Science.gov

Sample records for florida coastal waters

  1. Biogeochemical classification of South Florida's estuarine and coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Briceño, Henry O; Boyer, Joseph N; Castro, Joffre; Harlem, Peter

    2013-10-15

    South Florida's watersheds have endured a century of urban and agricultural development and disruption of their hydrology. Spatial characterization of South Florida's estuarine and coastal waters is important to Everglades' restoration programs. We applied Factor Analysis and Hierarchical Clustering of water quality data in tandem to characterize and spatially subdivide South Florida's coastal and estuarine waters. Segmentation rendered forty-four biogeochemically distinct water bodies whose spatial distribution is closely linked to geomorphology, circulation, benthic community pattern, and to water management. This segmentation has been adopted with minor changes by federal and state environmental agencies to derive numeric nutrient criteria. PMID:23968989

  2. New Kinorhyncha from Florida coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herranz, María; Sánchez, Nuria; Pardos, Fernando; Higgins, Robert P.

    2014-03-01

    Four new species of Kinorhynchs are described from the West Atlantic coast off Fort Pierce, Florida, USA. They are the following: Antygomonas gwenae n. sp., Echinoderes riceae n. sp., Echinoderes adrianovi n. sp. and Pycnophyes norenburgi n. sp. All species were collected at the same locality called "20 miles station." Samples were processed for standard granulometric data, yielding an estimated average particle diameter of 250 μm. The diagnostic characters and the general morphology of the new species are discussed in depth as well as the diversity and distribution of Kinorhyncha in the area.

  3. CDOM PRODUCTION BY MANGROVE LEAF LITTER AND SARGASSUM COLONIES IN FLORIDA KEYS COASTAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have investigated the importance of leaf litter from red mangroves (Rhizophora mangle) and living Sargassum plants as sources of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) to the coastal ocean waters and coral reef system of the Florida Keys. The magnitude of UVB exposure t...

  4. Assessment of satellite derived diffuse attenuation coefficients and euphotic depths in south Florida coastal waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Optical data collected in coastal waters off South Florida and in the Caribbean Sea between January 2009 and December 2010 were used to evaluate products derived with three bio-optical inversion algorithms applied to MOIDS/Aqua, MODIS/Terra, and SeaWiFS satellite observations. Th...

  5. Cyanobacterial blooms and biomagnification of the neurotoxin BMAA in South Florida coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, L.; Mash, D.

    2008-12-01

    Blooms of cyanobacteria have developed in Florida Bay, Biscayne Bay and other coastal waters of South Florida. It has recently been shown that virtually all cyanobacteria produce the potent neurotoxin, beta-N- methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA). Studies in Guam indicate that BMAA can biomagnify up the food chain from cyanobacteria to human food and humans. Recent studies in Guam and on human brains in North America suggest an association between BMAA and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). A variety of organisms from South Florida coastal waters are being analyzed for BMAA content to determine if BMAA is biomagnifying in these food chains and if it is a potential human health hazard. Some have extremely high concentrations of BMAA.

  6. 77 FR 74923 - Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Estuaries, Coastal Waters, and South Florida...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters (75 FR 4173) that are addressed in this proposal... detail in Sections III.B and III.C. \\7\\ This area includes waters offshore of Apalachicola Bay,...

  7. Winter mortality of common loons in Florida coastal waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forrester, Donald J.; Davidson, W.R.; Lange, R.E., Jr.; Stroud, R.K.; Alexander, L.L.; Franson, J.C.; Haseltine, S.D.; Littell, R.C.; Nesbitt, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    Diagnostic findings are presented for 434 common loons (Gavia imrner) found sick or dead on Florida beaches from 1970 through 1994, primarily during the months of December to April. The most commonly recognized problem was an emaciation syndrome (66%), followed by oiling (18%), aspergillosis (7%), trauma (5%) and miscellaneous disease entities (1%). The cause-of-death for 3% of the birds was not determined. Many of the carcasses examined (n = 173) were obtained during an epizootic which occurred from January to March of 1983 in which more than 13,000 loons were estimated to have died. An emaciation syndrome, characterized by severe atrophy of pectoral muscles, loss of body fat and hemorrhagic enteritis, was the primary finding in this epizootic. It was postulated to have a complex etiologic basis involving synergistic effects and energy costs of migration, molting and replacement of flight feathers, food resource changes, salt-loading, intestinal parasitism, environmental contaminants, and inclement weather.

  8. Impact of anthropogenic development on coastal ground-water hydrology in southeastern Florida, 1900-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Renken, Robert A.; Dixon, Joann; Koehmstedt, John A.; Ishman, Scott; Lietz, A.C.; Marella, Richard L.; Telis, Pamela A.; Rodgers, Jeff; Memberg, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Southeastern Florida is an area that has been subject to widely conflicting anthropogenic stress to the Everglades and coastal ecosystems. This stress is a direct consequence of the 20th century economic competition for limited land and water resources needed to satisfy agricultural development and its expansion, its displacement by burgeoning urban development, and the accompanying growth of the limestone mining industry. The development of a highly controlled water-management system designed to reclaim land for urban and agricultural development has severely impacted the extent, character, and vitality of the historic Everglades and coastal ecosystems. An extensive conveyance system of canals, levees, impoundments, surface- water control structures, and numerous municipal well fields are used to sustain the present-day Everglades hydrologic system, prevent overland flow from moving eastward and flooding urban and agricultural areas, maintain water levels to prevent saltwater intrusion, and provide an adequate water supply. Extractive mining activities expanded considerably in the latter part of the 20th century, largely in response to urban construction needs. Much of the present-day urban-agricultural corridor of southeastern Florida lies within an area that is no more than 15 feet above NGVD 1929 and formerly characterized by freshwater marsh, upland, and saline coastal wetland ecosystems. Miami- Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach Counties have experienced explosive population growth, increasing from less than 4,000 inhabitants in 1900 to more than 5 million in 2000. Ground-water use, the principal source of municipal supply, has increased from about 65 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) obtained from 3 well fields in 1930 to more than 770 Mgal/d obtained from 65 well fields in 1995. Water use for agricultural supply increased from 505 Mgal/d in 1953 to nearly 1,150 Mgal/d in 1988, but has since declined to 764 Mgal/d in 1995, partly as a result of displacement of the

  9. Brevetoxin persistence in sediments and seagrass epiphytes of east Florida coastal waters

    PubMed Central

    Hitchcock, Gary L.; Fourqurean, James W.; Drake, Jeana L.; Mead, Ralph N.; Heil, Cynthia A.

    2012-01-01

    A bloom of Karenia brevis Davis developed in September 2007 near Jacksonville, Florida and subsequently progressed south through east Florida coastal waters and the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (ICW). Maximum cell abundances exceeded 106 cells L−1 through October in the northern ICW between Jacksonville and the Indian River Lagoon. The bloom progressed further south during November, and terminated in December 2007 at densities of 104 cells L−1 in the ICW south of Jupiter Inlet, Florida. Brevetoxins were subsequently sampled in sediments and seagrass epiphytes in July and August 2008 in the ICW. Sediment brevetoxins occurred at concentrations of 11–15 ng PbTx-3 equivalents (g dry wt sediment)−1 in three of five basins in the northern ICW during summer 2008. Seagrass beds occur south of the Mosquito Lagoon in the ICW. Brevetoxins were detected in six of the nine seagrass beds sampled between the Mosquito Lagoon and Jupiter Inlet at concentrations of 6–18 ng (g dry wt epiphytes)−1. The highest brevetoxins concentrations were found in sediments near Patrick Air Force Base at 89 ng (g dry wt sediment)−1. In general, brevetoxins occurred in either seagrass epiphytes or sediments. Blades of the resident seagrass species have a maximum life span of less than six months, so it is postulated that brevetoxins could be transferred between epibenthic communities of individual blades in seagrass beds. The occurrence of brevetoxins in east Florida coast sediments and seagrass epiphytes up to eight months after bloom termination supports observations from the Florida west coast that brevetoxins can persist in marine ecosystems in the absence of sustained blooms. Furthermore, our observations show that brevetoxins can persist in sediments where seagrass communities are absent. PMID:23762030

  10. Brevetoxin persistence in sediments and seagrass epiphytes of east Florida coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Hitchcock, Gary L; Fourqurean, James W; Drake, Jeana L; Mead, Ralph N; Heil, Cynthia A

    2012-01-01

    A bloom of Karenia brevis Davis developed in September 2007 near Jacksonville, Florida and subsequently progressed south through east Florida coastal waters and the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (ICW). Maximum cell abundances exceeded 10(6) cells L(-1) through October in the northern ICW between Jacksonville and the Indian River Lagoon. The bloom progressed further south during November, and terminated in December 2007 at densities of 10(4) cells L(-1) in the ICW south of Jupiter Inlet, Florida. Brevetoxins were subsequently sampled in sediments and seagrass epiphytes in July and August 2008 in the ICW. Sediment brevetoxins occurred at concentrations of 11-15 ng PbTx-3 equivalents (g dry wt sediment)(-1) in three of five basins in the northern ICW during summer 2008. Seagrass beds occur south of the Mosquito Lagoon in the ICW. Brevetoxins were detected in six of the nine seagrass beds sampled between the Mosquito Lagoon and Jupiter Inlet at concentrations of 6-18 ng (g dry wt epiphytes)(-1). The highest brevetoxins concentrations were found in sediments near Patrick Air Force Base at 89 ng (g dry wt sediment)(-1). In general, brevetoxins occurred in either seagrass epiphytes or sediments. Blades of the resident seagrass species have a maximum life span of less than six months, so it is postulated that brevetoxins could be transferred between epibenthic communities of individual blades in seagrass beds. The occurrence of brevetoxins in east Florida coast sediments and seagrass epiphytes up to eight months after bloom termination supports observations from the Florida west coast that brevetoxins can persist in marine ecosystems in the absence of sustained blooms. Furthermore, our observations show that brevetoxins can persist in sediments where seagrass communities are absent. PMID:23762030

  11. Long time-series of turbid coastal water using AVHRR: An example from Florida Bay, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stumpf, R.P.; Frayer, M.L.

    1997-01-01

    The AVHRR can provide information on the reflectance of turbid case II water, permitting examination of large estuaries and plumes from major rivers. The AVHRR has been onboard several NOAA satellites, with afternoon overpasses since 1981, offering a long time-series to examine changes in coastal water. We are using AVHRR data starting in December 1989, to examine water clarity in Florida Bay, which has undergone a decline since the late 1980's. The processing involves obtaining a nominal reflectance for red light with standard corrections including those for Rayleigh and aerosol path radiances. Established relationships between reflectance and the water properties being measured in the Bay provide estimates of diffuse attenuation and light limitation for phytoplankton and seagrass productivity studies. Processing also includes monthly averages of reflectance and attenuation. The AVHRR data set describes spatial and temporal patterns, including resuspension of bottom sediments in the winter, and changes in water clarity. The AVHRR also indicates that Florida Bay has much higher reflectivity relative to attenuation than other southeastern US estuaries. ??2005 Copyright SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering.

  12. Environmental setting and factors that affect water quality in the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berndt, M.P.; Oaksford, E.T.; Darst, M.R.; Marella, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit covers an area of nearly 62,000 square miles in the southeastern United States, mostly in the Coastal Plain physiographic province. Land resource provinces have been designated based on generalized soil classifications. Land resource provinces in the study area include: the Coastal Flatwoods, the Southern Coastal Plain, the Central Florida Ridge, the Sand Hills, and the Southern Piedmont. The study area includes all or parts of seven hydrologic subregions: the Ogeechee-Savannah, the Altamaha- St.Marys, the Suwannee, the Ochlockonee, the St. Johns, the Peace-Tampa Bay, and the Southern Florida. The primary source of water for public supply in the study area is ground water from the Upper Floridan aquifer. In 1990, more than 90 percent of the 2,888 million gallons per day of ground water used came from this aquifer. The population of the study area was 9.3 million in 1990. The cities of Jacksonville, Orlando, St. Petersburg, Tallahassee, and Tampa, Florida, and parts of Atlanta and Savannah, Georgia, are located in the study area. Forest and agricultural areas are the most common land uses in the study area, accounting for 48 percent and 25 percent of the study area, respectively. Climatic conditions range from temperate in Atlanta, Georgia, where mean annual temperature is about 61.3 degrees Fahrenheit, to subtropical in Tampa, Florida, where mean annual temperature is about 72.4 degrees Fahrenheit. Long-term average precipitation (1961-90) ranges from 43.9 inches per year in Tampa, Florida, and 44.6 in Macon, Georgia, to 65.7 inches per year in Tallahassee, Florida. Floods in the study area result from frontal systems, hurricanes, tropical storms, or severe thunderstorms. Droughts are not common in the study area,especially in the Florida part of the study area due to extensive maritime exposure. The primary physical and cultural characteristics in the study area include physiography, soils and land resource provinces

  13. FLORIDA ATLANTIC COASTAL ENVIRONMENTAL INITIATIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Florida Atlantic Coastal Environmental Initiative (FACEI) will consist of a multiyear, multidisciplinary research and monitoring program designed to detect and trace a variety of nutrient sources (point and non-point sources) and other major environmental stressors to the coa...

  14. Characterizing the Sources and Sinks of Methyl Halides in the Florida Everglades and Coastal Waters by Isotopic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scully, N. M.; Jones, R. D.; Raffel, A.; Rice, A. L.

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the methyl halides, methyl chloride and methyl bromide, are produced in significant quantities by phytoplankton and by the photochemical oxidation of dissolved organic matter (DOM). However, we know little of the mechanisms responsible for the photochemical production of methyl halides and also the factors which affect the microbial formation and consumption in the surface waters. We are currently conducting laboratory experiments to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the photochemical and microbial formation and consumption of methyl chloride and methyl bromide in the Florida Everglades and coastal waters. We present data from laboratory experiments using a stable isotope spiking tracer method to quantify photochemical flux rates of methyl chloride and methyl bromide from wetland and estuarine water samples collected at FCE-LTER sites located in Taylor Slough and Florida Bay. These photochemical experiments include waters that span a wide range of halide and DOM concentrations. We use these results to estimate the net photochemical flux of methyl chloride and methyl bromide from the Florida Everglades. We have also conducted stable carbon isotope analysis of the methyl chloride. These experiments are being conducted to determine the carbon isotopic ratios (d13C) of methyl chloride produced from the photolysis of organic matter in natural waters and will provide an inventory of d13C values from one of the sources within the studied Everglades ecotones. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation Chemical Oceanography Program Award No. 1029710.

  15. Effects of Hydrologic Restoration on the Residence Times and Water Quality of a Coastal Wetland in the Florida Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandoval, E.; Price, R. M.; Melesse, A. M.; Whitman, D.

    2013-05-01

    The Everglades, located in southern Florida, is a dominantly freshwater coastal wetland ecosystem that has experienced many alterations and changes led by urbanization and water management practices with most cases resulting in decreased water flow across the system. The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan, passed in 2000, has the final goal of restoring natural flow and clean water to the Everglades while also balancing flood control and water supply needs of the south Florida population with approximately 60 projects to be constructed and completed in the following 30 years. One way to assess the success of restoration projects is to observe long-term hydrological and geochemical changes as the projects undergo completion. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of restoration on the water balance, flushing time, and water chemistry of Taylor Slough; one of the main natural waterways located within the coastal Everglades. A water balance equation was used to solve for groundwater-surface water exchange. The major parameters for the water balance equation (precipitation, evapotranspiration (ET), surface water storage, inflow and outflow) were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey and Everglades National Park databases via the Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN). Watershed flushing times were estimated as the surface water volume divided by the total outputs from the watershed. Both the water balance equation and water flushing time were calculated on a monthly time step from 2001 - 2011. Water chemistry of major ions and Total Nitrogen (TN) and Total Phosphorus (TP) was analyzed on water samples, 3-day composites collected every 18 hours from 2008 - 2012, and correlated with water flushing times. Stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen of water samples were obtained to support the dominant inputs of water into Taylor Slough as identified by the water budget equation. Results for flushing times varied between 3 and 78 days, with

  16. Review of Methods and Approaches for Deriving Numeric Criteria for Nitrogen/ Phosphorus Pollution in Florida's Estuaries, Coastal, and Soutnern Inland Flowing Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA will propose numeric criteria for nitrogen/phosphorus pollution to protect estuaries, coastal areas and South Florida inland flowing waters that have been designated Class I, II and III , as well as downstream protective values (DPVs) to protect estuarine and marine waters. ...

  17. Dynamics of marine bacterial community diversity of the coastal waters of the reefs, inlets, and wastewater outfalls of southeast Florida.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Alexandra M; Fleisher, Jay; Sinigalliano, Christopher; White, James R; Lopez, Jose V

    2015-06-01

    Coastal waters adjacent to populated southeast Florida possess different habitats (reefs, oceanic inlets, sewage outfalls) that may affect the composition of their inherent microbiomes. To determine variation according to site, season, and depth, over the course of 1 year, we characterized the bacterioplankton communities within 38 nearshore seawater samples derived from the Florida Area Coastal Environment (FACE) water quality survey. Six distinct coastal locales were profiled - the Port Everglades and Hillsboro Inlets, Hollywood and Broward wastewater outfalls, and associated reef sites using culture-independent, high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA V4 region. More than 227,000 sequences helped describe longitudinal taxonomic profiles of marine bacteria and archaea. There were 4447 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified with a mean OTU count of 5986 OTUs across all sites. Bacterial taxa varied significantly by season and by site using weighted and unweighted Unifrac, but depth was only supported by weighted Unifrac, suggesting a change due to presence/absence of certain OTUs. Abundant microbial taxa across all samples included Synechococcus, Pelagibacteraceae, Bacteroidetes, and various Proteobacteria. Unifrac analysis confirmed significant differences at inlet sites relative to reef and outfalls. Inlet-based bacterioplankton significantly differed in greater abundances of Rhodobacteraceae and Cryomorphaceae, and depletion of SAR406 sequences. This study also found higher counts of Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, and wastewater associated SBR1093 bacteria at the outfall and reef sites compared to inlet sites. This study profiles local bacterioplankton populations in a much broader context, beyond culturing and quantitative PCR, and expands upon the work completed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration FACE program. PMID:25740409

  18. Dynamics of marine bacterial community diversity of the coastal waters of the reefs, inlets, and wastewater outfalls of southeast Florida

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Alexandra M; Fleisher, Jay; Sinigalliano, Christopher; White, James R; Lopez, Jose V

    2015-01-01

    Coastal waters adjacent to populated southeast Florida possess different habitats (reefs, oceanic inlets, sewage outfalls) that may affect the composition of their inherent microbiomes. To determine variation according to site, season, and depth, over the course of 1 year, we characterized the bacterioplankton communities within 38 nearshore seawater samples derived from the Florida Area Coastal Environment (FACE) water quality survey. Six distinct coastal locales were profiled – the Port Everglades and Hillsboro Inlets, Hollywood and Broward wastewater outfalls, and associated reef sites using culture-independent, high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA V4 region. More than 227,000 sequences helped describe longitudinal taxonomic profiles of marine bacteria and archaea. There were 4447 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified with a mean OTU count of 5986 OTUs across all sites. Bacterial taxa varied significantly by season and by site using weighted and unweighted Unifrac, but depth was only supported by weighted Unifrac, suggesting a change due to presence/absence of certain OTUs. Abundant microbial taxa across all samples included Synechococcus, Pelagibacteraceae, Bacteroidetes, and various Proteobacteria. Unifrac analysis confirmed significant differences at inlet sites relative to reef and outfalls. Inlet-based bacterioplankton significantly differed in greater abundances of Rhodobacteraceae and Cryomorphaceae, and depletion of SAR406 sequences. This study also found higher counts of Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, and wastewater associated SBR1093 bacteria at the outfall and reef sites compared to inlet sites. This study profiles local bacterioplankton populations in a much broader context, beyond culturing and quantitative PCR, and expands upon the work completed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration FACE program. PMID:25740409

  19. Effects of sea-level rise on salt water intrusion near a coastal well field in southeastern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langevin, Christian D.; Zygnerski, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A variable-density groundwater flow and dispersive solute transport model was developed for the shallow coastal aquifer system near a municipal supply well field in southeastern Florida. The model was calibrated for a 105-year period (1900 to 2005). An analysis with the model suggests that well-field withdrawals were the dominant cause of salt water intrusion near the well field, and that historical sea-level rise, which is similar to lower-bound projections of future sea-level rise, exacerbated the extent of salt water intrusion. Average 2005 hydrologic conditions were used for 100-year sensitivity simulations aimed at quantifying the effect of projected rises in sea level on fresh coastal groundwater resources near the well field. Use of average 2005 hydrologic conditions and a constant sea level result in total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration of the well field exceeding drinking water standards after 70 years. When sea-level rise is included in the simulations, drinking water standards are exceeded 10 to 21 years earlier, depending on the specified rate of sea-level rise.

  20. Net community production and dark community respiration in a Karenia brevis (Davis) bloom in West Florida coastal waters, USA.

    PubMed

    Hitchcock, Gary L; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Minnett, Peter; Palubok, Valeriy

    2010-05-01

    Oxygen-based productivity and respiration rates were determined in West Florida coastal waters to evaluate the proportion of community respiration demands met by autotrophic production within a harmful algal bloom dominated by Karenia brevis. The field program was adaptive in that sampling during the 2006 bloom occurred where surveys by the Florida Wildlife Research Institute indicated locations with high cell abundances. Net community production (NCP) rates from light-dark bottle incubations during the bloom ranged from 10 to 42 µmole O2 L(-1) day(-1) with highest rates in bloom waters where abundances exceeded 10(5) cells L(-1). Community dark respiration (R) rates in dark bottles ranged from <10 to 70 µmole O2 L(-1) day(-1) over 24 h. Gross primary production derived from the sum of NCP and R varied from ca. 20 to 120 µmole O2 L(-1) day(-1). The proportion of GPP attributed to NCP varied with the magnitude of R during day and night periods. Most surface communities exhibited net autotrophic production (NCP > R) over 24 h, although heterotrophy (NCP < R) characterized the densest sample where K. brevis cell densities exceed 10(6) cells L(-1). PMID:24179460

  1. Coastal land loss in Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.R. )

    1990-09-01

    Florida has approximately 593 mi of shoreline fronting on the Atlantic Ocean and Straits of Florida and approximately 673 mi of shoreline fronting on the Gulf of Mexico with an additional 5,000 mi of bay and estuary shoreline. Of a statewide total of 818.9 mi of open coast sandy beaches, 337.2 mi or 41.2% of the beaches are identified as erosion problem areas. These erosion problem areas include those beaches with a moderate or low erosion rate, but with a narrow width fronting a highly developed area, and those restored beaches with an active maintenance nourishment program. Of these erosion problem areas, 217.8 mi or 26.6% of the statewide beach length are areas of critical erosion; that is, segments of the shoreline where substantial development or recreation interests are threatened by the erosion processes. On a shorewide basis, the Atlantic Ocean beaches of Florida typically have historical erosion rates of between 0 and {minus}3 ft per year, while the Gulf of Mexico beaches typically have historical erosion rates of between 0 and {minus}2 ft per year. Many of the problem areas have shoreline erosion rates in the magnitude of between {minus}3 and {minus}5 ft per year. The most extreme erosion rates are occurring along the southern portion of St. Joseph Peninsula at Cape San Bias where the annual shoreline recession exceeds {minus}20 ft. Erosion conditions in Florida are most apparent as a result of storm tides and storm wave activity. Extreme meteorological events inflict significant erosion conditions in all beach areas of the state. Historical shoreline changes are often the cumulative effect of a number of storm events and their cycles of poststorm recovery. Erosion and damage from recent storms as well as efforts to mitigate storm damage have heightened the erosion problems and incited a public response through coastal construction regulation and beach management planning.

  2. Hydrology of the coastal springs ground-water basin and adjacent parts of Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knochenmus, Lari A.; Yobbi, Dann K.

    2001-01-01

    The coastal springs in Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties, Florida consist of three first-order magnitude springs and numerous smaller springs, which are points of substantial ground-water discharge from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Spring flow is proportional to the water-level altitude in the aquifer and is affected primarily by the magnitude and timing of rainfall. Ground-water levels in 206 Upper Floridan aquifer wells, and surface-water stage, flow, and specific conductance of water from springs at 10 gaging stations were measured to define the hydrologic variability (temporally and spatially) in the Coastal Springs Ground-Water Basin and adjacent parts of Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties. Rainfall at 46 stations and ground-water withdrawals for three counties, were used to calculate water budgets, to evaluate long-term changes in hydrologic conditions, and to evaluate relations among the hydrologic components. Predictive equations to estimate daily spring flow were developed for eight gaging stations using regression techniques. Regression techniques included ordinary least squares and multiple linear regression techniques. The predictive equations indicate that ground-water levels in the Upper Floridan aquifer are directly related to spring flow. At tidally affected gaging stations, spring flow is inversely related to spring-pool altitude. The springs have similar seasonal flow patterns throughout the area. Water-budget analysis provided insight into the relative importance of the hydrologic components expected to influence spring flow. Four water budgets were constructed for small ground-water basins that form the Coastal Springs Ground-Water Basin. Rainfall averaged 55 inches per year and was the only source of inflow to the Basin. The pathways for outflow were evapotranspiration (34 inches per year), runoff by spring flow (8 inches per year), ground-water outflow from upward leakage (11 inches per year), and ground-water withdrawal (2 inches per year

  3. Ground-water resources of coastal Citrus, Hernando, and southwestern Levy counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fretwell, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Ground water in the coastal parts of Citrus, Hernando, and Levy Counties is obtained almost entirely from the Floridan aquifer. The aquifer is unconfined near the coast and semiconfined in the ridge area. Transmissivity ranges from 20,000 feet squared per day in the ridge area to greater than 2,000,000 feet squared per day near major springs. Changes in the potentiometric surface of the aquifer are small between the wet and dry seasons. Water quality within the study area is generally very good except immediately adjacent to the coast where saltwater from the Gulf of Mexico poses a threat to freshwater supply. This threat can be compensated for by placing well fields a sufficient distance away from the zone of transition from saltwater to freshwater so as not to reduce or reverse the hydraulic gradient in that zone. Computer models are presently available to help predict the extent of influence of ground-water withdrawals in an area. These may be used as management tools in planning ground-water development of the area. (USGS)

  4. Climate change impact on the annual water balance in the northwest Florida coastal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizad, K.; Wang, D.; Alimohammadi, N.; Hagen, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    As the largest tributary to the Apalachicola River, the Chipola River originates in southern Alabama, flows through Florida Panhandle and ended to Gulf of Mexico. The Chipola watershed is located in an intermediate climate environment with aridity index around one. Watershed provides habitat for a number of threatened and endangered animal and plant species. However, climate change affects hydrologic cycle of Chipola River watershed at various temporal and spatial scales. Studying the effects of climate variations is of great importance for water and environmental management purposes in this catchment. This research is mainly focuses on assessing climate change impact on the partitioning pattern of rainfall from mean annual to inter-annual and to seasonal scales. At the mean annual scale, rainfall is partitioned into runoff and evaporation assuming negligible water storage changes. Mean annual runoff is controlled by both mean annual precipitation and potential evaporation. Changes in long term mean runoff caused by variations of long term mean precipitation and potential evaporation will be evaluated based on Budyko hypothesis. At the annual scale, rainfall is partitioned into runoff, evaporation, and storage change. Inter-annual variability of runoff and evaporation are mainly affected by the changes of mean annual climate variables as well as their inter-annual variability. In order to model and evaluate each component of water balance at the annual scale, parsimonious but reliable models, are developed. Budyko hypothesis on the existing balance between available water and energy supply is reconsidered and redefined for the sub-annual time scale and reconstructed accordingly in order to accurately model seasonal hydrologic balance of the catchment. Models are built in the seasonal time frame with a focus on the role of storage change in water cycle. Then for Chipola catchment, models are parameterized based on a sufficient time span of historical data and the

  5. Analysis of nutrients in the surface waters of the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit, 1970-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ham, L.K.; Hatzell, H.H.

    1996-01-01

    Aucilla River basin had the lowest. Median concentrations of nitrate and ammonia among all major basins were below USEPA guidelines. The median total-phosphorus concentrations for the following river basins exceeded the USEPA guideline-Hillsborough, St. Johns, Suwannee, Ochlockonee, Satilla, Altamaha, and Ogeechee. Although nutrient concentrations within the study unit were low, long-term increasing trends were found in all four nutrients. All 18 study-unit wide nitrate trends had increasing slopes ranging from less than 0.01 to 0.07 (mg/L)/yr. The range in slope for the 13 ammonia trends was -0.03 to 0.01 (mg/L)/yr with 6 increasing trends in the northern part of the study unit. Of the 17 total-phosphorus trends found in the study unit, 10 were found at sites where the median concentration exceeded the USEPA guideline. At these 10 sites, 4 sites had increasing trends with slopes ranging from less than 0.01 to 0.07 (mg/L)/yr, 5 sites had decreasing trends with slopes ranging from -0.01 to -0.24 (mg/L)/yr, and one site showed a seasonal concentration trend. Median nutrient concentrations were significantly different among the four land resource provinces-Southern Piedmont, Southern Coastal Plain, Coastal Flatwoods, and Central Florida Ridge. As a result, nutrient concentrations among basins with similar nutrient inputs but located within different land resource provinces are not expected to be the same due to differences in the combination of factors such as soil permeability, runoff rates, and stream channel slopes. This concept is an important consideration in designing a surface-water quality network within the study area. For the most part, the Coastal Flatwoods showed the lowest median nutrient concentrations and the Southern Coastal Plain had the highest median nutrient concentrations. Lower median nitrate concentrations in surface-water basins were associated with the forest/wetland land-use category and higher median concentrations of nitrate and ammonia with

  6. Sampling design and procedures for fixed surface-water sites in the Georgia-Florida coastal plain study unit, 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatzell, H.H.; Oaksford, E.T.; Asbury, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    The implementation of design guidelines for the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program has resulted in the development of new sampling procedures and the modification of existing procedures commonly used in the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey. The Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain (GAFL) study unit began the intensive data collection phase of the program in October 1992. This report documents the implementation of the NAWQA guidelines by describing the sampling design and procedures for collecting surface-water samples in the GAFL study unit in 1993. This documentation is provided for agencies that use water-quality data and for future study units that will be entering the intensive phase of data collection. The sampling design is intended to account for large- and small-scale spatial variations, and temporal variations in water quality for the study area. Nine fixed sites were selected in drainage basins of different sizes and different land-use characteristics located in different land-resource provinces. Each of the nine fixed sites was sampled regularly for a combination of six constituent groups composed of physical and chemical constituents: field measurements, major ions and metals, nutrients, organic carbon, pesticides, and suspended sediments. Some sites were also sampled during high-flow conditions and storm events. Discussion of the sampling procedure is divided into three phases: sample collection, sample splitting, and sample processing. A cone splitter was used to split water samples for the analysis of the sampling constituent groups except organic carbon from approximately nine liters of stream water collected at four fixed sites that were sampled intensively. An example of the sample splitting schemes designed to provide the sample volumes required for each sample constituent group is described in detail. Information about onsite sample processing has been organized into a flowchart that describes a pathway for each of

  7. Assigning Boundary Conditions to the Southern Inland and Coastal Systems (SICS) Model Using Results from the South Florida Water Management Model (SFWMM)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfert, Melinda A.; Langevin, Christian D.; Swain, Eric D.

    2004-01-01

    The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) requires the testing and evaluation of different water-management scenarios for southern Florida. As part of CERP, the South Florida Water Management District is using its regional hydrologic model, the South Florida Water Management Model (SFWMM), to evaluate different hydrologic scenarios. The SFWMM was designed specifically for the inland freshwater areas in southern Florida, and extends only slightly into Florida Bay. Thus, the U.S. Geological Survey developed the Southern Inland and Coastal Systems (SICS) model, which is an integrated surface-water and ground-water model designed to simulate flows, stages, and salinities in the southern Everglades and Florida Bay. Modifications to the SICS boundary conditions allow the local-scale SICS model to be linked to the regional-scale SFWMM. The linked model will be used to quantify the effects of restoration alternatives on flows, stages, and salinities in the SICS area. This report describes the procedure for linking the SICS model with the SFWMM. The linkage is shown to work by comparing the results of a linked 5-year simulation with the results from a simulation in which the model boundaries are assigned using field data. The surface-water module of the SICS model is driven by areal influences and lateral boundaries. The areal influences (wind, rainfall, and evapotranspiration) remain the same when the SICS model is modified to link to the SFWMM. Four types of lateral boundaries (discharge, water level, no flow, and salinity) are used in the SICS model. Two of three discharge boundaries (at Taylor Slough Bridge and C-111 Canal) in the current SICS model domain are converted to water-level boundaries to increase accuracy. The only change to the third discharge boundary (at Levee 31W) is that the flow data are derived from SFWMM model output instead of using measured field data flows. Three water-level boundaries are modified only by receiving their data from SFWMM

  8. Whiting events in SW Florida coastal waters: a case study using MODIS medium-resolution data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, Jacqueline; Hu, Chuanmin; Robbins, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Whitings, floating patches of calcium carbonate mud, have been found in both shallow carbonate banks and freshwater environments around the world. Although these events have been studied for many decades, much of their characteristics remain unknown. Recent sightings of whitings near Ten Thousand Islands, Florida suggest a phenomenon that has not previously been documented in this area. Using medium-resolution (250-m) data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) from December 2010 to November 2013, we documented whiting events and their spatial and temporal patterns in this region. Classification rules were first established, and then applied to all 474 cloud-free and sun glint-free MODIS images. Whiting occurrences were found between 25°46′N and 25°20′N and less than 40 km from the southwest Florida coastline. Over the 3-year period, whiting occurrence peaked in spring and autumn and reached a minimum during the winter and summer months. Further field and laboratory research are needed to explain driving force(s) behind these events.

  9. Mercury accumulation in sharks from the coastal waters of southwest Florida.

    PubMed

    Rumbold, Darren; Wasno, Robert; Hammerschlag, Neil; Volety, Aswani

    2014-10-01

    As large long-lived predators, sharks are particularly vulnerable to exposure to methylmercury biomagnified through the marine food web. Accordingly, nonlethal means were used to collect tissues for determining mercury (Hg) concentrations and stable isotopes of carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) from a total of 69 sharks, comprising 7 species, caught off Southwest Florida from May 2010 through June 2013. Species included blacknose (Carcharhinus acronotus), blacktip (C. limbatus), bull (C. leucas), great hammerhead (Sphyrna mokarran), lemon (Negaprion brevirostris), sharpnose (Rhizoprionodon terraenovae), and tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier). The sharks contained Hg concentrations in their muscle tissues ranging from 0.19 mg/kg (wet-weight basis) in a tiger shark to 4.52 mg/kg in a blacktip shark. Individual differences in total length and δ(13)C explained much of the intraspecific variation in Hg concentrations in blacknose, blacktip, and sharpnose sharks, but similar patterns were not evident for Hg and δ(15)N. Interspecific differences in Hg concentration were evident with greater concentrations in slower-growing, mature blacktip sharks and lower concentrations in faster-growing, young tiger sharks than other species. These results are consistent with previous studies reporting age-dependent growth rate can be an important determinant of intraspecific and interspecific patterns in Hg accumulation. The Hg concentrations observed in these sharks, in particular the blacktip shark, also suggested that Hg may pose a threat to shark health and fitness. PMID:24942905

  10. Swim Speed, Behavior, and Movement of North Atlantic Right Whales (Eubalaena glacialis) in Coastal Waters of Northeastern Florida, USA

    PubMed Central

    Hain, James H. W.; Hampp, Joy D.; McKenney, Sheila A.; Albert, Julie A.; Kenney, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    In a portion of the coastal waters of northeastern Florida, North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) occur close to shore from December through March. These waters are included within the designated critical habitat for right whales. Data on swim speed, behavior, and direction of movement – with photo-identification of individual whales – were gathered by a volunteer sighting network working alongside experienced scientists and supplemented by aerial observations. In seven years (2001–2007), 109 tracking periods or “follows” were conducted on right whales during 600 hours of observation from shore-based observers. The whales were categorized as mother-calf pairs, singles and non-mother-calf pairs, and groups of 3 or more individuals. Sample size and amount of information obtained was largest for mother-calf pairs. Swim speeds varied within and across observation periods, individuals, and categories. One category, singles and non mother-calf pairs, was significantly different from the other two – and had the largest variability and the fastest swim speeds. Median swim speed for all categories was 1.3 km/h (0.7 kn), with examples that suggest swim speeds differ between within-habitat movement and migration-mode travel. Within-habitat right whales often travel back-and-forth in a north-south, along-coast, direction, which may cause an individual to pass by a given point on several occasions, potentially increasing anthropogenic risk exposure (e.g., vessel collision, fishing gear entanglement, harassment). At times, mothers and calves engaged in lengthy stationary periods (up to 7.5 h) that included rest, nursing, and play. These mother-calf interactions have implications for communication, learning, and survival. Overall, these behaviors are relevant to population status, distribution, calving success, correlation to environmental parameters, survey efficacy, and human-impacts mitigation. These observations contribute important parameters to

  11. Swim speed, behavior, and movement of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) in coastal waters of northeastern Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Hain, James H W; Hampp, Joy D; McKenney, Sheila A; Albert, Julie A; Kenney, Robert D

    2013-01-01

    In a portion of the coastal waters of northeastern Florida, North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) occur close to shore from December through March. These waters are included within the designated critical habitat for right whales. Data on swim speed, behavior, and direction of movement--with photo-identification of individual whales--were gathered by a volunteer sighting network working alongside experienced scientists and supplemented by aerial observations. In seven years (2001-2007), 109 tracking periods or "follows" were conducted on right whales during 600 hours of observation from shore-based observers. The whales were categorized as mother-calf pairs, singles and non-mother-calf pairs, and groups of 3 or more individuals. Sample size and amount of information obtained was largest for mother-calf pairs. Swim speeds varied within and across observation periods, individuals, and categories. One category, singles and non mother-calf pairs, was significantly different from the other two--and had the largest variability and the fastest swim speeds. Median swim speed for all categories was 1.3 km/h (0.7 kn), with examples that suggest swim speeds differ between within-habitat movement and migration-mode travel. Within-habitat right whales often travel back-and-forth in a north-south, along-coast, direction, which may cause an individual to pass by a given point on several occasions, potentially increasing anthropogenic risk exposure (e.g., vessel collision, fishing gear entanglement, harassment). At times, mothers and calves engaged in lengthy stationary periods (up to 7.5 h) that included rest, nursing, and play. These mother-calf interactions have implications for communication, learning, and survival. Overall, these behaviors are relevant to population status, distribution, calving success, correlation to environmental parameters, survey efficacy, and human-impacts mitigation. These observations contribute important parameters to conservation biology

  12. Two-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Simulation of Surface-Water Flow and Transport to Florida Bay through the Southern Inland and Coastal Systems (SICS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swain, Eric D.; Wolfert, Melinda A.; Bales, Jerad D.; Goodwin, Carl R.

    2004-01-01

    Successful restoration of the southern Florida ecosystem requires extensive knowledge of the physical characteristics and hydrologic processes controlling water flow and transport of constituents through extremely low-gradient freshwater marshes, shallow mangrove-fringed coastal creeks and tidal embayments, and near-shore marine waters. A sound, physically based numerical model can provide simulations of the differing hydrologic conditions that might result from various ecosystem restoration scenarios. Because hydrology and ecology are closely linked in southern Florida, hydrologic model results also can be used by ecologists to evaluate the degree of ecosystem restoration that could be achieved for various hydrologic conditions. A robust proven model, SWIFT2D, (Surface-Water Integrated Flow and Transport in Two Dimensions), was modified to simulate Southern Inland and Coastal Systems (SICS) hydrodynamics and transport conditions. Modifications include improvements to evapotranspiration and rainfall calculation and to the algorithms that describe flow through coastal creeks. Techniques used in this model should be applicable to other similar low-gradient marsh settings in southern Florida and elsewhere. Numerous investigations were conducted within the SICS area of southeastern Everglades National Park and northeastern Florida Bay to provide data and parameter values for model development and testing. The U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service supported investigations for quantification of evapotranspiration, vegetative resistance to flow, wind-induced flow, land elevations, vegetation classifications, salinity conditions, exchange of ground and surface waters, and flow and transport in coastal creeks and embayments. The good agreement that was achieved between measured and simulated water levels, flows, and salinities through minimal adjustment of empirical coefficients indicates that hydrologic processes within the SICS area are represented properly

  13. Groundwater-surface water interactions and their effects on ecosystem metabolism in a coastal wetland: example from the Florida Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, R. M.; Zapata, X.; Koch, G. R.

    2013-05-01

    Groundwater typically has higher concentrations of salts and nutrients as compared to surface waters in coastal wetlands affected by saltwater intrusion. Discharge of the nutrient-laden brackish groundwater is expected to influence ecosystem function in the overlying surface water. In the coastal Everglades, elevated concentrations of phosphorus have been observed in the underlying groundwater due to water-rock interactions occurring as seawater intrudes into the coastal carbonate aquifer. The objective of this research was to determine the timing and amount of brackish groundwater discharge to the coastal wetlands of the Everglades and to evaluate the effects of the groundwater discharge on the surface water chemistry and ecosystem metabolism. The timing of groundwater discharge was determined by four techniques including a water balance, hydraulic gradient, temperature, and geochemical tracers. Groundwater discharge rates were quantified from well data using Darcy's Law. Ecosystem metabolism was estimated as daily rates of gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (R) and net ecosystem production (NEP) from free-water, diel changes in dissolved oxygen. Over 2 years, all four groundwater discharge techniques converged as to the timing of groundwater discharge which was greatest between May and July. Surface water chemistry was fresh from September through February, but became brackish to hypersaline between March and July, concurrent with the times of highest brackish groundwater discharge. Phosphorus concentrations as well as GPP and R were observed to spike in the surface water during the times of greatest groundwater discharge. The results of this research support the conclusions that brackish groundwater discharge effects surface water chemistry and ecosystem function in the coastal Everglades.

  14. Isotopic evidence for dead fish maintenance of Florida red tides, with implications for coastal fisheries over both source regions of the West Florida shelf and within downstream waters of the South Atlantic Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. J.; Weisberg, R. H.; Lenes, J. M.; Chen, F. R.; Dieterle, D. A.; Zheng, L.; Carder, K. L.; Vargo, G. A.; Havens, J. A.; Peebles, E.; Hollander, D. J.; He, R.; Heil, C. A.; Mahmoudi, B.; Landsberg, J. H.

    2009-01-01

    Toxic Florida red tides of the dinoflagellate Kareniabrevis have downstream consequences of 500-1000 km spatial extent. Fish stocks, shellfish beds, and harmful algal blooms of similar species occupy the same continental shelf waters of the southeastern United States, amounting to economic losses of more than 25 million dollars in some years. Under the aegis of the Center for Prediction of Red tides, we are now developing coupled biophysical models of the conditions that lead to red tides and impacted coastal fisheries, from the Florida Panhandle to Cape Hatteras. Here, a nitrogen isotope budget of the coastal food web of the West Florida shelf (WFS) and the downstream South Atlantic Bight (SAB) reaffirms that diazotrophs are the initial nutrient source for onset of red tides and now identifies clupeid fish as the major recycled nutrient source for their maintenance. The recent isotope budget of WFS and SAB coastal waters during 1998-2001 indicates that since prehistoric times of Timacua Indian settlements along the Georgia coast during 1075, ∼50% of the nutrients required for large red tides of >1 μg chl l -1 of K.brevis have been derived from nitrogen-fixers, with the other half from decomposing dead sardines and herrings. During 2001, >90% of the harvest of WFS clupeids was by large ichthyotoxic red tides of >10 μg chl l -1 of K.brevis, rather than by fishermen. After onset of the usual red tides in summer of 2006 and 2007, the simulated subsequent fall exports of Florida red tides in September 2007 to North Carolina shelf waters replicate observations of just ∼1 μg chl l -1 on the WFS that year. In contrast, the earlier red tides of >10 μg chl l -1 left behind off West Florida during 2006, with less physical export, are instead 10-fold larger than those of 2007. Earlier, 55 fish kills were associated with these coastal red tides during September 2006, between Tampa and Naples. Yet, only six fish kills were reported there in September 2007. With little

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane, and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol in livers of small cetaceans stranded along Florida coastal waters, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Mafumi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Takahashi, Atsushi; Loganathan, B.G.; Odell, D.K.; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Giesy, J.P.

    2000-06-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were determined in the livers of bottlenose dolphins, Atlantic spotted dolphins, and pygmy sperm whales found stranded along the coastal waters of Florida, USA, during 1989 to 1994. The PCBs were the most predominant contaminants followed in order by DDTs, chlordanes, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH), hexachlorobenzene, and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers. Among the cetaceans analyzed, organochlorine concentrations were greatest in bottlenose dolphins followed by Atlantic spotted dolphins and pygmy sperm whales. Hexa- and heptachlorobiphenyls were the predominant PCB congeners found in the livers of dolphins. Patterns of relative concentrations of PCB congeners varied among individual bottlenose dolphins. A few individuals contained predominant concentrations of octa- (CB-199, 196/201) and nonachlorobiphenyl (CB-206, 208) congeners, which suggested exposure to the highly chlorinated PCB formulation, Aroclor{reg_sign} 1268, a contaminant at a coastal site in Georgia bordering northern Florida. The estimated 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQs) of coplanar PCBs in bottlenose dolphins were 170 to 18,000 pg/g, lipid weight (mean:5,400 pg/g) with mono-ortho congeners 118, 105, and 156 contributing more than 80% of the TEQs. The ratios of CB-169 to CB-126 in cetacean livers were linearly related to total PCB concentrations, which suggested a strong induction of microsomal monooxygenase enzymes in the liver. The hepatic concentrations of TCPMe and TCPMOH in bottlenose dolphins and Atlantic spotted dolphins were greater than those in the blubber of marine mammals of various regions, which suggested the presence of sources for these chemicals along the Atlantic coast of Florida.

  16. Municipal solid-waste disposal and ground-water quality in a coastal environment, west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fernandez, Mario, Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Solid waste is defined along with various methods of disposal and the hydrogeologic factors to be considered when locating land-fills is presented. Types of solid waste, composition, and sources are identified. Generation of municipal solid waste in Florida has been estimated at 4.5 pounds per day per person or about 7.8 million tons per year. Leachate is generated when precipitation and ground water percolate through the waste. Gases, mainly carbon dioxide and methane, are also produced. Leachate generally contains high concentrations of dissolved organic and inorganic matter. The two typical hydrogeologic conditions in west-central Florida are (1) permeable sand overlying clay and limestone and (2) permeable sand overlying limestone. These conditions are discussed in relation to leachate migration. Factors in landfill site selection are presented and discussed, followed by a discussion on monitoring landfills. Monitoring of landfills includes the drilling of test holes, measuring physical properties of the corings, installation of monitoring wells, and water-quality monitoring. (USGS)

  17. Simulating coastal to offshore interactions around the South Florida coastal seas and implications on management issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, H.; Kourafalou, V. H.; Hogan, P. J.; Smedstad, O.

    2008-12-01

    The South Florida coastal seas include shelf areas and shallow water bodies around ecologically fragile environments and Marine Protected Areas, such as Florida Bay, the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (around the largest coral reef system of the continental U.S.) and the Dry Tortugas Ecological Reserve. Man- made changes in the hydrology of the Everglades have caused dramatic degradation of the coastal ecosystem through discharge in Florida Bay. New management scenarios are under way to restore historical flows. The environmental impacts of the management propositions are examined with an inter-disciplinary, multi-nested modeling system. The HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) has been employed for the Regional Model for South Florida Coastal Seas (SoFLA-HYCOM, 1/25 degree resolution) and for the embedded, high resolution coastal Florida Keys model (FKEYS- HYCOM, 1/100 degree). Boundary conditions are extracted from GODAE products: the large scale North Atlantic model (ATL-HYCOM, 1/12 degree) and the intermediate scale Gulf of Mexico model (GOM-HYCOM, 1/25 degree). The study targets the impacts of large scale oceanic features on the coastal dynamics. Eddies that travel along the Loop Current/Florida Current front are known to be an important mechanism for the interaction of nearshore and offshore flows. The high resolution FKEYS simulations reveal both mescoscale and sub- mesoscale eddy passages during a targeted 2-year simulation period (2004-2005), forced with high resolution/high frequency atmospheric forcing. Eddies influence sea level changes in the vicinity of Florida Bay with possible implications on current and future flushing patterns. They also enable upwelling of cooler, nutrient-rich waters in the vicinity of the Reef Tract and they influence transport and recruitment pathways for coral fish larvae, as they carry waters of different properties (such as river-borne low-salinity/nutrient-rich waters from as far as the Mississippi River) and

  18. South Florida Coastal Sediment Ecological Risk Assessment.

    PubMed

    Julian, Paul

    2015-08-01

    This study evaluated the degree of sediment contamination in several South Florida estuaries. During the 2010 National Condition Assessment, Florida Fish and Wildlife Research Institute collected water column, sediment and biotic data from estuaries across the entire state of Florida. Sediments were analyzed for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, zinc and total polychlorinated biphenyls and were compared relative to empirically derived sediment quality guidelines. As a result of this data collection and assessment effort, it was determined that the degree of contamination with respect to sediment was low for all southern Florida estuaries assessed, except the Miami River which was determined to be considerably contaminated. However only one monitoring location was used to assess the Miami River, and as such should be viewed with caution. A low degree of contamination was determined for Biscayne Bay sediments, possibly indicating a recovery from its previously reported higher contaminant level. PMID:26084967

  19. Mapping of Florida's Coastal and Marine Resources: Setting Priorities Workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, Lisa; Wolfe, Steven; Raabe, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    The importance of mapping habitats and bioregions as a means to improve resource management has become increasingly clear. Large areas of the waters surrounding Florida are unmapped or incompletely mapped, possibly hindering proper management and good decisionmaking. Mapping of these ecosystems is among the top priorities identified by the Florida Oceans and Coastal Council in their Annual Science Research Plan. However, lack of prioritization among the coastal and marine areas and lack of coordination of agency efforts impede efficient, cost-effective mapping. A workshop on Mapping of Florida's Coastal and Marine Resources was sponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP), and Southeastern Regional Partnership for Planning and Sustainability (SERPPAS). The workshop was held at the USGS Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC) in St. Petersburg, FL, on February 7-8, 2007. The workshop was designed to provide State, Federal, university, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) the opportunity to discuss their existing data coverage and create a prioritization of areas for new mapping data in Florida. Specific goals of the workshop were multifold, including to: * provide information to agencies on state-of-the-art technology for collecting data; * inform participants of the ongoing mapping programs in waters off Florida; * present the mapping needs and priorities of the State and Federal agencies and entities operating in Florida; * work with State of Florida agencies to establish an overall priority for areas needing mapping; * initiate discussion of a unified classification of habitat and bioregions; * discuss and examine the need to standardize terminology and data collection/storage so that data, in particular habitat data, can be shared; 9 identify opportunities for partnering and leveraging mapping efforts among agencies and entities; * identify impediments and organizational gaps that hinder collection

  20. Water withdrawals in Florida, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    The largest percentage of freshwater withdrawals was from the South Florida Water Management District (46 percent), followed by the St. Johns River Water Management District (20 percent), Southwest Florida Water Management District (19 percent), Northwest Florida Water Management District (9 percent), and Suwannee River Water Management District (6 percent). The South Florida Water Management District accounted for the largest percentage of freshwater withdrawals for public-supply use (46 percent), commercial-industrial-mining self-supplied use (24 percent), agricultural self-supplied use (59 percent), and recreational-landscape irrigation use (63 percent). The Northwest Florida Water Management District accounted for the largest percentage of freshwater withdrawals for power-generation use (44 percent), and the Southwest Florida Water Management District accounted for the largest percentage of saline-water withdrawals for power-generation use (58 percent).

  1. South Florida Ecosystem Program: quantifying freshwater discharge for coastal hydraulic control structures in eastern Dade County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kapadia, Amit; Swain, Eric D.

    1996-01-01

    The South Florida Ecosystem Restoration Program is an intergovernmental effort, involving a number of agencies, to reestablish and maintain the ecosystem of south Florida. One element of the restoration effort is the development of a firm scientific basis for resource decision making. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), one of the agencies, provides scientific information as part of the South Florida Ecosystem Restoration Program. The USGS began their ow program, called the South Florida Ecosystem Program, in fiscal year 1995 for the purpose of gathering hydrologic, cartographic, and geologic data that relate to the mainland of south Florida, Florida Bay, and the Florida Keys and Reef ecosystems. As part of the South Florida Ecosystem Program, the USGS, in cooperation with the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD), has conducted a study to determine discharge ratings for 16 coastal hydraulic control structures in eastern Dade County, Fla. (fig. 1 ). Discharge data are needed to quantify water that can be made available for water supply and ecosystem restoration and to calibrate regional hydrologic models.

  2. The use of multiple tracers to evaluate the impact of sewered and non-sewered development on coastal water quality in a rural area of Florida.

    PubMed

    Meeroff, Daniel E; Bloetscher, Frederick; Long, Sharon C; Bocca, Thais

    2014-05-01

    When onsite wastewater treatment and disposal systems (OSTDS) are not sited appropriately or installed properly, wastewater constituents can be a source of adverse environmental impacts to soil and groundwater, which can lead to potential public health risks. A paired monitoring design developed to compare water quality in sewered and non-sewered areas is presented here. It is suggested as a possible monitoring scheme for assessing the impact of sewer installation projects. As such, two sets of single-family, rural residential Florida neighborhoods were evaluated over a two-year period to gain insight into the effects of small-community use of OSTDS on coastal water quality. One set of two neighborhoods were connected to the sanitary sewer network and the other set of two were served exclusively by OSTDS. Water quality sampling was conducted at the paired sites during seasonal high water table (SHWT) and seasonal low water table (SLWT) events. Measured surface water quality during the SHWT showed indications of environmental impacts from OSTDS in terms of nutrients, microbial pathogen indicators, and other water quality measures, such as turbidity and conductivity. However, during the SLWT events, no obvious impacts attributable to OSTDS were detected. The water quality results indicate that OSTDS impacts may be measureable in rural areas. Other factors, such as microbial indicator survival and regrowth potential, may confound the understanding of water quality impacts of sewer projects. For example, the microbial indicators Escherichia coli and enterococci were found to persist over time and therefore did not always represent true comparisons of OSTDS and sewered areas between seasons. The timeframe for evaluating the effects of sewer projects may be longer than anticipated because of this survival and regrowth phenomenon. PMID:24961071

  3. Submarine groundwater discharge is an important net source of light and middle REEs to coastal waters of the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannesson, Karen H.; Chevis, Darren A.; Burdige, David J.; Cable, Jaye E.; Martin, Jonathan B.; Roy, Moutusi

    2011-02-01

    Porewater (i.e., groundwater) samples were collected from multi-level piezometers across the freshwater-saltwater seepage face within the Indian River Lagoon subterranean estuary along Florida's (USA) Atlantic coast for analysis of the rare earth elements (REE). Surface water samples for REE analysis were also collected from the water column of the Indian River Lagoon as well as two local rivers (Eau Gallie River, Crane Creek) that flow into the lagoon within the study area. Concentrations of REEs in porewaters from the subterranean estuary are 10-100 times higher than typical seawater values (e.g., Nd ranges from 217 to 2409 pmol kg -1), with submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) at the freshwater-saltwater seepage face exhibiting the highest REE concentrations. The elevated REE concentrations for SGD at the seepage face are too high to be the result of simple, binary mixing between a seawater end-member and local terrestrial SGD. Instead, the high REE concentrations indicate that geochemical reactions occurring within the subterranean estuary contribute substantially to the REE cycle. A simple mass balance model is used to investigate the cycling of REEs in the Indian River Lagoon and its underlying subterranean estuary. Mass balance modeling reveals that the Indian River Lagoon is approximately at steady-state with respect to the REE fluxes into and out of the lagoon. However, the subterranean estuary is not at steady-state with respect to the REE fluxes. Specifically, the model suggests that the SGD Nd flux, for example, exported from the subterranean estuary to the overlying lagoon waters exceeds the combined input to the subterranean estuary from terrestrial SGD and recirculating marine SGD by, on average, ˜100 mmol day -1. The mass balance model also reveals that the subterranean estuary is a net source of light REEs (LREE) and middle REEs (MREE) to the overlying lagoon waters, but acts as a sink for the heavy REEs (HREE). Geochemical modeling and

  4. Simulation of steady-state ground water and spring flow in the upper Floridan aquifer of coastal Citrus and Hernando Counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yobbi, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    A digital groundwater flow model was developed to approximate steady-state predevelopment flow conditions in the Upper Floridan aquifer of coastal west-central Florida. The aquifer is the major source of water and natural spring flow in the area. The aquifer was simulated as a one-layer system with constant vertical recharge and discharge rates. Calibrated transmissivities ranged from 8,640 sq ft/day in the northern part of the area to nearly 13,000,000 sq ft/day near large springs. Calibrated inflows were about 2,708 cu ft/sec; of this, about 2,565 cu ft/sec discharged as natural spring flow and 137 cu ft/sec discharged as upward leakage along the coast. The model was used to show how the system might respond to large manmade stresses. Withdrawal of 116 cu ft/sec from a hypothetical regional well field resulted in potentiometric-surface drawdowns ranging from 0.1 to 1.7 ft and declines of generally less than 0.2 ft along the coast. Total spring flow decreased 5%, and the effect on individual springs varied from 0.1 to 8.0%. Withdrawal of 62 cu ft/sec from the 4-sq-mi node at each spring resulted in six of seven springs to the south of the Chassahowitzka River contributing 50% of their flow to pumpage. Springs located north of the Chassahowitzka River contributed as much as 18% of their flow to pumpage. (USGS)

  5. The role of ocean tides on groundwater-surface water exchange in a mangrove-dominated estuary: Shark River Slough, Florida Coastal Everglades, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Christopher G.; Price, René M.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Stalker, Jeremy C.

    2016-01-01

    Low-relief environments like the Florida Coastal Everglades (FCE) have complicated hydrologic systems where surface water and groundwater processes are intimately linked yet hard to separate. Fluid exchange within these lowhydraulic-gradient systems can occur across broad spatial and temporal scales, with variable contributions to material transport and transformation. Identifying and assessing the scales at which these processes operate is essential for accurate evaluations of how these systems contribute to global biogeochemical cycles. The distribution of 222Rn and 223,224,226Ra have complex spatial patterns along the Shark River Slough estuary (SRSE), Everglades, FL. High-resolution time-series measurements of 222Rn activity, salinity, and water level were used to quantify processes affecting radon fluxes out of the mangrove forest over a tidal cycle. Based on field data, tidal pumping through an extensive network of crab burrows in the lower FCE provides the best explanation for the high radon and fluid fluxes. Burrows are irrigated during rising tides when radon and other dissolved constituents are released from the mangrove soil. Flushing efficiency of the burrows—defined as the tidal volume divided by the volume of burrows— estimated for the creek drainage area vary seasonally from 25 (wet season) to 100 % (dry season) in this study. The tidal pumping of the mangrove forest soil acts as a significant vector for exchange between the forest and the estuary. Processes that enhance exchange of O2 and other materials across the sediment-water interface could have a profound impact on the environmental response to larger scale processes such as sea level rise and climate change. Compounding the material budgets of the SRSE are additional inputs from groundwater from the Biscayne Aquifer, which were identified using radium isotopes. Quantification of the deep groundwater component is not obtainable, but isotopic data suggest a more prevalent signal in the dry

  6. Geospatial characteristics of Florida's coastal and offshore environments: Coastal habitats, artificial reefs, wrecks, dumping grounds, harbor obstructions and offshore sand resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Foster, Ann M.; Jones, Michal L.; Gualtieri, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    The Geospatial Characteristics GeoPDF of Florida's Coastal and Offshore Environments is a comprehensive collection of geospatial data describing the political boundaries and natural resources of Florida. This interactive map provides spatial information on bathymetry, sand resources, coastal habitats, artificial reefs, shipwrecks, dumping grounds, and harbor obstructions. The map should be useful to coastal resource managers and others interested in marine habitats and submerged obstructions of Florida's coastal region. In particular, as oil and gas explorations continue to expand, the map may be used to explore information regarding sensitive areas and resources in the State of Florida. Users of this geospatial database will have access to synthesized information in a variety of scientific disciplines concerning Florida's coastal zone. This powerful tool provides a one-stop assembly of data that can be tailored to fit the needs of many natural resource managers. The map was originally developed to assist the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation, and Enforcement (BOEMRE) and coastal resources managers with planning beach restoration projects. The BOEMRE uses a systematic approach in planning the development of submerged lands of the Continental Shelf seaward of Florida's territorial waters. Such development could affect the environment. BOEMRE is required to ascertain the existing physical, biological, and socioeconomic conditions of the submerged lands and estimate the impact of developing these lands. Data sources included the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, BOEMRE, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Florida Geographic Data Library, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Natural Areas Inventory, and the State of Florida, Bureau of Archeological Research. Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) compliant metadata are provided as attached xml files for all geographic information system (GIS) layers.

  7. A SUSTAINABLE APPROACH TO PRESERVE THE CHOCTAWHATCHEE COASTAL DUNE LAKES OF FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scattered along a 30 mile coastline just east of Destin, Florida, lies a series of 18 named coastal dune lakes distributed between Walton and Bay County. The lakes are irregularly shaped, typically shallow (2-6 m deep), located within a mile inland from the coast. The water is...

  8. Design, revision, and application of ground-water flow models for simulation of selected water-management scenarios in the coastal area of Georgia and adjacent parts of South Carolina and Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, John S.; Krause, Richard E.

    2000-01-01

    Ground-water flow models of the Floridan aquifer system in the coastal area of Georgia and adjacent parts of South Carolina and Florida, were revised and updated to ensure consistency among the various models used, and to facilitate evaluation of the effects of pumping on the ground-water level near areas of saltwater contamination. The revised models, developed as part of regional and areal assessments of ground-water resources in coastal Georgia, are--the Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) model, the Glynn County area (Glynn) model, and the Savannah area (Savannah) model. Changes were made to hydraulic-property arrays of the RASA and Glynn models to ensure consistency among all of the models; results of theses changes are evidenced in revised water budgets and calibration statistics. Following revision, the three models were used to simulate 32 scenarios of hypothetical changes in pumpage that ranged from about 82 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) lower to about 438 Mgal/d higher, than the May 1985 pumping rate of 308 Mgal/d. The scenarios were developed by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Environmental Protection Division and the Chatham County-Savannah Metropolitan Planning Commission to evaluate water-management alternatives in coastal Georgia. Maps showing simulated ground-water-level decline and diagrams presenting changes in simulated flow rates are presented for each scenario. Scenarios were grouped on the basis of pumping location--entire 24-county area, central subarea, Glynn-Wayne-Camden County subarea, and Savannah-Hilton Head Island subarea. For those scenarios that simulated decreased pumpage, the water level at both Brunswick and Hilton Head Island rose, decreasing the hydraulic gradient and reducing the potential for saltwater contamination. Conversely, in response to scenarios of increased pumpage, the water level at both locations declined, increasing the hydraulic gradient and increasing the potential for saltwater contamination

  9. Inland and coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouw, Colleen; Greb, Steven

    2012-09-01

    Workshop for Remote Sensing of Coastal and Inland Waters;Madison, Wisconsin, 20-22 June 2012 Coastal and inland water bodies, which have great value for recreation, food supply, commerce, transportation, and human health, have been experiencing external pressure from direct human activities and climate change. Given their societal and economic value, understanding issues of water quality, water quantity, and the impact of environmental change on the ecological and biogeochemical functioning of these water bodies is of interest to a broad range of communities. Remote sensing offers one of the most spatially and temporally comprehensive tools for observing these waters. While there has been some success with remotely observing these water bodies, many challenges still remain, including algorithm performance, atmospheric correction, the relationships between optical properties and biogeochemical parameters, sufficient spatial and spectral resolution, and a lack of uncertainty estimates over the wide range of environmental conditions encountered across these coastal and inland water bodies.

  10. Troubled waters: a Florida nightmare

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, W.

    1984-12-01

    Results of studies of pollution of groundwater in Florida are reported. Vast amounts of the underground water were found to be polluted with ethylene dibromide (EDB) used by Florida farmers since the 1950s as an insecticide. Pollution levels of water in the middle of the citrus belt were found to be as high as 775 ppB when 0.02 ppB has been set by the Florida Agriculture Department as the level for concern. EDB can be removed using activated charcoal filters, or new wells can tap aquifers separated from contaminated ones by beds of impermeable clay. Evidences of contamination of water in specific sites by cresote, sulfuric acid, and heavy metals such as lead and arsenic are mentioned.

  11. Florida submergence curve revised: Its relation to coastal sedimentation rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scholl, D. W.; Craighead, F.C., Sr.; Stuiver, M.

    1969-01-01

    New data substantiate as well as modify the south Florida submergence curve, which indicates that eustatic sea level has risen continuously, although at a generally decreasing rate, during the last 6500 to 7000 sidereal years (5500 standard radiocarbon years) to reach its present position. Accumulation rates of coastal deposits are similar to the rate of sea-level rise, thus supporting the generalization that submergence rates largely determine as well as limit rates of coastal sedimentation in lagoonal and estuarine areas.

  12. Remote Sensing Applications to Water Quality Management in Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehrter, J. C.; Schaeffer, B. A.; Hagy, J.; Spiering, B.; Barnes, B.; Hu, C.; Le, C.; McEachron, L.; Underwood, L. W.; Ellis, C.; Fisher, B.

    2013-12-01

    Optical datasets from estuarine and coastal systems are increasingly available for remote sensing algorithm development, validation, and application. With validated algorithms, the data streams from satellite sensors can provide unprecedented spatial and temporal data for local and regional coastal water quality management. Our presentation will highlight two recent applications of optical data and remote sensing to water quality decision-making in coastal regions of the state of Florida; (1) informing the development of estuarine and coastal nutrient criteria for the state of Florida and (2) informing the rezoning of the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. These efforts involved building up the underlying science to demonstrate the applicability of satellite data as well as an outreach component to educate decision-makers about the use, utility, and uncertainties of remote sensing data products. Scientific developments included testing existing algorithms and generating new algorithms for water clarity and chlorophylla in case II (CDOM or turbidity dominated) estuarine and coastal waters and demonstrating the accuracy of remote sensing data products in comparison to traditional field based measurements. Including members from decision-making organizations on the research team and interacting with decision-makers early and often in the process were key factors for the success of the outreach efforts and the eventual adoption of satellite data into the data records and analyses used in decision-making. Florida coastal water bodies (black boxes) for which remote sensing imagery were applied to derive numeric nutrient criteria and in situ observations (black dots) used to validate imagery. Florida ocean color applied to development of numeric nutrient criteria

  13. HYDROBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE COASTAL LAGOONS AT HUGH TAYLOR BIRCH STATE RECREATION AREA, FORT LAUDERDALE, FLORIDA: A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    The author presents initial results of an ongoing study of Southeast Florida coastal lagoon lakes. Objectives include presenting environmental conditions within and adjacent to the lagoons under a variety of hydrologic conditions and to determine water-quality changes in ground water and surface water and how these changes in water quality affect lagoonal biological communities within the lagoons.

  14. Hurricane Properties for KSC and Mid-Florida Coastal Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dale L.; Rawlins, Michael A.; Kross, Dennis A.

    2000-01-01

    Hurricane information and climatologies are needed at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Florida for launch operational planning purposes during the late summer and early fall Atlantic hurricane season. Also these results are needed to be used in estimating the potential magnitudes of hurricane and tropical storm impact on coastal Florida sites when passing within 50, 100 and 400 nm of that site. Roll-backs of the Space Shuttle and other launch vehicles, on pad, are very costly when a tropical storm approaches. A decision for the vehicle to roll-back or ride-out needs to be made. Therefore the historical Atlantic basin hurricane climatological properties were generated to be used for operational planning purposes and in the estimation of potential damage to launch vehicles, supporting equipment, buildings, etc.. The historical 1885-1998 Atlantic basin hurricane data were compiled and analyzed with respect to the coastal Florida site of KSC. Statistical information generated includes hurricane and tropical storm probabilities for path, maximum wind, and lowest pressure, presented for the areas within 50, 100 and 400 nm of KSC. These statistics are then compared to similar parametric statistics for the entire Atlantic basin.

  15. Water resources inventory of northwest Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dysart, J.E.; Pascale, C.A.; Trapp, Henry

    1977-01-01

    Water resources of the 16 counties of the northwest Florida appear adequate unitl at least 2020. In the 4 westernmost counties, the sand-and-gravel aquifer and streams combined could provide 2,200 to 3,600 million gallons per day of water. Streams outside these counties could provide 5,600 million gallons per day. The Floridan aquifer could provide 220 million gallons per day. Generally, water of quality suitable for most purposes is available throughout the area, although water in smaller streams and in the sand-and-gravel aquifer is acidic and locally contains excessive iron. Water in the upper part of the Floridan aquifer is generally fresh, but saline at depth and in some coastal areas. The quantity of water available in the study area is about 8,020 to 9,420 million gallons per day and projected needs for the year 2020 range from 2,520 to 4,130 million gallons per day. ' Approximate method ' flood-prone area maps cover most of the area. (Woodard-USGS)

  16. Investigation of Carbon, Nutrients, and Groundwater Inputs in Coastal Florida Using Colored Dissolved Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arellano, A. R.; Coble, P. G.; Conmy, R. N.; Marine Spectrochemistry Group

    2010-12-01

    Very few studies of the exchange of water between aquifers and the ocean have been conducted along the Florida coast. Progression of residential and agricultural development in coastal areas is leading to increased nutrients from fertilizers and wastewaters to groundwater. A portion of these nutrients ultimately is released to coastal surface waters. Groundwater mining has increased salt water intrusions in coastal aquifers which may further enhance nutrient fluxes to coastal surface waters. Nutrient concentration in coastal groundwater is sometimes higher than those in river water, counterbalancing for the lower mass flux of groundwater relative to surface waters. Nutrient and carbon inputs through groundwater in certain areas may play an important role in cycling and primary productivity in the coastal ocean. King’s Bay is a spring-fed watershed and manatee sanctuary located on the West Florida Shelf. Over the past 25 years, springs supplying groundwater to King’s Bay have shown a three-fold increase in nitrate concentration and increased invasion of nuisance algae. It has been challenging to track sources of both nutrients and other water quality parameters because there are multiple water supplies to King’s Bay. The goal of this project is to improve the estimate of water, nutrients, and carbon from groundwater discharge into the coastal zone. This paper will present preliminary results of high resolution fluorescence spectroscopy analyses of the various source water types in the King's Bay watershed, including deep and shallow aquifers, wells, springs, and surface water sources. Samples were obtained from various sites--5 springs, 27 wells, 12 surface, and 9 lakes and rivers-- within the King’s Bay area during one dry season. Lakes and rivers had the highest fluorescence intensities and showed similar composition, with the most red-shifted emission maxima. Second highest concentration was seen in some of the wells which had wide range in both

  17. EAARL Coastal Topography--Cape Canaveral, Florida, 2009: First Surface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Plant, Nathaniel; Wright, C.W.; Nagle, D.B.; Serafin, K.S.; Klipp, E.S.

    2011-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography datasets were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Kennedy Space Center, FL. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the eastern Florida coastline beachface, acquired on May 28, 2009. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color-infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine aircraft, but the instrument was deployed on a Pilatus PC-6. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed

  18. Lessons learned from an integrated coastal ocean observing system on the West Florida Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yonggang; Weisberg, Robert

    Concurrent in situ observations of coastal ocean water properties from autonomous underwater gliders and bottom-stationed oceanographic profilers (BSOP), plus in situ observations of veloc-ity from moored acoustic Doppler current profilers, supplemented by surface velocity remotely sensed by land-based HF radars and surface temperature and chlorophyll remotely sensed by satellites, are used to study the coastal ocean processes on the West Florida Shelf. Some of these observing systems have been in place for many years, others (gliders and profilers) are new additions. Recognizing that the coastal ocean circulation is fully three-dimensional and no single measurement system is adequate to sample coastal ocean processes, these data are used in combination to examine a few individual events, revealing transport pathways for coastal ocean water properties and demonstrating how a mix of instrumentation may be useful in in-terpreting variability that may be aliased by only using one type of data. Examples of satellite data validation (sea surface height) are also given by integrating various components of in situ observations in the frame of coastal ocean dynamics.

  19. Mysterious Black Water off Florida's Gulf Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In mid-December last year, a mysterious black water overtook the normally bluish green waters of Florida Bay. Over the course of the winter, the extent of the water grew to encompass an area as big as Lake Okeechobee, Florida, before subsiding over the last few weeks. These images taken by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the Orbview-2 satellite, show the progression of the black water over the last three months. The affected water sits along the southeastern coast of Florida about fifty miles north of the Florida Keys. As of now, scientists do not know why the water appears black in satellite and aerial images or whether the water is harming the wildlife. They speculate that it could be due to an exotic algae bloom, an underwater fountain pushing up sediments from the ocean floor, or possibly chemical and sediment run-off from the nearby Shark River. Researchers at the Florida Marine Research Institute in St. Petersburg and the Mote Marine Research Institute in Sarasota are running tests to determine the chemical make-up of the water. No big fish kills have been reported in the area. But fishermen say the catch has been low this winter. In addition, the black water sits just north of the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, which is home to one of the largest coral reef habitats in the United States. Toxic run-off from the Florida coastline and motor boats in the area have already destroyed many of Florida's reefs. Scientists are concerned that if the extent of the black water grows again, it could endanger these reefs. Information provided by the Naples Daily News. For up-to-date images of the area, view these SeaWiFS Images of Florida Bay. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  20. Use of SeaWiFS, MODIS, and MERIS in developing water quality numeric criteria for Florida’s coastal waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human activities on land often increase nutrient loads to coastal waters and may cause increased phytoplankton production, algal biomass, and eutrophication. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency determined that numeric criteria were necessary to protect Florida's coastal wa...

  1. Nutrient inputs from the watershed and coastal eutrophication in the Florida Keys

    SciTech Connect

    LaPointe, B.E. ); Clark, M.W. )

    1992-12-01

    Widespread use of septic tanks in the Florida Keys increase the nutrient concentrations of limestone ground waters that discharge into shallow nearshore waters, resulting in coastal eutrophication. This study characterizes watershed nutrient inputs, transformations, and effects along a land-sea gradient stratified into four ecosystems that occur with increasing distance from land: manmade canal systems, seagrass meadows, patch reefs, and offshore bank reefs. Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), the primary limiting nutrient, was significantly elevated in canal systems, while dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN; NH[sub 4][sup =] and NO[sub 3][sup [minus

  2. Harmful algal toxins of the Florida red tide (Karenia brevis): natural chemical stressors in South Florida coastal ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Henry, M. S.

    2009-01-01

    The Florida red tide is a descriptive name for high concentrations of the harmful marine alga, Karenia brevis. Although most prevalent along the south-west Florida coast, periodic blooms have occurred throughout the entire US and Mexico Gulf coasts and the Atlantic coast to North Carolina. This dinoflagellate produces a suite of polyether neurotoxins, called brevetoxins, that cause severe impacts to natural resources, as well as public health. These naturally produced biotoxins may represent one of the most common chemical stressors impacting South Florida coastal and marine ecosystems. Impacts include massive fish kills, marine mammal, sea turtle and sea bird mortalities, benthic community die-off and public health effects from shellfish contamination and inhalation of air-borne toxins. The primary mode of action is binding to voltage-gated sodium channels causing depolarization of nerve cells, thus interfering with nerve transmission. Other effects include immune depression, bronchial constriction and haemolysis. Parent algal toxins are synthesized within the unicellular organism, others are produced as metabolic products. Recent studies into the composition of brevetoxins in cells, water, air and organisms have shown PbTx-2 to be the primary intracellular brevetoxin that is converted over time to PbTx-3 when the cells are ruptured, releasing extracellular brevetoxins into the environment. Brevetoxins become aerosolized by bubble-mediated transport of extracellular toxins, the composition of which varies depending on the composition in the source water. Bivalved molluscs rapidly accumulate brevetoxins as they filter feed on K. brevis cells. However, the parent algal toxins are rapidly metabolized to other compounds, some of which are responsible for neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP). These results provide new insight into the distribution, persistence and impacts of red tide toxins to south-west Florida ecosystems. PMID:18758951

  3. Harmful algal toxins of the Florida red tide (Karenia brevis): natural chemical stressors in South Florida coastal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Pierce, R H; Henry, M S

    2008-10-01

    The Florida red tide is a descriptive name for high concentrations of the harmful marine alga, Karenia brevis. Although most prevalent along the south-west Florida coast, periodic blooms have occurred throughout the entire US and Mexico Gulf coasts and the Atlantic coast to North Carolina. This dinoflagellate produces a suite of polyether neurotoxins, called brevetoxins, that cause severe impacts to natural resources, as well as public health. These naturally produced biotoxins may represent one of the most common chemical stressors impacting South Florida coastal and marine ecosystems. Impacts include massive fish kills, marine mammal, sea turtle and sea bird mortalities, benthic community die-off and public health effects from shellfish contamination and inhalation of air-borne toxins. The primary mode of action is binding to voltage-gated sodium channels causing depolarization of nerve cells, thus interfering with nerve transmission. Other effects include immune depression, bronchial constriction and haemolysis. Parent algal toxins are synthesized within the unicellular organism, others are produced as metabolic products. Recent studies into the composition of brevetoxins in cells, water, air and organisms have shown PbTx-2 to be the primary intracellular brevetoxin that is converted over time to PbTx-3 when the cells are ruptured, releasing extracellular brevetoxins into the environment. Brevetoxins become aerosolized by bubble-mediated transport of extracellular toxins, the composition of which varies depending on the composition in the source water. Bivalved molluscs rapidly accumulate brevetoxins as they filter feed on K. brevis cells. However, the parent algal toxins are rapidly metabolized to other compounds, some of which are responsible for neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP). These results provide new insight into the distribution, persistence and impacts of red tide toxins to south-west Florida ecosystems. PMID:18758951

  4. Coastal Lake Record of Holocene Paleo-Storms from Northwest Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donoghue, J. F.; Coor, J. L.; Wang, Y.; Das, O.; Kish, S.; Elsner, J.; Hu, X. B.; Niedoroda, A. W.; Ye, M.

    2009-12-01

    The northwest Florida coast of the Gulf of Mexico has an unusually active storm history. Climate records for a study area in the mid-region of the Florida panhandle coast show that 29 hurricanes have made landfall within a 100-km radius during historic time. These events included 9 major storms (category 3 or higher). A longer-term geologic record of major storm impacts is essential for better understanding storm climatology and refining morphodynamic models. The Florida panhandle region contains a series of unique coastal lakes which are long-lived and whose bottom sediments hold a long-term record of coastal storm occurrence. The lakes are normally isolated from the open Gulf, protected behind a near-continuous dune barrier. Lake water is normally fresh to brackish. Lake bottom sediments consist of organic-rich muds. During major storms the dunes are breached and the lakes are temporarily open to marine water and the possibility of sandy overwash. Both a sedimentologic and geochemical signature is imparted to the lake sediments by storm events. Bottom sediment cores have been collected from the lakes. The cores have been subsampled and subjected to sedimentologic, stable isotopic and geochronologic analyses. The result is a sediment history of the lakes, and a record of storm occurrence during the past few millennia. The outcome is a better understanding of the long-term risk of major storms. The findings are being incorporated into a larger model designed to make reliable predictions of the effects of near-future climate change on natural coastal systems and on coastal infrastructure, and to enable cost-effective mitigation and adaptation strategies.

  5. Water quality in southern Florida; Florida, 1996-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McPherson, Benjamin F.; Miller, Ronald L.; Haag, Kim H.; Bradner, Anne

    2000-01-01

    Major influences and findings for water quality and biology in southern Florida, including the Everglades, are described and illustrated. Samples were collected to determine total phosphorus, dissolved organic carbon, pesticides, mercury, nitrate, volatile organic carbon compounds, and radon-222. Water-management, agricultural, and land-use practices are discussed. Sixty-three species of fish in 26 families were collected; 43 native species, 10 exotic or nonnative species, and 10 species of marine fish that periodically inhabit canals and rivers were identified.

  6. Assessment of saltwater intrusion in southern coastal Broward County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merritt, M.L.

    1996-01-01

    Of the counties in southeastern Florida, Broward County has experienced some of the most severe effects of saltwater intrusion into the surficial Biscayne aquifer because, before 1950, most public water-supply well fields in the county were constructed near the principal early population centers located less than 5 miles from the Atlantic Ocean. The construction of major regional drainage canals in the early 20th century caused a lowering of the water table and a gradual inland movement of the saltwater front toward the well fields. The U.S. Geological Survey began field investigations of saltwater intrusion in the Biscayne aquifer of southeastern Broward County in 1939. As part of the present study, the positions of the saltwater front in 1945, 1969, and 1993 were estimated using chloride concentrations of water samples collected between 1939 and 1994 from various monitoring and exploratory wells. The data indicate that, between 1945 and 1993, the saltwater front has moved as much as 0.5 mile inland in parts of the study area. The position and movement of the saltwater front were simulated numerically to help determine which of the various hydrologic factors and water-management features characterizing the coastal subsurface environment and its alteration by man are of significance in increasing or decreasing the degree of saltwater intrusion. Two representational methods were applied by the selection and use of appropriate model codes. The SHARP code simulates the position of the saltwater front as a sharp interface, which implies that no transition zone (a zone in which a gradational change between freshwater and saltwater occurs) separates freshwater and saltwater. The Subsurface Waste Injection Program (SWIP) code simulates a two-fluid, variable-density system using a convective-diffusion approach that includes a representation of the transition zone that occurs between the freshwater and saltwater bodies. The models were applied to: (1) approximately

  7. Geospatial characteristics of Florida's coastal and offshore environments: Administrative and political boundaries and offshore sand resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Foster, Ann M.; Jones, Michal L.; Gualtieri, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    The Geospatial Characteristics Geopdf of Florida's Coastal and Offshore Environments is a comprehensive collection of geospatial data describing the political and natural resources of Florida. This interactive map provides spatial information on bathymetry, sand resources, military areas, marine protected areas, cultural resources, locations of submerged cables, and shipping routes. The map should be useful to coastal resource managers and others interested in the administrative and political boundaries of Florida's coastal and offshore region. In particular, as oil and gas explorations continue to expand, the map may be used to explore information regarding sensitive areas and resources in the State of Florida. Users of this geospatial database will find that they have access to synthesized information in a variety of scientific disciplines concerning Florida's coastal zone. This powerful tool provides a one-stop assembly of data that can be tailored to fit the needs of many natural resource managers.

  8. Stable isotope analyses reveal the importance of seagrass beds as feeding areas for juvenile Myrophis punctatus (Angulliformes: Ophichthidae) inthe coastal waters of Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    The feeding habits and habitats of the speckled worm eel Myrophis punctatus were studied on the mangrove edge of the Indian River Lagoon (Florida) using stomach contents and stable isotope analyses of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N). Stomach dietary analyses identified four tax...

  9. Occurrence and distribution of steroids, hormones and selected pharmaceuticals in South Florida coastal environments.

    PubMed

    Singh, Simrat P; Azua, Arlette; Chaudhary, Amit; Khan, Shabana; Willett, Kristine L; Gardinali, Piero R

    2010-02-01

    The common occurrence of human derived contaminants like pharmaceuticals, steroids and hormones in surface waters has raised the awareness of the role played by the release of treated or untreated sewage in the water quality along sensitive coastal ecosystems. South Florida is home of many important protected environments ranging from wetlands to coral reefs which are in close proximity to large metropolitan cities. Because, large portions of South Florida and most of the Florida Keys population are not served by modern sewage treatment plants and rely heavily on the use of septic systems, a comprehensive survey of selected human waste contamination markers was conducted in three areas to assess water quality with respect to non-traditional micro-constituents. This study documents the occurrence and distribution of fifteen hormones and steroids and five commonly detected pharmaceuticals in surface water samples collected from different near shore environments along South Florida between 2004 and 2006. The compounds most frequently detected were: cholesterol, caffeine, estrone, DEET, coprostanol, biphenol-A, beta-estradiol, and triclosan. The concentration detected for estrone and beta-estradiol were up to 5.2 and 1.8 ng/L, respectively. Concentrations of caffeine (5.5-68 ng/L) and DEET (4.8-49 ng/L) were generally higher and more prevalent than were the steroids. Distribution of microconstituents was site specific likely reflecting a diversity of sources. In addition to chemical analysis, the yeast estrogen screen assay was used to screen the samples for estrogen equivalency. Overall, the results show that water collected from inland canals and restricted circulation water bodies adjacent to heavily populated areas had high concentrations of multiple steroids, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products while open bay waters were largely devoid of the target analytes. PMID:19779818

  10. Water Flows and Nutrient Loads to the Southwest Coast of Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levesque, Victor A.

    1996-01-01

    The embayments and estuaries of Florida's southwest coast are an integral part of the south Florida ecosystem. Nutrients and other constituents are transported to these coastal waters by surface water and ground-water flow from the Everglades National Park (ENP) and the Big Cypress Preserve and by longshore and offshore tidal currents. The coastal area is an essential breeding ground for many estuarine and marine species and is a popular location for wilderness recreational pursuits as well as sport fishing. The volume of flow and the loads of nutrients being discharged from the streams draining the upland areas of ENP and Big Cypress Preserve currently are unknown.

  11. Water resources data, Florida, water year 2005. Volume 3B: Southwest Florida ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, Richard L.

    2005-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2005 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 429 streams, periodic discharge for 9 streams, continuous or daily stage for 218 streams, periodic stage for 5 streams, peak stage for 28 streams and peak discharge for 28 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 15 lakes, periodic elevations for 23 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 401 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,098 wells, and quality-of-water data for 211 surface-water sites and 208 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3B contains records for continuous ground-water elevations for 108 wells; periodic ground-water elevations at 24 wells; miscellaneous ground-water elevations at 354 wells; and water quality at 2 ground-water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  12. Water resources data Florida, water year 2004: Volume 3B: southwest Florida ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2004 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 405 streams, periodic discharge for 12 streams, continuous or daily stage for 159 streams, periodic stage for 19 streams, peak stage for 30 streams and peak discharge for 30 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 14 lakes, periodic elevations for 23 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 408 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,188 wells, and quality-of-water data for 140 surface-water sites and 240 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3B contains records for continuous ground-water elevations for 98 wells; periodic ground-water elevations at 56 wells; miscellaneous ground-water elevations at 374 wells; and water quality at 25 ground-water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  13. Water Resources Data, Florida, Water Year 2003, Volume 3B: Southwest Florida Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, Richard L.; Fletcher, William L.; Lane, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2003 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 385 streams, periodic discharge for 13 streams, continuous daily stage for 255 streams, periodic stage for 13 streams, peak stage for 36 streams and peak discharge for 36 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 13 lakes, periodic elevations for 46 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 441 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,227 wells, and quality-of-water data for 133 surface-water sites and 308 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3B contains records for continuous ground-water elevations for 128 wells; periodic ground-water elevations at 31 wells; miscellaneous ground-water elevations at 405 wells; and water quality at 32 ground-water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  14. Linkages between coastal runoff and the Florida Keys ecosystem: A study of a dark plume event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chuanmin; Muller-Karger, Frank E.; Vargo, Gabriel A.; Neely, Merrie Beth; Johns, Elizabeth

    2004-08-01

    Using data collected by satellite sensors, rain and river gauges, and ship surveys, we studied the development and wind-driven transport of a dark water plume from near Charlotte Harbor, Florida, to the Dry Tortugas in the Florida Keys in mid-October 2003. MODIS and SeaWiFS imagery showed that the patch contained an extensive (~5,500 km2) phytoplankton bloom that formed originally near the central coast of Florida. The data linked the bloom to high nutrient coastal runoff caused by heavy rainfall in June and August. Total N and P required for the bloom, which may contain some Karenia brevis cells, was estimated to be 2.3 × 107 and 1.5 × 106 moles, respectively. The dark color became increasingly dominated by colored dissolved organic matter, toward the Dry Tortugas, where CDOM absorption coefficients (0.08-0.12 m-1 at 400 nm) were 2-3 times higher than the surrounding shelf waters, while chlorophyll and inorganic nutrients decreased to negligible levels.

  15. Water resources data, Florida, water year 2005. Volume 3A: Southwest Florida surface water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, Richard L.; Dickman, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2005 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 429 streams, periodic discharge for 9 streams, continuous or daily stage for 218 streams, periodic stage for 5 streams, peak stage for 28 streams and peak discharge for 28 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 15 lakes, periodic elevations for 23 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 401 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,098 wells, and quality-of-water data for 211 surface-water sites and 208 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3A contains records for continuous or daily discharge for 113 streams, periodic discharge for 4 streams, continuous or daily stage for 80 streams, periodic stage for 2 stream, peak stage and discharge for 8 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 3 lakes, continous or daily elevations for 3 lakes, and quality of water for 75 surface water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  16. Water resources data, Florida, water year 2004, volume 3A: southwest Florida surface water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2004 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 405 streams, periodic discharge for 12 streams, continuous daily stage for 159 streams, periodic stage for 19 streams, peak stage for 30 streams and peak discharge for 30 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 14 lakes, periodic elevations for 23 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 408 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,188 wells, and quality-of-water data for 140 surface-water sites and 240 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3A contains continuous or daily discharge for 104 streams, periodic discharge for 6 streams, continuous or daily stage for 36 streams, periodic stage for 14 streams, peak stage and discharge for 8 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 2 lakes, periodic elevations for 3 lakes, and quality-of-water data for 58 surface-water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  17. Waterbird use of coastal impoundments and management implications in east-central Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breininger, David R.; Smith, Rebecca B.

    1990-01-01

    Monthly surveys were conducted on Kennedy Space Center for one year to determine densities of waterbirds within impounded salt marshes that were predominantly open water with little emergent vegetation. The objective was to assess the importance of these impoundments to waterbirds, particularly wading birds, which are species of special conservation concern. Water-level management for mosquito control and waterfowl provided habitat for an abundance of ducks, shorebirds, coots, and wading birds. Average densities throughout the year for these groups were 5.26, 412, 2.80, and 2.20 birds/ha, respectively. The majority of waterfowl were present during the winter. Shorebirds were most common during spring migration. Wading bird densities increased with declining water level. Due to the extensive alteration and development of coastal wetlands in central Florida, properly managed impoundments may provide important feeding areas for maintaining certain waterbird populations.

  18. Spatial and Temporal Variations of Dissolved Organic Matter in Florida Coastal Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M.; Maie, N.; Jaffe, R.

    2010-12-01

    The Florida Everglades is a coastal wetland, which is characterized by a freshwater to marine gradient ranging from freshwater marshes, through mangrove fringe to the seagrass dominated Florida Bay estuary. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in this system is am important biogeochemical component as most of the N and P are in an organic form. The dynamics of DOM in the Everglades is complex given its versatile sources and the effects of geomorphology, hydrology, water chemistry, and degradation processes on DOM composition and fate. Here we present long-term DOM characterization data (4 yrs) from monthly surface water samples collected at fourteen sampling stations within the Everglades. We applied a high throughput and sensitive spectroscopic method, namely Excitation Emission Matrix (EEM) fluorescence coupled with Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC) in an attempt to assess quantitative and qualitative variations of DOM on both spatial and temporal scales. Eight fluorescence components were modeled through PARAFAC with six humic-like and two protein-like components being identified. The results presented clear spatial clustering and seasonal variations. For example, freshwater marsh DOM was enriched in higher plant and soil-derived humic-like compounds, while estuarine sites were more enriched in algae- and microbial-derived humic-like and protein-like inputs. Coastal estuarine sites were significantly controlled by hydrology, while DOM dynamics in Florida Bay were seasonally driven by both primary productivity and hydrology. Peat-based sites could be clearly differentiated from marl-based sites based on EEM-PARAFAC data. Bulk DOC data and proxies like FI, SR, and a (254nm m-1)* displayed clear spatial and seasonal variations as well. This study highlights the use of optical properties monitoring and in particular EEM-PARAFAC as an effective technique to investigate the DOM dynamics in the aquatic ecosystems.

  19. Ecology and management of Sheoak (Casuarina spp.), an invader of coastal Florida, U.S.A.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Casuarina spp. are invasive weeds in Florida that threaten biological diversity and beach integrity of coastal habitats. The trees include three species and their hybrids that aggressively invade riverine and coastal areas. Of the three species, C. equisetifolia and C. glauca are highly salt tol...

  20. Interannual Variability in Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotopic Signatures of Size-Fractionated POM from the South Florida Coastal Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, S. L.; Anderson, W. T.; Jochem, F. J.; Fourqurean, J. W.

    2004-12-01

    Environmental conditions in South Florida coastal waters have been of local and national concern over the past 15 years. Attention has focused on the ecosystem impacts of salinity increases, seagrass die-off, increased algal bloom frequency, waste water influence, groundwater discharge, and exchange between Florida Bay, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic Ocean. Changes in water quality and productivity levels may be reflected in the isotopic signatures of coastal zone primary producers. Recent work with seagrasses in South Florida has demonstrated high seasonal and spatial variability in C and N isotopic signatures and decoupling between the two isotopic systems as they vary. To better understand the sources of seasonal and spatial fluctuation, size fractionated POM (particulate organic matter) samples have been collected on a quarterly basis since Sept. 2002. Fractions collected include >150μ m, 50-150μ m, and 0.1-50μ m using Nitex mesh sieves and a portable pump system deployed from a small boat at 10 sites around the Florida Keys and Florida Bay. It was hypothesized that planktonic groups respond more quickly to changes in water quality then seagrasses, and thus variations may be more clearly attributed to environmental parameters. Significant spatial and temporal variability is evident both within site between size fractions and between sites. Seasonal oscillations of up to 4‰ were observed in N isotopic values and 6‰ in C isotopic values of the 50-150μ m size fraction, which is dominated by diatoms and dinoflagellates. δ 13C values are depleted in the late winter/early spring sampling period possibly reflecting decreased productivity stress on available C pools. 13C depletion is generally coincident with δ 15N enrichment in the late winter/early spring, possibly demonstrating changes in DIN pools (NO3- and NH4+ concentrations) or changes in decomposition or denitrification rates. Broad groupings appear to separate Atlantic coral reef sites

  1. SICS: the Southern Inland and Coastal System interdisciplinary project of the USGS South Florida Ecosystem Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2011-01-01

    State and Federal agencies are working jointly on structural modifications and improved water-delivery strategies to reestablish more natural surface-water flows through the Everglades wetlands and into Florida Bay. Changes in the magnitude, duration, timing, and distribution of inflows from the headwaters of the Taylor Slough and canal C-111 drainage basins have shifted the seasonal distribution and extent of wetland inundation, and also contributed to the development of hypersaline conditions in nearshore embayments of Florida Bay. Such changes are altering biological and vegetative communities in the wetlands and creating stresses on aquatic habitat. Affected biotic resources include federally listed species such as the Cape Sable seaside sparrow, American crocodile, wood stork, and roseate spoonbill. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is synthesizing scientific findings from hydrologic process studies, collecting data to characterize the ecosystem properties and functions, and integrating the results of these efforts into a research tool and management model for this Southern Inland and Coastal System(SICS). Scientists from all four disciplinary divisions of the USGS, Biological Resources, Geology, National Mapping, and Water Resources are contributing to this interdisciplinary project.

  2. Mapping Porewater Salinity with Electromagnetic Methods in Shallow Coastal Environments: Tampa Bay, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, W. J.; Kruse, S. E.; Swarzenski, P. W.; Meunier, J. K.

    2004-05-01

    The feasibility of predicting porewater salinity based on surface electromagnetic and resistivity methods was assessed in the shallow coastal waters and wetlands of Tampa Bay, Florida. The most successful method combined an initial core or surface resistivity measurement with pore water samples in order to determine formation factors in the shallow marine sediment. Data were collected over broader areas of interest using Geonics, Inc. EM-31 and EM-34 electromagnetic instruments and the Advanced Geosciences, Inc. SuperSting R8 marine resistivity instrument. To map coastal porewater conductivities, the EM instruments were adapted for use in shallow marine waters (<1 meter). In such high-conductivity environments, interpretation of EM readings requires processing with layered models of terrain conductivity that include direct sampling data. Typically, nearby marine resistivity readings are necessary to distinguish between equivalent EM model solutions. Porewater conductivities estimated from the layered EM models and the resistivity-derived formation factors show very good agreement with measured pore water conductivities. The use of EM systems in very shallow waters has potential application in locating prospective submarine groundwater discharge in areas that are difficult to reach with conventional towed marine resistivity arrays. Electromagnetic and direct sampling data show that salt exclusion by mangroves significantly increases pore water conductivities, and hence terrain conductivity readings within 10m of a mangrove shoreline. Terrain conductivities fall off to background values within 15m of the mangrove shoreline. The marine EM-31 measurements were effective at sensing the magnitude and lateral extent of high and low salinity porewaters within wetlands and mangrove lined ditches and ponds, which may be useful for interdisciplinary studies of coastal ecosystems.

  3. Definition and interpretation of Holocene shorelines in the south Atlantic coastal zone, southeast Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Finkl, C.W. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    There is a wide variety of contemporary shorelines in southeastern Florida. Distinctive types range from rocky platforms, tidal flats, mangroves and marshes, to sand and gravel beaches. Because the natural sequence of shorelines in the urban coastal corridor from Miami to Palm Beach is partly obscured by dredge and fill operations initiated in the early 1920's, some coastal segments are subject to re-interpretation. Analysis of early aerial photographs, old coastal charts and bore log data indicates a much more complicated sequence of Recent coastlines than is generally appreciated. Before development, much of the coastal zone contained complicated networks of fresh-water marshes and lakes with lagoons, bays, and sounds lying behind extensively developed spits. The larger spits prograded southward (downdrift) forming long coastwise sounds that eventually led into fresh-water marshes such as Lake Mabel (now Port Everglades). When new inlets were cut to link the ICW with the sea, the spits were beheaded to form what are now called barrier islands. After subsequent inlet stabilization with inadequate sand bypassing, some spits became welded to the shore and others eroded away. Extension of boundaries marking the back sides of barriers landward into the marshes, to the position of the ICW, is not only an erroneous definition of barrier island width but dangerous for emergency (storm surge) planning because the barriers were never this wide. Beach ridge plains, ridge and swale topography, dune-covered limestone ridges, and some fossil reefs such as Key Biscayne have in addition been mistakenly identified as barrier islands.

  4. Water Use in Florida, 2005 and Trends 1950-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, Richard L.

    2008-01-01

    Water is among Florida's most valued resources. The State has more than 1,700 streams and rivers, 7,800 freshwater lakes, 700 springs, 11 million acres of wetlands, and underlying aquifers yielding quantities of freshwater necessary for both human and environmental needs (Fernald and Purdum, 1998). Although renewable, these water resources are finite, and continued growth in population, tourism, and agriculture will place increased demands on these water supplies. The permanent population of Florida in 2005 totaled 17.9 million, ranking fourth in the Nation (University of Florida, 2006); nearly 86 million tourists visited the State (Orlando Business Journal, 2006). In 2005, Florida harvested two-thirds of the total citrus production in the United States and ranked fifth in the Nation net farm income (Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, 2006). Freshwater is vital for sustaining Florida's population, economy, and agricultural production. Accurate estimates reflecting water use and trends in Florida are compiled in 5-year intervals by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) and the Northwest Florida, St. Johns River, South Florida, Southwest Florida, and Suwannee River Water Management Districts (Marella, 2004). This coordinated effort provides the necessary data and information for planning future water needs and resource management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present the highlights of water use in Florida for 2005 along with some significant trends in withdrawals since 1950.

  5. Nitrous oxide in coastal waters

    SciTech Connect

    Bange, H.W.; Rapsomanikis, S.; Andreae, M.O.

    1996-03-01

    Measurements of dissolved and atmospheric nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) are presented for three coastal environments: (1) the central North Sea, (2) the German Bight, and (3) the Gironde estuary. The contribution of coastal regions to the oceanic emissions of atmospheric N{sub 2}O were also determined. N{sub 2}O was measured with a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector and analyzed. The surface waters of the central North Sea and the German bight were found to be near equilibrium with the overlying atmosphere, while the mean saturation in the Gironde estuary was 132%. Mean saturations in coastal regions without estuaries or upwelling phenomena were only slightly higher than in the open ocean. When estuaries and regions with upwelling are included, however, approximately 60% of the oceanic N{sub 2}O flux is attributable to coastal regions. A review of published data indicated that previous studies have seriously underestimated N{sub 2}O sea-to-air flux from coastal regions. 69 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Biomagnification of mercury through a subtropical coastal food web off southwest Florida.

    PubMed

    Thera, Jennifer C; Rumbold, Darren G

    2014-01-01

    Total mercury and stable isotopes of nitrogen (δ(15) N) were measured in samples from 57 species of invertebrates (17 species) and finfish (40 species) from the coastal waters off southwest Florida, USA, to evaluate the biomagnification of mercury through the food web. Mercury concentrations (wet wt) and δ(15) N values were highly variable among species, ranging from 0.004 mg/kg in an unidentified species of brittlestar (class Ophiuroidea) to 2.839 ± 1.39 mg/kg in king mackerel (Scomberomorus cavalla) and from 4.67‰ in a Florida fighting conch (Strombus alatus) to 13.68‰ in crevalle jack (Caranx hippos). In general, observed Hg levels were in the upper range of levels previously reported for other Gulf populations. Species means of log-transformed Hg concentrations were positively correlated with δ(15) N (p < 0.001, r(2)  = 0.66) and had a slope of 0.21. A trophic magnification factor of 5.05 was calculated from the relationship between log-transformed mean Hg concentrations and trophic level (calculated from δ(15) N), indicating that Hg increased by a factor of 5 with each increase in trophic level. The log10 [Hg]-δ(15) N slope and trophic magnification factor were also in the upper range of values reported from other regions and ecosystems. PMID:24123350

  7. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Florida): Spiny lobster. [Panulirus argus

    SciTech Connect

    Marx, J.M.; Herrnkind, W.F.

    1986-08-01

    The Florida spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) supports major commercial fisheries in south Florida and the Caribbean Sea. Its life history includes several life stages that live in the open ocean, inshore bays, and coastal reefs. The Florida population spawns along deeper offshore reefs in spring and early summer. Fate of locally spawned larvae is uncertain, but significant postlarval recruitment may originate from larvae spawned in foreign waters. After settlement in inshore vegetated habitats, juveniles reach legal harvestable size in about 2 years. The onset of maturity is coincident with a marked emigration offshore. Subsequent seasonal movements cued by reproductive activity and weather disturbances are pronounced. Excessive fishing has caused a decline in the size of the south Florida population and a corresponding reduction in total spawn. The relevance of spawn reduction is uncertain because of questions regarding larval origins and stock-recruitment relations. Water temperatures probably regulate population distribution and the seasonal dynamics of growth and reproduction. Postlarval recruitment is limited to high salinity inshore environments. Hydrodynamic stimuli and water circulation patterns play critical roles throughout the life cycle.

  8. Visualizing Water Quality Sampling-Events in Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolt, M. D.

    2015-07-01

    Water quality sampling in Florida is acknowledged to be spatially and temporally variable. The rotational monitoring program that was created to capture data within the state's thousands of miles of coastline and streams, and millions of acres of lakes, reservoirs, and ponds may be partly responsible for inducing the variability as an artifact. Florida's new dissolved-oxygen-standard methodology will require more data to calculate a percent saturation. This additional data requirement's impact can be seen when the new methodology is applied retrospectively to the historical collection. To understand how, where, and when the methodological change could alter the environmental quality narrative of state waters requires addressing induced bias from prior sampling events and behaviors. Here stream and coastal water quality data is explored through several modalities to maximize understanding and communication of the spatiotemporal relationships. Previous methodology and expected-retrospective calculations outside the regulatory framework are found to be significantly different, but dependent on the spatiotemporal perspective. Data visualization is leveraged to demonstrate these differences, their potential impacts on environmental narratives, and to direct further review and analysis.

  9. 76 FR 28130 - Coastal Bank, Cocoa Beach, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Coastal Bank, Cocoa Beach, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver Notice is hereby given that, pursuant to the authority contained in section 5(d)(2) of the Home Owners' Loan Act, the Office of Thrift Supervision...

  10. Detection of coastal and submarine discharge on the Florida Gulf Coast with an airborne thermal-infrared mapping system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raabe, Ellen; Stonehouse, David; Ebersol, Kristin; Holland, Kathryn; Robbins, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Along the Gulf Coast of Florida north of Tampa Bay lies a region characterized by an open marsh coast, low topographic gradient, water-bearing limestone, and scattered springs. The Floridan aquifer system is at or near land surface in this region, discharging water at a consistent 70-72°F. The thermal contrast between ambient water and aquifer discharge during winter months can be distinguished using airborne thermal-infrared imagery. An airborne thermal-infrared mapping system was used to collect imagery along 126 miles of the Gulf Coast from Jefferson to Levy County, FL, in March 2009. The imagery depicts a large number of discharge locations and associated warm-water plumes in ponds, creeks, rivers, and nearshore waters. A thermal contrast of 6°F or more was set as a conservative threshold for identifying sites, statistically significant at the 99% confidence interval. Almost 900 such coastal and submarine-discharge locations were detected, averaging seven to nine per mile along this section of coast. This represents approximately one hundred times the number of previously known discharge sites in the same area. Several known coastal springs in Taylor and Levy Counties were positively identified with the imagery and were used to estimate regional discharge equivalent to one 1st-order spring, discharging 100 cubic feet per second or more, for every two miles of coastline. The number of identified discharge sites is a conservative estimate and may represent two-thirds of existing features due to low groundwater levels at time of overflight. The role of aquifer discharge in coastal and estuarine health is indisputable; however, mapping and quantifying discharge in a complex karst environment can be an elusive goal. The results of this effort illustrate the effectiveness of the instrument and underscore the influence of coastal springs along this stretch of the Florida coast.

  11. 76 FR 38592 - Phosphorus Water Quality Standards for Florida Everglades

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ...EPA is proposing a rule that would identify provisions of Florida's Water Quality Standards for Phosphorus in the Everglades Protection Area (Phosphorus Rule) and Florida's Amended Everglades Forever Act (EFA) that EPA has disapproved and that therefore are not applicable water quality standards for purposes of the Clean Water Act. EPA is proposing today's rule following EPA's disapproval of......

  12. Investigation of Coastal Hydrogeology Utilizing Geophysical and Geochemical Tools along the Broward County Coast, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reich, Christopher D.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Greenwood, W. Jason; Wiese, Dana S.

    2008-01-01

    Geophysical (CHIRP, boomer, and continuous direct-current resistivity) and geochemical tracer studies (continuous and time-series 222Radon) were conducted along the Broward County coast from Port Everglades to Hillsboro Inlet, Florida. Simultaneous seismic, direct-current resistivity, and radon surveys in the coastal waters provided information to characterize the geologic framework and identify potential groundwater-discharge sites. Time-series radon at the Nova Southeastern University National Coral Reef Institute (NSU/NCRI) seawall indicated a very strong tidally modulated discharge of ground water with 222Rn activities ranging from 4 to 10 disintegrations per minute per liter depending on tidal stage. CHIRP seismic data provided very detailed bottom profiles (i.e., bathymetry); however, acoustic penetration was poor and resulted in no observed subsurface geologic structure. Boomer data, on the other hand, showed features that are indicative of karst, antecedent topography (buried reefs), and sand-filled troughs. Continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) data showed slight variability in the subsurface along the coast. Subtle changes in subsurface resistivity between nearshore (higher values) and offshore (lower values) profiles may indicate either a freshening of subsurface water nearshore or a change in sediment porosity or lithology. Further lithologic and hydrologic controls from sediment or rock cores or well data are needed to constrain the variability in CRP data.

  13. Geohydrologic evaluation of a landfill in a coastal area, St Petersburg, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, C.B.; Stewart, Joseph W.

    1978-01-01

    The 250-acre Toytown landfill site is in a poorly-drained area in coastal Pinellas County, Florida. Average altitude of land surface at the landfill is less than 10 feet. About 1000 tons of solid waste and about 200,000 gallons of digested sewage sludge are disposed of daily at the landfill. The velocity of ground-water flow through the 23-foot thick surficial aquifer northeast from the landfill toward Old Tampa Bay probably ranges from 1 to 10 feet per year, and downward velocity through the confining bed is about 0.00074 foot per day. The horizontal and vertical flow velocities indicate that leachate moves slowly downgradient, and that leachate has not yet seeped through the confining bed after 12 years of landfill operation. Untreated surface run-off from the site averages about 15 inches per year, and ground-water outflow averages about 3.3 inches per year. The Floridan aquifer is used as a limited source of water for domestic supply in this area. (Woodard-USGS)

  14. Water-use computer programs for Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geiger, L.H.

    1984-01-01

    Using U.S. Geological Survey computer programs L149-L153, this report shows how to process water-use data for the functional water-use categories: public supply, rural supply, industrial self-supplied, irrigation, and thermo-electric power generation. The programs are used to selectively retrieve entries and list them in a format suitable for publication. Instructions are given for coding cards to produce tables of water-use data for each of the functional use categories. These cards contain entries that identify a particular water-use data-collection site in Florida. Entries on the cards include location information such as county code, water management district code, hydrologic unit code, and, where applicable, a site name and number. Annual and monthly pumpage is included. These entries are shown with several different headings; for example, surface water or ground water, freshwater or saline pumpages, or consumptive use. All the programs use a similar approach; however, the actual programs differ with each functional water-use category and are discussed separately. Data prepared for these programs can also be processed by the National Water-Use Data System. (USGS)

  15. Estimated water use in Florida, 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leach, Stanley D.; Healy, Henry G.

    1980-01-01

    During 1977, an average of 21,466 million gallons of water was withdrawn daily for use in Florida--an increase of 6,153 million gallons per day since 1970. The 1977 daily use was 14,812 million gallons of saline water and 6,654 million gallons of freshwater. Most of the saline water, largely surface water, was pumped from tidal estuaries. Only 107.6 million gallons per day of saline water--less than 1 percent--was obtained from wells. Thermoelectric power generation used virtually all the saline water, 14,738 million gallons per day, whereas all other industrial uses were only 73 million gallons of saline water per day. The freshwater supply was almost equally divided between ground water (53 percent) and surface water (47 percent). Of the total freshwater used, 43 percent was for irrigation--an average of 2,873 million gallons of freshwater daily on the average. The remaining daily use of freshwater was 21 percent for thermoelectric power generation, 19 percent for public supply; 14 percent for industrial use other than thermoelectric power generation; and 3 percent for domestic and rural use. Irrigation was also responsible for the greatest consumption during 1977, with 1,255 million gallons consumed daily which also includes 192 million gallons per day conveyance loss. (Kosco-USGS)

  16. Water use trends and demand projections in the Northwest Florida Water Management District

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, R.L.; Mokray, M.F.; Hallock-Solomon, Michael

    1998-01-01

    The Northwest Florida Water Management District is located in the western panhandle of Florida and encompasses about 11,200 square miles. In 1995, the District had an estimated population of 1.13 million, an increase of about 47 percent from the 1975 population of 0.77 million. Over 50 percent of the resident population lives within 10 miles of the coast. In addition, hundreds of thousands of visitors come to the coastal areas of the panhandle during the summer months for recreation or vacation purposes. Water withdrawn to meet demands for public supply, domestic self-supplied, commercial-industrial, agricultural irrigation, and recreational irrigation purposes in the District increased 18 percent (52 million gallons per day) between 1970 and 1995. The greatest increases were for public supply and domestic self-supplied (99 percent increase) and for agricultural irrigation (60 percent increase) between 1970 and 1995. In 1995, approximately 70 percent of the water withdrawn was from ground-water sources, with the majority of this from the Floridan aquifer system. The increasing water demands have affected water levels in the Floridan aquifer system, especially along the coastal areas. The Northwest Florida Water Management District is mandated under the Florida Statutes (Chapter 373) to protect and manage the water resources in this area of the State. The mandate requires that current and future water demands be met, while water resources and water-dependent natural systems are sustained. For this project, curve fitting and extrapolation were used to project most of the variables (population, population served by public supply, and water use) to the years 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015, and 2020. This mathematical method involves fitting a curve to historical population or water-use data and then extending this curve to arrive at future values. The population within the region is projected to reach 1,596,888 by the year 2020, an increase of 41 percent between 1995 and 2020

  17. Modeling the west Florida coastal ocean by downscaling from the deep ocean, across the continental shelf and into the estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Lianyuan; Weisberg, Robert H.

    2012-05-01

    We arrive at a coastal ocean circulation model, suitable for downscaling from the deep ocean, across the continental shelf and into the estuaries, by nesting the unstructured grid, Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM, inner model) into the structured grid, Global Hybrid Coordinate Model (HYCOM, outer model). The coastal ocean circulation model is three-dimensional, density dependent and inclusive of tides (eight constituents). A calendar year 2007 simulation for the west Florida continental shelf is quantitatively tested against in situ observations of sea level from coastal tide gauges and water column currents and temperature from moored acoustic Doppler current profilers. Agreements between model simulations and observations for both tides and low frequency variability over the calendar year demonstrate the usefulness of our approach. Model horizontal resolution varies from around 12 km at the open boundary to 150 m in the estuaries. Sensitivity experiments for vertical resolution led to the adoption of 21 σ-layers. Several model limitations are discussed, including seasonal steric effects and deep ocean (outer) model errors that may propagate through the inner model. With adequate observations spanning the inner model domain, we may determine when the outer model is in error at the nesting zone. This finding further highlights the need for coordinating coastal ocean observing and modeling programs. The nesting of unstructured and structured grid models is a new approach to coastal ocean circulation modeling. It provides a means for circulation hindcasts and nowcasts/forecasts, and, after combining with biological process models, may provide a framework for multi-disciplinary modeling of coastal ocean ecology from the deep ocean to the head of tides.

  18. MODIS water quality algorithms for northwest Florida estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synoptic and frequent monitoring of water quality parameters from satellite is useful for determining the health of aquatic ecosystems and development of effective management strategies. Northwest Florida estuaries are classified as optically-complex, or waters influenced by chlo...

  19. Lower survival probabilities for adult Florida manatees in years with intense coastal storms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langtimm, C.A.; Beck, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    The endangered Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) inhabits the subtropical waters of the southeastern United States, where hurricanes are a regular occurrence. Using mark-resighting statistical models, we analyzed 19 years of photo-identification data and detected significant annual variation in adult survival for a subpopulation in northwest Florida where human impact is low. That variation coincided with years when intense hurricanes (Category 3 or greater on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale) and a major winter storm occurred in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Mean survival probability during years with no or low intensity storms was 0.972 (approximate 95% confidence interval = 0.961-0.980) but dropped to 0.936 (0.864-0.971) in 1985 with Hurricanes Elena, Kate, and Juan; to 0.909 (0.837-0.951) in 1993 with the March "Storm of the Century"; and to 0.817 (0.735-0.878) in 1995 with Hurricanes Opal, Erin, and Allison. These drops in survival probability were not catastrophic in magnitude and were detected because of the use of state-of-the-art statistical techniques and the quality of the data. Because individuals of this small population range extensively along the north Gulf coast of Florida, it was possible to resolve storm effects on a regional scale rather than the site-specific local scale common to studies of more sedentary species. This is the first empirical evidence in support of storm effects on manatee survival and suggests a cause-effect relationship. The decreases in survival could be due to direct mortality, indirect mortality, and/or emigration from the region as a consequence of storms. Future impacts to the population by a single catastrophic hurricane, or series of smaller hurricanes, could increase the probability of extinction. With the advent in 1995 of a new 25- to 50-yr cycle of greater hurricane activity, and longer term change possible with global climate change, it becomes all the more important to reduce mortality and injury

  20. EAARL coastal topography-western Florida, post-Hurricane Charley, 2004: seamless (bare earth and submerged.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Wright, C. Wayne; Sallenger, A.H.; Brock, John C.; Yates, Xan

    2010-01-01

    Project Description These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived seamless (bare-earth and submerged) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the western Florida coastline beachface, acquired post-Hurricane Charley on August 17 and 18, 2004. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then

  1. ATM Coastal Topography-Florida 2001: Western Panhandle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, Xan; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the western Florida panhandle coastline, acquired October 2-4 and 7-10, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative scanning Lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning Lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used

  2. ATM Coastal Topography-Florida 2001: Eastern Panhandle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, Xan; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the eastern Florida panhandle coastline, acquired October 2, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative scanning Lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning Lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used to create

  3. Freshwater and Nutrient Fluxes to Coastal Waters of Everglades National Park - A Synthesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McPherson, Benjamin F.; Torres, Arturo E.

    2006-01-01

    Freshwater in the Everglades and the Big Cypress Swamp drains south and southwest into coastal regions where it mixes with seawater to create the salinity gradients characteristic of productive estuarine and marine systems. Studies in Florida Bay have shown that over the last 100-200 years, salinity and seagrass distributions have fluctuated substantially in response to natural climatic cycles. The timing of this change coincides at least in part with the canal construction and landscape alterations in the Everglades that have altered the quantity, timing, distribution, and quality of surface water that flows south into the coastal waters. Federal and State agencies have undertaken a massive Everglades restoration project that will require changes in water management throughout the Everglades, and this will affect water flows to the coastal region. A major concern involves how changes in water flow could affect salinity and nutrient availability in coastal waters.

  4. Component-specific dynamics of riverine mangrove CO2 efflux in the Florida coastal Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Troxler, Tiffany G.; Barr, Jordan G.; Fuentes, Jose D.; Engel, Victor C.; Anderson, Gordon H.; Sanchez, Christopher; Lagomosino, David; Price, Rene; Davis, Stephen E.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon cycling in mangrove forests represents a significant portion of the coastal wetland carbon (C) budget across the latitudes of the tropics and subtropics. Previous research suggests fluctuations in tidal inundation, temperature and salinity can influence forest metabolism and C cycling. Carbon dioxide (CO2) from respiration that occurs from below the canopy is contributed from different components. In this study, we investigated variation in CO2 flux among different below-canopy components (soil, leaf litter, course woody debris, soil including pneumatophores, prop roots, and surface water) in a riverine mangrove forest of Shark River Slough estuary, Everglades National Park (Florida, USA). The range in CO2 flux from different components exceeded that measured among sites along the oligohaline-saline gradient. Black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) pneumatophores contributed the largest average CO2 flux. Over a narrow range of estuarine salinity (25–35 practical salinity units (PSU)), increased salinity resulted in lower CO2 flux to the atmosphere. Tidal inundation reduced soil CO2 flux overall but increased the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) observed in the overlying surface water upon flooding. Higher pCO2 in surface water is then subject to tidally driven export, largely as HCO3. Integration and scaling of CO2 flux rates to forest scale allowed for improved understanding of the relative contribution of different below-canopy components to mangrove forest ecosystem respiration (ER). Summing component CO2fluxes suggests a more significant contribution of below-canopy respiration to ER than previously considered. An understanding of below-canopy CO2 component fluxes and their contributions to ER can help to elucidate how C cycling will change with discrete disturbance events (e.g., hurricanes) and long-term change, including sea-level rise, and potential impact mangrove forests. As such, key controls on below-canopy ER must be taken into consideration when

  5. EAARL Coastal Topography-Eastern Florida, Post-Hurricane Jeanne, 2004: First Surface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fredericks, Xan; Nayegandhi, Amar; Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Wright, C.W.; Sallenger, A.H.; Brock, J.C.; Klipp, E.S.; Nagle, D.B.

    2010-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography datasets were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the eastern Florida coastline beachface, acquired post-Hurricane Jeanne (September 2004 hurricane) on October 1, 2004. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color-infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the

  6. Derivation of Ground Surface and Vegetation in a Coastal Florida Wetland with Airborne Laser Technology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raabe, Ellen A.; Harris, Melanie S.; Shrestha, Ramesh L.; Carter, William E.

    2008-01-01

    The geomorphology and vegetation of marsh-dominated coastal lowlands were mapped from airborne laser data points collected on the Gulf Coast of Florida near Cedar Key. Surface models were developed using low- and high-point filters to separate ground-surface and vegetation-canopy intercepts. In a non-automated process, the landscape was partitioned into functional landscape units to manage the modeling of key landscape features in discrete processing steps. The final digital ground surface-elevation model offers a faithful representation of topographic relief beneath canopies of tidal marsh and coastal forest. Bare-earth models approximate field-surveyed heights by + 0.17 m in the open marsh and + 0.22 m under thick marsh or forest canopy. The laser-derived digital surface models effectively delineate surface features of relatively inaccessible coastal habitats with a geographic coverage and vertical detail previously unavailable. Coastal topographic details include tidal-creek tributaries, levees, modest topographic undulations in the intertidal zone, karst features, silviculture, and relict sand dunes under coastal-forest canopy. A combination of laser-derived ground-surface and canopy-height models and intensity values provided additional mapping capabilities to differentiate between tidal-marsh zones and forest types such as mesic flatwood, hydric hammock, and oak scrub. Additional derived products include fine-scale shoreline and topographic profiles. The derived products demonstrate the capability to identify areas of concern to resource managers and unique components of the coastal system from laser altimetry. Because the very nature of a wetland system presents difficulties for access and data collection, airborne coverage from remote sensors has become an accepted alternative for monitoring wetland regions. Data acquisition with airborne laser represents a viable option for mapping coastal topography and for evaluating habitats and coastal change on marsh

  7. Estuaries and coastal waters need help

    SciTech Connect

    Levenson, H.

    1987-11-01

    For years, our marine environments-estuaries, coastal waters, and the open ocean-have been used extensively by coastal communities and industries for the disposal of various wastes. Historically, marine waste disposal has been relatively cheap and has solved some short-term waste-management problems; however, its consequences include a general trend toward environmental degradation, particularly in estuaries and coastal waters. Thus, without protective measures, the next few decades will witness degradation in many estuaries and some coastal waters around the country. The extent of current degradation varies greatly around the country. Although it is difficult to ascertain cause and effect relationships, enough evidence exists to conclude that the pollutants in question include disease-causing microorganisms, oxygen-demanding substances, particulate material, metals, and organic chemicals. Two statutes form the basis of most federal regulatory efforts to combat marine pollution: the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA) and the Clean Water Act (CWA). The MPRSA regulates the dumping of wastes in coastal and open-ocean waters, whereas the CWA has jurisdiction over pipeline discharges in all marine waters, wastes dumped in estuaries, and runoff. Many people consider that the passage and implementation of these two acts and their ensuing amendments established a statutory structure sufficient to protect the nation's waters from pollution. However, these provisions have not protected some estuaries and coastal waters from degradation.

  8. Water-management models in Florida from LANDSAT-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higer, A. L.; Cordes, E. H.; Coker, A. E.; Rogers, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    ERTS-1 is described as a near real time, data relay system for south Florida water quantity and quality monitoring. An ecological model of the Shark River Slough in Everglades National Park is also presented.

  9. Climate change and coastal environmental risk perceptions in Florida.

    PubMed

    Carlton, Stuart J; Jacobson, Susan K

    2013-11-30

    Understanding public perceptions of climate change risks is a prerequisite for effective climate communication and adaptation. Many studies of climate risk perceptions have either analyzed a general operationalization of climate change risk or employed a case-study approach of specific adaptive processes. This study takes a different approach, examining attitudes toward 17 specific, climate-related coastal risks and cognitive, affective, and risk-specific predictors of risk perception. A survey of 558 undergraduates revealed that risks to the physical environment were a greater concern than economic or biological risks. Perceptions of greater physical environment risks were significantly associated with having more pro-environmental attitudes, being female, and being more Democratic-leaning. Perceptions of greater economic risks were significantly associated with having more negative environmental attitudes, being female, and being more Republican-leaning. Perceptions of greater biological risks were significantly associated with more positive environmental attitudes. The findings suggest that focusing on physical environment risks maybe more salient to this audience than communications about general climate change adaptation. The results demonstrate that climate change beliefs and risk perceptions are multifactorial and complex and are shaped by individuals' attitudes and basic beliefs. Climate risk communications need to apply this knowledge to better target cognitive and affective processes of specific audiences, rather than providing simple characterizations of risks. PMID:24056234

  10. Extending electromagnetic methods to map coastal pore water salinities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenwood, Wm. J.; Kruse, S.; Swarzenski, P.

    2006-01-01

    The feasibility of mapping pore water salinity based on surface electromagnetic (EM) methods over land and shallow marine water is examined in a coastal wetland on Tampa Bay, Florida. Forward models predict that useful information on seabed conductivity can be obtained through <1.5 m of saline water, using floating EM-31 and EM-34 instruments from Geonics Ltd. The EM-31 functioned as predicted when compared against resistivity soundings and pore water samples and proved valuable for profiling in otherwise inaccessible terrain due to its relatively small size. Experiments with the EM-34 in marine water, however, did not reproduce the theoretical instrument response. The most effective technique for predicting pore water conductivities based on EM data entailed (1) computing formation factors from resistivity surveys and pore water samples at representative sites and (2) combining these formation factors with onshore and offshore EM-31 readings for broader spatial coverage. This method proved successful for imaging zones of elevated pore water conductivities/ salinities associated with mangrove forests, presumably caused by salt water exclusion by mangrove roots. These zones extend 5 to 10 m seaward from mangrove trunks fringing Tampa Bay. Modeling indicates that EM-31 measurements lack the resolution necessary to image the subtle pore water conductivity variations expected in association with diffuse submarine ground water discharge of fresher water in the marine water of Tampa Bay. The technique has potential for locating high-contrast zones and other pore water salinity anomalies in areas not accessible to conventional marine- or land-based resistivity arrays and hence may be useful for studies of coastal-wetland ecosystems. Copyright ?? 2005 National Ground Water Association.

  11. The Effect of Coastal Development on Storm Surge Flooding in Biscayne Bay, Florida, USA (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.; Liu, H.; Li, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Barrier islands and associated bays along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts are a favorite place for both living and visiting. Many of them are vulnerable to storm surge flooding because of low elevations and constantly being subjected to the impacts of storms. The population increase and urban development along the barrier coast have altered the shoreline configuration, resulting in a dramatic change in the coastal flooding pattern in some areas. Here we present such a case based on numerical simulations of storm surge flooding caused by the1926 hurricane in the densely populated area surrounding Biscayne Bay in Miami, Florida. The construction of harbor and navigation channels, and the development of real estate and the roads connecting islands along Biscayne Bay have changed the geometry of Biscayne Bay since 1910s. Storm surge simulations show that the Port of Miami and Dodge Island constructed by human after 1950 play an important role in changing storm surge inundation pattern along Biscayne Bay. Dodge Island enhances storm surge and increases inundation in the area south of the island, especially at the mouth of Miami River (Downtown of Miami), and reduces storm surge flooding in the area north of the island, especially in Miami Beach. If the Hurricane Miami of 1926 happened today, the flooding area would be reduced by 55% and 20% in the Miami Beach and North Miami areas, respectively. Consequently, it would prevent 400 million of property and 10 thousand people from surge flooding according to 2010 U.S census and 2007 property tax data. Meanwhile, storm water would penetrate further inland south of Dodge Island and increase the flooding area by 25% in the Miami River and Downtown Miami areas. As a result, 200 million of property and five thousand people would be impacted by storm surge.

  12. Landscape characteristics of Rhizophora mangle forests and propagule deposition in coastal environments of Florida (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sengupta, R.; Middleton, B.; Yan, C.; Zuro, M.; Hartman, H.

    2005-01-01

    Field dispersal studies are seldom conducted at regional scales even though reliable information on mid-range dispersal distance is essential for models of colonization. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential distance of dispersal of Rhizophora mangle propagules by comparing deposition density with landscape characteristics of mangrove forests. Propagule density was estimated at various distances to mangrove sources (R. mangle) on beaches in southwestern Florida in both high-and low-energy environments, either facing open gulf waters vs. sheltered, respectively. Remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems were used to identify source forests and to determine their landscape characteristics (forest size and distance to deposition area) for the regression analyses. Our results indicated that increasing density of propagules stranded on beaches was related negatively to the distance of the deposition sites from the nearest stands of R. mangle and that deposition was greatly diminished 2 km or more from the source. Measures of fragmentation such as the area of the R. mangle forests were related to propagule deposition but only in low-energy environments. Our results suggest that geographic models involving the colonization of coastal mangrove systems should include dispersal dynamics at mid-range scales, i.e., for our purposes here, beyond the local scale of the forest and up to 5 km distant. Studies of mangrove propagule deposition at various spatial scales are key to understanding regeneration limitations in natural gaps and restoration areas. Therefore, our study of mid-range propagule dispersal has broad application to plant ecology, restoration, and modeling. ?? Springer 2005.

  13. EAARL Coastal Topography and Imagery-Naval Live Oaks Area, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Florida, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nagle, David B.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Yates, Xan; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Klipp, Emily S.; Segura, Martha

    2010-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced color-infrared (CIR) imagery and elevation measurements of lidar-derived bare-earth (BE) topography, first-surface (FS) topography, and canopy-height (CH) datasets were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Gulf Coast Network, Lafayette, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Naval Live Oaks Area in Florida's Gulf Islands National Seashore, acquired June 30, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral CIR camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area

  14. Florida coastal ecological characterization: a socioeconomic study of the northwestern region. Volume I. Text

    SciTech Connect

    French, C.O.; Parsons, J.W.

    1983-08-01

    Data are compiled from existing sources on the social and economic characteristics of the Northwestern coastal region of Florida, which is made up of Escambia, Santa Rosa, Okaloosa, Walton, Bay, Gulf, and Franklin Counties. Described are the components and interrelationships among complex processes that include population and demographics characteristics, mineral production, multiple-use conflicts, recreation and tourism, agricultural production, sport and commercial fishing, transportation, industrial and residential development, and environmental issues and regulations. Energetics models of socioeconomic systems are also presented. 40 figures, 108 tables.

  15. Effect of sea-level rise on future coastal groundwater resources in southern Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langevin, Christian D.; Zygnerski, Michael R.; White, Jeremy T.; Hughes, Joseph D.

    2010-01-01

    An existing variable‐density groundwater flow and solute transport model, developed for the northern part of Broward County, Florida, was used to predict the effect of sealevel rise on future coastal groundwater resources. Using average annual conditions from 2005, simulations were performed for 100 years into the future using four different rates of sea‐level rise: 0, 24, 48, and 88 centimeters per century. Results from these predictive analyses suggest that the average concentration of groundwater withdrawn at the municipal well field will exceed the potable limit after 70, 60, 55, and 49 years, respectively, for the four simulations.

  16. Optical classification of contrasted coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vantrepotte, V.; Loisel, H.; Dessailly, D.; Mériaux, X.

    2012-04-01

    The high optical complexity of the coastal ocean prevents the development of general open ocean-like inversion algorithms needed to derive in-water bio-optical and biogeochemical parameters from satellite information. To overcome this issue, regional algorithms are generally used in order to focus on the range of optical variability specific to a defined coastal region. This regional approach presents however various limitations including its high dependency on the data set used for its development as well as its limited applicability for large scale applications. Another and more universal approach consists in classifying coastal waters according to their optical properties (independently of their location) and then in applying a class-specific algorithm (empirical or semi-analytical). The framework associated with the development of such classification-based approach is detailed from an in situ data set collected in contrasted coastal waters of the eastern English Channel, north Sea and French Guyana. The advantages of defining an optical typology of the coastal domain for monitoring coastal water masses optical quality and improving the performance of the inversion procedure is emphasized. Further, the representativeness of optical classes defined in the latter training areas for global scale applications is also illustrated.

  17. Using Lagrangian Coherent Structures to understand coastal water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorentino, L. A.; Olascoaga, M. J.; Reniers, A.; Feng, Z.; Beron-Vera, F. J.; MacMahan, J. H.

    2012-09-01

    The accumulation of pollutants near the shoreline can result in low quality coastal water with negative effects on human health. To understand the role of mixing by tidal flows in coastal water quality we study the nearshore Lagrangian circulation. Specifically, we reveal Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs), i.e., distinguished material curves which shape global mixing patterns and thus act as skeletons of the Lagrangian circulation. This is done using the recently developed geodesic theory of transport barriers. Particular focus is placed on Hobie Beach, a recreational subtropical marine beach located in Virginia Key, Miami, Florida. According to studies of water quality, Hobie Beach is characterized by high microbial levels. Possible sources of pollution in Hobie Beach include human bather shedding, dog fecal matter, runoff, and sand efflux at high tides. Consistent with the patterns formed by satellite-tracked drifter trajectories, the LCSs extracted from simulated currents reveal a Lagrangian circulation favoring the retention near the shoreline of pollutants released along the shoreline, which can help explain the low quality water registered at Hobie Beach.

  18. An Approach to Developing Numeric Water Quality Criteria for Coastal Waters Using the SeaWiFS Satellite Data Record

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Human activities on land increase nutrient loads to coastal waters, which can increase phytoplankton production and biomass and associated ecological impacts. Numeric nutrient water quality standards are needed to protect coastal waters from eutrophication impacts. The Environmental Protection Agency determined that numeric nutrient criteria were necessary to protect designated uses of Florida’s waters. The objective of this study was to evaluate a reference condition approach for developing numeric water quality criteria for coastal waters, using data from Florida. Florida’s coastal waters have not been monitored comprehensively via field sampling to support numeric criteria development. However, satellite remote sensing had the potential to provide adequate data. Spatial and temporal measures of SeaWiFS OC4 chlorophyll-a (ChlRS-a, mg m–3) were resolved across Florida’s coastal waters between 1997 and 2010 and compared with in situ measurements. Statistical distributions of ChlRS-a were evaluated to determine a quantitative reference baseline. A binomial approach was implemented to consider how new data could be assessed against the criteria. The proposed satellite remote sensing approach to derive numeric criteria may be generally applicable to other coastal waters. PMID:22192062

  19. Transport of anomalous low-salinity waters from the Mississippi River flood of 1993 to the Straits of Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Paula S.; Lee, Thomas N.; Podesta, Guillermo P.

    1996-07-01

    Recent field studies in the southern Straits of Florida revealed the existence of Mississippi River outflow embedded in the Florida Current and adjacent coastal waters. Surface thermosalinograph measurements for the period of 10-13 September 1993 indicated a band of low-salinity water measuring approximately 40 km wide and 30 m in depth extending from south of Key West to Miami, a distance of 260 km. Surface salinity values as low as 31 psu were found. The estimated volume of the band is approximately 33.3 × 10 10 m 3 for the Key West to Miami region, thereby requiring roughly 1.2 × 10 10 m 3 of fresh water to mix with oceanic waters to produce this low-salinity band. The only nearby, dynamically viable, source for such a large volume of fresh water is the Mississippi River during its flood stage in 1993. The proposed transport mechanism for the transport of flood waters from the shelf in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico to the Straits of Florida is via the Loop Current through entrainment. Salinity records from offshore C-MAN towers indicate that the low-salinity band persisted off the lower Florida Keys for approximately 3 months. The variability in the flow field in the southern Straits occurs in a 30-70 day band due to the meandering of the Florida Current and the subsequent formation, and propagation, of cyclonic gyres off the Dry Tortugas. This variability in the flow field had a clear affect on the evolution of the low-salinity band, as observed by the salinity records from the C-MAN towers. Because the band traveled as a lens in the upper 30 m of the water column and because its evolution was highly dependent on the variability within the Gulf Stream System, it was a good indicator of the mixing and exchange of offshore waters with shallow waters of the Florida reef tract and Florida Bay.

  20. Inverse modeling of surface-water discharge to achieve restoration salinity performance measures in Florida Bay, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swain, E.D.; James, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    The use of numerical modeling to evaluate regional water-management practices involves the simulation of various alternative water-delivery scenarios, which typically are designed intuitively rather than analytically. These scenario simulations are used to analyze how specific water-management practices affect factors such as water levels, flows, and salinities. In lieu of testing a variety of scenario simulations in a trial-and-error manner, an optimization technique may be used to more precisely and directly define good water-management alternatives. A numerical model application in the coastal regions of Florida Bay and Everglades National Park (ENP), representing the surface- and ground-water hydrology for the region, is a good example of a tool used to evaluate restoration scenarios. The Southern Inland and Coastal System (SICS) model simulates this area with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic surface-water model and a three-dimensional ground-water model, linked to represent the interaction of the two systems with salinity transport. This coastal wetland environment is of great interest in restoration efforts, and the SICS model is used to analyze the effects of alternative water-management scenarios. The SICS model is run within an inverse modeling program called UCODE. In this application, UCODE adjusts the regulated inflows to ENP while SICS is run iteratively. UCODE creates parameters that define inflow within an allowable range for the SICS model based on SICS model output statistics, with the objective of matching user-defined target salinities that meet ecosystem restoration criteria. Preliminary results obtained using two different parameterization methods illustrate the ability of the model to achieve the goals of adjusting the range and reducing the variance of salinity values in the target area. The salinity variance in the primary zone of interest was reduced from an original value of 0.509 psu2 to values 0.418 psu2 and 0.342 psu2 using different

  1. Sewage in ground water in the Florida Keys

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, E.A.

    1995-12-31

    More than 24,000 septic tanks, 5,000 cesspools, and greater than 600 shallow disposal wells introduce sewage effluents into porous and permeable limestone underlying the Florida Keys. To porous and permeable limestone underlying the Florida Keys. To assess the fate of sewage nutrients, 21 2- to 20-m-deep wells were core drilled and completed as water-monitoring wells. The wells were sampled quarterly and analyzed for 17 parameters. including nutrients and bacteria. Nutrients (mainly NH4, - which is 30 to 40 times higher than in surface sea water) were detected in ground water beneath the Keys and offshore coral reefs. Highest levels were beneath reefs 5 to 8 km offshore. Ground waters were generally hypersaline and fecal bacteria (fecal coliform and streptococci) were detected in ground water beneath living coral reefs. Higher sea level on the Florida Bay side of the Keys is proposed as the mechanism for forcing ground water toward offshore coral reefs. Tidal pumping, which is more pronounced near the Keys, causes leakage of ground water where the sediment is thin. Areas lacking sediment cover consist of bare limestone bedrock or permeable coral reefs. These are the areas where coral diseases and algal growth have increased in recent years. Pollutants entering the ground water beneath the Florida Keys are likely to be transported seaward beneath impermeable Holocene sediments and may be upwelling through coral reefs and other hardbottom communities.

  2. DESIGNING A COMPREHENSIVE, INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCES MONITORING PROGRAM FOR FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Proceedings of the National Water Quality Monitoring Conference "Monitoring Critical Foundations to Protect Our Waters," 7-9 July 1998, Reno, NV.

    In late 1996, Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) initiated an effort to design a multi-tiered monitoring and...

  3. Evaluation of a Florida coastal golf complex as a local and watershed source of bioavailable contaminants.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Michael A; Quarles, Robert L; Dantin, Darrin D; Moore, James C

    2004-02-01

    Contaminant fate in coastal areas impacted by golf course runoff is not well understood. This report summarizes trace metal, pesticide and PCB residues for colonized periphyton, Ruppia maritima (widgeon grass), Callinectes sapidus Rathbun (blue crabs) and Crassostrea virginica Gemlin (Eastern oyster) collected from areas adjacent to a Florida golf course complex which receive runoff containing reclaimed municipal wastewater. Concentrations of 19 chlorinated pesticides and 18 PCB congeners were usually below detection in the biota. In contrast, 8 trace metals were commonly detected although concentrations were not usually significantly different for biota collected from reference and non-reference coastal areas. Residue concentrations in decreasing order were typically: zinc, arsenic, copper, chromium, lead, nickel, cadmium and mercury. Mean BCF values for the eight trace metals ranged between 160-57000 (periphyton), 79-11033 (R. maritima), 87-162625 (C. virginica) and 12-9800 (C. sapidus). Most trace metal residues in periphyton colonized adjacent to the golf complex, were either similar to or significantly less than those reported for periphyton colonized in nearby coastal areas impacted by urban stormwater runoff and treated municipal and industrial wastewater discharges. Consequently, the recreational complex does not appear to be a major source of bioavailable contaminants locally nor in the immediate watershed based on results for the selected biota. PMID:14972577

  4. Remote Sensing of Suspended Sediments and Shallow Coastal Waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Rong-Rong; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Gao, Bo-Cai; Davis, Curtiss O.

    2002-01-01

    Ocean color sensors were designed mainly for remote sensing of chlorophyll concentrations over the clear open oceanic areas (case 1 water) using channels between 0.4 and 0.86 micrometers. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) launched on the NASA Terra and Aqua Spacecrafts is equipped with narrow channels located within a wider wavelength range between 0.4 and 2.5 micrometers for a variety of remote sensing applications. The wide spectral range can provide improved capabilities for remote sensing of the more complex and turbid coastal waters (case 2 water) and for improved atmospheric corrections for Ocean scenes. In this article, we describe an empirical algorithm that uses this wide spectral range to identifying areas with suspended sediments in turbid waters and shallow waters with bottom reflections. The algorithm takes advantage of the strong water absorption at wavelengths longer than 1 micrometer that does not allow illumination of sediments in the water or a shallow ocean floor. MODIS data acquired over the east coast of China, west coast of Africa, Arabian Sea, Mississippi Delta, and west coast of Florida are used in this study.

  5. PHOTOCHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL DEGRADATION OF CDOM IN WATERS FROM SELECTED COASTAL REGIONS OF THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological and photochemical degradation of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were investigated in controlled experiments using waters from southeastern U.S. estuaries, from the Mississippi River plume and Gulf of Mexico, and from the coastal shelf region in the Florida Key...

  6. Ground-water models as a management tool in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, C.B.

    1984-01-01

    Highly sophisticated computer models provide powerful tools for analyzing historic data and for simulating future water levels, water movement, and water chemistry under stressed conditions throughout the ground-water system in Florida. Models that simulate the movement of heat and subsidence of land in response to aquifer pumping also have potential for application to hydrologic problems in the State. Florida, with 20 ground-water modeling studies reported since 1972, has applied computer modeling techniques to a variety of water-resources problems. Models in Florida generally have been used to provide insight to problems of water supply, contamination, and impact on the environment. The model applications range from site-specific studies, such as estimating contamination by wastewater injection at St. Petersburg, to a regional model of the entire State that may be used to assess broad-scale environmental impact of water-resources development. Recently, groundwater models have been used as management tools by the State regulatory authority to permit or deny development of water resources. As modeling precision, knowledge, and confidence increase, the use of ground-water models will shift more and more toward regulation of development and enforcement of environmental laws. (USGS)

  7. Saltwater intrusion in the Floridan aquifer, coastal Citrus and Hernando Counties, Florida, 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mills, L.R.; Ryder, Paul D.

    1977-01-01

    The coastal parts of Citrus and Hernando Counties, Fla., are undergoing extensive urban development along U.S. Highway 19. The Floridan aquifer, a thick sequence of limestone and dolomite , is the principal source of water supply for the coastal parts of these two counties. The construction of canals that penetrate the Floridan aquifer, deficient rainfall during 1964-75, and pumping of ground water, have caused saltwater to intrude the aquifer. A map shows the inland extend of that intrusion as of 1975. The report is based on field data collected in 1964, 1973, and 1975. (Woodard-USGS)

  8. The use of remote sensing in solving Florida's geological and coastal engineering problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, H. K.; Ruth, B. E.; Wang, Y. H.; Ferguson, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    LANDSAT imagery and NASA high altitude color infrared (CIR) photography were used to select suitable sites for sanitary landfill in Volusia County, Florida and to develop techniques for preventing sand deposits in the Clearwater inlet. Activities described include the acquisition of imagery, its analysis by the IMAGE 100 system, conventional photointerpretation, evaluation of existing data sources (vegetation, soil, and ground water maps), site investigations for ground truth, and preparation of displays for reports.

  9. Remote sensing of ALGAL pigments to determine coastal phytoplankton dynamics in Florida Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, L.L.; Ambrosia, V.G.

    1997-06-01

    An important component of remote sensing of marine and coastal environments is the detection of phytoplankton to estimate biological activity. Traditionally the focus has been on detection of chlorophyll a, a photosynthetic pigment common to all algal groups. Recent advances in remote sensing instrumentation, in particular the development of hyperspectral imaging sensors, allow detection of additional algal pigments that include taxonomically significant photosynthetic and photoprotective accessory pigments. We are working with the hyperspectral imaging sensor AVIRIS (the Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer) to characterize phytoplankton blooms in Florida Bay. Our data analysis focuses on intersection of image data (and image-derived spectral data) with our in-house library of algal pigment signatures.

  10. Modeling landscape dynamics and effects of sea-level rise on coastal wetlands of northwest Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, T.W.; Day, R.H.; Biagas, J.M.

    1997-06-01

    A research study to examine the ability to predict changes in coastal vegetation caused by sea level rise is very briefly summarized. A field survey was carried out on the northwest coast of Florida. A predictive elevation model was then generated from digitized US Geologic Survey 1:2400 hypsographic data using surface modeling techniques. Sea-level rise model simulations were generated to predict a likelihood index of habitat change and conversions under different scenarios. Maps were produced depicting location of the coastline and inland extent of salt marsh using a range of sea level rise rates through the year 2100. This modeling approach offers a technological tool to researchers and wetland managers for effective cumulative impact analysis of wetlands affected by sea-level rise.

  11. Seasonal and spatial distribution patterns of finfish and selected invertebrates in coastal lagoons of northeastern Florida, 2002-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turtora, Michael; Schotman, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a survey of juvenile fisheries resources, in cooperation with the St. Johns River Water Management District and Volusia County, to establish baseline data on spatial and temporal distribution patterns of estuarine fish. The survey was conducted from November 2001 to March 2005 and the baseline data established for the survey in the Northern Coastal Basins were collected from January 2002 to December 2004. The study area included the bar-built estuaries ranging from just north of St. Augustine, Florida, south to Ponce de Leon Inlet. Sampling protocols developed by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Research Institute for their statewide Fisheries Independent Monitoring (FIM) program were replicated to allow for comparability with FIM program results. Samples were collected monthly from randomly selected stations based on a geographically stratified design. Finfish and selected invertebrates were collected using a 21.3-meter center-bag seine with a 3-millimeter mesh, and a 6.1-meter otter trawl with a 3-millimeter mesh liner. Total estimated fish and selected invertebrate densities were similar to estimates from FIM projects in adjacent areas and were characterized by similar dominant species. Preliminary analysis indicates that observed species distribution patterns were mainly a function of proximity to the three inlets within the study area. The two regions encompassing the northern Tolomato River and the Tomoka River and Basin are farthest from inlets and appear to function as oligohaline nursery areas. Those two areas had the greatest estimated densities of shellfish and juvenile sciaenid (drum) species associated with oligohaline waters (for example, Micropogonias undulatus, Sciaenops ocellatus and Cynoscion nebulosus). Samples near inlets, and between the two northern inlets, had greater estimated densities of species limited to euhaline waters, including juvenile clupeids collected at relatively high abundance and species of

  12. Hydrologic Conditions in Florida during Water Year 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verdi, Richard Jay; Tomlinson, Stewart A.; Irvin, Ronald B.; Fulcher, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Record-high and record-low hydrologic conditions occurred during water year 2007 (October 1, 2006 - September 30, 2007) based on analyses of precipitation, surface-water flows, lake elevations, and ground-water levels. For example, the streamgage at Suwannee River at White Springs in northwest Florida recorded an annual streamflow of 103 cubic feet per second during 2007, or about 6 percent of the period-of-record average since monitoring began in 1906. Lake Okeechobee in south Florida reached record-low elevations (8.82 feet on July 2) since monitoring began in 1912. Several wells throughout the State registered period-of-record lowest daily maximum water levels.

  13. Hydrologic Conditions in Northwest Florida: 2006 Water Year

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verdi, Richard Jay

    2007-01-01

    Introduction National data for streamflow, ground-water levels, and quality of water for the 2006 water year are accessible to the public on the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Site Information Management System (SIMS) website http://web10capp.er.usgs.gov/adr06_lookup/search.jsp. This fact sheet describes data and hydrologic conditions throughout northwest Florida during the 2006 water year (fig. 1), when record-low monthly streamflow conditions were reported at several streamgage locations. Prior to 1960, these data were published in various USGS Water-Supply Papers and included water-related data collected by the USGS during the water year (October 1 to September 30). In 1961, a series of annual reports, 'Water Resources Data-Florida,' was introduced that published surface-water data. In 1964, a similar report was introduced for the purposes of publishing water-quality data. In 1975, the reports were merged to a single volume and were expanded to publish data for surface water, water quality, and ground-water levels. Formal publication of the annual report series was discontinued at the end of the 2005 water year, upon activation of the SIMS website database.

  14. Barnacles as biomonitors of metal contamination in coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, Pedro A.; Salgado, Maria Antónia; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2011-07-01

    The use of barnacles as biomonitors of metal contamination in coastal waters worldwide is reviewed as a critique compilation of the reported studies and presents resume-tables of available data for future reference. The barnacle body reflects both short and long-term metal level environmental variations and the metal bioaccumulation occurs mainly in their granules (relatively inactive pools). The barnacle body is considered as good biomonitoring material and different barnacle species could bioaccumulate metal concentration ranges of 40-153,000 μg/g of Zn, 20-22,230 μg/g de Fe, 1.5-21,800 μg/g of Cu, 5.9-4742 μg/g of Mn, 0.1-1000 μg/g of Pb, 0.7-330 μg/g of Cd, 0.4-99 μg/g of Ni and 0.2-49 μg/g of Cr. However, as the plates ('shells') of barnacle exoskeletons can be affected by metal levels in coastal waters, mainly in their composition and morphology, they are not considered good biomonitoring material. Despite this, the use of a specific barnacle species or group of species in a specific region must firstly be carefully validated and the interpretation of the contaminant bioaccumulation levels should involve specific environmental variations of the region, physiological parameters of the barnacle species and the relationship between the potential toxicity of the contaminant for the environment and their significance for the barnacle species. Barnacles, particularly a widespread cosmopolitan species such as Amphibalanus amphitrite, have a great potential as biomonitors of anthropogenic contamination in coastal waters and have been used worldwide, including Europe (United Kingdom, Turkey, Poland, Croatia, Spain and Portugal), Asia (India and China), Oceania (Australia), North America (Florida, Massachusetts and Mexico) and South America (Brazil). The use of barnacle species as biomonitors of metal contamination in coastal waters is considered an important and valuable tool to evaluate and predict the ecological quality of an ecosystem.

  15. Application of FTLOADDS to Simulate Flow, Salinity, and Surface-Water Stage in the Southern Everglades, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, John D.; Swain, Eric D.; Wolfert, Melinda A.; Langevin, Christian D.; James, Dawn E.; Telis, Pamela A.

    2007-01-01

    The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan requires numerical modeling to achieve a sufficient understanding of coastal freshwater flows, nutrient sources, and the evaluation of management alternatives to restore the ecosystem of southern Florida. Numerical models include a regional water-management model to represent restoration changes to the hydrology of southern Florida and a hydrodynamic model to represent the southern and western offshore waters. The coastal interface between these two systems, however, has complex surface-water/ground-water and freshwater/saltwater interactions and requires a specialized modeling effort. The Flow and Transport in a Linked Overland/Aquifer Density Dependent System (FTLOADDS) code was developed to represent connected surface- and ground-water systems with variable-density flow. The first use of FTLOADDS is the Southern Inland and Coastal Systems (SICS) application to the southeastern part of the Everglades/Florida Bay coastal region. The need to (1) expand the domain of the numerical modeling into most of Everglades National Park and the western coastal area, and (2) better represent the effect of water-delivery control structures, led to the application of the FTLOADDS code to the Tides and Inflows in the Mangroves of the Everglades (TIME) domain. This application allows the model to address a broader range of hydrologic issues and incorporate new code modifications. The surface-water hydrology is of primary interest to water managers, and is the main focus of this study. The coupling to ground water, however, was necessary to accurately represent leakage exchange between the surface water and ground water, which transfers substantial volumes of water and salt. Initial calibration and analysis of the TIME application produced simulated results that compare well statistically with field-measured values. A comparison of TIME simulation results to previous SICS results shows improved capabilities, particularly in the

  16. Dissolved solids, hardness, and orthophosphate of surface-water runoff in the Northwest Florida Water Management District

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Earle, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    Historical water-quality data collected from January 1965 to September 1970 were used to prepare maps showing the generalized distribution of dissolved solids, hardness, and orthophosphate in streams and lakes in the Northwest Florida Water Management District. The regional concentration patterns shown on the maps are generalized and local variations may be expected. The dissolved-solids concentrations generally range from 10 to 150 milligrams per liter. Higher concentrations are found in the coastal area on tide affected streams. The concentrations of hardness as CaCO3 generally range from 5 to 140 milligrams per liter. The concentrations of dissolved orthophosphate generally range from 0 to 0.75 milligrams per liter. These maps provide information to those concerned with water resources management and establish a basis for comparing future water-quality data. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. Measuring mercury in coastal fog water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-04-01

    Mercury, a heavy metal neurotoxin, accumulates in sea life, in some cases reaching levels that make seafood unsafe for humans to eat. How mercury gets into aquatic organisms is debated, but part of the pathway could include mercury carried in precipitation, including rain, snow, and fog. The contribution of mercury in fog water in particular is not well known, especially in foggy coastal areas such as coastal California. To learn more, Weiss-Penzias et al. measured total mercury and monomethyl mercury concentrations in fog water and rainwater samples taken from four locations around Monterey Bay, California, during spring and summer 2011. They found that the mean monomethyl mercury concentrations in their fog water samples were about 34 times higher than the mean concentrations in their rainwater samples. Therefore, the authors believe that fog is an important, previously unrecognized source of mercury to coastal ecosystems. They also explored potential sources of mercury, finding that biotically formed monomethyl mercury from oceanic upwelling may contribute to monomethyl mercury in fog. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2011GL050324, 2012)

  18. Hydrologic conditions in Florida during Water Year 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verdi, Richard J.; Holt, Sandra L.; Irvin, Ronald B.; Fulcher, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Record-high and record-low hydrologic conditions occurred during water year 2008 (October 1, 2007-September 30, 2008). Record-low levels were caused by a continuation of the 2007 water year drought conditions into the 2008 water year and persisting until summer rainfall. The gage at the Santa Fe River near Fort White site recorded record-low monthly mean discharges in October and November 2007. The previous records for this site were set in 1956 and 2002, respectively. Record-high conditions in northeast and northwest Florida were caused by the rainfall and runoff associated with Tropical Storm Fay. For example, St. Mary's River near Macclenny recorded a new record-high monthly mean discharge in August 2008. The previous record for this site was set in 1945. Lake Okeechobee in south Florida reached new minimum monthly mean lake levels since monitoring began in 1912 from October to March during the 2008 water year. Some wells throughout northwest and south Florida registered period-of-record lowest daily maximum water levels.

  19. Water withdrawals, use, discharge, and trends in Florida, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    In 2000, the estimated amount of water withdrawn in Florida was 20,148 million gallons per day (Mgal/d), of which 59 percent was saline and 41 percent was fresh. Ground water accounted for 62 percent of freshwater withdrawals and surface water accounted for the remaining 38 percent. Ninety-two percent of the 15.98 million people in Florida relied on ground water for their drinking water needs in 2000. Almost all of the saline water withdrawals (99.9 percent) were from surface water. Public supply accounted for 43 percent of ground water withdrawn in 2000, followed by agricultural self-supplied (39 percent), commercial-industrial self-supplied (including mining) (8.5 percent), recreational irrigation (4.5 percent), domestic self-supplied (4 percent), and power generation (1 percent). Agricultural self-supplied accounted for 62 percent of fresh surface water withdrawn in 2000, followed by power generation (20 percent), public supply (8 percent), recreational irrigation (6 percent), and commercial-industrial self-supplied (4 percent). Almost all of saline water withdrawn was used for power generation. The largest amount of freshwater was withdrawn in Palm Beach County and the largest amount of saline water was withdrawn in Hillsborough County. Significant withdrawals (more than 200 Mgal/d) of fresh ground water occurred in Miami-Dade, Polk, Orange, Palm Beach, Broward, and Collier Counties. Significant withdrawals (more than 200 Mgal/d) of fresh surface water occurred in Palm Beach, Hendry, and Escambia Counties. The South Florida Water Management District accounted for the largest amount of freshwater withdrawn (49 percent). About 62 percent of the total ground water withdrawn was from the Floridan aquifer system; 17 percent was from the Biscayne aquifer. Most of the surface water used in Florida was from managed and maintained canal systems or large water bodies. Major sources of fresh surface water include the Caloosahatchee River, Deer Point Lake, Hillsborough

  20. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (south Florida)

    SciTech Connect

    Jory, D.E.; Iversen, E.S. . Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences)

    1989-08-01

    Black, red, and Nassau groupers (Mycteroperca bonaci, Epinephelus morio, and E. striatus, respectively) are widely distributed on rocky bottoms and reefs along the south Florida coast. They are the most valuable marine finfish group in Florida, comprising about 25% of the total value of landings in 1984. The three species can be distinguished by morphometric, meristic, and body color characteristics. Younger fish are typically found in shallow, inshore grass beds, and larger, older fish are generally restricted to deep waters. The three species are protogynous hermaphrodites. Sexual transition can occur at any length over about 300 mm SL. An offshore movement apparently coincides with the onset of sexual maturity. Spawning aggregations have been observed throughout the year, but occur mostly between late spring and early summer. Fecundity estimates range from about 800,000 to 5,000,000 eggs per female. Both the eggs and the larvae are planktonic. Their early life history is poorly known. Larvae probably leave the plankton and become benthic at around 20--30 mm SL. Growth rates range from about 2 to 10 mm/month. The three species are unspecialized carnivores, feeding on a variety of fishes, crustaceans, and mollusks. Interspecific competition for food and shelter may be common because of the overlap in distribution, habitat, size, and food habitats. For the three species, a number of predators and parasites have been reported. Both the black and red groupers have been implicated in ciguatera poisonings in south Florida. 70 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. The Carbon Budget of Coastal Waters of Eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najjar, R.; Boyer, E. W.; Burdige, D.; Butman, D. E.; Cai, W. J.; Canuel, E. A.; Chen, R. F.; Friedrichs, M. A.; Griffith, P. C.; Herrmann, M.; Kemp, W. M.; Kroeger, K. D.; Mannino, A.; McCallister, S. L.; McGillis, W. R.; Mulholland, M. R.; Salisbury, J.; Signorini, S. R.; Tian, H.; Tzortziou, M.; Vlahos, P.; Wang, A. Z.; Zimmerman, R. C.; Pilskaln, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    Observations and the output of numerical and statistical models are synthesized to construct a carbon budget of the coastal waters of eastern North America. The domain extends from the head of tide to (roughly) the continental shelf break and from southern Florida to southern Nova Scotia. The domain area is 2% tidal wetlands, 19% estuarine open water, and 78% shelf water. Separate budgets are constructed for inorganic and organic carbon; for tidal wetlands, estuaries, and shelf waters; and for three main subregions: the Gulf of Maine, the Mid-Atlantic Bight, and the South Atlantic Bight. Net primary production for the study region is about 150 Tg C yr-1, with 12% occurring in tidal wetlands and 7% in estuaries. Though respiration and photosynthesis are nearly balanced in most systems and regions, tidal wetlands and shelf waters are each found to be net autotrophic whereas estuaries are net heterotrophic. The domain as a whole is a sink of 5 Tg C yr-1 of atmospheric CO2, with tidal wetlands and shelf waters taking up 10 Tg C yr-1 (split roughly equally) and estuaries releasing 5 Tg C yr-1 to the atmosphere. Carbon burial is about 3 Tg C yr-1, split roughly equally among tidal wetlands, estuaries, and shelf waters. Rivers supply 6-7 Tg C yr-1 to estuaries, about 2/3 of which is organic. Tidal wetlands supply an additional 4 Tg C yr-1 to estuaries, about half of which is organic. Carbon in organic and inorganic forms is exported from estuaries to shelf waters and from shelf waters to the open ocean. In summary, tidal wetlands and estuaries, though small in area, contribute substantially to the overall carbon budget of the region.

  2. Coastal and Estuarine Waters: Light Behavior. Coastal and Estuarine Waters: Optical Sensors and Remote Sensing.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article summarizes the use of remote sensing techniques and technology to monitor coastal and estuarine waters. These waters are rich in mineral particles stirred up from the seabed by tides and waves and dissolved organic matter transported by rivers. The majority of the li...

  3. Evaluation of sewage source and fate on southeast Florida coastal reefs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carrie, Futch J.; Griffin, Dale W.; Banks, K.; Lipp, E.K.

    2011-01-01

    Water, sponge and coral samples were collected from stations impacted by a variety of pollution sources and screened for human enteric viruses as conservative markers for human sewage. While human enteroviruses and adenoviruses were not detected, noroviruses (NoV; human genogroups I and II) were detected in 31% of samples (especially in sponge tissue). Stations near inlets were the only ones to show multiple sample types positive for NoV. Fecal indicator bacteria and enteric viruses were further evaluated at multiple inlet stations on an outgoing tide. Greatest indicator concentrations and highest prevalence of viruses were found at the mouth of the inlet and offshore in the inlet plume. Results suggest that inlets moving large volumes of water into the coastal zone with tides may be an important source of fecal contaminants. Efforts to reduce run-off or unintended release of water into the Intracoastal Waterway may lower contaminants entering sensitive coastal areas. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Water withdrawals, use, and trends in Florida, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, the total amount of water withdrawn in Florida was estimated to be 14,988 million gallons per day (Mgal/d). Saline water accounted for 8,589 Mgal/d (57 percent) and freshwater accounted for 6,399 Mgal/d (43 percent). Groundwater accounted for 4,166 Mgal/d (65 percent) of freshwater withdrawals, and surface water accounted for the remaining 2,233 Mgal/d (35 percent). Surface water accounted for nearly all (99.9 percent) saline-water withdrawals. An additional 659 Mgal/d of reclaimed wastewater was used in Florida during 2010. Freshwater withdrawals were greatest in Palm Beach County (707 Mgal/d), and saline-water withdrawals were greatest in Hillsborough County (1,715 Mgal/d). Fresh groundwater provided drinking water (public supplied and self-supplied) for 17.33 million people (92 percent of Florida’s population), and fresh surface water provided drinking water for 1.47 million people (8 percent). The statewide public-supply gross per capita use for 2010 was 134 gallons per day, whereas the statewide public-supply domestic per capita use was 85 gallons per day. The majority of groundwater withdrawals (almost 62 percent) in 2010 were obtained from the Floridan aquifer system, which is present throughout most of the State. The majority of fresh surface-water withdrawals (56 percent) came from the southern Florida hydrologic unit subregion and is associated with Lake Okeechobee and the canals in the Everglades Agricultural Area of Glades, Hendry, and Palm Beach Counties, as well as the Caloosahatchee River and its tributaries in the agricultural areas of Collier, Glades, Hendry, and Lee Counties. Overall, agricultural irrigation accounted for 40 percent of the total freshwater withdrawals (ground and surface), followed by public supply with 35 percent. Public supply accounted for 48 percent of groundwater withdrawals, followed by agricultural self-supplied (34 percent), commercial-industrial-mining self-supplied (7 percent), recreational

  5. Mississippi waters reaching South Florida reefs under no flood conditions: synthesis of observing and modeling system findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Hénaff, Matthieu; Kourafalou, Vassiliki H.

    2016-03-01

    In August 2014, in situ measurements revealed an intense salinity drop impacting South Florida coral reefs, between Pulley Ridge (Southwest Florida Shelf) and the Florida Keys. The low salinity waters had a surface signal of 32 (down from 35.2) and extended over a 15-20-m deep lens. Satellite observations showed that this abrupt drop in salinity was due to a southeastward export of Mississippi River waters from the Northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM), revealing strong interaction between coastal and oceanic flows. Unlike previous events of marked long-distance Mississippi water export, this episode is not associated with Mississippi flooding conditions, which makes it a unique study case. We have developed a high-resolution (~2 km) comprehensive hydrodynamic numerical model of the GoM to study the conditions that controlled the 2014 Mississippi River water export episode. It is based on the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) and assimilates remotely sensed altimetry and sea surface temperature observations, to ensure that the simulated upper-ocean is realistic. This regional model has a detailed representation of coastal physics (especially river plume dynamics) and employs high-frequency river discharge and atmospheric forcing. The combined use of the simulation and observations reveals a unique pathway that brought Mississippi waters first eastward along the Northern GoM continental shelf, under prevailing winds and the presence of an anticyclonic Loop Current eddy, then southward along the edge of the West Florida Shelf, before reaching the deep GoM. Unlike usually observed, the offshore advection of Mississippi River waters thus took place far from the Delta area, which is another specificity of the 2014 episode. Finally, in the Florida Straits, Mississippi waters were advected from the deep ocean to the continental shelf under the influence of both deep sea (particularly a cyclonic Loop Current frontal eddy) and shelf flows (wind-induced Ekman transport). The

  6. Water Withdrawals, Use, and Trends in Florida, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the total amount of water withdrawals in Florida was estimated at 18,359 million gallons per day (Mgal/d). Saline water accounted for 11,486 Mgal/d (63 percent), and freshwater accounted for 6,873 Mgal/d (37 percent). Groundwater accounted for 4,247 Mgal/d (62 percent) of freshwater withdrawals, and surface water accounted for the remaining 2,626 Mgal/d (38 percent). Surface water accounted for nearly all (99.9 percent) saline-water withdrawals. An additional 660 Mgal/d of reclaimed wastewater was used in Florida during 2005. The largest amount of freshwater was withdrawn from Palm Beach County, and the largest amount of saline water was withdrawn from Pasco County. Fresh groundwater provided drinking water (public supplied and self-supplied) for 16.19 million people (90 percent of Florida's population), and fresh surface water provided drinking water for 1.73 million people (10 percent). The majority of groundwater withdrawals (nearly 60 percent) in 2005 was obtained from the Floridan aquifer system which is present throughout the entire State. The majority of fresh surface-water withdrawals (59 percent) came from the southern Florida hydrologic unit subregion and is associated with Lake Okeechobee and the canals in the Everglades Agricultural Area of Glades, Hendry, and Palm Beach Counties, as well as the Caloosahatchee River and its tributaries in the agricultural areas of Collier, Glades, Hendry, and Lee Counties. Overall, agricultural irrigation accounted for 40 percent of the total freshwater withdrawals (ground and surface), followed by public supply with 37 percent. Public supply accounted for 52 percent of groundwater withdrawals, followed by agricultural self-supplied (31 percent), ommercial-industrial-mining self-supplied (8.5 percent), recreational irrigation and domestic self-supplied (4 percent each), and power generation (0.5 percent). Agricultural self-supplied accounted for 56 percent of fresh surface-water withdrawals, followed by power

  7. Water-management model in Florida from LANDSAT-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higer, A. L.; Cordes, E. H.; Coker, A. E.; Rogers, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    A prototype data acquisition and dissemination network and its effectiveness in improving and/or solving hydrologic problems in southern Florida are evaluated. The network utilized LANDSAT MSS imagery and in situ monitoring by LANDSAT-DCS. Results show water level and rain fall measurements were collected and disseminated in less than two hours, a significant improvement over conventional methods which took up to two months. Improved network performance has also aided the development of water budgets and water distribution to the people, funa, and flora in the area. Imagery from LANDSAT was also found to enhance the utility of ground measurements.

  8. Effects of a coastal golf complex on water quality, periphyton, and seagrass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, M.A.; Boustany, R.G.; Dantin, D.D.; Quarles, R.L.; Moore, J.C.; Stanley, R.S.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide baseline information on the effects of a golf course complex on water quality, colonized periphyton, and seagrass meadows in adjacent freshwater, near-coastal, and wetland areas. The chemical and biological impacts of the recreational facility, which uses reclaimed municipal wastewater for irrigation, were limited usually to near-field areas and decreased seaward during the 2-year study. Concentrations of chromium, copper, and organochlorine pesticides were below detection in surface water, whereas mercury, lead, arsenic, and atrazine commonly occurred at all locations. Only mercury and lead exceeded water quality criteria. Concentrations of nutrients and chlorophyll a were greater in fairway ponds and some adjacent coastal areas relative to reference locations and Florida estuaries. Periphyton ash free dry weight and pigment concentrations statistically differed but not between reference and non-reference coastal areas. Biomass of Thalassia testudinum (turtle grass) was approximately 43% less in a meadow located adjacent to the golf complex (P < 0.05). The results of the study suggest that the effects of coastal golf courses on water quality may be primarily localized and limited to peripheral near-coastal areas. However, this preliminary conclusion needs additional supporting data. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  9. Water-resources investigations, Collier County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, Howard

    1980-01-01

    Early water-resources investigations in Collier County, Fla., were related to saltwater intrusion in Naples. With the advent of canal drainage and land reclamation farther inland, investigations were directed at effects of canals on water resources and the environment. High on the list of investigative needs are: (1) areal and vertical delineation of the shallow aquifer, the prime source of freshwater; (2) delineation of areas of poor quality ground water and the sources of the poor quality; (3) establishment of network of hydrologic data stations; and (4) determination of the relation between canals and the shallow aquifer. (USGS)

  10. Evaluation of the effects of sea-level change and coastal canal management on saltwater intrusion in the Biscayne aquifer of south Florida, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, J. D.; Sifuentes, D. F.; White, J.

    2015-12-01

    Sea-level increases are expected to have an effect on the position of the freshwater-saltwater interface in the Biscayne aquifer in south Florida as a result of the low topographic relief of the area and high rates of groundwater withdrawal from the aquifer. To study the effects that future sea-level increases will have on saltwater intrusion in the Biscayne aquifer in Broward County, Florida, a three-dimensional, variable-density, groundwater-flow and transport model was developed. The model was calibrated to observed groundwater heads and chloride concentrations for a 62-year period that includes historic increases in sea level, development of a surface-water management system to control flooding, and increases in groundwater withdrawals as the area transitioned from agricultural to urban land uses. Sensitivity analyses indicate that downward leakage of saltwater from coastal canals and creeks was the primary source of saltwater to the Biscayne aquifer during the last 62-years in areas where the surface-water system is not actively managed and is tidally influenced. In areas removed from the coastal canals and creeks or under active surface-water management, historic groundwater withdrawals were the primary cause of saltwater intrusion into the aquifer. Simulation of future conditions suggests that possible increases in sea level will result in additional saltwater intrusion. Model scenarios suggest that additional saltwater intrusion will be greatest in areas where coastal canals and creeks were historically the primary source of seawater. Future saltwater intrusion in those areas, however, may be reduced by relocation of salinity-control structures.

  11. Water resources of Okaloosa County and adjacent areas, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trapp, Henry; Pascale, C.A.; Foster, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    Okaloosa County, in the northwest Florida panhandle, uses the Floridan aquifer for water supply, although it also has abundant surface water and ground water in the surficial sand-and-gravel aquifer. Water levels have declined locally more than 90 feet in the upper limestone of the Floridan aquifer. The Floridan aquifer is overlain by the Pensacola clay confining bed, and the Bucatunna Clay subdivides it into two limestone units. Water in the upper limestone is generally of good quality. The lower limestone probably contains saline water. Average daily stream discharge is about 2,500 million gallons. Stream discharge does not diminish excessively during droughts, owing to high base runoff. Water levels in the Floridan aquifer will decline as long as pumping increases in the present areas of withdrawal. The decline could be alleviated by redistribution of pumping, artificial recharge, and the use of the sand-and-gravel aquifer or streams. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. Water Foundations Teachers Guide. The Science of Florida's Water Resources: Lesson Plans for Teachers and Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This document features lesson plans for teachers and students on Florida's water resources. The guide is divided into four grade levels: K-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12. Each grade level includes objectives, guides, and five lesson plans. K-2 lesson plans include: (1) "We Are Water"; (2) "Why Water is Extra Special"; (3) "Water's Changing Shapes"; (4)…

  13. Passive microwave sensing of coastal area waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, B. M.

    1980-01-01

    A technique to remotely measure sea-surface temperature and salinity was demonstrated during the 1970's with a dual-frequency microwave radiometer system developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. Accuracies in temperature of 1 C and 1 part per thousand in salinity were obtained using state-of-the-art radiometers. Several aircraft programs for the measurement of coastal area waters demonstrating the application of the microwave radiometer system are discussed. Improvements of the microwave radiometer system during the 1980's and the design and development of new radiometer systems at other frequencies are outlined and related to potential applications.

  14. An optical method to assess water clarity in coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Kulshreshtha, Anuj; Shanmugam, Palanisamy

    2015-12-01

    Accurate estimation of water clarity in coastal regions is highly desired by various activities such as search and recovery operations, dredging and water quality monitoring. This study intends to develop a practical method for estimating water clarity based on a larger in situ dataset, which includes Secchi depth (Z sd ), turbidity, chlorophyll and optical properties from several field campaigns in turbid coastal waters. The Secchi depth parameter is found to closely vary with the concentration of suspended sediments, vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient K d (m(-1)) and beam attenuation coefficient c (m(-1)). The optical relationships obtained for the selected wavelengths (i.e. 520, 530 and 540 nm) exhibit an inverse relationship between Secchi depth and the length attenuation coefficient (1/(c + K d )). The variation in Secchi depth is expressed in terms of undetermined coupling coefficient which is composed of light penetration factor (expressed by z(1%)K d (λ)) and a correction factor (ξ) (essentially governed by turbidity of the water column). This method of estimating water clarity was validated using independent in situ data from turbid coastal waters, and its results were compared with those obtained from the existing methods. The statistical analysis of the measured and the estimated Z sd showed that the present method yields lower error when compared to the existing methods. The spatial structures of the measured and predicted Z sd are also highly consistent with in situ data, which indicates the potential of the present method for estimating the water clarity in turbid coastal and associated lagoon waters. PMID:26559556

  15. Water-management models in Florida from ERTS-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higer, A. L. (Principal Investigator); Rogers, R. H.; Coker, A. E.; Cordes, E. H.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The usefullness of ERTS 1 to improving the overall effectiveness of collecting and disseminating data was evaluated. ERTS MSS imagery and in situ monitoring by DCS were used to evaluate their separate and combined capabilities. Twenty data collection platforms were established in southern Florida. Water level and rainfall measurements were collected and disseminated to users in less than 2 hours, a significant improvement over conventional techniques requiring 2 months. ERTS imagery was found to significantly enhance the utility of ground measurements. Water stage was correlated with water surface areas from imagery in order to obtain water stage-volume relations. Imagery provided an economical basis for extrapolating water parameters from the point samples to unsampled data and provided a synoptic view of water mass boundaries that no amount of ground sampling or monitoring could provide.

  16. Uranium and strontium isotopes in Boulder Zone waters, South Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Cowart, J.B. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    The Boulder Zone of southern peninsular Florida, which is at a depth of approximately 1,000 m, is a cavernous, dolomitized zone which contains anomalously cool water which appears to be of marine composition. Samples of this water, as they have become available, have been analyzed for uranium concentration, U-234/U-238 alpha activity ratio, and, in a few cases, Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio and concentration. Boulder Zone samples collected in the vicinity of Ft. Lauderdale have analyzed values of the above mentioned parameters which are virtually indistinguishable from those of sea water. In a fan-like radial pattern, the uranium concentrations decrease and the U-234/U-238 activity ratios increase away from the apex at Ft. Lauderdale. It has been hypothesized by others that the Ft. Lauderdale area is the location on land that is nearest to an intake area where sea water moves into the Boulder Zone. The isotopic and concentration values reported here are consistent with this hypothesis. Waters collected from well located near the Atlantic coast north of Ft. Lauderdale do not display the same U and Sr isotopic pattern as those in the remainder of south Florida. This may be due to increased mixing between water bearing units which have been fractured and/or faulted by the extention of a flexure which has been postulated in the northern part of the study area.

  17. Index of ground-water quality data for Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seaber, P.R.; Williams, O.O.

    1985-01-01

    The Master Water Data Index of the U.S. Geological Survey contains records and information for 13,925 ground-water quality collection sites in Florida as follows: 2,180 active and 11,559 inactive well sites, and 39 active and 147 inactive spring sites. Ground-water quality data have been and are being collected at more sites in Florida than are other types of ground- and surface-water hydrologic data. Information available from the Master Water Data Index includes location (county, hydrologic unit, and latitude-longitude); reporting agency; agency identifying number; period and frequency of record; types of data (parameter sampled); and for wells, the principal aquifer sampled and well depth. This information may be retrieved, upon request, in a variety of formats. This report contains an index of the information available, not the actual water-quality data itself. The actual data may be obtained from the reporting agency that collected and stored the data. (USGS)

  18. Determining discharge-coefficient ratings for selected coastal control structures in Broward and Palm Beach counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillis, G.M.; Swain, E.D.

    1998-01-01

    Discharges through 10 selected coastal control structures in Broward and Palm Beach Counties, Florida, are presently computed using the theoretical discharge-coefficient ratings developed from scale modeling, theoretical discharge coefficients, and some field calibrations whose accuracies for specific sites are unknown. To achieve more accurate discharge-coefficient ratings for the coastal control structures, field discharge measurements were taken with an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler at the coastal control structures under a variety of flow conditions. These measurements were used to determine computed discharge-coefficient ratings for the coastal control structures under different flow regimes: submerged orifice flow, submerged weir flow, free orifice flow, and free weir flow. Theoretical and computed discharge-coefficient ratings for submerged orifice and weir flows were determined at seven coastal control structures, and discharge ratings for free orifice and weir flows were determined at three coastal control structures. The difference between the theoretical and computed discharge-coefficient ratings varied from structure to structure. The theoretical and computed dischargecoefficient ratings for submerged orifice flow were within 10 percent at four of seven coastal control structures; however, differences greater than 20 percent were found at two of the seven structures. The theoretical and computed discharge-coefficient ratings for submerged weir flow were within 10 percent at three of seven coastal control structures; however, differences greater than 20 percent were found at four of the seven coastal control structures. The difference between theoretical and computed discharge-coefficient ratings for free orifice and free weir flows ranged from 5 to 32 percent. Some differences between the theoretical and computed discharge-coefficient ratings could be better defined with more data collected over a greater distribution of measuring conditions.

  19. Hurricane storm surge and amphibian communities in coastal wetlands of northwestern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gunzburger, M.S.; Hughes, W.B.; Barichivich, W.J.; Staiger, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Isolated wetlands in the Southeastern United States are dynamic habitats subject to fluctuating environmental conditions. Wetlands located near marine environments are subject to alterations in water chemistry due to storm surge during hurricanes. The objective of our study was to evaluate the effect of storm surge overwash on wetland amphibian communities. Thirty-two wetlands in northwestern Florida were sampled over a 45-month period to assess amphibian species richness and water chemistry. During this study, seven wetlands were overwashed by storm surge from Hurricane Dennis which made landfall 10 July 2005 in the Florida panhandle. This event allowed us to evaluate the effect of storm surge overwash on water chemistry and amphibian communities of the wetlands. Specific conductance across all wetlands was low pre-storm (<100 ??S/cm), but increased post-storm at the overwashed wetlands (x?? = 7,613 ??S/cm). Increased specific conductance was strongly correlated with increases in chloride concentrations. Amphibian species richness showed no correlation with specific conductance. One month post-storm we observed slightly fewer species in overwashed compared with non-overwashed wetlands, but this trend did not continue in 2006. More species were detected across all wetlands pre-storm, but there was no difference between overwashed and non-overwashed wetlands when considering all amphibian species or adult anurans and larval anurans separately. Amphibian species richness did not appear to be correlated with pH or presence of fish although the amphibian community composition differed between wetlands with and without fish. Our results suggest that amphibian communities in wetlands in the southeastern United States adjacent to marine habitats are resistant to the effects of storm surge overwash. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  20. Water Use and Quality Footprints of Biofuel Crops in Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, S.; Hendricks, G.; Helsel, Z.; Knowles, J.

    2013-12-01

    The use of biofuel crops for future energy needs will require considerable amounts of water inputs. Favorable growing conditions for large scale biofuel production exist in the sub-tropical environment of South Florida. However, large-scale land use change associated with biofuel crops is likely to affect the quantity and quality of water within the region. South Florida's surface and ground water resources are already stressed by current allocations. Limited data exists to allocate water for growing the energy crops as well as evaluate the accompanying hydrologic and water quality impacts of large-scale land use changes. A three-year study was conducted to evaluate the water supply and quality impacts of three energy crops: sugarcane, switchgrass, and sweet sorghum (with a winter crop). Six lysimeters were used to collect the data needed to quantify crop evapotranspiration (ETc), and nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) levels in groundwater and discharge (drainage and runoff). Each lysimeter (4.85 x 3.65 x 1.35 m) was equipped to measure water input, output, and storage. The irrigation, runoff, and drainage volumes were measured using flow meters. Groundwater samples were collected bi-weekly and drainage/runoff sampling was event based; samples were analyzed for nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) species. Data collected over the three years revealed that the average annual ETc was highest for sugarcane (1464 mm) followed by switchgrass and sweet sorghum. Sweet sorghum had the highest total N (TN) concentration (7.6 mg/L) in groundwater and TN load (36 kg/ha) in discharge. However, sweet sorghum had the lowest total P (TP) concentration (1.2 mg/L) in groundwater and TP load (9 kg/ha) in discharge. Water use footprint for ethanol (liter of water used per liter of ethanol produced) was lowest for sugarcane and highest for switchgrass. Switchgrass had the highest P-load footprint for ethanol. No differences were observed for the TN load footprint for ethanol. This is the

  1. Mysterious Black Water off Florida's Gulf Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    An unusually wide swath of significant snow cover resulted from a series of winter storms moving northeastward across the central United States during January 29-31, 2002. Total snowfall accumulations across the Great Plains, Midwest, and Great Lakes regions were as high as 6-18 inches. Along the southeastern edge of the heavy snow band, significant freezing rain resulted in a 1-3 inch coating of ice across parts of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri. This was one of the worst ice storms in Oklahoma history, downing 4,000 electric power poles and causing loss of power to a quarter of a million homes and businesses. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite produced an image of the area on February 1, 2002. In visible wavelengths (above, top) the ice appears transluscent, in contrast to the bright white snow and darker ground. The ice is visible as a thick black stripe along the lower right edge of the medium gray snow in the near infrared image (above, lower). Because water absorbs near-infrared light so strongly, bare ground is actually brighter than the snow in this image. full resolution image (1.1 MB JPEG) A clear, dry wind from the north blew southward across the Great Lakes yesterday, picking up moisture from the lakes and pushing it high into the air. The resulting cloud formation can be seen in this image of United States taken on February 4, 2002, by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFs) aboard the OrbView-2 satellite. The cloud formation stretches across Indiana, Ohio, and northeastern Pennsylvania before stopping abruptly at central and southern Appalachian Mountains. A band of snowfall can also be seen lying across southern Nebraska, Oklahoma, Iowa, and Michegan. The crisp, straight boundaries of the snow are easily discernable in the image. In general, clouds appear streaky and uneven on a satellite image, and snow cover appears solid with definable borders. MODIS image courtesy University of

  2. Hydrogeology and quality of ground water in Orange County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adamski, James C.; German, Edward R.

    2004-01-01

    Ground water is the main source of water supply in central Florida and is critical for aquatic habitats and human consumption. To provide a better understanding for the conservation, development, and management of the water resources of Orange County, Florida, a study of the hydrogeologic framework, water budget, and ground-water quality characteristics was conducted from 1998 through 2002. The study also included extensive analyses of the surface-water resources, published as a separate report. An increase in population from about 264,000 in 1960 to 896,000 in 2000 and subsequent urban growth throughout this region has been accompanied by a substantial increase in water use. Total ground-water use in Orange County increased from about 82 million gallons per day in 1965 to about 287 million gallons per day in 2000. The hydrogeology of Orange County consists of three major hydrogeologic units: the surficial aquifer system, the intermediate confining unit, and the Floridan aquifer system. Data were compiled from 634 sites to construct hydrogeologic maps and sections of Orange County. Water-level elevations measured in 23 wells tapping the surficial aquifer system ranged from about 10.6 feet in eastern Orange County to 123.8 feet above NGVD 29 in northwestern Orange County from March 2000 through September 2001. Water levels also were measured in 14 wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer. Water levels fluctuate over time from seasonal and annual variations in rainfall; however, water levels in a number of wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer have declined over time. Withdrawal of ground water from the aquifers by pumping probably is causing the declines because the average annual precipitation rate has not changed substantially in central Florida since the 1930s, although yearly rates can vary. A generalized water budget was computed for Orange County from 1991 to 2000. Average rates for the 10-year period for the following budget components were computed based

  3. The St. Johns River, Florida: a Unique Lentic/Lotic Waterbody on the Southeastern Coastal Plain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobberfuhl, D. R.

    2005-05-01

    The St. Johns River is a 500-km, low-gradient, black water river located in northeast Florida. Tidal effects, reverse flow events, and numerous saline springs result in estuarine conditions sometimes extending far upstream. Invertebrate sampling has occurred aperiodically in the lower mainstem of the river since 1974. In general, fresher areas of the river exhibited higher taxa richness but relatively little difference in diversity. The river shows differences in invertebrate populations throughout the lower estuarine section related to salinity. The watershed is facing tremendous development pressure and is subsequently challenged by typical problems, although little historical change was detected using this 30-year dataset. However, data suggested that there was evidence of localized impairment to the benthic community. Finally, areas with submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) demonstrated higher richness and diversity than comparable bare areas, underscoring the importance of SAV to the health and productivity of the river.

  4. Impact of Willow Invasion on Vegetation Water and Carbon Exchange in the Florida Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budny, M. L.; Benscoter, B.

    2014-12-01

    Southern coastal willow (Salix caroliniana) is native to the Florida Everglades, commonly found on drier landforms like levees and tree islands. Shortened periods of inundation due to water management have led to the encroachment and expansion of these shrubs in sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense) marsh communities. The broadleaf willow is morphologically and physiologically different from the graminoid sedge sawgrass, with possible consequence for microhabitat conditions and ecosystem function. Willow is often assumed to have greater rates of transpiration, thereby affecting wetland water management, and may have concurrent differences in photosynthesis and carbon exchange. However, the ecophysiological impact of the willow invasion has not been quantified. We assessed differences in plant water and carbon exchange between willow and sawgrass at Blue Cypress Conservation Area, an impounded sawgrass peatland within the St. John's River Water Management District (SJRWMD). Plant transpiration and net CO2 exchange (photosynthesis and autotrophic respiration) were measured on fully expanded, non-damaged leaves of sawgrass and willow using a portable infrared gas analyzer (LI-6400XT, LI-COR, Lincoln, NE, U.S.A.). The results obtained from this study will provide a better understanding of ecophysiological changes that occur within marsh communities with shrub expansion, which will have cascading impacts on soil accretion and turnover, microclimate, and water quality Understanding the implications of willow expansion will improve landscape models of wetland water and carbon exchange as well as inform water management decisions.

  5. A ground-water sapping landscape in the Florida Panhandle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumm, S. A.; Boyd, K. F.; Wolff, C. G.; Spitz, W. J.

    1995-07-01

    Drainage networks that have formed by ground-water sapping are developed in the highly permeable sands of the Citronelle Formation in the Florida Panhandle. The valleys resemble those formed on Hawaii, the Colorado Plateau and on Mars, but they have developed without significant lithologic controls. Drainage patterns range from trellis to dentritic depending on the effect of beach ridges and relative relief. Many of the drainage networks are not fully developed, and the adjacent uplands have been modified by marine, aeolian, and to a limited extent fluvial processes. Extension of the networks appears to be episodic, as a result of fires, hurricanes, and human activities, which damage or destroy vegetation.

  6. Analysis for water level data for Everglades National Park, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan, T.J.; Hartwell, J.H.

    1972-01-01

    Stage-duration curves were developed for five gaging stations in Everglades National Park, Florida. Four of the five curves show similar characteristics with an increase in the slope when the water level is below land surface. Monthly stage-duration curves, developed for one of the stations, reflect the seasonal trends of the water level. Recession curves were prepared for the same five stations. These curves represent the average water-level decline during periods of little or no rainfall. They show the decline in level at the end of 10, 20, and 60 days for any given initial stage. A family of curves was also prepared to give the recession from various initial stages for any period up to 60 days.

  7. CLASSIFYING COASTAL WATERS:CURRENT NECESSITY AND HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal ecosystems are ecologically and commercially valuable, productive habitats that are experiencing escalating compromises of their structural and functional integrity. The Clean Water Act (USC 1972) requires identification of impaired water bodies and determination of the c...

  8. Response of ground-water levels of flood control operations in three basins, south-eastern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pitt, William A.J.

    1974-01-01

    Three basins in southeastern Florida were investigated to determine the changes in ground-water levels and canal flows that occurred in response to operation of coastal water-control structures in each canal. All three basins are underlain by the Biscayne aquifer. They are, Snapper Creek Canal basin, where the Biscayne aquifer is of high permeability; the Snake Creek Canal basin, where the aquifer is of moderate permeability; and the Pompano-Cypress Canal basin, where the aquifer is of low permeability. In each basin, drainage is a function of permeability; thus, where the permeability of the aquifer is high, drainage is excellent. The coastal water-conrol structures are intended to afford flood protection in the three basins. In general the control operation criteria for flood control in newly developing areas in southeastern Florida do not provide adequate protection from flooding because of the time required for the aquifer to respond to changes in the controls. Adequate protection would require increasing the density of secondary drainage canals, but this could achieved only by reducing the quantity of water available for recharging those segments of the Biscayne aquifer adjacent to the canals. (Woodrad-USGS)

  9. Can humic water discharge counteract eutrophication in coastal waters?

    PubMed

    Andersson, Agneta; Jurgensone, Iveta; Rowe, Owen F; Simonelli, Paolo; Bignert, Anders; Lundberg, Erik; Karlsson, Jan

    2013-01-01

    A common and established view is that increased inputs of nutrients to the sea, for example via river flooding, will cause eutrophication and phytoplankton blooms in coastal areas. We here show that this concept may be questioned in certain scenarios. Climate change has been predicted to cause increased inflow of freshwater to coastal areas in northern Europe. River waters in these areas are often brown from the presence of high concentrations of allochthonous dissolved organic carbon (humic carbon), in addition to nitrogen and phosphorus. In this study we investigated whether increased inputs of humic carbon can change the structure and production of the pelagic food web in the recipient seawater. In a mesocosm experiment unfiltered seawater from the northern Baltic Sea was fertilized with inorganic nutrients and humic carbon (CNP), and only with inorganic nutrients (NP). The system responded differently to the humic carbon addition. In NP treatments bacterial, phytoplankton and zooplankton production increased and the systems turned net autotrophic, whereas the CNP-treatment only bacterial and zooplankton production increased driving the system to net heterotrophy. The size-structure of the food web showed large variations in the different treatments. In the enriched NP treatments the phytoplankton community was dominated by filamentous >20 µm algae, while in the CNP treatments the phytoplankton was dominated by picocyanobacteria <5 µm. Our results suggest that climate change scenarios, resulting in increased humic-rich river inflow, may counteract eutrophication in coastal waters, leading to a promotion of the microbial food web and other heterotrophic organisms, driving the recipient coastal waters to net-heterotrophy. PMID:23637807

  10. Florida coastal ecological characterization: a socioeconomic study of the Northwestern Region. Volume II. Data appendix. Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    French, C.O.; Parsons, J.W.

    1983-08-01

    Data are compiled from existing sources on the social and economic characteristics of the Northwestern coastal region of Florida, which is made up of Escambia, Santa Rosa, Okaloosa, Walton, Bay, Gulf, and Franklin Counties. Described are the components and interrelationships among complex processes that include population and demographics characteristics, mineral production, multiple-use conflicts, recreation and tourism, agricultural production, sport and commercial fishing, transportation, industrial and residential development, and environmental issues and regulations. Energetics models of socioeconomic systems are also presented. This volume contains appendices presenting data on public utilities, transportation, recreation and tourism, mineral and oil production, and environmental issues and regulations. 31 figures, 187 tables.

  11. Florida coastal ecological characterization: a socioeconomic study of the southwestern region. Volume II. Data appendix, Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    French, C.O.; Parsons, J.W.

    1983-08-01

    Data are compiled from existing sources on the social and economic characteristics of the southwestern coastal region of Florida, which is made up of Charlotte, Collier, DeSoto, Hillsborough, Lee, Manatee, Monroe, Pasco, Pinellas, and Sarasota Counties. Described are the components and interrelationships among complex processes that include population and demographics characteristics, mineral production, multiple-use conflicts, recreation and tourism, agricultural production, sport and commercial fishing, transportation, industrial and residential development, and environmental issues and regulations. Energetics models of socioeconomic systems are also presented. This volume contains appendices presenting data on land use, public utilities, transportation, recreation and tourism. 21 figures, 141 tables.

  12. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Florida): Reef-building tube worm

    SciTech Connect

    Zale, A.V.; Merrifield, S.G. )

    1989-12-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, distribution, life history, habitats, and environmental requirements of coastal species of fishes and aquatic invertebrates. They are designed to assist in environmental impact assessment. The reef-building tube worm is an ecologically and geologically significant invertebrate inhabiting the coastal zone of southeastern Florida. The reefs constructed by the worms retain beach sediments, protect shorelines from storm damage, and are the basis for an elaborate marine community of fishes and invertebrates. The reefs provide substrate, shelter, and food in the relatively inhospitable surf zone. Reef-building tube worms require stable settlement substrates within sandy beam habitats and intense turbulence to maintain suspension of sand grains and other particles for tube building. 37 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Species profiles: Life history and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Florida): King mackerel and Spanish mackerel. [Scomberomorus cavalla; Scomberomorus maculatus

    SciTech Connect

    Godcharles, M.F.; Murphy, M.D.

    1986-06-01

    This Species Profile on king and Spanish mackerel summarizes the taxonomy, morphology, distribution, life history, fishery descriptions, ecological role, and environmental requirements of these coastal pelagic fish to assist environmental impact assessment. King and Spanish mackerel support major commercial and sport fisheries in south Florida. In 1974 to 1983, Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic commercial landings of king mackerel declined from 10.4 to 4.3 million lb.; Spanish mackerel have fluctuated between 4.9 to 17.4 million lb. Both inhabit coastal waters, but Spanish mackerel are generally found closer to beaches and in outer estuarine waters. Both species feed principally on estuarine-dependent species. They are highly migratory, exhibiting seasonal migrations to winter feeding grounds off south Florida and summer spawning/feeding grounds in the northern Gulf of Mexico and off the Atlantic coast of the Southeastern US. Spawning occurs from March/April through September/October between the middle and Outer Continental Shelf (35 to 183 mi) for king mackerel and the inner shelf (12 to 34 mi) for Spanish mackerel. King mackerel reach sexual maturity in their 3rd and 4th years and Spanish, between their 2nd and 3rd. Female king mackerel live longer and grow larger and faster than males. Spanish mackerel live to 8 years; females also grow faster than males. King and Spanish mackerel feed principally on schooling fishes. Larvae and juveniles of both species are prey to little tunny and dolphin; adults are prey for sharks and bottlenose dolphin. Temperature and salinity are important factors regulating mackerel distribution.

  14. Use of MODIS Terra Imagery to Estimate Surface Water Quality Standards, Using Lake Thonotosassa, Florida, as a Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, Max J.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Rickman, Douglas L.

    2010-01-01

    Lake Thonotosassa is a highly eutrophied lake located in an area with rapidly growing population in the Tampa Bay watershed, Florida. The Florida Administrative Code has designated its use for "recreation, propagation and maintenance of a healthy, well-balanced population of fish and wildlife." Although this lake has been the subject of efforts to improve water quality since 1970, overall water quality has remained below the acceptable state standards, and has a high concentration of nutrients. This condition is of great concern to public health since it has favored episodic blooms of Cyanobacteria. Some Cyanobacterial species release toxins that can reach humans through drinking water, fish consumption, and direct contact with contaminated water. The lake has been historically popular for fishing and water sports, and its overflow water drains into the Hillsborough River, the main supply of municipal water for the City of Tampa, this explains why it has being constantly monitored in situ for water quality by the Environmental Protection Commission of Hillsborough County (EPC). Advances in remote sensing technology, however, open the possibility of facilitating similar types of monitoring in this and similar lakes, further contributing to the implementation of surveillance systems that would benefit not just public health, but also tourism and ecosystems. Although traditional application of this technology to water quality has been focused on much larger coastal water bodies like bays and estuaries, this study evaluates the feasibility of its application on a 46.6 km2 freshwater lake. Using surface reflectance products from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra, this study evaluates associations between remotely sensed data and in situ data from the EPC. The parameters analyzed are the surface water quality standards used by the State of Florida and general indicators of trophic status.

  15. Sediment Surface Elevation Changes in Relation to Groundwater Hydrologic Variation in the Coastal Florida Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith III, T. J.; Cahoon, D.

    2002-05-01

    Mangrove forests dominate the downstream end of the Greater Florida Everglades. Restoration of the Everglades has concentrated on surface water flow. We measured rates of sediment (surface) elevation change and soil accretion in relation to both surface and groundwater elevation at six sites in the lower Everglades, including freshwater marsh and mangrove habitats. Three sites were located along the two major distributaries of the Everglades: Shark River and Lostmans River. Accretion was negligible in upstream, freshwater marsh sites and greatest in downstream mangrove forest sites. Sediment elevation changes were substantial at all sites. More importantly, the pattern of sediment elevation change differed from upstream to downstream, and was different between downstream sites on each river. The rate of sediment elevation change was related to the rate of groundwater elevation change at many, but not all, sites. For freshwater sites, as groundwater elevation increased, sediment elevation decreased, an unexpected finding. For downstream, mangrove sites, a weak positive relationship was found whereby increasing groundwater elevations lead to increasing sediment surface elevation. Important seasonal patterns also appear to be present indicating that subsurface processes (root growth, decomposition, water storage) may play important roles in marsh / mangrove surface elevation. If restoration of freshwater sheetflow in the upstream Everglades leads to increased groundwater elevations in the downstream system, mangrove forests may be able to keep even with current rates of sea level rise.

  16. Estimation of water surface elevations for the Everglades, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaseanu, Monica; Pearlstine, Leonard

    2008-07-01

    The Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) is an integrated network of real-time water-level monitoring gages and modeling methods that provides scientists and managers with current (2000-present) online water surface and water depth information for the freshwater domain of the Greater Everglades. This integrated system presents data on a 400-m square grid to assist in (1) large-scale field operations; (2) integration of hydrologic and ecologic responses; (3) supporting biological and ecological assessment of the implementation of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP); and (4) assessing trophic-level responses to hydrodynamic changes in the Everglades. This paper investigates the radial basis function multiquadric method of interpolation to obtain a continuous freshwater surface across the entire Everglades using radio-transmitted data from a network of water-level gages managed by the US Geological Survey (USGS), the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD), and the Everglades National Park (ENP). Since the hydrological connection is interrupted by canals and levees across the study area, boundary conditions were simulated by linearly interpolating along those features and integrating the results together with the data from marsh stations to obtain a continuous water surface through multiquadric interpolation. The absolute cross-validation errors greater than 5 cm correlate well with the local outliers and the minimum distance between the closest stations within 2000-m radius, but seem to be independent of vegetation or season.

  17. A Citizen's Guide to Coastal Water Resource Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Jim; Miller, Todd

    More people than ever are using coastal waters for recreation and business activities and living along the shores. This puts more pressure on natural resources and creates more conflicts between the people using the resources. This guidebook is designed to help citizens develop an understanding of how coastal management works. Four chapters in…

  18. Remotely Sensed Optical Water Quality for Water Quality Assessment and Seagrass Protection in Florida's Big Bend Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, P. R.; Hu, C.; Cannizarro, J.; Yarbro, L. A.; English, D. C.; Magley, W.; Charbonneau, M.; Barnes, B.

    2012-12-01

    Florida's Big Bend coastal region contains the second largest contiguous seagrass bed in the continental US. Approximately 250,000 ha of seagrass have been mapped in the region, but the total area of offshore seagrass beds might be several times greater. The Suwannee River drains a largely agricultural watershed (26,000 km2) in Georgia and Florida, and its discharge (x= 280 m3/s) affects water clarity over most of the Big Bend seagrass beds. Seagrass density, species composition and areal extent were severely affected by discharge associated with tropical cyclones in 2004 and 2005, focusing attention on this important resource and the near- and far-field impacts of the Suwannee River discharge. The Lower Suwannee River also has been identified by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection as an impaired water body due to high nitrogen and algal biomass. This project attempts to improve water quality and to protect Big Bend seagrasses by making remotely sensed optical water quality data more accessible to managers and stakeholders involved in the process of regulating nutrient loads in the Suwannee River and to provide data to assess effectiveness of management actions. To accomplish these goals, we have developed and tested new algorithms for retrieval of Kd, chlorophyll, and CDOM from Modis imagery, created a time series of optical water quality (OWQ) for the Suwannee River Estuary (SRE), and related seagrass gains and losses to annual variations in optical water quality. During two years of bimonthly ground-truth cruises, chlorophyll concentrations, Aph, Ad, and Acdom in the SRE were 0.3-38.3 mgm-3, 0.013-1.056, 0.013-0.735, and 0.042-7.24, respectively. For most locations and most cruises, CDOM was the dominant determinant of Kd. In the Modis time series, Kd488 estimates (calculated using the Quasi-Analytic Algorithm of Lee et al. 2006) covaried with Suwannee River discharge between 2002 and 2011 with an overall r2 value of 0.64. This relationship is

  19. Historic topographic sheets to satellite imagery—A methodology for evaluating coastal change in Florida's Big Bend tidal marsh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raabe, Ellen A.; Streck, Amy E.; Stumpf, Richard P.

    2004-01-01

    This open-file report details the methodology used to rectify, digitize, and mosaic nineteen 19th century topographic sheets on the marsh-dominated Big Bend Gulf coast of Florida. Historic charts of tidal marshes in Florida's Big Bend were prepared in a digital grid-based format for comparison with modern features derived from 1995 satellite imagery. The chart-by-chart rectification process produced a map accuracy of ± 8 m. An effort was made to evaluate secondary map features, such as tree islands, but changes during the intervening years exceed standard surveying errors and rendered the analysis ineffective. A map, at 1:300,000 comparing historic and modern features, is provided to illustrate major changes along the coastline. Shoreline erosion is exceeded by the inland migration of the intertidal zone onto adjoining coastal forest lands. While statements of mapping accuracy are provided in the text, graphic representation of changes in the intertidal zone may be inexact at any given location. Thus caution is advised for site-specific applications. Maps and digital files provided should be used to visualize overall trends and regional anomalies, and not used to critically assess features at a particular location. Final product includes mosaic of historic coastal features and comparison to modern features.

  20. Estimating ground-water inflow to lakes in central Florida using the isotope mass-balance approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sacks, Laura A.

    2002-01-01

    The isotope mass-balance approach was used to estimate ground-water inflow to 81 lakes in the central highlands and coastal lowlands of central Florida. The study area is characterized by a subtropical climate and numerous lakes in a mantled karst terrain. Ground-water inflow was computed using both steady-state and transient formulations of the isotope mass-balance equation. More detailed data were collected from two study lakes, including climatic, hydrologic, and isotopic (hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratio) data. For one of these lakes (Lake Starr), ground-water inflow was independently computed from a water-budget study. Climatic and isotopic data collected from the two lakes were similar even though they were in different physiographic settings about 60 miles apart. Isotopic data from all of the study lakes plotted on an evaporation trend line, which had a very similar slope to the theoretical slope computed for Lake Starr. These similarities suggest that data collected from the detailed study lakes can be extrapolated to the rest of the study area. Ground-water inflow computed using the isotope mass-balance approach ranged from 0 to more than 260 inches per year (or 0 to more than 80 percent of total inflows). Steady-state and transient estimates of ground-water inflow were very similar. Computed ground-water inflow was most sensitive to uncertainty in variables used to calculate the isotopic composition of lake evaporate (isotopic compositions of lake water and atmospheric moisture and climatic variables). Transient results were particularly sensitive to changes in the isotopic composition of lake water. Uncertainty in ground-water inflow results is considerably less for lakes with higher ground-water inflow than for lakes with lower ground-water inflow. Because of these uncertainties, the isotope mass-balance approach is better used to distinguish whether ground-water inflow quantities fall within certain ranges of values, rather than for precise

  1. Water resources of the Ochlockonee River area, Northwest Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pascale, Charles A.; Wagner, Jeffry R.

    1982-01-01

    The Ochlockonee River area, in the northwest Florida panhandle, receives an average of 57 inches of rainfall per year. Water use in 1975 averaged 11.4 million gallons per day. Much of the rainfall that is not lost to evaporation enters the surficial sand aquifer, seeps to streams, or enters the water-bearing zone of the upper confining unit above the Floridan aquifer. The water-bearing zone of the upper confining unit is important for rural domestic supplies, storage of water and recharge to the Floridan aquifer. The Floridan aquifer underlies all the area and is the principal source of municipal supplies. The potentiometric surface of the upper part of the Floridan aquifer ranges from about 50 feet higher than that of the middle and lower part of the aquifer in southwestern Gadsden County to about 10 feet higher in southeastern Gadsden County. Saline water occurs naturally at relatively shallow depths within the Floridan aquifer. Stream discharge is about 1,000 million gallons per day; minimum discharge is about 285 million gallons per day. The chemical quality of most streams in the study area is acceptable for most uses. (USGS)

  2. Water quality of the Boca Raton canal system and effects of the Hillsboro Canal inflow, southeastern Florida, 1990-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenzie, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The City of Boca Raton in southeastern Palm Beach County, Florida, is an urban residential area that has sustained a constant population growth with subsequent increase in water use. The Boca Raton network of canals is controlled to provide for drainage of excess water, to maintain proper coastal ground-water levels to prevent saltwater intrusion, and to recharge the surficial aquifer system from which the city withdraws potable water. Most of the water supplied to the Boca Raton canal system and the surficial aquifer system, other than rainfall and runoff, is pumped from the Hillsboro Canal. The Biscayne aquifer, principal hydrogeologic unit of the surficial aquifer system, is highly permeable and there is a close relation between water levels in the canals and the aquifer. The amount of water supplied by seepage from the conservation areas is unknown. Because the Hillsboro Canal flows from Lake Okeechobee and Water Conservation Areas 1 and 2, which are places of more highly mineralized ground water and surface water, the canal is a possible source of contamination. Water samples were collected at 10 canal sites during wet and dry seasons and analyzed for major inorganic ions and related characteristics, nutrients, and trace elements. All concentrations were generally within or less than the drinking-water standards established by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection. The high concentrations of sodium and chloride that were detected in samples from the Boca Raton canal system are probably from the more mineralized water of the Hillsboro Canal. Other water-quality data, gathered from various sources from 1982 through 1991, did not indicate any significant changes nor trends. The effects of the Hillsboro Canal on the water quality of the Boca Raton canal system are indicated by increased concentrations of sodium, chloride, dissolved solids, and total organic carbon. Concentrations of the constituents in the canal water generally decrease with distance

  3. Connectivity of the South Florida Coral Reef Ecosystem to Upstream Waters of the Western Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johns, E. M.; Smith, R. H.; Lamkin, J. T.; Birbriezca, L. C.; Vasquez-Yeomans, L.; Cordero, E. S.

    2008-05-01

    The coastal waters of south Florida, including the coral reefs of NOAA's Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS), are directly connected by means of strong ocean currents with upstream waters of the western Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. The Caribbean Current and the Loop Current provide a rapid conduit for transport from Mexican and Belizean coral reefs, located off the eastern shore of the Yucatan Peninsula, to nearshore regions of northern Cuba, Florida, and the Bahamas. Interdisciplinary cruise data collected in August 2002, March 2006 and January 2007 aboard the NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter, in combination with satellite-tracked surface drifter trajectories and remote sensing imagery, clearly show the highly variable and dynamic nature of the regional current regimes and provide a means of quantifying the potential pathways and transport rates of the coastal waters and their biological and chemical constituents from one region to another. Results from these cruises and ancillary data show that the study areas are connected with rapid transport time scales, and that frontal eddies and gyres play an important role in establishing the time and length scales of this connectivity. Such direct physical connectivity between the coral reef biota of these geographically separated spawning grounds via ocean currents may have an important influence on the degree of biological connectivity between regional larval populations. Initial analyses of ichthyoplankton surveys and inshore collections along the Yucatan mesoamerican reef suggest large scale variability in both local recruitment and large scale spatial distribution. Despite strong northward flowing currents, inshore collections indicate that local recruitment in some areas is strongly influenced by small scale circulation patterns. However, the distribution of spawning aggregations along the Yucatan coast suggests a larger role for the Caribbean Current. Determining the interactions between the larger scale

  4. Organophosphate pesticide concentrations in coral tissues of Indonesian coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Sabdono, Agus; Kang, Suil; Hur, Hor-Gil; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Simon, Meinhard; Radjasa, Ocky Kama

    2007-06-01

    In this study we evaluated the persistence of diazinon, chlorpyrifos, profenofos, parathion, malathion and ethion in dead coral tissues of Indonesian coastal waters (Java, Bali, Sulawesi and Komodo). Comparison of the residue levels in coral tissues showed that the highest presence of organophosphate concentrations was detected in a coral sample collected from Java coastal waters. While medium amounts of a contaminant diazinon can still lead to detectable in Bali and Sulawesi coastal waters. Prominent contamination of organophosphate was not found in a sample collected from Komodo. Neither parathion nor malathion were detected in any of the samples. This result implies that the geographical variations of organophosphate compounds are determined by the possible usage of these chemicals around coastal waters at the present or in the past. There is need for further work to identify sources and fate of pesticide contaminants, as well as to improve monitoring of pesticide use. PMID:19086563

  5. Phytoplankton Communities in Louisiana coastal waters and the continental shelf

    EPA Science Inventory

    Louisiana coastal waters and the adjacent continental shelf receive large freshwater and nutrient inputs from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers, creating favorable conditions for increased phytoplankton productivity. To examine inshore-offshore patterns in phytoplankton comm...

  6. Modeled Sea Level Rise Impacts on Coastal Ecosystems at Six Major Estuaries on Florida's Gulf Coast: Implications for Adaptation Planning.

    PubMed

    Geselbracht, Laura L; Freeman, Kathleen; Birch, Anne P; Brenner, Jorge; Gordon, Doria R

    2015-01-01

    The Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM) was applied at six major estuaries along Florida's Gulf Coast (Pensacola Bay, St. Andrews/Choctawhatchee Bays, Apalachicola Bay, Southern Big Bend, Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor) to provide quantitative and spatial information on how coastal ecosystems may change with sea level rise (SLR) and to identify how this information can be used to inform adaption planning. High resolution LiDAR-derived elevation data was utilized under three SLR scenarios: 0.7 m, 1 m and 2 m through the year 2100 and uncertainty analyses were conducted on selected input parameters at three sites. Results indicate that the extent, spatial orientation and relative composition of coastal ecosystems at the study areas may substantially change with SLR. Under the 1 m SLR scenario, total predicted impacts for all study areas indicate that coastal forest (-69,308 ha; -18%), undeveloped dry land (-28,444 ha; -2%) and tidal flat (-25,556 ha; -47%) will likely face the greatest loss in cover by the year 2100. The largest potential gains in cover were predicted for saltmarsh (+32,922 ha; +88%), transitional saltmarsh (+23,645 ha; na) and mangrove forest (+12,583 ha; +40%). The Charlotte Harbor and Tampa Bay study areas were predicted to experience the greatest net loss in coastal wetlands The uncertainty analyses revealed low to moderate changes in results when some numerical SLAMM input parameters were varied highlighting the value of collecting long-term sedimentation, accretion and erosion data to improve SLAMM precision. The changes predicted by SLAMM will affect exposure of adjacent human communities to coastal hazards and ecosystem functions potentially resulting in impacts to property values, infrastructure investment and insurance rates. The results and process presented here can be used as a guide for communities vulnerable to SLR to identify and prioritize adaptation strategies that slow and/or accommodate the changes underway. PMID:26207914

  7. Utilizing Depth of Colonization of Seagrasses to Develop Numeric Water Quality Criteria for Florida Estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    US EPA is working with state and local partners in Florida to develop numeric water quality criteria to protect estuaries from nutrient pollution. Similar to other nutrient management programs in Florida, EPA is considering status of seagrass habitats as an indicator of biologic...

  8. Coastal Water Protection the Navy Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hura, Myron; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This article describes procedures taken by the U.S. Navy to minimize the environmental import and pollution in harbors and coastal areas resulting from ships, aircraft and shore-based Navel operations. (SL)

  9. Energy-water nexus analysis of enhanced water supply scenarios: a regional comparison of Tampa Bay, Florida, and San Diego, California.

    PubMed

    Mo, Weiwei; Wang, Ranran; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2014-05-20

    Increased water demand and scarce freshwater resources have forced communities to seek nontraditional water sources. These challenges are exacerbated in coastal communities, where population growth rates and densities in the United States are the highest. To understand the current management dilemma between constrained surface and groundwater sources and potential new water sources, Tampa Bay, Florida (TB), and San Diego, California (SD), were studied through 2030 accounting for changes in population, water demand, and electricity grid mix. These locations were chosen on the basis of their similar populations, land areas, economies, and water consumption characters as well as their coastal locations and rising contradictions between water demand and supply. Three scenarios were evaluated for each study area: (1) maximization of traditional supplies; (2) maximization of seawater desalination; and (3) maximization of nonpotable water reclamation. Three types of impacts were assessed: embodied energy, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, and energy cost. SD was found to have higher embodied energy and energy cost but lower GHG emission than TB in most of its water infrastructure systems because of the differences between the electricity grid mixes and water resources of the two regions. Maximizing water reclamation was found to be better than increasing either traditional supplies or seawater desalination in both regions in terms of the three impact categories. The results further imply the importance of assessing the energy-water nexus when pursuing demand-side control targets or goals as well to ensure that the potentially most economical options are considered. PMID:24730467

  10. Ground Water Atlas of the United States: Segment 6, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, James A.

    1990-01-01

    The four States-Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina-that comprise Segment 6 of this Atlas are located adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean or the Gulf of Mexico, or both. These States are drained by numerous rivers and streams, the largest being the Tombigbee, Alabama, Chattahoochee, Suwannee, St. Johns, Altamaha, and Savannah Rivers. These large rivers and their tributaries supply water to cities such as Columbia, S.C., Atlanta, Ga., and Birmingham, Ala. However, the majority of the population, particularly in the Coastal Plain which comprises more than one-half of the four-State area, depends on ground water as a source of water supply. The aquifers that contain the water are mostly composed of consolidated to unconsolidated sedimentary rocks, but also include hard, crystalline rocks in parts of three of the States. This chapter describes the geology and hydrology of each of the principal aquifers throughout the four-State area. Precipitation is the source of all the water in the four States of Segment 6. Average annual precipitation (1951-80) ranges from about 48 inches per year over a large part of central South Carolina and Georgia to about 80 inches per year in mountainous areas of northeastern Georgia and western South Carolina. (fig. 1) In general, precipitation is greatest in the mountains (because of their orographic effect) and near the coast, where water vapor, which has been evaporated primarily from the ocean and the gulf, is picked up by prevailing winds and subsequently condenses and falls as precipitation when reaching the shoreline. Much of the precipitation either flows directly into rivers and stream as overland runoff or indirectly as baseflow discharging from aquifers where the water has been stored for a short time. Accordingly, the areal distribution of average annual runoff from 1951 to 1980 (fig. 2) directly reflects that of average annual precipitation during the same period: runoff is greater in mountainous areas and near the coast

  11. Water column and sediment nitrogen and phosphorus distribution patterns in the Florida Keys, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szmant, A. M.; Forrester, A.

    1996-03-01

    Measurements of the distribution patterns of nutrients (ammonium, nitrate, orthophosphate, total N and total P) and chlorophyll concentrations were conducted under an interdisciplinary program known as SEAKEYS, initiated because of concern that anthropogenic nutrients may be impacting Florida coral reefs. Samples were collected along transects that extended from passes or canals to 0.5 km offshore of the outermost reefs. Seven of the transects were either in the Biscayne National Park (BNP) and Key Largo (upper keys) or Seven Mile Bridge/Looe Key (upper part of lower keys) areas, which have the best present-day reef development; the two in the middle keys off Long Key were in an area of minimal reef development where passes allow estuarine Florida Bay water to flow onto the Florida reef platform. Off the upper keys, water column concentrations of N and chl a were elevated near marinas and canals (1 μM NO3, 1 μg/l chl a), but returned to oligotrophic levels (e.g., chl a ⩽ 0.25 μg/l; NO3 ⩽ 0.25 μM; NH4 ⩽ 0.10 μM) within 0.5 km of shore. Phosphorus concentrations, however, were often higher offshore ⩾ 0.2 μM PO4). Sediment interstitial nutrient concentrations decreased from inshore to the offshore reef areas (e.g., ⩾ 100 μM NH4 inshore to ⩽ 50 μM NH4 offshore) and were comparable to those of some presumably pristine coastal and reef carbonate sediments. Sediment bulk N was higher nearshore and decreased steeply offshore ( ⩾ 60 μg-at N/gm sediment to ⩽ 20 μg-at N/gm sediment, respectively); bulk P concentrations (⩽ 6 μg- at P/gm sediment) varied little or exhibited the reverse pattern. Sediment N:P ratios were consistently lower offshore (1 10 vs. 20 40 nearshore). Higher offshore P concentrations are attributed to periodic upwelling along the shelf edge. In the middle keys water column nutrients and chl a concentrations were both higher than those in the upper keys, and there was less of an inshore-offshore decrease than that noted in the

  12. Florida

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ...     View Larger Image These Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) nadir-camera ... Canaveral, home of the Kennedy Space Center. The large body of water in the middle of the land area is Lake Okeechobee. On the western ...

  13. Water-Quality Assessment of Southern Florida - Wastewater Discharges and Runoff

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, Richard L.

    1998-01-01

    Nearly 800 million gallons per day of treated wastewater was discharged in the Southern Florida National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study unit in 1990, most to the Atlantic Ocean (44 percent) and to deep, saline aquifers (25 percent). About 9 percent was discharged to fresh surface waters and about 22 percent to shallow ground water, of which septic tanks accounted for 9 percent. Runoff from agricultural and urban lands, though not directly measured, is a large source of wastewater in southern Florida.

  14. Remote-sensing applications as utilized in Florida's coastal zone management program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worley, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    Land use maps were developed from photomaps obtained by remote sensing in order to develop a comprehensive state plan for the protection, development, and zoning of coastal regions. Only photographic remote sensors have been used in support of the coastal council's planning/management methodology. Standard photointerpretation and cartographic application procedures for map compilation were used in preparing base maps.

  15. Evaluation of a Florida coastal golf complex as a local and watershed source of bioavailable contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lewis, Michael A., Robert L. Quarles, Darrin D. Dantin and James C. Moore. 2004. Evaluation of a Coastal Golf Complex as a Local and Watershed Source of Bioavailable Contaminants. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 48(3-4):254-262. (ERL,GB 1183).

    Contaminant fate in coastal areas impacte...

  16. Modeling Tidal Water Levels for Canadian Coastal and Offshore waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, C. M. I.; MacAulay, P.; Nudds, S.; Godin, A.; de Lange Boom, B.; Bartlett, J.; Maltais, L.; Herron, T.; Craymer, M. R.; Veronneau, M.; Fadaie, K.

    2014-12-01

    IIn 2010, the Canadian Hydrographic Service initiated the Continuous Vertical Datum for Canadian Waters (CVDCW) project, the aim of which is to connect tidal water level datums (high and low water levels, chart datum, etc.) to a national geodetic reference frame over all Canadian tidal waters. Currently, water level datums are tied to a geodetic reference frame at approximately 400 tide stations which have been surveyed with GPS, whereas water levels vary significantly in space even a short distance away from tide stations. The CVDCW captures the relevant spatial variability between stations and offshore by integrating ocean models, gauge data (water level analyses and/or GPS observations), sea level trends, satellite altimetry, and a geoid model. The CVDCW will enable the use of Global Navigation Satellite System technologies (primarily GPS) for hydrographers and navigators. It will also be important for other users including oceanographers, environmental and climate scientists, surveyors and engineers. For instance, it will allow easier integration of hydrographic and terrestrial data, provide a baseline for storm surge modeling and climate change adaptation, and aid with practical issues such as sovereignty and the definition of the coastline. Once high and low water surfaces are complete, they will define a large portion of the vertical link between land and ocean, helping to delineate flooding thresholds and inter-tidal ecosystem zones and boundaries. Here we present an overview of the methodology using a set of prototype model results, and will outline features of interest for studies in coastal stability, climate change adaptation, and sea level change.

  17. Empirical Modeling of Stream Water Quality for Complex Coastal-Urban Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Amin, S.; Abdul-Aziz, O.

    2013-12-01

    This study develops an understanding of the relative influence of land uses, surface hydrology, groundwater, seawater, and upstream contributions on the in-stream water quality of six highly urbanized, complex urban watersheds of South Florida by analyzing seasonal (Winter, Spring, Summer, and Fall) time-series of field data. We first explored the correlations among quality parameters (i.e., total nitrogen, total phosphorus, dissolved oxygen and specific conductance) and their changes with distance and time. Principle component analysis was then conducted to investigate the mutual correlations and potential group formations among the predictor and response variables. The findings were leveraged to develop regression-based non-linear empirical models for explaining stream water quality in relation to internal (land uses and hydrology) and external (upstream contribution, seawater) sources and drivers. In-stream dissolved oxygen and total phosphorus in the watersheds were dictated by internal stressors, while external stressors were dominant for total nitrogen and specific conductance. The research findings provide important insights into the dominant stressors of seasonal stream water quality of complex coastal-urban watersheds under a changing environment. The research tools will be useful for developing proactive monitoring and seasonally exclusive management strategies for urban stream water quality improvement in South Florida and around the world.

  18. Temporal and spatial change in coastal ecosystems using remote sensing: Example with Florida Bay, USA, emphasizing AVHRR imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Stumpf, R.P.; Frayer, M.L.

    1997-06-01

    Florida Bay, at the southern tip of Florida, USA, has undergone dramatic changes in recent years. Following seagrass dieoffs starting in the late 1980`s, both algal blooms and high turbidity (the latter from resuspended sediments) have been reported as more common in the Bay. Remotely sensed data, particularly from the AVHRR (advanced very high resolution radiometer), can provide information on conditions prior to the start of monitoring programs as well as provide additional spatial detail on water clarity and particulate loads in this estuary . The AVHRR record currently available to us consists of over 600 usable scenes from December, 1989. Comparisons with field data have provided relationships with light attenuation, total suspended solids, and other turbidity measures. The imagery shows the seasonal change in turbidity resulting from high winds associated with winter cold fronts. Over the seven-year record, areas of clear water have decreased in the north-central Bay, while expanding in the southwestern Bay.

  19. Occurrence of fecal indicator bacteria in surface waters and the subsurface aquifer in Key Largo, Florida.

    PubMed

    Paul, J H; Rose, J B; Jiang, S; Kellogg, C; Shinn, E A

    1995-06-01

    Sewage waste disposal facilities in the Florida Keys include septic tanks and individual package plants in place of municipal collection facilities in most locations. In Key Largo, both facilities discharge into the extremely porous Key Largo limestone. To determine whether there was potential contamination of the subsurface aquifer and nearby coastal surface waters by such waste disposal practices, we examined the presence of microbial indicators commonly found in sewage (fecal coliforms, Clostridium perfringens, and enterococci) and aquatic microbial parameters (viral direct counts, bacterial direct counts, chlorophyll a, and marine vibriophage) in injection well effluent, monitoring wells that followed a transect from onshore to offshore, and surface waters above these wells in two separate locations in Key Largo in August 1993 and March 1994. Effluent and waters from onshore shallow monitoring wells (1.8- to 3.7-m depth) contained two or all three of the fecal indicators in all three samples taken, whereas deeper wells (10.7- to 12.2-m depth) at these same sites contained few or none. The presence of fecal indicators was found in two of five nearshore wells (i.e., those that were < or = 1.8 miles [< or = 2.9 km] from shore), whereas offshore wells (> or = 2.1 to 5.7 miles [< or = 3.4 to 9.2 km] from shore) showed little sign of contamination. Indicators were also found in surface waters in a canal in Key Largo and in offshore surface waters in March but not in August. Collectively, these results suggest that fecal contamination of the shallow onshore aquifer, parts of the nearshore aquifer, and certain surface waters has occurred.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7793943

  20. Ant Distribution in Relation to Ground Water in North Florida Pine Flatwoods

    PubMed Central

    Tschinkel, Walter R.; Murdock, Tyler; King, Joshua R.; Kwapich, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Longleaf pine savannas are one of the most threatened ecosystems in the world, yet are understudied. Ants are a functionally important and diverse group of insects in these ecosystems. It is largely unknown how local patterns of species diversity and composition are determined through the interaction of this dominant animal group with abiotic features of longleaf pine ecosystems. Here we describe how an important abiotic variable, depth to water table, relates to ant species distributions at local scales. Pitfall trapping studies across habitat gradients in the Florida coastal plains longleaf pine flatwoods showed that the ant community changed with mild differences in habitat. In this undulating landscape, elevation differences were less than 2 m, and the depth to the water table ranged from < 20 cm to 1.2 m. The plant species composing the ground cover were zoned in response to depth to water, and shading by canopy trees increased over deeper water tables. Of the 27 ant species that were analyzed, depending on the statistical test, seven or eight were significantly more abundant over a deep water table, eight to ten over a shallow one, and nine to eleven were not significantly patterned with respect to depth to water. Ant species preferring sites with shallow groundwater also preferred the shadier parts of the sites, while those preferring sites with deeper groundwater preferred the sunnier parts of the sites. This suggests that one group of species prefers hot-dry conditions, and the other cooler-moist. Factor analysis and abundance-weighted mean site characteristics generally confirmed these results. These results show that ant communities in this region respond to subtle differences in habitat, but whether these differences arise from founding preferences, survival, competition, or some combination of these is not known. PMID:23445122

  1. Altitude of water table, surficial aquifer, Palm Beach County, Florida, April 24-26, 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Wesley L.

    1985-01-01

    Water levels in Palm Beach County, Florida, were measured in April 1984 to determine the altitude of the water table in the surficial aquifer. A total of 104 wells and 50 surface-water measurement sites were used to contour the altitude of the water table at 2 and 4-foot intervals. The water-level measurements made in April represent low-water levels near the end of south Florida 's dry season. Contours of the water table at this time ranged from 22 feet above sea level in the north-central part of the county to 2 feet near the coast. (USGS)

  2. Analytical characterization of selective benthic flux components in estuarine and coastal waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Jeffrey N.

    2011-01-01

    Benthic flux is the rate of flow across the bed of a water body, per unit area of bed. It is forced by component mechanisms, which interact. For example, pressure gradients across the bed, forced by tide, surface gravity waves, density gradients, bed–current interaction, turbulence, and terrestrial hydraulic gradients, drive an advective benthic flux of water and constituents between estuarine and coastal waters, and surficial aquifers. Other mechanisms also force benthic flux, such as chemical gradients, bioturbation, and dispersion. A suite of component mechanisms force a total benthic flux at any given location, where each member of the suite contributes a component benthic flux. Currently, the types and characteristics of component interactions are not fully understood. For example, components may interact linearly or nonlinearly, and the interaction may be constructive or destructive. Benthic flux is a surface water–groundwater interaction process. Its discharge component to a marine water body is referred to, in some literature, as submarine groundwater discharge. Benthic flux is important in characterizing water and constituent budgets of estuarine and coastal systems. Analytical models to characterize selective benthic flux components are reviewed. Specifically, these mechanisms are for the component associated with the groundwater tidal prism, and forced by surface gravity wave setup, surface gravity waves on a plane bed, and the terrestrial hydraulic gradient. Analytical models are applied to the Indian River Lagoon, Florida; Great South Bay, New York; and the South Atlantic Bight in South Carolina and portions of North Carolina.

  3. Estimated water use in the Southwest Florida Water Management District and adjacent areas, 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duerr, A.D.; Trommer, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    Water-use data for 1980 are summarized in this report for 16 counties in the Southwest Florida Water Management District. Data include total use of ground water and surface water for each of five water-use categories. The 1980 withdrawals for each category were as follows: 290 million gallons per day for public supply, 63 million gallons per day for rural, 325 million gallons per day for industry, 416 million gallons per day for irrigation, and 6,605 million gallons per day for thermoelectric power generation. Withdrawals totaled 7,699 million gallons per day and included 983 million gallons per day of ground water and 6,716 million gallons per day of surface water. Excluding thermoelectric power generation, all water withdrawn was freshwater except 38 million gallons per day of saline ground water withdrawn for industrial use in Hillsborough County. (USGS)

  4. Multiple Stressors: Lessons from Louisiana Coastal Waters (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabalais, N. N.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal Louisiana is a Mississippi River-dominated landscape driven by the long-term (millennia) and short-term (decades to hundreds of years) changes in materials flux, nature and human activities. The results are a highly productive coastal landscape and nearshore coastal waters that support rich natural and non-renewable resources. The ecosystem and socio-economic systems are intimately linked. Several factors have led to the demise of many of the healthy features of this coastal system, including long-term changes in the landscape of the Mississippi River basin watershed, alterations to the structure and flow of the Mississippi River and its tributaries, coastal landscape alterations leading to loss of productive marshes and protective barrier islands, increases in nitrogen and phosphorus loads to the coastal ocean and their detrimental effects, and reduction in the sediments delivered by the river. Increases in population and extraction of living resources and oil and gas reserves continue to drive many actions taken in the coastal landscape and waters. As a result, Louisiana is in a state of major disrepair (to be charitable) and needs thoughtful consideration of restoration actions taken in the river basin and within the coastal landscape. The first thought is to cause no further harm. The second is to proceed acknowledging that human and natural forces (particularly climate change, rising sea level and changing global economies) must be taken into account. Thirdly, a broader consideration of the river basin and coastal landscapes, their interconnectivity, and ecosystem health and social welfare must be taken into account.

  5. Surface water and groundwater interactions in coastal wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling; Xin, Pei; Shen, Chengji

    2014-05-01

    Salt marshes are an important wetland system in the upper intertidal zone, interfacing the land and coastal water. Dominated by salt-tolerant plants, these wetlands provide essential eco-environmental services for maintaining coastal biodiversity. They also act as sediment traps and help stabilize the coastline. While they play an active role in moderating greenhouse gas emissions, these wetlands have become increasingly vulnerable to the impact of global climate change. Salt marshes are a complex hydrological system characterized by strong, dynamic interactions between surface water and groundwater, which underpin the wetland's eco-functionality. Bordered with coastal water, the marsh system undergoes cycles of inundation and exposure driven by the tide. This leads to dynamic, complex pore-water flow and solute transport in the marsh soil. Pore-water circulations occur at different spatial and temporal scales with strong link to the marsh topography. These circulations control solute transport between the marsh soil and the tidal creek, and ultimately affect the overall nutrient exchange between the marsh and coastal water. The pore-water flows also dictate the soil aeration conditions, which in turn affect marsh plant growth. This talk presents results and findings from recent numerical and experimental studies, focusing on the pore-water flow behaviour in the marsh soil under the influence of tides and density-gradients.

  6. Associations Between the Molecular and Optical Properties of Dissolved Organic Matter in the Florida Everglades, a Model Coastal Wetland System

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Sasha; Jaffé, Rudolf; Cawley, Kaelin; Dittmar, Thorsten; Stubbins, Aron

    2015-01-01

    Optical properties are easy-to-measure proxies for dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition, source, and reactivity. However, the molecular signature of DOM associated with such optical parameters remains poorly defined. The Florida coastal Everglades is a subtropical wetland with diverse vegetation (e.g., sawgrass prairies, mangrove forests, seagrass meadows) and DOM sources (e.g., terrestrial, microbial, and marine). As such, the Everglades is an excellent model system from which to draw samples of diverse origin and composition to allow classically-defined optical properties to be linked to molecular properties of the DOM pool. We characterized a suite of seasonally- and spatially-collected DOM samples using optical measurements (EEM-PARAFAC, SUVA254, S275−295, S350−400, SR, FI, freshness index, and HIX) and ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). Spearman's rank correlations between FTICR-MS signal intensities of individual molecular formulae and optical properties determined which molecular formulae were associated with each PARAFAC component and optical index. The molecular families that tracked with the optical indices were generally in agreement with conventional biogeochemical interpretations. Therefore, although they represent only a small portion of the bulk DOM pool, absorbance, and fluorescence measurements appear to be appropriate proxies for the aquatic cycling of both optically-active and associated optically-inactive DOM in coastal wetlands. PMID:26636070

  7. Associations Between the Molecular and Optical Properties of Dissolved Organic Matter in the Florida Everglades, a Model Coastal Wetland System.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Sasha; Jaffé, Rudolf; Cawley, Kaelin; Dittmar, Thorsten; Stubbins, Aron

    2015-01-01

    Optical properties are easy-to-measure proxies for dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition, source, and reactivity. However, the molecular signature of DOM associated with such optical parameters remains poorly defined. The Florida coastal Everglades is a subtropical wetland with diverse vegetation (e.g., sawgrass prairies, mangrove forests, seagrass meadows) and DOM sources (e.g., terrestrial, microbial, and marine). As such, the Everglades is an excellent model system from which to draw samples of diverse origin and composition to allow classically-defined optical properties to be linked to molecular properties of the DOM pool. We characterized a suite of seasonally- and spatially-collected DOM samples using optical measurements (EEM-PARAFAC, SUVA254, S275-295, S350-400, SR, FI, freshness index, and HIX) and ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). Spearman's rank correlations between FTICR-MS signal intensities of individual molecular formulae and optical properties determined which molecular formulae were associated with each PARAFAC component and optical index. The molecular families that tracked with the optical indices were generally in agreement with conventional biogeochemical interpretations. Therefore, although they represent only a small portion of the bulk DOM pool, absorbance, and fluorescence measurements appear to be appropriate proxies for the aquatic cycling of both optically-active and associated optically-inactive DOM in coastal wetlands. PMID:26636070

  8. Associations between the molecular and optical properties of dissolved organic matter in the Florida Everglades, a model coastal wetland system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Sasha; Jaffe, Rudolf; Cawley, Kaelin; Dittmar, Thorsten; Stubbins, Aron

    2015-11-01

    Optical properties are easy-to-measure proxies for dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition, source and reactivity. However, the molecular signature of DOM associated with such optical parameters remains poorly defined. The Florida coastal Everglades is a subtropical wetland with diverse vegetation (e.g., sawgrass prairies, mangrove forests, seagrass meadows) and DOM sources (e.g., terrestrial, microbial and marine). As such, the Everglades is an excellent model system from which to draw samples of diverse origin and composition to allow classically-defined optical properties to be linked to molecular properties of the DOM pool. We characterized a suite of seasonally- and spatially-collected DOM samples using optical measurements (EEM-PARAFAC, SUVA254, S275-295, S350-400, SR, FI, freshness index and HIX) and ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). Spearman’s rank correlations between FTICR-MS signal intensities of individual molecular formulae and optical properties determined which molecular formulae were associated with each PARAFAC component and optical index. The molecular families that tracked with the optical indices were generally in agreement with conventional biogeochemical interpretations. Therefore, although they represent only a small portion of the bulk DOM pool, absorbance and fluorescence measurements appear to be appropriate proxies for the aquatic cycling of both optically-active and associated optically-inactive DOM in coastal wetlands.

  9. Stakeholder perspectives on land-use strategies for adapting to climate-change-enhanced coastal hazards: Sarasota, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frazier, Tim G.; Wood, Nathan; Yarnal, Brent

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable land-use planning requires decision makers to balance community growth with resilience to natural hazards. This balance is especially difficult in many coastal communities where planners must grapple with significant growth projections, the persistent threat of extreme events (e.g., hurricanes), and climate-change-driven sea level rise that not only presents a chronic hazard but also alters the spatial extent of sudden-onset hazards such as hurricanes. We examine these stressors on coastal, long-term land-use planning by reporting the results of a one-day community workshop held in Sarasota County, Florida that included focus groups and participatory mapping exercises. Workshop participants reflected various political agendas and socioeconomic interests of five local knowledge domains: business, environment, emergency management and infrastructure, government, and planning. Through a series of alternating domain-specific focus groups and interactive plenary sessions, participants compared the county 2050 comprehensive land-use plan to maps of contemporary hurricane storm-surge hazard zones and projected storm-surge hazard zones enlarged by sea level rise scenarios. This interactive, collaborative approach provided each group of domain experts the opportunity to combine geographically-specific, scientific knowledge on natural hazards and climate change with local viewpoints and concerns. Despite different agendas, interests, and proposed adaptation strategies, there was common agreement among participants for the need to increase community resilience to contemporary hurricane storm-surge hazards and to explore adaptation strategies to combat the projected, enlarged storm-surge hazard zones.

  10. Palynological reconstruction of environmental changes in coastal wetlands of the Florida Everglades since the mid-Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Qiang; Liu, Kam-biu; Platt, William J.; Rivera-Monroy, Victor H.

    2015-05-01

    Palynological, loss-on-ignition, and X-ray fluorescence data from a 5.25 m sediment core from a mangrove forest at the mouth of the Shark River Estuary in the southwestern Everglades National Park, Florida were used to reconstruct changes occurring in coastal wetlands since the mid-Holocene. This multi-proxy record contains the longest paleoecological history to date in the southwestern Everglades. The Shark River Estuary basin was formed ~ 5700 cal yr BP in response to increasing precipitation. Initial wetlands were frequently-burned short-hydroperiod prairies, which transitioned into long-hydroperiod prairies with sloughs in which peat deposits began to accumulate continuously about 5250 cal yr BP. Our data suggest that mangrove communities started to appear after ~ 3800 cal yr BP; declines in the abundance of charcoal suggested gradual replacement of fire-dominated wetlands by mangrove forest over the following 2650 yr. By ~ 1150 cal yr BP, a dense Rhizophora mangle dominated mangrove forest had formed at the mouth of the Shark River. The mangrove-dominated coastal ecosystem here was established at least 2000 yr later than has been previously estimated.

  11. Ground-water recharge in Escambia and Santa Rosa Counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grubbs, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Ground water is a major component of Florida's water resources, accounting for 90 percent of all public-supply and self-supplied domestic water withdrawals, and 58 percent of self-supplied commercial-industrial and agricultural withdrawals of freshwater (Marella, 1992). Ground-water is also an important source of water for streams, lakes, and wetlands in Florida. Because of their importance, a good understanding of these resources is essential for their sound development, use, and protection. One area in which our understanding is lacking is in characterizing the rate at which ground water in aquifers is recharged, and how recharge rates vary geographically. Ground-water recharge (recharge) is the replenishment of ground water by downward infiltration of water from rainfall, streams, and other sources (American Society of Civil Engineers, 1987, p. 222). The recharge rates in many areas of Florida are unknown, of insufficient accuracy, or mapped at scales that are too coarse to be useful. Improved maps of recharge rates will result in improved capabilities for managing Florida's ground-water resources. In 1989, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, began a study to delineate high-rate recharge areas in several regions of Florida (Vecchioli and others, 1990). This study resulted in recharge maps that delineated areas of high (greater than 10 inches per year) and low (0 to 10 inches per year) recharge in three counties--Okaloosa, Pasco, and Volusia Counties--at a scale of 1:100,000. This report describes the results of a similar recharge mapping study for Escambia and Santa Rosa Counties (fig. 1), in which areas of high- and low-rates of recharge to the sand-and-gravel aquifer and Upper Floridan aquifer are delineated. The study was conducted in 1992 and 1993 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Department of Environmental Protection.

  12. EAARL Coastal Topography-Western Florida, Post-Hurricane Charley, 2004: First Surface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Wright, C. Wayne; Sallenger, A.H.; Brock, John C.; Yates, Xan; Klipp, Emily S.

    2009-01-01

    This DVD contains lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography GIS datasets of a portion of the western Florida coastline beachface, acquired post-Hurricane Charley on August 16 and 18, 2004. Click on a tile number (1 - 68) to view the corresponding 1-meter-resolution images and links to each data directory. Click on the red tile in the index map to view the 3-meter-resolution mosaic and link to the corresponding directory.

  13. Planning for Water Resources of South Florida: A system dynamics modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, S.

    2006-12-01

    With enormous growth in population, changes in land use, substantial agriculture activity, and need to protect vital environmental resources such as Everglades, south Florida presents a very challenging case for water resources planning. Working with stakeholders to meet challenges of water resources planning in south Florida, we are exploring important questions: (a) What are some major changes in terms of population growth, land use, water demand, and water availability that can be expected in south Florida in the short and long term?; (b) What would be the major hydrologic effects of climate variability and change on south Florida's water system?; (c) How could Florida's water system adapt to anticipated population growth, urban sprawl, and climate change?; and (d) What are the most promising (cost effective) policies for south Florida's water management in response to growth and climate change? We are developing a decision support (DS) framework, using system dynamics modeling approach, to evaluate and compare different short and long term water management policies. Besides climate information, the integrated DS framework considers other major factors that influence water demand and availability including: demographic changes, land use changes, economy, and environment. We analyze how increased or better use of climate information can lead to better, more cost-effective decisions for sustainable management of water resources. Using games/scenarios involving decision makers, we evaluate cost-effectiveness of different policy choices for short and long term water management in the region. We evaluate policies based on both demand side management through efficiency and conservation (low flow appliances, xeriscaping, pricing) and supply side management (desalination, water reuse). The outcome is a framework for exploring cost-effectiveness of alternative water management policies. The research advances work on water resources planning considering the impacts of

  14. Preliminary evaluation of the water-supply potential of the spring-river system in the Weeki Wachee area and the Lower Withlacoochee River, west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sinclair, William C.

    1978-01-01

    Coastal springs and seeps, including Rainbow Springs, a tributary of Withlacoochee River, discharge as much as a billion gallons of water per day to low-lying coastal swamps and estuarine marshes along the Guld Coast of Citrus and Hernando Counties, Florida. Although Weeki Wachee Spring has long been regarded as an obvious source of freshwater supply, long-term diversion of large volumes of water from Weeki Wachee River will cause encroachment of brackish water throughout the residential canals in the lower reach of the river to about 4.4 miles below Weeki Wachee Spring. Weeki Wachee Spring is analogous to a flowering well tapping an artesian aquifer. Flow characteristics of Withlacoochee River and Rainbow Springs indicate that about 600 cubic feet per second is available on a perennial basis, disregarding the downstream requirements for control of saltwater encroachment. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. GOLF COURSES AS A SOURCE OF COASTAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICITY: A FLORIDA EXPERIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chemical and biological impacts of two coastal golf courses that receive wastewater spray irrigation were determined during a two-year period. A variety of techniques were used to assess the spatial and temporal variability of contaminant levels and their bioavailability in t...

  16. Timescales for nitrate contamination of spring waters, northern Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, B.G.; Böhlke, J.K.; Hornsby, H.D.

    2001-01-01

    Residence times of groundwater, discharging from springs in the middle Suwannee River Basin, were estimated using chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), tritium (3H), and tritium/helium-3 (3H/3He) age-dating methods to assess the chronology of nitrate contamination of spring waters in northern Florida. During base-flow conditions for the Suwannee River in 1997-1999, 17 water samples were collected from 12 first, second, and third magnitude springs discharging groundwater from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Extending age-dating techniques, using transient tracers to spring waters in complex karst systems, required an assessment of several models [piston-flow (PFM), exponential mixing (EMM), and binary-mixing (BMM)] to account for different distributions of groundwater age. Multi-tracer analyses of four springs yielded generally concordant PFM ages of around 20 ?? 2 years from CFC-12, CFC-113, 3H, and 3He, with evidence of partial CFC-11 degradation. The EMM gave a reasonable fit to CFC-113, CFC-12, and 3H data, but did not reproduce the observed 3He concentrations or 3H/3He ratios, nor did a combination PFM-EMM. The BMM could reproduce most of the multi-tracer data set only if both endmembers had 3H concentrations not much different from modern values. CFC analyses of 14 additional springs yielded apparent PFM ages from about 10 to 20 years from CFC-113, with evidence of partial CFC-11 degradation and variable CFC-12 contamination. While it is not conclusive, with respect to the age distribution within each spring, the data indicate that the average residence times were in the order of 10-20 years and were roughly proportional to spring magnitude. Applying similar models to recharge and discharge of nitrate based on historical nitrogen loading data yielded contrasting trends for Suwanee County and Lafayette County. In Suwanee County, spring nitrate trends and nitrogen isotope data were consistent with a peak in fertilizer input in the 1970s and a relatively high overall ratio of

  17. Nitrogen, phosphorus, organic carbon, and biochemical oxygen demand : in Florida surface waters, 1972

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaufman, Matthew I.; Dysart, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    Water samples were collected during spring and autumn 1972 from about 100 surface-water sites in Florida. The samples were analyzed for the plant nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus. In most waters, nitrogen concentrations are less than 2.0 milligrams per liter as nitrogen, and organic nitrogen is dominant. Median total nitrogen concentration for Florida surface waters is between 1.2 and 2.0 milligrams per liter as nitrogen. In samples from 85 percent of the sites, total nitrogen exceeded 0.6 milligrams per liter. Median total phosphorus concentration as phosphorus for Florida surface waters is between 0.05 and 0.1 milligrams per liter. The information will form a base useful to agencies concerned with setting concentration limits for nitrogen and phosphorus in industrial and sewage plant outfalls. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. A remotely-sensed disturbance history and decrease in basal area of coastal forests of the lower Florida Keys, FL, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogurcak, D. E.; Ross, M. S.; Zhang, K.

    2013-12-01

    Global climate change and ensuing sea level rise are predicted to have serious impacts on the severity of disturbance from tropical storms experienced by coastal forest communities worldwide, resulting in changes in terrestrial carbon dynamics. In the lower Florida Keys, with elevations averaging 1 meter and where an increase in sea level rise of 23 cm has been documented over the past century (Key West, NOAA 2001), these impacts are already evident. While freshwater requiring coastal forests of the Florida Keys, specifically hardwood hammock and pine rockland communities, have co-existed with hurricanes and fires over the past several thousand years, recent decades have seen the extent of these forests seriously diminished. Using an approach that combines remote sensing techniques and ground-based measurements of tree basal area, this study quantifies changes to coastal forests of the lower Florida Keys over the last three decades (1983-2012) in reference to known disturbances and looks at recovery from Hurricane Wilma (2005), which flooded the islands with up to 8 feet of salt water. Yearly vegetation indices were derived from a 30-year catalog of Landsat TM 4-5 satellite imagery, with cloud-free images available for most years. Images were acquired mostly in the months of January through March (mid-dry season). Whenever possible, cloud-free images acquired in other months were used to track how indices changed seasonally. The normalized differenced vegetation index (NDVI) was used to document changes in vegetation drought stress and TM band 5 was used to approximate changes in tree basal area. Areas of hardwood hammock and pine rockland occurring on eight islands were extracted for the analysis from a landcover map digitized from a combination of elevation, canopy height, and high resolution aerial imagery. Additionally, seven 60 m by 10 m permanent plots, established and first sampled in 1990 on 2 of the islands, were resampled for tree basal area and shrub

  19. MERCURY LEVELS IN HARVESTED FISHES FROM FLORIDA GULF COAST MX964229

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project supports the collection of fish tissue samples and associated biological and environmental data from coastal waters of Florida in the Gulf of Mexico to determine total mercury levels and relationship to species, size, age, sex and capture location.

  20. Distribution of selected chemical constituents in water from the Floridan aquifer, Southwest Florida Water Management District

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corral, M.A., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Generalized maps showing variations in concentration of chlorides, sulfates, hardness, and dissolved solids in the Floridan aquifer have been prepared as part of a cooperative program with the Southwest Florida Water Management District. This report covers 10 counties and parts of 6 others comprising the District. Data used to develop the report were retrieved from the water-quality files of the U.S. Geological Survey. Considerable vertical and areal variation of chemical constituents was found in ground water of the Floridan aquifer. In general, ground water becomes more mineralized with increasing depth and with increasing distance from recharge areas due to solution of minerals from the aquifer. Ground water was also more mineralized with proximity to the coast, due to saltwater intrusion. (USGS)

  1. Simulation of the effects of proposed tide gates on circulation, flushing, and water quality in residential canals, Cape Coral Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodwin, Carl R.

    1991-01-01

    Decades of dredging and filling of Florida's low-lying coastal wetlands have produced thousands of miles of residential tidal canals and adjacent waterfront property. Typically, these canals are poorly flushed, and over time, accumulated organic-rich bottom materials, contribute to an increasingly severe degraded water quality. One-dimensional hydrodynamic and constituent-transport models were applied to two dead-end canal systems to determine the effects of canal system interconnection using tide gates on water circulation and constituent flushing. The model simulates existing and possible future circulation and flushing conditions in about 29 miles of the approximately 130 miles of tidally influenced canals in Cape Coral, located on the central west coast of peninsular Florida. Model results indicate that tidal water-level differences between the two canal systems can be converted to kinetic energy, in the form of increased water circulation, but the use of one-way tide gate interconnections. Computations show that construction of from one to four tide gates will cause replacement of a volume of water equivalent to the total volume of canals in both systems in 15 to 9 days, respectively. Because some canals flush faster than others, 47 and 21 percent of the original canal water will remain in both systems 50 days after start of operation of one and four tide gates, respectively. Some of the effects that such increased flushing are expected to have include reduced density stratification and associated dissolved-oxygen depletion in canal bottom waters, increased localized reaeration, and more efficient discharge of stormwater runoff entering the canals.

  2. Application of Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) Imagery for Coastal and Ocean Protection - A Case Study from Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aircraft remote sensing of freshwater ecosystems offers federal and state monitoring agencies an ability to meet their assessment requirements by rapidly acquiring information on ecosystem responses to environmental change for water bodies that are below the resolution of space...

  3. Linking integrated water resources management and integrated coastal zone management.

    PubMed

    Rasch, P S; Ipsen, N; Malmgren-Hansen, A; Mogensen, B

    2005-01-01

    Some of the world's most valuable aquatic ecosystems such as deltas, lagoons and estuaries are located in the coastal zone. However, the coastal zone and its aquatic ecosystems are in many places under environmental stress from human activities. About 50% of the human population lives within 200 km of the coastline, and the population density is increasing every day. In addition, the majority of urban centres are located in the coastal zone. It is commonly known that there are important linkages between the activities in the upstream river basins and the environment conditions in the downstream coastal zones. Changes in river flows, e.g. caused by irrigation, hydropower and water supply, have changed salinity in estuaries and lagoons. Land use changes, such as intensified agricultural activities and urban and industrial development, cause increasing loads of nutrients and a variety of chemicals resulting in considerable adverse impacts in the coastal zones. It is recognised that the solution to such problems calls for an integrated approach. Therefore, the terms Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) are increasingly in focus on the international agenda. Unfortunately, the concepts of IWRM and ICZM are mostly being developed independently from each other by separate management bodies using their own individual approaches and tools. The present paper describes how modelling tools can be used to link IWRM and ICZM. It draws a line from the traditional sectoral use of models for the Istanbul Master Planning and assessment of the water quality and ecological impact in the Bosphorus Strait and the Black Sea 10 years ago, to the most recent use of models in a Water Framework Directive (WFD) context for one of the selected Pilot River Basins in Denmark used for testing of the WFD Guidance Documents. PMID:16114636

  4. Water quality, pesticide occurrence, and effects of irrigation with reclaimed water at golf courses in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swancar, Amy

    1996-01-01

    Reuse of treated wastewater for golf course irrigation is an increasingly popular water management option in Florida, where growth has put stress on potable water supplies. Surface water, ground water, and irrigation water were sampled at three pairs of golf courses quarterly for one year to determine if pesticides were present, and the effect of irrigation with treated effluent on ground-water quality, with an emphasis on interactions of effluent with pesticides. In addition to the six paired golf courses, which were in central Florida, ground water was sampled for pesticides and other constituents at three more golf courses in other parts of the State. This study was the first to analyze water samples from Florida golf courses for a broad range of pesticides. Statistical methods based on the percentage of data above detection limits were used to determine the effects of irrigation with reclaimed water on ground-water quality. Shallow ground water at golf courses irrigated with treated effluent has higher concentrations of chloride, lower concentrations of bicarbonate, and lower pH than ground water at golf courses irrigated with water from carbonate aquifers. There were no statistically significant differences in nutrient concentrations in ground water between paired golf courses grouped by irrigation water type at a 95 percent confidence level. The number of wells where pesticides occurred was significantly higher at the paired golf courses using ground water for irrigation than at ones using reclaimed water. However, the limited occurrences of individual pesticides in ground water make it difficult to correlate differences in irrigation- water quality with pesticide migration to the water table. At some of the golf courses, increased pesticide occurrences may be associated with higher irrigation rates, the presence of well-drained soils, and shallow depths to the surficial aquifer. Pesticides used by golf courses for turf grass maintenance were detected in

  5. Mapping water quality and substrate cover in optically complex coastal and reef waters: an integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Phinn, S R; Dekker, A G; Brando, V E; Roelfsema, C M

    2005-01-01

    Sustainable management of coastal and coral reef environments requires regular collection of accurate information on recognized ecosystem health indicators. Satellite image data and derived maps of water column and substrate biophysical properties provide an opportunity to develop baseline mapping and monitoring programs for coastal and coral reef ecosystem health indicators. A significant challenge for satellite image data in coastal and coral reef water bodies is the mixture of both clear and turbid waters. A new approach is presented in this paper to enable production of water quality and substrate cover type maps, linked to a field based coastal ecosystem health indicator monitoring program, for use in turbid to clear coastal and coral reef waters. An optimized optical domain method was applied to map selected water quality (Secchi depth, Kd PAR, tripton, CDOM) and substrate cover type (seagrass, algae, sand) parameters. The approach is demonstrated using commercially available Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper image data over a coastal embayment exhibiting the range of substrate cover types and water quality conditions commonly found in sub-tropical and tropical coastal environments. Spatially extensive and quantitative maps of selected water quality and substrate cover parameters were produced for the study site. These map products were refined by interactions with management agencies to suit the information requirements of their monitoring and management programs. PMID:15757744

  6. Possible satellite oceanography on coastal waters during the NPP stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J.; Asanuma, I.; Zhao, C.; Huang, B.

    2007-09-01

    Ocean color monitoring on the coastal water is still under study because of an incomplete atmospheric correction over the turbid water like over the coastal water along the China main land. Currently available sensors for science as MODIS on Terra or Aqua will terminate their service in the near future and the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) will be the next satellite to support the satellite oceanography on the coastal water. The Tokyo University of Information Sciences (TUIS) has updated the MODIS receiving system to capture and ingest the Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) data from NPP, which will be launched in 2008. Data processing software from the Direct Readout Laboratory (DRL), such as the Real-time Software Telemetry Processing (RT-STPS), Simulcast, and DB algorithms, will be core programs in our system. VIIRS has seven bands in VIS&NIR, which are for ocean color research. The spatial resolution is 0.742×0.259 meters at nadir. While the MODIS spatial resolution of the nine ocean color bands is 1000m. The higher spatial resolution MODIS data (250 meters) is used to illustrate the advantage of the higher spatial resolution remote sensing data, such as data from VIIRS. In this study, we propose to combine the higher spatial resolution data with the traditional products of chlorophyll-a and sea surface temperature in the low resolution so as to extract further information on the coastal ocean.

  7. The use of satellites in environmental monitoring of coastal waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpot, W.; Klemas, V.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of using satellites in an operational system for monitoring the type, concentration, location, drift, and dispersion of pollutants in coastal waters is evaluated. Visible, microwave, and thermal infrared sensing are considered. Targets to be detected include photosynthetic pigments, iron acid waste, and sewage sludge.

  8. Phosphorus in drainage waters of the Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Atlantic Coastal Plain region has had a long history of experimental and applied efforts to exclude phosphorus (P) from drainage waters. Early research focusing upon the chemical controls of soil and sediment P has given way to field studies aimed at refining our understanding of hydrologic path...

  9. Phytoplankton community composition in nearshore coastal waters of Louisiana

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phytoplankton community compositions within near-shore coastal and estuarine waters of Louisiana were characterized by relative abundance, biovolume, and taxonomic identification to genus and species when possible. The range of total nitrogen was 0.5 to 1.3 mg L-1 and total phos...

  10. CLASSIFYING COASTAL WATERS: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE AND CURRENT FOCUS ON AQUATIC STRESSORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal ecosystems are ecologically and commercially productive habitats that are experiencing significant impacts associated with accelerated population growth in coastal zones. The Clean Water Act requires identification of impaired water bodies and determination of the causes ...

  11. H.R. 73: A Bill to protect the ecologically fragile coastal resources of south Florida by prohibiting offshore oil and gas activities and by cancelling Federal leases in the area of the Outer Continental Shelf adjacent to the south Florida coast. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First session

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This document contains H.R. 73, A Bill to protect the ecologically fragile coastal resources of south Florida by prohibiting offshore oil and gas activities and by cancelling Federal leases in the area of the Outer Continental Shelf adjacent to south Florida. This Bill was introduced in the House of Representatives, 104th Congress, First Session, January 4, 1995.

  12. Water conservation quantities vs customer opinion and satisfaction with water efficient appliances in Miami, Florida.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mengshan; Tansel, Berrin

    2013-10-15

    During 2006-2007, Miami-Dade County, Florida, USA, provided incentives for low income and senior residents in single family homes for retrofitting with high efficiency fixtures. The participating residences were retrofitted with high-efficiency toilets, showerheads, and aerators. In 2012, a telephone survey was conducted to evaluate the satisfaction of the participants and the associated effects on water conservation practices. This study evaluates the attitudes and opinions of the participants relative to water use efficiency measures and the actual reduction in water consumption characteristics of the participating households. The participant characteristics were analyzed to identify correlations between the socio-demographic factors, program satisfaction and actual water savings. Approximately 65.5% of the survey respondents reported changes in their water use habits and 76.6% reported noticeable reduction in their water bills. The analyses showed that the satisfaction levels of the participants were closely correlated with the actual water savings. The results also showed that satisfaction level along with water saving potential (i.e., implementation of water efficiency devices) or change of water use habits has provided positive synergistic effect on actual water savings. The majority of the participants surveyed (81.3-89.1%) reported positive attitudes for water conservation incentive program and the benefits of the high efficiency fixtures. PMID:23850763

  13. Water-ice and water-updraft relationships near -10 C within populations of Florida cumuli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sax, R. I.; Keller, V. W.

    1980-01-01

    Evidence is presented for a sequential development of cloud water, rainwater, graupel, and crystalline ice with the aging of the cloud. This evidence is based on in-cloud microphysical data set collected in Florida convective towers that were penetrated close to their tops near -10 C; the very rapid onset of graupel that appears on repeat penetrations of some towers is of particular interest. A separate data set shows a large scatter in the relationship between the maximum value of cloud water and vertical velocity which indicates that measurements of cloud water can be misleading as an indication of growth activity. The sequential pass data showing the evolution of ice and water are consistent with a rime-splintering, secondary ice production hypothesis.

  14. Remote Sensing Applications to Water Quality Management in Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasingly, optical datasets from estuarine and coastal systems are becoming available for remote sensing algorithm development, validation, and application. With validated algorithms, the data streams from satellite sensors can provide unprecedented spatial and temporal data ...

  15. Forecasting in an integrated surface water-ground water system: The Big Cypress Basin, South Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butts, M. B.; Feng, K.; Klinting, A.; Stewart, K.; Nath, A.; Manning, P.; Hazlett, T.; Jacobsen, T.

    2009-04-01

    The South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) manages and protects the state's water resources on behalf of 7.5 million South Floridians and is the lead agency in restoring America's Everglades - the largest environmental restoration project in US history. Many of the projects to restore and protect the Everglades ecosystem are part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP). The region has a unique hydrological regime, with close connection between surface water and groundwater, and a complex managed drainage network with many structures. Added to the physical complexity are the conflicting needs of the ecosystem for protection and restoration, versus the substantial urban development with the accompanying water supply, water quality and flood control issues. In this paper a novel forecasting and real-time modelling system is presented for the Big Cypress Basin. The Big Cypress Basin includes 272 km of primary canals and 46 water control structures throughout the area that provide limited levels of flood protection, as well as water supply and environmental quality management. This system is linked to the South Florida Water Management District's extensive real-time (SCADA) data monitoring and collection system. Novel aspects of this system include the use of a fully distributed and integrated modeling approach and a new filter-based updating approach for accurately forecasting river levels. Because of the interaction between surface- and groundwater a fully integrated forecast modeling approach is required. Indeed, results for the Tropical Storm Fay in 2008, the groundwater levels show an extremely rapid response to heavy rainfall. Analysis of this storm also shows that updating levels in the river system can have a direct impact on groundwater levels.

  16. Surface-Water and Ground-Water Interactions in the Central Everglades, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, Judson W.; Newlin, Jessica T.; Krest, James M.; Choi, Jungyill; Nemeth, Eric A.; Krupa, Steven L.

    2004-01-01

    Recharge and discharge are hydrological processes that cause Everglades surface water to be exchanged for subsurface water in the peat soil and the underlying sand and limestone aquifer. These interactions are thought to be important to water budgets, water quality, and ecology in the Everglades. Nonetheless, relatively few studies of surface water and ground water interactions have been conducted in the Everglades, especially in its vast interior areas. This report is a product of a cooperative investigation conducted by the USGS and the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) aimed at developing and testing techniques that would provide reliable estimates of recharge and discharge in interior areas of WCA-2A (Water Conservation Area 2A) and several other sites in the central Everglades. The new techniques quantified flow from surface water to the subsurface (recharge) and the opposite (discharge) using (1) Darcy-flux calculations based on measured vertical gradients in hydraulic head and hydraulic conductivity of peat; (2) modeling transport through peat and decay of the naturally occurring isotopes 224Ra and 223Ra (with half-lives of 4 and 11 days, respectively); and (3) modeling transport and decay of naturally occurring and 'bomb-pulse' tritium (half-life of 12.4 years) in ground water. Advantages and disadvantages of each method for quantifying recharge and discharge were compared. In addition, spatial and temporal variability of recharge and discharge were evaluated and controlling factors identified. A final goal was to develop appropriately simplified (that is, time averaged) expressions of the results that will be useful in addressing a broad range of hydrological and ecological problems in the Everglades. Results were compared with existing information about water budgets from the South Florida Water Management Model (SFWMM), a principal tool used by the South Florida Water Management District to plan many of the hydrological aspects of the

  17. Recent measurements of the spectral backward-scattering coefficient in coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffione, Robert A.; Dana, David R.

    1997-02-01

    The backward scattering coefficient bb was measured in various coastal waters with fixed-angle backscattering sensors developed by the authors. Measurements were made at four discrete wavelengths covering the spectral range 440 to 675 nm. A power law spectral dependence of bb due to scattering by particles was investigated of the form bbp((lambda) ) equals bbp ((lambda) 0) ((lambda) 0/(lambda) )(gamma , where the superscript p denotes particle scattering and (lambda) is the wavelength. The exponent (gamma) depends on the particle size distribution and composition of particles. Extensive measurements in Monterey Bay, California, showed that 0.1 waters generally below 10 m. For the upper 10 m, 0.7 waters near Panama City, Florida, (gamma) for the upper 10 m was found to be in the range, 0.9 water, 0.9 waters of East Sound, Washington, 0 waters measured.

  18. Evolution of a Man-Made Plume in Coastal Waters

    SciTech Connect

    Steinmaus, Karen L.; Bowles, Jeff; Woodruff, Dana L.; Donato, Tim; Rhea, William J.; Snyder, W. A.; Korwan, Daniel R.; Miller, Lee M.; Petrie, Gregg M.; Maxwell, Adam R.; Hibler, Lyle F.

    2006-12-19

    The ability to understand the biogeophysical parameters that create ocean color in coastal waters is fundamental to the ability to exploit remote sensing for coastal applications. This article describes an experiment in which a controlled quantity of a single inorganic material with known absorption and scattering properties was released into a coastal environment. The plume experiment was conducted in conjunction with a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) field collection campaign in and around Sequim Bay on the Strait of Juan de Fuca in Washington State. The objective of the field campaign was to identify and characterize features in the near shore environment from the standpoint of quantifying environmental parameters to improve operational planning in littoral regions. The aerial component of the mission involved imagery acquisitions from the NRL's PHILLS hyperspectral sensor, and two commercial IR cameras. Coincident satellite data was obtained from commercial sources. Ground truth activities included atmospheric profiles, ground, surface water, and in-water spectral measurements, panels for radiometric calibration, water column water optics, water samples and profiles from support vessels, in-situ tide and weather measurements, and beach and intertidal transects and surveys (via scientific dive teams). This field collection campaign provided a unique opportunity for a multisensor data collection effort in littoral regions, to identify and characterize features from multiple platforms (satellite, aerial, water surface and subsurface) and sensors. Data from this mission is being used as input to both radiative transfer and ocean transport models, for characterizing the water column and the near-shore, and quantitatively estimating circulation and transport in coastal environments.

  19. Transmissivity and water quality of water-producing zones in the intermediate aquifer system, Sarasota County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knochenmus, L.A.; Bowman, Geronia

    1998-01-01

    The intermediate aquifer system is an important water source in Sarasota County, Florida, because the quality of water in it is usually better than that in the underlying Upper Floridan aquifer. The intermediate aquifer system consists of a group of up to three water-producing zones separated by less-permeable units that restrict the vertical movement of ground water between zones. The diverse lithology, that makes up the intermediate aquifer system, reflects the variety of depositional environments that occurred during the late Oligocene and Miocene epochs. Slight changes in the depositional environment resulted in aquifer heterogeneity, creating both localized connection between water-producing zones and abrupt culmination of water-producing zones that are not well documented. Aquifer heterogeneity results in vertical and areal variability in hydraulic and water-quality properties. The uppermost water-producing zone is designated producing zone 1 but is not extensively used because of its limited production capability and limited areal extent. The second water-producing zone is designated producing zone 2, and most of the domestic- and irrigation-supply wells in the area are open to this zone. Additionally, producing zone 2 is utilized for public supply in southern coastal areas of Sarasota County. Producing zone 3 is the lowermost and most productive water-producing zone in the intermediate aquifer system. Public-supply well fields serving the cities of Sarasota and Venice, as well as the Plantation and Mabry Carlton Reserve well fields, utilize producing zone 3. Heads within the intermediate aquifer system generally increase with aquifer depth. However, localized head-gradient reversals occur in the study area, coinciding with sites of intense ground-water withdrawals. Heads in producing zones 1, 2, and 3 range from 1 to 23, 0.2 to 34, and 7 to 42 feet above sea level, respectively. Generally, an upward head gradient exists between producing zones 3 and 2

  20. Contamination of diuron in coastal waters around Malaysian Peninsular.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hassan Rashid; Arifin, Marinah Mohd; Sheikh, Mohammed Ali; Shazili, Noor Azhar Mohamed; Bakari, Said Suleiman; Bachok, Zainudin

    2014-08-15

    The use of antifouling paints to the boats and ships is one among the threats facing coastal resources including coral reefs in recent decades. This study reports the current contamination status of diuron and its behaviour in the coastal waters of Malaysia. The maximum concentration of diuron was 285 ng/L detected at Johor port. All samples from Redang and Bidong coral reef islands were contaminated with diuron. Temporal variation showed relatively high concentrations but no significant difference (P>0.05) during November and January (North-East monsoon) in Klang ports (North, South and West), while higher levels of diuron were detected during April, 2012 (Inter monsoon) in Kemaman, and Johor port. Although no site has shown concentration above maximum permissible concentration (430 ng/L) as restricted by the Dutch Authorities, however, long term exposure studies for environmental relevance levels of diuron around coastal areas should be given a priority in the future. PMID:24934440

  1. GPS Monitoring of Cattle Location Near Water Features in South Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to quantify the amount of time spent by grazing cattle near or in water locations (wetlands, ditches, and water troughs) across seasons of a cow-calf production ranch in South Florida. Prolonged hot summers in these regions can cause physiological heat stress in cattle and driv...

  2. Intermittent particle dynamics in marine coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renosh, P. R.; Schmitt, F. G.; Loisel, H.

    2015-10-01

    Marine coastal processes are highly variable over different space scales and timescales. In this paper we analyse the intermittency properties of particle size distribution (PSD) recorded every second using a LISST instrument (Laser In-Situ Scattering and Transmissometry). The particle concentrations have been recorded over 32 size classes from 2.5 to 500 μm, at 1 Hz resolution. Such information is used to estimate at each time step the hyperbolic slope of the particle size distribution, and to consider its dynamics. Shannon entropy, as an indicator of the randomness, is estimated at each time step and its dynamics is analysed. Furthermore, particles are separated into four classes according to their size, and the intermittent properties of these classes are considered. The empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is used, associated with arbitrary-order Hilbert spectral analysis (AHSA), in order to retrieve scaling multifractal moment functions, for scales from 10 s to 8 min. The intermittent properties of two other indicators of particle concentration are also considered in the same range of scales: the total volume concentration Cvol-total and the particulate beam attenuation coefficient cp(670). Both show quite similar intermittent dynamics and are characterised by the same exponents. Globally we find here negative Hurst exponents (meaning the small scales show larger fluctuation than large scales) for each time series considered, and nonlinear moment functions.

  3. Bacterial pollution of Messina coastal waters: a one year study.

    PubMed

    Caruso, G; Zaccone, R; Monticelli, L; Crisafi, E; Zampino, D

    2000-07-01

    A year's monitoring of faecal pollution of marine coastal waters surrounding Messina was carried out in 1996/97. The distribution of faecal coliforms was evaluated in 15 stations located along the Sicilian coastline, sampled monthly in coincidence of the two opposing current phases ("montante" and "scendente" currents) which characterise the Straits of Messina. The data obtained provided a complete picture of hygienic-sanitary conditions of the area and highlighted the presence of heavily polluted sites in correspondence with river outflows. Higher bacterial counts were associated with lower salinity values and higher ammonia concentrations; over an annual study, they occurred during the coldest months, showing the negative impact of continental water inputs on the bacteriological quality of coastal waters. PMID:10939045

  4. Development and application of a new comprehensive image-based classification scheme for coastal and benthic environments along the southeast Florida continental shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makowski, Christopher

    The coastal (terrestrial) and benthic environments along the southeast Florida continental shelf show a unique biophysical succession of marine features from a highly urbanized, developed coastal region in the north (i.e. northern Miami-Dade County) to a protective marine sanctuary in the southeast (i.e. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary). However, the establishment of a standard bio-geomorphological classification scheme for this area of coastal and benthic environments is lacking. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis and answer the research question of whether new parameters of integrating geomorphological components with dominant biological covers could be developed and applied across multiple remote sensing platforms for an innovative way to identify, interpret, and classify diverse coastal and benthic environments along the southeast Florida continental shelf. An ordered manageable hierarchical classification scheme was developed to incorporate the categories of Physiographic Realm, Morphodynamic Zone, Geoform, Landform, Dominant Surface Sediment, and Dominant Biological Cover. Six different remote sensing platforms (i.e. five multi-spectral satellite image sensors and one high-resolution aerial orthoimagery) were acquired, delineated according to the new classification scheme, and compared to determine optimal formats for classifying the study area. Cognitive digital classification at a nominal scale of 1:6000 proved to be more accurate than autoclassification programs and therefore used to differentiate coastal marine environments based on spectral reflectance characteristics, such as color, tone, saturation, pattern, and texture of the seafloor topology. In addition, attribute tables were created in conjugation with interpretations to quantify and compare the spatial relationships between classificatory units. IKONOS-2 satellite imagery was determined to be the optimal platform for applying the hierarchical classification scheme

  5. Water-management models in Florida from ERTS-1 data. [Everglades National Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higer, A. L.; Coker, A. E.; Cordes, E. H.

    1974-01-01

    A prototype multiparameter data acquisition network, installed and operated by the U.S. Geological Survey is a viable approach for obtaining near real-time data needed to solve hydrologic problems confronting nearly 2.5 million residents of south Florida. Selected water quantity and quality data obtained from ground stations are transmitted for relay via ERTS-1 to NASA receiving stations in virtual real time. This data relay system has been very reliable and, by coupling the ground information with ERTS imagery, a modeling technique is available for water resource management in south Florida. An ecological model has been designed for the Shark River Slough in Everglades National Park.

  6. Gopher Tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) Densities in Coastal Scrub and Slash Pine Flatwoods in Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breininger, David R.; Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hinkle, C. Ross

    1994-01-01

    Densities of gopher tortoises were compared with habitat characteristics in scrub and in flatwood habitats on the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Tortoises were distributed widely among habitat types and did not have higher densities in well-drained (oak-palmetto) than in poorly-drained (saw palmetto) habitats. Fall densities of tortoises ranged from a mean of 2.7 individuals/ha in disturbed habitat to 0.0 individuals/ha in saw palmetto habitat. Spring densities of tortoises ranged from a mean of 2.5 individuals/ha in saw palmetto habitat to 0.7 individuals/ha in oak-palmetto habitat. Densities of tortoises were correlated positively with the percent herbaceous cover, an indicator of food resources. Plots were divided into three burn classes; these were areas burned within three years, burned four to seven years, and unburned for more than seven years prior to the study. Relationships between densities of tortoises and time-since-fire classes were inconsistent.

  7. A Screening-Level Hydroeconomic Model of South Florida Water Resources System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirchi, A.; Watkins, D. W., Jr.; Flaxman, M.; Wiesmann, D.

    2014-12-01

    South Florida's water resources management is characterized by system-wide tradeoffs associated with maintaining the ecological integrity of natural environments such as the Everglades while meeting the water demands of the agricultural sector and growing urban areas. As these tradeoffs become more pronounced due to pressures from climate change, sea level rise, and population growth, it will be increasingly challenging for policy makers and stakeholders to reach consensus on water resources management objectives and planning horizons. A hydroeconomic optimization model of south Florida's water resources system is developed to incorporate the value of water for preserving ecosystem services alongside water supplies to the Everglades Agricultural Area and urban areas. Results of this screening-level network flow model facilitate quantitative analysis and provide insights for long-term adaptive management strategies for the region's water resources.

  8. Analysis of bathymetric surveys to identify coastal vulnerabilities at Cape Canaveral, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, David M.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Hansen, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to describe an updated bathymetric dataset collected in 2014 and compare it to previous datasets. The updated data focus on the bathymetric features and sediment transport pathways that connect the offshore regions to the shoreline and, therefore, are related to the protection of other portions of the coastal environment, such as dunes, that support infrastructure and ecosystems. Previous survey data include National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) National Ocean Service (NOS) hydrographic survey from 1956 and a USGS survey from 2010 that is augmented with NOS surveys from 2006 and 2007. The primary result of this analysis is documentation and quantification of the nature and rates of bathymetric changes that are near (within about 2.5 km) the current Cape Canaveral shoreline and interpretation of the impact of these changes on future erosion vulnerability.

  9. Summary of data from onsite and laboratory analyses of surface water and marsh porewater from South Florida Water Management District Water Conservation Areas, the Everglades, South Florida, March 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, Michael M.; Gunther, Charmaine D.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents results of chemical analysis for samples collected during March, 1995, as part of a study to quantify the interaction of aquatic organic material (referred to here as dissolved organic carbon with dissolved metal ions). The work was done in conjunction with the South Florida Water Management District, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Geological Survey South Florida Ecosystems Initiative, and the South Florida National Water Quality Assessment Study Unit. Samples were collected from surface canals and from marsh sites. Results are based on onsite and laboratory measurements for 27 samples collected at 10 locations. The data file contains sample description, dissolved organic carbon concentration and specific ultraviolet absorbance, and additional analytical data for samples collected at several sites in the Water Conservation Areas, the Everglades, south Florida.

  10. BACTERIAL SOURCE TRACKING IN MISSISSIPPI COASTAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of the proposed study is to apply secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) analysis to surface waters in eastern Mississippi and to clarify the source(s) of pollution entering the Wolf and Jordan River watersheds. The method would attempt to determine if bovine fe...