harrison Township, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  6. INTERIOR VIEW OF SECOND FLOOR HALL. SHOWING THE IRON RAILING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF SECOND FLOOR HALL. SHOWING THE IRON RAILING AND DOUBLE FLUSH WOOD DOORS TO THE LINEN CLOSET. VIEW FACING NORTH. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type C, 208 Second Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  7. INTERIOR VIEW OF ENTRY. SHOWING THE STAINED CONCRETE FLOOR AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF ENTRY. SHOWING THE STAINED CONCRETE FLOOR AND WINDOW WITH DIAMOND PATTERN MUNTINS. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type F, 602 Beard Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  8. 18. MAIN FLOOR HOLDING TANKS Main floor, looking at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. MAIN FLOOR - HOLDING TANKS Main floor, looking at holding tanks against the west wall, from which sluice gates are seen protruding. Right foreground-wooden holding tanks. Note narrow wooden flumes through which fish were sluiced into holding and brining tanks. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  9. Floor Plans: Section "AA", Section "BB"; Floor Framing Plans: Section ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Floor Plans: Section "A-A", Section "B-B"; Floor Framing Plans: Section "A-A", Section "B-B" - Fort Washington, Fort Washington Light, Northeast side of Potomac River at Fort Washington Park, Fort Washington, Prince George's County, MD

  10. 4. STAIR, FROM SECOND FLOOR TO THIRD FLOOR, FROM NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. STAIR, FROM SECOND FLOOR TO THIRD FLOOR, FROM NORTHEAST. Plan of stair is elliptical, the inside well measuring 54' on major axis and 14' on minor axis. ALSO NOTE HIGH REEDED WAINSCOT - Saltus-Habersham House, 802 Bay Street, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

  11. 18. FOURTH FLOOR BLDG. 28, RAISED CONCRETE SLAB FLOOR WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. FOURTH FLOOR BLDG. 28, RAISED CONCRETE SLAB FLOOR WITH BLOCKS AND PULLEYS OVERHEAD LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Fafnir Bearing Plant, Bounded on North side by Myrtle Street, on South side by Orange Street, on East side by Booth Street & on West side by Grove Street, New Britain, Hartford County, CT

  12. 13. Bottom floor, tower interior showing concrete floor and cast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Bottom floor, tower interior showing concrete floor and cast iron bases for oil butts (oil butts removed when lighthouse lamp was converted to electric power.) - Block Island Southeast Light, Spring Street & Mohegan Trail at Mohegan Bluffs, New Shoreham, Washington County, RI

  13. Floor-plan radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falconer, David G.; Ueberschaer, Ronald M.

    2000-07-01

    Urban-warfare specialists, law-enforcement officers, counter-drug agents, and counter-terrorism experts encounter operational situations where they must assault a target building and capture or rescue its occupants. To minimize potential casualties, the assault team needs a picture of the building's interior and a copy of its floor plan. With this need in mind, we constructed a scale model of a single- story house and imaged its interior using synthetic-aperture techniques. The interior and exterior walls nearest the radar set were imaged with good fidelity, but the distal ones appear poorly defined and surrounded by ghosts and artifacts. The latter defects are traceable to beam attenuation, wavefront distortion, multiple scattering, traveling waves, resonance phenomena, and other effects not accounted for in the traditional (noninteracting, isotropic point scatterer) model for radar imaging.

  14. Field-Evaluation of a New Lateral Flow Assay for Detection of Cellular and Humoral Immunity against Mycobacterium leprae

    PubMed Central

    Bobosha, Kidist; Tjon Kon Fat, Elisa M.; van den Eeden, Susan J. F.; Bekele, Yonas; van der Ploeg-van Schip, Jolien J.; de Dood, Claudia J.; Dijkman, Karin; Franken, Kees L. M. C.; Wilson, Louis; Aseffa, Abraham; Spencer, John S.; Ottenhoff, Tom H. M.; Corstjens, Paul L. A. M.; Geluk, Annemieke

    2014-01-01

    Background Field-applicable tests detecting asymptomatic Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) infection or predicting progression to leprosy, are urgently required. Since the outcome of M. leprae infection is determined by cellular- and humoral immunity, we aim to develop diagnostic tests detecting pro-/anti-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines as well as antibodies against M. leprae. Previously, we developed lateral flow assays (LFA) for detection of cytokines and anti-PGL-I antibodies. Here we evaluate progress of newly developed LFAs for applications in resource-poor settings. Methods The combined diagnostic value of IP-10, IL-10 and anti-PGL-I antibodies was tested using M. leprae-stimulated blood of leprosy patients and endemic controls (EC). For reduction of the overall test-to-result time the minimal whole blood assay time required to detect distinctive responses was investigated. To accommodate LFAs for field settings, dry-format LFAs for IP-10 and anti-PGL-I antibodies were developed allowing storage and shipment at ambient temperatures. Additionally, a multiplex LFA-format was applied for simultaneous detection of anti-PGL-I antibodies and IP-10. For improved sensitivity and quantitation upconverting phosphor (UCP) reporter technology was applied in all LFAs. Results Single and multiplex UCP-LFAs correlated well with ELISAs. The performance of dry reagent assays and portable, lightweight UCP-LF strip readers indicated excellent field-robustness. Notably, detection of IP-10 levels in stimulated samples allowed a reduction of the whole blood assay time from 24 h to 6 h. Moreover, IP-10/IL-10 ratios in unstimulated plasma differed significantly between patients and EC, indicating the feasibility to identify M. leprae infection in endemic areas. Conclusions Dry-format UCP-LFAs are low-tech, robust assays allowing detection of relevant cytokines and antibodies in response to M. leprae in the field. The high levels of IP-10 and the required shorter whole blood

  15. Stochastic multi-scale models of competition within heterogeneous cellular populations: Simulation methods and mean-field analysis.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Roberto de la; Guerrero, Pilar; Spill, Fabian; Alarcón, Tomás

    2016-10-21

    We propose a modelling framework to analyse the stochastic behaviour of heterogeneous, multi-scale cellular populations. We illustrate our methodology with a particular example in which we study a population with an oxygen-regulated proliferation rate. Our formulation is based on an age-dependent stochastic process. Cells within the population are characterised by their age (i.e. time elapsed since they were born). The age-dependent (oxygen-regulated) birth rate is given by a stochastic model of oxygen-dependent cell cycle progression. Once the birth rate is determined, we formulate an age-dependent birth-and-death process, which dictates the time evolution of the cell population. The population is under a feedback loop which controls its steady state size (carrying capacity): cells consume oxygen which in turn fuels cell proliferation. We show that our stochastic model of cell cycle progression allows for heterogeneity within the cell population induced by stochastic effects. Such heterogeneous behaviour is reflected in variations in the proliferation rate. Within this set-up, we have established three main results. First, we have shown that the age to the G1/S transition, which essentially determines the birth rate, exhibits a remarkably simple scaling behaviour. Besides the fact that this simple behaviour emerges from a rather complex model, this allows for a huge simplification of our numerical methodology. A further result is the observation that heterogeneous populations undergo an internal process of quasi-neutral competition. Finally, we investigated the effects of cell-cycle-phase dependent therapies (such as radiation therapy) on heterogeneous populations. In particular, we have studied the case in which the population contains a quiescent sub-population. Our mean-field analysis and numerical simulations confirm that, if the survival fraction of the therapy is too high, rescue of the quiescent population occurs. This gives rise to emergence of resistance

  16. Waterproof Raised Floor Makes Utility Lines Accessible

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M. M.

    1984-01-01

    Floor for laboratories, hospitals and factories waterproof yet allows access to subfloor utilities. Elevated access floor system designed for installations with multitude of diverse utility systems routed under and up through floor and requirement of separation of potentially conflicting utility services. Floor covered by continuous sheet of heat resealable vinyl. Floor system cut open when changes are made in utility lines and ducts. After modifications, floor covering resealed to protect subfloor utilities from spills and leaks.

  17. Low floor mass transit vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Emmons, J. Bruce; Blessing, Leonard J.

    2004-02-03

    A mass transit vehicle includes a frame structure that provides an efficient and economical approach to providing a low floor bus. The inventive frame includes a stiff roof panel and a stiff floor panel. A plurality of generally vertical pillars extend between the roof and floor panels. A unique bracket arrangement is disclosed for connecting the pillars to the panels. Side panels are secured to the pillars and carry the shear stresses on the frame. A unique seating assembly that can be advantageously incorporated into the vehicle taking advantage of the load distributing features of the inventive frame is also disclosed.

  18. Making A Precisely Level Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, William G.; Walker, William H.; Cather, Jim; Burch, John B.; Clark, Keith M.; Johnston, Dwight; Henderson, David E.

    1989-01-01

    Floor-pouring procedure yields large surface level, smooth, and hard. Floor made of self-leveling, slow-curing epoxy with added black pigment. Epoxy poured to thickness no greater than 0.33 in. (0.84 cm) on concrete base. Base floor seasoned, reasonably smooth and level, and at least 4 in. (10cm) thick. Base rests on thermal barrier of gravel or cinders and contains no steel plates, dividers, or bridges to minimize thermal distortion. Metal retaining wall surrounds base.

  19. 22. VIEW OF THE SECOND FLOOR PLAN. THE SECOND FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VIEW OF THE SECOND FLOOR PLAN. THE SECOND FLOOR CONTAINS THE AIR PLENUM ND SOME OFFICE SPACE. THE ORIGINAL DRAWING HAS BEEN ARCHIVED ON MICROFILM. THE DRAWING WAS REPRODUCED AT THE BEST QUALITY POSSIBLE. LETTERS AND NUMBERS IN THE CIRCLES INDICATE FOOTER AND/OR COLUMN LOCATIONS. - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  20. 21. VIEW OF THE FIRST FLOOR PLAN. THE FIRST FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. VIEW OF THE FIRST FLOOR PLAN. THE FIRST FLOOR WAS USED FOR DEPLETED AND ENRICHED URANIUM FABRICATION. THE ORIGINAL DRAWING HAS BEEN ARCHIVED ON MICROFILM. THE DRAWING WAS REPRODUCED AT THE BEST QUALITY POSSIBLE. LETTERS AND NUMBERS IN THE CIRCLES INDICATE FOOTER AND/OR COLUMN LOCATIONS. - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  1. 23. VIEW OF THE FIRST FLOOR PLAN. THE FIRST FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW OF THE FIRST FLOOR PLAN. THE FIRST FLOOR HOUSED ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICES, THE CENTRAL COMPUTING, UTILITY SYSTEMS, ANALYTICAL LABORATORIES, AND MAINTENANCE SHOPS. THE ORIGINAL DRAWING HAS BEEN ARCHIVED ON MICROFILM. THE DRAWING WAS REPRODUCED AT THE BEST QUALITY POSSIBLE. LETTERS AND NUMBERS IN THE CIRCLES INDICATE FOOTER AND/OR COLUMN LOCATIONS. - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  2. Floor-Fractured Craters through Machine Learning Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorey, C.

    2015-12-01

    Floor-fractured craters are impact craters that have undergone post impact deformations. They are characterized by shallow floors with a plate-like or convex appearance, wide floor moats, and radial, concentric, and polygonal floor-fractures. While the origin of these deformations has long been debated, it is now generally accepted that they are the result of the emplacement of shallow magmatic intrusions below their floor. These craters thus constitute an efficient tool to probe the importance of intrusive magmatism from the lunar surface. The most recent catalog of lunar-floor fractured craters references about 200 of them, mainly located around the lunar maria Herein, we will discuss the possibility of using machine learning algorithms to try to detect new floor-fractured craters on the Moon among the 60000 craters referenced in the most recent catalogs. In particular, we will use the gravity field provided by the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, and the topographic dataset obtained from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument to design a set of representative features for each crater. We will then discuss the possibility to design a binary supervised classifier, based on these features, to discriminate between the presence or absence of crater-centered intrusion below a specific crater. First predictions from different classifier in terms of their accuracy and uncertainty will be presented.

  3. Pelvic floor muscle training exercises

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22258946 . Dumoulin C, Hay-Smith J. Pelvic floor muscle training versus no treatment, ... nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20091581 . Herderschee R, Hay-Smith EJC, Herbison GP, Roovers JP, Heineman MJ. Feedback ...

  4. Channel Floor Yardangs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 19 July 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth.

    Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms.

    The yardangs in this image are forming in channel floor deposits. The channel itself is funneling the wind to cause the erosion.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 4.5, Longitude 229.7 East (133.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are

  5. Cellular Stress Responses and Monitored Cellular Activities.

    PubMed

    Sawa, Teiji; Naito, Yoshifumi; Kato, Hideya; Amaya, Fumimasa

    2016-08-01

    To survive, organisms require mechanisms that enable them to sense changes in the outside environment, introduce necessary responses, and resist unfavorable distortion. Consequently, through evolutionary adaptation, cells have become equipped with the apparatus required to monitor their fundamental intracellular processes and the mechanisms needed to try to offset malfunction without receiving any direct signals from the outside environment. It has been shown recently that eukaryotic cells are equipped with a special mechanism that monitors their fundamental cellular functions and that some pathogenic proteobacteria can override this monitoring mechanism to cause harm. The monitored cellular activities involved in the stressed intracellular response have been researched extensively in Caenorhabditis elegans, where discovery of an association between key mitochondrial activities and innate immune responses was named "cellular associated detoxification and defenses (cSADD)." This cellular surveillance pathway (cSADD) oversees core cellular activities such as mitochondrial respiration and protein transport into mitochondria, detects xenobiotics and invading pathogens, and activates the endocrine pathways controlling behavior, detoxification, and immunity. The cSADD pathway is probably associated with cellular responses to stress in human inflammatory diseases. In the critical care field, the pathogenesis of lethal inflammatory syndromes (e.g., respiratory distress syndromes and sepsis) involves the disturbance of mitochondrial respiration leading to cell death. Up-to-date knowledge about monitored cellular activities and cSADD, especially focusing on mitochondrial involvement, can probably help fill a knowledge gap regarding the pathogenesis of lethal inflammatory syndromes in the critical care field. PMID:26954943

  6. Tangential Floor in a Classroom Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marti, Leyla

    2012-01-01

    This article examines floor management in two classroom sessions: a task-oriented computer lesson and a literature lesson. Recordings made in the computer lesson show the organization of floor when a task is given to students. Temporary or "incipient" side floors (Jones and Thornborrow, 2004) emerge beside the main floor. In the literature lesson,…

  7. Gravitational signatures of lunar floor-fractured craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorey, Clément; Michaut, Chloé; Wieczorek, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Lunar floor-fractured craters are impact craters characterized by distinctive shallow floors crossed by important networks of fractures. Different scenarios have been proposed to explain their formations but recent studies showed that the intrusion of magma at depth below the crater floor is the most plausible explanation. The intrusion of dense magma within the light upper-most part of the lunar crust should have left a positive signature in the gravity field. This study takes advantage of the unprecedented resolution of the lunar gravity field obtained from the NASA's Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, in combination with topographic data obtained from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument, to investigate the gravitational signatures of both normal and floor-fractured craters. Despite the large variability in their gravitational signatures, the floor-fractured and normal craters in the Highlands show significant differences: the gravitational anomalies are significantly larger at floor-fractured craters. The anomaly amplitudes for floor-fractured craters are in agreement with synthetic gravity anomalies based on the predicted intrusion shapes from a theoretical flow model. Our results are consistent with magmatic intrusions intruding a crust characterized by a 12% porosity and where the intrusion has no porosity. Similar studies have been carried out in the lunar maria and South Pole-Aikten basin. Although the average gravitational signature of floor-fractured craters is larger than at normal craters in these regions, they cannot be distinguished statistically due to the small number of craters and the large variability of the anomalies. In general, a better characterization of the signal due solely to the initial impact crater is needed to isolate the magmatic intrusion signal and characterize the density contrast between the magma and crust.

  8. The 1.5 GHz electromagnetic near-field used for cellular phones does not promote rat liver carcinogenesis in a medium-term liver bioassay.

    PubMed

    Imaida, K; Taki, M; Watanabe, S; Kamimura, Y; Ito, T; Yamaguchi, T; Ito, N; Shirai, T

    1998-10-01

    We have recently established that local exposure to a 929.2 MHz electromagnetic near-field, used for cellular phones, does not promote rat liver carcinogenesis in a medium-term bioassay system. In the present study, a 1.439 GHz electromagnetic near-field (EMF), another microwave band employed for cellular phones in Japan, was similarly investigated. Time division multiple access (TDMA) signals for the Personal Digital Cellular (PDC) Japanese cellular telephone standard system were directed to rats through a quarter-wavelength monopole antenna. Numerical dosimetry showed that the peak SARs within the liver were 1.91-0.937 W/kg, while the whole-body average specific absorption rates (SARs) were 0.680-0.453 W/kg, when the time-averaged antenna radiation power was 0.33 W. Exposure was for 90 min a day, 5 days a week, over 6 weeks, to male F344 rats given a single dose of diethylnitrosamine (200 mg/kg, i.p.) 2 weeks previously. At week 3, all rats were subjected to a two-thirds partial hepatectomy. At week 8, the experiment was terminated and the animals were killed. Carcinogenic potential was scored by comparing the numbers and areas of the induced glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)-positive foci in the livers of exposed (48) and sham-exposed rats (48). Despite increased serum levels of corticosterone, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and melatonin, the numbers and the areas of GST-P-positive foci were not significantly altered by the exposure. These findings clearly indicated that local body exposure to a 1.439 GHz EMF, as in the case of a 929.2 MHz field, has no promoting effect on rat liver carcinogenesis in the present model. PMID:9849576

  9. Analytical prediction of the interior noise for cylindrical models of aircraft fuselages for prescribed exterior noise fields. Phase 2: Models for sidewall trim, stiffened structures and cabin acoustics with floor partition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, L. D.; Wilby, E. G.

    1982-01-01

    An airplane interior noise prediction model is developed to determine the important parameters associated with sound transmission into the interiors of airplanes, and to identify apropriate noise control methods. Models for stiffened structures, and cabin acoustics with floor partition are developed. Validation studies are undertaken using three test articles: a ring stringer stiffened cylinder, an unstiffened cylinder with floor partition, and ring stringer stiffened cylinder with floor partition and sidewall trim. The noise reductions of the three test articles are computed using the heoretical models and compared to measured values. A statistical analysis of the comparison data indicates that there is no bias in the predictions although a substantial random error exists so that a discrepancy of more than five or six dB can be expected for about one out of three predictions.

  10. Ploughing the deep sea floor.

    PubMed

    Puig, Pere; Canals, Miquel; Company, Joan B; Martín, Jacobo; Amblas, David; Lastras, Galderic; Palanques, Albert

    2012-09-13

    Bottom trawling is a non-selective commercial fishing technique whereby heavy nets and gear are pulled along the sea floor. The direct impact of this technique on fish populations and benthic communities has received much attention, but trawling can also modify the physical properties of seafloor sediments, water–sediment chemical exchanges and sediment fluxes. Most of the studies addressing the physical disturbances of trawl gear on the seabed have been undertaken in coastal and shelf environments, however, where the capacity of trawling to modify the seafloor morphology coexists with high-energy natural processes driving sediment erosion, transport and deposition. Here we show that on upper continental slopes, the reworking of the deep sea floor by trawling gradually modifies the shape of the submarine landscape over large spatial scales. We found that trawling-induced sediment displacement and removal from fishing grounds causes the morphology of the deep sea floor to become smoother over time, reducing its original complexity as shown by high-resolution seafloor relief maps. Our results suggest that in recent decades, following the industrialization of fishing fleets, bottom trawling has become an important driver of deep seascape evolution. Given the global dimension of this type of fishery, we anticipate that the morphology of the upper continental slope in many parts of the world’s oceans could be altered by intensive bottom trawling, producing comparable effects on the deep sea floor to those generated by agricultural ploughing on land. PMID:22951970

  11. Flooring for Schools: Unsightly Walkways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Many mattress manufacturers recommend that consumers rotate their mattresses at least twice a year to help prevent soft spots from developing and increase the product's life span. It's unfortunate that the same kind of treatment can't be applied to flooring for schools, such as carpeting, especially in hallways. Being able to flip or turn a carpet…

  12. An advanced approach for the generation of complex cellular material representative volume elements using distance fields and level sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonon, B.; François, B.; Massart, T. J.

    2015-08-01

    A general and widely tunable method for the generation of representative volume elements for cellular materials based on distance and level set functions is presented. The approach is based on random tessellations constructed from random inclusion packings. A general methodology to obtain arbitrary-shaped tessellations to produce disordered foams is presented and illustrated. These tessellations can degenerate either in classical Voronoï tessellations potentially additively weighted depending on properties of the initial inclusion packing used, or in Laguerre tessellations through a simple modification of the formulation. A versatile approach to control the particular morphology of the obtained foam is introduced. Specific local features such as concave triangular Plateau borders and non-constant thickness heterogeneous coatings can be built from the tessellation in a straightforward way and are tuned by a small set of parameters with a clear morphological interpretation.

  13. Sea-Floor Spreading and Transform Faults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Ronald E.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents the Crustal Evolution Education Project (CEEP) instructional module on Sea-Floor Spreading and Transform Faults. The module includes activities and materials required, procedures, summary questions, and extension ideas for teaching Sea-Floor Spreading. (SL)

  14. Lack of effects on key cellular parameters of MRC-5 human lung fibroblasts exposed to 370 mT static magnetic field

    PubMed Central

    Romeo, Stefania; Sannino, Anna; Scarfì, Maria Rosaria; Massa, Rita; d’Angelo, Raffaele; Zeni, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The last decades have seen increased interest toward possible adverse effects arising from exposure to intense static magnetic fields. This concern is mainly due to the wider and wider applications of such fields in industry and clinical practice; among them, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) facilities are the main sources of exposure to static magnetic fields for both general public (patients) and workers. In recent investigations, exposures to static magnetic fields have been demonstrated to elicit, in different cell models, both permanent and transient modifications in cellular endpoints critical for the carcinogenesis process. The World Health Organization has therefore recommended in vitro investigations as important research need, to be carried out under strictly controlled exposure conditions. Here we report on the absence of effects on cell viability, reactive oxygen species levels and DNA integrity in MRC-5 human foetal lung fibroblasts exposed to 370 mT magnetic induction level, under different exposure regimens. Exposures have been performed by using an experimental apparatus designed and realized for operating with the static magnetic field generated by permanent magnets, and confined in a magnetic circuit, to allow cell cultures exposure in absence of confounding factors like heating or electric field components. PMID:26762783

  15. Lack of effects on key cellular parameters of MRC-5 human lung fibroblasts exposed to 370 mT static magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Stefania; Sannino, Anna; Scarfì, Maria Rosaria; Massa, Rita; d'Angelo, Raffaele; Zeni, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The last decades have seen increased interest toward possible adverse effects arising from exposure to intense static magnetic fields. This concern is mainly due to the wider and wider applications of such fields in industry and clinical practice; among them, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) facilities are the main sources of exposure to static magnetic fields for both general public (patients) and workers. In recent investigations, exposures to static magnetic fields have been demonstrated to elicit, in different cell models, both permanent and transient modifications in cellular endpoints critical for the carcinogenesis process. The World Health Organization has therefore recommended in vitro investigations as important research need, to be carried out under strictly controlled exposure conditions. Here we report on the absence of effects on cell viability, reactive oxygen species levels and DNA integrity in MRC-5 human foetal lung fibroblasts exposed to 370 mT magnetic induction level, under different exposure regimens. Exposures have been performed by using an experimental apparatus designed and realized for operating with the static magnetic field generated by permanent magnets, and confined in a magnetic circuit, to allow cell cultures exposure in absence of confounding factors like heating or electric field components. PMID:26762783

  16. Effects of AC/DC magnetic fields, frequency, and nanoparticle aspect ratio on cellular transfection of gene vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Kris; Mair, Lamar; Fisher, Mike; Rowshon Alam, Md.; Juliano, Rudolph; Superfine, Richard

    2008-10-01

    In order to make non-viral gene delivery a useful tool in the study and treatment of genetic disorders, it is imperative that these methodologies be further refined to yield optimal results. Transfection of magnetic nanoparticles and nanorods are used as non-viral gene vectors to transfect HeLa EGFP-654 cells that stably express a mutated enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene. We deliver antisense oligonucleotides to these cells designed to correct the aberrant splicing caused by the mutation in the EGFP gene. We also transfect human bronchial endothelial cells and immortalized WI-38 lung cells with pEGFP-N1 vectors. To achieve this we bind the genes to magnetic nanoparticles and nanorods and introduce magnetic fields to effect transfection. We wish to examine the effects of magnetic fields on the transfection of these particles and the benefits of using alternating (AC) magnetic fields in improving transfection rates over direct (DC) magnetic fields. We specifically look at the frequency dependence of the AC field and particle aspect ratio as it pertains to influencing transfection rate. We posit that the increase in angular momentum brought about by the AC field and the high aspect ratio of the nanorod particles, is vital to generating the force needed to move the particle through the cell membrane.

  17. Design issues for floor control protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dommel, Hans-Peter; Garcia-Luna-Aceves, Jose J.

    1995-03-01

    Floor control allows users of networked multimedia applications to remotely share resources like cursors, data views, video and audio channels, or entire applications without access conflicts. Floors are mutually exclusive permissions, granted dynamically to collaborating users, mitigating race conditions and guaranteeing fair and deadlock- free resource access. Although floor control is an early concept within computer-supported cooperative work, no framework exists and current floor control mechanisms are often limited to simple objects. While small-scale collaboration can be facilitated by social conventions, the importance of floors becomes evident for large-scale application sharing and teleconferencing orchestration. In this paper, the concept of a scalable session protocol is enhanced with floor control. Characteristics of collaborative environments are discussed, and session and floor control are discerned. The system's and user's requirements perspectives are discussed, including distributed storage policies, packet structure and user-interface design for floor presentation, manipulation, and triggering conditions for floor migration. Interaction stages between users, and scenarios of participant withdrawal, late joins, and establishment of subgroups are elicited with respect to floor generation, bookkeeping, and passing. An API is proposed to standardize and integrate floor control among shared applications. Finally, a concise classification for existing systems with a notion of floor control is introduced.

  18. 49 CFR 38.59 - Floor surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Floor surfaces. 38.59 Section 38.59 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.59 Floor surfaces. Floor...

  19. 14 CFR 25.793 - Floor surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Floor surfaces. 25.793 Section 25.793 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Floor surfaces. The floor surface of all areas which are likely to become wet in service must have...

  20. 14 CFR 25.793 - Floor surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Floor surfaces. 25.793 Section 25.793 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Floor surfaces. The floor surface of all areas which are likely to become wet in service must have...

  1. 36 CFR 1192.59 - Floor surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Floor surfaces. 1192.59 Section 1192.59 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE... Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.59 Floor surfaces. Floor surfaces on aisles, places for standees,...

  2. 49 CFR 38.59 - Floor surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Floor surfaces. 38.59 Section 38.59 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.59 Floor surfaces. Floor...

  3. 36 CFR 1192.59 - Floor surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Floor surfaces. 1192.59 Section 1192.59 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE... Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.59 Floor surfaces. Floor surfaces on aisles, places for standees,...

  4. Floor furnace burns to children.

    PubMed

    Berger, L R; Kalishman, S

    1983-01-01

    Three children with grid-like second-degree burns of their extremities from contact with floor furnace registers prompted an examination of this thermal hazard. Average temperature of the gratings was 294 degrees F (146 degrees C), with a range of 180 degrees to 375 degrees F (82.2 degrees to 191 degrees C). All of the furnaces tested were positioned at the entrance to bedrooms and had so little clearance that it was impossible to walk around them without contact with their surface. Infants and toddlers are at particular risk: 1 or 2 seconds of exposure would be expected to produce a serious burn. Suggestions for preventing burns from floor furnaces include turning them off when young children are at home; installing barrier gates to prevent children from coming in contact with the registers; and developing a surface coating or replacement grate with less hazardous thermal properties. PMID:6848984

  5. 7. Photographic copy of floor plan sketch, undated, Selfridge Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photographic copy of floor plan sketch, undated, Selfridge Air National Guard Base Civil Engineers Office in possession of Selfridge Base Civil Engineers Office, Mt. Clemens, Michigan. - Selfridge Field, Building No. 1514, Schoolhouse Road north of South Perimeter Road, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  6. 7. Photographic copy of floor plan drawing, dated August 10, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photographic copy of floor plan drawing, dated August 10, 1968, Department of the Air Force Air Defense Command Installations, in possession of Selfridge Base Museum, Mt. Clemens, Michigan. - Selfridge Field, Building No. 592, South of East Joy Boulevard, west of Taxiway C, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  7. Photographic copy of floor plan drawing, dated August 10, 1968, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of floor plan drawing, dated August 10, 1968, Department of the Air Force Air Defense Command Installations, in possession of Selfridge Base Museum, Mt. Clemens, Michigan - Selfridge Field, Building No. 1580, South of East Joy Boulevard, west of Taxiway C, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  8. 6. Photographic copy of floor plan, dated August 10, 1968, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photographic copy of floor plan, dated August 10, 1968, Department of the Air Force Air Defense Command Installation, in possession of Selfridge Base Museum, Mt. Clemens, Michigan. - Selfridge Field, Building No. 1576, South of East Joy Boulevard, west of Taxiway C, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  9. INTERIOR VIEW OF STAIRS TO SECOND FLOOR SHOWING THE IRON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF STAIRS TO SECOND FLOOR SHOWING THE IRON VERTICAL RAILS AND THE WOOD NEWEL POSTS WITH INCISED LINES. NOTE THE TELEPHONE NICHE AND DOORWAY TO THE KITCHEN IN BACKGROUND. VIEW FACING WEST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type J, 701 Beard Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  10. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE STAIRWAY TO THE SECOND FLOOR. SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF THE STAIRWAY TO THE SECOND FLOOR. SHOWING THE IRON RAILING ON TOP OF THE HALF-WALL. THE THREE-LIGHT OVER SINGLE-PANEL DOOR AT THE BASE OF THE STAIRS LEADS TO THE LANAI. VIEW FACING SOUTH. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type D, 111 Beard Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  11. 16. Photographic copy of floor plan, dated July 15, 1954, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photographic copy of floor plan, dated July 15, 1954, Schley and Ward Architects-Engineers, Detroit, in possession of Selfridge Base Museum, Mt. Clemens, Michigan. ALERT HANGAR 566 PLOT AND GRADING PLANS, FOOTING SECTIONS (SHEET 2 OF 42). - Selfridge Field, Building No. 3566, Ammo Road northeast of Taxiway A, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  12. 18. Photographic copy of floor plan, dated January 5, 1958, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photographic copy of floor plan, dated January 5, 1958, Howard, Needled, Tammen & Bergendoff, Architects-Engineers, Kansas City, in possession of Selfridge Base Museum, Mt. Clemens, Michigan. ALERT HANGAR 566 GENERAL PLAN AND SECTION (SHEET 22 OF 43). - Selfridge Field, Building No. 3566, Ammo Road northeast of Taxiway A, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  13. 17. Photographic copy of floor plan, dated June 19, 1951, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photographic copy of floor plan, dated June 19, 1951, Schley and Ward Architects-Engineers, Detroit, in possession of Selfridge Base Museum, Mt. Clemens, Michigan, ALERT HANGAR 566 MECHANICAL HEATERS POCKETS 3, 4, 5, 6, (SHEET 29 OF 42). - Selfridge Field, Building No. 3566, Ammo Road northeast of Taxiway A, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  14. Post partum pelvic floor changes.

    PubMed

    Fonti, Ylenia; Giordano, Rosalba; Cacciatore, Alessandra; Romano, Mattea; La Rosa, Beatrice

    2009-10-01

    Pelvic-perineal dysfunctions, are the most common diseases in women after pregnancy. Urinary incontinence and genital prolapsy, often associated, are the most important consequences of childbirth and are determined by specific alterations in the structure of neurological and musculo-fascial pelvic support.Causation is difficult to prove because symptom occur remote from delivery.Furthermore it is unclear whether changes are secondary to the method of childbirth or to the pregnancy itself.This controversy fuels the debate about whether or not women should be offered the choice of elective caesarean delivery to avoid the development of subsequent pelvic floor disfunction.But it has been demonstrated that pregnancy itself, by means of mechanical changes of pelvic statics and changes in hormones, can be a significant risk factor for these diseases. Especially is the first child to be decisive for the stability of the pelvic floor.During pregnancy, the progressive increase in volume of the uterus subject perineal structures to a major overload. During delivery, the parties present and passes through the urogenital hiatus leading to growing pressure on the tissues causing the stretching of the pelvic floor with possible muscle damage, connective tissue and / or nervous.In this article we aim to describe genitourinary post partum changes with particular attention to the impact of pregnancy or childbirth on these changes. PMID:22439048

  15. Pelvic floor ultrasonography: an update.

    PubMed

    Shek, K L; Dietz, H-P

    2013-02-01

    Female pelvic floor dysfunction encompasses a number of highly prevalent clinical conditions such as female pelvic organ prolapse, urinary and fecal incontinence, and sexual dysfunction. The etiology and pathophysiology of those conditions are, however, not well understood. Recent technological advances have seen a surge in the use of imaging, both in research and clinical practice. Among the techniques available such as sonography, X-ray, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound is superior for pelvic floor imaging, especially in the form of perineal or translabial imaging. The technique is safe with no radiation, simple, cheap, easily accessible and provides high spatial and temporal resolutions. Translabial or perineal ultrasound is useful in determining residual urinary volume, detrusor wall thickness, bladder neck mobility and in assessing pelvic organ prolapse as well as levator function and anatomy. It is at least equivalent to other imaging techniques in diagnosing, such diverse conditions as urethral diverticula, rectal intussusception and avulsion of the puborectalis muscle. Ultrasound is the only imaging method capable of visualizing modern slings and mesh implants and may help selecting patients for implant surgery. Delivery-related levator injury seems to be the most important etiological factor for pelvic organ prolapse and recurrence after prolapse surgery, and it is most conveniently diagnosed by pelvic floor ultrasound. This review gives an overview of the methodology. Its main current uses in clinical assessment and research will also be discussed. PMID:23412016

  16. Cell Type-Dependent Induction of DNA Damage by 1800 MHz Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields Does Not Result in Significant Cellular Dysfunctions

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shanshan; Chen, Guangdi; Chen, Chunjing; Sun, Chuan; Zhang, Danying; Murbach, Manuel; Kuster, Niels; Zeng, Qunli; Xu, Zhengping

    2013-01-01

    Background Although IARC clarifies radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) as possible human carcinogen, the debate on its health impact continues due to the inconsistent results. Genotoxic effect has been considered as a golden standard to determine if an environmental factor is a carcinogen, but the currently available data for RF-EMF remain controversial. As an environmental stimulus, the effect of RF-EMF on cellular DNA may be subtle. Therefore, more sensitive method and systematic research strategy are warranted to evaluate its genotoxicity. Objectives To determine whether RF-EMF does induce DNA damage and if the effect is cell-type dependent by adopting a more sensitive method γH2AX foci formation; and to investigate the biological consequences if RF-EMF does increase γH2AX foci formation. Methods Six different types of cells were intermittently exposed to GSM 1800 MHz RF-EMF at a specific absorption rate of 3.0 W/kg for 1 h or 24 h, then subjected to immunostaining with anti-γH2AX antibody. The biological consequences in γH2AX-elevated cell type were further explored with comet and TUNEL assays, flow cytometry, and cell growth assay. Results Exposure to RF-EMF for 24 h significantly induced γH2AX foci formation in Chinese hamster lung cells and Human skin fibroblasts (HSFs), but not the other cells. However, RF-EMF-elevated γH2AX foci formation in HSF cells did not result in detectable DNA fragmentation, sustainable cell cycle arrest, cell proliferation or viability change. RF-EMF exposure slightly but not significantly increased the cellular ROS level. Conclusions RF-EMF induces DNA damage in a cell type-dependent manner, but the elevated γH2AX foci formation in HSF cells does not result in significant cellular dysfunctions. PMID:23355902

  17. Compact plane illumination plugin device to enable light sheet fluorescence imaging of multi-cellular organisms on an inverted wide-field microscope

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Zeyi; Lee, Juhyun; Jiang, Hao; Dong, Siyan; Jen, Nelson; Hsiai, Tzung; Ho, Chih-Ming; Fei, Peng

    2015-01-01

    We developed a compact plane illumination plugin (PIP) device which enabled plane illumination and light sheet fluorescence imaging on a conventional inverted microscope. The PIP device allowed the integration of microscope with tunable laser sheet profile, fast image acquisition, and 3-D scanning. The device is both compact, measuring approximately 15 by 5 by 5 cm, and cost-effective, since we employed consumer electronics and an inexpensive device molding method. We demonstrated that PIP provided significant contrast and resolution enhancement to conventional microscopy through imaging different multi-cellular fluorescent structures, including 3-D branched cells in vitro and live zebrafish embryos. Imaging with the integration of PIP greatly reduced out-of-focus contamination and generated sharper contrast in acquired 2-D plane images when compared with the stand-alone inverted microscope. As a result, the dynamic fluid domain of the beating zebrafish heart was clearly segmented and the functional monitoring of the heart was achieved. Furthermore, the enhanced axial resolution established by thin plane illumination of PIP enabled the 3-D reconstruction of the branched cellular structures, which leads to the improvement on the functionality of the wide field microscopy. PMID:26819828

  18. Temperature-mediated variations in cellular membrane fatty acid composition of Staphylococcus aureus in resistance to pulsed electric fields.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lang-Hong; Wang, Man-Sheng; Zeng, Xin-An; Liu, Zhi-Wei

    2016-08-01

    Effects of growth temperature on cell membrane fatty acid composition, fluidity and lethal and sublethal injury by pulsed electric fields (PEF) in Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300 (S. aureus) in the stationary phase were investigated. Analysis of the membrane fatty acids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed that branched chain fatty acids (iso C14:0, iso C15:0, anteiso C15:0 and anteiso C17:0) and straight chain fatty acids (C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C17:0 and C18:0) were primary constituents in the membrane. The S. aureus changed its membrane fatty acid composition and its overall fluidity when exposed to different temperatures. The PEF lethal and sublethal effects were assessed, and results suggested that the degree of inactivation depended on the cell membrane structure, electric field strength and treatment time. The PEF inactivation kinetics including lethal and sublethal injury fractions were fitted with non-linear Weibull distribution, suggesting that inactivation of the first log cycle of S. aureus population was significantly affected by growth temperature, and the membrane of cells became more fluid, and easier to induce electroportion in low temperatures. Moreover, the morphology of S. aureus cells were investigated by electron microscopy, showing that various temperature-modified cells were distorted to differing extents and some even collapsed due to deep irreversible electroporation after PEF treatment. PMID:27155566

  19. Scaling on a limestone flooring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona-Quiroga, P. M.; Blanco-Varela, M. T.; Martínez-Ramírez, S.

    2012-04-01

    Natural stone can be use on nearly every surface, inside and outside buildings, but decay is more commonly reported from the ones exposed to outdoor aggressively conditions. This study instead, is an example of limestone weathering of uncertain origin in the interior of a residential building. The stone, used as flooring, started to exhibit loss of material in the form of scaling. These damages were observed before the building, localized in the South of Spain (Málaga), was inhabited. Moreover, according to the company the limestone satisfies the following European standards UNE-EN 1341: 2002, UNE-EN 1343: 2003; UNE-EN 12058: 2004 for floorings. Under these circumstances the main objective of this study was to assess the causes of this phenomenon. For this reason the composition of the mortar was determined and the stone was characterized from a mineralogical and petrological point of view. The last material, which is a fossiliferous limestone from Egypt with natural fissure lines, is mainly composed of calcite, being quartz, kaolinite and apatite minor phases. Moreover, under different spectroscopic and microscopic techniques (FTIR, micro-Raman, SEM-EDX, etc) samples of the weathered, taken directly from the buildings, and unweathered limestone tiles were examined and a new mineralogical phase, trona, was identified at scaled areas which are connected with the natural veins of the stone. In fact, through BSE-mapping the presence of sodium has been detected in these veins. This soluble sodium carbonate would was dissolved in the natural waters from which limestone was precipitated and would migrate with the ascendant capilar humidity and crystallized near the surface of the stone starting the scaling phenomenon which in historic masonry could be very damaging. Therefore, the weathering of the limestone would be related with the hygroscopic behaviour of this salt, but not with the constructive methods used. This makes the limestone unable to be used on restoration

  20. Pelvic floor ultrasound: a review.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Hans Peter

    2010-04-01

    Imaging currently plays a limited role in the investigation of pelvic floor disorders. It is obvious that magnetic resonance imaging has limitations in urogynecology and female urology at present due to cost and access limitations and due to the fact that it is generally a static, not a dynamic, method. However, none of those limitations apply to sonography, a diagnostic method that is very much part of general practice in obstetrics and gynecology. Translabial or transperineal ultrasound is helpful in determining residual urine; detrusor wall thickness; bladder neck mobility; urethral integrity; anterior, central, and posterior compartment prolapse; and levator anatomy and function. It is at least equivalent to other imaging methods in visualizing such diverse conditions as urethral diverticula, rectal intussusception, mesh dislodgment, and avulsion of the puborectalis muscle. Ultrasound is the only imaging method able to visualize modern mesh slings and implants and may predict who actually needs such implants. Delivery-related levator trauma is the most important known etiologic factor for pelvic organ prolapse and not difficult to diagnose on 3-/4-dimensional and even on 2-dimensional pelvic floor ultrasound. It is likely that this will be an important driver behind the universal use of this technology. This review gives an overview of the method and its main current uses in clinical assessment and research. PMID:20350640

  1. Cellular regulation of extension and retraction of pseudopod-like blebs produced by nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF).

    PubMed

    Rassokhin, Mikhail A; Pakhomov, Andrei G

    2014-07-01

    Recently we described a new phenomenon of anodotropic pseudopod-like blebbing in U937 cells exposed to nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF). In Ca(2+)-free buffer such exposure initiates formation of pseudopod-like blebs (PLBs), protrusive cylindrical cell extensions that are distinct from apoptotic and necrotic blebs. PLBs nucleate predominantly on anode-facing cell pole and extend toward anode during nsPEF exposure. Bleb extension depends on actin polymerization and availability of actin monomers. Inhibition of intracellular Ca(2+), cell contractility, and RhoA produced no effect on PLB initiation. Meanwhile, inhibition of WASP by wiskostatin causes dose-dependent suppression of PLB growth. Soon after the end of nsPEF exposure PLBs lose directionality of growth and then retract. Microtubule toxins nocodazole and paclitaxel did not show immediate effect on PLBs; however, nocodazole increased mobility of intracellular components during PLB extension and retraction. Retraction of PLBs is produced by myosin activation and the corresponding increase in PLB cortex contractility. Inhibition of myosin by blebbistatin reduces retraction while inhibition of RhoA-ROCK pathway by Y-27632 completely prevents retraction. Contraction of PLBs can produce cell translocation resembling active cell movement. Overall, the formation, properties, and life cycle of PLBs share common features with protrusions associated with ameboid cell migration. PLB life cycle may be controlled through activation of WASP by its upstream effectors such as Cdc42 and PIP2, and main ROCK activator-RhoA. Parallels between pseudopod-like blebbing and motility blebbing may provide new insights into their underlying mechanisms. PMID:24488232

  2. Cellular regulation of extension and retraction of pseudopod-like blebs produced by nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF)

    PubMed Central

    Rassokhin, Mikhail A.; Pakhomov, Andrei G.

    2014-01-01

    Recently we described a new phenomenon of anodotropic pseudopod-like blebbing in U937 cells exposed to nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF). In Ca2+-free buffer such exposure initiates formation of pseudopod-like blebs (PLBs), protrusive cylindrical cell extensions that are distinct from apoptotic and necrotic blebs. PLBs nucleate predominantly on anode-facing cell pole and extend towards anode during nsPEF exposure. Bleb extension depends on actin polymerization and availability of actin monomers. Inhibition of intracellular Ca2+, cell contractility and RhoA produced no effect on PLB initiation. Meanwhile, inhibition of WASP by wiskostatin causes dose-dependent suppression of PLB growth. Soon after the end of nsPEF exposure PLBs lose directionality of growth and then retract. Microtubule toxins nocodazole and paclitaxel did not show immediate effect on PLBs; however, nocodazole increased mobility of intracellular components during PLB extension and retraction. Retraction of PLBs is produced by myosin activation and corresponding increase in PLB cortex contractility. Inhibition of myosin by blebbistatin reduces retraction while inhibition of RhoA-ROCK pathway by Y-27632 completely prevents retraction. Contraction of PLBs can produce cell translocation resembling active cell movement. Overall, the formation, properties, and lifecycle of PLBs share common features with protrusions associated with amoeboid cell migration. PLB lifecycle may be controlled through activation of WASP by its upstream effectors such as Cdc42 and PIP2, and main ROCK activator - RhoA. Parallels between pseudopod-like blebbing and motility blebbing may provide new insights into their underlying mechanisms. PMID:24488232

  3. Crash Tests of Protective Airplane Floors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, H. D.

    1986-01-01

    Energy-absorbing floors reduce structural buckling and impact forces on occupants. 56-page report discusses crash tests of energy-absorbing aircraft floors. Describes test facility and procedures; airplanes, structural modifications, and seats; crash dynamics; floor and seat behavior; and responses of anthropometric dummies seated in airplanes. Also presents plots of accelerations, photographs and diagrams of test facility, and photographs and drawings of airplanes before, during, and after testing.

  4. The floor plate: multiple cells, multiple signals.

    PubMed

    Placzek, Marysia; Briscoe, James

    2005-03-01

    One of the key organizers in the CNS is the floor plate - a group of cells that is responsible for instructing neural cells to acquire distinctive fates, and that has an important role in establishing the elaborate neuronal networks that underlie the function of the brain and spinal cord. In recent years, considerable controversy has arisen over the mechanism by which floor plate cells form. Here, we describe recent evidence that indicates that discrete populations of floor plate cells, with characteristic molecular properties, form in different regions of the neuraxis, and we discuss data that imply that the mode of floor plate induction varies along the anteroposterior axis. PMID:15738958

  5. Estimating Forest Floor Carbon Content in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, C. H.; Domke, G. M.; Wilson, B. T.; Woodall, C. W.

    2013-12-01

    The USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program conducts an annual forest inventory which includes measurements of forest floor and soil carbon content. Samples are collected on a systematic nation-wide array of approximately 7,800 plots where each one may represent up to 38,850 ha. Between 10 and 20 percent of these plots are measured on a recurring basis, and soil sampling includes measurements of both the forest floor and mineral soil (0-10 and 10-20 cm). In the United States, the current method of reporting for C stocks to international parties includes mathematical models of forest floor and mineral soil C. Forest type maps are combined with STATSGO soil survey data to generate soil C storage by forest types, but STATSGO possesses known shortcomings, particularly with respect to forest C estimation. STATSGO data are based largely on agricultural soils, so the data consistently underestimate C storage in forest floors. FIA's national-scale inventory data represent an opportunity to significantly improve our modeling and reporting capabilities because data are directly linked to forest cover and other geospatial information. Also, the FIA survey is unique in that sampling is not predicated on land use (e.g., hardwood versus softwoods, old-growth stand versus reverted agriculture) or soil type, so it is an equal probability sample of all forested soils. Given these qualities, FIA's field-observations should be used to evaluate these estimates if not replace them. Here we combined forest floor measurements with other forest inventory observations to impute forest floor C storage across the United States using nonparametric k-nearest neighbor techniques; resampling methods were used to generate estimates of uncertainty. Other predictors of forest floor formation (e.g., climate, topography, and landscape position) will be used to impute these values to satellite pixels for mapping. The end result is an estimate of landscape-level forest floor C

  6. Side Elevation; 1/4 Plans of Floor Framing, Floor Planking, Roof ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Side Elevation; 1/4 Plans of Floor Framing, Floor Planking, Roof Framing and Roof; Longitudinal Section, Cross Section, End Elevation - Eames Covered Bridge, Spanning Henderson Creek, Oquawka, Henderson County, IL

  7. 17. 4th floor roof, view south, 4th and 5th floor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. 4th floor roof, view south, 4th and 5th floor setback to left and atrium structure to right - Sheffield Farms Milk Plant, 1075 Webster Avenue (southwest corner of 166th Street), Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  8. Effect of field capture on the measurement of cellular immune responses in wild ferrets (Mustela furo), vectors of bovine tuberculosis in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Cross, M L; Swale, E; Young, G; Mackintosh, C

    1999-01-01

    Ferrets are recognised as significant wildlife vectors of bovine tuberculosis (Tb) in New Zealand. Disease management strategies, such as the development of a protective wildlife vaccine, could be assisted by the ability to measure pertinent cellular immune responses among wild animals. In the present study, we investigated whether it is possible to measure in vitro lymphocyte reactivity in wild-caught ferrets, and also determined levels of physiological stress in these animals, and we compared these responses to those observed in laboratory-maintained domesticated ferrets. Over a 12-month period, 80 ferrets were live-captured from a Tb-endemic region (Otago, southern New Zealand); cardiac blood was withdrawn on-site, and mononuclear cell cultures were successfully established from 75 of these animals. Lymphocyte transformation (LT) responses to T cell and T/B cell mitogens (Concanavalin A [Con A] and pokeweed mitogen) were measured via uridine incorporation assay. The magnitude of these responses did not differ significantly between animals that had been captured in wire-framed cage traps and those captured using soft-jawed leg-hold traps. Levels of serum cortisol and glucose (as indicators of physiological and oxidative stress, respectively) were highest in animals captured using leg-hold traps. In comparison to domesticated ferrets, wild-caught ferrets had lower overall LT responses to Con A, but significantly higher levels of serum cortisol. Finally, 10/80 animals captured from the wild were severely diseased (Tb+), as evidenced by gross tuberculous lesions at autopsy. Successful mononuclear cell cultures were established from nine of these animals; LT responses to Con A were significantly lower in Tb+ ferrets than in either wild-caught/non-diseased (Tb-) or domesticated ferrets. These results demonstrate that it is possible to measure cellular immune responses from the blood of wild-caught ferrets, but that field capture and disease status may have detrimental

  9. A rapid and accurate quantification method for real-time dynamic analysis of cellular lipids during microalgal fermentation processes in Chlorella protothecoides with low field nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Liu, Tingting; Wang, Zejian; Tian, Xiwei; Yang, Yi; Guo, Meijin; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping

    2016-05-01

    The rapid and real-time lipid determination can provide valuable information on process regulation and optimization in the algal lipid mass production. In this study, a rapid, accurate and precise quantification method of in vivo cellular lipids of Chlorella protothecoides using low field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) was newly developed. LF-NMR was extremely sensitive to the algal lipids with the limits of the detection (LOD) of 0.0026g and 0.32g/L in dry lipid samples and algal broth, respectively, as well as limits of quantification (LOQ) of 0.0093g and 1.18g/L. Moreover, the LF-NMR signal was specifically proportional to the cellular lipids of C. protothecoides, thus the superior regression curves existing in a wide detection range from 0.02 to 0.42g for dry lipids and from 1.12 to 8.97gL(-1) of lipid concentration for in vivo lipid quantification were obtained with all R(2) higher than 0.99, irrespective of the lipid content and fatty acids profile variations. The accuracy of this novel method was further verified to be reliable by comparing lipid quantification results to those obtained by GC-MS. And the relative standard deviation (RSD) of LF-NMR results were smaller than 2%, suggesting the precision of this method. Finally, this method was successfully used in the on-line lipid monitoring during the algal lipid fermentation processes, making it possible for better understanding of the lipid accumulation mechanism and dynamic bioprocess control. PMID:26948045

  10. Eastern Floor of Holden Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 15 April 2002) The Science Today's THEMIS image covers territory on the eastern floor of Holden Crater, which is located in region of the southern hemisphere called Noachis Terra. Holden Crater is 154 km in diameter and named after American Astronomer Edward Holden (1846-1914). This image shows a mottled surface with channels, hills, ridges and impact craters. The largest crater seen in this image is 5 km in diameter. This crater has gullies and what appears to be horizontal layers in its walls. The Story With its beautiful symmetry and gullies radially streaming down to the floor, the dominant crater in this image is an impressive focal point. Yet, it is really just a small crater within a much larger one named Holden Crater. Take a look at the context image to the right to see just how much bigger Holden Crater is. Then come back to the image strip that shows the mottled surface of Holden Crater's eastern floor in greater detail, and count how many hills, ridges, channels, and small impact craters can be seen. No perfectly smooth terrain abounds there, that's for sure. The textured terrain of Holden Crater has been particularly intriguing ever since the Mars Orbital Camera on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft found evidence of sedimentary rock layers there that might have formed in lakes or shallow seas in Mars' ancient past. This finding suggests that Mars may have been more like Earth long ago, with water on its surface. Holden Crater might even have held a lake long ago. No one knows for sure, but it's an exciting possibility. Why? If water was once on the surface of Mars long enough to form sedimentary materials, maybe it was there long enough for microbial life to have developed too. (Life as we know it just isn't possible without the long-term presence of liquid water.) The question of life on the red planet is certainly tantalizing, but scientists will need to engage in a huge amount of further investigation to begin to know the answer. That

  11. Neutrino floor at ultralow threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strigari, Louis E.

    2016-05-01

    By lowering their energy threshold, direct dark matter searches can reach the neutrino floor with experimental technology that is now in development. The 7Be flux can be detected with ˜10 eV nuclear recoil energy threshold and 50 kg/yr exposure. The p e p flux can be detected with ˜3 ton/yr exposure, and the first detection of the CNO flux is possible with similar exposure. The p p flux can be detected with threshold of ˜eV and only ˜ kg /yr exposure. These can be the first pure neutral current measurements of the low-energy solar neutrino flux. Measuring this flux is important for low mass dark matter searches and for understanding the solar interior.

  12. 16. THIRD FLOOR BLDG. 28A, DETAIL CUTOUT IN FLOOR FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. THIRD FLOOR BLDG. 28A, DETAIL CUTOUT IN FLOOR FOR WOOD BLOCK FLOORING LOOKING EAST. - Fafnir Bearing Plant, Bounded on North side by Myrtle Street, on South side by Orange Street, on East side by Booth Street & on West side by Grove Street, New Britain, Hartford County, CT

  13. 9 CFR 91.26 - Concrete flooring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Concrete flooring. 91.26 Section 91.26... LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Inspection of Vessels and Accommodations § 91.26 Concrete flooring. (a) Pens aboard an ocean vessel shall have a 3 inch concrete pavement, proportioned and mixed to give 2000...

  14. 9 CFR 91.26 - Concrete flooring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Concrete flooring. 91.26 Section 91.26... LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Inspection of Vessels and Accommodations § 91.26 Concrete flooring. (a) Pens aboard an ocean vessel shall have a 3 inch concrete pavement, proportioned and mixed to give 2000...

  15. 9 CFR 91.26 - Concrete flooring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Concrete flooring. 91.26 Section 91.26... LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Inspection of Vessels and Accommodations § 91.26 Concrete flooring. (a) Pens aboard an ocean vessel shall have a 3 inch concrete pavement, proportioned and mixed to give 2000...

  16. 9 CFR 91.26 - Concrete flooring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Concrete flooring. 91.26 Section 91.26... LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Inspection of Vessels and Accommodations § 91.26 Concrete flooring. (a) Pens aboard an ocean vessel shall have a 3 inch concrete pavement, proportioned and mixed to give 2000...

  17. 9 CFR 91.26 - Concrete flooring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Concrete flooring. 91.26 Section 91.26... LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Inspection of Vessels and Accommodations § 91.26 Concrete flooring. (a) Pens aboard an ocean vessel shall have a 3 inch concrete pavement, proportioned and mixed to give 2000...

  18. Learning4Life on the Exhibit Floor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    The exhibit floor is a wealth of knowledge. One can read, view, and listen to information presented in many formats. Somewhere on the exhibit floor there are experts on every topic, ready and waiting for one's questions. But like any research topic, frequently a structured search is required to find the best answers. This article discusses how to…

  19. Floor Time: Rethinking Play in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kordt-Thomas, Chad; Lee, Ilene M.

    2006-01-01

    Floor time is a play-based, one-to-one approach to helping children develop relationships, language, and thinking. Developed by child psychiatrist Stanley Greenspan, floor time is helpful not only for children with special needs but also for children who are developing typically. It can be used by teachers, caregivers, and families in brief…

  20. Cellular resilience.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Lena; Harris, Georgina; Leist, Marcel; Hartung, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Cellular resilience describes the ability of a cell to cope with environmental changes such as toxicant exposure. If cellular metabolism does not collapse directly after the hit or end in programmed cell death, the ensuing stress responses promote a new homeostasis under stress. The processes of reverting "back to normal" and reversal of apoptosis ("anastasis") have been studied little at the cellular level. Cell types show astonishingly similar vulnerability to most toxicants, except for those that require a very specific target, metabolism or mechanism present only in specific cell types. The majority of chemicals triggers "general cytotoxicity" in any cell at similar concentrations. We hypothesize that cells differ less in their vulnerability to a given toxicant than in their resilience (coping with the "hit"). In many cases, cells do not return to the naive state after a toxic insult. The phenomena of "pre-conditioning", "tolerance" and "hormesis" describe this for low-dose exposures to toxicants that render the cell more resistant to subsequent hits. The defense and resilience programs include epigenetic changes that leave a "memory/scar" - an alteration as a consequence of the stress the cell has experienced. These memories might have long-term consequences, both positive (resistance) and negative, that contribute to chronic and delayed manifestations of hazard and, ultimately, disease. This article calls for more systematic analyses of how cells cope with toxic perturbations in the long-term after stressor withdrawal. A technical prerequisite for these are stable (organotypic) cultures and a characterization of stress response molecular networks. PMID:26536287

  1. Architected Cellular Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaedler, Tobias A.; Carter, William B.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing enables fabrication of materials with intricate cellular architecture, whereby progress in 3D printing techniques is increasing the possible configurations of voids and solids ad infinitum. Examples are microlattices with graded porosity and truss structures optimized for specific loading conditions. The cellular architecture determines the mechanical properties and density of these materials and can influence a wide range of other properties, e.g., acoustic, thermal, and biological properties. By combining optimized cellular architectures with high-performance metals and ceramics, several lightweight materials that exhibit strength and stiffness previously unachievable at low densities were recently demonstrated. This review introduces the field of architected materials; summarizes the most common fabrication methods, with an emphasis on additive manufacturing; and discusses recent progress in the development of architected materials. The review also discusses important applications, including lightweight structures, energy absorption, metamaterials, thermal management, and bioscaffolds.

  2. 25. INTERIOR VIEW ON THE GENERATOR FLOOR OF THE SOAPSTONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. INTERIOR VIEW ON THE GENERATOR FLOOR OF THE SOAPSTONE PANELS THAT CONTAIN INSTRUMENTS TO MONITIOR AND CONTROL THE OUTPUT OF THE GENERTATORS. IN THE FOREGROUND RIGHT ARE ADJUSTABLE FIELD RESISTORS TO CONTROL THE OVERALL POWER OUTPUT OF THE MAIN GENERATOR VIA THE EXCITER GENERATOR. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  3. Effects of electromagnetic field stimulation on cellular signal transduction mechanisms: Analyses of the effects of low frequency electromagnetic fields on calcium spiking in ROS 17/2.8 cells. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sisken, B.F.; Sisken, J.E.

    1997-12-01

    The general goals of this work were to determine whether resting levels of cellular second messengers, especially calcium, are affected by low-level electromagnetic fields and the mechanisms that could lead to such changes. The work performed was directed at (1) verifying the report of McLeod et al (1990) that low frequency sinusoidal EMF can alter basal calcium fluctuations in cultured ROS 17/2.8 osteoblast-like cells and (2) reproducing the findings of Luben et al (1982) that pulsed electromagnetic fields can affect PTH-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in osteoblasts. Initially a system was constructed so that cells could be exposed to sinusoidal electric fields using platinum electrodes. In this system, the electrodes were separated from the cells and culture medium by agar barriers. A series of experiments indicated that this system was subject to a significant, though little-known artifact in which a not well understood interaction between the electrodes and sodium ions in the medium or in plain salt solutions led to frequency and amplitude dependent emission of photons that are recorded by the detection system. They therefore designed and constructed an air gap reactor system that utilizes a ferromagnetic core to direct the magnetic flux generated by a sinusoidal coil. Studies on the effects of a 15 Hz pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) on cyclic AMP metabolism were performed on ROS 17/2.8 and MC3T3 cells.

  4. Image processing with cellular nonlinear networks implemented on field-programmable gate arrays for real-time applications in nuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Palazzo, S.; Vagliasindi, G.; Arena, P.; Murari, A.; Mazon, D.; De Maack, A.; Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2010-08-15

    In the past years cameras have become increasingly common tools in scientific applications. They are now quite systematically used in magnetic confinement fusion, to the point that infrared imaging is starting to be used systematically for real-time machine protection in major devices. However, in order to guarantee that the control system can always react rapidly in case of critical situations, the time required for the processing of the images must be as predictable as possible. The approach described in this paper combines the new computational paradigm of cellular nonlinear networks (CNNs) with field-programmable gate arrays and has been tested in an application for the detection of hot spots on the plasma facing components in JET. The developed system is able to perform real-time hot spot recognition, by processing the image stream captured by JET wide angle infrared camera, with the guarantee that computational time is constant and deterministic. The statistical results obtained from a quite extensive set of examples show that this solution approximates very well an ad hoc serial software algorithm, with no false or missed alarms and an almost perfect overlapping of alarm intervals. The computational time can be reduced to a millisecond time scale for 8 bit 496x560-sized images. Moreover, in our implementation, the computational time, besides being deterministic, is practically independent of the number of iterations performed by the CNN - unlike software CNN implementations.

  5. Ultrasonic Inspection Of The LTAB Floor

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, G

    2001-07-31

    The National Ignition Facility's (NIF) floor is damaged by transporter operations. Two basic operations, rotating the wheels in place and traversing the floor numerous times can cause failure in the grout layer. The floor is composed of top wear surface (Stonhard) and an osmotic grout layer on top of concrete, Fig. 1. An ultrasonic technique was implemented to assess the condition of the floor as part of a study to determine the damage mechanisms. The study considered damage scenarios and ways to avoid the damage. A possible solution is to install thin steel plates where the transporter traverses on the floor. These tests were conducted with a fully loaded transporter that applies up to 1300 psi loads to the floor. A contact ultrasonic technique evaluated the condition of the grout layer in NIF's floor. Figure 1 displays the configuration of the ultrasonic transducer on the floor. We inspected the floor after wheel rotation damage and after wheel traversal damage. Figure 2a and 2b are photographs of the portable ultrasonic system and data acquisition. We acquired ultrasonic signals in a known pristine area and a damaged area to calibrate the inspection. Figure 3 is a plot of the typical ultrasonic response from an undamaged area (black) overlapped with a signal (red) from a damaged area. The damage area data was acquired at a location next to a hole in the floor that was caused by the transporter. Five megahertz pulses are propagated from the transducer and through a Plexiglas buffer rod into the floor. The ultrasonic pulse reflects from each discontinuity in the floor. The ultrasonic signal reflects from the top surface, the Stonhard-to-grout interface, and the grout to concrete interface. We expect to see reflections from each of these interfaces in an undamaged floor. If the grout layer pulverizes then the high frequency signal cannot traverse the layer and the grout to concrete interface signal will decrease or vanish. The more damage to the grout the more the

  6. Migration of DEHP and DINP into dust from PVC flooring products at different surface temperature.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Seunghwan; Kim, Ki-Tae; Choi, Kyungho

    2016-03-15

    Phthalates are important endocrine disrupting chemicals that have been linked to various adverse human health effects. Phthalates are ubiquitously present in indoor environment and could enter humans. Vinyl or PVC floorings have been recognized as one of important sources of phthalate release to indoor environment including house dust. In the present study, we estimated the migration of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) from the flooring materials into the dust under different heating conditions. For this purpose, a small chamber specifically designed for the present study and a Field and Laboratory Emission Cell (FLEC) were used, and four major types of PVC flooring samples including two UV curing paint coated, an uncoated residential, and a wax-coated commercial type were tested. Migration of DEHP was observed for an uncoated residential type and a wax-coated commercial type flooring. After 14 days of incubation, the levels of DEHP in the dust sample was determined at room temperature on average (standard deviation) at 384 ± 19 and 481 ± 53 μg/g, respectively. In contrast, migration of DINP was not observed. The migration of DEHP was strongly influenced by surface characteristics such as UV curing coating. In the residential flooring coated with UV curing paint, migration of DEHP was not observed at room temperature. But under the heated condition, the release of DEHP was observed in the dust in the FLEC. Migration of DEHP from flooring materials increased when the flooring was heated (50 °C). In Korea, heated flooring system, or 'ondol', is very common mode of heating in residential setting, therefore the contribution of PVC flooring to the total indoor DEHP exposure among general population is expected to be greater especially during winter season when the floor is heated. PMID:26824397

  7. 41. Ground level photograph of two floors of skeleton complete ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Ground level photograph of two floors of skeleton complete with 3rd and 4th floors being started,upper floors of county bldg visible - Chicago City Hall, 121 North LaSalle Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  8. Typical Newel Post, First Floor Newel Post, Typical Baluster, Typical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Typical Newel Post, First Floor Newel Post, Typical Baluster, Typical Nosing, First Floor Stringer Profile, Second Floor Stringer Profile - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers - Battle Mountain Sanitarium, Treasurer's Quarters, 500 North Fifth Street, Hot Springs, Fall River County, SD

  9. Surgical treatment of orbital floor fractures.

    PubMed

    Rankow, R M; Mignogna, F V

    1975-01-01

    Ninety patients with orbital floor fractures were treated by the Otolaryngology Service of the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center. Of these 90 patients, 58 were classified as coexisting and 32 as isolated. All fractures with clinical symptoms and demonstrable x-ray evidence should be explored. Despite negative findings by routine techniques, laminography may confirm fractures in all clinically suspicious cases. In this series, 100% of the patients explored had definitive fractures. A direct infraorbital approach adequately exposes the floor of the orbit. An effective and cosmetic subtarsal incision was utilized. Implants were employed when the floor could not be anatomically reapproximated or the periorbita was destroyed. PMID:1119982

  10. This photocopy of an engineering drawing shows the floor plan ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    This photocopy of an engineering drawing shows the floor plan of the Liner Lab, including room functions. Austin, Field & Fry, Architects Engineers, 22311 West Third Street, Los Angeles 57, California: Edwards Test Station Complex Phase II, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Edwards Air Force Base, Edwards, California: "Liner Laboratory, Floor Plan and Schedules," drawing no. E33/4-2, 26 June 1962. California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Plant Engineering: engineering drawings of structures at JPL Edwards Facility. Drawings on file at JPL Plant Engineering, Pasadena, California. California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Plant Engineering: engineering drawings of structures at JPL Edwards Facility. Drawings on file at JPL Plant Engineering, Pasadena, California - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Liner Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  11. Pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation using biofeedback.

    PubMed

    Newman, Diane K

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic floor muscle exercises have been recommended for urinary incontinence since first described by obstetrician gynecologist Dr. Arnold Kegel more than six decades ago. These exercises are performed to strengthen pelvic floor muscles, provide urethral support to prevent urine leakage, and suppress urgency. In clinical urology practice, expert clinicians also teach patients how to relax the muscle to improve bladder emptying and relieve pelvic pain caused by muscle spasm. When treating lower urinary tract symptoms, an exercise training program combined with biofeedback therapy has been recommended as first-line treatment. This article provides clinical application of pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation using biofeedback as a technique to enhance pelvic floor muscle training. PMID:25233622

  12. Generation of airborne listeria from floor drains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes can colonize floor drains in poultry processing and further processing facilities remaining even after cleaning and disinfection. Therefore, during wash down, workers exercise caution to prevent escape and transfer of drain microflora to food contact surfaces. The objective ...

  13. Impact evaluation of composite floor sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boitnott, Richard L.; Fasanella, Edwin L.

    1989-01-01

    Graphite-epoxy floor sections representative of aircraft fuselage construction were statically and dynamically tested to evaluate their response to crash loadings. These floor sections were fabricated using a frame-stringer design typical of present aluminum aircraft without features to enhance crashworthiness. The floor sections were tested as part of a systematic research program developed to study the impact response of composite components of increasing complexity. The ultimate goal of the research program is to develop crashworthy design features for future composite aircraft. Initially, individual frames of six-foot diameter were tested both statically and dynamically. The frames were then used to construct built-up floor sections for dynamic tests at impact velocities of approximately 20 feet/sec to simulate survivable crash velocities. In addition, static tests were conducted to gain a better understanding of the failure mechanisms seen in the dynamic tests.

  14. Teaching cellular engineering.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Daniel A; Waugh, Richard E

    2006-02-01

    Cellular engineering is one of the fastest growing subdisciplines in the field of Biomedical Engineering. It involves the application of engineering analysis to understand and control cellular behavior, with the ultimate objective of developing novel therapeutic or diagnostic approaches for the clinic or harnessing cellular function for commercial applications. Well-educated students in this area need strong foundational knowledge in engineering science, chemistry, and cell and molecular biology. In undergraduate curricula, the challenge is to include essential engineering skills plus appropriate levels of training in chemistry and biology while satisfying accreditation-mandated breadth in engineering training. At the graduate level, educators must accommodate students with diverse backgrounds and provide them with both a state-of-the-art understanding of the life sciences and the most advanced engineering skills. Engineering curricular content should include mechanics and materials, physical chemistry, transport phenomena, and control theory. Training from faculty with appointments and research programs in the life sciences is generally recommended, and additional life science content should also be integrated within the engineering curriculum. A capstone course in cellular engineering that includes opportunities for students to have hands-on experiences with state-of-the-art laboratory techniques is highly recommended. PMID:16450196

  15. Performance evaluation of floor thermal storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Shinkai, Koichiro; Kasuya, Atsushi; Kato, Masahiro

    2000-07-01

    Environmental issues were seriously addressed when a new building was designed with district heating and cooling for the Osaka gas company. As a result, the building was officially recognized as Environmentally Conscious Building No. 1 by the Construction Ministry. In order to reduce cost by peak shaving, adoption of a floor thermal storage system was planned. This paper describes results regarding the peak shaving by floor thermal storage system in designing the air-conditioning system.

  16. Physical therapy for female pelvic floor disorders.

    PubMed

    Bourcier, A P

    1994-08-01

    Non-surgical, non-pharmacological treatment for female pelvic floor dysfunction is represented by rehabilitation in urogynecology. Since Kegel, in 1948, who proposed the concept of functional restoration of the perineal muscles, no specific term has actually been established. Owing to the number of specialists involved in the management of female pelvic floor disorders (such as gynecologists, urologists, coloproctologists, and neurologists) and the different types of health care providers concerned (such as physicians, physical therapists, nurses, and midwives), it is difficult to make the proper choice between 'physical therapy for pelvic floor', 'pelvic floor rehabilitation', 'pelvic muscle re-education', and 'pelvic floor training'. Because muscle re-education is under the control of physical therapists, we have chosen the term of physical therapy for female pelvic floor disorders. Muscle re-education has an important role in the primary treatment of lower urinary tract dysfunction. A multidisciplinary collaboration may be of particular interest, and a thorough evaluation is useful for a proper selection of patients. PMID:7742496

  17. ETRA, TRA642. ON BASEMENT FLOOR. IBEAM COLUMNS SUPPORTING CONSOLE FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETRA, TRA-642. ON BASEMENT FLOOR. I-BEAM COLUMNS SUPPORTING CONSOLE FLOOR HAVE BEEN SURROUNDED BY CONCRETE IN RECTANGULAR PILLARS. BASEMENT FLOOR IS BEING PREPARED FOR PLACEMENT OF CONCRETE. ABOVE CEILING IS CONSOLE FLOOR, IN WHICH CUT-OUT HAS PRESERVED SPACE FOR REACTOR AND ITS SHIELDING. CIRCULAR FORM IN REACTOR AREA IS CONCRETE FORMING. NOTE VERTICAL CONDUIT AT INTERVALS AROUND REACTOR PITS. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-1237. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 4/17/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. Urinary incontinence, pelvic floor dysfunction, exercise and sport.

    PubMed

    Bø, Kari

    2004-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is defined as "the complaint of any involuntary leakage of urine" and is a common problem in the female population with prevalence rates varying between 10% and 55% in 15- to 64-year-old women. The most frequent form of urinary incontinence in women is stress urinary incontinence, defined as "involuntary leakage on effort or exertion, or on sneezing or coughing". The aim of this article is to systematically review the literature on urinary incontinence and participation in sport and fitness activities with a special emphasis on prevalence and treatment in female elite athletes. Stress urinary incontinence is a barrier to women's participation in sport and fitness activities and, therefore, it may be a threat to women's health, self-esteem and well-being. The prevalence during sports among young, nulliparous elite athletes varies between 0% (golf) and 80% (trampolinists). The highest prevalence is found in sports involving high impact activities such as gymnastics, track and field, and some ball games. A 'stiff' and strong pelvic floor positioned at an optimal level inside the pelvis may be a crucial factor in counteracting the increases in abdominal pressure occurring during high-impact activities. There are no randomised controlled trials or reports on the effect of any treatment for stress urinary incontinence in female elite athletes. However, strength training of the pelvic floor muscles has been shown to be effective in treating stress urinary incontinence in parous females in the general population. In randomised controlled trials, reported cure rates, defined as <2g of leakage on pad tests, varied between 44% and 69%. Pelvic floor muscle training has no serious adverse effects and has been recommended as first-line treatment in the general population. Use of preventive devices such as vaginal tampons or pessaries can prevent leakage during high impact physical activity. The pelvic floor muscles need to be much stronger in elite athletes

  19. Acceleration response spectrum for predicting floor vibration due to occupant walking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Xu, Ruotian; Zhang, Mengshi

    2014-07-01

    Annoying vibrations caused by occupant walking is an important serviceability problem for long-span floors. At the design stage the floor's structural arrangement may frequently change to cater for the owner's varying requirements. An efficient and accurate approach for predicting a floor's acceleration response is thus of great significance. This paper presents a design-oriented acceleration response spectrum for calculating a floor's response given the floor's modal characteristics and a specified confidence level. 2204 measured footfall traces from 61 test subjects were used to generate 10 s peak root-mean-square acceleration response spectra, on which a piecewise mathematical representation is based. The proposed response spectrum consists of three main parts: the first harmonic plateau ranging from 1.5 to 2.5 Hz, the second harmonic plateau ranging from 3.0 to 5.0 Hz and the descending part going with frequencies from 5.0 to 10.0 Hz. The representative value of each plateau and the mathematical representation for the descending curve were determined statistically for different confidence levels. Furthermore, the effects of factors, such as floor span, occupant stride length, higher modes of vibration, boundary conditions and peak acceleration response, on the proposed spectrum have been investigated and a modification measure for each factor is suggested. A detailed application procedure for the proposed spectrum approach is presented and has been applied to four existing floors to predict their acceleration responses. Comparison between predicted and field measured responses shows that the measured accelerations of the four floors are generally close to or slightly higher than the predicted values for the 75 percent confidence level, but are all lower than the predicted values for the 95 percent confidence level. Therefore the suggested spectrum-based approach can be used for predicting a floor's response subject to a single person walking.

  20. Refinishing contamination floors in Spent Nuclear Fuels storage basins

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, F.F.; Moore, F.W.

    1997-07-11

    The floors of the K Basins at the Hanford Site are refinished to make decontamination easier if spills occur as the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is being unloaded from the basins for shipment to dry storage. Without removing the contaminated existing coating, the basin floors are to be coated with an epoxy coating material selected on the basis of the results of field tests of several paint products. The floor refinishing activities must be reviewed by a management review board to ensure that work can be performed in a controlled manner. Major documents prepared for management board review include a report on maintaining radiation exposure as low as reasonably achievable, a waste management plan, and reports on hazard classification and unreviewed safety questions. To protect personnel working in the radiation zone, Operational Health Physics prescribed the required minimum protective methods and devices in the radiological work permit. Also, industrial hygiene safety must be analyzed to establish respirator requirements for persons working in the basins. The procedure and requirements for the refinishing work are detailed in a work package approved by all safety engineers. After the refinishing work is completed, waste materials generated from the refinishing work must be disposed of according to the waste management plan.

  1. Semi-active control of floor isolation system using MR-damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Pei-Yang; Loh, Chin-Hsiung

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents the performance evaluation of a semi-active controlled floor isolation system for earthquake reduction. The floor isolation system consists of a rolling pendulum system and a semi-active controlled MR damper. The modified Bouc-Wen model is used to represent the behavior of the MR damper. A serious of performance test of the MR damper is made and been used for system identification. Two contrasting control methods including LQR with continuous-optimal control and Fuzzy Logic control are experimentally investigated as potential algorithms and comparisons are made from the results. Unlike the clipped-optimal control, LQR with continuous-optimal control can output the continuous command voltage to control the MR damper, and get smoother control effect. A three-story steel structure with the floor isolation system on the 2nd floor is tested on the shake table. Scaled historical near- and far-field seismic records are employed to examine controller performance with respect to frequency content and PGA level. Experimental results show that both control algorithms can suppress the acceleration of the isolated floor during small and large PGA levels, and alleviate both displacement and acceleration simultaneously in larger, near-field events. Both control algorithms are adaptive and robust to various intensity of excitation. This investigation demonstrates the feasibility and capabilities of a smart semi-active controlled floor-isolation system.

  2. 76 FR 7098 - Dealer Floor Plan Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Parts 120 and 121 Dealer Floor Plan Pilot Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... Dealer Floor Plan Pilot Program to make available 7(a) loan guaranties for lines of credit that provide floor plan financing. This new Dealer Floor Plan Pilot Program was created in the Small Business...

  3. 2. VIEW OF LOWER MILL FLOOR FOUNDATION, SHOWING, LEFT TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF LOWER MILL FLOOR FOUNDATION, SHOWING, LEFT TO RIGHT, EDGE OF MILLING FLOOR, TABLE FLOOR, VANNING FLOOR, LOADING LEVEL, TAILINGS POND IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. VIEW IS LOOKING FROM THE NORTHWEST - Mountain King Gold Mine & Mill, 4.3 Air miles Northwest of Copperopolis, Copperopolis, Calaveras County, CA

  4. ETR, TRA642. FLOOR PLAN UNDER BALCONY ON CONSOLE FLOOR. MOTORGENERATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. FLOOR PLAN UNDER BALCONY ON CONSOLE FLOOR. MOTOR-GENERATOR SETS AND OTHER ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT. PHILLIPS PETROLEUM COMPANY ETR-D-1781, 7/1960. INL INDEX NO. 532-0642-00-706-020384, REV. 1. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. Total pelvic floor ultrasound for pelvic floor defaecatory dysfunction: a pictorial review.

    PubMed

    Hainsworth, Alison J; Solanki, Deepa; Schizas, Alexis M P; Williams, Andrew B

    2015-01-01

    Total pelvic floor ultrasound is used for the dynamic assessment of pelvic floor dysfunction and allows multicompartmental anatomical and functional assessment. Pelvic floor dysfunction includes defaecatory, urinary and sexual dysfunction, pelvic organ prolapse and pain. It is common, increasingly recognized and associated with increasing age and multiparity. Other options for assessment include defaecation proctography and defaecation MRI. Total pelvic floor ultrasound is a cheap, safe, imaging tool, which may be performed as a first-line investigation in outpatients. It allows dynamic assessment of the entire pelvic floor, essential for treatment planning for females who often have multiple diagnoses where treatment should address all aspects of dysfunction to yield optimal results. Transvaginal scanning using a rotating single crystal probe provides sagittal views of bladder neck support anteriorly. Posterior transvaginal ultrasound may reveal rectocoele, enterocoele or intussusception whilst bearing down. The vaginal probe is also used to acquire a 360° cross-sectional image to allow anatomical visualization of the pelvic floor and provides information regarding levator plate integrity and pelvic organ alignment. Dynamic transperineal ultrasound using a conventional curved array probe provides a global view of the anterior, middle and posterior compartments and may show cystocoele, enterocoele, sigmoidocoele or rectocoele. This pictorial review provides an atlas of normal and pathological images required for global pelvic floor assessment in females presenting with defaecatory dysfunction. Total pelvic floor ultrasound may be used with complementary endoanal ultrasound to assess the sphincter complex, but this is beyond the scope of this review. PMID:26388109

  6. 23. FIFTH FLOOR BLDG. 28B, DETAIL WOOD BLOCK FLOORING LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. FIFTH FLOOR BLDG. 28B, DETAIL WOOD BLOCK FLOORING LOOKING WEST. - Fafnir Bearing Plant, Bounded on North side by Myrtle Street, on South side by Orange Street, on East side by Booth Street & on West side by Grove Street, New Britain, Hartford County, CT

  7. 24. FIFTH FLOOR BLDG. 28B, DETAIL WOOD BLOCK FLOORING LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. FIFTH FLOOR BLDG. 28B, DETAIL WOOD BLOCK FLOORING LOOKING NORTH. - Fafnir Bearing Plant, Bounded on North side by Myrtle Street, on South side by Orange Street, on East side by Booth Street & on West side by Grove Street, New Britain, Hartford County, CT

  8. ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING, TRA648. FLOOR PLANS FOR FIRST FLOOR AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING, TRA-648. FLOOR PLANS FOR FIRST FLOOR AND BASEMENT. SECTIONS. KAISER ETR-5528-MTR-648-A-2, 12/1955. INL INDEX NO. 532-0648-00-486-101402, REV. 6. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. 17 CFR 1.62 - Contract market requirement for floor broker and floor trader registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for future delivery or commodity option on or subject to the rules of that contract market. (2) Each... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Contract market requirement....62 Contract market requirement for floor broker and floor trader registration. (a)(1) Each...

  10. 17 CFR 1.62 - Contract market requirement for floor broker and floor trader registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for future delivery or commodity option on or subject to the rules of that contract market. (2) Each... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contract market requirement....62 Contract market requirement for floor broker and floor trader registration. (a)(1) Each...

  11. 17 CFR 1.62 - Contract market requirement for floor broker and floor trader registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... for future delivery or commodity option on or subject to the rules of that contract market. (2) Each... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Contract market requirement....62 Contract market requirement for floor broker and floor trader registration. (a)(1) Each...

  12. The cleaning of ward floors and the bacteriological study of floor-cleaning machines

    PubMed Central

    Bate, J. G.

    1961-01-01

    Current trends in ward flooring materials and cleaning methods are considered from the point of view of the hospital bacteriologist. Methods employed in an investigation into the bacteriological safety of a number of floor-cleaning machines are described, and some considerations governing the choice of vacuum cleaners for ward use are discussed. Images PMID:13687726

  13. Curved Lobate Scarp on Crater Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A broadly curved lobate scarp (running from left to right in the large crater to the right of center in this image) is restricted to the floor of a crater 85 kilometers in diameter. The rim of this crater and the rims of those north of it have been disrupted by the process which caused the hilly and lineated terrain. This process has not affected the smooth plains on their floors, indicating that the floor materials post date the formation of the craters. In this case, the scarp on the crater floor may be a flow front formed during emplacement of the floor material.

    This image (FDS 27379) was acquired during the spacecraft's first encounter with Mercury.

    The Mariner 10 mission, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, explored Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury-in March and September 1974 and in March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 photos of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon.

    Image Credit: NASA/JPL/Northwestern University

  14. Sub-cellular partitioning of essential and non-essential metals in a freshwater mollusc, Pyganodon grandis, collected in the field along a polymetallic environmental gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonneris, E.; Giguère, A.; Masson, S.; Campbell, P. G. C.

    2003-05-01

    The cellular alterations normally induced by metals at high concentrations can be prevented by detoxification processes [1] such as sequestration into cellular compartments (calcium concretions, lysosomes, etc.) or their binding to specifie cellular ligands like metallothionein [2]. The aim of this project was to study and compare the subcellular partitioning of three metals (Cd, Cu, Zn) in gills of a freshwater mollusc, Pyganodon grandis, collected along a polymetallic environmental gradient (nine lakes in the Rouyn-Noranda area, Abitibi, QC, Canada). Differential centrifugation was used to partition metals among different subcellular fractions. In the gills, along the environmental metal gradient, total tissue metal concentrations were positively correlated with concentrations in the granule fraction; gill tissues contained high amounts of calcium concretions, which acted as preferential sites for sequestration of the three metals. An increase in Cd concentration was observed in the heat stable proteins fraction (including metallothionein), but not in the heat-denatured proteins fraction, suggesting that Cd-induced cell injury could be prevented by the involement of multiple cellular compartments in a protective role.

  15. The floor in the solar wind: status report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cliver, E. W.

    2012-07-01

    Cliver & Ling (2010) recently suggested that the solar wind had a floor or ground-state magnetic field strength at Earth of ~2.8 nT and that the source of the field was the slow solar wind. This picture has recently been given impetus by the evidence presented by Schrijver et al. (2011) that the Sun has a minimal magnetic state that was approached globally in 2009, a year in which Earth was imbedded in slow solar wind ~70% of the time. A precursor relation between the solar dipole field strength at solar minimum and the peak sunspot number (SSN MAX ) of the subsequent 11-yr cycle suggests that during Maunder-type minima (when SSN MAX was ~0), the solar polar field strength approaches zero - indicating weak or absent polar coronal holes and an increase to nearly ~100% in the time that Earth spends in slow solar wind.

  16. Exchange of volatile organic compounds in the boreal forest floor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaltonen, Hermanni; Bäck, Jaana; Pumpanen, Jukka; Pihlatie, Mari; Hakola, Hannele; Hellén, Heidi; Aalto, Juho; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Kajos, Maija K.; Kolari, Pasi; Taipale, Risto; Vesala, Timo

    2013-04-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems, mainly plants, emit large amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. In addition to plants, VOCs also have less-known sources, such as soil. VOCs are a very diverse group of reactive compounds, including terpenoids, alcohols, aldehydes and ketones. Due to their high reactivity, VOCs take part in formation and growth of secondary organic aerosols in the atmosphere and thus affect also Earth's radiation balance (Kulmala et al. 2004). We have studied boreal soil and forest floor VOC fluxes with chamber and snow gradient techniques we were developed. Spatial and temporal variability in VOC fluxes was studied with year-round measurements in the field and the sources of boreal soil VOCs in the laboratory with fungal isolates. Determination of the compounds was performed mass spectrometrically. Our results reveal that VOCs from soil are mainly emitted by living roots, above- and belowground litter and microbes. The strongest source appears to be litter, in which both plant residuals and decomposers play a role in the emissions. Soil fungi showed high emissions of lighter VOCs, like acetone, acetaldehyde and methanol, from isolates. Temperature and moisture are the most critical physical factors driving VOC fluxes. Since the environment in boreal forests undergoes strong seasonal changes, the VOC flux strength of the forest floor varies markedly during the year, being highest in spring and autumn. The high spatial heterogeneity of the forest floor was also clearly visible in VOC fluxes. The fluxes of other trace gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O) from soil, which are also related to the soil biological activity and physical conditions, did not show correlations with the VOC fluxes. These results indicate that emissions of VOCs from the boreal forest floor account for as much as several tens of percent, depending on the season, of the total forest ecosystem VOC emissions. This emphasises that forest floor compartment should be taken into

  17. Sand Sheet on Crater Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    As with yesterday's image, this dune field is located inside a crater, in this case an unnamed crater at 26 degrees North latitude. In this VIS image the dunes are coalescing into a sand sheet, note the lack of dune forms to the north of the small hills. The presence of ridges and hills in the area is affecting the dune shapes.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 26.4, Longitude 62.7 East (297.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology

  18. Cellular therapy for haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Roddie, P H; Turner, M L

    2002-11-01

    The aim of this review was to summarize the recent progress made in the field of cellular therapeutics in haematological malignancy. The review also examined the role that the National Transfusion Services might play in the manufacture of new cellular therapeutic agents, given both their expertise in the safe provision of blood products and their possession of accredited cell manipulation facilities. Cellular therapy is entering an era in which novel cellular products will find increasing clinical use, particularly in the areas of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and immunotherapy. The production of novel cell-based therapies, both in Europe and North America, is now under strict regulatory control and therefore collaboration with the National Transfusion Services in the manufacture of these agents may well be beneficial if the production standards demanded by the regulatory authorities are to be fulfilled. PMID:12437515

  19. A&M. TAN607 floor plans. Shows three floor levels of pool, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. TAN-607 floor plans. Shows three floor levels of pool, hot shop, and warm shop. Includes view of pool vestibule, personnel labyrinth, location of floor rails, and room numbers of office areas, labs, instrument rooms, and stairways. This drawing was re-drawn to show as-built features in 1993. Ralph M. Parsons 902-3-ANP-607-A 96. Date of original: December 1952. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index code no. 034-0607-00-693-106748 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. Seeing Results in Flooring for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Operations staffs at education facilities of all sizes are tasked with selecting a hard floor cleaning program that is cost-effective, efficient and highly productive. With an increased focus on the sustainability of an environment, facility managers also must select a program that meets sustainability goals while maintaining a healthful, safe…

  1. Do I have an alluvial valley floor

    SciTech Connect

    Beach, G.G.

    1980-12-01

    The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 establishes specific restrictions for coal mining on or adjacent to alluvial valley floors. Alluvial valley floors are lands in the Western United States where water availability for flood irrigation or subirrigation provides enhanced agricultural productivity on stream-laid deposits located in valley bottoms. Alluvial valley floors may consist of developed land or undeveloped rangeland. Developed land, if of sufficient size to be important to a farming operation, cannot be mined whereas undeveloped rangeland can be mined provided certain performance standards are met. Developed land is important to farming when the percentage loss of production by removal of the alluvial valley floor from a farm(s) total production exceeds the equation P = 3 + 0.0014X, where P is the maximum percentage loss of productivity considered to be a negligible impact to a Wyoming farming operation and X is the number of animal units of total farm production above 100. A threshold level of 10 percent is placed on P, above which such a loss is considered to be a significant loss to any size farming operation.

  2. Sea Floor off San Diego, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dartnell, Peter; Gibbons, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Ocean-floor image generated from multibeam-bathymetry data acquired by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS); Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution; Scripps Institution of Oceanography; California State University, Monterey Bay; and Fugro Pelagos. To learn more, visit http://pubs.usgs.gov/sim/2007/2959/.

  3. Nontraumatic orbital floor fracture after nose blowing.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Ranjit S; Shah, Akash D

    2016-03-01

    A 40-year-old woman with no history of trauma or prior surgery presented to the emergency department with headache and left eye pain after nose blowing. Noncontrast maxillofacial computed tomography examination revealed an orbital floor fracture that ultimately required surgical repair. There are nontraumatic causes of orbital blowout fractures, and imaging should be obtained irrespective of trauma history. PMID:26973725

  4. 49 CFR 393.84 - Floors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION... fumes, exhaust gases, or fire. Floors shall not be permeated with oil or other substances likely...

  5. 49 CFR 393.84 - Floors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION... fumes, exhaust gases, or fire. Floors shall not be permeated with oil or other substances likely...

  6. 49 CFR 393.84 - Floors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION... fumes, exhaust gases, or fire. Floors shall not be permeated with oil or other substances likely...

  7. 49 CFR 393.84 - Floors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION... fumes, exhaust gases, or fire. Floors shall not be permeated with oil or other substances likely...

  8. 49 CFR 393.84 - Floors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION... fumes, exhaust gases, or fire. Floors shall not be permeated with oil or other substances likely...

  9. Building Trades. Block III. Floor Framing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This document contains three units of a course on floor framing to be used as part of a building trades program. Each unit consists, first, of an informational lesson, with complete lesson plan for the teacher's use. Included in each lesson plan are the lesson aim; lists of teaching aids, materials, references, and prerequisites for students;…

  10. Nontraumatic orbital floor fracture after nose blowing

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Ranjit S.; Shah, Akash D.

    2016-01-01

    A 40-year-old woman with no history of trauma or prior surgery presented to the emergency department with headache and left eye pain after nose blowing. Noncontrast maxillofacial computed tomography examination revealed an orbital floor fracture that ultimately required surgical repair. There are nontraumatic causes of orbital blowout fractures, and imaging should be obtained irrespective of trauma history. PMID:26973725