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1

Characterization of activation energy for flow in metallic glasses  

SciTech Connect

The molar volume (V{sub m}) scaled flow activation energy ({Delta}E), namely as the activation energy density {rho}{sub E}={Delta}E/V{sub m}, is proposed to describe the flow of metallic glasses. Based on the energy landscape, both the shear and bulk moduli are critical parameters accounting for the {rho}{sub E} of both homogeneous and inhomogeneous flows in metallic glasses. The expression of {rho}{sub E} is determined experimentally to be a simple expression of {rho}{sub E}=(10/11)G+(1/11)K. The energy density perspective depicts a realistic picture for the flow in metallic glasses and is suggestive for understanding the glass transition and deformation in metallic glasses.

Wang, J. Q.; Wang, W. H.; Liu, Y. H.; Bai, H. Y. [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

2011-01-15

2

Energy Flow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation depicts the transfer of energy in a food chain. The resource is an interactive illustration of a farm scene depicting the flow of energy between the sun, a cornfield, a cow and a human through a food chain. To view the illustration, select Continue, then select Energy Flow button.

3

Activation energy for superplastic flow in aluminum matrix composites exhibiting high-strain-rate superplasticity  

SciTech Connect

It is recognized that the activation energy for superplastic flow in metals is in agreement with the activation energy for lattice self-diffusion or for grain boundary diffusion. Moreover, Mishra et al. showed that the activation energy for superplastic flow in a high strain rate superplastic SiC{sub w}/2124Al composite was 313 KJ/mol and they noted that the activation energy was higher than the activation energy for lattice self-diffusion of aluminum (=142 KJ/mol). Very recently, Higashi et al. revealed that an apparent value of the activation energy for superplastic flow was increased by the presence of a liquid phase for mechanically-alloyed materials exhibiting high-strain-rate superplasticity. The same trend was reported in the high-strain-rate superplastic Si{sub 3}N{sub 4w}/Al-Zn-Mg composite. However, there are a few works describing the activation energy for superplastic flow in metal matrix composites from the viewpoint of effects of a liquid phase. In this paper, the activation energies for superplastic flow in a variety of high-strain-rate superplastic Al-Mg(5052), Al-Mg-Si(6061), Al-Zn-Mg(7064) and Al-Cu-Mg(2124) alloy matrix composites have been analyzed.

Mabuchi, M. [National Industrial Research Inst. of Nagoya (Japan)] [National Industrial Research Inst. of Nagoya (Japan); Higashi, K. [Osaka Prefecture Univ., Sakai (Japan)] [Osaka Prefecture Univ., Sakai (Japan)

1996-06-15

4

Determination of the Arrhenius Activation Energy Using a Temperature-Programmed Flow Reactor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a novel method for the determination of the Arrhenius activation energy, without prejudging the validity of the Arrhenius equation or the concept of activation energy. The method involves use of a temperature-programed flow reactor connected to a concentration detector. (JN)

Chan, Kit-ha C.; Tse, R. S.

1984-01-01

5

Energy Efficient Thermal Management for Natural Gas Engine Aftertreatment via Active Flow Control  

SciTech Connect

The project is focused on the development of an energy efficient aftertreatment system capable of reducing NOx and methane by 90% from lean-burn natural gas engines by applying active exhaust flow control. Compared to conventional passive flow-through reactors, the proposed scheme cuts supplemental energy by 50%-70%. The system consists of a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) system and an oxidation catalyst. Through alternating flow control, a major amount of engine exhaust flows through a large portion of the LNT system in the absorption mode, while a small amount of exhaust goes through a small portion of the LNT system in the regeneration or desulfurization mode. By periodically reversing the exhaust gas flow through the oxidation catalyst, a higher temperature profile is maintained in the catalyst bed resulting in greater efficiency of the oxidation catalyst at lower exhaust temperatures. The project involves conceptual design, theoretical analysis, computer simulation, prototype fabrication, and empirical studies. This report details the progress during the first twelve months of the project. The primary activities have been to develop the bench flow reactor system, develop the computer simulation and modeling of the reverse-flow oxidation catalyst, install the engine into the test cell, and begin design of the LNT system.

David K. Irick; Ke Nguyen; Vitacheslav Naoumov; Doug Ferguson

2005-04-01

6

Energy Efficient Thermal Management for Natural Gas Engine Aftertreatment via Active Flow Control  

SciTech Connect

The project is focused on the development of an energy efficient aftertreatment system capable of reducing NOx and methane by 90% from lean-burn natural gas engines by applying active exhaust flow control. Compared to conventional passive flow-through reactors, the proposed scheme cuts supplemental energy by 50%-70%. The system consists of a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) system and an oxidation catalyst. Through alternating flow control, a major amount of engine exhaust flows through a large portion of the LNT system in the absorption mode, while a small amount of exhaust goes through a small portion of the LNT system in the regeneration or desulfurization mode. By periodically reversing the exhaust gas flow through the oxidation catalyst, a higher temperature profile is maintained in the catalyst bed resulting in greater efficiency of the oxidation catalyst at lower exhaust temperatures. The project involves conceptual design, theoretical analysis, computer simulation, prototype fabrication, and empirical studies. This report details the progress during the first twelve months of the project. The primary activities have been to develop the bench flow reactor system, develop the computer simulation and modeling of the reverse-flow oxidation catalyst, install the engine into the test cell, and begin design of the LNT system.

David K. Irick; Ke Nguyen; Vitacheslav Naoumov; Doug Ferguson

2006-04-01

7

ENERGY EFFICIENT THERMAL MANAGEMENT FOR NATURAL GAS ENGINE AFTERTREATMENT VIA ACTIVE FLOW CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

The project is focused on the development of an energy efficient aftertreatment system capable of reducing NOx and methane by 90% from lean-burn natural gas engines by applying active exhaust flow control. Compared to conventional passive flow-through reactors, the proposed scheme cuts supplemental energy by 50%-70%. The system consists of a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) system and an oxidation catalyst. Through alternating flow control, a major amount of engine exhaust flows through a large portion of the LNT system in the absorption mode, while a small amount of exhaust goes through a small portion of the LNT system in the regeneration or desulfurization mode. By periodically reversing the exhaust gas flow through the oxidation catalyst, a higher temperature profile is maintained in the catalyst bed resulting in greater efficiency of the oxidation catalyst at lower exhaust temperatures. The project involves conceptual design, theoretical analysis, computer simulation, prototype fabrication, and empirical studies. This report details the progress during the first twelve months of the project. The primary activities have been to develop the bench flow reactor system, develop the computer simulation and modeling of the reverse-flow oxidation catalyst, install the engine into the test cell, and begin design of the LNT system.

David K. Irick; Ke Nguyen

2004-04-01

8

Determining energy flow propagation direction of transmitted wave at an active medium-vacuum interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By simultaneously considering the real valued boundary conditions and Poynting theorem, time dependent Poynting flows of reflected and transmitted waves at an active medium-vacuum interface are determined uniquely. Then propagation direction of the transmitted wave is given according to its time averaged Poynting flow. Numerical simulations demonstrate that, at a high gain or loss active medium-vacuum interface, significant difference between electric and magnetic damping angle may induce energy flow propagation direction of the transmitted wave to deviate strongly away from that obtained by the usual Snell's law and to arise negative refraction generally. Our work provides a convenient way to address problems of reflection and refraction at an active media-vacuum interface.

Chen, Jiangwei; He, Wenping; Wang, Wei; Tao, Zhikuo; Xie, Guozhi; Xu, Weidong

2013-04-01

9

Active Lava Flows  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

View of the currently active flows on the pali, east of Royal Gardens subdivision. The corresponding thermal image highlights the active flow area clearly. The active flows are traveling down the east margin of the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) flow field. The flows are being fed by a lengthening ...

10

Heat and mass transfer in unsteady rotating fluid flow with binary chemical reaction and activation energy.  

PubMed

In this study, the Spectral Relaxation Method (SRM) is used to solve the coupled highly nonlinear system of partial differential equations due to an unsteady flow over a stretching surface in an incompressible rotating viscous fluid in presence of binary chemical reaction and Arrhenius activation energy. The velocity, temperature and concentration distributions as well as the skin-friction, heat and mass transfer coefficients have been obtained and discussed for various physical parametric values. The numerical results obtained by (SRM) are then presented graphically and discussed to highlight the physical implications of the simulations. PMID:25250830

Awad, Faiz G; Motsa, Sandile; Khumalo, Melusi

2014-01-01

11

Energy Flow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through the process of photosynthesis, plants harness the sun's energy and in so doing make many forms of life, including human life, possible. What path does this energy follow, and how is it transferred from one type of organism to another? In this feature, adapted from Interactive NOVA: Earth, learn why 400 pounds of corn can't be converted into a 400-pound cow.

2003-12-26

12

The role of high energy photons and particles in accretion flows in active nuclei  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The creation of high energy pairs and photons in the conversion of gravitational to thermal energy is a process common to most accretion models for active galactic nuclei. These are two observational methods designed to explore this process: direct observations of the hot photons, through hard X-ray and gamma-ray data, and indirect observations of the energetic pairs, through their polarized, nonthermal low frequency radiation. However, interpretation of these observations in terms of the conditions in the inner accretion flow requires understanding of the various processes which modify the pair and photon distributions within the hot, dense core. These processes include opacity effects within the pair/photon plasma, Compton losses on external photons, further acceleration of the pairs and further radiation by the pairs, and the dynamic interaction of the pair/photon plasma with the surrounding gas. Current observational and theoretical work is reviewed and new directions are considered in a search for constraints on or tests of accretion models of active nuclei.

Eilek, Jean A.

1988-01-01

13

Neuroimaging and neuroenergetics: Brain activations as information-driven reorganization of energy flows  

E-print Network

Neuroimaging and neuroenergetics: Brain activations as information-driven reorganization of energy 25 January 2010 Keywords: Neuroimaging Neuroenergetics Brain activation Cortical response Deviance detection a b s t r a c t There is increasing focus on the neurophysiological underpinnings of brain

14

Active Lava Flow  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The currently active flows on the pali continue to chip away at the few remaining streets in the beleaguered Royal Gardens subdivision. Those visible here are pretty much all that's left, with the exception of one small kipuka out of sight to the right....

15

Dynamo Dominated Accretion and Energy Flow: The Mechanism of Active Galactic Nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An explanation of the magnetic fields of the universe, the central mass concentration of galaxies, the massive black hole of every galaxy, and the AGN phenomena has been an elusive goal. We suggest here the outlines of such a theoretical understanding and point out where the physical understanding is missing. We believe there is an imperative to the sequence of mass flow and hence energy flow in the collapse of a galactic mass starting from the first non-linearity appearing in structure formation following decoupling. This first non-linearity of a two to one density fluctuation, the Lyman-? clouds, ultimately leads to the emission spectra of the phenomenon of AGN, quasars, blazars etc. The over-arching physical principle is the various mechanisms for the transport of angular momentum. We believe we have now understood the new physics of two of these mechanisms that have previously been illusive and as a consequence they impose strong constraints on the initial conditions of the mechanisms for the subsequent emission of the gravitational binding energy. The new phenomena described here are: 1) the Rossby vortex mechanism of the accretion disk viscosity, and 2) the mechanism of the ? - ? dynamo in the accretion disk. The Rossby vortex mechanism leads to a prediction of the black hole mass and rate of energy release and the ? - ? dynamo leads to the generation of the magnetic flux of the galaxy (and the far greater magnetic flux of clusters) and separately explains the primary flux of energy emission as force-free magnetic energy density. This magnetic flux and magnetic energy density separately are the necessary consequence of the saturation of a dynamo created by the accretion disk with a gain greater than unity. The predicted form of the emission of both the flux and the magnetic energy density is a force-free magnetic helix extending axially from the disk a distance depending upon its winding number and radius of its flux surfaces, a distance of Mpc's. This Poynting flux of magnetic energy would be invisible unless the currents bounding the magnetic field are dissipated. By definition of force-free, these currents are parallel to the field and throughout its volume. Therefore the dissipation must be throughout the volume as opposed to the conventional reconnection which takes place only at surface layers. This radically different interpretation of reconnection is supported by the observation of "interruption" events in fusion tokamak experiments. Here, and presumably in the galactic case as well, the parallel currents and their dissipation is mediated by run-away, high energy electrons and ions. It is then natural to seek an explanation for the emission spectrum of the dynamo-produced Poynting flux in the same synchrotron emission associated with the dissipation of these run-away currents. We propose the radically different view that these ultra high energy, run-away electrons directly produce the emission spectra as compared to the published models that assume an acceleration of bulk matter to a ? ~ 10 and then reconvert this kinetic energy by shock heating into a highly relativistic plasma, ? ~ 10^6.

Colgate, S. A.; Li, H.

1998-07-01

16

Estimated International Energy Flows 2007  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Energy Flow Charts website is a set of energy Sankey diagrams or flow charts for 136 countries constructed from data maintained by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and reflects the energy use patterns for 2007.

Smith, Clara; Laboratory, Lawrence L.

17

Food Web and Energy Flow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chapter discusses the concept of a food web and energy flow. Its activities will assist students in defining and constructing an energy pyramid. These activities can be incorporated into lessons which teach students how to create a food web and and identify the interdependencies within that habitat. Students will learn how to identify and illustrate parts of the water cycle, the carbon-oxygen cycle, and the nitrogen cycle. This section also offers students the tools to demonstrate active knowledge of conservation measures.

Galle, Janet R.; Warren, Patricia A.

2005-01-01

18

Energy Flow Energy Flow Energy Flow A.Ukleja, T.Tymieniecka, I.Skillicorn 1 Azimuthal asymmetry  

E-print Network

Energy Flow Energy Flow Energy Flow A.Ukleja, T.Tymieniecka, I.Skillicorn 1 Azimuthal asymmetry using energy flow method Azimuthal angle distribution at Q2 >100 GeV2 Energy flow method.Ukleja on behalf of the ZEUS Collaboration #12; Energy Flow Energy Flow Energy Flow A.Ukleja, T.Tymieniecka, I

19

Radiant Energy Flow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does energy flow in and out of our atmosphere? Explore how solar and infrared radiation enters and exits the atmosphere with an interactive model. Control the amounts of carbon dioxide and clouds present in the model and learn how these factors can influence global temperature. Record results using snapshots of the model in the virtual lab notebook where you can annotate your observations.

2012-07-19

20

Fluid flow energy converter  

SciTech Connect

Energy is extracted from a free-stream fluid flow of wind or water by means of a multi-turn helicoid structure with a relatively small pitch angle. The axis of the structure about which the helicoid turns is making an angle with the flow vector in the order of or slightly larger that the pitch angle. Several such helicoid structures are combined with their radii overlapping, for the most effective interception of a certain cross sectional area of the fluid flow. Mile-long helicoid walls may be erected in this fashion. Using groups of helicoids which alternately turn clockwise and counter-clockwise all gyroscopic forces, which appear when the structures are turned to follow changes in the direction of the flow, are internally balanced. An omni-directional structure is also described which need not be turned when the flow direction changes. It is obtained by adding flow-diverters surrounding a helicoid structure with vertical axis. It is shown how various types of light and thin but rigid helicoid surfaces can be constructed from sheet materials without requiring plastic deformation because of the small pitch angles, as here employed.

Schumacher, B. W.

1985-02-19

21

Global Energy Flows  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students analyze data detailing global energy sources and sinks (uses) and construct a diagram to show the relative scale and the connections between them. Discussions of scale; historical, socio-environmental, and geographic variation in this data; and implications for future energy use are included.

Center, Great L.; Energy, U. S.

22

US energy flow, 1981  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flow diagrams to describe the US energy situation are given. In 1981 the energy consumption was 73 quads (or 73 times 10 to the 15th power Btu). Use was down from 75 quads in 1980. Oil continues to dominate the picture as it comprises 45% of the total energy used. Net oil use (exclusive of oil purchased for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve and Exports) fell 8%; oil imports declined 14%. In contrast to oil, use of natural gas and coal remained at 1980 levels. Decreased use of residual oils, principally for electric power generating, account for much of the drop in oil use. Increased use of coal and nuclear energy for power generation almost compensated for the decrease in use of oil in that end use. Transmitted power remained at 1980 levels. The remainder of the drop in energy usage is attributed to price driven conservation, increased efficiencies in end use and the recession that prevailed during most of the year. The share of the energy drop attributable to the recession is estimated by various analysts to be on the order of 40 to 50%.

Briggs, C. K.; Borg, I. Y.

1982-10-01

23

Active Flow Control For Inlets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation describes the progress to date of the Small-Scale Demonstration for the Active Flow Control element of the Propulsion Airframe Integration Project. The goal of this work package is to demonstrate at small scale the ability to improve pressure recovery and distortion in an S-inlet with boundary layer ingestion representative of a Blended Wing Body (BWB) configuration. The effectiveness of several active and passive devices to control flow in an adverse pressure gradient with secondary flows present was evaluated in the Langley 15-Inch Low-Turbulence Tunnel. In this study, passive microvanes, microbumps, and piezoelectric synthetic jets were evaluated for their flow control characteristics using surface static pressures, flow visualization, and 3D Stereo Digital Particle Image Velocimetry. The microvanes imparted a higher level of vorticity to the flow than any of the other devices tested. Alternative actuator concepts are being pursued to support the Small-Scale Demonstration Level 1 milestone in FY03.

Gorton, Susan A.

2001-01-01

24

Active p?hoehoe flow  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The active front of a p?hoehoe flow near the intersection of Pikake and Warrior Street, in the Royal Gardens subdivision. The road in the lower portion of the photo is the last remaining piece of Pikake Street. ...

25

Local flow control for active building facades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing building facade designs are for a passive and an impermeable shell to prevent migration of outdoor air into the building and to control heat transfers between the exterior environment and the building interior. An active facade that can respond in real time to changing environmental conditions like wind speed and direction, pollutant load, temperature, humidity and light can lower energy use and maximize occupant comfort. With an increased awareness of cost and environmental effects of energy use, cross or natural ventilation has become an attractive method to lower energy use. Separated flow regions around such buildings are undesirable due to high concentration of pollutants, especially if the vents or dynamic windows for cross ventilation are situated in these regions. Outside pollutant load redistribution through vents can be regulated via flow separation control to minimize transport of pollutants into the building. Flow separation has been substantially reduced with the application of intelligent flow control tools developed at Syracuse University for flow around "silo" (turret) like structures. Similar flow control models can be introduced into buildings with cross ventilation for local external flow separation control. Initial experiments will be performed for turbulent flow over a rectangular block (scaled to be a mid-rise building) that has been configured with dynamic vents and unsteady suction actuators in a wind tunnel at various wind speeds.

Kaligotla, Srikar; Chen, Wayne; Glauser, Mark

2010-11-01

26

Energy Flow in Agriculture: Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a qualitative energy flow analysis in Bangladesh agriculture has been made for a period from 1980-81 to 2000-01 to evaluate the impact of energy input to produce output. Human & animal muscle power and machinery energy for tillage operation, electricity and diesel energy for irrigation, fertilizer and pesticides energy for growth and protection are taken into account.

M. S. Alam; M. R. Alam; K. K. Islam

27

Activation energy measurements of cheese  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Temperature sweeps of cheeses using small amplitude oscillatory shear tests produced values for activation energy of flow (Ea) between 30 and 44 deg C. Soft goat cheese and Queso Fresco, which are high-moisture cheeses and do not flow when heated, exhibited Ea values between 30 and 60 kJ/mol. The ...

28

2007 Estimated International Energy Flows  

SciTech Connect

An energy flow chart or 'atlas' for 136 countries has been constructed from data maintained by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and estimates of energy use patterns for the year 2007. Approximately 490 exajoules (460 quadrillion BTU) of primary energy are used in aggregate by these countries each year. While the basic structure of the energy system is consistent from country to country, patterns of resource use and consumption vary. Energy can be visualized as it flows from resources (i.e. coal, petroleum, natural gas) through transformations such as electricity generation to end uses (i.e. residential, commercial, industrial, transportation). These flow patterns are visualized in this atlas of 136 country-level energy flow charts.

Smith, C A; Belles, R D; Simon, A J

2011-03-10

29

Activation Energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Teaming is so common in today's project management environment that most of us assume it comes naturally. We further assume that when presented with meaningful and challenging work, project teams will naturally engage in productive activity to complete their tasks. This assumption is expressed in the simple (but false) equation: Team + Work = Teamwork. Although this equation appears simple and straightforward, it is far from true for most project organizations whose reality is a complex web of institutional norms based on individual achievement and rewards. This is illustrated by the very first successful team experience from my early Air Force career. As a young lieutenant, I was sent to Squadron Officer School, which was the first in the series of Air Force professional military education courses I was required to complete during my career. We were immediately formed into teams of twelve officers. Much of the course featured competition between these teams. As the most junior member of my team, I quickly observed the tremendous pressure to show individual leadership capability. At one point early in the course, almost everyone in our group was vying to become the team leader. This conflict was so intense that it caused us to fail miserably in our first outdoor team building exercise. We spent so much time fighting over leadership that we were unable to complete any of the events on the outdoor obstacle course. This complete lack of success was so disheartening to me that I gave our team little hope for future success. What followed was a very intense period of bickering, conflict, and even shouting matches as our dysfunctional team tried to cope with our early failures and find some way to succeed. British physician and researcher Wilfred Bion (Experiences in Groups, 1961) discovered that there are powerful psychological forces inherent in all groups that divert from accomplishing their primary tasks. To overcome these restraining forces and use the potential power of the team, greater emphasis must be placed on establishing and maintaining group cohesiveness. This relationship is expressed in the revised (true) mathematical equation: Team + Work (on the Team) = Teamwork.

Gadeken, Owen

2002-01-01

30

High energy density redox flow device  

DOEpatents

Redox flow devices are described in which at least one of the positive electrode or negative electrode-active materials is a semi-solid or is a condensed ion-storing electroactive material, and in which at least one of the electrode-active materials is transported to and from an assembly at which the electrochemical reaction occurs, producing electrical energy. The electronic conductivity of the semi-solid is increased by the addition of conductive particles to suspensions and/or via the surface modification of the solid in semi-solids (e.g., by coating the solid with a more electron conductive coating material to increase the power of the device). High energy density and high power redox flow devices are disclosed. The redox flow devices described herein can also include one or more inventive design features. In addition, inventive chemistries for use in redox flow devices are also described.

Chiang, Yet-Ming; Carter, W. Craig; Ho, Bryan Y; Duduta, Mihai; Limthongkul, Pimpa

2014-05-13

31

US energy flow, 1990  

SciTech Connect

Energy consumption in the US changed only slightly in 1990. Transportation used was close to 1988 and 1989 levels. Improvements in automobile efficiency were compensated by an increase in the number of miles driven. A larger energy use in the industrial sector was offset by decreases in the residential/commercial sector. Energy use in the latter sector was influenced by a relatively mild, nation-wide summer and winter. All end-use sectors were affected by the high fuel prices related to the Kuwait-Iraq war in the last half of the year and by an attendant economic downturn. Electrical use rose slightly and thus deviated from the 3-4% annual increases recorded in the previous decade. Nuclear energy's contribution to electrical generation increased to almost 21%, and capacity factors reached 66%, an all time high in the US. Renewable sources of energy apart from hydroelectric power showed negligible growth. Domestic natural gas and coal production rose, and oil production continued its steady decline. As oil constitutes 41% of US energy consumption, failing domestic production has been augmented by imports. Collectively energy imports constituted two-thirds of the US trade deficit in 1990. The ratio between energy consumption and GNP declined slightly in 1990 as it has for almost every year since 1972. The Services'' component of the GNP increased in 1990 and the Goods'' and Structures'' components declined in keeping with an even longer trend. 29 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Borg, I.Y.; Briggs, C.K.

1991-06-01

32

Carbon Energy Flows Belowground  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plants use photosynthesis to convert carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and energy from sunlight into energy-containing, carbon-based foodstuffs (i.e. carbohydrates such as sugars and starches) that provide the building blocks for all life on Earth. Without photosynthesis, sunlight would not be a goo...

33

Active Flow Control Activities at NASA Langley  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Langley continues to aggressively investigate the potential advantages of active flow control over more traditional aerodynamic techniques. This paper provides an update to a previous paper and describes both the progress in the various research areas and the significant changes in the NASA research programs. The goals of the topics presented are focused on advancing the state of knowledge and understanding of controllable fundamental mechanisms in fluids as well as to address engineering challenges. An organizational view of current research activities at NASA Langley in active flow control as supported by several projects is presented. On-center research as well as NASA Langley funded contracts and grants are discussed at a relatively high level. The products of this research are to be demonstrated either in bench-top experiments, wind-tunnel investigations, or in flight as part of the fundamental NASA R&D program and then transferred to more applied research programs within NASA, DOD, and U.S. industry.

Anders, Scott G.; Sellers, William L., III; Washburn, Anthony E.

2004-01-01

34

Mass and energy flow in prominences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mass and energy flow in quiescent prominences is considered based on the hypothesis that active region prominences have a different structure and thus different mass and energy flow characteristics. Several important physical parameters have been plotted using the computational model, representing the evolutionary process after the prominence formation. The temperature, velocity, conductive flux, and enthalpy flux are plotted against distance from the highest point in the loop to the coolest part of the prominence. It is shown that the maximum velocity is only about 5 km/s. The model calculations indicate that the transition region of prominences is dominated by complex processes. It is necessary to take into account mass flow at temperatures below 200,000 K, and both mass flow and optical depth effects in hydrogen at temperatures below 30,000 K. Both of these effects lead to a less steep temperature gradient through the prominence corona interface than can be obtained from the conduction alone.

Poland, Arthur I.

1990-01-01

35

Power flow analysis for amplifier design and energy harvesting  

E-print Network

Power flow analysis for amplifier design and energy harvesting Nikola Vujica, Donald J. Leoa flow, state-space control, power harvesting, optimization 1. INTRODUCTION Active material systems on active and combined active and passive (hybrid) vibration suppression systems have shown a good

Lindner, Douglas K.

36

Managing talent flow. 2006 Energy and Resources  

E-print Network

Managing talent flow. 2006 Energy and Resources Talent Pulse Survey Report Consulting #12;Executive ............................................................................... 2 Addressing the talent issue ........................................................ 7 Conclusion ................................................................ 13 Contents #12;1 Managing talent flow 2006 Energy and Resources Talent Pulse Survey Report 2006

37

Active combustion flow modulation valve  

SciTech Connect

A flow modulation valve has a slidably translating hollow armature with at least one energizable coil wound around and fixably attached to the hollow armature. The energizable coil or coils are influenced by at least one permanent magnet surrounding the hollow armature and supported by an outer casing. Lorentz forces on the energizable coils which are translated to the hollow armature, increase or decrease the flow area to provide flow throttling action. The extent of hollow armature translation depends on the value of current supplied and the direction of translation depends on the direction of current flow. The compact nature of the flow modulation valve combined with the high forces afforded by the actuator design provide a flow modulation valve which is highly responsive to high-rate input control signals.

Hensel, John Peter; Black, Nathaniel; Thorton, Jimmy Dean; Vipperman, Jeffrey Stuart; Lambeth, David N; Clark, William W

2013-09-24

38

Energy Conservation: Student Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This teacher's guide contains six student activities on the topic of energy conservation and the impact of energy use on society. These materials are developed for use in middle schools for energy-related studies in many different subject areas. The activities each contain objectives, lesson plans, teaching tips, supplementary resources, and references. The top document on this page contains the Introduction and Table of Contents. The Primary Documents link can be opened to access the individual student activities. This is one of several similar modules and activity books regarding science, technology, and societal issues.

2012-01-27

39

Analysis of Flow Cytometry DNA Damage Response Protein Activation Kinetics Following X-rays and High Energy Iron Nuclei Exposure  

SciTech Connect

We developed a mathematical method to analyze flow cytometry data to describe the kinetics of {gamma}H2AX and pATF2 phosphorylations ensuing various qualities of low dose radiation in normal human fibroblast cells. Previously reported flow cytometry kinetic results for these DSB repair phospho-proteins revealed that distributions of intensity were highly skewed, severely limiting the detection of differences in the very low dose range. Distributional analysis reveals significant differences between control and low dose samples when distributions are compared using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Radiation quality differences are found in the distribution shapes and when a nonlinear model is used to relate dose and time to the decay of the mean ratio of phosphoprotein intensities of irradiated samples to controls. We analyzed cell cycle phase and radiation quality dependent characteristic repair times and residual phospho-protein levels with these methods. Characteristic repair times for {gamma}H2AX were higher following Fe nuclei as compared to X-rays in G1 cells (4.5 {+-} 0.46 h vs 3.26 {+-} 0.76 h, respectively), and in S/G2 cells (5.51 {+-} 2.94 h vs 2.87 {+-} 0.45 h, respectively). The RBE in G1 cells for Fe nuclei relative to X-rays for {gamma}H2AX was 2.05 {+-} 0.61 and 5.02 {+-} 3.47, at 2 h and 24-h postirradiation, respectively. For pATF2, a saturation effect is observed with reduced expression at high doses, especially for Fe nuclei, with much slower characteristic repair times (>7 h) compared to X-rays. RBEs for pATF2 were 0.66 {+-} 0.13 and 1.66 {+-} 0.46 at 2 h and 24 h, respectively. Significant differences in {gamma}H2AX and pATF2 levels comparing irradiated samples to control were noted even at the lowest dose analyzed (0.05 Gy) using these methods of analysis. These results reveal that mathematical models can be applied to flow cytometry data to uncover important and subtle differences following exposure to various qualities of low dose radiation.

Universities Space Research Association; Chappell, Lori J.; Whalen, Mary K.; Gurai, Sheena; Ponomarev, Artem; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Pluth, Janice M.

2010-12-15

40

CFD Modeling for Active Flow Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation describes current work under UEET Active Flow Control CFD Research Tool Development. The goal of this work is to develop computational tools for inlet active flow control design. This year s objectives were to perform CFD simulations of fully gridded vane vortex generators, micro-vortex genera- tors, and synthetic jets, and to compare flowfield results with wind tunnel tests of simple geometries with flow control devices. Comparisons are shown for a single micro-vortex generator on a flat plate, and for flow over an expansion ramp with sidewall effects. Vortex core location, pressure gradient and oil flow patterns are compared between experiment and computation. This work lays the groundwork for evaluating simplified modeling of arrays of devices, and provides the opportunity to test simple flow control device/sensor/ control loop interaction.

Buning, Pieter G.

2001-01-01

41

Tissue factor activity under flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coagulation processes under flow conditions are fundamentally different when compared to whole blood clotting in a tube. Due to red blood cell migration toward the center of the vessel, platelet concentrations are elevated several-fold in the plasma layer near the wall or thrombus. Evaluation of platelet function, coagulation proteases, and pharmacological agents can utilize closed systems of constant volume that

Scott L. Diamond

2010-01-01

42

Thermal and Visible Imagery: Active Flows  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This comparison of thermal images over the coastal plain shows the advancement of the active flows over the past week. At the top, a normal photograph from April 15 gives reference. The middle frame, from April 15, shows that the flows were approaching the bottom of the pali last week. In the bottom...

2010-06-18

43

Redox flow cell energy storage systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The redox flow cell energy storage system being developed by NASA for use in remote power systems and distributed storage installations for electric utilities is presented. The system under consideration is an electrochemical storage device which utilizes the oxidation and reduction of two fully soluble redox couples (acidified chloride solutions of chromium and iron) as active electrode materials separated by a highly selective ion exchange membrane. The reactants are contained in large storage tanks and pumped through a stack of redox flow cells where the electrochemical reactions take place at porous carbon felt electrodes. Redox equipment has allowed the incorporation of state of charge readout, stack voltage control and system capacity maintenance (rebalance) devices to regulate cells in a stack jointly. A 200 W, 12 V system with a capacity of about 400 Wh has been constructed, and a 2 kW, 10kWh system is planned.

Thaller, L. H.

1979-01-01

44

Active Flow Control in Turbomachinery Using Phased Plasma Actuators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shall present the possibilities of new emerging active flow control techniques in turbomachinery using phased plasma actuators. The major gas turbine applications are low Reynolds number separation flow control in LPT turbine blades, active inlet flow control, active flow control on fan blades and compressor vanes, active control of tip clearance flows in the blade tip-casing region, plasma-assisted

B. Göksel; I. Rechenberg

45

California energy flow in 1992  

SciTech Connect

For the past 16 years energy flow diagrams for the State of California have been prepared from available data by members of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. They have proven to be useful tools in graphically expressing energy supply and use in the State as well as illustrating the difference between particular years and between the State and the US as a whole. As far as is possible, similar data sources have been used to prepare the diagrams from year to year and identical assumptions{sup la-le} concerning conversion efficiencies have been made in order to minimize inconsistencies in the data and analyses. Sources of data used in this report are given in Appendix B and C; unavoidably the sources used over the 1976--1993 period have varied as some data bases are no longer available. In addition, we continue to see differences in specific data reported by different agencies for a given year. In particular, reported data on supply and usage in industrial/commercial/residential end-use categories have shown variability amongst the data gathering agencies, which bars detailed comparisons from year to year. Nonetheless, taken overall, valid generalizations can be made concerning gross trends and changes.

Borg, I.Y.; Briggs, C.K.

1994-04-01

46

Hypersonic flow code validation activity: Real gas flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Validation activities and facility types are discussed for six different flow codes: (1) perfect gas; (2) real gas; (3) nozzle/plume; (4) combustion; (5) thermochemical nonequilibrium; and (6) boundary layer and transition. All data and results are presented in viewgraph format.

Deiwert, George S.

1987-01-01

47

Magnetic energy flow in the solar wind.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussion of the effect of rotation (tangential flow) of the solar wind on the conclusions of Whang (1971) suggesting an increase in the solar wind velocity due to the conversion of magnetic energy to kinetic energy. It is shown that the effect of the rotation of the sun on the magnetic energy flow results in most of the magnetic energy being transported by magnetic shear stress near the sun.

Modisette, J. L.

1972-01-01

48

Localized flow control with energy deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of experiments with energy deposition via laser-induced optical breakdown of air, i.e., a laser spark, have been performed. These experiments have demonstrated the possibility of using a laser spark for supersonic flow control. In the first of these experiments, Rayleigh scattering flow visualization was taken for energy deposition into quiescent air. A time sequence of images showed the

Russell Gene Adelgren

2002-01-01

49

Flow stabilization with active hydrodynamic cloaks.  

PubMed

We demonstrate that fluid flow cloaking solutions, based on active hydrodynamic metamaterials, exist for two-dimensional flows past a cylinder in a wide range of Reynolds numbers (Re's), up to approximately 200. Within the framework of the classical Brinkman equation for homogenized porous flow, we demonstrate using two different methods that such cloaked flows can be dynamically stable for Re's in the range of 5-119. The first highly efficient method is based on a linearization of the Brinkman-Navier-Stokes equation and finding the eigenfrequencies of the least stable eigenperturbations; the second method is a direct numerical integration in the time domain. We show that, by suppressing the von Kármán vortex street in the weakly turbulent wake, porous flow cloaks can raise the critical Reynolds number up to about 120 or five times greater than for a bare uncloaked cylinder. PMID:23214882

Urzhumov, Yaroslav A; Smith, David R

2012-11-01

50

Introduction to Alternative and Renewable Energy: Energy Flow Analytics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module is intended for use in a college-level introductory course in alternative and renewable energy. The document covers energy flow analytics. Several useful graphics are included which provide data on energy flow and consumption as well as US transportation consumption. This module may be downloaded in PDF file format.

2013-07-25

51

Active flow control of subsonic flow in an adverse pressure gradient using synthetic jets and passive micro flow control devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several recent studies have shown the advantages of active and/or passive flow control devices for boundary layer flow modification. Many current and future proposed air vehicles have very short or offset diffusers in order to save vehicle weight and create more optimal vehicle/engine integration. Such short coupled diffusers generally result in boundary layer separation and loss of pressure recovery which reduces engine performance and in some cases may cause engine stall. Deployment of flow control devices can alleviate this problem to a large extent; however, almost all active flow control devices have some energy penalty associated with their inclusion. One potential low penalty approach for enhancing the diffuser performance is to combine the passive flow control elements such as micro-ramps with active flow control devices such as synthetic jets to achieve higher control authority. The goal of this dissertation is twofold. The first objective is to assess the ability of CFD with URANS turbulence models to accurately capture the effects of the synthetic jets and micro-ramps on boundary layer flow. This is accomplished by performing numerical simulations replicating several experimental test cases conducted at Georgia Institute of Technology under the NASA funded Inlet Flow Control and Prediction Technologies Program, and comparing the simulation results with experimental data. The second objective is to run an expanded CFD matrix of numerical simulations by varying various geometric and other flow control parameters of micro-ramps and synthetic jets to determine how passive and active control devices interact with each other in increasing and/or decreasing the control authority and determine their influence on modification of boundary layer flow. The boundary layer shape factor is used as a figure of merit for determining the boundary layer flow quality/modification and its tendency towards separation. It is found by a large number of numerical experiments and the analysis of simulation data that a flow control device's influence on boundary layer quality is a function of three factors: (1) the strength of the longitudinal vortex emanating from the flow control device or devices, (2) the height of the vortex core above the surface and, when a synthetic jet is present, (3) the momentum added to the boundary layer flow.

Denn, Michael E.

52

Energy Adventure Center. Activity Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Energy activities are provided in this student activity book. They include: (1) an energy walk; (2) forms of energy in the home; (3) energy conversion; (4) constructing a solar hot dog cooker (with instructions for drawing a parabola); (5) interviewing senior citizens to learn about energy use in the past; (6) packaging materials; (7) insulation;…

Carlton, Linda L.

53

Activities Handbook for Energy Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this handbook is to present information about energy and to translate this information into learning activities for children. Chapter 1, "Energy: A Delicate Dilemma," presents activities intended to provide an introduction to energy and energy usage. Chapter 2, "What are the Sources of Energy?" provides background information and…

DeVito, Alfred; Krockover, Gerald H.

54

Flow control using energy deposition at Mach 5  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, energy deposition has been suggested as a novel flow control technique in high-speed flow with preferable characteristics like non-intrusive, easy arrangement and high actuation frequency. The motivation of this work is to experimentally explore the flow behaviour after the certain amount of energy is deposited in Mach 5 flow. The energy deposition is implemented using a thermal bump (surface energy deposition) and laser beam focusing (volumetric energy deposition). This work starts with the development of a measurement technique of luminescent paint for the present challenging hypersonic testing environment, which is used for the further energy deposition experiment. The successes of the luminescent paint development is demonstrated both on two-dimensional and axisymmetric models. The luminescent paint shows high spatial resolution and the accuracy comparing to the pressure transducer reading. The surface energy deposition is performed using an embedded heating element (thermal bump) on a flat plate. Qualitative and quantitative measurement techniques are utilised to study the modification to the flow structure and the alteration to the distribution of pressure and heat transfer rate after thermal bump is activated. For the volumetric energy deposition, the laser beam is firstly focused in quiescent air in order to understand the induced flow pattern and the impingement to a solid plate. High-speed schlieren photography is utilised to provide an insight to the dynamic evolution of the induced shock wave propagation and plasma kernel development after laser-induced air breakdown. Then, the laser energy deposition is conducted over a flat plate with the presence of Mach 5 flow. The outward motion of the induced shock wave significantly distorts the boundary layer and changes the surface pressure distribution.

Leichao, L.

55

Energy Flow Models for the Steel Industry  

E-print Network

Energy patterns in the U. S. steel industry are examined using several models. First is an end-use model based on data in the 1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). Then a seven-step process model is presented and material flow through...

Hyman, B.; Andersen, J. P.

56

Energy flow observables in hadronic collisions  

E-print Network

We present recent QCD calculations of energy flow distributions associated with the production of jets at wide rapidity separations in high-energy hadron collisions, and discuss the role of these observables to analyze contributions from parton showering and from multiple parton collisions.

F. Hautmann

2012-05-24

57

Science Activities in Energy: Wind Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included in this science activities energy package are 12 activities related to wind energy for elementary students. Each activity is outlined on a single card and is introduced by a question. Topics include: (1) At what time of day is there enough wind to make electricity where you live?; (2) Where is the windiest spot on your schoolground?; and…

Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

58

Energy flows : empowering New Orleans  

E-print Network

This thesis claims to develop alternative energy-harvesting systems by looking at their implementation at the residential scale in order to facilitate the economical autonomy of a community and thus improve its living ...

Guiraud, Florence Nathalie

2012-01-01

59

The Redox Flow System for solar photovoltaic energy storage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interfacing of a Solar Photovoltaic System and a Redox Flow System for storage was workable. The Redox Flow System, which utilizes the oxidation-reduction capability of two redox couples, in this case iron and titanium, for its storage capacity, gave a relatively constant output regardless of solar activity so that a load could be run continually day and night utilizing the sun's energy. One portion of the system was connected to a bank of solar cells to electrochemically charge the solutions, while a separate part of the system was used to electrochemically discharge the stored energy.

Odonnell, P.; Gahn, R. F.; Pfeiffer, W.

1976-01-01

60

Energy flows, metabolism and translation  

PubMed Central

Thermodynamics provides an essential approach to understanding how living organisms survive in an organized state despite the second law. Exchanges with the environment constantly produce large amounts of entropy compensating for their own organized state. In addition to this constraint on self-organization, the free energy delivered to the system, in terms of potential, is essential to understand how a complex chemistry based on carbon has emerged. Accordingly, the amount of free energy brought about through discrete events must reach the strength needed to induce chemical changes in which covalent bonds are reorganized. The consequence of this constraint was scrutinized in relation to both the development of a carbon metabolism and that of translation. Amino acyl adenylates involved as aminoacylation intermediates of the latter process reach one of the higher free energy levels found in biochemistry, which may be informative on the range in which energy was exchanged in essential early biochemical processes. The consistency of this range with the amount of energy needed to weaken covalent bonds involving carbon may not be accidental but the consequence of the abovementioned thermodynamic constraints. This could be useful in building scenarios for the emergence and early development of translation. PMID:21930587

Pascal, Robert; Boiteau, Laurent

2011-01-01

61

Snowmass 2001: Jet energy flow project  

SciTech Connect

Conventional cone jet algorithms arose from heuristic considerations of LO hard scattering coupled to independent showering. These algorithms implicitly assume that the final states of individual events can be mapped onto a unique set of jets that are in turn associated with a unique set of underlying hard scattering partons. Thus each final state hadron is assigned to a unique underlying parton. The Jet Energy Flow (JEF) analysis described here does not make such assumptions. The final states of individual events are instead described in terms of flow distributions of hadronic energy. Quantities of physical interest are constructed from the energy flow distribution summed over all events. The resulting analysis is less sensitive to higher order perturbative corrections and the impact of showering and hadronization than the standard cone algorithms.

C. F. Berger et al.

2002-12-05

62

Active polar fluid flow in finite droplets  

E-print Network

We present a continuum level analytical model of a droplet of active contractile fluid consisting of filaments and motors. We calculate the steady state flows that result from a splayed polarisation of the filaments. We account for the interaction with an arbitrary external medium by imposing a viscous friction at the fixed droplet boundary. We then show that the droplet has non-zero force dipole and quadrupole moments, the latter of which is essential for self-propelled motion of the droplet at low Reynolds' number. Therefore, this calculation describes a simple mechanism for the motility of a droplet of active contractile fluid embedded in a 3D environment, which is relevant to cell migration in confinement (for example, embedded within a gel or tissue). Our analytical results predict how the system depends on various parameters such as the effective friction coefficient, the phenomenological activity parameter and the splay of the imposed polarisation.

Carl A. Whitfield; Davide Marenduzzo; Raphaël Voituriez; Rhoda J. Hawkins

2014-02-19

63

Low angular momentum accretion flow model of Sgr A* activity  

E-print Network

Sgr A* is a source of strongly variable emission in several energy bands. It is generally agreed that this emission comes from the material surrounding the black hole which is either falling in or flowing out. The activity must be driven by accretion but the character of accretion flow in this object is an open question. We suggest that the inflow is dominated by the relatively low angular momentum material originating in one of the nearby group of stars. Such material flows in directly towards the black hole up to the distance of order of ten Schwarzschild radii or less, where it hits the angular momentum barrier which leads naturally to a flow variability. We study both the analytical and the numerical solutions for the flow dynamics, and we analyze the radiation spectra in both cases using the Monte Carlo code to simulate the synchrotron, bremsstrahlung and the Compton scattering. Our model roughly reproduces the broad band spectrum of Sgr A* and its variability if we allow for a small fraction of energy to be converted to non-thermal population of electrons. It is also consistent (for a range of viewing angles) with the strong constraints on the amount of circumnuclear material imposed by the measurements of the Faraday rotation.

B. Czerny; M. Moscibrodzka; D. Proga; T. Das; A. Siemiginowska

2007-12-20

64

Redox flow cell energy storage systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA-Redox systems are electrochemical storage devices that use two fully soluble Redox couples, anode and cathode fluids, as active electrode materials separated by a highly selective ion exchange membrane. The reactants are contained in large storage tanks and pumped through a stack of Redox flow cells where the electrochemical reactions (reduction and oxidation) take place at porous carbon felt electrodes. A string or stack of these power producing cells is connected in series in a bipolar manner. Redox energy storage systems promise to be inexpensive and possess many features that provide for flexible design, long life, high reliability and minimal operation and maintenance costs. These features include independent sizing of power and storage capacity requirements and inclusion within the cell stack of a cell that monitors the state of charge of the system as a whole, and a rebalance cell which permits continuous correction to be made for minor side reactions that would tend to result in the anode fluid and cathode fluids becoming electrochemically out of balance. These system features are described and discussed.

Thaller, L. H.

1979-01-01

65

Science Activities in Energy: Solar Energy II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included in this science activities energy package are 14 activities related to solar energy for secondary students. Each activity is outlined on a single card and is introduced by a question such as: (1) how much solar heat comes from the sun? or (2) how many times do you have to run water through a flat-plate collector to get a 10 degree rise in…

Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

66

Sticky obstacles to intramolecular energy flow  

E-print Network

Vibrational energy flows unevenly in molecules, repeatedly going back and forth between trapping and roaming. We identify bottlenecks between diffusive and chaotic behavior, and describe generic mechanisms of these transitions, taking the carbonyl sulphide molecule OCS as a case study. The bottlenecks are found to be lower-dimensional tori; their bifurcations and unstable manifolds govern the transition mechanisms.

R. Paškauskas; C. Chandre; T. Uzer

2007-08-14

67

Flow and Temperature Fields Generated by a Thermally Activated Interventional Vascular Device  

E-print Network

Concern for the nonphysiologic energy required to actuate medical devices utilizing “smart material” properties of shape memory polymer (SMP) compels a rigorous investigation into the flow and temperature fields surrounding a thermally activated...

McCurrin, Casey

2012-10-19

68

Redistribution of Kinetic Energy in Turbulent Flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In statistically homogeneous turbulent flows, pressure forces provide the main mechanism to redistribute kinetic energy among fluid elements, without net contribution to the overall energy budget. This holds true in both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) flows, which show fundamentally different physics. As we demonstrate here, pressure forces act on fluid elements very differently in these two cases. We find in numerical simulations that in 3D pressure forces strongly accelerate the fastest fluid elements, and that in 2D this effect is absent. In 3D turbulence, our findings put forward a mechanism for a possibly singular buildup of energy, and thus may shed new light on the smoothness problem of the solution of the Navier-Stokes equation in 3D.

Pumir, Alain; Xu, Haitao; Boffetta, Guido; Falkovich, Gregory; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

2014-10-01

69

Localized flow control with energy deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of experiments with energy deposition via laser-induced optical breakdown of air, i.e., a laser spark, have been performed. These experiments have demonstrated the possibility of using a laser spark for supersonic flow control. In the first of these experiments, Rayleigh scattering flow visualization was taken for energy deposition into quiescent air. A time sequence of images showed the post breakdown fluid motion created by the laser spark for different laser energy levels. Blast wave radius and wave speed measurements were made and correlated to five different laser energy deposition levels. Laser energy was deposited upstream of a sphere in Mach 3.45 flow. The energy was deposited one sphere diameter and 0.6 diameters upstream of the front of the sphere. The frontal surface pressure on the sphere was recorded as the laser spark perturbed region interacted with the flow about the sphere. Tests for three different energy levels and two different incident laser beam diameters were completed. It has been demonstrated that the peak surface pressure associated with the Edney IV interaction can be momentarily reduced by 30% by the interaction with the thermal spot created by the laser spark. The effects of laser energy deposition on another shock interaction phenomena were studied. Laser energy deposition was used to modify the shock structure formed by symmetric wedges at Mach 3.45 within the dual solution domain. It was demonstrated experimentally that the Mach reflection could be reduced by 80% momentarily. The numerical simulations show a transition from the stable Mach reflection to a stable regular reflection. Two energy deposition methods (electric arcing and laser energy deposition) were used to force and control compressible mixing layers of axisymmetric jets. The energy deposition forcing methods have been experimentally investigated with the schlieren technique, particle image velocimetry, Mie scattering, and static pressure probe diagnostic techniques. It was demonstrated that the laser spark (capable of 40 mJ/pulse) was more effective at inducing a large-scale structure than the electric arc (capable of 1 mJ/pulse) in the compressible shear layer. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Adelgren, Russell Gene

70

How does Energy Flow in Living Systems?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This textbook chapter describes the role photosynthesis, food webs, and fossil fuels in the movement of energy through the biosphere. The resource includes a student investigation, links to current news articles, and an essay-based unit assessment. A teacher's guide supports classroom use. This is chapter 9, the last chapter, in the unit, Energy Flow, exploring the transfer of energy between the atmosphere, oceans, land, and living things over short and long timescales. The resource is part of Global System Science (GSS), an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.

71

NEED Project: Primary Energy Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This free activity booklet for Grades 2-4 accompanies the NEED Project's Primary Science of Energy curriculum materials. It contains an array of multisensory games, songs, graphics, and seat activities to accompany the energy instructional unit outlined in the NEED Teacher's Guide for Primary Energy. You'll also find printable assessments with answer keys and a student self-evaluation. The NEED energy curriculum is noteworthy because students are first introduced to energy as a physical science concept before being exposed to sources of energy. Using this sequence can help learners differentiate energy forms (thermal, motion, wave, chemical) from energy sources (fossil fuels, wind, geothermal, hydroelectric). See Related Materials for a link to the Teacher's Guide for this unit. The NEED Project is a national initiative to bring innovative curriculum materials in energy education to teachers and learners from the primary grades through college.

2013-04-04

72

Graphene plasmonic lens for manipulating energy flow  

PubMed Central

Manipulating the energy flow of light is at the heart of modern information and communication technologies. Because photons are uncharged, it is still difficult to effectively control them by electrical means. Here, we propose a graphene plasmonic (GP) lens to efficiently manipulate energy flow by elaborately designing the thickness of the dielectric spacer beneath the graphene sheet. Different from traditional metal-based lenses, the proposed graphene plasmonic lens possesses the advantages of tunability and excellent confinement of surface plasmons. It is found that the proposed lens can be utilized to focus and collimate the GP waves propagating along the graphene sheet. Particularly, the lens is dispersionless over a wide frequency range and the performance of lens can be flexibly tuned by adjusting the bias voltage. As an application of such a lens, the image transfer of two point sources with a separation of ?0/30 is demonstrated. PMID:24517981

Wang, Guoxi; Liu, Xueming; Lu, Hua; Zeng, Chao

2014-01-01

73

Flow energy piezoelectric bimorph nozzle harvester  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a need for a long-life power generation scheme that could be used downhole in an oil well to produce 1 Watt average power. There are a variety of existing or proposed energy harvesting schemes that could be used in this environment but each of these has its own limitations. The vibrating piezoelectric structure is in principle capable of operating for very long lifetimes (decades) thereby possibly overcoming a principle limitation of existing technology based on rotating turbo-machinery. In order to determine the feasibility of using piezoelectrics to produce suitable flow energy harvesting, we surveyed experimentally a variety of nozzle configurations that could be used to excite a vibrating piezoelectric structure in such a way as to enable conversion of flow energy into useful amounts of electrical power. These included reed structures, spring mass-structures, drag and lift bluff bodies and a variety of nozzles with varying flow profiles. Although not an exhaustive survey we identified a spline nozzle/piezoelectric bimorph system that experimentally produced up to 3.4 mW per bimorph. This paper will discuss these results and present our initial analyses of the device using dimensional analysis and constitutive electromechanical modeling. The analysis suggests that an order-of-magnitude improvement in power generation from the current design is possible.

Sherrit, Stewart; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Walkemeyer, Phillip; Hasenoehrl, Jennifer; Hall, Jeffrey L.; Colonius, Tim; Tosi, Luis Phillipe; Arrazola, Alvaro; Kim, Namhyo; Sun, Kai; Corbett, Gary

2014-04-01

74

Unidirectional vibrational energy flow in nitrobenzene.  

PubMed

Experiments were performed on nitrobenzene liquid at ambient temperature to probe vibrational energy flow from the nitro group to the phenyl group and vice versa. The IR pump, Raman probe method was used. Quantum chemical calculations were used to sort the normal modes of nitrobenzene into three categories: phenyl modes, nitro modes, and global modes. IR wavelengths in the 2500-3500 cm(-1) range were found that best produced excitations initially localized on nitro or phenyl. Pulses at 2880 cm(-1) excited a nitro stretch combination band. Pulses at 3080 cm(-1) excited a phenyl C-H stretch plus some nitro stretch. With nitro excitation there was no detectable energy transfer to phenyl. With phenyl excitation there was no direct transfer to nitro, but there was some transfer to global modes such as phenyl-nitro stretching, so some of the vibrational amplitude on phenyl moved onto nitro. Thus energy transfer from nitro to phenyl was absent, but there was weak energy transfer from phenyl to nitro. The experimental methods described here can be used to study vibrational energy flow from one part of a molecule to another, which could assist in the design of molecules for molecular electronics and phononics. The vibrational isolation of the nitro group when attached to a phenyl moiety suggests that strongly nonthermal reaction pathways may play an important role in impact initiation of energetic materials having peripheral nitro groups. PMID:23432106

Pein, Brandt C; Sun, Yuxiao; Dlott, Dana D

2013-07-25

75

Money versus Time: Evaluation of Flow Control in Terms of Energy Consumption and Convenience  

E-print Network

Flow control with the goal of reducing the skin friction drag on the fluid-solid interface is an active fundamental research area, motivated by its potential for significant energy savings and reduced emissions in the transport sector. Customarily, the performance of drag reduction techniques in internal flows is evaluated under two alternative flow conditions, i.e. at constant mass flow rate or constant pressure gradient. Successful control leads to reduction of drag and pumping power within the former approach, whereas the latter leads to an increase of the mass flow rate and pumping power. In practical applications, however, money and time define the flow control challenge: a compromise between the energy expenditure (money) and the corresponding convenience (flow rate) achieved with that amount of energy has to be reached so as to accomplish a goal which in general depends on the specific application. Based on this idea, we derive two dimensionless parameters which quantify the total energy consumption an...

Frohnapfel, Bettina; Quadrio, Maurizio

2012-01-01

76

Energy efficient continuous flow ash lockhopper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The invention relates to an energy efficient continuous flow ash lockhopper, or other lockhopper for reactor product or byproduct. The invention includes an ash hopper at the outlet of a high temperature, high pressure reactor vessel containing heated high pressure gas, a fluidics control chamber having an input port connected to the ash hopper's output port and an output port connected to the input port of a pressure letdown means, and a control fluid supply for regulating the pressure in the control chamber to be equal to or greater than the internal gas pressure of the reactor vessel, whereby the reactor gas is contained while ash is permitted to continuously flow from the ash hopper's output port, impelled by gravity. The main novelty resides in the use of a control chamber to so control pressure under the lockhopper that gases will not exit from the reactor vessel, and to also regulate the ash flow rate. There is also novelty in the design of the ash lockhopper shown in two figures. The novelty there is the use of annular passages of progressively greater diameter, and rotating the center parts on a shaft, with the center part of each slightly offset from adjacent ones to better assure ash flow through the opening.

Collins, Earl R., Jr. (inventor); Suitor, Jerry W. (inventor); Dubis, David (inventor)

1989-01-01

77

Energy, entropy and the Ricci flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ricci flow (RF) is a heat equation for metrics, which has recently been used to study the topology of closed three-manifolds. In this paper we apply Ricci flow techniques to general relativity. We view a three-dimensional asymptotically flat Riemannian metric as a time symmetric initial data set for Einstein's equations. We study the evolution of the area {\\cal A} and Hawking mass {\\cal M}_H of a two-dimensional closed surface under the Ricci flow. The physical relevance of our study derives from the fact that in general relativity the area of apparent horizons is related to black hole entropy and the Hawking mass of an asymptotic round 2-sphere is the ADM energy. We begin by considering the special case of spherical symmetry to develop a physical feel for the geometric quantities involved. We then consider a general asymptotically flat Riemannian metric and derive an inequality \\frac{d}{d\\tau}{\\cal A}^{3/2}\\le -24\\pi^{3/2} {\\cal M}_H which relates the evolution of the area of a closed surface S to its Hawking mass. We suggest that there may be a maximum principle which governs the long-term existence of the asymptotically flat Ricci flow.

Samuel, Joseph; Chowdhury, Sutirtha Roy

2008-02-01

78

Sensor Development for Active Flow Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presented are the developmental efforts for MEMS sensors for a closed-loop active flow control in a low-speed wind tunnel evaluation. The MEMS sensors are designed in-house and fabricated out of house, and the shear sensors are a thermal type that are collocated with temperature and pressure sensors on a flexible polyimide sheet, which conforms to surfaces of a simple curvature. A total of 6 sensors are located within a 1.5 by 3 mm area as a cluster with each sensor being 300 pm square. The thickness of this sensor cluster is 75 pm. Outputs from the shear sensors have been compared with respect to those of the Preston tube for evaluation of the sensors on a flat plate. Pressure sensors are the absolute type and have recorded pressure measurements within 0.05 percent of the tunnel ESP pressure sensor readings. The sensors and signal conditioning electronics have been tested on both a flat plate and a ramp in Langley s 15-Inch Low-Turbulence Tunnel. The system configuration and control PC is configured with LabView, where calibration constants are stored for desired compensation and correction. The preliminary test results are presented within.

Kahng, Seun K.; Gorton, Susan A.; Mau, Johnney C.; Soto, Hector L.; Hernandez, Corey D.

2001-01-01

79

Energy Requirements of Grazing Activity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grazing dairy cows expend more energy than confined dairy cows due to grazing activity as well as walking between the pasture and the milking parlor twice a day. The amount of energy expended depends on a variety of factors, including weather, slope, and distance. This summary article was developed ...

80

Irreversible energy flow in forced Vlasov dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent paper of Plunk [G.G. Plunk, Phys. Plasmas 20, 032304 (2013)] considered the forced linear Vlasov equation as a model for the quasi-steady state of a single stable plasma wavenumber interacting with a bath of turbulent fluctuations. This approach gives some insight into possible energy flows without solving for nonlinear dynamics. The central result of the present work is that the forced linear Vlasov equation exhibits asymptotically zero (irreversible) dissipation to all orders under a detuning of the forcing frequency and the characteristic frequency associated with particle streaming. We first prove this by direct calculation, tracking energy flow in terms of certain exact conservation laws of the linear (collisionless) Vlasov equation. Then we analyze the steady-state solutions in detail using a weakly collisional Hermite-moment formulation, and compare with numerical solution. This leads to a detailed description of the Hermite energy spectrum, and a proof of no dissipation at all orders, complementing the collisionless Vlasov result. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Theory and Applications of the Vlasov Equation", edited by Francesco Pegoraro, Francesco Califano, Giovanni Manfredi and Philip J. Morrison.

Plunk, Gabriel G.; Parker, Joseph T.

2014-10-01

81

High energy density Z-pinch plasmas using flow stabilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ZaP Flow Z-Pinch research project[1] at the University of Washington investigates the effect of sheared flows on MHD instabilities. Axially flowing Z-pinch plasmas are produced that are 100 cm long with a 1 cm radius. The plasma remains quiescent for many radial Alfvén times and axial flow times. The quiescent periods are characterized by low magnetic mode activity measured at several locations along the plasma column and by stationary visible plasma emission. Plasma evolution is modeled with high-resolution simulation codes - Mach2, WARPX, NIMROD, and HiFi. Plasma flow profiles are experimentally measured with a multi-chord ion Doppler spectrometer. A sheared flow profile is observed to be coincident with the quiescent period, and is consistent with classical plasma viscosity. Equilibrium is determined by diagnostic measurements: interferometry for density; spectroscopy for ion temperature, plasma flow, and density[2]; Thomson scattering for electron temperature; Zeeman splitting for internal magnetic field measurements[3]; and fast framing photography for global structure. Wall stabilization has been investigated computationally and experimentally by removing 70% of the surrounding conducting wall to demonstrate no change in stability behavior.[4] Experimental evidence suggests that the plasma lifetime is only limited by plasma supply and current waveform. The flow Z-pinch concept provides an approach to achieve high energy density plasmas,[5] which are large, easy to diagnose, and persist for extended durations. A new experiment, ZaP-HD, has been built to investigate this approach by separating the flow Z-pinch formation from the radial compression using a triaxial-electrode configuration. This innovation allows more detailed investigations of the sheared flow stabilizing effect, and it allows compression to much higher densities than previously achieved on ZaP by reducing the linear density and increasing the pinch current. Experimental results and scaling analyses will be presented. In addition to studying fundamental plasma science and high energy density physics, the ZaP and ZaP-HD experiments can be applied to laboratory astrophysics.

Shumlak, U.; Golingo, R. P.; Nelson, B. A.; Bowers, C. A.; Doty, S. A.; Forbes, E. G.; Hughes, M. C.; Kim, B.; Knecht, S. D.; Lambert, K. K.; Lowrie, W.; Ross, M. P.; Weed, J. R.

2014-12-01

82

[Energy flow in arctic aquatic ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

This study is aimed at determining the major pathways of energy flow in freshwater ecosystems of the Alaskan arctic coastal plain. Selected sites for study of the processes supplying energy to streams and lakes to verify the generality of past findings will be surveyed for collection of organisms including the Colville River drainage and the lake region around Teshekpuk Lake. Specific objectives are to collect food web apex organisms (fish and birds) from a variety of sites in the coastal plain to verify descriptive models of ecosystem structure and food web pathways and to compare the utilization rates by insect larvae of fresh litter and in situ primary production relative to more refractory peaty materials through seasonal sampling for isotopic analysis.

Schell, D.M.

1985-01-01

83

[Energy flow in arctic aquatic ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

This study is aimed at determining the major pathways of energy flow in freshwater ecosystems of the Alaskan arctic coastal plain. Selected sites for study of the processes supplying energy to streams and lakes to verify the generality of past findings will be surveyed for collection of organisms including the Colville River drainage and the lake region around Teshekpuk Lake. Specific objectives are to collect food web apex organisms (fish and birds) from a variety of sites in the coastal plain to verify descriptive models of ecosystem structure and food web pathways and to compare the utilization rates by insect larvae of fresh litter and in situ primary production relative to more refractory peaty materials through seasonal sampling for isotopic analysis.

Schell, D.M.

1985-12-31

84

Sleep Management on Multiple Machines for Energy and Flow Time  

E-print Network

Sleep Management on Multiple Machines for Energy and Flow Time Sze-Hang Chan Tak-Wah Lam Lap extends the traditional study of online flow-time scheduling on multiple machines to take sleep management machine to further optimize energy usage. Like the previous work on the tradeoff between flow time

Lam, Tak-Wah

85

Numerical simulations of laser energy deposition for supersonic flow control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis deals with the computational study of localized laser energy deposition in supersonic flows. This study is part of an effort to develop dynamic flow control mechanisms which can tackle critical flow conditions occurring due to shock-shock interactions in high speed flight. A model for Nd:YAG laser energy deposition in air has been developed for the purpose of this

Ramnath Kandala

2005-01-01

86

Great Lakes Ecosystems Flow of energy through ecosystems; recycling of  

E-print Network

­ Autotrophs ­ Heterotrophs ­ Saprotrophs #12;2 Energy Flow · Autotrophs ­ Self Feeders · Get their energy from · Saprotrophs ­ Decomposers · get their energy from dead organic material · Examples: bacteria, fungi

Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

87

CFD-based aero-optical analysis of flow fields over two-dimensional cavities with active flow control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prediction and control of optical wave front distortions and aberrations in a high energy laser beam due to interaction with an unsteady highly non-uniform flow field is of great importance in the development of directed energy weapon systems for Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAV). The unsteady shear layer over the weapons bay cavity is the primary cause of this distortion of the optical wave front. The large scale vortical structure of the shear layer over the cavity can be significantly reduced by employing an active flow control technique combined with passive flow control. This dissertation explores various active and passive control methods to suppress the cavity oscillations and thereby improve the aero-optics of cavity flow. In active flow control technique, a steady or a pulsed jet is applied at the sharp leading edge of cavities of different aspect ratios L/D (=2, 4, 15), where L and D are the width and the depth of a cavity respectively. In the passive flow control approach, the sharp leading or trailing edge of the cavity is modified into a round edge of different radii. Both of these active and passive flow control approaches are studied independently and in combination. Numerical simulations are performed, with and without active flow control for subsonic free stream flow past two-dimensional sharp and round leading or trailing edge cavities using Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations with a two-equation Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence model or a hybrid SST/Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model. Aero-optical analysis is developed and applied to all the simulation cases. Index of refraction and Optical Path Difference (OPD) are compared for flow fields without and with active flow control. Root-Mean-Square (RMS) value of OPD is calculated and compared with the experimental data, where available. The effect of steady and pulsed blowing on buffet loading on the downstream face of the cavity is also computed. Using the numerical simulations, the most effective approach for controlling the cavity oscillations and aero-optical signatures is determined.

Tan, Yan

88

Portable Liquid Flow Metering for Energy Conservation Programs  

E-print Network

meters to measure liquids. This paper reviews the principles of ultrasonic flow meters. Applications and costs of ultrasonic versus orifice flow meters are important to consider in energy audits. A discussion follows on 'how' and 'where' to use...

Miles, F. J.

1982-01-01

89

Energy flow in an arctic aquatic ecosystem  

SciTech Connect

This project has been using natural isotope abundances to trace major pathways of energy flow to consumers in Imnavait Creek and the tundra ecosystem of the R4D watershed with comparative work in the coastal tundra. We are processing samples collected at the R4D intensive site over the past three years and are comparing these data with similar samples collected from the coastal plain. Our approach is to determine if carbon is accumulating in upland and coastal tundra; to determine the role of eroded peat carbon in the aquatic ecosystem; and to determine the distribution of carbon and nitrogen isotopes in the tundra-pond ecosystem to establish the feasibility of using natural differences as tracers.

Schell, D.M.

1993-05-01

90

Energy flow in an arctic aquatic ecosystem  

SciTech Connect

This project has been using natural isotope abundances to trace major pathways of energy flow to consumers in Imnavait Creek and the tundra ecosystem of the R4D watershed with comparative work in the coastal tundra. We are processing samples collected at the R4D intensive site over the past three years and are comparing these data with similar samples collected from the coastal plain. Our approach is to determine if carbon is accumulating in upland and coastal tundra; to determine the role of eroded peat carbon in the aquatic ecosystem; and to determine the distribution of carbon and nitrogen isotopes in the tundra-pond ecosystem to establish the feasibility of using natural differences as tracers.

Schell, D.M.

1993-01-01

91

Effects of Solar Active Regions on Meridional Flows  

E-print Network

The aim of this paper is to extend our previous study of the solar-cycle variations of the meridional flows and to investigate their latitudinal and longitudinal structure in the subphotospheric layer, especially their variations in magnetic regions. Helioseismology observations indicate that mass flows around active regions are dominated by inflows into those regions. On average, those local flows are more important around leading magnetic polarities of active regions than around the following polarities, and depend on the evolutionary stage of particular active regions. We present a statistical study based on MDI/SOHO observations of 1996-2002 and show that this effect explains a significant part of the cyclic change of meridional flows in near-equatorial regions, but not at higher latitudes. A different mechanism driving solar-cycle variations of the meridional flow probably operates.

Michal Svanda; Alexander G. Kosovichev; Junwei Zhao

2008-05-13

92

Energy of eigenmodes in magnetohydrodynamic flows of ideal fluids  

SciTech Connect

Energy of eigenmodes in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows of ideal fluids is studied analytically. It is shown that the energy of unstable modes is zero, while the energy of stable oscillatory modes (waves) can assume both positive and negative values. Negative energy waves always correspond to eigenmodes with a finite component of the wave-vector along the flow. Coupling of negative and positive energy waves is shown to be a universal mechanism of MHD instabilities in flowing media. As an example, the energy of eigenmodes of magnetorotational instability is calculated.

Khalzov, I. V.; Smolyakov, A. I. [University of Saskatchewan, 116 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N5E2 (Canada); Russian Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute', 1 Kurchatov Sq., Moscow, 123182 (Russian Federation); Ilgisonis, V. I. [Russian Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute', 1 Kurchatov Sq., Moscow, 123182 (Russian Federation)

2008-05-15

93

ELEMENTAL MERCURY CAPTURE BY ACTIVATED CARBON IN A FLOW REACTOR  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of bench-scale experiments in a flow reactor to simulate the entrained-flow capture of elemental mercury (Hgo) using solid sorbents. Adsorption of Hgo by a lignite-based activated carbon (Calgon FGD) was examined at different carbon/mercury (C/Hg) rat...

94

Active Lava Flow near Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Areas of flowing lava show up as bright spots in this image of the active lava flow that extends south from the east rift to the ocean, near the eastern boundary of Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. The image is a composite of a regular photo and a new ARRA-funded thermal infrared camera that will be...

95

Energy flow in an arctic aquatic ecosystem  

SciTech Connect

Natural isotope abundances to trace major pathways of energy flow to consumers in Imnavait Creek and the tundra ecosystem of the R4D watershed with comparative work in the coastal tundra. Our overall goals are to a determine if carbon is accumulating in upland and coastal tundra; determine the role of eroded peat carbon in the aquatic ecosystem; and to determine the distribution of carbon and nitrogen isotopes in the tundra-pond ecosystem to establish the feasibility of using natural differences as tracers. Past work on fishes, birds, and the prey species of insects and aquatic crustaceans has shown that peat carbon is very important in the energy supply supporting the food webs over the course of the year. Obligate freshwater fishes from the coastal lakes and Colville River have been shown to contain up to 60 percent peat carbon at the end of the winter season. In contrast, migratory shorebirds and passerines contained much smaller radiocarbon abundances in summer, indicating a major shift to recent in situ primary production in pond and stream ecosystems in summer months. For the past two years, we have narrowed our focus to the processes supplying carbon to the beaded stream system at MS-117 and have concentrated on determining the transfer and accumulation rates of carbon in the watershed.

Schell, D.M.

1988-12-31

96

Energy flow in an arctic aquatic ecosystem  

SciTech Connect

Natural isotope abundances to trace major pathways of energy flow to consumers in Imnavait Creek and the tundra ecosystem of the R4D watershed with comparative work in the coastal tundra. Our overall goals are to a determine if carbon is accumulating in upland and coastal tundra; determine the role of eroded peat carbon in the aquatic ecosystem; and to determine the distribution of carbon and nitrogen isotopes in the tundra-pond ecosystem to establish the feasibility of using natural differences as tracers. Past work on fishes, birds, and the prey species of insects and aquatic crustaceans has shown that peat carbon is very important in the energy supply supporting the food webs over the course of the year. Obligate freshwater fishes from the coastal lakes and Colville River have been shown to contain up to 60 percent peat carbon at the end of the winter season. In contrast, migratory shorebirds and passerines contained much smaller radiocarbon abundances in summer, indicating a major shift to recent in situ primary production in pond and stream ecosystems in summer months. For the past two years, we have narrowed our focus to the processes supplying carbon to the beaded stream system at MS-117 and have concentrated on determining the transfer and accumulation rates of carbon in the watershed.

Schell, D.M.

1988-01-01

97

Flow of low energy couplings in the Wilson renormalization group  

E-print Network

A new form of the Wilson renormalization group equation is derived, in which the flow equations are, up to linear terms, proportional to a gradient flow. A set of co\\"ordinates is found in which the flow of marginal, low-energy, couplings takes a gradient form, if relevant couplings are tuned to vanish.

Robert C. Myers; Vipul Periwal

1998-02-26

98

Application of active contours for photochromic tracer flow extraction.  

PubMed

This paper addresses the implementation of image processing and computer vision techniques to automate tracer flow extraction in images obtained by the photochromic dye technique. This task is important in modeled arterial blood flow studies. Currently, it is performed via manual application of B-spline curve fitting. However, this is a tedious and error-prone procedure and its results are nonreproducible. In the proposed approach, active contours, snakes, are employed in a new curve-fitting method for tracer flow extraction in photochromic images. An algorithm implementing snakes is introduced to automate extraction. Utilizing correlation matching, the algorithm quickly locates and localizes all flow traces in the images. The feasibility of the method for tracer flow extraction is demonstrated. Moreover, results regarding the automation algorithm are presented showing its accuracy and effectiveness. The proposed approach for tracer flow extraction has potential for real-system application. PMID:9184890

Androutsos, D; Trahanias, P E; Venetsanopoulos, A N

1997-06-01

99

Passive and Active Flow Control by Swimming Fishes and Mammals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What mechanisms of flow control do animals use to enhance hydrodynamic performance? Animals are capable of manipulating flow around the body and appendages both passively and actively. Passive mechanisms rely on structural and morphological components of the body (i.e., humpback whale tubercles, riblets). Active flow control mechanisms use appendage or body musculature to directly generate wake flow structures or stiffen fins against external hydrodynamic loads. Fish can actively control fin curvature, displacement, and area. The vortex wake shed by the tail differs between eel-like fishes and fishes with a discrete narrowing of the body in front of the tail, and three-dimensional effects may play a major role in determining wake structure in most fishes.

Fish, F. E.; Lauder, G. V.

2006-01-01

100

Inverse energy cascade in a time-dependent flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that the finite lifetime of anisotropic flow structures inhibit the inverse energy cascade discussed by Yakhot and Sivashinsky (1987) and Bayly and Yakhot (1986). The possibility of the inverse energy cascade by strongly anisotropic velocity fluctuations in turbulent flows is discussed.

Hefer, David; Yakhot, Victor

1989-08-01

101

Inverse energy cascade in a time-dependent flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that the finite lifetime of anisotropic flow structures inhibit the inverse energy cascade discussed by Yakhot and Sivashinsky [Phys. Rev. A 35, 815 (1987)] and Bayly and Yakhot [Phys. Rev. A 34, 381 (1986)]. The possibility of the inverse energy cascade by strongly anisotropic velocity fluctuations in turbulent flows is discussed.

Hefer, David; Yakhot, Victor

1989-08-01

102

ACTIVITY BUDGETS, ENERGY EXPENDITURES, AND  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily energT expenditures of two pairs of nesting Ferruginous Hawks were esti- mated from activity budgets, and were compared with energy intakes determined from observed prey captures. In 1974 and 1975 respectively, the adult males expended 330.9 -+ 37.8 (SD) and 374.3 ñ 18.1 kcal\\/day, whereas the adult females expended 265.3 -+ 28.3 and 294.6 ñ 34.5 kcal\\/ day. The

FERRUGINOUS HAWKS; JAMES S. WAKELEY

103

Predicting flow at work: investigating the activities and job characteristics that predict flow states at work.  

PubMed

Flow (a state of consciousness where people become totally immersed in an activity and enjoy it intensely) has been identified as a desirable state with positive effects for employee well-being and innovation at work. Flow has been studied using both questionnaires and Experience Sampling Method (ESM). In this study, we used a newly developed 9-item flow scale in an ESM study combined with a questionnaire to examine the predictors of flow at two levels: the activities (brainstorming, planning, problem solving and evaluation) associated with transient flow states and the more stable job characteristics (role clarity, influence and cognitive demands). Participants were 58 line managers from two companies in Denmark; a private accountancy firm and a public elder care organization. We found that line managers in elder care experienced flow more often than accountancy line managers, and activities such as planning, problem solving, and evaluation predicted transient flow states. The more stable job characteristics included in this study were not, however, found to predict flow at work. PMID:20364915

Nielsen, Karina; Cleal, Bryan

2010-04-01

104

Estimated State-Level Energy Flows in 2008  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sankey (or Spaghetti) diagrams parse out the energy flow by state, based on 2008 data from the Dept. of Energy. These diagrams can help bring a local perspective to energy consumption. The estimates include rejected or lost energy but don't necessarily include losses at the ultimate user end that are due to lack of insulation.

A.J. Simon

105

Numerical Laser Energy Deposition on Supersonic Cavity Flow and Sensor Placement Strategies to Control the Flow  

PubMed Central

In this study, the impact of laser energy deposition on pressure oscillations and relative sound pressure levels (SPL) in an open supersonic cavity flow is investigated. Laser energy with a magnitude of 100?mJ is deposited on the flow just above the cavity leading edge and up to 7?dB of reduction is obtained in the SPL values along the cavity back wall. Additionally, proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method is applied to the x-velocity data obtained as a result of computational fluid dynamics simulations of the flow with laser energy deposition. Laser is numerically modeled using a spherically symmetric temperature distribution. By using the POD results, the effects of laser energy on the flow mechanism are presented. A one-dimensional POD methodology is applied to the surface pressure data to obtain critical locations for the placement of sensors for real time flow control applications. PMID:24363612

Aradag, Selin

2013-01-01

106

Activation energy measurements in rheological analysis of cheese  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Activation energy of flow (Ea) was calculated from temperature sweeps of cheeses with contrasting characteristics to determine its usefulness in predicting rheological behavior upon heating. Cheddar, Colby, whole milk Mozzarella, low moisture part skim Mozzarella, Parmesan, soft goat, and Queso Fre...

107

Flow of cortical activity underlying a tactile decision in mice  

PubMed Central

Summary Perceptual decisions involve distributed cortical activity. Does information flow sequentially from one cortical area to another, or do networks of interconnected areas contribute at the same time? Here we delineate when and how activity in specific areas drives a whisker-based decision in mice. A short-term memory component temporally separated tactile “sensation” and “action” (licking). Using optogenetic inhibition (spatial resolution, 2 mm; temporal resolution, 100 ms) we surveyed the neocortex for regions driving behavior during specific behavioral epochs. Barrel cortex was critical for sensation. During the short-term memory, unilateral inhibition of anterior lateral motor cortex biased responses to the ipsilateral side. Consistently, barrel cortex showed stimulus-specific activity during sensation, whereas motor cortex showed choice-specific preparatory activity and movement-related activity, consistent with roles in motor planning and movement. These results suggest serial information flow from sensory to motor areas during perceptual decision making. PMID:24361077

Guo, Zengcai V.; Li, Nuo; Huber, Daniel; Ophir, Eran; Gutnisky, Diego; Ting, Jonathan T.; Feng, Guoping; Svoboda, Karel

2014-01-01

108

Flow of cortical activity underlying a tactile decision in mice.  

PubMed

Perceptual decisions involve distributed cortical activity. Does information flow sequentially from one cortical area to another, or do networks of interconnected areas contribute at the same time? Here we delineate when and how activity in specific areas drives a whisker-based decision in mice. A short-term memory component temporally separated tactile "sensation" and "action" (licking). Using optogenetic inhibition (spatial resolution, 2 mm; temporal resolution, 100 ms), we surveyed the neocortex for regions driving behavior during specific behavioral epochs. Barrel cortex was critical for sensation. During the short-term memory, unilateral inhibition of anterior lateral motor cortex biased responses to the ipsilateral side. Consistently, barrel cortex showed stimulus-specific activity during sensation, whereas motor cortex showed choice-specific preparatory activity and movement-related activity, consistent with roles in motor planning and movement. These results suggest serial information flow from sensory to motor areas during perceptual decision making. PMID:24361077

Guo, Zengcai V; Li, Nuo; Huber, Daniel; Ophir, Eran; Gutnisky, Diego; Ting, Jonathan T; Feng, Guoping; Svoboda, Karel

2014-01-01

109

Anisotropic energy flow and allosteric ligand binding in albumin.  

PubMed

Allosteric interactions in proteins generally involve propagation of local structural changes through the protein to a remote site. Anisotropic energy transport is thought to couple the remote sites, but the nature of this process is poorly understood. Here, we report the relationship between energy flow through the structure of bovine serum albumin and allosteric interactions between remote ligand binding sites of the protein. Ultrafast infrared spectroscopy is used to probe the flow of energy through the protein backbone following excitation of a heater dye, a metalloporphyrin or malachite green, bound to different binding sites in the protein. We observe ballistic and anisotropic energy flow through the protein structure following input of thermal energy into the flexible ligand binding sites, without local heating of the rigid helix bundles that connect these sites. This efficient energy transport mechanism enables the allosteric propagation of binding energy through the connecting helix structures. PMID:24445265

Li, Guifeng; Magana, Donny; Dyer, R Brian

2014-01-01

110

Anisotropic energy flow and allosteric ligand binding in albumin  

PubMed Central

Allosteric interactions in proteins generally involve propagation of local structural changes through the protein to a remote site. Anisotropic energy transport is thought to couple the remote sites, but the nature of this process is poorly understood. Here, we report the relationship between energy flow through the structure of bovine serum albumin and allosteric interactions between remote ligand binding sites of the protein. Ultrafast infrared spectroscopy is used to probe the flow of energy through the protein backbone following excitation of a heater dye, a metalloporphyrin or malachite green, bound to different binding sites in the protein. We observe ballistic and anisotropic energy flow through the protein structure following input of thermal energy into the flexible ligand binding sites, without local heating of the rigid helix bundles that connect these sites. This efficient energy transport mechanism enables the allosteric propagation of binding energy through the connecting helix structures. PMID:24445265

Li, Guifeng; Magana, Donny; Dyer, R. Brian

2014-01-01

111

Tracking the energy flow along the reaction path  

PubMed Central

We report a comprehensive study of the quantum-state correlation property of product pairs from reactions of chlorine atoms with both the ground-state and the CH stretch-excited CHD3. In light of available ab initio theoretical results, this set of experimental data provides a conceptual framework to visualize the energy-flow pattern along the reaction path, to classify the activity of different vibrational modes in a reactive encounter, to gain deeper insight into the concept of vibrational adiabaticity, and to elucidate the intermode coupling in the transition-state region. This exploratory approach not only opens up an avenue to understand polyatomic reaction dynamics, even for motions at the molecular level in the fleeting transition-state region, but it also leads to a generalization of Polanyi's rules to reactions involving a polyatomic molecule. PMID:18664573

Yan, Shannon; Wu, Yen-Tien; Liu, Kopin

2008-01-01

112

Energy-Efficient, Continuous-Flow Ash Lockhopper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pressure balance in control gas prevents loss of reactor gas. Energy efficiency of continuous-flow ash lockhopper increased by preventing hot gases from flowing out of reactor vessel through ash-hopper outlet and carrying away heat energy. Stopping loss of reactor gases also important for reasons other than energy efficiency; desired reaction product toxic or contained to prevent pollution. In improved continuous-flow ash lockhopper, pressure-driven loss of hot gas from reactor vessel through ash-hopper outlet prevented by using control gas in fluidic flow-control device to equalize pressure in reactor vessel. Also enables reactor to attain highest possible product yield with continuous processing while permitting controllable, continuous flow of ash.

Collins, Earl R., Jr.; Suitor, Jerry W.; Dubis, David

1989-01-01

113

Introduction to Acoustical Energy. Learning Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This technology education activity will allow the students to observe acoustical energy and will put them in a problem-solving situation where they must use the movement of a sound-activated diaphragm to perform another activity. (Author)

Shackelford, Ray; Johnson, Steve

1998-01-01

114

Radiant energy receiver having improved coolant flow control means  

DOEpatents

An improved coolant flow control for use in radiant energy receivers of the type having parallel flow paths is disclosed. A coolant performs as a temperature dependent valve means, increasing flow in the warmer flow paths of the receiver, and impeding flow in the cooler paths of the receiver. The coolant has a negative temperature coefficient of viscosity which is high enough such that only an insignificant flow through the receiver is experienced at the minimum operating temperature of the receiver, and such that a maximum flow is experienced at the maximum operating temperature of the receiver. The valving is accomplished by changes in viscosity of the coolant in response to the coolant being heated and cooled. No remotely operated valves, comparators or the like are needed.

Hinterberger, H.

1980-10-29

115

How Large Scales Flows May Influence Solar Activity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large scale flows within the solar convection zone are the primary drivers of the Sun's magnetic activity cycle and play important roles in shaping the Sun's magnetic field. Differential rotation amplifies the magnetic field through its shearing action and converts poloidal field into toroidal field. Poleward meridional flow near the surface carries magnetic flux that reverses the magnetic poles at about the time of solar maximum. The deeper, equatorward meridional flow can carry magnetic flux back toward the lower latitudes where it erupts through the surface to form tilted active regions that convert toroidal fields into oppositely directed poloidal fields. These axisymmetric flows are themselves driven by large scale convective motions. The effects of the Sun's rotation on convection produce velocity correlations that can maintain both the differential rotation and the meridional circulation. These convective motions can also influence solar activity directly by shaping the magnetic field pattern. While considerable theoretical advances have been made toward understanding these large scale flows, outstanding problems in matching theory to observations still remain.

Hathaway, D. H.

2004-01-01

116

Chemical or Biological Activity in Open Chaotic Flows  

E-print Network

We investigate the evolution of particle ensembles in open chaotic hydrodynamical flows. Active processes of the type A+B --> 2B and A+B --> 2C are considered in the limit of weak diffusion. As an illustrative advection dynamics we consider a model of the von K\\'arm\\'an vortex street, a time periodic two-dimensional flow of a viscous fluid around a cylinder. We show that a fractal unstable manifold acts as a catalyst for the process, and the products cover fattened-up copies of this manifold. This may account for the observed filamental intensification of activity in environmental flows. The reaction equations valid in the wake are derived either in the form of dissipative maps or differential equations depending on the regime under consideration. They contain terms that are not present in the traditional reaction equations of the same active process: the decay of the products is slower while the productivity is much faster than in homogeneous flows. Both effects appear as a consequence of underlying fractal structures. In the long time limit, the system locks itself in a dynamic equilibrium state synchronized to the flow for both types of reactions. For particles of finite size an emptying transition might also occur leading to no products left in the wake.

Gy. Karolyi; A. Pentek; Z. Toroczkai; T. Tel; C. Grebogi

1998-06-13

117

Use DCF to save energy. [Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) program is written for the TI-59 programmable calculator, and a profitability analysis can help the process engineer decide among various alternatives in an energy conservation project. The objective of the analysis is to determine the following parameters: discounted cash flow rate of return (also called earning power), present value profit (at any specified cost of

Doane

1982-01-01

118

Integer Maximum Flow in Wireless Sensor Networks with Energy  

E-print Network

of the sensor batteries are depleted. This then becomes an instance of the maximum flow problem, subject for the maximum flow problem with energy con- straint on wireless sensor networks (e.g. [8,9,12,16­18,20]) cast

Utrecht, Universiteit

119

Active Flow Control on an Aggressive Serpentine Duct Inlet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For military applications, inlet designs are constrained by low observability requirements, which call for the use of a serpentine inlet. The inlets purpose is to limit the line-of-sight to the compressor and decelerate the incoming flow while minimizing total pressure loss, distortion, and unsteadiness. In addition, in unmanned aerial vehicles, the inlet length can determine the overall size of the aircraft. For this reason, aggressive inlets can have a large impact on overall system efficiency. Experiments utilizing active flow control to mitigate separation in a highly aggressive serpentine duct (L/D=1.5), at Mach numbers up to 0.45, were conducted. Specifically, steady and unsteady flow control techniques were compared by measuring the static pressures along the inlet walls, the pressure recovery and distortion at the AIP, and the velocity field inside the duct using Particle Image Velocimetry. Through these experiments a better understanding of the highly three dimensional flow interactions was formulated.

Vaccaro, John; Amitay, Michael

2008-11-01

120

Active turbulence control in wallbounded flow using direct numerical simulations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An exploratory study of concepts for active control of turbulent boundary layers using the direct numerical simulation technique was performed. Significant drag reduction was achieved when the surface boundary condition was modified such that it could suppress the large-scale structures present in the wall region. This was achieved by prescribing the normal component of velocity at the wall to be 180 deg out of phase with the normal velocity slightly above the wall at each instant. The drag reduction was accompanied with significant reduction in the intensity of the wall-layer structures and reductions in the magnitude of Reynolds stresses throughout the flow. Suitability of wall-pressure and shear-stress fluctuations for detection of flow structures above the wall was examined. A preliminary result obtained by applying the present control strategy to a transitional flow is also briefly described, from which one can infer a possible linkage between the control strategy and flow stability.

Kim, J.; Moin, P.; Choi, H.

1990-01-01

121

Active flow control on a 1:4 car model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lift and drag of a passenger car are strongly influenced by the flow field around its rear end. The bluff body geometry produces a detached, transient flow which induces fluctuating forces on the body, affecting the rear axle, which may distress dynamic stability and comfort significantly. The investigations presented here deal with a 1:4 scale model of a simplified test car geometry that produces fluctuating lift and drag due to its strongly rounded rear geometry. To examine the influence of active flow control on this behavior, steady air jets were realized to exhaust from thin slots across the rear in three different configurations. Investigations were performed at and included the capturing of effective integral lift and drag, velocity measurements in the surrounding flow field with Laser Doppler Anemometry, surface pressure measurements and surface oil flow visualization on the rear. The flow field was found to be dominated by two longitudinal vortices, developing from the detachment of the flow at the upper C-pillar positions, and a recirculating, transverse vortex above the rear window. With an air jet emerging from a slot across the surface right below the rear window section, tangentially directed upstream toward the roof section, total lift could be reduced by more than 7 %, with rear axle lift reduction of about 5 % and negligible drag affection (1 %).

Heinemann, Till; Springer, Matthias; Lienhart, Hermann; Kniesburges, Stefan; Othmer, Carsten; Becker, Stefan

2014-05-01

122

Possible use of vanadium redox-flow batteries for energy storage in small grids and stand-alone photovoltaic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The all-vanadium redox-flow battery is a promising candidate for load leveling and seasonal energy storage in small grids and stand-alone photovoltaic systems. The reversible cell voltage of 1.3 to 1.4 V in the charged state allows the use of inexpensive active and structural materials. In this work, studies on the performance of inexpensive active materials for use in vanadium redox-flow batteries are reported. Additionally, a cost analysis for a load leveling and a seasonal energy storage system is given based on a flow battery technology well established in Zn-flow batteries.

Joerissen, Ludwig; Garche, Juergen; Fabjan, Ch.; Tomazic, G.

123

Flow effects on jet energy loss with detailed balance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the presence of collective flow a new model potential describing the interaction of the hard jet with scattering centers is derived based on the static color-screened Yukawa potential. The flow effect on jet quenching with detailed balance is investigated in pQCD. It turns out, considering the collective flow with velocity v z along the jet direction, the collective flow decreases the LPM destructive interference comparing to that in the static medium. The gluon absorption plays a more important role in the moving medium. The collective flow increases the energy gain from gluon absorption, however, decreases the energy loss from gluon radiation, which is (1 - v z ) times as that in the static medium to the first order of opacity. In the presence of collective flow, the second order in opacity correction is relatively small compared to the first order. So that the total effective energy loss is decreased. The flow dependence of the energy loss will affect the suppression of high p T hadron spectrum and anisotropy parameter v 2 in high-energy heavy-ion collisions.

Cheng, Luan; Liu, Jia; Wang, EnKe

2014-11-01

124

Flow effects on jet energy loss with detailed balance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the presence of collective flow a new model potential describing the interaction of the hard jet with scattering centers is derived based on the static color-screened Yukawa potential. The flow effect on jet quenching with detailed balance is investigated in pQCD. It turns out, considering the collective flow with velocity v z along the jet direction, the collective flow decreases the LPM destructive interference comparing to that in the static medium. The gluon absorption plays a more important role in the moving medium. The collective flow increases the energy gain from gluon absorption, however, decreases the energy loss from gluon radiation, which is (1 - v z ) times as that in the static medium to the first order of opacity. In the presence of collective flow, the second order in opacity correction is relatively small compared to the first order. So that the total effective energy loss is decreased. The flow dependence of the energy loss will affect the suppression of high p T hadron spectrum and anisotropy parameter v 2 in high-energy heavy-ion collisions.

Cheng, Luan; Liu, Jia; Wang, EnKe

2014-09-01

125

Flow Effects on Jet Energy Loss with Detailed Balance  

E-print Network

In the presence of collective flow a new model potential describing the interaction of the hard jet with scattering centers is derived based on the static color-screened Yukawa potential. The flow effect on jet quenching with detailed balance is investigated in pQCD. It turns out, considering the collective flow with velocity $v_z$ along the jet direction, the collective flow decreases the LPM destructive interference comparing to that in the static medium. The gluon absorption plays a more important role in the moving medium. The collective flow increases the energy gain from gluon absorption, however, decreases the energy loss from gluon radiation, which is $(1 - v_z )$ times as that in the static medium to the first order of opacity. In the presence of collective flow, the second order in opacity correction is relatively small compared to the first order. So that the total effective energy loss is decreased. The flow dependence of the energy loss will affect the suppression of high $p_T$ hadron spectrum and anisotropy parameter $v_2$ in high-energy heavy-ion collisions.

Luan Cheng; Jia Liu; Enke Wang

2014-06-03

126

Numerical simulations of laser energy deposition for supersonic flow control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis deals with the computational study of localized laser energy deposition in supersonic flows. This study is part of an effort to develop dynamic flow control mechanisms which can tackle critical flow conditions occurring due to shock-shock interactions in high speed flight. A model for Nd:YAG laser energy deposition in air has been developed for the purpose of this study. It was designed to predict the fluid dynamic effects of the energy deposition process in supersonic flows. The numerical model captures the key physical processes, including inverse bremsstrahlung absorption, evolution of the plasma shape and structure, air breakdown chemistry and the subsequent fluid dynamics. The model was validated and its constants were calibrated using measurements of experiments performed in quiescent air. The calibrated values of the model constants were found to accurately predict the energy absorbed by the laser spark for the different focal lengths of the converging lens; over a range of incident laser pulse energies and ambient pressures. The numerical model for energy absorption was used to deposit energy in supersonic flows. The supersonic flows considered were simplified models which mimic critical flow conditions encountered by a high speed air vehicle. First, the effects of energy deposition in three-dimensional supersonic flow past a sphere and a flow with Edney Type IV shock-shock interaction were studied. The energy deposition was found to be effective in reducing the peak surface pressure, but not as effective in lowering the surface heat transfer rate. Next, the effect of laser energy deposition on the Mach reflection of two symmetric crossing shock waves in the dual solution domain was studied. Various flow configurations (Mach number and shock angle) were considered for the energy deposition. The simulations showed that the perturbation brought about by the spark led to a transition from Mach reflection to regular reflection for certain flow configurations. Multiple sparks were used to increase the degree of perturbation for cases where no transition occurred due to a single spark. This resulted in a further reduction in the dimensions of the Mach stem, but did not lead to transition.

Kandala, Ramnath

127

Active Flow Control on a Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Inlet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boundary layer ingestion (BLI) is explored as means to improve overall system performance for Blended Wing Body configuration. The benefits of BLI for vehicle system performance benefit are assessed with a process derived from first principles suitable for highly-integrated propulsion systems. This performance evaluation process provides framework within which to assess the benefits of an integrated BLI inlet and lays the groundwork for higher-fidelity systems studies. The results of the system study show that BLI provides a significant improvement in vehicle performance if the inlet distortion can be controlled, thus encouraging the pursuit of active flow control (AFC) as a BLI enabling technology. The effectiveness of active flow control in reducing engine inlet distortion was assessed using a 6% scale model of a 30% BLI offset, diffusing inlet. The experiment was conducted in the NASA Langley Basic Aerodynamics Research Tunnel with a model inlet designed specifically for this type of testing. High mass flow pulsing actuators provided the active flow control. Measurements were made of the onset boundary layer, the duct surface static pressures, and the mass flow through the duct and the actuators. The distortion was determined by 120 total pressure measurements located at the aerodynamic interface plane. The test matrix was limited to a maximum freestream Mach number of 0.15 with scaled mass flows through the inlet for that condition. The data show that the pulsed actuation can reduce distortion from 29% to 4.6% as measured by the circumferential distortion descriptor DC60 using less than 1% of inlet mass flow. Closed loop control of the actuation was also demonstrated using a sidewall surface static pressure as the response sensor.

Gorton, Susan Althoff; Owens, Lewis R.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Allan, Brian G.; Schuster, Ernest P.

2004-01-01

128

Active Flow Effectors for Noise and Separation Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New flow effector technology for separation control and enhanced mixing is based upon shape memory alloy hybrid composite (SMAHC) technology. The technology allows for variable shape control of aircraft structures through actively deformable surfaces. The flow effectors are made by embedding shape memory alloy actuator material in a composite structure. When thermally actuated, the flow effector def1ects into or out of the flow in a prescribed manner to enhance mixing or induce separation for a variety of applications, including aeroacoustic noise reduction, drag reduction, and f1ight control. The active flow effectors were developed for noise reduction as an alternative to fixed-configuration effectors, such as static chevrons, that cannot be optimized for airframe installation effects or variable operating conditions and cannot be retracted for off-design or fail-safe conditions. Benefits include: Increased vehicle control, overall efficiency, and reduced noise throughout all f1ight regimes, Reduced flow noise, Reduced drag, Simplicity of design and fabrication, Simplicity of control through direct current stimulation, autonomous re sponse to environmental heating, fast re sponse, and a high degree of geometric stability. The concept involves embedding prestrained SMA actuators on one side of the chevron neutral axis in order to generate a thermal moment and def1ect the structure out of plane when heated. The force developed in the host structure during def1ection and the aerodynamic load is used for returning the structure to the retracted position. The chevron design is highly scalable and versatile, and easily affords active and/or autonomous (environmental) control. The technology offers wide-ranging market applications, including aerospace, automotive, and any application that requires flow separation or noise control.

Turner, Travis L.

2011-01-01

129

Transportation energy management: current transit operator activities  

SciTech Connect

Due to the rapid rise in the price of energy during the 1970's, transit operators have initiated a variety of activities designed to improve management of their energy use. This report describes the results of a national survey of energy management activities undertaken by 100 transit systems in the United States and Canada. The survey reports on activities in five areas: energy crisis contingency planning; energy conservation in bus maintenance, repair and operating facilities; energy conservation petroleum fueled bus fleets; energy conservation awareness programs; and fuel supply and price protection strategies. The report presents the survey methodology and respondent characteristics, survey results and the questionnaire.

Not Available

1982-09-01

130

Self-powered water splitting using flowing kinetic energy.  

PubMed

By utilizing a water-flow-driven triboelectric nanogenerator, a fully self-powered water-splitting process is demonstrated using the electricity converted from a water flow without additional energy costs. Considering the extremely low costs, the demonstrated approach is universally applicable and practically usable for future water electrolysis, which may initiate a research direction in the field of triboelectrolysis and possibly impacts energy science in general. PMID:25413298

Tang, Wei; Han, Yu; Han, Chang Bao; Gao, Cai Zhen; Cao, Xia; Wang, Zhong Lin

2015-01-01

131

Active and passive flow control on a precessing jet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A precessing jet nozzle with water as the working fluid is investigated under passive and active flow control. The actuation effectiveness of 12 microjets around the nozzle inlet for active control of the precessing jet is the focus of this work. Passive control is also applied by modifying the geometry of the precessing jet either by adding a center body near the chamber exit or varying the chamber length. The flow behavior under control is studied using pressure measurement at the chamber exit plane to monitor jet precession. The pressure data are analyzed using a phase plane representation to determine the motion of the jets high-velocity region in the chamber exit plane. The standard deviation of the phase of the triggered pressure data is used for stability analysis. This analysis results in a phase diagram in terms of Reynolds number and actuation frequency. Active control can be utilized over a range of actuation frequencies (and corresponding Strouhal numbers) to control precession direction and stability which can be further enhanced with passive control mechanisms. However, the flow follows the actuation with the lowest variation when the active actuation matches with the natural Strouhal number of the nozzle jet flow.

Babazadeh, Hamed; Nobes, David S.; Koch, Charles Robert

2015-01-01

132

ACTIVE FLOW CONTROL OF INLET DUCTS Sponsor: Northrop Grumman  

E-print Network

in distortion and total pressure loss at the inlet exit, which is clearly undesirable. The present researchACTIVE FLOW CONTROL OF INLET DUCTS Sponsor: Northrop Grumman Funding: $225,000 for 1 year (started Undergraduate students: Brian Belley, Wasif Khan PROJECT DESCRIPTION The inlet to an aircraft propulsion system

Salama, Khaled

133

Passive and Active Flow Control by Swimming Fishes and Mammals  

E-print Network

and morphological components of the body (i.e., humpback whale tubercles, riblets). Active flow control mechanisms 2004). Aquatic animals (e.g., fishes, whales, seals, penguins) produce hydrodynamic thrust. Passive control is related to the anatomy of the animal, with morphology and structural features dictating

Lauder, George V.

134

The Photospheric Flow Near the Flare Locations of Active Regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flow pattern of flare locations in the active regions are observed by using the Tower Vector Magnetograph (TVM) of Marshall Space Flight Center. The line-center-magnetogram (LCM) technique (Giovanelli and Ramsay, 1971, IAU Symp, 43, 293) has been employed to determine the active region velocities. The LCM is based on finding the wavelength in the line profile where two opposite circularly-polarized Zeeman-Split components change sign. If the material in the magnetic field of different locations have relative line of sight velocities, their cross-over wavelength will be seen Doppler shifted. In order to use the LCM with TVM, a series of Stoke-V images as a function of wavelength are made and their cross-over wavelength at each pixel is determined. We have observed 12 active regions during June 25 to August 25, 1998. Four of these active regions (NOAA 8253, NOAA 8264, 8293 and NOAA 8307) show flare activity associated with the flux emergence and/or changes in magnetic shear during their disk passage. The cross-over wavelength of the locations of activities and the leading sunspot are seen to be different, implying the existence of the relative velocity between them. In one of the active regions (NOAA 8253), we clearly observe the blue shift associated with the emergence of new flux and magnetic shear. In the present paper, we examine the nature of material flow near the location of activity in these active regions.

Choudhary, D.

1999-05-01

135

A new energy transfer model for turbulent free shear flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new model for the energy transfer mechanism in the large-scale turbulent kinetic energy equation is proposed. An estimate of the characteristic length scale of the energy containing large structures is obtained from the wavelength associated with the structures predicted by a weakly nonlinear analysis for turbulent free shear flows. With the inclusion of the proposed energy transfer model, the weakly nonlinear wave models for the turbulent large-scale structures are self-contained and are likely to be independent flow geometries. The model is tested against a plane mixing layer. Reasonably good agreement is achieved. Finally, it is shown by using the Liapunov function method, the balance between the production and the drainage of the kinetic energy of the turbulent large-scale structures is asymptotically stable as their amplitude saturates. The saturation of the wave amplitude provides an alternative indicator for flow self-similarity.

Liou, William W.-W.

1992-01-01

136

Experimental Study on Active Control of FreeSurface Flow using Synthetic Jets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an active control of free-surface flow pattern using synthetic jets. The present control system is composed of Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV), Neural Network computing (NN) and double synthetic jet actuators, as flow measurement method, flow estimator and flow controller, respectively. PTV is used to visualize flow pattern, then the state of captured flow pattern is estimated using

Tadao Ueda; Souichi Saeki; Nobuchika Aida; Kakuji Ogawara

2001-01-01

137

Low-Speed Active Flow Control Laboratory Developed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The future of aviation propulsion systems is increasingly focused on the application of control technologies to significantly enhance the performance of a new generation of air vehicles. Active flow control refers to a set of technologies that manipulate the flow of air and combustion gases deep within the confines of an engine to dynamically alter its performance during flight. By employing active flow control, designers can create engines that are significantly lighter, are more fuel efficient, and produce lower emissions. In addition, the operating range of an engine can be extended, yielding safer transportation systems. The realization of these future propulsion systems requires the collaborative development of many base technologies to achieve intelligent, embedded control at the engine locations where it will be most effective. NASA Glenn Research Center s Controls and Dynamics Technology Branch has developed a state-of-the-art low-speed Active Flow Control Laboratory in which emerging technologies can be integrated and explored in a flexible, low-cost environment. The facility allows the most promising developments to be prescreened and optimized before being tested on higher fidelity platforms, thereby reducing the cost of experimentation and improving research effectiveness.

Culley, Dennis E.; Bright, Michelle M.

2005-01-01

138

Energy Conservation Activity Packet, Grade 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This activity packet for grade 5 is one of a series developed in response to concern for energy conservation. It contains activities that stress an energy conservation ethic and includes many values clarification activities for grade five. The packet is divided into two parts and provides the teacher with background information, concepts and…

Bakke, Ruth

139

Energy momentum flows for the massive vector field  

E-print Network

We present a causal trajectory interpretation for the massive vector field, based on the flows of rest energy and a conserved density defined using the time-like eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the stress-energy-momentum tensor. This work extends our previous work which used a similar procedure for the scalar field. The massive, spin-one, complex vector field is discussed in detail and solutions are classified using the Pauli-Lubanski spin vector. The flows of energy-momentum are illustrated in a simple example of standing waves in a plane.

George Horton; Chris Dewdney

2006-09-26

140

Inferred flows of electric currents in solar active regions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques to identify sources of major current systems in active regions and their channels of flow are explored. Measured photospheric vector magnetic fields together with high resolution white light and H-alpha photographs provide the data base to derive the current systems in the photosphere and chromosphere of a solar active region. Simple mathematical constructions of active region fields and currents are used to interpret these data under the assumptions that the fields in the lower atmosphere (below 200 km) may not be force free but those in the chromosphere and higher are. The results obtained for the complex active region AR 2372 are: (1) Spots exhibiting significant spiral structure in the penumbral filaments were the source of vertical currents at the photospheric surface; (2) Magnetic neutral lines where the transverse magnetic field was strongly sheared were channels along which a strong current system flowed; (3) The inferred current systems produced a neutral sheet and oppositely-flowing currents in the area of the magnetic delta configuration that was the site of flaring.

Ding, Y. J.; Hong, Q. F.; Hagyard, M. J.; Deloach, A. C.

1985-01-01

141

Active Flow Control on Bidirectional Rotors for Tidal MHK Applications  

SciTech Connect

A marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) tidal turbine extracts energy from tidal currents, providing clean, sustainable electricity generation. In general, all MHK conversion technologies are confronted with significant operational hurdles, resulting in both increased capital and operations and maintenance (O&M) costs. To counter these high costs while maintaining reliability, MHK turbine designs can be simplified. Prior study found that a tidal turbine could be cost-effectively simplified by removing blade pitch and rotor/nacelle yaw. Its rotor would run in one direction during ebb and then reverse direction when the current switched to flood. We dubbed such a turbine a bidirectional rotor tidal turbine (BRTT). The bidirectional hydrofoils of a BRTT are less efficient than conventional hydrofoils and capture less energy, but the elimination of the pitch and yaw systems were estimated to reduce levelized cost of energy by 7.8%-9.6%. In this study, we investigated two mechanisms for recapturing some of the performance shortfall of the BRTT. First, we developed a novel set of hydrofoils, designated the yy series, for BRTT application. Second, we investigated the use of active flow control via microtabs. Microtabs are small deployable/retractable tabs, typically located near the leading or trailing edge of an air/hydrofoil with height on the order of the boundary layer thickness (1% - 2% of chord). They deploy approximately perpendicularly to the foil surface and, like gurney flaps and plain flaps, globally affect the aerodynamics of the airfoil. By strategically placing microtabs and selectively deploying them based on the direction of the inflow, performance of a BRTT rotor can be improved while retaining bidirectional operation. The yy foils were computationally designed and analyzed. They exhibited better performance than the baseline bidirectional foil, the ellipse. For example, the yyb07cn-180 had 14.7% higher (l/d)max than an ellipse of equal thickness. The yyb07cn family also had higher c{sub p,min} than equivalently thick ellipses, indicating less susceptibility to cavitation. Microtabs applied on yy foils demonstrated improved energy capture. A series of variable speed and constant speed rotors were developed with the yyb07cn family of hydrofoils. The constant speed yyb07cn rotor (yy-B02-Rcs,opt) captured 0.45% more energy than the equivalent rotor with ellipses (e-B02-Rcs,opt). With microtabs deployed (yy?t-B02-Rcs,opt), the energy capture increase over the rotor with ellipses was 1.05%. Note, however, that microtabs must be applied judiciously to bidirectional foils. On the 18% thick ellipse, performance decreased with the addition of microtabs. Details of hydrofoil performance, microtab sizing and positioning, rotor configurations, and revenue impacts are presented herein.

Shiu, Henry [Research Engineer; van Dam, Cornelis P. [Professor

2013-08-22

142

Vortical ciliary flows actively enhance mass transport in reef corals.  

PubMed

The exchange of nutrients and dissolved gasses between corals and their environment is a critical determinant of the growth of coral colonies and the productivity of coral reefs. To date, this exchange has been assumed to be limited by molecular diffusion through an unstirred boundary layer extending 1-2 mm from the coral surface, with corals relying solely on external flow to overcome this limitation. Here, we present direct microscopic evidence that, instead, corals can actively enhance mass transport through strong vortical flows driven by motile epidermal cilia covering their entire surface. Ciliary beating produces quasi-steady arrays of counterrotating vortices that vigorously stir a layer of water extending up to 2 mm from the coral surface. We show that, under low ambient flow velocities, these vortices, rather than molecular diffusion, control the exchange of nutrients and oxygen between the coral and its environment, enhancing mass transfer rates by up to 400%. This ability of corals to stir their boundary layer changes the way that we perceive the microenvironment of coral surfaces, revealing an active mechanism complementing the passive enhancement of transport by ambient flow. These findings extend our understanding of mass transport processes in reef corals and may shed new light on the evolutionary success of corals and coral reefs. PMID:25192936

Shapiro, Orr H; Fernandez, Vicente I; Garren, Melissa; Guasto, Jeffrey S; Debaillon-Vesque, François P; Kramarsky-Winter, Esti; Vardi, Assaf; Stocker, Roman

2014-09-16

143

Active Flow Control: Instrumentation Automation and Experimental Technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In investigating the potential of a new actuator for use in an active flow control system, several objectives had to be accomplished, the largest of which was the experimental setup. The work was conducted at the NASA Langley 20x28 Shear Flow Control Tunnel. The actuator named Thunder, is a high deflection piezo device recently developed at Langley Research Center. This research involved setting up the instrumentation, the lighting, the smoke, and the recording devices. The instrumentation was automated by means of a Power Macintosh running LabVIEW, a graphical instrumentation package developed by National Instruments. Routines were written to allow the tunnel conditions to be determined at a given instant at the push of a button. This included determination of tunnel pressures, speed, density, temperature, and viscosity. Other aspects of the experimental equipment included the set up of a CCD video camera with a video frame grabber, monitor, and VCR to capture the motion. A strobe light was used to highlight the smoke that was used to visualize the flow. Additional effort was put into creating a scale drawing of another tunnel on site and a limited literature search in the area of active flow control.

Gimbert, N. Wes

1995-01-01

144

SLOW MAGNETOSONIC WAVES AND FAST FLOWS IN ACTIVE REGION LOOPS  

SciTech Connect

Recent extreme ultraviolet spectroscopic observations indicate that slow magnetosonic waves are present in active region (AR) loops. Some of the spectral data were also interpreted as evidence of fast ({approx}100-300 km s{sup -1}) quasi-periodic flows. We have performed three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (3D MHD) modeling of a bipolar AR that contains impulsively generated waves and flows in coronal loops. The model AR is initiated with a dipole magnetic field and gravitationally stratified density, with an upflow-driven steadily or periodically in localized regions at the footpoints of magnetic loops. The resulting flows along the magnetic field lines of the AR produce higher density loops compared to the surrounding plasma by injection of material into the flux tubes and the establishment of siphon flow. We find that the impulsive onset of flows with subsonic speeds result in the excitation of damped slow magnetosonic waves that propagate along the loops and coupled nonlinearly driven fast-mode waves. The phase speed of the slow magnetosonic waves is close to the coronal sound speed. When the amplitude of the driving pulses is increased we find that slow shock-like wave trains are produced. When the upflows are driven periodically, undamped oscillations are produced with periods determined by the periodicity of the upflows. Based on the results of the 3D MHD model we suggest that the observed slow magnetosonic waves and persistent upflows may be produced by the same impulsive events at the bases of ARs.

Ofman, L.; Wang, T. J. [Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Davila, J. M. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2012-08-01

145

Slow Magnetosonic Waves and Fast Flows in Active Region Loops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent extreme ultraviolet spectroscopic observations indicate that slow magnetosonic waves are present in active region (AR) loops. Some of the spectral data were also interpreted as evidence of fast (approx 100-300 km/s) quasiperiodic flows. We have performed three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (3D MHD) modeling of a bipolar AR that contains impulsively generated waves and flows in coronal loops. The model AR is initiated with a dipole magnetic field and gravitationally stratified density, with an upflow-driven steadily or periodically in localized regions at the footpoints of magnetic loops. The resulting flows along the magnetic field lines of the AR produce higher density loops compared to the surrounding plasma by injection of material into the flux tubes and the establishment of siphon flow.We find that the impulsive onset of flows with subsonic speeds result in the excitation of damped slow magnetosonic waves that propagate along the loops and coupled nonlinearly driven fast-mode waves. The phase speed of the slow magnetosonic waves is close to the coronal sound speed. When the amplitude of the driving pulses is increased we find that slow shock-like wave trains are produced. When the upflows are driven periodically, undamped oscillations are produced with periods determined by the periodicity of the upflows. Based on the results of the 3D MHD model we suggest that the observed slow magnetosonic waves and persistent upflows may be produced by the same impulsive events at the bases of ARs.

Ofman, L.; Wang, T. J.; Davila, J. M.

2012-01-01

146

Benefits of Active Flow Control for Wind Turbine Blades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this talk, the blade element momentum model is used to design a wind turbine and examine the benefit of active flow control. The results suggest that either the overall operational range of the wind turbine could be effectively enlarged by 80% with the same rated power output or the rated output power could be increased by 20% while maintaining the same level of operational range when the control is on. The optimal location for the actuator is found to be on the outboard of the blade beyond half of the radius. In light of these encouraging results and based on our earlier NACA 4412 flow control studies, a characteristic airfoil (e.g. DU-96-W-180) is being tested in a new anechoic wind tunnel facility at Syracuse University to determine the airfoil lift and drag characteristics with appropriate flow control while exposed to large scale flow unsteadiness. In addition, the effects of flow controllers on the noise spectrum of the wind turbine will be also assessed and measured in the anechoic chamber.

Wang, Guannan; Elhadidi, Basman; Walczak, Jakub; Glauser, Mark; Higuchi, Hiroshi

2010-11-01

147

Flow detection of propagating waves with temporospatial correlation of activity  

PubMed Central

Voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDI) allows population patterns of cortical activity to be recorded with high temporal resolution, and recent findings ascribe potential significance to their spatial propagation patterns—both for normal cortical processing and in pathologies such as epilepsy. However, analysis of these spatiotemporal patterns has been mostly qualitative to date. In this report, we describe an algorithm to quantify fast local flow patterns of cortical population activation, as measured with VSDI. The algorithm uses correlation of temporal features across space, and therefore differs from conventional optical flow algorithms which use correlation of spatial features over time. This alternative approach allows us to take advantage of the characteristics of fast optical imaging data, which have very high temporal resolution but less spatial resolution. We verify the method both on artificial and biological data, and demonstrate its use. PMID:21664934

Takagaki, Kentaroh; Zhang, Chuan; Wu, Jian-Young; Ohl, Frank W.

2011-01-01

148

An artificial energy method for calculating flows with shocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The artificial-viscosity method, first proposed by von Neumann and Richtmyer, introduces an artificial viscous pressure term in regions of compression such that an increase in entropy occurs in shock transition zones. The paper describes how dissipative flows can be induced by reducing the total energy available for adiabatic processes in shock zones. A class of inviscid fluid flows, called semiflows, is described in which the flows exhibit thermodynamic differences. Induced dissipative flows modify the pressure in regions of compression in a manner analogous to the artificial-viscosity method and for a gas, the effect is equivalent to suitably modifying the gas constant in the equation of state. By employing MacCormack's method and the usual non-adiabatic equations, numerical solutions of a Riemann problem are compared with the modified artificial energy method, showing that the dissipation effect predicted by the analytical formulation is reflected in the numerical method as well.

Rose, M. E.

1980-01-01

149

Mechanical energy and power flow of the upper extremity in manual wheelchair propulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To investigate the characteristics of mechanical energy and power flow of the upper limb during wheelchair propulsion. Design. Mechanical energy and power flow of segments were calculated. Background. Very few studies have taken into account the mechanical energy and power flow of the musculoskeletal system during wheelchair propulsion. Mechanical energy and power flow have proven to be useful tools

Lan-Yuen Guo; Fong-Chin Su; Hong-Wen Wu

2003-01-01

150

An integral turbulent kinetic energy analysis of free shear flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mixing of coaxial streams is analyzed by application of integral techniques. An integrated turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) equation is solved simultaneously with the integral equations for the mean flow. Normalized TKE profile shapes are obtained from incompressible jet and shear layer experiments and are assumed to be applicable to all free turbulent flows. The shear stress at the midpoint of the mixing zone is assumed to be directly proportional to the local TKE, and dissipation is treated with a generalization of the model developed for isotropic turbulence. Although the analysis was developed for ducted flows, constant-pressure flows were approximated with the duct much larger than the jet. The axisymmetric flows under consideration were predicted with reasonable accuracy. Fairly good results were also obtained for the fully developed two-dimensional shear layers, which were computed as thin layers at the boundary of a large circular jet.

Peters, C. E.; Phares, W. J.

1973-01-01

151

Use DCF to save energy. [Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) program  

SciTech Connect

The Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) program is written for the TI-59 programmable calculator, and a profitability analysis can help the process engineer decide among various alternatives in an energy conservation project. The objective of the analysis is to determine the following parameters: discounted cash flow rate of return (also called earning power), present value profit (at any specified cost of capital), present value profit as a percent of the capital investment, and the payback period (undiscounted).

Doane, R.C.

1982-07-01

152

High energy density redox flow device  

DOEpatents

Redox flow devices are described including a positive electrode current collector, a negative electrode current collector, and an ion-permeable membrane separating said positive and negative current collectors, positioned and arranged to define a positive electroactive zone and a negative electroactive zone; wherein at least one of said positive and negative electroactive zone comprises a flowable semi-solid composition comprising ion storage compound particles capable of taking up or releasing said ions during operation of the cell, and wherein the ion storage compound particles have a polydisperse size distribution in which the finest particles present in at least 5 vol % of the total volume, is at least a factor of 5 smaller than the largest particles present in at least 5 vol % of the total volume.

Chiang, Yet-Ming; Carter, William Craig; Duduta, Mihai; Limthongkul, Pimpa

2014-05-13

153

A study of tip clearance flow loss mitigation in a linear turbine cascade using active and passive flow control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examines the use of passive and active blade-mounted flow control to reduce the unwanted losses associated with the blade tip clearance flow in a stationary, open-return, rectilinear turbine cascade at one atmosphere. Traditional flow control techniques have focused on passive methods to improve the aerodynamics in the tip region. However passive methods can create increased heat transfer coefficients

Daniel Kraus van Ness II

2009-01-01

154

Pigouvian Taxation of Energy for Flow and Stock Externalities and Strategic, Noncompetitive Energy Pricing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on energy and carbon taxes is by and large concerned about the derivation of (globally) efficient strategies. In contrast, this paper considers the dynamic interactions between cartelized energy suppliers and a consumers' government that collectively taxes energy carriers for Pigouvian motives. Two different kinds of external costs are associated with energy consumption: flow (e.g., acid rain) and stock

Wirl Franz

1994-01-01

155

Overview of Active Flow Control at NASA Langley Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper summarizes Active Flow Control projects currently underway at the NASA Langley Research Center. Technology development is being pursued within a multidisciplinary, cooperative approach, involving the classical disciplines of fluid mechanics, structural mechanics, material science, acoustics, and stability and control theory. Complementing the companion papers in this session, the present paper will focus on projects that have the goal of extending the state-of-the-art in the measurement, prediction, and control of unsteady, nonlinear aerodynamics. Toward this goal, innovative actuators, micro and macro sensors, and control strategies are considered for high payoff flow control applications. The target payoffs are outlined within each section below. Validation of the approaches range from bench-top experiments to wind-tunnel experiments to flight tests. Obtaining correlations for future actuator and sensor designs are implicit in the discussion. The products of the demonstration projects and design tool development from the fundamental NASA R&D level technology will then be transferred to the Applied Research components within NASA, DOD, and US Industry. Keywords: active flow control, separation control, MEMS, review

Pack, L. G.; Joslin, R. D.

1998-01-01

156

Sulphur-impregnated flow cathode to enable high-energy-density lithium flow batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Redox flow batteries are promising technologies for large-scale electricity storage, but have been suffering from low energy density and low volumetric capacity. Here we report a flow cathode that exploits highly concentrated sulphur-impregnated carbon composite, to achieve a catholyte volumetric capacity 294?Ah?l?1 with long cycle life (>100 cycles), high columbic efficiency (>90%, 100 cycles) and high energy efficiency (>80%, 100 cycles). The demonstrated catholyte volumetric capacity is five times higher than the all-vanadium flow batteries (60?Ah?l?1) and 3–6 times higher than the demonstrated lithium-polysulphide approaches (50–117?Ah?l?1). Pseudo-in situ impedance and microscopy characterizations reveal superior electrochemical and morphological reversibility of the sulphur redox reactions. Our approach of exploiting sulphur-impregnated carbon composite in the flow cathode creates effective interfaces between the insulating sulphur and conductive carbon-percolating network and offers a promising direction to develop high-energy-density flow batteries.

Chen, Hongning; Zou, Qingli; Liang, Zhuojian; Liu, Hao; Li, Quan; Lu, Yi-Chun

2015-01-01

157

Sulphur-impregnated flow cathode to enable high-energy-density lithium flow batteries.  

PubMed

Redox flow batteries are promising technologies for large-scale electricity storage, but have been suffering from low energy density and low volumetric capacity. Here we report a flow cathode that exploits highly concentrated sulphur-impregnated carbon composite, to achieve a catholyte volumetric capacity 294?Ah?l(-1) with long cycle life (>100 cycles), high columbic efficiency (>90%, 100 cycles) and high energy efficiency (>80%, 100 cycles). The demonstrated catholyte volumetric capacity is five times higher than the all-vanadium flow batteries (60?Ah?l(-1)) and 3-6 times higher than the demonstrated lithium-polysulphide approaches (50-117?Ah?l(-1)). Pseudo-in situ impedance and microscopy characterizations reveal superior electrochemical and morphological reversibility of the sulphur redox reactions. Our approach of exploiting sulphur-impregnated carbon composite in the flow cathode creates effective interfaces between the insulating sulphur and conductive carbon-percolating network and offers a promising direction to develop high-energy-density flow batteries. PMID:25565112

Chen, Hongning; Zou, Qingli; Liang, Zhuojian; Liu, Hao; Li, Quan; Lu, Yi-Chun

2015-01-01

158

Energy flow in an arctic aquatic ecosystem  

SciTech Connect

This component of the terrestrial-aquatic interaction group seeks to use the natural stable carbon isotope ratios and radiocarbon abundances to trace the movement of photosynthate from the terrestrial environment to the stream system at MS-117. In addition to estimating the total flux, we will also attempt to describe the relative fractions derived from modern primary production and that derived from delayed inputs of eroded peat. We will also seek to determine the coupling efficiency of these energy sources to the invertebrate faunal populations in the tundra soils and streams.

Schell, D.M.

1983-01-01

159

Energy flow in an arctic aquatic ecosystem  

SciTech Connect

This component of the terrestrial-aquatic interaction group seeks to use the natural stable carbon isotope ratios and radiocarbon abundances to trace the movement of photosynthate from the terrestrial environment to the stream system at MS-117. In addition to estimating the total flux, we will also attempt to describe the relative fractions derived from modern primary production and that derived from delayed inputs of eroded peat. We will also seek to determine the coupling efficiency of these energy sources to the invertebrate faunal populations in the tundra soils and streams.

Schell, D.M.

1983-12-31

160

Flow of Energy and Matter: Photosynthesis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chapter, the authors explore the misconception that carbon from carbon dioxide is the source of a plant's mass. They also look at other common, research-identified misconceptions that make it difficult for students to understand photosynthesis and to connect the photosynthetic processes in a plant cell to the plant and its surroundings. They focus on photosynthesis as a mechanism for harnessing energy and generating organic carbon from atmospheric carbon. In addition, they briefly discuss what happens to that carbon in the plant once photosynthesis is complete and gas exchange in plants during respiration. This free selection includes the Table of Contents, Introduction, and Index.

Tweed, Susan K.

2009-05-01

161

Two-phase flow in a chemically active porous medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the problem of the transformation of a given reactant species into an immiscible product species, as they flow through a chemically active porous medium. We derive the equation governing the evolution of the volume fraction of the species, in a one-dimensional macroscopic description, identify the relevant dimensionless numbers, and provide simple models for capillary pressure and relative permeabilities, which are quantities of crucial importance when tackling multiphase flows in porous media. We set the domain of validity of our models and discuss the importance of viscous coupling terms in the extended Darcy's law. We investigate numerically the steady regime and demonstrate that the spatial transformation rate of the species along the reactor is non-monotonous, as testified by the existence of an inflection point in the volume fraction profiles. We obtain the scaling of the location of this inflection point with the dimensionless lengths of the problem. Eventually, we provide key elements for optimization of the reactor.

Darmon, Alexandre; Benzaquen, Michael; Salez, Thomas; Dauchot, Olivier

2014-12-01

162

Solar energy education. Renewable energy activities for general science  

SciTech Connect

Renewable energy topics are integrated with the study of general science. The literature is provided in the form of a teaching manual and includes such topics as passive solar homes, siting a home for solar energy, and wind power for the home. Other energy topics are explored through library research activities. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-01-01

163

Snapshot of Active Flow Control Research at NASA Langley  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Langley is aggressively investigating the potential advantages of active flow control as opposed to more traditional aerodynamic techniques. Many of these techniques will be blended with advanced materials and structures to further enhance payoff. Therefore a multi-disciplinary approach to technology development is being attempted that includes researchers from the more historical disciplines of fluid mechanics. acoustics, material science, structural mechanics, and control theory. The overall goals of the topics presented are focused on advancing the state of knowledge and understanding of controllable fundamental mechanisms in fluids rather than on specific engineering problems. An organizational view of current research activities at NASA Langley in active flow control as supported by several programs such as the Morphing Project under Breakthrough Vehicle Technologies Program (BVT). the Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology Program (UEET), and the 21st Century Aircraft Technology Program (TCAT) is presented. On-center research as well as NASA Langley funded contracts and grants are discussed at a relatively high level. The products of this research, as part of the fundamental NASA R and D (research and development) program. will be demonstrated as either bench-top experiments, wind-tunnel investigations, or in flight tests. Later they will be transferred to more applied research programs within NASA, DOD (Department of Defense), and U.S. industry.

Washburn, A. E.; Gorton, S. Althoff; Anders, S. G.

2002-01-01

164

Energy Flow: A Multimodal `Ready' Indication For Electric Vehicles  

E-print Network

Energy Flow: A Multimodal `Ready' Indication For Electric Vehicles Abstract The lack of sound and vibration while starting the drive system of an electric vehicle (EV) is one of the major differences; Electric Vehicle; User Experience Introduction The slow but consistently increasing distribution

165

Flow cytometry-based monitoring of mast cell activation.  

PubMed

Mast cell activation is a central process in the initiation of allergic disorders. As described elsewhere in this volume, this process can be readily monitored by biochemical, antibody-based, and enzyme-based formats when the cell population examined is homogenous. When dealing with mixed and transfected cell populations however, such approaches may not be appropriate. Hence alternative methods are required. Here we describe flow-cytometry-based assays that can be utilized to examine signaling processes and degranulation in both pure mast cell populations and, following appropriate selection, in populations where the mast cells of interest may only represent a fraction of the total cell population. PMID:25388263

Cruse, Glenn; Gilfillan, Alasdair M; Smrz, Daniel

2015-01-01

166

Nematomorph parasites drive energy flow through a riparian ecosystem  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Parasites are ubiquitous in natural systems and ecosystem-level effects should be proportional to the amount of biomass or energy flow altered by the parasites. Here we quantified the extent to which a manipulative parasite altered the flow of energy through a forest-stream ecosystem. In a Japanese headwater stream, camel crickets and grasshoppers (Orthoptera) were 20 times more likely to enter a stream if infected by a nematomorph parasite (Gordionus spp.), corroborating evidence that nematomorphs manipulate their hosts to seek water where the parasites emerge as free-living adults. Endangered Japanese trout (Salvelinus leucomaenis japonicus) readily ate these infected orthopterans, which due to their abundance, accounted for 60% of the annual energy intake of the trout population. Trout grew fastest in the fall, when nematomorphs were driving energy-rich orthopterans into the stream. When infected orthopterans were available, trout did not eat benthic invertebrates in proportion to their abundance, leading to the potential for cascading, indirect effects through the forest-stream ecosystem. These results provide the first quantitative evidence that a manipulative parasite can dramatically alter the flow of energy through and across ecosystems.

Sato, Takuya; Wtanabe, Katsutoshi; Kanaiwa, Minoru; Niizuma, Yasuaki; Harada, Yasushi; Lafferty, Kevin D.

2011-01-01

167

Bottlenecks to vibrational energy flow in OCS: Structures and mechanisms  

E-print Network

Finding the causes for the nonstatistical vibrational energy relaxation in the planar carbonyl sulfide (OCS) molecule is a longstanding problem in chemical physics: Not only is the relaxation incomplete long past the predicted statistical relaxation time, but it also consists of a sequence of abrupt transitions between long-lived regions of localized energy modes. We report on the phase space bottlenecks responsible for this slow and uneven vibrational energy flow in this Hamiltonian system with three degrees of freedom. They belong to a particular class of two-dimensional invariant tori which are organized around elliptic periodic orbits. We relate the trapping and transition mechanisms with the linear stability of these structures.

R. Paškauskas; C. Chandre; T. Uzer

2008-11-27

168

Flow cytometric analysis of crayfish haemocytes activated by lipopolysaccharides  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria are strong stimulators of white river crayfish, Procambarus zonangulus, haemocytes in vitro. Following haemocyte treatment with LPS and with LPS from rough mutant R5 (LPS Rc) from Salmonella minnesota, flow cytometric analysis revealed a conspicuous and reproducible decrease in cell size as compared to control haemocytes. These LPS molecules also caused a reduction in haemocyte viability as assessed by flow cytometry with the fluorescent dyes calcein-AM and ethidium homodimer. The onset of cell size reduction was gradual and occurred prior to cell death. Haemocytes treated with LPS from S. minnesota without the Lipid A moiety (detoxified LPS) decreased in size without a reduction of viability. The action of LPS on crayfish haemocytes appeared to be related to the activation of the prophenoloxidase system because phenoloxidase (PO)-specific activity in the supernatants from control and detoxified LPS-treated cells was significantly lower than that from LPS and LPS-Rc treated cells (P < 0.05). Furthermore, addition of trypsin inhibitor to the LPS treatments caused noticeable delays in cell size and viability changes. These patterns of cellular activation by LPS formulations indicated that crayfish haemocytes react differently to the polysaccharide and lipid A moieties of LPS, where lipid A is cytotoxic and the polysaccharide portion is stimulatory. These effects concur with the general pattern of mammalian cell activation by LPS, thereby indicting commone innate immune recognition mechanisms to bacterial antigens between cells from mammals and invertebrates. These definitive molecular approaches used to verify and identify mechanisms of invertbrate haemocyte responses to LPS could be applied with other glycoconjugates, soluble mediators, or xenobiotic compounds.

Cardenas, W.; Dankert, J.R.; Jenkins, J.A.

2004-01-01

169

Bidirectional control system for energy flow in solar powered flywheel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An energy storage system for a spacecraft is provided which employs a solar powered flywheel arrangement including a motor/generator which, in different operating modes, drives the flywheel and is driven thereby. A control circuit, including a threshold comparator, senses the output of a solar energy converter, and when a threshold voltage is exceeded thereby indicating the availability of solar power for the spacecraft loads, activates a speed control loop including the motor/generator so as to accelerate the flywheel to a constant speed and thereby store mechanical energy, while also supplying energy from the solar converter to the loads. Under circumstances where solar energy is not available and thus the threshold voltage is not exceeded, the control circuit deactivates the speed control loop and activates a voltage control loop that provides for operation of the motor as a generator so that mechanical energy from the flywheel is converted into electrical energy for supply to the spacecraft loads.

Nola, Frank J. (inventor)

1987-01-01

170

Experimental Study on Active Control of Free-Surface Flow using Synthetic Jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an active control of free-surface flow pattern using synthetic jets. The present control system is composed of Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV), Neural Network computing (NN) and double synthetic jet actuators, as flow measurement method, flow estimator and flow controller, respectively. PTV is used to visualize flow pattern, then the state of captured flow pattern is estimated using NN. Double synthetic jets are connected to fluidic nozzle, from which inlet flow is injected horizontally to a test section. When they are operating under various frequency and amplitude conditions, the direction of inlet flow issuing from fluidic nozzle can be easily fluctuated, upward or downward. This system is applied to water flow with free surface in a rectangular tank having the submerged and injected fluidic inlet nozzle on the right side wall and outlet at the bottom. Two flow patterns are found to be stable in this tank system. Under one stable condition, inlet flow goes directly to outlet and clockwise circulating flow is observed in the left side of tank. Under the other one, while, inlet flow is attached directly to free surface, resulting in large counterclockwise circulating flow. Any other flow pattern is unstable and stabilized to either two stable ones. In this study, double synthetic jets stabilize the unstable flow pattern as a target flow pattern. Flow pattern can be controlled actively and automatically using flow information obtained by PTV and NN.

Ueda, Tadao; Saeki, Souichi; Aida, Nobuchika; Ogawara, Kakuji

2001-11-01

171

Fuzzy Energy-Based Active Contours  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel fast model for active contours to detect objects in an image, based on techniques of curve evolution. The proposed model can detect objects whose boundaries are not necessarily defined by gradient, based on the minimization of a fuzzy energy, which can be seen as a particular case of a minimal partition problem. This fuzzy energy

Stelios Krinidis; Vassilios Chatzis

2009-01-01

172

Hypersonic Flow Control Using Upstream Focused Energy Deposition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A numerical study of centerline and off-centerline power deposition at a point upstream of a two-dimensional blunt body at Mach 6.5 at 30 km altitude are presented. The full Navier-Stokes equations are used. Wave drag, lift, and pitching moment are presented as a function of amount of power absorbed in the flow and absorption point location. It is shown that wave drag is considerably reduced. Modifications to the pressure distribution in the flow field due to the injected energy create lift and a pitching moment when the injection is off-centerline. This flow control concept may lead to effective ways to improve the performance and to stabilize and control hypersonic vehicles.

Riggins David W.; Nelson, H. F.

1999-01-01

173

What is Energy?: Activities and Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website targets teachers, providing them with ideas for simple activities and experiments that can be used to demonstrate concepts related to kinetic and other forms of energy. Each activity and the science concepts involved are clearly delineated. There are also a number of challenge questions suggested to be posted to the students.

Keep, Wisconsin

2006-07-10

174

Inhibition of the active lymph pump by flow in rat mesenteric lymphatics and thoracic duct  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are only a few reports of the influence of imposed flow on an active lymph pump under conditions of controlled intraluminal pressure. Thus, the mechanisms are not clearly defined. Rat mesenteric lymphatics and thoracic ducts were isolated, cannulated and pressurized. Input and output pressures were adjusted to impose various flows. Lymphatic systolic and diastolic diameters were measured and used to determine contraction frequency and pump flow indices. Imposed flow inhibited the active lymph pump in both mesenteric lymphatics and in the thoracic duct. The active pump of the thoracic duct appeared more sensitive to flow than did the active pump of the mesenteric lymphatics. Imposed flow reduced the frequency and amplitude of the contractions and accordingly the active pump flow. Flow-induced inhibition of the active lymph pump followed two temporal patterns. The first pattern was a rapidly developing inhibition of contraction frequency. Upon imposition of flow, the contraction frequency immediately fell and then partially recovered over time during continued flow. This effect was dependent on the magnitude of imposed flow, but did not depend on the direction of flow. The effect also depended upon the rate of change in the direction of flow. The second pattern was a slowly developing reduction of the amplitude of the lymphatic contractions, which increased over time during continued flow. The inhibition of contraction amplitude was dependent on the direction of the imposed flow, but independent of the magnitude of flow. Nitric oxide was partly but not completely responsible for the influence of flow on the mesenteric lymph pump. Exposure to NO mimicked the effects of flow, and inhibition of the NO synthase by N (G)-monomethyl-L-arginine attenuated but did not completely abolish the effects of flow.

Gashev, Anatoliy A.; Davis, Michael J.; Zawieja, David C.; Delp, M. D. (Principal Investigator)

2002-01-01

175

Direction of Optical Energy Flow in a Transverse Magnetic Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this Letter, we report a theoretical and experimental study of the direction of optical energy flow in homogeneous media subject to a transverse magnetic field. For transparent media we verify experimentally for the first time the existence of magnetic deflection of circularly polarized light. In absorbing media the calculated directions of the Poynting vector and of a wave packet do not coincide. Experimentally we demonstrate that the Poynting vector result is not correct.

Rikken, G. L. J. A.; van Tiggelen, B. A.

1997-02-01

176

Quantitative Assessment of Mycoplasma Hemadsorption Activity by Flow Cytometry  

PubMed Central

A number of adherent mycoplasmas have developed highly complex polar structures that are involved in diverse aspects of the biology of these microorganisms and play a key role as virulence factors by promoting adhesion to host cells in the first stages of infection. Attachment activity of mycoplasma cells has been traditionally investigated by determining their hemadsorption ability to red blood cells and it is a distinctive trait widely examined when characterizing the different mycoplasma species. Despite the fact that protocols to qualitatively determine the hemadsorption or hemagglutination of mycoplasmas are straightforward, current methods when investigating hemadsorption at the quantitative level are expensive and poorly reproducible. By using flow cytometry, we have developed a procedure to quantify rapidly and accurately the hemadsorption activity of mycoplasmas in the presence of SYBR Green I, a vital fluorochrome that stains nucleic acids, allowing to resolve erythrocyte and mycoplasma cells by their different size and fluorescence. This method is very reproducible and permits the kinetic analysis of the obtained data and a precise hemadsorption quantification based on standard binding parameters such as the dissociation constant Kd. The procedure we developed could be easily implemented in a standardized assay to test the hemadsorption activity of the growing number of clinical isolates and mutant strains of different mycoplasma species, providing valuable data about the virulence of these microorganisms. PMID:24498118

García-Morales, Luis; González-González, Luis; Costa, Manuela; Querol, Enrique; Piñol, Jaume

2014-01-01

177

Subcellular mapping of dendritic activity in optic flow processing neurons.  

PubMed

Dendritic integration is a fundamental element of neuronal information processing. So far, few studies have provided a detailed spatial picture of this process, describing the properties of local dendritic activity and its subcellular organization. Here, we used 2-photon calcium imaging in optic flow processing neurons of the fly Calliphora vicina to determine the preferred location and direction of local motion cues for small branchlets throughout the entire dendrite. We found a pronounced retinotopic mapping on both the subcellular and the cell population level. In addition, dendritic branchlets residing in different layers of the neuropil were tuned to distinct directions of motion. Summing the local receptive fields of all dendritic branchlets reproduced the characteristic properties of these neurons' axonal output receptive fields. Our results corroborate the notion that the dendritic morphology of vertical system cells allows them to selectively collect local motion inputs with particular directional preferences from a spatially organized input repertoire, thus forming filters that match global patterns of optic flow. Furthermore, we suggest that the facet arrangement across the fly's eye shapes the subcellular direction tuning to local motion stimuli. These data illustrate a highly structured circuit organization as an efficient way to hard-wire a complex sensory task. PMID:24647929

Hopp, Elisabeth; Borst, Alexander; Haag, Juergen

2014-05-01

178

Wave turbulence revisited: Where does the energy flow?  

E-print Network

Turbulence in a system of nonlinearly interacting waves is referred to as wave turbulence. It has been known since seminal work by Kolmogorov, that turbulent dynamics is controlled by a directional energy flux through the wavelength scales. We demonstrate that an energy cascade in wave turbulence can be bi-directional, that is, can simultaneously flow towards large and small wavelength scales from the pumping scales at which it is injected. This observation is in sharp contrast to existing experiments and wave turbulence theory where the energy flux only flows in one direction. We demonstrate that the bi-directional energy cascade changes the energy budget in the system and leads to formation of large-scale, large-amplitude waves similar to oceanic rogue waves. To study surface wave turbulence, we took advantage of capillary waves on a free, weakly charged surface of superfluid helium He-II at temperature 1.7K. Although He-II demonstrates non-classical thermomechanical effects and quantized vorticity, waves on its surface are identical to those on a classical Newtonian fluid with extremely low viscosity. The possibility of directly driving a charged surface by an oscillating electric field and the low viscosity of He-II have allowed us to isolate the surface dynamics and study nonlinear surface waves in a range of frequencies much wider than in experiments with classical fluids.

L. V. Abdurakhimov; I. A. Remizov; A. A. Levchenko; G. V. Kolmakov; Y. V. Lvov

2014-04-03

179

Continuous thermal energy delivery from a periodically active energy source  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is described for continuous delivery of relatively uniform predetermined thermal energy from a cyclically active thermal energy source having an ON period substantially exceeding an OFF period in duration to an energy utilization sector of a closed working fluid conduit loop additionally comprising an energy supply sector, the energy supply sector comprising: working fluid conduit means for containment and transport of the working fluid from a lower temperature outlet of a thermal utilization means to a higher temperature inlet of the thermal energy utilization means; tubular outer containment means spaced from and surrounding at least a portion of the energy supply sector of the working fluid conduit means forming an annular chamber between the working fluid conduit means and the tubular outer containment means; liquid-solid phase change thermal energy transmission and storage material having a high specific heat in the liquid phase substantially filling the annular chamber; the annular chamber having a width between the working fluid conduit means and the outer containment means and a length consistent with the continuous delivery of relatively uniform predetermined thermal energy based upon density, heat of fusion, specific heat, and thermal conductivity of the thermal transmission and storage material; and means for protection of the outer containment means from thermal losses during inactivity of the periodically active energy source.

Kardas, A.

1988-09-06

180

The Flow of Energy: Primary Production to Higher Trophic Levels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Today we will explore some of the multiple topics related to the flow of energy in ecosystems. Energy is used up and lost as heat as it moves through ecosystems, and new energy is continually added to the earth in the form of solar radiation. As we learned in the last lecture, the earth is an open system in regard to energy.Nutrients and other materials, on the other hand, are continually recirculated within and among ecosystems, and by and large there are no new inputs or losses from the planet. In terms of materials, then, the earth is a closed system. Both energy and materials are essential to ecosystem structure, function, and composition. You have already been exposed to the basic concepts of nutrient cycles; in this lecture we focus on energy. Note that in terms of the cycling of carbon, "materials" and energy can be inter-converted. For example, we know how many calories (a measure of energy) a gram of certain carbon compounds materials such as fats or carbohydrates contain.

Klink, George

181

Research article Bumble bee olfactory information flow and contact-based foraging activation  

E-print Network

Research article Bumble bee olfactory information flow and contact-based foraging activation M in foraging activation is poorly understood in bumble bees, as compared to honey bees and stingless bees. We therefore investigated olfactory information flow and foraging activation in the New World bumble bee

Nieh, James

182

An overview of active flow control actuators and applications (presentation video)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active Flow Control (AFC) is an emerging technology which promises performance enhancements to both military and civilian aircraft. A technique which uses energy input at discrete locations to manipulate the flow over an aerodynamic surface, AFC may be used to reduce drag, prevent flow separation, and enable otherwise-infeasible aerodynamic designs. Additional applications include shear layer and turbulence control for aero-optics applications and mixing enhancement for thermal applications. Many AFC applications call for a high frequency fluidic perturbation provided by an electrically-powered actuator. In these instances, piezoelectric (PZT) materials have served as the workhorse for flow control actuators, such as the widely-studied synthetic jet. Because the PZT materials form the critical component of the actuator, the maximum performance of the synthetic jet (velocity and momentum output) is limited by the physical limitations of the PZT material. The purpose of this presentation is to provide a high level overview of AFC actuators and applications in an attempt to engage the smart materials community and encourage advanced material development in support of these crucial applications.

Brzozowski, Daniel; Whalen, Edward A.

2014-04-01

183

Active control of tip clearance flow in axial compressors  

E-print Network

Control of compressor tip clearance flows is explored in a linear cascade using three types of fluidic actuators; Normal Synthetic Jet (NSJ; unsteady jet normal to the mean flow with zero net mass flux), Directed Synthetic ...

Bae, Jinwoo W

2001-01-01

184

A piezoelectrically actuated micro synthetic jet for active flow control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthetic jet actuator (SJA) is a low power, highly compact microfluidic device which has potential application in boundary layer flow control. In recent work we have shown how synthetic jets work without cross flow and how effectively they modify the flow structure in the boundary layer under an adverse pressure gradient. This paper describes the piezoelectric synthetic jet actuator

Chester Lee; Guang Hong; Q. P. Ha; S. G. Mallinson

2003-01-01

185

An Energy Principle for Ideal MHD Equilibria with Flows  

SciTech Connect

In the standard ideal MHD energy principle for equilibria with no flows, the stability criterion, which is the defi niteness of the perturbed potential energy, is usually constructed from the linearized equation of motion. Equivalently while more straightforwardly, it can also be obtained from the second variation of the Hamiltonian calculated with proper constraints. For equilibria with flows, a stability criterion was proposed from the linearized equation of motion, but not explained as an energy principle1. In this paper, the second variation of the Hamiltonian is found to provide a stability criterion equivalent to, while more straightforward than, what was constructed from the linearized equation of motion. To calculate the variations of the Hamiltonian, a complete set of constraints on the dynamics of the perturbations is derived from the Euler-Poincare structure of the ideal MHD. In addition, a previous calculation of the second variation of the Hamiltonian was claimed to give a different stability criterion2, and in this paper we argue such a claim is incorrect.

Yao Zhou and Hong Qin

2013-03-11

186

Flow in the RHIC Beam Energy Scan from STAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first phase of the beam energy scan (BES) program at RHIC was successfully taken in the years 2010 and 2011. Data, were collected at =7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, 39 and 62.4 GeV, covering a wide range of baryon chemical potentials from ?B 420 to 40 MeV. The main goals are the search for the QCD critical point and to find signatures for a phase transition between the hadron gas and the QGP. Directed (v1), elliptic (v2) and triangular (v3) flow are important observables to study the early evolution of the created matter in relativistic heavy-ion collision experiments. In particular, it is expected that flow is sensitive to the phase transition from a quark gluon plasma to a hadron gas. We will present measurements of identified hadrons for v1 (?±, p, bar p), v2 (?±, K±, K0s, p, bar p, for all BES energies, and v3 (?±K±, p, bar p) for = 39 GeV. We will discuss the beam-energy dependent difference of v2 between particles and anti-particles. Furthermore, we will address mass ordering at low pT and number-of-constituent-quark scaling at intermediate pT of v2 and v3 for identified hadrons.

Sun, Xu; Star Collaboration

2014-09-01

187

Variational energy principle for compressible, baroclinic flow. 2: Free-energy form of Hamilton's principle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first and second variations are calculated for the irreducible form of Hamilton's Principle that involves the minimum number of dependent variables necessary to describe the kinetmatics and thermodynamics of inviscid, compressible, baroclinic flow in a specified gravitational field. The form of the second variation shows that, in the neighborhood of a stationary point that corresponds to physically stable flow, the action integral is a complex saddle surface in parameter space. There exists a form of Hamilton's Principle for which a direct solution of a flow problem is possible. This second form is related to the first by a Friedrichs transformation of the thermodynamic variables. This introduces an extra dependent variable, but the first and second variations are shown to have direct physical significance, namely they are equal to the free energy of fluctuations about the equilibrium flow that satisfies the equations of motion. If this equilibrium flow is physically stable, and if a very weak second order integral constraint on the correlation between the fluctuations of otherwise independent variables is satisfied, then the second variation of the action integral for this free energy form of Hamilton's Principle is positive-definite, so the action integral is a minimum, and can serve as the basis for a direct trail and error solution. The second order integral constraint states that the unavailable energy must be maximum at equilibrium, i.e. the fluctuations must be so correlated as to produce a second order decrease in the total unavailable energy.

Schmid, L. A.

1977-01-01

188

Symmetry energy from elliptic flow in 197Au + 197Au  

E-print Network

The elliptic-flow ratio of neutrons with respect to protons or light complex particles in reactions of neutron-rich systems at relativistic energies is proposed as an observable sensitive to the strength of the symmetry term in the equation of state at supra-normal densities. The results obtained from the existing FOPI/LAND data for 197Au + 197Au collisions at 400 MeV/nucleon in comparison with the UrQMD model favor a moderately soft symmetry term with a density dependence of the potential term proportional to rho/rho_0^gamma with gamma = 0.9 +- 0.4.

P. Russotto; P. Z. Wu; M. Zoric; M. Chartier; Y. Leifels; R. C. Lemmon; Q. Li; J. Lukasik; A. Pagano; P. Pawlowski; W. Trautmann

2011-01-12

189

The Magnetic Free Energy in Active Regions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The magnetic field permeating the solar atmosphere governs much of the structure, morphology, brightness, and dynamics observed on the Sun. The magnetic field, especially in active regions, is thought to provide the power for energetic events in the solar corona, such as solar flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) and is believed to energize the hot coronal plasma seen in extreme ultraviolet or X-rays. The question remains what specific aspect of the magnetic flux governs the observed variability. To directly understand the role of the magnetic field in energizing the solar corona, it is necessary to measure the free magnetic energy available in active regions. The grant now expiring has demonstrated a new and valuable technique for observing the magnetic free energy in active regions as a function of time.

Metcalf, Thomas R.; Mickey, Donald L.; LaBonte, Barry J.

2001-01-01

190

Energy flow along the medium-induced parton cascade  

E-print Network

We discuss the dynamics of parton cascades that develop in dense QCD matter, and contrast their properties with those of similar cascades of gluon radiation in vacuum. We argue that such cascades belong to two distinct classes that are characterized respectively by an increasing or a constant (or decreasing) branching rate along the cascade. In the former class, of which the BDMPS, medium-induced, cascade constitutes a typical example, it takes a finite time to transport a finite amount of energy to very soft quanta, while this time is essentially infinite in the latter case, to which the DGLAP cascade belongs. The medium induced cascade is accompanied by a constant flow of energy towards arbitrary soft modes, leading eventually to the accumulation of the initial energy of the leading particle at zero energy. It also exhibits scaling properties akin to wave turbulence. These properties do not show up in the cascade that develops in vacuum. There, the energy accumulates in the spectrum at smaller and smaller e...

Blaizot, Jean-Paul

2015-01-01

191

Active Closed-Loop Stator Vane Flow Control Demonstrated in a Low-Speed Multistage Compressor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Closed-loop flow control was successfully demonstrated on the surface of stator vanes in NASA Glenn Research Center's Low-Speed Axial Compressor (LSAC) facility. This facility provides a flow field that accurately duplicates the aerodynamics of modern highly loaded compressors. Closed-loop active flow control uses sensors and actuators embedded within engine components to dynamically alter the internal flow path during off-nominal operation in order to optimize engine performance and maintain stable operation.

Bright, Michelle M.; Culley, Dennis E.; Strazisar, Anthony J.

2004-01-01

192

Relative Activity of Brook Trout and Walleyes in Response to Flow in a Regulated River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coded electromyogram telemetry transmitters were used to examine the effects of varying flows on the relative activity of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and walleye Sander vitreus in a regulated river. The relative activity levels of two brook trout and two walleyes were continuously monitored for a minimum of 24 h, and measurements were compared with river flow values logged at

Karen J. Murchie; Karen E. Smokorowski

2004-01-01

193

High Bandwidth Micro-Actuators for Active Flow John T Solomon1  

E-print Network

High Bandwidth Micro-Actuators for Active Flow Control John T Solomon1 , Rajan Kumar2 and Farrukh S flow control applications. A systematic approach for designing micro-actuators with high unsteady and development of actuator systems capable of producing high bandwidth, high momentum microjet arrays for active

194

Project cash flow analysis in the presence of uncertainty in activity duration and cost  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inherent uncertainty and imprecision in project scheduling have motivated the proposal of several fuzzy set theory based extensions of activity network scheduling techniques. Building upon these, a cash flow calculation methodology for projects including activities with fuzzy durations and\\/or costs is proposed in this paper. According to the proposed approach, the project cash flow is represented by an S-surface

Alexander Maravas; John-Paris Pantouvakis

195

Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity Through Apollo  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Monitoring crew health during manned space missions has always been an important factor to ensure that the astronauts can complete the missions successfully and within safe physiological limits. The necessity of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to complete EVA tasks exceeded the life support capabilities for cooling and humidity control and crewmembers (CMs) ended the EVAs fatigued and overworked. This paper discusses the importance of real-time monitoring of metabolic rate during EVA, and provides a historical look at energy expenditure during EVA through the Apollo program.

Paul, Heather L.

2011-01-01

196

Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity Through Apollo  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Monitoring crew health during manned space missions has always been an important factor to ensure that the astronauts can complete the missions successfully and within safe physiological limits. The necessity of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to complete EVA tasks exceeded the life support capabilities for cooling and humidity control and, as a result, crew members ended the EVAs fatigued and overworked. This paper discusses the importance of real-time monitoring of metabolic rate during EVAs, and provides a historical look at energy expenditure during EVAs through the Apollo Program.

Paul, Heather L.

2012-01-01

197

Low angular momentum flow model of Sgr A* activity  

E-print Network

Sgr A* is the closest massive black hole and can be observed with the highest angular resolution. Nevertheless, our current understanding of the accretion process in this source is very poor. The inflow is almost certainly of low radiative efficiency and it is accompanied by a strong outflow and the flow is strongly variable but the details of the dynamics are unknown. Even the amount of angular momentum in the flow is an open question. Here we argue that low angular momentum scenario is better suited to explain the flow variability. We present a new hybrid model which describes such a flow and consists of an outer spherically symmetric Bondi flow and an inner axially symmetric flow described through MHD simulations. The assumed angular momentum of the matter is low, i.e. the corresponding circularization radius in the equatorial plane of the flow is just above the innermost stable circular orbit in pseudo-Newtonian potential. We compare the radiation spectrum from such a flow to the broad band observational data for Sgr A*.

B. Czerny; M. Moscibrodzka

2008-08-21

198

Time-activity budgets and energetics of Dipper Cinclus cinclus are dictated by temporal variability of river flow.  

PubMed

The white-throated Dipper (Cinclus cinclus) is unique among passerine birds by its reliance on diving to achieve energy gain in fast-flowing waters. Consequently, it should have evolved behavioural adaptations allowing responding directly to runoff patterns (one of the assumptions of the Natural Flow Regime Paradigm-NRFP). In this study (October 1998-August 2001), we investigated how behavioural and energy use strategies in Dippers might vary under the natural flow regime of snowmelt-dominated streams in The Pyrénées (France) where natural flow regime is highly seasonal and predictable. We recorded time spent in each of 5 behavioural activities of ringed birds to estimate time-activity budgets and derive time-energy budgets enabling the modelling of daily energy expenditure (DEE). Annual pattern in 'foraging' and 'resting' matched perfectly the annual pattern of the natural regime flow and there was a subtle relationship between water stage and time spent 'diving' the later increasing with rising discharge up to a point where it fell back. Thus, time-activity budgets meet the main prediction of the NRFP. For males and females Dippers, estimates of feeding rates (ratio E(obs)/E(req)=observed rate of energy gain/required foraging rate) and energy stress (M=DEE/Basal Metabolic Rate) also partly matched the NFRP. Maximum value for the ratio E(obs)/E(req) was registered in May whilst M peaked in spring. These ratios indicated that Pyrenean Dippers could face high energy stress during winter but paradoxically none during high snowmelt spates when food is expected to be difficult to obtain in the channel and when individual birds were observed spending ca 75% of the day 'resting'. Annual pattern in DEE did not match the NFRP; two phases were clearly identified, the first between January to June (with oscillating values 240-280 kJ d(-1) ind(-1)) and the second between July and December (200-220 kJ d(-1) ind(-1)). As total energy expenditure was higher during the most constraining season or life cycle, we suggest that energy management by Dippers in Pyrenean mountain streams may fit the 'peak total demand' hypothesis. At this step of the study, it is not possible to tell whether Dippers use an 'energy-minimisation' or an 'energy-maximisation' strategy. PMID:17897855

D'Amico, F; Hémery, G

2007-12-01

199

Control of Vibratory Energy Harvesters in the Presence of Nonlinearities and Power-Flow Constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade, a significant amount of research activity has been devoted to developing electromechanical systems that can convert ambient mechanical vibrations into usable electric power. Such systems, referred to as vibratory energy harvesters, have a number of useful of applications, ranging in scale from self-powered wireless sensors for structural health monitoring in bridges and buildings to energy harvesting from ocean waves. One of the most challenging aspects of this technology concerns the efficient extraction and transmission of power from transducer to storage. Maximizing the rate of power extraction from vibratory energy harvesters is further complicated by the stochastic nature of the disturbance. The primary purpose of this dissertation is to develop feedback control algorithms which optimize the average power generated from stochastically-excited vibratory energy harvesters. This dissertation will illustrate the performance of various controllers using two vibratory energy harvesting systems: an electromagnetic transducer embedded within a flexible structure, and a piezoelectric bimorph cantilever beam. Compared with piezoelectric systems, large-scale electromagnetic systems have received much less attention in the literature despite their ability to generate power at the watt--kilowatt scale. Motivated by this observation, the first part of this dissertation focuses on developing an experimentally validated predictive model of an actively controlled electromagnetic transducer. Following this experimental analysis, linear-quadratic-Gaussian control theory is used to compute unconstrained state feedback controllers for two ideal vibratory energy harvesting systems. This theory is then augmented to account for competing objectives, nonlinearities in the harvester dynamics, and non-quadratic transmission loss models in the electronics. In many vibratory energy harvesting applications, employing a bi-directional power electronic drive to actively control the harvester is infeasible due to the high levels of parasitic power required to operate the drive. For the case where a single-directional drive is used, a constraint on the directionality of power-flow is imposed on the system, which necessitates the use of nonlinear feedback. As such, a sub-optimal controller for power-flow-constrained vibratory energy harvesters is presented, which is analytically guaranteed to outperform the optimal static admittance controller. Finally, the last section of this dissertation explores a numerical approach to compute optimal discretized control manifolds for systems with power-flow constraints. Unlike the sub-optimal nonlinear controller, the numerical controller satisfies the necessary conditions for optimality by solving the stochastic Hamilton-Jacobi equation.

Cassidy, Ian L.

200

Flow-induced nonequilibrium self-assembly in suspensions of stiff, apolar, active filaments  

E-print Network

Active bodies in viscous fluids interact hydrodynamically through self-generated flows. Here we study spontaneous aggregation induced by hydrodynamic flow in a suspension of stiff, apolar, active filaments. Lateral hydrodynamic attractions in extensile filaments lead, independent of volume fraction, to anisotropic aggregates which translate and rotate ballistically. Lateral hydrodynamic repulsion in contractile filaments lead, with increasing volume fractions, to microstructured states of asters, clusters, and incipient gels where, in each case, filament motion is diffusive. Our results demonstrate that the interplay of active hydrodynamic flows and anisotropic excluded volume interactions provides a generic nonequilibrium mechanism for hierarchical self-assembly of active soft matter.

Pandey, Ankita; Adhikari, R

2014-01-01

201

Fluid flow in fault zones from an active rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geometry and hydraulic properties of fault zones are investigated for Mesozoic greywacke basement and Miocene sandstone from ˜37 km of tunnels in the southern Taupo Rift, New Zealand. Localised groundwater inflows occur almost exclusively (?˜90%) within, and immediately adjacent to, fault zones. Fault zones in the contrasting lithologies comprise fault rock, small-scale faults, and fractures with thicknesses of 0.01-˜110 m approximating power law distributions and bulk permeabilities of 10-9-10-12 m2. Variability in fault zone structure results in a highly heterogeneous distribution of flow rates and locations. Within basement ˜80% of the flow rate occurs from fault zones ?10 m wide, with ˜30% of the total localised flow rate originating from a single fault zone (i.e. consistent with the golden fracture concept). No simple relationships are found between flow rates and either fault strike or hydraulic head, with ?50% of fault zones in any given orientation flowing. A general positive relationship does however exist between fault zone thickness and maximum flow rate. Higher flow rates from larger fault zones may arise because these structures have greater dimensions and are more likely (than smaller faults) to be connected to other faults in the system and the ground surface.

Seebeck, H.; Nicol, A.; Walsh, J. J.; Childs, C.; Beetham, R. D.; Pettinga, J.

2014-05-01

202

Laser Activated Flow Regulator for Glaucoma Drainage Devices  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess the capabilities of a new glaucoma drainage device regulator in controlling fluid flow as well as to demonstrate that this effect may be titratable by noninvasive means. Methods A rigid eye model with two main ports was used. On the first port, we placed a saline solution column. On the second, we placed a glaucoma shunt. We then measured the flow and flow rate through the system. After placing the regulator device on the tip of the tube, we measured again with the intact membrane and with the membrane open 50% and 100%. For the ex vivo testing we used a similar setting, using a cadaveric porcine eye, we measured again the flow and flow rate. However, this time we opened the membrane gradually using laser shots. A one-way analysis of variance and a Fisher's Least Significant Difference test were used for statistical significance. We also calculated the correlation between the numbers of laser shots applied and the main outcomes. Results The flow through the system with the glaucoma drainage device regulator (membrane intact and 50% open) was statistically lower than with the membrane open 100% and without device (P < 0.05). The flow was successfully controlled by the number of laser shots applied, and showed a positive correlation (+ 0.9). The flow rate was almost doubled every 10 shots and statistically lower than without device at all time (P < 0.05). Conclusions The glaucoma drainage device regulator can be controlled noninvasively with laser, and allows titratable control of aqueous flow. Translational Relevance Initial results and evidence from this experiment will justify the initiation of in vivo animal trials with the glaucoma drainage device regulator; which brings us closer to possible human trials and the chance to significantly improve the existing technology to treat glaucoma surgically. PMID:25374772

Olson, Jeffrey L.; Velez-Montoya, Raul; Bhandari, Ramanath

2014-01-01

203

Energy Adventure Center. Activity Book. Revised [and Expanded] Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A variety of energy activities are provided, including instructions for and questions related to energy films. The activities are organized into five sections. Section 1 (work) includes an activity focusing on movement and change. Section 2 (forms of energy) includes activities related to mechanical (movement), radiant (light), chemical (burning),…

Wichita Unified School District 259, KS.

204

High energy activation data library (HEAD-2009)  

SciTech Connect

A proton activation data library for 682 nuclides from 1 H to 210Po in the energy range from 150 MeV up to 1 GeV was developed. To calculate proton activation data, the MCNPX 2.6.0 and CASCADE/INPE codes were chosen. Different intranuclear cascade, preequilibrium, and equilibrium nuclear reaction models and their combinations were used. The optimum calculation models have been chosen on the basis of statistical correlations for calculated and experimental proton data taken from the EXFOR library of experimental nuclear data. All the data are written in ENDF-6 format. The library is called HEPAD-2008 (High-Energy Proton Activation Data). A revision of IEAF-2005 neutron activation data library has been performed. A set of nuclides for which the cross-section data can be (and were) updated using more modern and improved models is specified, and the corresponding calculations have been made in the present work. The new version of the library is called IEAF-2009. The HEPAD-2008 and IEAF-2009 are merged to the final HEAD-2009 library.

Mashnik, Stepan G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Korovin, Yury A [NON LANL; Natalenko, Anatoly A [NON LANL; Konobeyev, Alexander Yu [NON LANL; Stankovskiy, A Yu [NON LANL

2010-01-01

205

Multiple mechanisms in the thermally activated plastic flow of tantalum  

SciTech Connect

We argue that many of the features of the plastic flow behavior of tantalum can be described by a model that incorporates a two-component Peierls-type mechanism and an fcc-like obstacle mechanism in series. We compare the results of calculations based on such a model with flow data for unalloyed tantalum over a wide range of strain rates and a modest range of temperatures.

Gourdin, W.H.; Lassila, D.H.

1995-06-27

206

Energy and Man's Environment Activity Guide: An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities, Section One - Sources of Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication presents the activities pertaining to the first goal of this activity guide series. The activities in this publication focus primarily on the availability of resources, forms of energy, natural laws, and socioeconomic considerations. These materials are appropriate for middle school and junior high school students. These…

Jones, John, Ed.

207

A Variable Refrigerant Flow Heat Pump Computer Model in EnergyPlus  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides an overview of the variable refrigerant flow heat pump computer model included with the Department of Energy's EnergyPlusTM whole-building energy simulation software. The mathematical model for a variable refrigerant flow heat pump operating in cooling or heating mode, and a detailed model for the variable refrigerant flow direct-expansion (DX) cooling coil are described in detail.

Raustad, Richard A. [Florida Solar Energy Center

2013-01-01

208

Brain activity during the flow experience: a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.  

PubMed

Flow is the holistic experience felt when an individual acts with total involvement. Although flow is likely associated with many functions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), such as attention, emotion, and reward processing, no study has directly investigated the activity of the PFC during flow. The objective of this study was to examine activity in the PFC during the flow state using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Twenty right-handed university students performed a video game task under conditions designed to induce psychological states of flow and boredom. During each task and when completing the flow state scale for occupational tasks, change in oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) concentration in frontal brain regions was measured using fNIRS. During the flow condition, oxy-Hb concentration was significantly increased in the right and left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. Oxy-Hb concentration tended to decrease in the boredom condition. There was a significant increase in oxy-Hb concentration in the right and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right and left frontal pole areas, and left ventrolateral PFC when participants were completing the flow state scale after performing the task in the flow condition. In conclusion, flow is associated with activity of the PFC, and may therefore be associated with functions such as cognition, emotion, maintenance of internal goals, and reward processing. PMID:24836375

Yoshida, Kazuki; Sawamura, Daisuke; Inagaki, Yuji; Ogawa, Keita; Ikoma, Katsunori; Sakai, Shinya

2014-06-24

209

Blood flow in guinea fowl Numida meleagris as an indicator of energy expenditure by individual muscles during walking and running  

PubMed Central

Running and walking are mechanically complex activities. Leg muscles must exert forces to support weight and provide stability, do work to accelerate the limbs and body centre of mass, and absorb work to act as brakes. Current understanding of energy use during legged locomotion has been limited by the lack of measurements of energy use by individual muscles. Our study is based on the correlation between blood flow and aerobic energy expenditure in active skeletal muscle during locomotion. This correlation is strongly supported by the available evidence concerning control of blood flow to active muscle, and the relationship between blood flow and the rate of muscle oxygen consumption. We used injectable microspheres to measure the blood flow to the hind-limb muscles, and other body tissues, in guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) at rest, and across a range of walking and running speeds. Combined with data concerning the various mechanical functions of the leg muscles, this approach has enabled the first direct estimates of the energetic costs of some of these functions. Cardiac output increased from 350 ml min?1 at rest, to 1700 ml min?1 at a running speed (? 2.6 m s?1) eliciting a of 90% of . The increase in cardiac output was achieved via approximately equal factorial increases in heart rate and stroke volume. Approximately 90% of the increased cardiac output was directed to the active muscles of the hind limbs, without redistribution of blood flow from the viscera. Values of mass-specific blood flow to the ventricles, ? 15 ml min?1 g?1, and one of the hind-limb muscles, ? 9 ml min?1 g?1, were the highest yet recorded for blood flow to active muscle. The patterns of increasing blood flow with increasing speed varied greatly among different muscles. The increases in flow correlated with the likely fibre type distribution of the muscles. Muscles expected to have many high-oxidative fibres preferentially increased flow at low exercise intensities. We estimated substantial energetic costs associated with swinging the limbs, co-contraction to stabilize the knee and work production by the hind-limb muscles. Our data provide a basis for evaluating hypotheses relating the mechanics and energetics of legged locomotion. PMID:15731191

Ellerby, David J; Henry, Havalee T; Carr, Jennifer A; Buchanan, Cindy I; Marsh, Richard L

2005-01-01

210

Active control of asymmetric vortical flows around cones using injection and heating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effectiveness of certain active-control methods for asymmetric flows around circular cones is investigated by using computational solution of the unsteady, compressible full Navier-Stokes equations. Two main methods of active control which include flow injection and surface heating are used. For the flow-injection-control method, flow injection is used either in the normal direction to the surface or in the tangential direction to the surface. For the surface-heating-control method, the temperature of the cone surface is increased. The effectiveness of a hybrid method of flow control which combines normal injection with surface heating has also been studied. The Navier-Stokes equations, subjected to various surface boundary conditions, are solved by using an implicit, upwind, flux-difference splitting, finite-volume scheme for locally-conical flow solutions.

Kandil, Osama A.; Sharaf, Hazem H.; Liu, C. H.

1992-01-01

211

Debris flow activity related to recent climate conditions in the French Alps: A regional investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary objective of this study was to document the relationships between current climatic conditions and debris flow activity in the French Alps based on a large historical database of debris flow events covering 35 years up to the present. The French Alps are composed of two contrasting geographic areas so two debris flow regions with different activity patterns were defined. For the period 1970-2005, the database contains 565 debris flow events in 87 catchments in the northern part of the French Alps, and in 150 catchments in the southern part. Possible links between debris flow and climate were investigated using two different approaches. The first approach was determining the rainfall thresholds responsible for triggering debris flow events by analysing the links between the intensity and the duration of rainfall events. The second approach used a probabilistic logit model to explore the links between the triggering of debris flow events and temperature and precipitation during the active debris flow period to identify inter-annual variability. Reanalysis data were used to document climate conditions in the two study areas. According to the results, in 80% of all debris flow events, precipitation was recorded during the three days preceding the event. However, in most cases, the quantity of precipitation associated with triggering of the debris flow was very low. Total precipitation exceeded 10 mm in only 30% of all cases. We attribute this to the convective nature of summer precipitation, which is quite difficult to model. Probabilistic analysis of the debris flow inventory in the two regions revealed that different parameters were responsible for changes in annual debris-flow activity. In the northern part of the French Alps, the number of rainy days and the maximum daily temperature affected debris flow, while in the southern part the only significant factor was mean daily temperature during the period of debris flow activity (May-October). Model scores had an accuracy of 75% and 70% in the northern and southern Alps, respectively. Our observations revealed that the increase in the above parameters has influenced changes in debris flow activity in both regions, where the number of debris flow events has doubled over the last 35 years.

Pavlova, Irina; Jomelli, Vincent; Brunstein, Daniel; Grancher, Delphine; Martin, Eric; Déqué, Michel

2014-08-01

212

MAGNETIC ENERGY SPECTRA IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS  

SciTech Connect

Line-of-sight magnetograms for 217 active regions (ARs) with different flare rates observed at the solar disk center from 1997 January until 2006 December are utilized to study the turbulence regime and its relationship to flare productivity. Data from the SOHO/MDI instrument recorded in the high-resolution mode and data from the BBSO magnetograph were used. The turbulence regime was probed via magnetic energy spectra and magnetic dissipation spectra. We found steeper energy spectra for ARs with higher flare productivity. We also report that both the power index, {alpha}, of the energy spectrum, E(k) {approx} k{sup -}{alpha}, and the total spectral energy, W = {integral}E(k)dk, are comparably correlated with the flare index, A, of an AR. The correlations are found to be stronger than those found between the flare index and the total unsigned flux. The flare index for an AR can be estimated based on measurements of {alpha} and W as A = 10{sup b}({alpha}W){sup c}, with b = -7.92 {+-} 0.58 and c = 1.85 {+-} 0.13. We found that the regime of the fully developed turbulence occurs in decaying ARs and in emerging ARs (at the very early stage of emergence). Well-developed ARs display underdeveloped turbulence with strong magnetic dissipation at all scales.

Abramenko, Valentyna; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl [Big Bear Solar Observatory, 40386 N. Shore Lane, Big Bear City, CA 92314 (United States)

2010-09-01

213

URANS Simulations of Active Flow Control on Highly Loaded Turbomachinery Blades  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Active flow control is applied on highly loaded turbomachinery blades in order to delay separation, diminish secondary flow\\u000a effects, and thus increase their efficiency. The impact is investigated separately in the context of two key configurations,\\u000a i.e. a compressor cascade and an axial fan. Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations are performed to determine\\u000a beneficial flow control parameters. The results are backed

Christoph Gmelin; Mathias Steger; Erik Wassen; Frank Thiele; André Huppertz; Marius Swoboda

214

Meridional flow velocities on solar-like stars with known activity cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The direct measurements of the meridional flow velocities on stars are impossible today. To evaluate the meridional flow velocities on solar-like stars with stable activity periods, we supposed that during the stellar Hale cycle the matter on surfaces of stars passes the meridional way equivalent to 2 ?R? . We present here the dependence of the mean meridional flow velocity on Rossby number, which is an effective parameter of the stellar magnetic dynamo.

Baklanova, Dilyara; Plachinda, Sergei

2015-02-01

215

Smart power flow control in DC distribution systems involving sustainable energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a detailed description of a proposed technique for power flow control in DC distribution systems has been presented. The DC system under study is assumed mainly dependent on renewable energy sources. The proposed topology utilizes a controlled series current compensator (CSCC) technique for connection and power flow control among buses. The proposed topology allows full power flow

A. Mohamed; O. Mohammed

2010-01-01

216

Charge-pumping in a synthetic leaf for harvesting energy from evaporation-driven flows  

E-print Network

Charge-pumping in a synthetic leaf for harvesting energy from evaporation-driven flows Ruba T power from evaporative flow. Evaporation at the surface of the device produces flows with velocities up evaporates from leaves at thousands of microscale pores.1,2 These pores prevent the water meniscus from reced

Maharbiz, Michel

217

Tail reconnection region versus auroral activity inferred from conjugate ARTEMIS plasma sheet flow and auroral observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

sheet flow bursts have been suggested to correspond to different types of auroral activity, such as poleward boundary intensifications (PBIs), ensuing auroral streamers, and substorms. The flow-aurora association leads to the important question of identifying the magnetotail source region for the flow bursts and how this region depends on magnetic activity. The present study uses the ARTEMIS spacecraft coordinated with conjugate ground-based auroral imager observations to identify flow bursts beyond 45 RE downtail and corresponding auroral forms. We find that quiet-time flows are directed dominantly earthward with a one-to-one correspondence with PBIs. Flow bursts during the substorm recovery phase and during steady magnetospheric convection (SMC) periods are also directed earthward, and these flows are associated with a series of PBIs/streamers lasting for tens of minutes with similar durations to that of the series of earthward flows. Presubstorm onset flows are also earthward and associated with PBIs/streamers. The earthward flows during those magnetic conditions suggest that the flow bursts, which lead to PBIs and streamers, originate from further downtail of ARTEMIS, possibly from the distant-tail neutral line (DNL) or tailward-retreated near-Earth neutral line (NENL) rather than from the nominal NENL location in the midtail. We find that tailward flows are limited primarily to the substorm expansion phase. They continue throughout the period of auroral poleward expansion, indicating that the expansion-phase flows originate from the NENL and that NENL activity is closely related to the auroral expansion of the substorm expansion phase.

Nishimura, Y.; Lyons, L. R.; Xing, X.; Angelopoulos, V.; Donovan, E. F.; Mende, S. B.; Bonnell, J. W.; Auster, U.

2013-09-01

218

Active flow management in preparative chromatographic separations: a preliminary investigation into enhanced separation using a curtain flow inlet fitting and segmented flow outlet fitting.  

PubMed

Active flow management in the form of curtain flow sample introduction and segmented outlet flow control has been shown to enable sample to elute through a chromatography column under the principles of the "infinite diameter column". Such an elution process avoids the detrimental effects of the heterogeneity of particle-packed chromatographic columns by injecting the sample directly into the radial core region of the column, thus avoiding wall effects. The process described herein illustrates how the principles of the infinite diameter column can be applied using conventional injection devices suitable for long-term analysis that requires robust protocols. Using this approach, sensitivity in separation was 2.5 times greater than conventional chromatography, yielding a product at twice the concentration. Benefits of curtain flow injection are thus relevant to both preparative-scale and analytical-scale separations. PMID:22228597

Camenzuli, Michelle; Ritchie, Harald J; Ladine, James R; Shalliker, R Andrew

2012-02-01

219

Can Transcranial Ultrasonication Increase Recanalization Flow With Tissue Plasminogen Activator?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—In thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke, it is essential to obtain rapid thrombolysis before ischemic neuronal injury occurs. To develop a new technique of thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke, the effect of transcranially applied ultrasound (TUS) on thrombolysis was examined. Methods—An occlusion model of rabbit femoral artery was produced with thrombin after establishment of stenotic flow and

Toshihiro Ishibashi; Masahiko Akiyama; Hisashi Onoue; Toshiaki Abe; Hiroshi Furuhata

220

Bitmap Algorithms for Counting Active Flows on High Speed Links  

E-print Network

are well understood, what are the corresponding functions that should be hardwired in the brave new world several Mbytes because the number of flows can be above a million. By contrast, our new probabilistic component of the popular intrusion detection sys- tem Snort with one of our new algorithms. This reduced

Zhou, Yuanyuan

221

Active Flow Control on an Aggressive Serpentine Duct Inlet  

Microsoft Academic Search

For military applications, inlet designs are constrained by low observability requirements, which call for the use of a serpentine inlet. The inlets purpose is to limit the line-of-sight to the compressor and decelerate the incoming flow while minimizing total pressure loss, distortion, and unsteadiness. In addition, in unmanned aerial vehicles, the inlet length can determine the overall size of the

John Vaccaro; Michael Amitay

2008-01-01

222

Misperception of rigidity from actively generated optic flow.  

PubMed

It is conventionally assumed that the goal of the visual system is to derive a perceptual representation that is a veridical reconstruction of the external world: a reconstruction that leads to optimal accuracy and precision of metric estimates, given sensory information. For example, 3-D structure is thought to be veridically recovered from optic flow signals in combination with egocentric motion information and assumptions of the stationarity and rigidity of the external world. This theory predicts veridical perceptual judgments under conditions that mimic natural viewing, while ascribing nonoptimality under laboratory conditions to unreliable or insufficient sensory information--for example, the lack of natural and measurable observer motion. In two experiments, we contrasted this optimal theory with a heuristic theory that predicts the derivation of perceived 3-D structure based on the velocity gradients of the retinal flow field without the use of egomotion signals or a rigidity prior. Observers viewed optic flow patterns generated by their own motions relative to two surfaces and later viewed the same patterns while stationary. When the surfaces were part of a rigid structure, static observers systematically perceived a nonrigid structure, consistent with the predictions of both an optimal and a heuristic model. Contrary to the optimal model, moving observers also perceived nonrigid structures in situations where retinal and extraretinal signals, combined with a rigidity assumption, should have yielded a veridical rigid estimate. The perceptual biases were, however, consistent with a heuristic model which is only based on an analysis of the optic flow. PMID:24610953

Fantoni, Carlo; Caudek, Corrado; Domini, Fulvio

2014-01-01

223

Energy-Saving Design for Pressure Difference Control in Variable Flow Air Conditioning Systems  

E-print Network

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Co ntrol Systems for Energy Efficiency and Comfort, Vol. V-4-2 Energy-Saving Design for Pressure Difference Control in Variable Flow Air Conditioning Systems Yanhua Chen Zaipeng...

Chen, Y.; Zhang, Z.

2006-01-01

224

Two-photon microscopy to measure blood flow and concurrent brain cell activity  

E-print Network

: Blood flow in the brain Corresponding author: Dr. David Kleinfeld Department of Physics University to measure blood flow and concurrent brain cell activity Andy Y. Shih1 , Jonathan D. Driscoll1 , Michael J. Pesavento1 and David Kleinfeld1,2 1 Department of Physics, Division of Physical Sciences, University

Kleinfeld, David

225

Numerical study of passive and active flow separation control over a NACA0012 airfoil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is focused on numerical investigation of subsonic flow separation over a NACA0012 airfoil with a 6° angle of attack and flow separation control with vortex generators. The numerical simulations of three cases including an uncontrolled baseline case, a controlled case with passive vortex generator, and a controlled case with active vortex generator were carried out. The numerical simulation

Hua Shan; Li Jiang; Chaoqun Liu; Michael Love; Brant Maines

2008-01-01

226

Efficient Ionization Investigation for Flow Control and Energy Extraction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nonequilibrium ionization of air by nonthermal means is explored for hypersonic vehicle applications. The method selected for evaluation generates a weakly ionized plasma using pulsed nanosecond, high-voltage discharges sustained by a lower dc voltage. These discharges promise to provide a means of energizing and sustaining electrons in the air while maintaining a nearly constant ion/neutral molecule temperature. This paper explores the use of short approx.5 nsec, high-voltage approx.12 to 22 kV, repetitive (40 to 100 kHz) discharges in generating a weakly ionized gas sustained by a 1 kV dc voltage in dry air at pressures from 10 to 80 torr. Demonstrated lifetimes of the sustainer discharge current approx.10 to 25 msec are over three orders of magnitude longer than the 5 nsec pulse that generates the electrons. This life is adequate for many high speed flows, enabling the possibility of exploiting weakly ionized plasma phenomena in flow-fields such as those in hypersonic inlets, combustors, and nozzles. Results to date are obtained in a volume of plasma between electrodes in a bell jar. The buildup and decay of the visible emission from the pulser excited air is photographed on an ICCD camera with nanosecond resolution and the time constants for visible emission decay are observed to be between 10 to 15 nsec decreasing as pressure increases. The application of the sustainer voltage does not change the visible emission decay time constant. Energy consumption as indicated by power output from the power supplies is 194 to 669 W depending on pulse repetition rate.

Schneider, Steven J.; Kamhawi, Hani; Blankson, Isaiah M.

2009-01-01

227

Energy and Development: Activities in Sub-Saharan Africa  

E-print Network

Energy and Development: Activities in Sub-Saharan Africa Gordon Mackenzie Energy Programme Coordinator UNEP Risø Centre #12;Energy and Development: Activities in Sub-Saharan Africa · AREED · EU E+Co Africa E+Co NJ UNEP Paris UCCEE Risoe UN Foundation Others Demonstrating that needed energy

228

Development of a CouetteTaylor flow device with active minimization of secondary circulation  

E-print Network

Development of a Couette­Taylor flow device with active minimization of secondary circulation E. Centrifugal hydrodynamic instability is ruled out by the positive radial gradient of angular momentum.1

Ji, Hantao

229

An Active Region Model for Capturing Fractal Flow Patterns inUnsaturated Soils: Model Development  

SciTech Connect

Preferential flow commonly observed in unsaturated soils allows rapid movement of solute from the soil surface or vadose zone to the groundwater, bypassing a significant volume of unsaturated soil and increasing the risk of groundwater contamination. A variety of evidence indicates that complex preferential patterns observed from fields are fractals. In this study, we developed a relatively simple active region model to incorporate the fractal flow pattern into the continuum approach. In the model, the flow domain is divided into active and inactive regions. Flow occurs preferentially in the active region (characterized by fractals), and inactive region is simply bypassed. A new constitutive relationship (the portion of the active region as a function of saturation) was derived. The validity of the proposed model is demonstrated by the consistency between field observations and the new constitutive relationship.

Liu, Hui-Hai; Zhang, R.; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

2005-06-11

230

Numerical study of active control of mixing in electro-osmotic flows by temperature difference using lattice Boltzmann methods.  

PubMed

In this paper, the effect of temperature difference between inlet flow and walls on the electro-osmotic flow through a two-dimensional microchannel is investigated. The main objective is to study the effect of temperature variations on the distribution of ions and consequently internal electric potential field, electric body force, and velocity fields in an electro-osmotic flow. We assume constant temperature and zeta potential on walls and use the mean temperature of each cross section to characterize the Boltzmann ion distribution across the channel. Based on these assumptions, the multiphysical transports are still able to be described by the classical Poisson-Boltzmann model. In this work, the Navier-Stokes equation for fluid flow, the Poisson-Boltzmann equation for ion distribution, and the energy equation for heat transfer are solved by a couple lattice Boltzmann method. The modeling results indicate that the temperature difference between walls and the inlet solution may lead to two symmetrical vortices at the entrance region of the microchannel which is appropriate for mixing enhancements. The advantage of this phenomenon for active control of mixing in electro-osmotic flow is the manageability of the vortex scale without extra efforts. For instance, the effective domain of this pattern could broaden by the following modulations: decreasing the external electric potential field, decreasing the electric double layer thickness, or increasing the temperature difference between inlet flow and walls. This work may provide a novel strategy for design or optimization of microsystems. PMID:23859813

Alizadeh, A; Wang, J K; Pooyan, S; Mirbozorgi, S A; Wang, M

2013-10-01

231

Noninvasive High-Throughput Single-Cell Analysis of HIV Protease Activity Using Ratiometric Flow Cytometry  

PubMed Central

To effectively fight against the human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic, ongoing development of novel HIV protease inhibitors is required. Inexpensive high-throughput screening assays are needed to quickly scan large sets of chemicals for potential inhibitors. We have developed a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based, HIV protease-sensitive sensor using a combination of a fluorescent protein pair, namely mCerulean and mCitrine. Through extensive in vitro characterization, we show that the FRET-HIV sensor can be used in HIV protease screening assays. Furthermore, we have used the FRET-HIV sensor for intracellular quantitative detection of HIV protease activity in living cells, which more closely resembles an actual viral infection than an in vitro assay. We have developed a high-throughput method that employs a ratiometric flow cytometry for analyzing large populations of cells that express the FRET-HIV sensor. The method enables FRET measurement of single cells with high sensitivity and speed and should be used when subpopulation-specific intracellular activity of HIV protease needs to be estimated. In addition, we have used a confocal microscopy sensitized emission FRET technique to evaluate the usefulness of the FRET-HIV sensor for spatiotemporal detection of intracellular HIV protease activity. PMID:24287545

Gaber, Rok; Majerle, Andreja; Jerala, Roman; Ben?ina, Mojca

2013-01-01

232

Numerical model for the flow within the tower of a tornado-type wind energy system  

SciTech Connect

A two-equation turbulence model is used to predict numerically the flow within the tower of a tornado-type wind energy system. Calculations are carried out for a tower in a uniform flow. Both cases of closed-bottom tower and simulated turbine flow with a variety of turbine-to-tower diameter ratios and turbine flow rates are considered. Calculated values of pressure for closed-bottom tower are compared with experimental values. 11 refs.

Ayad, S.S.

1981-11-01

233

The Limit of Free Magnetic Energy in Active Regions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By measuring from active-region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region fs magnetic field, it has been found previously that (1) there is an abrupt upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region fs magnetic flux content, and (2) the free energy is usually near its limit when the field explodes in a CME/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main-sequence path bordering the free-energy ]limit line in (flux content, free-energy proxy) phase space. Here, from measurement of Marshall Space Flight Center vector magnetograms, we find the magnetic condition that underlies the free ]energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free ]energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find that (1) in active regions at and near their free ]energy limit, the ratio of magnetic-shear free energy to the non ]free magnetic energy the potential field would have is approximately 1 in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free ]energy limit. This shows that most active regions in which this core-field energy ratio is much less than 1 cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches 1, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is 1 or greater, most active regions are compelled to explode. From these results we surmise the magnetic condition that determines the free ]energy limit is the ratio of the free magnetic energy to the non-free energy the active region fs field would have were it completely relaxed to its potential ]field configuration, and that this ratio is approximately 1 at the free-energy limit and in the main sequence of explosive active regions.

Moore, Ron; Falconer, David; Sterling, Alphonse

2012-01-01

234

Computational Science Technical Note CSTN-050 Energy Flow and Conservation in an Artificial Life Agent Model  

E-print Network

0 Computational Science Technical Note CSTN-050 Energy Flow and Conservation in an Artificial Life Flow and Conservation in an Artificial Life Agent Model C.J. Scogings and K.A. Hawick Computer Science-based artificial life models are commonly constructed without a strict energy conservation rule. We report

Hawick, Ken

235

Measurements of energy flows through commercial roof\\/ceiling insulation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial buildings encompass a diversity of roof\\/ceiling construction and insulation systems. Several factors make the energy flows through these systems complicated and difficult to predict, such as three-dimensional energy flows due to the extensive use of steel materials (trusses and deck), the existence of the plenum air space, the opportunity for convection, and the significant possibility of gaps in the

Broderick

1986-01-01

236

Using Springs to Study Groundwater Flow and Active Geologic Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spring water provides a unique opportunity to study a range of subsurface processes in regions with few boreholes or wells. However, because springs integrate the signal of geological and hydrological processes over large spatial areas and long periods of time, they are an indirect source of information. This review illustrates a variety of techniques and approaches that are used to interpret measurements of isotopic tracers, water chemistry, discharge, and temperature. As an example, a set of springs in the Oregon Cascades is considered. By using tracers, temperature, and discharge measurements, it is possible to determine the mean-residence time of water, infer the spatial pattern and extent of groundwater flow, estimate basin-scale hydraulic properties, calculate the regional heat flow, and quantify the rate of magmatic intrusion beneath the volcanic arc.

Manga, Michael

237

Shear flow induced isotropic to nematic transition in a suspension of active filaments  

E-print Network

We study the effects of externally applied shear flow on a model of suspensions of motors and filaments, via the equations of active hydrodynamics [PRL {\\bf 89} (2002) 058101; {\\bf 92} (2004) 118101]. In the absence of shear, the orientationally ordered phase of {\\it both} polar and apolar active particles is always unstable at zero-wavenumber. An imposed steady shear large enough to overcome the active stresses stabilises both apolar and moving polar phases. Our work is relevant to {\\it in vitro} studies of active filaments, the reorientation of endothelial cells subject to shear flow and shear-induced motility of attached cells.

Sudipto Muhuri; Madan Rao; Sriram Ramaswamy

2006-10-01

238

Distributed Energy Communications & Controls, Lab Activities - Summary  

SciTech Connect

The purpose is to develop controls for inverter-based renewable and non-renewable distributed energy systems to provide local voltage, power and power quality support for loads and the power grid. The objectives are to (1) develop adaptive controls for inverter-based distributed energy (DE) systems when there are multiple inverters on the same feeder and (2) determine the impact of high penetration high seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) air conditioning (A/C) units on power systems during sub-transmission faults which can result in an A/C compressor motor stall and assess how inverter-based DE can help to mitigate the stall event. The Distributed Energy Communications & Controls Laboratory (DECC) is a unique facility for studying dynamic voltage, active power (P), non-active power (Q) and power factor control from inverter-based renewable distributed energy (DE) resources. Conventionally, inverter-based DE systems have been designed to provide constant, close to unity power factor and thus not provide any voltage support. The DECC Lab interfaces with the ORNL campus distribution system to provide actual power system testing of the controls approach. Using mathematical software tools and the DECC Lab environment, we are developing and testing local, autonomous and adaptive controls for local voltage control and P & Q control for inverter-based DE. We successfully tested our active and non-active power (P,Q) controls at the DECC laboratory along with voltage regulation controls. The new PQ control along with current limiter controls has been tested on our existing inverter test system. We have tested both non-adaptive and adaptive control modes for the PQ control. We have completed several technical papers on the approaches and results. Electric power distribution systems are experiencing outages due to a phenomenon known as fault induced delayed voltage recovery (FIDVR) due to air conditioning (A/C) compressor motor stall. Local voltage collapse from FIDVR is occurring in part because modern air-conditioner and heat pump compressor motors are much more susceptible to stalling during a voltage sag or dip than older motors. These motors can stall in less than three cycles (0.05 s) when a fault, for example, on the sub-transmission system, causes voltage on the distribution system to sag to 70% or less of nominal. We completed a new test system for A/C compressor motor stall testing at the DECC Lab. The A/C Stall test system is being used to characterize when and how compressor motors stall under low voltage and high compressor pressure conditions. However, instead of using air conditioners, we are using high efficiency heat pumps. We have gathered A/C stall characterization data for both sustained and momentary voltage sags of the test heat pump. At low enough voltage, the heat pump stalls (compressor motor stops and draws 5-6 times normal current in trying to restart) due to low inertia and low torque of the motor. For the momentary sag, we are using a fast acting contactor/switch to quickly switch from nominal to the sagged voltage in cycles.

Rizy, D Tom [ORNL

2010-01-01

239

Design Flexibility of Redox Flow Systems. [for energy storage applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The characteristics inherent in Redox flow systems permit considerable latitude in designing systems for specific storage applications. The first of these characteristics is the absence of plating/deplating reactions with their attendant morphology changes at the electrodes. This permits a given Redox system to operate over a wide range of depths of discharge and charge/discharge rates. The second characteristic is the separation of power generating components (stacks) from the energy storage components (tanks). This results in cost effective system design, ease of system growth via modularization, and freedom from sizing restraints so that the whole spectrum of applications, from utilities down to single residence can be considered. The final characteristic is the commonality of the reactant fluids which assures that all cells at all times are receiving reactants at the same state of charge. Since no cell can be out of balance with respect to any other cell, it is possible for some cells to be charged while others are discharging, in effect creating a DC to DC transformer. It is also possible for various groups of cells to be connected to separate loads, thus supplying a range of output voltages. Also, trim cells can be used to maintain constant bus voltage as the load is changed or as the depth of discharge increases. The commonality of reactant fluids also permits any corrective measures such as rebalancing to occur at the system level instead of at the single cell level.

Hagedorn, N. H.; Thaller, L. H.

1982-01-01

240

Numerical Modeling of Active Flow Control in a Boundary Layer Ingesting Offset Inlet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This investigation evaluates the numerical prediction of flow distortion and pressure recovery for a boundary layer ingesting offset inlet with active flow control devices. The numerical simulations are computed using a Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes code developed at NASA. The numerical results are validated by comparison to experimental wind tunnel tests conducted at NASA Langley Research Center at both low and high Mach numbers. Baseline comparisons showed good agreement between numerical and experimental results. Numerical simulations for the inlet with passive and active flow control also showed good agreement at low Mach numbers where experimental data has already been acquired. Numerical simulations of the inlet at high Mach numbers with flow control jets showed an improvement of the flow distortion. Studies on the location of the jet actuators, for the high Mach number case, were conducted to provide guidance for the design of a future experimental wind tunnel test.

Allan, Brian G.; Owens, Lewis R.; Berrier, Bobby L.

2004-01-01

241

How Large Scale Flows in the Solar Convection Zone may Influence Solar Activity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large scale flows within the solar convection zone are the primary drivers of the Sun s magnetic activity cycle. Differential rotation can amplify the magnetic field and convert poloidal fields into toroidal fields. Poleward meridional flow near the surface can carry magnetic flux that reverses the magnetic poles and can convert toroidal fields into poloidal fields. The deeper, equatorward meridional flow can carry magnetic flux toward the equator where it can reconnect with oppositely directed fields in the other hemisphere. These axisymmetric flows are themselves driven by large scale convective motions. The effects of the Sun s rotation on convection produce velocity correlations that can maintain the differential rotation and meridional circulation. These convective motions can influence solar activity themselves by shaping the large-scale magnetic field pattern. While considerable theoretical advances have been made toward understanding these large scale flows, outstanding problems in matching theory to observations still remain.

Hathaway, D. H.

2004-01-01

242

A Practical Flow Control Scheme Considering Optimal Energy Allocation in Solar-Powered WSNs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using solar power in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) requires a different approach to energy consumption from networks with battery-based nodes. Since solar energy can be harvested periodically, our aim is to use this harvested energy efficiently for specific network-wide performance goals, not just to minimize the energy consumption to sustain the network lifetime. Therefore, we propose a flow control algorithm

Dong Kun Noh; Kyungtae Kang

2009-01-01

243

Analytical Model of Water Flow in Coal with Active Matrix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents new analytical model of gas-water flow in coal seams in one dimension with emphasis on interactions between water flowing in cleats and coal matrix. Coal as a flowing system, can be viewed as a solid organic material consisting of two flow subsystems: a microporous matrix and a system of interconnected macropores and fractures. Most of gas is accumulated in the microporous matrix, where the primary flow mechanism is diffusion. Fractures and cleats existing in coal play an important role as a transportation system for macro scale flow of water and gas governed by Darcy's law. The coal matrix can imbibe water under capillary forces leading to exchange of mass between fractures and coal matrix. In this paper new partial differential equation for water saturation in fractures has been formulated, respecting mass exchange between coal matrix and fractures. Exact analytical solution has been obtained using the method of characteristics. The final solution has very simple form that may be useful for practical engineering calculations. It was observed that the rate of exchange of mass between the fractures and the coal matrix is governed by an expression which is analogous to the Newton cooling law known from theory of heat exchange, but in present case the mass transfer coefficient depends not only on coal and fluid properties but also on time and position. The constant term of mass transfer coefficient depends on relation between micro porosity and macro porosity of coal, capillary forces, and microporous structure of coal matrix. This term can be expressed theoretically or obtained experimentally. W artykule zaprezentowano nowy model matematyczny przep?ywu wody i gazu w jednowymiarowej warstwie w?glowej z uwzgl?dnieniem wymiany masy mi?dzy systemem szczelin i matryc? w?glow?. W?giel jako system przep?ywowy traktowany jest jako uk?ad o podwójnej porowato?ci i przepuszczalno?ci, sk?adaj?cy si? z mikroporowatej matrycy w?glowej oraz z systemu szczelin, sp?ka? i ewentualnie najwi?kszych porów. Przep?ywowi w systemie szczelin towarzyszy? mo?e wymiana masy z matryc?, której intensywno?? zale?y m.in. od w?a?ciwo?ci w?gla i warunków panuj?cych w uk?adzie przep?ywowym. W szczególno?ci matryca w?glowa mo?e poch?ania? wod? pod wp?ywem si? kapilarnych, co wp?ywa na przep?yw w szczelinach. W artykule zosta?o zaproponowane równanie ró?niczkowe cz?stkowe opisuj?ce nasycenie wod? w systemie szczelin z uwzgl?dnieniem wymiany masy z matryc? pod wp?ywem si? kapilarnych. Podano dok?adne rozwi?zanie analityczne, które mo?e by? zastosowane w praktyce in?ynierskiej. Zauwa?ono, ?e szybko?? wymiany masy mi?dzy szczelinami i matryc? wyra?a si? formu?? analogiczn? do prawa stygni?cia Newtona, ale w analizowanym przypadku wspó?czynnik wymiany masy zale?y nie tylko od w?a?ciwo?ci w?gla i p?ynów ale równie? od po?o?enia i czasu. Sta?y cz?on tego wspó?czynnika mo?e by? obliczony teoretycznie lub wyznaczony eksperymentalnie

Siemek, Jakub; Stopa, Jerzy

2014-12-01

244

Characterizing soil preferential flow using iodine--starch staining experiments and the active region model  

SciTech Connect

Thirteen iodine-starch staining experiments with different boundary conditions and measurement scales were conducted at two sites to study preferential flow processes in natural unsaturated soils. Digital imaging analyses were implemented to obtain the corresponding preferential flow patterns. The test results are used to evaluate a recently proposed active region model in terms of its usefulness and robustness for characterizing unsaturated flow processes at field scale. Test results provide useful insights into flow patterns in unsaturated soils. They show that flow pattern depends on the top boundary condition. As the total infiltrating-water depth increased form 20 mm to 80 mm for the 100 x 100 cm{sup 2} plots, the corresponding flow pattern changed from few preferential flow paths associated with a relatively small degree of stained coverage and a small infiltration depth, to a pattern characterized by a higher stained coverage and a larger infiltration depth, and to (finally) a relatively homogeneous flow pattern with few unstained area and a much larger infiltration depth. Test results also show that the preferential flow pattern became generally more heterogeneous and complex for a larger measurement scale (or size of infiltration plot). These observations support the general idea behind the active region model that preferential flow pattern in unsaturated soils are dynamic and depend on water flow conditions. Further analyses of the test results indicate that the active-region model is able to capture the major features of the observed flow pattern at the scale of interest, and the determined parameter values do not significantly depend on the test conditions (initial water content and total amount of infiltrating water) for a given test site. This supports the validity of the active region model that considers that parameter to be a property of the corresponding unsaturated soil. Results also show that some intrinsic relation seems to exist between active-fracture-model parameter and a random-cascade-model parameter. (The latter model is also developed based on the existence of the fractal flow pattern in unsaturated soils.) Furthermore, our test results demonstrate that the active-region-model parameter is not scale-dependent for a range of scales under consideration. Although further studies are needed to confirm this finding, it seems to be consistent with a consideration that some fractal parameters (e.g., fractal dimension) are universal for a large range of scales.

Sheng, Feng; Wang, Kang; Zhang, Renduo; Liu, Hui-Hai

2009-03-01

245

Dielectric barrier plasma dynamics for active control of separated flows  

SciTech Connect

The dynamics of separation mitigation with asymmetric dielectric barrier discharges is explored by considering the gas flow past a flat plate at an angle of attack. A self-consistent model utilizing motion of electrons, ions, and neutrals is employed to couple the electric force field to the momentum of the fluid. The charge separation and concomitant electric field yield a time-averaged body force which is oriented predominantly downstream, with a smaller transverse component towards the wall. This induces a wall-jet-like feature that effectively eliminates the separation bubble. The impact of several geometric and electrical operating parameters is elucidated.

Roy, Subrata; Singh, K.P.; Gaitonde, Datta V. [Computational Plasma Dynamics Laboratory, Mechanical Engineering, Kettering University, Flint, Michigan 48504 (United States); Computational Sciences Branch, Air Vehicles Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States)

2006-03-20

246

Distribution of Bacterial Growth Activity in Flow-Chamber Biofilms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In microbial communities such as those found in biofilms, individual organisms most often display heter- ogeneous behavior with respect to their metabolic activity, growth status, gene expression pattern, etc. In that context, a novel reporter system for monitoring of cellular growth activity has been designed. It comprises a transposon cassette carrying fusions between the growth rate-regulated Escherichia coli rrnBP1 promoter

CLAUS STERNBERG; BJARKE B. CHRISTENSEN; TOVE JOHANSEN; ALEX TOFTGAARD NIELSEN; JENS BO ANDERSEN; MICHAEL GIVSKOV; SØREN MOLIN

1999-01-01

247

TEMPO-Based Catholyte for High-Energy Density Nonaqueous Redox Flow Batteries.  

PubMed

A TEMPO-based non-aqueous electrolyte with the TEMPO concentration as high as 2.0 m is demonstrated as a high-energy-density catholyte for redox flow battery applications. With a hybrid anode, Li|TEMPO flow cells using this electrolyte deliver an energy efficiency of ca. 70% and an impressively high energy density of 126 W h L(-1) . PMID:25327755

Wei, Xiaoliang; Xu, Wu; Vijayakumar, Murugesan; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Liu, Tianbiao; Sprenkle, Vincent; Wang, Wei

2014-12-01

248

Comparison of energy flows in deep inelastic scattering events with and without a large rapidity gap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy flows in deep inelastic electron-proton scattering are investigated at a centre-of-mass energy of 269 GeV for the range Q2 >= 10 GeV2 using the ZEUS detector. A comparison is made between events with and without a large rapidity gap between the hadronic system and the proton direction. The energy flows, corrected for detector acceptance and resolution, are shown for

M. Derrick; D. Krakauer; S. Magill; B. Musgrave; J. Repond; J. Schlereth; R. Stanek; R. L. Talaga; J. Thron; F. Arzarello; R. Ayad; G. Bari; M. Basile; L. Bellagamba; D. Boscherini; A. Bruni; G. Bruni; P. Bruni; G. Cara Romeo; G. Castellini; M. Chiarini; L. Cifarelli; F. Cindolo; F. Ciralli; A. Contin; S. D'Auria; C. del Papa; F. Frasconi; P. Giusti; G. Iacobucci; G. Laurenti; G. Levi; G. Maccarrone; A. Margotti; T. Massam; R. Nania; C. Nemoz; F. Palmonari; A. Polini; G. Sartorelli; R. Timellini; Y. Zamora Garcia; A. Zichichi; A. Bargende; J. Crittenden; K. Desch; B. Diekmann; T. Doeker; L. Feld; A. Frey; M. Geerts; G. Geitz; M. Grothe; H. Hartmann; D. Haun; K. Heinloth; E. Hilger; H.-P. Jakob; U. F. Katz; S. M. Mari; A. Mass; S. Mengel; J. Mollen; E. Paul; Ch. Rembser; R. Schattevoy; J.-L. Schneider; D. Schramm; J. Stamm; R. Wedemeyer; S. Campbell-Robson; A. Cassidy; N. Dyce; B. Foster; S. George; R. Gilmore; G. P. Heath; H. F. Heath; T. J. Llewellyn; C. J. S. Morgado; D. J. P. Norman; J. A. O'Mara; R. J. Tapper; S. S. Wilson; R. Yoshida; R. R. Rau; M. Arneodo; L. Iannotti; M. Schioppa; G. Susinno; A. Bernstein; A. Caldwell; I. Gialas; J. A. Parsons; S. Ritz; F. Sciulli; P. B. Straub; L. Wai; S. Yang; P. Borzemski; J. Chwastowski; A. Eskreys; K. Piotrzkowski; M. Zachara; L. Zawiejski; L. Adamczyk; B. Bednarek; K. Eskreys; K. Jelen; D. Kisielewska; T. Kowalski; E. Rulikowska-Zarebska; L. Suszycki; J. Zajc; T. Kedzierski; A. Kotanski; M. Przybycien; L. A. T. Bauerdick; U. Behrens; J. K. Bienlein; S. Böttcher; C. Coldewey; G. Drews; M. Flasinski; D. J. Gilkinson; P. Göttlicher; B. Gutjahr; T. Haas; L. Hagge; W. Hain; D. Hasell; H. Heßling; H. Hultschig; Y. Iga; P. Joos; M. Kasemann; R. Klanner; W. Koch; L. Köpke; U. Kötz; H. Kowalski; W. Kröger; J. Krüger; J. Labs; A. Ladage; B. Löhr; M. Löwe; D. Lüke; J. Mainusch; O. Manczak; J. S. T. Ng; S. Nickel; D. Notz; K. Ohrenberg; M. Roco; M. Rohde; J. Roldán; U. Schneekloth; J. Schroeder; W. Schulz; F. Selonke; E. Stiliaris; T. Voß; D. Westphal; G. Wolf; C. Youngman; H. J. Grabosch; A. Leich; A. Meyer; C. Rethfeldt; S. Schlenstedt; G. Barbagli; P. Pelfer; G. Anzivino; S. de Pasquale; S. Qian; L. Votano; A. Bamberger; A. Freidhof; T. Poser; S. Söldner-Rembold; G. Theisen; T. Trefzger; N. H. Brook; P. J. Bussey; A. T. Doyle; I. Fleck; J. R. Forbes; V. A. Jamieson; C. Raine; D. H. Saxon; M. Stavrianakou; A. S. Wilson; A. Dannemann; U. Holm; D. Horstmann; H. Kammerlocher; B. Krebs; T. Neumann; R. Sinkus; K. Wick; E. Badura; B. D. Burow; A. Fürtjes; E. Lohrmann; J. Milewski; M. Nakahata; N. Pavel; G. Poelz; W. Schott; J. Terron; F. Zetsche; T. C. Bacon; R. Beuselinck; I. Butterworth; E. Gallo; V. L. Harris; B. H. Hung; K. R. Long; D. B. Miller; P. P. O. Morawitz; A. Prinias; J. K. Sedgbeer; A. F. Whitfield; U. Mallik; E. McCliment; M. Z. Wang; Y. Zhang; P. Cloth; D. Filges; S. H. An; S. M. Hong; C. O. Kim; T. Y. Kim; S. W. Nam; S. K. Park; M. H. Suh; S. H. Yon; R. Imlay; S. Kartik; H.-J. Kim; R. R. McNeil; W. Metcalf; V. K. Nadendla; F. Barreiro; G. Cases; R. Graciani; J. M. Hernández; L. Hervás; L. Labarga; J. del Peso; J. Puga; J. F. de Trocóniz; F. Ikraiam; J. K. Mayer; G. R. Smith; F. Corriveau; D. S. Hanna; J. Hartmann; L. W. Hung; J. N. Lim; C. G. Matthews; J. W. Mitchell; P. M. Patel; L. E. Sinclair; D. G. Stairs; M. St. Laurent; R. Ullmann; V. Bashkirov; B. A. Dolgoshein; A. Stifutkin; G. L. Bashindzhagyan; P. F. Ermolov; L. K. Gladilin; Y. A. Golubkov; V. D. Kobrin; V. A. Kuzmin; A. S. Proskuryakov; A. A. Savin; L. M. Shcheglova; A. N. Solomin; N. P. Zotov; S. Bentvelsen; M. Botje; F. Chlebana; A. Dake; J. Engelen; P. de Jong; M. de Kamps; P. Kooijman; A. Kruse; V. O'dell; A. Tenner; H. Tiecke; W. Verkerke; M. Vreeswijk; L. Wiggers; E. de Wolf; R. van Woudenberg; D. Acosta; B. Bylsma; L. S. Durkin; K. Honscheid; C. Li; T. Y. Ling; K. W. McLean; W. N. Murray; I. H. Park; T. A. Romanowski; R. Seidlein; D. S. Bailey; G. A. Blair; A. Byrne; R. J. Cashmore; A. M. Cooper-Sarkar; D. Daniels; R. C. E. Devenish; N. Harnew; M. Lancaster; P. E. Luffman; J. McFall; C. Nath; A. Quadt; H. Uijterwaal; R. Walczak; F. F. Wilson; T. Yip; G. Abbiendi; A. Bertolin; R. Brugnera; R. Carlin; F. dal Corso; M. de Giorgi; U. Dosselli; F. Gasparini; S. Limentani; M. Morandin; M. Posocco; L. Stanco; R. Stroili; C. Voci; J. Bulmahn; J. M. Butterworth; R. G. Feild; B. Y. Oh; J. J. Whitmore; G. D'Agostini; M. Iori; G. Marini; M. Mattioli; A. Nigro; J. C. Hart; N. A. McCubbin; K. Prytz; T. P. Shah; T. L. Short; E. Barberis; N. Cartiglia; T. Dubbs; C. Heusch; M. van Hook; B. Hubbard; W. Lockman; H. F.-W. Sadrozinski; A. Seiden; J. Biltzinger; R. J. Seifert; A. H. Walenta; G. Zech; H. Abramowicz; S. Dagan; A. Levy; T. Hasegawa; M. Hazumi; T. Ishii; M. Kuze; S. Mine; Y. Nagasawa; T. Nagira; M. Nakao; I. Suzuki; K. Tokushuku; S. Yamada

1994-01-01

249

Photoacoustic measurements in vivo of energy storage by cyclic electron flow in algae and higher plants.  

PubMed

Energy storage by cyclic electron flow through photosystem I (PSI) was measured in vivo using the photoacoustic technique. A wide variety of photosynthetic organisms were considered and all showed measurable energy storage by PSI-cyclic electron flow except for higher plants using the C-3 carbon fixation pathway. The capacity for energy storage by PSI-cyclic electron flow alone was found to be small in comparison to that of linear and cyclic electron flows combined but may be significant, nonetheless, under conditions when photosystem II is damaged, particularly in cyanobacteria. Light-induced dynamics of energy storage by PSI-cyclic electron flow were evident, demonstrating regulation under changing environmental conditions. PMID:16667873

Herbert, S K; Fork, D C; Malkin, S

1990-11-01

250

Flow instability of a centrifugal pump determined using the energy gradient method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stability of the centrifugal pump has not been well revealed because of the complexity of internal flow. To analyze the flow characteristics of a centrifugal pump operating at low capacity, methods of numerical simulation and experimental research were adopted in this paper. Characteristics of the inner flow were obtained. Standard k-? turbulence models were used to calculate the inner flow of the pump under off-design conditions. The distribution of the energy gradient function K was obtained by three-dimensional numerical simulation at different flow rates. The relative velocity component was acquired from the absolute velocity obtained in particle image velocimetry. By comparing with experimental results, it was found that flow instability occurs at the position of maximum K. The flow stability reduces with an increasing flow rate. The research results provide a theoretical basis for the optimization design of a centrifugal pump.

Li, Yi; Dong, Wenlong; He, Zhaohui; Huang, Yuanmin; Jiang, Xiaojun

2015-02-01

251

Pulsed-flow air classification for waste to energy production. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The development and testing of pulsed-flow air classification for waste-to-energy production are discussed. Standard designs generally permit large amounts of combustible material to escape as reject while producing a fuel that is high in metal and glass contaminants. Pulsed-flow classification is presented as a concept which can avoid both pitfalls. Each aspect of theory and laboratory testing is summarized: particle characteristics, theory of pulsed-flow classification, laboratory testing, and pulsed-flow air classification for waste-to-energy production. Conclusions from the research are summarized.

Peirce, J.J.; Vesilind, P.A.

1983-09-30

252

Thermally activated flux flow and fluctuation conductivity in LiFeAs single crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermally activated flux flow (TAFF) of a LiFeAs single crystal was studied in magnetic fields up to 9?T. The thermally activated energy (TAE) was analyzed using a conventional Arrhenius relation and a modified TAFF theory. The modified TAFF method results are in better agreement with experimental data than the Arrhenius ones. Through the analysis of the modified TAFF method, we found that the LiFeAs superconductor is regarded as a three-dimensional (3D) system in the TAFF region. In addition, we obtained the vortex-glass temperature Tg from the linear region of the (dln??/dT)- 1. And the fluctuation conductivity was analyzed for the LiFeAs superconductor using Aslamazov-Larkin (AL) theory and the lowest Landau level (LLL) scaling, in zero and nonzero magnetic fields. With the determined values of Tc(H), the fluctuation conductivity was scaled within a 3D-LLL approach. Compared with the NMR result of the 2D antiferromagnetic spin fluctuation, these results imply that LiFeAs exhibited a 2D-3D crossover of the fluctuation conductivity (FC) with decreasing temperature.

Song, Yoo Jang; Kang, Byeongwon; Rhee, Jong-Soo; Kwon, Yong Seung

2012-02-01

253

Segmentation and tracking in echocardiographic sequences: active contours guided by optical flow estimates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a method for segmentation and tracking of cardiac structures in ultrasound image sequences. The developed algorithm is based on the active contour framework. This approach requires initial placement of the contour close to the desired position in the image, usually an object outline. Best contour shape and position are then calculated, assuming that at this configuration a global energy function, associated with a contour, attains its minimum. Active contours can be used for tracking by selecting a solution from a previous frame as an initial position in a present frame. Such an approach, however, fails for large displacements of the object of interest. This paper presents a technique that incorporates the information on pixel velocities (optical flow) into the estimate of initial contour to enable tracking of fast-moving objects. The algorithm was tested on several ultrasound image sequences, each covering one complete cardiac cycle. The contour successfully tracked boundaries of mitral valve leaflets, aortic root and endocardial borders of the left ventricle. The algorithm-generated outlines were compared against manual tracings by expert physicians. The automated method resulted in contours that were within the boundaries of intraobserver variability.

Mikic, I.; Krucinski, S.; Thomas, J. D.

1998-01-01

254

Image Segmentation Using Active Contours Driven by the Bhattacharyya Gradient Flow  

PubMed Central

This paper addresses the problem of image segmentation by means of active contours, whose evolution is driven by the gradient flow derived from an energy functional that is based on the Bhattacharyya distance. In particular, given the values of a photometric variable (or of a set thereof), which is to be used for classifying the image pixels, the active contours are designed to converge to the shape that results in maximal discrepancy between the empirical distributions of the photometric variable inside and outside of the contours. The above discrepancy is measured by means of the Bhattacharyya distance that proves to be an extremely useful tool for solving the problem at hand. The proposed methodology can be viewed as a generalization of the segmentation methods, in which active contours maximize the difference between a finite number of empirical moments of the “inside” and “outside” distributions. Furthermore, it is shown that the proposed methodology is very versatile and flexible in the sense that it allows one to easily accommodate a diversity of the image features based on which the segmentation should be performed. As an additional contribution, a method for automatically adjusting the smoothness properties of the empirical distributions is proposed. Such a procedure is crucial in situations when the number of data samples (supporting a certain segmentation class) varies considerably in the course of the evolution of the active contour. In this case, the smoothness properties of the empirical distributions have to be properly adjusted to avoid either over- or underestimation artifacts. Finally, a number of relevant segmentation results are demonstrated and some further research directions are discussed. PMID:17990755

Michailovich, Oleg; Rathi, Yogesh; Tannenbaum, Allen

2013-01-01

255

Sample Energy Conservation Education Activities for Elementary School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The booklet contains learning activities for introducing energy and conservation concepts into the existing elementary school curriculum. The activities were developed by Palm Beach County teachers during a one-week workshop. A framework of ideas is divided into three functional categories: universe of energy, living systems and energy, and social…

Allen, Rodney F., Ed.; LaHart, David E., Ed.

256

Selected Energy Education Activities for Pennsylvania Middle School Grades. Draft.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These activities are intended to help increase awareness and understanding of the energy situation and to encourage students to become energy conservationists. The document is divided into sections according to discipline area. A final section is devoted to interdisciplinary activities involving several discipline areas integrated with the energy

Hack, Nancy; And Others

257

Simulation of activation free energies in molecular systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented for determining activation free energies in complex molecular systems. The method relies on knowledge of the minimum energy path and bases the activation free energy calculation on moving along this path from a minimum to a saddle point. Use is made of a local reaction coordinate which describes the advance of the reaction in each segment

Eyal Neria; Stefan Fischer; Martin Karplus

1996-01-01

258

Energy Conservation Activity Packet, Grade 5. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This activity notebook for grade 5 is one of a series developed in response to energy conservation. It contains activities that stress an energy conservation ethic and includes many values clarification activities for grade five. The packet is divided into two parts and provides the teacher with background information, concepts and objectives, and…

Pohlman, Betty; And Others

259

Three-Dimensional MHD Models of Waves and Flows in Coronal Active Region Loops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent observations show that slow magnetosonic waves are present in active region loops, and are often associated with subsonic up-flows of coronal material. In order to study the relation between up-flows and waves we develop a 3D MHD model of an idealized bi-polar active region with flows in coronal loops. The model is initiated with a dipole magnetic field and gravitationally stratified isothermal atmosphere. To model the effects of flares, coronal material is injected in small-scale regions at the base of the model active region. The up-flows have sub-sonic speeds of ˜100 km/s and are steady or periodic, producing higher density loops by filling magnetic flux-tubes with injected material. We find that the up-flows produce fast and slow magnetosonic waves that propagate in the coronal loops. We perform a parametric study of up-flow magnitude and periodicity, and the relation with the resulting waves. As expected, we find that the up-flow speed decreases with loop height due to the diverge of the flux tubes, while the slow magnetosonic speed is independent of height. When the amplitude of the driving pulses is increased above the sound speed, we find that slow shocks are produced in the loops. Using the results of the 3D MHD model we show that observed slow magnetosonic waves in active region loops can be driven by impulsive flare-produced up-flows at the transition region/corona interface of active regions.

Ofman, L.; Wang, T.; Davila, J. M.

2011-12-01

260

Energy-aware flow allocation algorithm for Energy Efficient Ethernet networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy Efficient Ethernet, as defined by the IEEE 802.3az standard, has shown not to be as efficient as originally expected given the large values of the transition times between the active and sleep power modes. In fact, EEE performs nearly optimal only when the link load is either very low or very high, but never at medium loads. So, in

I. Seoane; J. A. Hernandez; P. Reviriego; D. Larrabeiti

2011-01-01

261

Determination of ECoG information flow activity based on Granger causality and Hilbert transformation.  

PubMed

Analysis of directional information flow patterns among different regions of the brain is important for investigating the relation between ECoG (electrocorticographic) and mental activity. The objective is to study and evaluate the information flow activity at different frequencies in the primary motor cortex. We employed Granger causality for capturing the future state of the propagation path and direction between recording electrode sites on the cerebral cortex. A grid covered the right motor cortex completely due to its size (approx. 8 cm×8 cm) but grid area extends to the surrounding cortex areas. During the experiment, a subject was asked to imagine performing two activities: movement of the left small finger and/or movement of the tongue. The time series of the electrical brain activity was recorded during these trials using an 8×8 (0.016-300 Hz band with) ECoG platinum electrode grid, which was placed on the contralateral (right) motor cortex. For detection of information flow activity and communication frequencies among the electrodes, we have proposed a method based on following steps: (i) calculation of analytical time series such as amplitude and phase difference acquired from Hilbert transformation, (ii) selection of frequency having highest interdependence for the electrode pairs for the concerned time series over a sliding window in which we assumed time series were stationary, (iii) calculation of Granger causality values for each pair with selected frequency. The information flow (causal influence) activity and communication frequencies between the electrodes in grid were determined and shown successfully. It is supposed that information flow activity and communication frequencies between the electrodes in the grid are approximately the same for the same pattern. The successful employment of Granger causality and Hilbert transformation for the detection of the propagation path and direction of each component of ECoG among different sub-cortex areas were capable of determining the information flow (causal influence) activity and communication frequencies between the populations of neurons successfully. PMID:24070543

Demirer, R Murat; Özerdem, Mehmet Siraç; Bayrak, Coskun; Mendi, Engin

2013-12-01

262

A Model for Variable Levee Formation Rates in an Active Lava Flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Channelized lava flows on Mars and the Earth often feature levees and collateral margins that change in volume along the path of the flow. Consistent with field observations of terrestrial flows, this suggests that the rate of levee formation varies with distance and other factors. Previous models have assumed a constant rate of levee growth, specified by a single parameter, lambda. The rate of levee formation for lava flows is a good indicator of the mass eruption rate and rheology of the flow. Insight into levee formation will help us better understand whether or not the effusion rate was constant during an eruption, and once local topography is considered, allows us to look at cooling and/or rheology changes downslope. Here we present a more realistic extension of the levee formation model that treats the rate of levee growth as a function of distance along the flow path. We show how this model can be used with a terrestrial flow and a long lava flow on Mars. The key statement of the new formulation is the rate of transfer from the active component to the levees (or other passive components) through an element dx along the path of the flow. This volumetric transfer equation is presented.

Glaze, L. S.; Baloga, S. M.; Mouginis-Mark, P.; Crisp, J.

2004-01-01

263

Activation of G proteins mediates flow-induced prostaglandin E2 production in osteoblasts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interstitial fluid flow may play a role in load-induced bone remodeling. Previously, we have shown that fluid flow stimulates osteoblast production of cAMP inositol trisphosphate (IP3), and PGE2. Flow-induced increases in cAMP and IP3 were shown to be a result of PG production. Thus, PGE2 production appears to be an important component in fluid flow induced signal transduction. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of flow-induced PGE2 synthesis. Flow-induced a 20-fold increase in PGE2 production in osteoblasts. Increases were also observed with ALF4-(10mM) (98-fold), an activator of guanidine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), and calcium ionophore A23187 (2 microM) (100-fold) in stationary cells. We then investigated whether flow stimulation is mediated by G proteins and increases in intracellular calcium. Flow-induced PGE2 production was inhibited by the G protein inhibitors GDP beta S (100 microM) and pertussis toxin (1 microgram/ml) by 83% and 72%, respectively. Chelation of extracellular calcium by EGTA (2 mM) and intracellular calcium by quin-2/AM (30 microM) blocked flow stimulation by 87% and 67%, respectively. These results suggest that G proteins and calcium play an important role in mediating mechanochemical signal transduction in osteoblasts.

Reich, K. M.; McAllister, T. N.; Gudi, S.; Frangos, J. A.

1997-01-01

264

Stress-Activated Electric Currents in the Earth Crust: How they Can and Cannot Flow (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dormant electronic charge carriers exist in rocks. They “wake up” when stresses are applied: electrons e’ and positive holes, h., the latter being defect electrons in the oxygen anion sublattice of minerals [1, 2]. The h. can flow out of the stressed subvolume. They can spread into the unstressed surrounding, turning the rocks into p-type semiconductors. They travel fast and far using energy levels at the upper edge of the valence bands. Contrary to the h., the co-activated electrons e’ cannot flow out and propagate through unstressed rocks: they are stuck in the activation volume. The situation is akin to that in an electrochemical battery except that, in the “rock battery”, the positive charge carriers are not cations but positive holes h.. In the laboratory it is easy to close the battery circuit by offering the electrons a metal contact and connecting the stressed and unstressed rock with a metal wire. This is useful to demonstrate the functioning of the “rock battery”. In the field the h. outflow from a stressed rock volume is restricted as long as there is no return path. This is an important point when we try to understand why pre-earthquake EM emission is widely considered “unreliable” [3, 4]. However, there are at least three conditions, under which circuit closure can be achieved in the field under realistic pre-earthquake situations: (i) via n-type conducting rocks; (ii) via electrolytic conductivity of water; and (iii) via the air when the air above the epicentral region becomes highly ionized. We report on examples where these three conditions might have allowed large currents to flow and strong EM signals to be emitted. [1] Freund, F.T. et al.: Electric currents streaming out of stressed igneous rocks - A step towards understanding pre-earthquake low frequency EM emissions, Phys. Chem. Earth 31, 389-396 (2006). [2] Freund, F.T.: Charge generation and propagation in rocks, J. Geodyn. 33, 545-572 (2002). [3] Johnston, M.J.S. and Parrot, M.: Seismoelectromagnetic Effects, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 57, 1-177 (1989). [4] Park, S.K. et al.: The 2004 Parkfield earthquake: Test of the electromagnetic precursor hypothesis, J. Geophys, Res. 112, 10.1029/2005JB004196 (2007).

Freund, F. T.; Bleier, T. E.; Bortnik, J.; Dahlgren, R.

2010-12-01

265

Surface free energy activated high-throughput cell sorting.  

PubMed

Cell sorting is an important screening process in microbiology, biotechnology, and clinical research. Existing methods are mainly based on single-cell analysis as in flow cytometric and microfluidic cell sorters. Here we report a label-free bulk method for sorting cells by differentiating their characteristic surface free energies (SFEs). We demonstrated the feasibility of this method by sorting model binary cell mixtures of various bacterial species, including Pseudomonas putida KT2440, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028, and Escherichia coli DH5?. This method can effectively separate 10(10) bacterial cells within 30 min. Individual bacterial species can be sorted with up to 96% efficiency, and the cell viability ratio can be as high as 99%. In addition to its capacity of sorting evenly mixed bacterial cells, we demonstrated the feasibility of this method in selecting and enriching cells of minor populations in the mixture (presenting at only 1% in quantity) to a purity as high as 99%. This SFE-activated method may be used as a stand-alone method for quickly sorting a large quantity of bacterial cells or as a prescreening tool for microbial discrimination. Given its advantages of label-free, high-throughput, low cost, and simplicity, this SFE-activated cell sorting method has potential in various applications of sorting cells and abiotic particles. PMID:25184988

Zhang, Xinru; Zhang, Qian; Yan, Tao; Jiang, Zeyi; Zhang, Xinxin; Zuo, Yi Y

2014-09-16

266

Closed Loop Active Flow Separation Detection and Control in a Multistage Compressor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Active closed loop flow control was successfully demonstrated on a full annulus of stator vanes in a low speed axial compressor. Two independent methods of detecting separated flow conditions on the vane suction surface were developed. The first technique detects changes in static pressure along the vane suction surface, while the second method monitors variation in the potential field of the downstream rotor. Both methods may feasibly be used in future engines employing embedded flow control technology. In response to the detection of separated conditions, injection along the suction surface of each vane was used. Injected mass flow on the suction surface of stator vanes is known to reduce separation and the resulting limitation on static pressure rise due to lowered diffusion in the vane passage. A control algorithm was developed which provided a proportional response of the injected mass flow to the degree of separation, thereby minimizing the performance penalty on the compressor system.

Bright, Michelle M.; Culley, Dennis E.; Braunscheidel, Edward P.; Welch, Gerard E.

2005-01-01

267

Active control of asymmetric conical flow using spinning and rotatory oscillations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effectiveness of active control on asymmetric flows around circular cones is investigated computationally using cone spinning and rotatory oscillation around its axis. The investigation uses the time-accurate solution of the unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes equations with the implicit, upwind, flux-difference splitting, finite-volume scheme. The present solutions are obtained under the locally-conical-flow assumption in order to understand the flow physics using very fine grids for reasonable flow resolution at low computational cost. For all the computational solutions, a grid of 241 x 81 x 2 points in the wrap-around, normal and axial directions, respectively, is used. The grid is spinning or oscillating rigidly with the cone according to its motion and the kinematical and dynamical boundary conditions are modified accordingly. The computational applications include the effects of uniform spinning rates and periodic rotatory oscillations at different amplitudes and frequencies on the flow asymmetry.

Kandil, Osama A.; Sharaf El-Din, Hazem H.; Liu, C. H.

1993-01-01

268

Characterization of a Three-Dimensional Turret Wake for Active Flow Control Part II: Experimental Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental measurements have been performed to characterize the wake of a three-dimensional, non-conformal turret. Experiments were performed in a low-speed wind tunnel at Syracuse University using particle image velocimetry, hotwire anemometry and dynamic and static pressure measurements. The objective of the study was to characterize the spatial and temporal nature of the wake region as well as to investigate the importance of the incoming flow field. Computational studies have been performed in conjunction with this work to help guide the experimental study and offer insight into the complex three-dimensional flow field. With a better understanding of the wake and three-dimensional characteristics of the turret flow field, closed-loop, active flow control systems will be developed to help reduce fluctuating loading and aero-optical distortions associated with the turbulent flow field.

Shea, Patrick; Ruscher, Christopher; Wallace, Ryan; Glauser, Mark; Dannenhoffer, John, III

2010-11-01

269

Conductive heat flow at the TAG active hydrothermal mound: Results from 1993-1995 submersible surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report 70 measurements of conductive heat flow at the 50-m-high, 200-m-diameter TAG active hydrothermal mound, made during submersible surveys with Alvin in 1993 and 1995 and Shinkai 6500 in 1994. The stations were all measured with 5-thermistor, 0.6- or 1-m-long Alvin heat flow probes, which are capable of determining both gradient and thermal conductivity, and were transponder-navigated to an

K. Becker; R. von Herzen; J. Kirklin; R. Evans; D. Kadko; M. Kinoshita; O. Matsubayashi; R. Mills; A. Schultz; P. Rona

1996-01-01

270

National Alliance of Clean Energy Incubator Activities - Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

Summary of activity related to development of the Alliance of Clean Energy Business Incubators and incubation services provided to the clean energy sector by the Advanced Technology Development Center at the Georgia Institute of Technology.

Chris Downing, P.E.

2004-12-14

271

77 FR 3544 - Meeting and Webinar on the Active Traffic and Demand Management and Intelligent Network Flow...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Active Traffic and Demand Management and Intelligent Network Flow Optimization Operational...Department of Transportation (USDOT) Intelligent Transportation System Joint Program...Traffic and Demand Management (ADTM) and Intelligent Network Flow Optimization...

2012-01-24

272

Efficiency of energy separation at compressible gas flow in a planar duct  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method of energy separation in a high-speed flow proposed by A.I. Leontyev is investigated numerically. The adiabatic compressible gas flow (of a helium-xenon mixture) with a low Prandtl number in a planar narrow duct and a flow with heat exchange in a duct partitioned by a heat-conducting wall are analysed. The temperature recovery factor on the adiabatic wall, degree of cooling the low-speed flow part, temperature efficiency, and the adiabatic efficiency in a duct with heat exchange are estimated. The data are obtained for the first time, which make it possible to compare the efficiency of energy separation in a high-speed flow with the efficiency of similar processes in vortex tubes and other setups of gas-dynamic energy separation.

Makarov, M. S.; Makarova, S. N.

2013-12-01

273

Active Control of Flow Separation on a High-Lift System with Slotted Flap at High Reynolds Number  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Energy Efficient Transport (EET) airfoil was tested at NASA Langley's Low- Turbulence Pressure Tunnel (LTPT) to assess the effectiveness of distributed Active Flow Control (AFC) concepts on a high-lift system at flight scale Reynolds numbers for a medium-sized transport. The test results indicate presence of strong Reynolds number effects on the high-lift system with the AFC operational, implying the importance of flight-scale testing for implementation of such systems during design of future flight vehicles with AFC. This paper describes the wind tunnel test results obtained at the LTPT for the EET high-lift system for various AFC concepts examined on this airfoil.

Khodadoust, Abdollah; Washburn, Anthony

2007-01-01

274

Simultaneously harvesting electrostatic and mechanical energies from flowing water by a hybridized triboelectric nanogenerator.  

PubMed

Flowing water contains not only mechanical kinetic energy, but also the electrostatic energy owing to the triboelectric charges caused by its contact with surrounding media such as air. In this paper, a water wheel hybridized triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG), composed of a water-TENG part and a disk-TENG part, has been developed for simultaneously harvesting the two types of energies from the tap water flowing from a household faucet. The wheel blades of the hybridized TENG are composed by superhydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) thin films with nanostructures, which are used as water-TENG to harvest the electrostatic energy from the flowing water. In addition, the flowing water impacted on the wheel blades also causes the rotation motion of disk-TENG and can be used to harvest the mechanical kinetic energy. The short-circuit current of the water-TENG and the disk-TENG at a flowing water rate of 54 mL/s can reach 12.9 and 3.8 ?A, respectively. The hybridized TENG is also demonstrated to harvest wind energy and acts as a self-powered sensor to detect the flowing water rate and wind speed. All these results show the potentials of the hybridized TENG for harvesting multiple types of energies from the environment. PMID:24467273

Cheng, Gang; Lin, Zong-Hong; Du, Zu-Liang; Wang, Zhong Lin

2014-02-25

275

Modeling Hot Gas Flow in the Low-luminosity Active Galactic Nucleus of NGC 3115  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the dynamical black hole (BH) mass estimates, NGC 3115 hosts the closest billion solar mass BH. Deep studies of the center revealed a very underluminous active galactic nucleus (AGN) immersed in an old massive nuclear star cluster. Recent 1 Ms Chandra X-ray visionary project observations of the NGC 3115 nucleus resolved hot tenuous gas, which fuels the AGN. In this paper we connect the processes in the nuclear star cluster with the feeding of the supermassive BH. We model the hot gas flow sustained by the injection of matter and energy from the stars and supernova explosions. We incorporate electron heat conduction as the small-scale feedback mechanism, the gravitational pull of the stellar mass, cooling, and Coulomb collisions. Fitting simulated X-ray emission to the spatially and spectrally resolved observed data, we find the best-fitting solutions with ?2/dof = 1.00 for dof = 236 both with and without conduction. The radial modeling favors a low BH mass <1.3 × 109 M ?. The best-fitting supernova rate and the best-fitting mass injection rate are consistent with their expected values. The stagnation point is at r st <~ 1'', so that most of the gas, including the gas at a Bondi radius rB = 2''-4'', outflows from the region. We put an upper limit on the accretion rate at 2 × 10-3 M ? yr-1. We find a shallow density profile nvpropr -? with ? ? 1 over a large dynamic range. This density profile is determined in the feeding region 0.''5-10'' as an interplay of four processes and effects: (1) the radius-dependent mass injection, (2) the effect of the galactic gravitational potential, (3) the accretion flow onset at r <~ 1'', and (4) the outflow at r >~ 1''. The gas temperature is close to the virial temperature Tv at any radius.

Shcherbakov, Roman V.; Wong, Ka-Wah; Irwin, Jimmy A.; Reynolds, Christopher S.

2014-02-01

276

Hot-Film and Hot-Wire Anemometry for a Boundary Layer Active Flow Control Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unsteady active flow control (AFC) has been used experimentally for many years to minimize bluff-body drag. This technology could significantly improve performance of rotorcraft by cleaning up flow separation. It is important, then, that new actuator technologies be studied for application to future vehicles. A boundary layer wind tunnel was constructed with a 1ft-x-3ft test section and unsteady measurement instrumentation to study how AFC manipulates the boundary layer to overcome adverse pressure gradients and flow separation. This unsteady flow control research requires unsteady measurement methods. In order to measure the boundary layer characteristics, both hot-wire and hot-film Constant Temperature Anemometry is used. A hot-wire probe is mounted in the flow to measure velocity while a hot-film array lays on the test surface to measure skin friction. Hot-film sensors are connected to an anemometer, a Wheatstone bridge circuit with an output that corresponds to the dynamic flow response. From this output, the time varying flow field, turbulence, and flow reversal can be characterized. Tuning the anemometers requires a fan test on the hot-film sensors to adjust each output. This is a delicate process as several variables drastically affect the data, including control resistance, signal input, trim, and gain settings.

Lenahan, Keven C.; Schatzman, David M.; Wilson, Jacob Samuel

2013-01-01

277

Analysis of nonlinear chemically reactive flow characteristic of high energy laser systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the mechanics and computation of the performance of a high energy chemical laser of the HF type. The analysis requires solving the viscous, compressible supersonic flow equations which are coupled to the chemical and optical characteristics of the flowing gas media. A finite element method is chosen for performing the computation. The physical system simulated

T. J. Chung; G. R. Karr

1980-01-01

278

Flow control for a high energy laser turret using trapped vortices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Department of Defense is concerned with the viability of an airborne high energy laser system. The laser is housed in a blunt turret atop a NKC-135 aircraft. Turbulence generated by flow separation around the turret causes optical distortion of the laser beam. Control of flow separation is needed to improve laser beam performance especially for aft-aimed turrets. One technique

J. E. Burd

1981-01-01

279

FLOWS AT THE EDGE OF AN ACTIVE REGION: OBSERVATION AND INTERPRETATION  

SciTech Connect

Upflows observed at the edges of active regions have been proposed as the source of the slow solar wind. In the particular case of Active Region (AR) 10942, where such an upflow has been already observed, we want to evaluate the part of this upflow that actually remains confined in the magnetic loops that connect AR 10942 to AR 10943. Both active regions were visible simultaneously on the solar disk and were observed by STEREO/SECCHI EUVI. Using Hinode/EIS spectra, we determine the Doppler shifts and densities in AR 10943 and AR 10942 in order to evaluate the mass flows. We also perform magnetic field extrapolations to assess the connectivity between AR 10942 and AR 10943. AR 10943 displays a persistent downflow in Fe XII. Magnetic extrapolations including both ARs show that this downflow can be connected to the upflow in AR 10942. We estimate that the mass flow received by AR 10943 areas connected to AR 10942 represents about 18% of the mass flow from AR 10942. We conclude that the upflows observed on the edge of active regions represent either large-scale loops with mass flowing along them (accounting for about one-fifth of the total mass flow in this example) or open magnetic field structures where the slow solar wind originates.

Boutry, C.; Buchlin, E.; Vial, J.-C. [Universite Paris Sud, Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale, UMR8617, 91405 Orsay (France); Regnier, S., E-mail: eric.buchlin@ias.u-psud.fr [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, PR1 2HE (United Kingdom)

2012-06-10

280

Global energy conversion rate from geostrophic flows into internal lee waves in the deep ocean  

E-print Network

A global estimate of the energy conversion rate from geostrophic flows into internal lee waves in the ocean is presented. The estimate is based on a linear theory applied to bottom topography at O(1–10) km scales obtained ...

Nikurashin, Maxim

281

Food Utilization (Energy-Flow) Investigations with Pieris Brassicae (Large White) Caterpillars.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background information, procedures used, and typical results obtained are provided for experiments in which caterpillars are used to investigate energy-flow relationships. Areas in which the experiments could be used include ecology, applied biology, and animal feeding. (DH)

Jones, Derek H. T.

1985-01-01

282

Simulation and visualization of fields and energy flows in electric circuits with idealized geometries  

E-print Network

This thesis develops a method to simulate and visualize the fields and energy flows in electric circuits, using a simplified physical model based on an idealized geometry. The physical models combine and extend previously ...

Ohannessian, Mesrob I., 1981-

2005-01-01

283

Information Flow Model of Human Extravehicular Activity Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future human spaceflight missions will face the complex challenge of performing human extravehicular activity (EVA) beyond the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment. Astronauts will become increasingly isolated from Earth-based mission support and thus will rely heavily on their own decision-making capabilities and onboard tools to accomplish proposed EVA mission objectives. To better address time delay communication issues, EVA characters, e.g. flight controllers, astronauts, etc., and their respective work practices and roles need to be better characterized and understood. This paper presents the results of a study examining the EVA work domain and the personnel that operate within it. The goal is to characterize current and historical roles of ground support, intravehicular (IV) crew and EV crew, their communication patterns and information needs. This work provides a description of EVA operations and identifies issues to be used as a basis for future investigation.

Miller, Matthew J.; McGuire, Kerry M.; Feigh, Karen M.

2014-01-01

284

Exploiting a nonlinear restoring force to improve the performance of flow energy harvesters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates employing a nonlinear restoring force to improve the performance of flow energy harvesters (FEHs). To that end, a galloping FEH possessing a quartic potential energy function of the form V =1/2 ?y2+1/4 ?y4 is considered. This potential function is used to model either a softening (? > 0, ? < 0), hardening (? > 0, ? > 0), or bi-stable (? < 0, ? > 0) restoring force. A physics-based model of the harvester is obtained assuming piezoelectric transduction and a quasi-steady flow field. The model is validated against experimental data and used to obtain a closed-form solution of the response by employing a multiple scaling perturbation analysis using the Jacobi elliptic functions. The attained solution is subsequently used to investigate the influence of the nonlinearity on the performance of the harvester and to illustrate how to optimize the restoring force in order to maximize the output power for given design conditions and airflow parameters. Specifically, it is shown that for similar design parameters and equal magnitudes of ?, and ?, a bi-stable energy harvester outperforms all other configurations as long as the inter-well motions are activated. On the other hand, if the motion of the bi-stable harvester is limited to a single well, then a harvester incorporating a softening nonlinear restoring force outperforms all other configurations. Furthermore, when comparing two FEHs incorporating the same type of restoring force at the optimal load and similar values of ?, then the FEH with the smaller ? is shown to provide higher output power levels.

Bibo, Amin; Alhadidi, Ali H.; Daqaq, Mohammed F.

2015-01-01

285

Magnetic Energy and Helicity in Two Emerging Active Regions in the Sun  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity in two emerging solar active regions, AR 11072 and AR 11158,are studied. They are computed by integrating over time the energy and relative helicity fluxes across the photosphere. The fluxes consist of two components: one from photospheric tangential flows that shear and braid field lines (shear term), the other from normal flows that advect magnetic flux into the corona (emergence term). For these active regions: (1) relative magnetic helicity in the active-region corona is mainly contributed by the shear term,(2) helicity fluxes from the emergence and the shear terms have the same sign, (3) magnetic energy in the corona (including both potential energy and free energy) is mainly contributed by the emergence term, and(4) energy fluxes from the emergence term and the shear term evolved consistently in phase during the entire flux emergence course.We also examine the apparent tangential velocity derived by tracking field-line footpoints using a simple tracking method. It is found that this velocity is more consistent with tangential plasma velocity than with the flux transport velocity, which agrees with the conclusion by Schuck.

Liu, Y.; Schuck, P. W.

2012-01-01

286

MAGNETIC ENERGY AND HELICITY IN TWO EMERGING ACTIVE REGIONS IN THE SUN  

SciTech Connect

The magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity in two emerging solar active regions, AR 11072 and AR 11158, are studied. They are computed by integrating over time the energy and relative helicity fluxes across the photosphere. The fluxes consist of two components: one from photospheric tangential flows that shear and braid field lines (shear term), the other from normal flows that advect magnetic flux into the corona (emergence term). For these active regions: (1) relative magnetic helicity in the active-region corona is mainly contributed by the shear term, (2) helicity fluxes from the emergence and the shear terms have the same sign, (3) magnetic energy in the corona (including both potential energy and free energy) is mainly contributed by the emergence term, and (4) energy fluxes from the emergence term and the shear term evolved consistently in phase during the entire flux emergence course. We also examine the apparent tangential velocity derived by tracking field-line footpoints using a simple tracking method. It is found that this velocity is more consistent with tangential plasma velocity than with the flux transport velocity, which agrees with the conclusion by Schuck.

Liu, Y. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4085 (United States); Schuck, P. W. [Space Weather Laboratory, Code 674, Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2012-12-20

287

Symmetry energy and isospin dependence of cross- section: sensitivity to transverse flow  

E-print Network

We study the relative contribution of the symmetry energy and isospin dependence of the nucleon-nucleon cross section to the collective transverse in-plane flow for the reactions of Ca+Ca having N/Z varying from 1.0, 1.6 and 2.0. We see that role of symmetry energy to the flow increases with N/Z of the system.

Sakshi Gautam

2011-12-13

288

Energy flow and power phenomena in electrical circuits: illusions and reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contents  ?Common opinions respective to the nature of the reactive power, energy flow and oscillations, as well as the notion of the\\u000a apparent power in single- and in three-phase systems are discussed in this paper. It is shown that some interpretations of\\u000a powers and energy flow in linear, single-phase circuits are often generalized for more complex situations where these interpretations\\u000a are

L. S. Czarnecki

2000-01-01

289

Numerical Modeling on the Performance of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage System under Cyclic Flow Regime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coupled hydrogeological-thermal model for simulating the thermal energy storage system in aquifer is described. It is essential to provide an optimized configuration and operation schedule for wells on the site. This paper presents numerical investigations and thermohydraulic evaluation of two-well models of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system operating under cyclic flow regime. A three-dimensional numerical model for groundwater flow

Kun Sang Lee; Sang Jin Jeong

2008-01-01

290

Effect of flow oscillations on axial energy transport in a porous material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of flow oscillations on axial energy diffusion in a porous medium, in which the flow is continuously disrupted by the irregularities of the porous structure, are analyzed. The formulation employs an internal heat transfer coefficient that couples the fluid and solid temperatures. The final relationship shows that the axial energy transport per unit cross-sectional area and time is directly proportional to the axial temperature gradient and the square of the maximum fluid displacement.

Siegel, R.

1987-01-01

291

Evolution of elliptic and triangular flow as a function of beam energy in a hybrid model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elliptic flow has been one of the key observables for establishing the finding of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) at the highest energies of Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). As a sign of collectively behaving matter, one would expect the elliptic flow to decrease at lower beam energies, where the QGP is not produced. However, in the recent RHIC beam energy scan, it has been found that the inclusive charged hadron elliptic flow changes relatively little in magnitude in the energies between 7.7 and 39 GeV per nucleon-nucleon collision. We study the collision energy dependence of the elliptic and triangular flow utilizing a Boltzmann + hydrodynamics hybrid model. Such a hybrid model provides a natural framework for the transition from high collision energies, where the hydrodynamical description is essential, to smaller energies, where the hadron transport dominates. This approach is thus suitable to investigate the relative importance of these two mechanisms for the production of the collective flow at different values of beam energy. Extending the examined range down to 5 GeV per nucleon-nucleon collision allows also making predictions for the CBM experiment at FAIR.

Auvinen, J.; Petersen, H.

2014-04-01

292

Active flow control for maximizing performance of spark ignited stratified charge engines. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Reducing the cycle-to-cycle variability present in stratified-charge engines is an important step in the process of increasing their efficiency. As a result of this cycle-to-cycle variability, fuel injection systems are calibrated to inject more fuel than necessary, in an attempt to ensure that the engines fire on every cycle. When the cycle-to-cycle variability is lowered, the variation of work per cycle is reduced and the lean operating limit decreases, resulting in increased fuel economy. In this study an active flow control device is used to excite the intake flow of an engine at various frequencies. The goal of this excitation is to control the way in which vortices shed off of the intake valve, thus lowering the cycle-to-cycle variability in the flow field. This method of controlling flow is investigated through the use of three engines. The results of this study show that the active flow control device did help to lower the cycle-to-cycle variability of the in-cylinder flow field; however, the reduction did not translate directly into improved engine performance.

Fedewa, Andrew; Stuecken, Tom; Timm, Edward; Schock, Harold J.; Shih, Tom-I.P.; Koochesfahani, Manooch; Brereton, Giles

2002-10-15

293

Activation of serotonin 5-HT7 receptor induces coronary flow increase in isolated rat heart.  

PubMed

Serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) can elicit both vasoconstrictive and relaxant responses on rat coronary artery. The constrictive response has been well discussed, but the mechanism of relaxant response is less studied. In the present study, we found serotonin (0.3 and 1?M) increased coronary flow on isolated rat hearts, and treatment of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) 300?M reduced but not totally blocked this coronary flow increasing effect. In l-NAME 10?M treated heart, treatment of selective serotonin 5-HT7 receptor antagonist SB269970 0.1?M blocked serotonin induced coronary flow increasing response, and in the presence of 1?M SB269970, serotonin turned into reducing coronary flow. Treatment of TCW295 (8-(2,4-Dimethoxyphenyl)-6-methoxy-2-phenethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-7-ol hydrochloride), a novel serotonin 5-HT2A/7 receptor antagonist, inhibited both serotonin induced coronary flow increasing and decreasing effects. In conclusion, we found serotonin increases coronary flow of isolated rat heart by activating serotonin 5-HT7 receptor activation, and this effect can be, at least partially, resistant to l-NAME. PMID:25196212

Chang Chien, Ching-Chia; Hsin, Ling-Wei; Su, Ming-Jai

2015-02-01

294

A Helioseismic Survey to Investigate Relationships between Subsurface Flows beneath Large Active Regions and Solar Flares  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A survey of the subsurface flow properties of about 120 of the largest active regions, determined from the application of helioseismic holography to Dopplergrams obtained with the HMI instrument onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory, is being carried out. The overriding goal is to characterize differences in the subsurface flows between active regions associated with eruptive flares and the flows observed in relatively quiescent regions. Applications to flare forecasting comprise only one part of this investigation, since the potential response of the subsurface environment to eruptive events during and after their occurrence is also of scientific interest. Other priorities include understanding the limitations of the helioseismic methods, identifying and correcting systematic effects, and validating the reliability of the measurements using artificial data. While inversions to determine the variation with depth of subsurface flows are planned, preliminary results will be discussed which make use of proxies for near-surface depth-integrated properties, including the horizontal component of the flow divergence and the vertical component of the flow vorticity.This work is supported by the Solar Terrestrial Program of the National Science Foundation, through grant AGS-1127327, and by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration SBIR program.

Braun, Douglas; Leka, K D.; Barnes, Graham

2014-06-01

295

Energy flow in high speed perforation and cutting  

SciTech Connect

It is demonstrated that effects of long rod penetrators on targets can be modeled by introducing a high pressure (energy) column on the penetration path in place of the projectile. This energy can be obtained from the kinetic energy of the penetrator; the equations of state of the materials used and a Bernoulli penetration condition. The model is supported by detailed hydro calculations.

van Thiel, M.

1980-10-07

296

Volume-energy parameters and turbulent-flow density fluctuations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Volume-energy relations determined from an equation of state were used to group many sets of heat transfer data for liquids and gases, including the near-critical region. The volume - Gibbs energy parameter grouped these data better than did such other parameters as enthalpy, temperature, or internal energy.

Hendricks, R. C.

1980-01-01

297

Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for chemistry and physics  

SciTech Connect

Information on renewable energy sources is provided for students in this teachers' guide. With the chemistry and physics student in mind, solar energy topics such as absorber plate coatings for solar collectors and energy collection and storage methods are studied. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-01-01

298

Fluid flow and heat convection studies for actively cooled airframes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report details progress made on the jet impingement - liquid crystal - digital imaging experiment. With the design phase complete, the experiment is currently in the construction phase. In order to reach this phase two design related issues were resolved. The first issue was to determine NASP leading edge active cooling design parameters. Meetings were arranged with personnel at SAIC International, Torrance, CA in order to obtain recent publications that characterized expected leading edge heat fluxes as well as other details of NASP operating conditions. The information in these publications was used to estimate minimum and maximum jet Reynolds numbers needed to accomplish the required leading edge cooling, and to determine the parameters of the experiment. The details of this analysis are shown in Appendix A. One of the concerns for the NASP design is that of thermal stress due to large surface temperature gradients. Using a series of circular jets to cool the leading edge will cause a non-uniform temperature distribution and potentially large thermal stresses. Therefore it was decided to explore the feasibility of using a slot jet to cool the leading edge. The literature contains many investigations into circular jet heat transfer but few investigations of slot jet heat transfer. The first experiments will be done on circular jets impinging on a fiat plate and results compared to previously published data to establish the accuracy of the method. Subsequent experiments will be slot jets impinging on full scale models of the NASP leading edge. Table 1 shows the range of parameters to be explored. Next a preliminary design of the experiment was done. Previous papers which used a similar experimental technique were studied and elements of those experiments adapted to the jet impingement study. Trade-off studies were conducted to determine which design was the least expensive, easy to construct, and easy to use. Once the final design was settled, vendors were contacted to verify that equipment could be obtained to meet our specifications. Much of the equipment required to complete the construction of the experiment has been ordered or received.

Mills, A. F.

299

Development of piezoelectric microcantilever flow sensor with wind-driven energy harvesting capability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a piezoelectric (PZT) microcantilever as an air flow sensor and a wind-driven energy harvester for a self-sustained flow-sensing microsystem. A flow sensing sensitivity of 0.9 mV/(m/s) is obtained. The output voltage and optimized power regarding to the load resistance of 100 k? are measured as 18.1 mV and 3.3 nW at flow velocity of 15.6 m/s, respectively. The corresponding power density is as large as 0.36 mW/cm3. The experimental results have elucidated the smart function of using PZT microcantilevers as flow-sensors and wind-driven energy harvesters simultaneously.

Liu, Huicong; Zhang, Songsong; Kathiresan, Ramprakash; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Lee, Chengkuo

2012-05-01

300

Active control of instabilities in laminar boundary-layer flow. Part 1: An overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper (the first in a series) focuses on using active-control methods to maintain laminar flow in a region of the flow in which the natural instabilities, if left unattended, lead to turbulent flow. The authors review previous studies that examine wave cancellation (currently the most prominent method) and solve the unsteady, nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations to evaluate this method of controlling instabilities. It is definitely shown that instabilities are controlled by the linear summation of waves (i.e., wave cancellation). Although a mathematically complete method for controlling arbitrary instabilities has been developed (but not yet tested), the review, duplication, and physical explanation of previous studies are important steps for providing an independent verification of those studies, for establishing a framework for subsequent work which will involve automated transition control, and for detailing the phenomena by which the automated studies can be used to expand knowledge of flow control.

Joslin, Ronald D.; Erlebacher, Gordon; Hussaini, M. Yousuff

1994-01-01

301

Variational energy principle for compressible, baroclinic flow. 1: First and second variations of total kinetic action  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The case of a cold gas in the absence of external force fields is considered. Since the only energy involved is kinetic energy, the total kinetic action (i.e., the space-time integral of the kinetic energy density) should serve as the total free-energy functional in this case, and as such should be a local minimum for all possible fluctuations about stable flow. This conjecture is tested by calculating explicit, manifestly covariant expressions for the first and second variations of the total kinetic action in the context of Lagrangian kinematics. The general question of the correlation between physical stability and the convexity of any action integral that can be interpreted as the total free-energy functional of the flow is discussed and illustrated for the cases of rectillinear and rotating shearing flows.

Schmid, L. A.

1977-01-01

302

Pressure and kinetic energy transport across the mouth of laminar cavity flows.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nature of the separated recirculating cavity flow depends upon the Reynolds number (Re), the upstream flow regime, as well as the cavity aspect ratio. Here we use DNS to investigate the pressure (-pv) and kinetic energy (Kv) transport in shallow cavities in a channel, in the laminar regime varying Re (here based on the channel height). In recirculating flows the pressure-velocity correlation plays an increasingly important role in the energy balance. This is in contrast to parallel flows, such as boundary layers or channel flows, where mean shear is high, and the flow is dominated by the convective transport. This was highlighted by Yoshizawa (PoF 2002) and confirmed with the results of shearless inhomogeneous turbulent mixing Tordella et al. (PRE 2008). The cavity flow lies between these two extremes. We have shown that this trend can also be seen in laminar flows. Observing the transport properties at the cavity mouth, for Re 50-2000, Kv reaches a peak at Re=200, whereas --pv peaks at Re=700. As Re is increased from these values, and the cavity flow moves from closed to open, Kv becomes less significant, with --pv having a greater importance beyond Re=500.

Bailey, Peter; Abba', Antonella; Tordella, Daniela

2008-11-01

303

Flow depth and energy coefficient relatiohnships for stepped spillways  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A multi-year, large-scale physical model study of stepped chutes was conducted over a broad range of design parameters (i.e. step heights, slopes, and unit discharges). Air entrainment developed naturally as the flow descended the chute. Air entrainment began to develop downstream of the surface i...

304

SEQUENTIAL NITRIFICATION-DENITRIFICATION IN A PLUG FLOW ACTIVATED SLUDGE SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of the carbon sources present in municipal wastewater to provide the energy required for nitrification-denitrification was evaluated on a pilot plant scale in a simulated plug flow reactor. Most of this report is devoted to the results from operation of a nine-pass activa...

305

Active Feedback Control of a Web Flutter Using Flow Control Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a non-contact active feedback control of web flutter in a narrow passage by using movable plates set at inlet and outlet of the passage. The strategy of this active feedback control is based on the flow-control which cancels the exciting fluid force acting on the web, i.e., cancels the self-excited feedback mechanism. In this paper, suppression of

Yusuke Hayashi; Masahiro Watanabe; Kensuke Hara

2010-01-01

306

Physical Activities in Adolescent Girls Variability in Energy Expenditure  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding interindividual variability of energy expended in common activities is important for determining precise estimates of energy expenditure in surveillance studies and clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to describe the variability in energy expenditure for selected physical activities among adolescent girls. Methods Seventy-four adolescent girls (aged 13 to 14 years) participated in this cross-sectional investigation. Data were collected in 2001 and analyzed in 2004. Energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry for ten activities and during a submaximal cycle ergometer test, which was used to estimate cardiorespiratory fitness. Variability in energy expended for the various activities was expressed by standard deviation, coefficient of variation, and range for three different energy expenditure variables: relative VO2 (milliliters per kilogram per minute), absolute VO2 (liters per minute?1), and calculated metabolic rate (kilojoules per minute). Results Depending on the expression of energy expenditure, coefficients of variation ranged from a low of 13.2% for climbing stairs to a high of 38.4% for playing a computer game. Some lower-intensity activities were associated with greater variability in energy expenditure. Bicycling showed consistently higher coefficients of variation across expressions of energy expenditure (29.1%, 37.7%, and 33.5% for relative VO2, absolute VO2, and calculated metabolic rate, respectively). Conclusions Energy expenditure for common activities is highly variable in adolescent girls. The coefficient of variation was higher in some activities of lower intensity, regardless of energy expenditure expression. This variance may influence the evaluation of physical activity interventions, particularly with regard to issues such as a prescribed dose of activity and the statistical power to detect change. PMID:16979458

Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.; McMurray, Robert G.; Treuth, Margarita S.; Murray, David M.; Pate, Russell R.

2008-01-01

307

A review of the impact and potential of intermittent aeration on continuous flow nitrifying activated sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intermittent aeration of activated sludge plants (ASPs) is a potential strategy that may help deliver reduced operational costs while providing an adequate effluent quality. This review paper critically assesses the implications of temporary turning aeration off in continuous flow nitrifying ASPs, including impact on dissolved oxygen concentrations, process biology and operational parameters. The potential savings and pitfalls of the approach

Gabriela Dotro; Bruce Jefferson; Mark Jones; Peter Vale; Elise Cartmell; Tom Stephenson

2011-01-01

308

Interstitial Fluid Flow Intensity Modulates Endothelial Sprouting in Restricted Src-Activated Cell Clusters During  

E-print Network

Interstitial Fluid Flow Intensity Modulates Endothelial Sprouting in Restricted Src-Activated Cell play a critical role during capillary morphogenesis by promoting cell sprouting. In the present work the amount, length, and branching of developing sprouts during capillary morphogenesis. The number

Kamm, Roger D.

309

Differential regulation of the oscillations in sympathetic nerve activity and renal blood flow following volume expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and renal blood flow (RBF) both show oscillations at various frequencies but the functional significance and regulation of these oscillations is not well understood. To establish whether the strength of these oscillations is under differential control we measured the frequency spectrum of RSNA and RBF following volume expansion in conscious rabbits. Seven days prior to

Bridget L Leonard; Michael A Navakatikyan; Simon C Malpas

2000-01-01

310

Active Gaze Control Improves Optic Flow-Based Segmentation and Steering  

Microsoft Academic Search

An observer traversing an environment actively relocates gaze to fixate objects. Evidence suggests that gaze is frequently directed toward the center of an object considered as target but more likely toward the edges of an object that appears as an obstacle. We suggest that this difference in gaze might be motivated by specific patterns of optic flow that are generated

Florian Raudies; Ennio Mingolla; Heiko Neumann

2012-01-01

311

Monitoring airway mucus flow and ciliary activity with optical coherence tomography  

E-print Network

(5), 571­577 (2002). 5. M. B. Antunes and N. A. Cohen, "Mucociliary clearance--a critical upper airway host. Eastwood, "Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomicalMonitoring airway mucus flow and ciliary activity with optical coherence tomography Amy L

Oldenburg, Amy

312

The Cooling Rate of an Active Aa Lava Flow Determined Using an Orbital Imaging Spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface temperature of an active lava flow is an important physical property to measure. Through its influence on lava crystallinity, cooling exerts a fundamental control on lava rheology. Remotely sensed thermal radiance data acquired by multispectral sensors such as Landsat Thematic Mapper and the Terra Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer, are of insufficient spectral and radiometric fidelity

Robert Wright; Harold Garbeil

2010-01-01

313

Active control of transitional channel flows with pulsed and synthetic jets using vortex  

E-print Network

: Vortex method, closed and open-loop active control, backward- facing step. Abstract: In this work a backward-facing step. Two different control strategies are implemented to modify the shedding inside a backward-facing step channel with a transitional flow regime: 1) using pulsed inlet velocities

Boyer, Edmond

314

Solar Energy Education. Home economics: student activities. Field test edition  

SciTech Connect

A view of solar energy from the standpoint of home economics is taken in this book of activities. Students are provided information on solar energy resources while performing these classroom activities. Instructions for the construction of a solar food dryer and a solar cooker are provided. Topics for study include window treatments, clothing, the history of solar energy, vitamins from the sun, and how to choose the correct solar home. (BCS)

Not Available

1981-03-01

315

ANTI-PARALLEL EUV FLOWS OBSERVED ALONG ACTIVE REGION FILAMENT THREADS WITH HI-C  

SciTech Connect

Plasma flows within prominences/filaments have been observed for many years and hold valuable clues concerning the mass and energy balance within these structures. Previous observations of these flows primarily come from H? and cool extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) lines (e.g., 304 Å) where estimates of the size of the prominence threads has been limited by the resolution of the available instrumentation. Evidence of 'counter-steaming' flows has previously been inferred from these cool plasma observations, but now, for the first time, these flows have been directly imaged along fundamental filament threads within the million degree corona (at 193 Å). In this work, we present observations of an AR filament observed with the High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) that exhibits anti-parallel flows along adjacent filament threads. Complementary data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager are presented. The ultra-high spatial and temporal resolution of Hi-C allow the anti-parallel flow velocities to be measured (70-80 km s{sup –1}) and gives an indication of the resolvable thickness of the individual strands (0.''8 ± 0.''1). The temperature of the plasma flows was estimated to be log T (K) = 5.45 ± 0.10 using Emission Measure loci analysis. We find that SDO/AIA cannot clearly observe these anti-parallel flows or measure their velocity or thread width due to its larger pixel size. We suggest that anti-parallel/counter-streaming flows are likely commonplace within all filaments and are currently not observed in EUV due to current instrument spatial resolution.

Alexander, Caroline E.; Walsh, Robert W.; Régnier, Stéphane [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom)] [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Cirtain, Jonathan; Winebarger, Amy R. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, VP 62, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)] [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, VP 62, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Golub, Leon; Korreck, Kelly; Weber, Mark [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)] [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kobayashi, Ken [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, The University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States)] [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, The University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Platt, Simon; Mitchell, Nick [School of Computing, Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom)] [School of Computing, Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); DePontieu, Bart; Title, Alan [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Lab, 3251 Hanover Street, Org. ADBS, Bldg. 252, Palo Alto, CA (United States)] [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Lab, 3251 Hanover Street, Org. ADBS, Bldg. 252, Palo Alto, CA (United States); DeForest, Craig [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)] [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Kuzin, Sergey [P.N. Lebedev Physical institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii prospekt, 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)] [P.N. Lebedev Physical institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii prospekt, 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

2013-09-20

316

Studying the energy dependence of elliptic and directed flow within a relativistic transport approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy excitation functions of directed flow (v1) and elliptic flow (v2) from Ebeam=90 A MeV to Ecm=200 A GeV are explored within the UrQMD framework and discussed in the context of the available data. The radial and the elliptic flow of the particles produced in a relativistic heavy-ion collision are intimately connected to the pressure and its gradients in the early stage of the reaction. Therefore, these observables should also be sensitive to changes in the equation of state. To prove this connection, the temporal evolution of the pressure, pressure gradients and elliptic flow are shown. For the flow excitation functions it is found that, in the energy regime below Ebeam?10 A GeV, the inclusion of nuclear potentials is necessary to describe the data. Above 40 A GeV beam energy, the UrQMD model starts to underestimate the elliptic flow. Around the same energy the slope of the rapidity spectra of the proton directed flow develops negative values. This effect is known as the third flow component (“antiflow”) and cannot be reproduced by the transport model. The difference between the data and the UrQMD model can possibly be explained by assuming a phase transition from hadron gas to quark gluon plasma around Elab=40 A GeV. This would be consistent with the model calculations, indicating a transition from hadronic matter to “string matter” in this energy range. Thus, we speculate that the missing pressure might be generated by strong interactions in the early pre-hadronic/partonic phase of central Au + Au (Pb + Pb) collisions already at lower SPS energies.

Petersen, H.; Bleicher, M.

2007-01-01

317

Energy transport by kinetic-scale electromagnetic waves in fast plasma sheet flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report observations from the THEMIS spacecraft characterizing the nature and importance of low frequency electromagnetic fluctuations on kinetic scales embedded within fast flows in the Earth's plasma sheet. A consideration of wave property variations with frequency and flow speed suggest that for spacecraft frame frequencies satisfying |vf|/ñi ? ùsc ? 100|vf|/ñi (or 0.2 ? fsc ? 20 Hz) these fluctuations can generally be described as kinetic Alfvén waves. Here vf is the flow speed, ñi the ion gyroradius, and ùsc and fsc are the angular and cyclical frequencies respectively in the spacecraft frame. The statistics of energy transport via Poynting flux (S) in these fluctuations and ion energy flux (å) in the flow follow log normal distributions with mean values of = 101.1 ± 0.7 and = 102.4 ± 0.4 mW/m2 respectively where the values are ‘mapped’ to a reference magnetic field at 100 km altitude. Here the indices following ‘ ± ’ correspond to one standard deviation. We find that = 10-1.3 ± 0.7 or that kinetic Alfvén waves on average transport ˜5% of the total energy transport in the flow but note that the values larger than 25% are within one standard deviation of the mean. Our observations show that these waves are continually radiated outward from the flow toward the auroral oval, low latitude boundary layer or lobes and that over several Earth-radii the integrated energy loss from the flow channel can be comparable to the total energy content of the flow itself. We find that this plasma sheet energy loss process is particularly effective within |XGSE| ? 15 RE.

Chaston, C. C.; Bonnell, J. W.; Clausen, L.; Angelopoulos, V.

2012-09-01

318

Policy support activities Brazil Rural Energy  

E-print Network

makers implement Electricity Law 10.438 in ways that enable small rural energy enterprises to coexist with distribution utilities. ·The Law, approved in April 2002, dealt with key issues for rural energy enterprises on ·regulation/implementation of Law 10.438 ·modification of related laws and regulation #12;6 First policy

319

Photoelectron energy distribution and spin polarization from activated gallium arsenide  

E-print Network

L-1027 Photoelectron energy distribution and spin polarization from activated gallium arsenide H ont été effectuées sur des photoélectrons émis par un cristal d'arséniure de gallium activé. Les.90 1. Introduction. It has been shown [1-4] that a p-type gallium arsenide crystal activated

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

320

Energy Harvesting from Fluid Flow in Water Pipelines for Smart Metering Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper a rotational, radial-flux energy harvester incorporating a three-phase generation principle is presented for converting energy from water flow in domestic water pipelines. The energy harvester together with a power management circuit and energy storage is used to power a smart metering system installed underground making it independent from external power supplies or depleting batteries. The design of the radial-flux energy harvester is adapted to the housing of a conventional mechanical water flow meter enabling the use of standard components such as housing and impeller. The energy harvester is able to generate up to 720 mW when using a flow rate of 20 l/min (fully opened water tab). A minimum flow rate of 3 l/min is required to get the harvester started. In this case a power output of 2 mW is achievable. By further design optimization of the mechanical structure including the impeller and magnetic circuit the threshold flow rate can be further reduced.

Hoffmann, D.; Willmann, A.; Göpfert, R.; Becker, P.; Folkmer, B.; Manoli, Y.

2013-12-01

321

The Energy Flow and Frequency Spectrum about Electric and Magnetic Dipoles.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation investigates the properties of time dependent fields about electric and magnetic dipoles. Generalized expressions for the frequency spectrum and energy flux are obtained, and these expressions are applied in a variety of cases of physical interest. The concept of a "causal surface" through which no electromagnetic energy flows is established and applied to the case of an exponentially decaying dipole. I find that there exists a spherical surface of radius r=c tau (where tau is the time constant of the decay) around the decaying dipole through which no net energy flows. As further confirmation, I show that the total energy radiated is equal to the energy stored in the original static field outside this surface before the decay. Interestingly, this result suggests that the radiated energy comes not from the accelerating charges that constitute the dipole, but rather from the energy stored outside the causal surface. I also describe the interesting case of an oscillating electric dipole coupled to an oscillating magnetic dipole and explain the circumstances under which the Poynting flux becomes time invariant. Further, I present and prove some general theorems regarding the energy flow about electric and magnetic dipoles with periodic time dependence. I show that the net radial energy flow per period is exactly equal to the radiated energy, and I show that there is no net angular energy flow. The frequency spectrum is of particular concern in the context of electromagnetic interference and compatibility testing. This dissertation presents a theoretical model of the spectrum of radiation emitted by digital circuitry.

Schantz, Hans Gregory

322

Effects of high-energy particles on accretion flows onto a super massive black hole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study effects of high-energy particles on the accretion flow onto a supermassive black hole and luminosities of escaping particles such as protons, neutrons, gamma-rays, and neutrinos. We formulate a one-dimensional model of the two-component accretion flow consisting of thermal particles and high-energy particles, supposing that some fraction of viscous dissipation energy is converted to the acceleration of high-energy particles. The thermal component is governed by fluid dynamics while the high-energy particles obey the moment equations of the diffusion-convection equation. By solving the time evolution of these equations, we obtain advection dominated flows as steady state solutions. Effects of the high-energy particles on the flow structure turn out to be very small because the compressional heating is so effective that the thermal component always provides the major part of the pressure. We calculate luminosities of escaping particles for these steady solutions. For a broad range of mass accretion rates, escaping particles can extract the energy about one-thousandth of the accretion energy. We also discuss some implications on relativistic jet production by escaping particles.

Kimura, Shigeo

323

Relationships Among the Energy, Emergy, and Money Flows of the United States From 1900 to 2011  

EPA Science Inventory

In this paper, we examine the relationships among the energy, emergy, and money flows of the United States from 1900 to 2011. To establish a theoretical basis for understanding these relationships, Energy Systems Language models of the resource base for the World System and of e...

324

Influence of internal energy on the stability of relativistic flows  

E-print Network

A set of simulations concerning the influence of internal energy on the stability of relativistic jets is presented. Results show that perturbations saturate when the amplitude of the velocity perturbation approaches the speed of light limit. Also, contrary to what predicted by linear stability theory, jets with higher specific internal energy appear to be more stable.

Manuel Perucho; Michal Hanasz; Jose Maria Marti; Helene Sol

2002-12-05

325

Active Gaze Control Improves Optic Flow-Based Segmentation and Steering  

PubMed Central

An observer traversing an environment actively relocates gaze to fixate objects. Evidence suggests that gaze is frequently directed toward the center of an object considered as target but more likely toward the edges of an object that appears as an obstacle. We suggest that this difference in gaze might be motivated by specific patterns of optic flow that are generated by either fixating the center or edge of an object. To support our suggestion we derive an analytical model that shows: Tangentially fixating the outer surface of an obstacle leads to strong flow discontinuities that can be used for flow-based segmentation. Fixation of the target center while gaze and heading are locked without head-, body-, or eye-rotations gives rise to a symmetric expansion flow with its center at the point being approached, which facilitates steering toward a target. We conclude that gaze control incorporates ecological constraints to improve the robustness of steering and collision avoidance by actively generating flows appropriate to solve the task. PMID:22719889

Raudies, Florian; Mingolla, Ennio; Neumann, Heiko

2012-01-01

326

Maximal energies of the particles accelerated by the system of converging magnetohydrodynamic flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have shown that maximal energies of the charged particles accelerated in the system of converging magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows can reach ? 1017 eV. The scheme of magnetic field amplification (MFA) applied to the previous non-linear model of particle acceleration in the colliding shocks allowed to make proper estimates for the value of turbulent magnetic field. The efficiency of the particle acceleration on the energy range larger than the "knee" in the cosmic rays spectrum (? 1014 – 1015 eV) makes the systems of colliding MHD flows important contributors to the overall high-energy cosmic rays population in the Galaxy.

Gladilin, P. E.; Bykov, A. M.; Osipov, S. M.

2014-12-01

327

Triton-3He relative and differential flows and the high density behavior of nuclear symmetry energy  

E-print Network

Using a transport model coupled with a phase-space coalescence after-burner we study the triton-3He relative and differential transverse flows in semi-central 132Sn+124Sn reactions at a beam energy of 400 MeV/nucleon. We find that the triton-3He pairs carry interesting information about the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy. The t-3He relative flow can be used as a particularly powerful probe of the high-density behavior of the nuclear symmetry energy.

Gao-Chan Yong; Bao-An Li; Lie-Wen Chen

2009-11-11

328

Triton-3He relative and differential flows and the high density behavior of nuclear symmetry energy  

E-print Network

Using a transport model coupled with a phase-space coalescence after-burner we study the triton-3He relative and differential transverse flows in semi-central 132Sn+124Sn reactions at a beam energy of 400 MeV/nucleon. We find that the triton-3He pairs carry interesting information about the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy. The t-3He relative flow can be used as a particularly powerful probe of the high-density behavior of the nuclear symmetry energy.

Yong, Gao-Chan; Chen, Lie-Wen

2009-01-01

329

NADH augments blood flow in physiologically activated retina and visual cortex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanism(s) that increase retinal and visual cortex blood flows in response to visual stimulation are poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that increased transfer of electrons and protons from glucose to cytosolic free NAD+, reducing it to NADH, evoked by increased energy metabolism, fuels redox-signaling pathways that augment flow. The near-equilibrium between free cytosolic NADH/NAD+ and lactate/pyruvate ratios established by lactate dehydrogenase predicts that transfer of additional electrons and protons from injected lactate to NAD+ will augment the elevated blood flows in stimulated retina and cortex, whereas transfer of electrons and protons from NADH to injected pyruvate will attenuate the elevated flows. These predictions were tested and confirmed in rats. Increased flows evoked by stimulation also were prevented by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase. These findings support an important role for cytosolic free NADH in fueling a signaling cascade that increases NO production, which augments blood flow in photostimulated retina and visual cortex.

Ido, Yasuo; Chang, Katherine; Williamson, Joseph R.

2004-01-01

330

Modification of heavy quark energy loss due to shear flow in hot QCD plasma  

E-print Network

We present the derivation of heavy quark energy loss in a viscous QCD plasma using kinetic theory. Shear flow changes both boson and fermion distribution functions which eventually modify heavy quark energy loss. Due to presence of non-zero flow gradient in the medium all the bath particles here are out of equilibrium. In these types of plasmas we show that without plasma screening effects heavy quark energy loss suffers similar type of infrared divergence as one encounters in non-viscous plasma. The screening effects are incorporated consistently through Hard Thermal Loop resummation perturbation theory in the small-momentum-transfer region to obtain finite leading order result in $\\eta/s$. We also quantify the importance of the result and demonstrate that shear flow has significant effect on the heavy quark energy loss.

Sreemoyee Sarkar

2014-03-05

331

Influence of ofloxacin on photosystems I and II activities of Microcystis aeruginosa and the potential role of cyclic electron flow.  

PubMed

Pollution with antibiotics poses a great risk to aquatic ecosystems. Although some toxic effects of antibiotics on photosystem II (PSII) have been documented, their toxicity to photosystem I (PSI) is still unclear. In this study, effects of ofloxacin on activities of both PSI and PSII of Microcystis aeruginosa (Kützing) Kützing were investigated. Exposure to 0.1 mg L(-)(1) ofloxacin led to increases in contents of chlorophyll a and carotenoids and photosynthetic activity of M. aeruginosa. PSI activity and its electron transport were not affected by 0.1 mg L(-)(1) ofloxacin. When M. aeruginosa was exposed to ?10 mg L(-)(1) ofloxacin, the electron transport rates of PSI and PSII, the yield of cyclic electron flow (CEF) and the contribution of linear electron flow (LEF) to PSI decreased whereas Y(NA) (limitation of donor side of PSI) and Y(NO) (the quantum yield of non-regulated energy dissipation in PSII) significantly increased. CEF had a significant contribution to alleviating the inhibitory effect of ofloxacin on PSI of M. aeruginosa treated with low concentrations of ofloxacin. The protective role CEF for tolerance of PSI to the toxicity of ofloxacin decreased with increasing ofloxacin concentration. PMID:25209631

Deng, Chunnuan; Pan, Xiangliang; Zhang, Daoyong

2015-02-01

332

THE MAGNETIC ENERGY-HELICITY DIAGRAM OF SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS  

SciTech Connect

Using a recently proposed nonlinear force-free method designed for single-vector magnetograms of solar active regions, we calculate the instantaneous free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity budgets in 162 vector magnetograms corresponding to 42 different active regions. We find a statistically robust, monotonic correlation between the free magnetic energy and the relative magnetic helicity in the studied regions. This correlation implies that magnetic helicity, in addition to free magnetic energy, may be an essential ingredient for major solar eruptions. Eruptive active regions appear well segregated from non-eruptive ones in both free energy and relative helicity with major (at least M-class) flares occurring in active regions with free energy and relative helicity exceeding 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 31} erg and 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 42} Mx{sup 2}, respectively. The helicity threshold agrees well with estimates of the helicity contents of typical coronal mass ejections.

Tziotziou, Kostas; Georgoulis, Manolis K. [Research Center for Astronomy and Applied Mathematics (RCAAM), Academy of Athens, 4 Soranou Efesiou Street, Athens, GR-11527 (Greece); Raouafi, Nour-Eddine [Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL), 11100 Johns Hopkins Rd. Laurel, MD 20723-6099 (United States)

2012-11-01

333

Are preferential flow paths perpetuated by microbial activity in the soil matrix? A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryRecently, the interactions between soil structure and microbes have been associated with water transport, retention and preferential or column flow development. Of particular significance is the potential impact of microbial extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on soil porosity (i.e., hydraulic conductivity reduction or bioclogging) and of exudates from biota, including bacteria, fungi, roots and earthworms on the degree of soil water repellency. These structural and surface property changes create points of wetting instability, which under certain infiltrating conditions can often result in the formation of persistent preferential flow paths. Moreover, distinct differences in physical and chemical properties between regions of water flow (preferential flow paths) and no-flow (soil matrix) provide a unique set of environmental living conditions for adaptable microorganisms to exist. In this review, special consideration is given to: (1) the functional significance of microbial activity in the host porous medium in terms of feedback mechanisms instigated by irregular water availability and (2) the related physical and chemical conditions that force the organization and formation of unique microbial habitats in unsaturated soils that prompt and potentially perpetuate the formation of preferential flow paths in the vadose zone.

Morales, Verónica L.; Parlange, J.-Yves; Steenhuis, Tammo S.

2010-10-01

334

Active Flow Control Techniques for use on Three Dimensional Hemispherical Turrets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hemispherical turrets have been a topic of considerable interest over the past several decades with studies focusing on airborne optical device applications. Highly three dimensional, turbulent flows develop in the wake of a turret, especially when a flat, optical aperture is in place on the hemisphere. Both open and closed-loop flow control have been successfully applied to this geometry to control the turbulent flow over the aperture, but control of large scale structures in the wake using open-loop flow control have been less effective. Fluctuating loads on the turret, which can induce undesired structural loading, have been attributed to strong, turbulent fluctuations in the velocity of the turret wake. The current work involves developing a more robust active control system (both open and closed-loop using suction based actuators) that will not only allow for the control of the flow over the aperture as Syracuse University is currently studying, but will also allow for control of the large scale flow structures that develop in the wake of a turret.

Shea, Patrick; Wallace, Ryan; Glauser, Mark

2009-11-01

335

Numerical Modeling and Simulations on Electo-Active Polymer Flow Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary focus of this study is to identify the effects of vibrating Electro-Active Polymer (EAP) flow control on the flow field, specifically within the boundary layer. The EAPs represent a light-weight and adaptable flow control solution for micro-air vehicles (MAV). In this study, the interaction of the flow field over a flat plate and NACA 0009 airfoil are modeled at a Reynolds number of 20,000 using an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian finite element formulation. In the simulations, the EAP vibration is prescribed based on the measurements from the experiments. The results show the EAPs do alter the boundary layer flow field and the size of the separation bubble. Three different diameter EAPs are examined on the flat plate model: 6mm, 9mm, and 12mm. Each is evaluated at different vibrational frequencies and maximum amplitudes. The performance of the EAPs on the NACA 0009 model are also evaluated while the airfoil is experiencing a pitching motion and gusts. Both instantaneous and time averaged flow fields are analyzed. The results from the numerical simulations are compared to baseline CFD simulations and wind tunnel results.

Weddle, Andrew; Amitay, Michael; Zhang, Lucy

2011-11-01

336

Chemiluminescence lateral flow immunoassay based on Pt nanoparticle with peroxidase activity.  

PubMed

A lateral flow immunoassay (LF-immunoassay) with an enhanced sensitivity and thermostability was developed by using Pt nanoparticles with a peroxidase activity. The Pt nanoparticles were synthesized by citrate reduction method, and the peroxidase activity of Pt nanoparticles was optimized by adjusting reaction conditions. The peroxidase activity was estimated by using Michaelis-Menten kinetics model with TMB as a chromogenic substrate. The kinetics parameters of KM and Vmax were calculated and compared with horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The thermal stability of the Pt nanoparticles was compared with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) according to the storage temperature and long-term storage period. The feasibility of lateral flow immunoassay with a chemiluminescent signal band was demonstrated by the detection of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) as a model analyte, and the sensitivity was determined to be improved by as much as 1000-fold compared to the conventional rapid test based on colored gold-colloids. PMID:25467480

Park, Jong-Min; Jung, Ha-Wook; Chang, Young Wook; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Kang, Min-Jung; Pyun, Jae-Chul

2015-01-01

337

Reduction of vortex shedding intensity from a cylinder using semi-active flow control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments were performed in the open water channel at the Waterpower Laboratory, NTNU, Norway, with the aim of reducing vortex shedding intensity by semi-active flow control. The test rig consisted of a perforated steel tube lined by a rubber bellows. The holes (d/D=0.6) formed a line at the leading edge, one tube diameter apart. Two flow control modes were attainable; (1) lining being flush with the cylinder wall, and (2) pressurized lining creating leading edge bumps. Upstream flow conditions were monitored, and used as input for the control loop governing the pressure of the lining. A flat metal rod, onto which strain gauges were glued, was positioned in the wake. It was assumed that the motion of the rod corresponded to the velocity components normal to the main flow direction. Thus the motion of the rod described the vortex shedding from the tube. Strouhal numbers were found to be approximately 0.3. It was the assumption that the bumps would disrupt vortex formation and reduce the vortex intensity. Tests showed that the assumption was plausible, with observed intensity reductions of 15-30% for ReD ˜ [20000 to 50000]. Plots also appear to show a breakdown of organization in the wake when the tube is in activated mode. It was shown that semi-active control of vortex shedding behind a cylinder is achievable.

Ekanger, Jarle V.; Kjeldsen, Morten

2011-11-01

338

Global energy conversion rate from geostrophic flows into internal lee waves in the deep ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A global estimate of the energy conversion rate from geostrophic flows into internal lee waves in the ocean is presented. The estimate is based on a linear theory applied to bottom topography at O(1-10) km scales obtained from single beam echo soundings, to bottom stratification estimated from climatology, and to bottom velocity obtained from a global ocean model. The total energy flux into internal lee waves is estimated to be 0.2 TW which is 20% of the global wind power input into the ocean. The geographical distribution of the energy flux is largest in the Southern Ocean which accounts for half of the total energy flux. The results suggest that the generation of internal lee waves at rough topography is a significant energy sink for the geostrophic flows as well as an important energy source for internal waves and the associated turbulent mixing in the deep ocean.

Nikurashin, Maxim; Ferrari, Raffaele

2011-04-01

339

UNDERSTANDING FLOW OF ENERGY IN BUILDINGS USING MODAL ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY  

SciTech Connect

It is widely understood that energy storage is the key to integrating variable generators into the grid. It has been proposed that the thermal mass of buildings could be used as a distributed energy storage solution and several researchers are making headway in this problem. However, the inability to easily determine the magnitude of the building’s effective thermal mass, and how the heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system exchanges thermal energy with it, is a significant challenge to designing systems which utilize this storage mechanism. In this paper we adapt modal analysis methods used in mechanical structures to identify the primary modes of energy transfer among thermal masses in a building. The paper describes the technique using data from an idealized building model. The approach is successfully applied to actual temperature data from a commercial building in downtown Boise, Idaho.

John Gardner; Kevin Heglund; Kevin Van Den Wymelenberg; Craig Rieger

2013-07-01

340

Performance of a piezoelectric energy harvester driven by air flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A turbulent wind source for possible energy harvesting is considered. To increase the amplitude of vibration, we apply a magnetopiezoelastic oscillator having a double well Duffing potential. The output voltage response of the system for different level of wind excitations is analyzed. The energy harvesting appeared to be the most efficient for the conditions close to the stochastic resonance region where the potential barrier was overcame.

Kitio Kwuimy, C. A.; Litak, G.; Borowiec, M.; Nataraj, C.

2012-01-01

341

Transient radiative energy transfer in incompressible laminar flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis and numerical procedures are presented to investigate the transient radiative interactions of nongray absorbing-emitting species in laminar fully-developed flows between two parallel plates. The particular species considered are OH, CO, CO2, and H2O and different mixtures of these. Transient and steady-state results are obtained for the temperaure distribution and bulk temperature for different plate spacings, wall temperatures, and pressures. Results, in general, indicate that the rate of radiative heating can be quite high during earlier times. This information is useful in designing thermal protection systems for transient operations.

Tiwari, S. N.; Singh, D. J.

1987-01-01

342

Aircraft energy efficiency laminar flow control wing design study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An engineering design study was performed in which laminar flow control (LFC) was integrated into the wing of a commercial passenger transport aircraft. A baseline aircraft configuration was selected and the wing geometry was defined. The LFC system, with suction slots, ducting, and suction pumps was integrated with the wing structure. The use of standard aluminum technology and advanced superplastic formed diffusion bonded titanium technology was evaluated. The results of the design study show that the LFC system can be integrated with the wing structure to provide a structurally and aerodynamically efficient wing for a commercial transport aircraft.

Bonner, T. F., Jr.; Pride, J. D., Jr.; Fernald, W. W.

1977-01-01

343

High-energy redox-flow batteries with hybrid metal foam electrodes.  

PubMed

A nonaqueous redox-flow battery employing [Co(bpy)3](+/2+) and [Fe(bpy)3](2+/3+) redox couples is proposed for use in large-scale energy-storage applications. We successfully demonstrate a redox-flow battery with a practical operating voltage of over 2.1 V and an energy efficiency of 85% through a rational cell design. By utilizing carbon-coated Ni-FeCrAl and Cu metal foam electrodes, the electrochemical reactivity and stability of the nonaqueous redox-flow battery can be considerably enhanced. Our approach intoduces a more efficient conversion of chemical energy into electrical energy and enhances long-term cell durability. The cell exhibits an outstanding cyclic performance of more than 300 cycles without any significant loss of energy efficiency. Considering the increasing demands for efficient energy storage, our achievement provides insight into a possible development pathway for nonaqueous redox-flow batteries with high energy densities. PMID:24906030

Park, Min-Sik; Lee, Nam-Jin; Lee, Seung-Wook; Kim, Ki Jae; Oh, Duk-Jin; Kim, Young-Jun

2014-07-01

344

Residual-Energy-Activated Cooperative Transmission (REACT) to Avoid the Energy Hole  

E-print Network

forward the traffic from the rest of the network. When this hole forms, a large amount of "excess" energy not always guarantee the lifetime extension of the network. When the energy hole forms, a large amountResidual-Energy-Activated Cooperative Transmission (REACT) to Avoid the Energy Hole Jin Woo Jung

Ingram, Mary Ann

345

Triboelectric-based harvesting of gas flow energy and powerless sensing applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we propose an approach that can convert gas flow energy to electric energy by using the triboelectric effect, in a structure integrating at least two conductive parts (i.e. electrodes) and one non-conductive sheet. The gas flow induces vibration of the cited parts. Therefore, the frequent attaching and releasing between a non-conductive layer with at least one electrode generates electrostatic charges on the surfaces, and then an electron flow between the two electrodes. The effect of blown gas on the output signals is studied to evaluate the gas flow sensing. We also illustrate that the introduced system has an ability to detect micro particles driven by air into the system. Finally we show how we can use this approach for a self sustainable system demonstrating smoke detection and LED lightening.

Taghavi, Majid; Sadeghi, Ali; Mazzolai, Barbara; Beccai, Lucia; Mattoli, Virgilio

2014-12-01

346

Modeling Hot Gas Flow in the Low-Luminosity Active Galactic Nucleus of NGC3115  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the dynamical estimates of the black hole (BH) mass, NGC3115 hosts the closest billion solar mass BH. Deep studies of the center revealed a very underluminous active galactic nucleus (AGN) immersed in an old massive nuclear star cluster. Recent 1Ms Chandra X-ray visionary project observations of the NGC3115 nucleus resolved hot tenuous gas, which fuels the AGN. In this work we connect the processes in the nuclear star cluster with the feeding of the supermassive BH. We model the hot gas flow sustained by the injection of matter and energy by the stars and supernova explosions. We incorporate electron heat conduction, the gravitational pull of the stellar mass, cooling, and Coulomb collisions. We reach reduced ?i^2=1 fitting simulated X-ray emission to the spatially and spectrally resolved observed X-ray data. Radial modeling favors a low BH mass <1.3*10^{9}Msun. The best-fitting supernova rate and the best-fitting mass injection rate are consistent with their expected values. The stagnation point is at r_ s 1arcsec, so that most of gas, including the gas at a Bondi radius r_B=2-4arcsec, outflows from the region. We put an upper limit on the accretion rate at 2*10^{-3}Msun/yr. We find a shallow density profile r^{-?} with ? 1 over a large dynamic range. This density profile is determined in the feeding region 0.5-10arcsec as an interplay of four processes and effects: (1) the radius-dependent mass injection, (2) the effect of the galactic gravitational potential, (3) the accretion flow onset at r<1arcsec, and (4) the outflow at r>1arcsec. Conduction makes the density profile shallow only very close to the BH at r<0.1arcsec. The gas temperature is close to the virial temperature T_v at any radius. The temperature profile is shallow outside of the Bondi radius because the enclosed stellar mass is proportional to radius M_en r, which leads to flat virial temperature profile.

Shcherbakov, Roman V.; Wong, K.; Irwin, J.; Reynolds, C. S.

2014-01-01

347

Engagement, enjoyment, and energy expenditure during active video game play  

PubMed Central

Objective Playing active video games can produce moderate levels of physical activity, but little is known about how these games motivate players to be active. Several psychological predictors, such as perceptions of competence, control, and engagement, may be associated with enjoyment of a game, which has in turn been hypothesized to predict energy expended during play. However, these relationships have yet to be tested in active video games. Methods Young adults aged 18–35 (N = 97, 50 female) < 300 pounds played a Dance Dance Revolution game for 13 minutes while energy expenditure was measured using indirect calorimetry. Self-reported measures of engagement, perceived competence, perceived control, and enjoyment were taken immediately afterwards. Mediation was analyzed using path analysis. Results A path model in which enjoyment mediated the effects of engagement, perceived competence, and perceived control on energy expenditure and BMI directly affected energy expenditure was an adequate fit to the data, ?2(1, N = 97) = .199, p = .655; CFI = 1.00; RMSEA < .001; 90% CI = .000 - .206; p = .692. Enjoyment mediated the relationship between engagement and energy expenditure (indirect effect = .138, p = .028), but other mediated effects were not significant. Conclusion Engagement, enjoyment, and BMI affect energy expended during active video game play. Games that are more enjoyable and engaging may produce greater intensity activity. Developers, practitioners, and researchers should consider characteristics that influence these predictors when creating or recommending active video games. PMID:23527520

Lyons, Elizabeth J.; Tate, Deborah F.; Ward, Dianne S.; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Bowling, J. Michael; Kalyanaraman, Sriram

2014-01-01

348

An Experimental Comparison of Min-Cut\\/Max-Flow Algorithms for Energy Minimization in Vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract After [15, 31, 19, 8, 25, 5] minimum cut\\/maximum flow algorithms on graphs emerged as an increasingly useful tool for exact or approximate,energy minimization,in low-level vision. The combinatorial,optimization,literature provides many,min-cut\\/max-flow algorithms with different polynomial time complexity. Their practical efficiency, however, has to date been studied mainly,outside the scope of computer,vision. The goal of this paper is to provide an

Yuri Boykov; Vladimir Kolmogorov

2004-01-01

349

An Experimental Comparison of Min-cut\\/Max-flow Algorithms for Energy Minimization in Vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

After (15, 31, 19, 8, 25, 5) minimum cut\\/maximum flow algorithms on graphs emerged as an increasingly useful tool for exact or approximate energy minimization in low-level vision. The combinatorial optimization literature provides many min-cut\\/max-flow algorithms with different polynomial time complexity. Their practical efficiency, however, has to date been studied mainly outside the scope of computer vision. The goal of

Yuri Boykov; Vladimir Kolmogorov

2001-01-01

350

Incident-energy and system-size dependence of directed flow  

E-print Network

We present STAR's measurements of directed flow for charged hadrons in Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at $\\sqrt{s_\\mathrm{NN}} = 200$ GeV and 62.4 GeV, as a function of pseudorapidity, transverse momentum and centrality. We find that directed flow depends on the incident energy, but not on the system size. We extend the validity of limiting fragmentation hypothesis to different collision systems.

Gang Wang

2007-02-14

351

A regional reconstruction of debris-flow activity in the Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dendrogeomorphic dating of historical debris-flow events is a highly valuable tool for improving historical records in the field of natural hazard management. Previous dendrogeomorphic investigations generally have focused on case studies of single torrents; however, regional investigations may offer a more accurate reconstruction of regional patterns of activity and therefore may have an advantage over individual cases. The aim of the study is to provide a regional reconstruction of debris-flow events for a site in the Northern Calcareous Alps of western Austria (Gamperdonatal, Vorarlberg) and to document spatial and temporal morphological changes in individual and neighboring torrents. Analysis of 442 trees (268 Pinus mugo ssp. uncinata, 164 Picea abies, and 10 Abies alba) allowed identification of 579 growth disturbances corresponding to 63 debris-flow events since A.D. 1839. The majority of growth disturbances were in the form of growth suppression or release (76%) owing to the nature of both the deposited material and the process characteristics. Regional patterns of event frequency indicated a paucity of activity in the early to mid-twentieth century and increased activity since A.D. 1948, whereby large events were followed by subsequent years of continued activity of smaller magnitude. Patterns of frequency could be attributed primarily to spatiotemporal changes in channel morphology, but may also be reflective of changes in transport conditions within the valley. This study provides the first regional investigation in the Austrian Alps and contributes to the documentation of tree responses to geomorphic disturbances in calcareous material.

Procter, Emily; Bollschweiler, Michelle; Stoffel, Markus; Neumann, Mathias

2011-09-01

352

Energy deposition, heat flow, and rapid solidification during laser and electron beam irradiation of materials  

SciTech Connect

The fundamentals of energy deposition, heat flow, and rapid solidification during energy deposition from lasers and electron beams is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the deposition of energy from pulsed sources (10 to 100 ns pulse duration time) in order to achieve high heating and cooling rates (10/sup 8/ to 10/sup 10/ /sup 0/C/s) in the near surface region. The response of both metals and semiconductors to pulsed energy deposition is considered. Guidelines are presented for the choice of energy source, wavelength, and pulse duration time.

White, C.W.; Aziz, M.J.

1985-10-01

353

Mitigation of Autoignition Due to Premixing in a Hypervelocity Flow Using Active Wall Cooling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preinjection of fuel on the forebody of an airbreathing vehicle is a proposed method to gain access to hypervelocity flight Mach numbers. However, this creates the possibility of autoignition either near the wall or in the core of the flow, thereby consuming fuel prematurely as well as increasing the amount of pressure drag on the vehicle. The computational fluid dynamics code VULCAN was used to conduct three dimensional simulations of the reacting flow in the vicinity of hydrogen injectors on a flat plate at conditions relevant to a Mach 12 notional flight vehicle forebody to determine the location where autoignition occurs. Active wall cooling strategies were formulated and simulated in response to regions of autoignition. It was found that tangential film cooling using hydrogen or helium were both able to nearly or completely eliminate wall autoignition in the flow domain of interest.

Axdahl, Erik; Kumar, Ajay; Wilhite, Alan

2013-01-01

354

High Energy Physics Division research activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes the research conducted in the High Energy Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory during the period of January 1, 1994-June 30, 1994. Topics covered here include experimental and theoretical particle physics, advanced accelerator physics, detector development, and experimental facilities research. Lists of division publications and colloquia are included.

1994-09-01

355

The study of surface-active element oxygen on flow patterns and penetration in A-TIG welding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-dimensional mathematical model was developed to simulate the flow patterns and temperature distributions in a moving A-TIG weld pool of 304 stainless steels with different oxygen content using PHOENICS software. It is shown that the surface-active element, oxygen, is important, because it affects the weld shape by changing the flow patterns in the weld pool. The weld bead penetration and the depth/width ratio increase first sharply and then remain nearly a constant with increasing oxygen content. Depending upon the oxygen contents, three, one, or two vortexes that have different positions, strength, and directions may be found in the weld pool. Oxygen can cause significant changes in the weld shape by varying the sign of the surface tension coefficient. The situation with the maximum surface tension moves from the edge to the center with increasing oxygen content. As oxygen content exceeds a critical value, a positive surface tension coefficient dominates the flow patterns. The vortexes with opposite directions caused by positive surface tension coefficient can efficiently transfer the thermal energy from the arc, creating a deep weld pool. The critical oxygen content increases with the increase of the welding current.

Zhao, Yuzhen; Shi, Yaowu; Lei, Yongping

2006-06-01

356

Activation energy of shear transformation zones: a key for understanding rheology of glasses and liquids.  

PubMed

Key manifestations of the glassy and liquid states, such as viscous flow and structural relaxation, occur spatial and temporal heterogeneously, within highly localized rare events, termed shear transformation zones. Characterization of these basic entities with respect to thermal activation and mechanical response is vital for understanding the rheology of glasses across length scales. This is achieved in classical molecular dynamics computer simulations on the model glass, CuTi, by determining the activation energy barrier and plastic yield strain of individual shear transformation zones as a function of size and external stress loading. Sizes of approximately equal to 140 atoms are identified to be especially energetically favorable with an activation energy barrier of approximately equal to 0.35 eV. Using these parameters, a rheology model is proposed to quantitatively explain viscosity. PMID:17155640

Mayr, S G

2006-11-10

357

Activation Energy of Shear Transformation Zones: A Key for Understanding Rheology of Glasses and Liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Key manifestations of the glassy and liquid states, such as viscous flow and structural relaxation, occur spatial and temporal heterogeneously, within highly localized rare events, termed shear transformation zones. Characterization of these basic entities with respect to thermal activation and mechanical response is vital for understanding the rheology of glasses across length scales. This is achieved in classical molecular dynamics computer simulations on the model glass, CuTi, by determining the activation energy barrier and plastic yield strain of individual shear transformation zones as a function of size and external stress loading. Sizes of ?140atoms are identified to be especially energetically favorable with an activation energy barrier of ?0.35eV. Using these parameters, a rheology model is proposed to quantitatively explain viscosity.

Mayr, S. G.

2006-11-01

358

The Geography of Wind Energy: Problem Solving Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today there are many attempts to use wind machines to confront the increasing costs of electricity. Described are activities to help secondary students understand wind energy, its distribution, applications, and limitations. (RM)

Lahart, David E.; Allen, Rodney F.

1985-01-01

359

Predicting Activity Energy Expenditure Using the Actical[R] Activity Monitor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study developed algorithms for predicting activity energy expenditure (AEE) in children (n = 24) and adults (n = 24) from the Actical[R] activity monitor. Each participant performed 10 activities (supine resting, three sitting, three house cleaning, and three locomotion) while wearing monitors on the ankle, hip, and wrist; AEE was computed…

Heil, Daniel P.

2006-01-01

360

Evolution of elliptic and triangular flow as a function of collision energy in a hybrid model  

E-print Network

We study the collision energy dependence of elliptic flow v_2 and triangular flow v_3 in Au+Au collisions within the energy range sqrt(s_{NN}) = 5-200 GeV, utilizing a transport + hydrodynamics hybrid model. The transport part is described by the Ultrarelativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) approach, combined with an intermediate (3+1)-dimensional ideal hydrodynamical evolution phase using a chiral model equation of state. We find the decrease of v_2 produced by hydrodynamics at lower collision energies partially compensated by the transport dynamics. This does not apply to v_3, which falls to 0 in midcentral collisions at sqrt(s_{NN}) = 5 GeV. We conclude that the triangular flow provides the clearer signal for the formation of low-viscous fluid in heavy ion collisions.

Jussi Auvinen; Hannah Petersen

2014-04-10

361

Numerical simulation of material and energy flow in an e-beam melt furnace  

SciTech Connect

A numerical analysis is made of the material and energy flow in an electron-beam furnace. Energy from an electron beam vaporizes metal confined in a water-cooled crucible. At the beam impact site a. recirculating liquid metal pool is surrounded by a shell of its own solid. A Galerkin finite element method is modified to solve for the flow and temperature fields along with interface locations. The deforming mesh is parameterized using spines that pivot and stretch as the interfaces move. Results are given for an aluminum vaporizer in which parametric variations are made in the e-beam power and liquid viscosity. The calculations reveal the importance of the coupling between the free boundaries and the flow and energy fields.

Westerberg, K.W.; McClelland, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Finlayson, B.A. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1993-12-01

362

Reduced cerebral blood flow with orthostasis precedes hypocapnic hyperpnea, sympathetic activation, and postural tachycardia syndrome.  

PubMed

Hyperventilation and reduced cerebral blood flow velocity can occur in postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS). We studied orthostatically intolerant patients, with suspected POTS, with a chief complaint of upright dyspnea. On the basis of our observations of an immediate reduction of cerebral blood flow velocity with orthostasis, we hypothesize that the resulting ischemic hypoxia of the carotid body causes chemoreflex activation, hypocapnic hyperpnea, sympathetic activation, and increased heart rate and blood pressure in this subset of POTS. We compared 11 dyspneic POTS subjects with 10 healthy controls during a 70° head-up tilt. In POTS subjects during initial orthostasis before blood pressure recovery; central blood volume and mean arterial pressure were reduced (P<0.025), resulting in a significant (P<0.001) decrease in cerebral blood flow velocity, which temporally preceded (17±6 s; P<0.025) a progressive increase in minute ventilation and decrease in end tidal CO2 (P<0.05) when compared with controls. Sympathoexcitation, measured by muscle sympathetic nerve activity, was increased in POTS (P<0.01) and inversely proportional to end tidal CO2 and resulted in an increase in heart rate (P<0.001), total peripheral resistance (P<0.025), and a decrease in cardiac output (P<0.025). The decrease in cerebral blood flow velocity and mean arterial pressure during initial orthostasis was greater (P<0.025) in POTS. Our data suggest that exaggerated initial central hypovolemia during initial orthostatic hypotension in POTS results in reduced cerebral blood flow velocity and postural hypocapnic hyperpnea that perpetuates cerebral ischemia. We hypothesize that sustained hypocapnia and cerebral ischemia produce sympathoexcitation, tachycardia, and a statistically significant increase in blood pressure. PMID:24711524

Del Pozzi, Andrew T; Schwartz, Christopher E; Tewari, Deepali; Medow, Marvin S; Stewart, Julian M

2014-06-01

363

Evaluation of Thermal Activation Energies from Glow Curves  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for the evaluation of thermal activation energies from glow curves of excited crystals is described. Use is made of the symmetry of the glow peak, from which the activation energy is calculated by a simple formula: E=(qdelta)kTg2, where Tg is the peak temperature, k-Boltzmann's constant, delta-the half-width towards the falloff of the glow peak, and q-a factor

A. Halperin; A. A. Braner

1960-01-01

364

Intracellular pH, esterase activity, and DNA measurements of human lung carcinomas by flow cytometry.  

PubMed

An important intention of flow cytometric investigations is to obtain biochemical and biophysical information about cells which is suitable for automated tumor diagnosis. In this study, the ploidy status, the intracellular pH value, the intracellular esterase activity, and the cell volume of vital cells and the DNA and cell volume of dead cells were measured in cancerous tissue and normal lung tissue of 30 patients by flow cytometry. The cell samples were simultaneously stained with the pH and esterase indicator dye 1.4-diacetoxy-2,3-dicyanobenzene (ADB) and propidium iodide (PI). The flow cytometric measurements were performed in three-parameter list mode. The data were evaluated on an AT-compatible personal computer with the DIAGNOS1 program system for automated diagnosis of flow cytometric list mode data. Significant differences were found between normal and malignant tissue in DNA ploidy, in the intracellular esterase activity, in the cell, volume and in the percentage of inflammatory cells and parameters of necrosis. DNA-aneuploidy was observed in 38% of the lung carcinomas. The simultaneous detection of DNA-aneuploidy and tumor-associated properties in a multifactorial analysis led to correct automatic tumor diagnosis in 85% of cases. DNA-aneuploidy was found at a significant higher frequency in advanced tumors. Adenocarcinomas displayed DNA-aneuploidy more often (80%) than squamous cell carcinomas (33%). PMID:2340771

Liewald, F; Demmel, N; Wirsching, R; Kahle, H; Valet, G

1990-01-01

365

Active current sheets and candidate hot flow anomalies upstream of Mercury's bow shock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hot flow anomalies (HFAs) represent a subset of solar wind discontinuities interacting with collisionless bow shocks. They are typically formed when the normal component of the motional (convective) electric field points toward the embedded current sheet on at least one of its sides. The core region of an HFA contains hot and highly deflected ion flows and rather low and turbulent magnetic field. In this paper, we report observations of possible HFA-like events at Mercury identified over a course of two planetary years. Using data from the orbital phase of the MESSENGER mission, we identify a representative ensemble of active current sheets magnetically connected to Mercury's bow shock. We show that some of these events exhibit magnetic and particle signatures of HFAs similar to those observed at other planets, and present their key physical characteristics. Our analysis suggests that Mercury's bow shock does not only mediate the flow of supersonic solar wind plasma but also provides conditions for local particle acceleration and heating as predicted by previous numerical simulations. Together with earlier observations of HFA activity at Earth, Venus, Mars, and Saturn, our results confirm that hot flow anomalies could be a common property of planetary bow shocks and show that the characteristic size of these events is controlled by the bow shock standoff distance and/or local solar wind conditions.

Uritsky, V. M.; Slavin, J. A.; Boardsen, S. A.; Sundberg, T.; Raines, J. M.; Gershman, D. J.; Collinson, G.; Sibeck, D.; Khazanov, G. V.; Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.

2014-02-01

366

Flow-induced platelet activation in bileaflet and monoleaflet mechanical heart valves.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to measure in vitro the procoagulant properties of platelets induced by flow through Carbomedics bileaflet and Bjork-Shiley monoleaflet mechanical heart valves (MHVs). Valves were mounted in a left ventricular assist device, and platelets were circulated through them under pulsatile flow. Platelet activation states (PAS) were measured during circulation using a modified prothrombinase method. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of turbulent, transient, and non-Newtonian blood flow patterns generated by the two valve designs were done using the Wilcox k - w turbulence model, and platelet shear-stress histories (the integral of shear-stress exposure with respect to time) through the two MHVs were calculated. PAS measurements indicated that the bileaflet MHV activated platelets at a rate more than twice that observed with the monoleaflet MHV. Turbulent flow patterns were evident in CFD simulations for both valves, and corroborated the PAS observations, showing that, for particles close to the leaflet(s), shear-stress exposure in the bileaflet MHV can be more than four times that in the monoleaflet valve. PMID:15446502

Yin, Wei; Alemu, Yared; Affeld, Klaus; Jesty, Jolyon; Bluestein, Danny

2004-08-01

367

Experimental Studies of Active and Passive Flow Control Techniques Applied in a Twin Air-Intake  

PubMed Central

The flow control in twin air-intakes is necessary to improve the performance characteristics, since the flow traveling through curved and diffused paths becomes complex, especially after merging. The paper presents a comparison between two well-known techniques of flow control: active and passive. It presents an effective design of a vortex generator jet (VGJ) and a vane-type passive vortex generator (VG) and uses them in twin air-intake duct in different combinations to establish their effectiveness in improving the performance characteristics. The VGJ is designed to insert flow from side wall at pitch angle of 90 degrees and 45 degrees. Corotating (parallel) and counterrotating (V-shape) are the configuration of vane type VG. It is observed that VGJ has the potential to change the flow pattern drastically as compared to vane-type VG. While the VGJ is directed perpendicular to the side walls of the air-intake at a pitch angle of 90 degree, static pressure recovery is increased by 7.8% and total pressure loss is reduced by 40.7%, which is the best among all other cases tested for VGJ. For bigger-sized VG attached to the side walls of the air-intake, static pressure recovery is increased by 5.3%, but total pressure loss is reduced by only 4.5% as compared to all other cases of VG. PMID:23935422

Joshi, Shrey; Jindal, Aman; Maurya, Shivam P.; Jain, Anuj

2013-01-01

368

Experimental studies of active and passive flow control techniques applied in a twin air-intake.  

PubMed

The flow control in twin air-intakes is necessary to improve the performance characteristics, since the flow traveling through curved and diffused paths becomes complex, especially after merging. The paper presents a comparison between two well-known techniques of flow control: active and passive. It presents an effective design of a vortex generator jet (VGJ) and a vane-type passive vortex generator (VG) and uses them in twin air-intake duct in different combinations to establish their effectiveness in improving the performance characteristics. The VGJ is designed to insert flow from side wall at pitch angle of 90 degrees and 45 degrees. Corotating (parallel) and counterrotating (V-shape) are the configuration of vane type VG. It is observed that VGJ has the potential to change the flow pattern drastically as compared to vane-type VG. While the VGJ is directed perpendicular to the side walls of the air-intake at a pitch angle of 90 degree, static pressure recovery is increased by 7.8% and total pressure loss is reduced by 40.7%, which is the best among all other cases tested for VGJ. For bigger-sized VG attached to the side walls of the air-intake, static pressure recovery is increased by 5.3%, but total pressure loss is reduced by only 4.5% as compared to all other cases of VG. PMID:23935422

Paul, Akshoy Ranjan; Joshi, Shrey; Jindal, Aman; Maurya, Shivam P; Jain, Anuj

2013-01-01

369

Debris flow evolution and the activation of an explosive hydrothermal system; Te Maari, Tongariro, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of the pre- and post-eruption topography, together with observations of the avalanche deposition sequence, yields a triggering mechanism for the 6 August 2012 eruption of Upper Te Maari. The avalanche was composed of a wedge of c. 683 000-774 000 m3 of coarse breccia, spatter and clay-rich tuffs and diamictons which slid from the western flanks of the Upper Te Maari Crater, the failure plane is considered to be a hydrothermally altered clay layer. This landslide led to a pressure drop of up to 0.5 MPa, enough to generate an explosive eruption from the hydrothermal system below, which had been activated over the months earlier by additional heat and gas from a shallow intrusion. The landslide transformed after c. 700 m into a clay-rich cohesive debris flow, eroding soils from steep, narrow stretches of channel, before depositing on intermediate broad flatter reaches. After each erosive reach, the debris flow contained greater clay and mud contents and became more mobile. At c. 2 km flow distance, however, the unsaturated flow stopped, due to a lack of excess pore pressure. This volume controlled flow deposited thick, steep sided lobes behind an outer levee, accreting inward and upward to form a series of curved surface ridges.

Procter, J. N.; Cronin, S. J.; Zernack, A. V.; Lube, G.; Stewart, R. B.; Nemeth, K.; Keys, H.

2014-10-01

370

Quantitative modal analysis of optical power flow and energy loss in photonic structures with a dipole emission source.  

PubMed

Fourier modal method based quantitative analysis method of optical power flow and energy loss in general multi-block photonic structures with an internal dipole emitter is described. The analytic expressions of modal power flow and loss are derived for accurate and efficient quantitative analysis. It is revealed that a few dominating excited photonic modes substantially govern the internal energy flow and energy loss. The optical characteristics of the dominant modes are investigated. PMID:25089469

Choi, Sujin; Baek, Seungin; Im, Dajeong; Kahng, Hyun Kook; Kim, Hwi

2014-07-28

371

Flow-induced platelet activation and damage accumulation in a mechanical heart valve: numerical studies.  

PubMed

A model for platelet activation based on the theory of damage, incorporating cumulative effects of stress history and past damage (senescence) was applied to a three-dimensional (3-D) model of blood flow through a St. Jude Medical (SJM) bileaflet mechanical heart valve (MHV), simulating flow conditions after implantation. The calculations used unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes formulation with non-Newtonian blood properties. The results were used to predict platelet damage from total stress (shear, turbulent, deformation), and incorporate the contribution of repeated passages of the platelets along pertinent trajectories. Trajectories that exposed the platelets to elevated levels of stress around the MHV leaflets and led them to entrapment within the complex 3-D vortical structures in the wake of the valve significantly enhanced platelet activation. This damage accumulation model can be used to quantify the thrombogenic potential of implantable cardiovascular devices, and indicate the problem areas of the device for improving their designs. PMID:17725695

Alemu, Yared; Bluestein, Danny

2007-09-01

372

National Energy Education Development: Curriculum Guides and Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Energy Education Development (NEED) project develops and distributes comprehensive, hands-on energy education programs to schools nationwide. These resources are correlated to the National Science Education Standards, and to many state standards as well. Resources on this page include 'Energy Infobooks' on energy types (biomass, geothermal, uranium, coal, electricity, wind, and gas) which include downloadable teacher guides and class activities for all grade levels. Also available is the Plug Loads Booklet which guides students through an in-depth investigation of electricity usage by appliances and machines in their school building. Students gather data and calculate energy consumption and economic and environmental costs over time.

373

Remote Determination of Auroral Energy Characteristics During Substorm Activity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultraviolet auroral images from the Ultraviolet Imager onboard the POLAR satellite can be used as quantitative remote diagnostics of the auroral regions, yielding estimates of incident energy characteristics, compositional changes, and other higher order data products. In particular, images of long and short wavelength N2 Lyman-Birge-Hopfield (LBH) emissions can be modeled to obtain functions of energy flux and average energy that are basically insensitive to changes in seasonal and solar activity changes. This technique is used in this study to estimate incident electron energy flux and average energy during substorm activity occurring on May 19, 1996. This event was simultaneously observed by WIND, GEOTAIL, INTERBALL, DMSP and NOAA spacecraft as well as by POLAR. Here incident energy estimates derived from Ultraviolet Imager (UVI) are compared with in situ measurements of the same parameters from an overflight by the DMSP F12 satellite coincident with the UVI image times.

Germany, G. A.; Parks, G. K.; Brittnacher, M. J.; Cumnock, J.; Lummerzheim, D.; Spann, J. F., Jr.

1997-01-01

374

Momentum-energy transport from turbulence driven by parallel flow shear  

SciTech Connect

The low frequency E {times} B turbulence driven by the shear in the mass flow velocity parallel to the magnetic field is studied using the fluid theory in a slab configuration with magnetic shear. Ion temperature gradient effects are taken into account. The eigenfunctions of the linear instability are asymmetric about the mode rational surfaces. Quasilinear Reynolds stress induced by such asymmetric fluctuations produces momentum and energy transport across the magnetic field. Analytic formulas for the parallel and perpendicular Reynolds stress, viscosity and energy transport coefficients are given. Experimental observations of the parallel and poloidal plasma flows on TEXT-U are presented and compared with the theoretical models.

Dong, J.Q.; Horton, W.; Bengtson, R.D.; Li, G.X. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1994-04-01

375

Explorations of electric current system in solar active regions. I - Empirical inferences of the current flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques to identify sources of electric current systems and their channels of flow in solar active regions are explored. Measured photospheric vector magnetic fields together with high-resolution white-light and H-alpha filtergrams provide the data base to derive the current systems in the photosphere and chromosphere. As an example, the techniques are then applied to infer current systems in AR 2372 in early April 1980.

Ding, Y. J.; Hong, Q. F.; Hagyard, M. J.; Deloach, A. C.; Liu, X. P.

1987-01-01

376

The effect of amphetamine on regional cerebral blood flow during cognitive activation in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore the role of monoamines on cerebral function during specific prefrontal cognitive activation, we conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study of the effects of 0.25 mg\\/kg oral dextroamphetamine on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) as determined by 133Xe dynamic single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT) during performance of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and a sensorimotor control task. Ten patients

David G. Daniel; Daniel R. Weinberger; Douglas W. Jones; Jeffrey Fl Zigun; Richard Coppola; Sharon Handel; Llewellyn B. Bigelow; Terry E. Goldberg; Karen F. Berman; Joel E. Kleinman

1991-01-01

377

Continuous monitoring of a large active earth flow using an integrated GPS - automatic total station approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landslide monitoring has evolved as a crucial tool in civil protection to mitigate and prevent disasters. The research presents an approach to continuous monitoring of a large-scale active earth flow using a system that integrates surface measurements obtained by a GPS and an automatic total station. With the data obtained from the system the landslide can be monitored in near-real-time

A. Corsini

2009-01-01

378

Rapid parallel flow cytometry assays of active GTPases using effector beads  

PubMed Central

We describe a rapid assay for measuring the cellular activity of small GTPases in response to a specific stimulus. Effector functionalized beads are used to quantify in parallel multiple, GTP-bound GTPases in the same cell lysate by flow cytometry. In a biologically relevant example, five different Ras family GTPases are shown for the first time to be involved in a concerted signaling cascade downstream of receptor ligation by Sin Nombre hantavirus. PMID:23928044

Buranda, Tione; BasuRay, Soumik; Swanson, Scarlett; Agola, Jacob; Bondu, Virginie; Wandinger-Ness, Angela

2013-01-01

379

A Chemiluminescent Flow Sensing Device for Determination of Choline and Phospholipase D Activity in Biological Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chemiluminescent flow-sensing device for the determination of phospholipase D (PLD) activity and\\/or choline (Ch) in biological samples using choline oxidase (ChO) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) immobilized on Eupergit C (polymer beads of methacrylamide,N-methylene-bis-methacrylamide, and allyl-glycidyl-ether) was developed. The best results were obtained with immobilized ChO and HRP at a polymer beads wet weight ratio of 16:1. The optimized parameters

Pavel Rauch; Elida N. Ferri; Stefano Girotti; Hana Rauchova; Giacomo Carrea; Roberto Bovara; F. Fini; Aldo Roda

1997-01-01

380

Lab Activity: Earth's Energy Budget and the Greenhouse Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Earth's Energy Budget and the Greenhouse Effect" is a lab activity in which students use computers and scientific applications software to access, display, describe, analyze, and interpret global, climate-related data sets related to the earth's energy budget and the greenhouse effect.

Dave Dempsey

381

Energy prices and aggregate economic activity: an interpretative survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we survey the theory and evidence linking fluctuations in energy prices to those in aggregate economic activity. We then examine the implications of this research for both monetary policy and energy policy in response to oil price shocks. The currently available research seems to provide relatively reliable guidance for monetary policy. Because the precise channels through which

Stephen P. A. Brown; Mine K. Yücel

2002-01-01

382

Activity coefficients in dilute aqueous solutions from free energy simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous mixtures are encountered in a large number of industrial operations, such as petroleum processing, coal gasification, separations, and waste treatment. The free energy perturbation method with Monte Carlo simulations has been used to calculate relative solvation free energies and ratios of activity coefficients of organic solutes at infinite-dilution in water at 25 C. System studied include hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons,

Themis Lazaridis; Michael E. Paulaitis

1993-01-01

383

Energy Conservation Activity Guide, Grades 9-12. Bulletin 1602.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As an interdisciplinary, non-sequential teaching guide, this publication was developed to increase awareness and understanding of the energy situation and to encourage individuals to become energy conservationists. Sections provide background information for the teacher followed by a variety of student activities using different subject areas for…

Fraser, Mollie; And Others

384

The signature of dark energy on the local Hubble flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using N-body simulations of flat, dark energy-dominated cosmologies, we show that galaxies around simulated binary systems resembling the Local Group (LG) have low peculiar velocities, in good agreement with observational data. We have compared results for LG-like systems selected from large, high-resolution simulations of three cosmologies: a LambdaCDM model, a LambdaWDM model with a 2-keV warm dark matter candidate, and

Andrea V. Macciò; Fabio Governato; Cathy Horellou

2005-01-01

385

Conservation II. Science Activities in Energy. [Student's and] Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for science students in fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, the activities in this unit illustrate principles and problems related to the conservation of energy. Eleven student activities using art, economics, arithmetic, and other skills and disciplines help teachers directly involve students in exploring scientific questions and making…

Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

386

Flow cytometric analysis of activated sludge with rRNA-targeted probes.  

PubMed Central

Samples from a wastewater treatment plant were hybridized with fluorescein-labeled oligonucleotide probes specific for members of the domains Bacteria and Eucarya; the alpha, beta, and gamma subclasses of the class Proteobacteria; or the genus Acinetobacter. Subsequently, they were counterstained with the DNA-specific dye Hoechst 33342 and analyzed by flow cytometry. By quantifying forward angle light scatter and Hoechst- and probe-conferred fluorescence as measures for cell size, DNA content, and rRNA content, respectively, not only relative abundances but also assessments of general metabolic activity for each of these groups were obtained. Hybridizations with a positive control probe binding to all bacteria showed that in the activated-sludge samples examined, 70 to 80% of the Hoechst-stained cells could unambiguously be identified by this method. The majority of the detected cells (approximately 40%) were beta-subclass Proteobacteria. Flow cytometric and microscopic counts were in general agreement. Discrepancies were found in particular for those populations that occurred predominantly in flocs (alpha subclass of the Proteobacteria) or chains (Acinetobacter spp.). Although the dispersal of aggregates needs to be improved, flow cytometry combined with rRNA-based in situ probing appears to be a powerful tool for the rapid and highly automated analysis of the microbial communities in activated sludge. PMID:7646023

Wallner, G; Erhart, R; Amann, R

1995-01-01

387

Impact of Groundwater Flow and Energy Load on Multiple Borehole Heat Exchangers.  

PubMed

The effect of array configuration, that is, number, layout, and spacing, on the performance of multiple borehole heat exchangers (BHEs) is generally known under the assumption of fully conductive transport. The effect of groundwater flow on BHE performance is also well established, but most commonly for single BHEs. In multiple-BHE systems the effect of groundwater advection can be more complicated due to the induced thermal interference between the boreholes. To ascertain the influence of groundwater flow and borehole arrangement, this study investigates single- and multi-BHE systems of various configurations. Moreover, the influence of energy load balance is also examined. The results from corresponding cases with and without groundwater flow as well as balanced and unbalanced energy loads are cross-compared. The groundwater flux value, 10(-7) m/s, is chosen based on the findings of previous studies on groundwater flow interaction with BHEs and thermal response tests. It is observed that multi-BHE systems with balanced loads are less sensitive to array configuration attributes and groundwater flow, in the long-term. Conversely, multi-BHE systems with unbalanced loads are influenced by borehole array configuration as well as groundwater flow; these effects become more pronounced with time, unlike when the load is balanced. Groundwater flow has more influence on stabilizing loop temperatures, compared to array characteristics. Although borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) systems have a balanced energy load function, preliminary investigation on their efficiency shows a negative impact by groundwater which is due to their dependency on high temperature gradients between the boreholes and surroundings. PMID:25227154

Emad Dehkordi, S; Schincariol, Robert A; Olofsson, Bo

2014-09-16

388

Energy: Multidisciplinary Activities for the Classroom. Top Hit Energy Lesson Plans, K-1, 2-6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This six-volume set of multidisciplinary instructional materials developed by the National Energy Foundation (NEF) presents energy activities for grades K-1, 2-6. The instructional materials are teacher-developed, teacher-tested, and multi-disciplinary. The lesson plans and activities are organized around seven goal areas of a NEF developed…

National Energy Foundation, Salt Lake City, UT.

389

Energy-Bounded Flow Approximation on a Cartesian-Product Grid over Rough Terrain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct a method for modelling of three-dimensional, time dependent, compressible fluid flow in a gravitational field on a rotating cartesian-product grid with a spatially rough metric that bounds solutions by the total initial physical energy. Specifically: (1) the total physical energy is an / 2 norm on the model state and (2) this total energy cannot increase provided the timestep does not exceed CFL limits. In particular, the first property means that our measure of the energy is always positive unless the mass, momentum, and internal energy are all everywhere zero. These conditions guarantee that no error can grow unchecked. This is thought to be a desirable property, although only in the case of linear systems is it sufficient for convergence of a consistent approximation to the true solution. The great merit of this choice of norm is that the method is applicable to a wide variety of real physical problems because, even in complex circumstances, the total physical energy is conserved and each component of this energy is in limited supply. We first note that conservation of energy is equivalent to antisymmetry of a particular tendency operator. Energy-bounded approximations of fluid flow are then constructed either from antisymmetric finite difference operators, or from antisymmetric Galerkin operators. The method may be particularly useful when reliability in difficult conditions is needed. For example, when the viscosity must be small in order to simulate flow separation or turbulence, a model of viscous dissipation may be chosen purely from physical considerations, uncompromised by any requirements of numerical stability. We demonstrate this for an "internal hydraulic jump" flow over a bell-shaped mountain, simulating an internal wave as it steepens and breaks to form a turbulent jump.

Purnell, Don K.; Revell, Michael J.

1993-07-01

390

Energy-bounded flow approximation on a cartesian-product grid over rough terrain  

SciTech Connect

We construct a method for modelling of three-dimensional, time dependent, compressible fluid flow in a gravitational field on a rotating cartesian-product grid with a spatially rough metric that bounds solutions by the total initial physical energy. Specifically: (1) the total physical energy is an l{sub 2} norm on the model state and (2) this total energy cannot increase provided the timestep does not exceed CFL limits. In particular, the first property means that our measure of the energy is always positive unless the mass, momentum, and internal energy are all everywhere zero. These conditions guarantee that no error can grow unchecked. This is though to be a desirable property, although only in the case of linear systems is it sufficient for convergence of a consistent approximation to the true solution. The great merit of this choice of norm is that the method is applicable to a wide variety of real physical problems because, even in complex circumstances, the total physical energy is conserved and each component of this energy is in limited supply. We first note that conservation of energy is equivalent to antisymmetry of a particular tendency operator. Energy-bounded approximations of fluid flow are then constructed either from antisymmetric Galerkin operators. The method may be particularly useful when reliability in difficult conditions is needed. For example, when the viscosity must be small in order to simulate flow separation or turbulence, a model of viscuous dissipation may be chosen purely from physical considerations, uncompromised by any requirements of numerical stability. We demonstrate this for an {open_quotes}internal hydraulic jump{close_quotes} flow over a bell-shaped mountain, simulating an internal wave as it steepens and breaks to form a turbulent jump. 15 refs., 6 figs.

Purnell, D.K.; Revell, M.J. [National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research Ltd., Wellington (New Zealand)] [National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research Ltd., Wellington (New Zealand)

1993-07-01

391

Boltzmann rovibrational collisional coarse-grained model for internal energy excitation and dissociation in hypersonic flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Boltzmann rovibrational collisional coarse-grained model is proposed to reduce a detailed kinetic mechanism database developed at NASA Ames Research Center for internal energy transfer and dissociation in N2-N interactions. The coarse-grained model is constructed by lumping the rovibrational energy levels of the N2 molecule into energy bins. The population of the levels within each bin is assumed to follow a Boltzmann distribution at the local translational temperature. Excitation and dissociation rate coefficients for the energy bins are obtained by averaging the elementary rate coefficients. The energy bins are treated as separate species, thus allowing for non-Boltzmann distributions of their populations. The proposed coarse-grained model is applied to the study of nonequilibrium flows behind normal shock waves and within converging-diverging nozzles. In both cases, the flow is assumed inviscid and steady. Computational results are compared with those obtained by direct solution of the master equation for the rovibrational collisional model and a more conventional multitemperature model. It is found that the proposed coarse-grained model is able to accurately resolve the nonequilibrium dynamics of internal energy excitation and dissociation-recombination processes with only 20 energy bins. Furthermore, the proposed coarse-grained model provides a superior description of the nonequilibrium phenomena occurring in shock heated and nozzle flows when compared with the conventional multitemperature models.

Munafò, A.; Panesi, M.; Magin, T. E.

2014-02-01

392

Boltzmann rovibrational collisional coarse-grained model for internal energy excitation and dissociation in hypersonic flows.  

PubMed

A Boltzmann rovibrational collisional coarse-grained model is proposed to reduce a detailed kinetic mechanism database developed at NASA Ames Research Center for internal energy transfer and dissociation in N(2)-N interactions. The coarse-grained model is constructed by lumping the rovibrational energy levels of the N(2) molecule into energy bins. The population of the levels within each bin is assumed to follow a Boltzmann distribution at the local translational temperature. Excitation and dissociation rate coefficients for the energy bins are obtained by averaging the elementary rate coefficients. The energy bins are treated as separate species, thus allowing for non-Boltzmann distributions of their populations. The proposed coarse-grained model is applied to the study of nonequilibrium flows behind normal shock waves and within converging-diverging nozzles. In both cases, the flow is assumed inviscid and steady. Computational results are compared with those obtained by direct solution of the master equation for the rovibrational collisional model and a more conventional multitemperature model. It is found that the proposed coarse-grained model is able to accurately resolve the nonequilibrium dynamics of internal energy excitation and dissociation-recombination processes with only 20 energy bins. Furthermore, the proposed coarse-grained model provides a superior description of the nonequilibrium phenomena occurring in shock heated and nozzle flows when compared with the conventional multitemperature models. PMID:25353565

Munafò, A; Panesi, M; Magin, T E

2014-02-01

393

Emplacement and inflation of pahoehoe sheet flows: observations and measurements of active lava flows on Kilauea volcano, Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Inflated pahoehoe sheet flows have a distinctive horizontal upper surface, which can be several hundred meters across, and are bounded to steep monoclinal uplifts. The inflated sheet flows studied ranged from 1 to 5 m in thickness, but initially propagated as thin sheets of fluid pahoehoe lava, generally 20-30 cm thick. The morphology of the lava as flow advanced is described. Inflated sheet flows from Kilauea and Mauna Loa are morphologically similar to some thick Icelandic and submarine sheet flows, suggesting a similar mechanism of emplacement. -from Authors

Hon, K.; Kauahikaua, J.; Denlinger, R.; Mackay, K.

1994-01-01

394

Holocene activity of an alpine debris-flow catchment: does climate control erosion rate variability?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Zielbach catchment is located in the central-eastern Italian Alps. It covers an area of ca. 40 km2 and is characterized by fluvial sediment transport along the main drainage basin, and by the supply of sediment through debris flows, derived from a ca. 10 km2 tributary catchment. A debris-flow database demonstrates that nowadays this latter tributary dominates the sediment budget of the entire Zielbach. In this study, we analyze modern and paleo-erosion rates of the catchment through the application of the cosmogenic nuclides technique. For modern erosion rate, samples of river-born sand were taken from the main river and tributaries along the entire drainage system, while paleo-erosion rates are calculated thanks to cores' samples, which were collected on the alluvial fan and which were likewise dated based on 14C measurements of organic matter. Results obtained from the modern drainage system reveal the spatial erosion rate variability that characterizes the catchment nowadays (values ranging from 2.6 to 0.15 mm/yr). This spatial pattern is characterized by a generally increasing trend of 10Be values where hillslope contributions predominate and by a decreasing concentration trend where sediment has been supplied by debris flows. Results obtained from the cores allow the reconstruction of the Zielbach Holocene evolution and the assignment of the climate role on the temporal erosion rate variability (values ranging between 21 and 0.43 mm/yr). 14C concentrations of organic material collected from the core material indicate a lowermost age of 10'000 yr at ca. 35 m depth. The sedimentary fabric of the deposits indicates that the fan is built up by alternation of alluvial and debris-flow deposits, where the latter ones dominate in volumes. The stratigraphic architecture also infers that alluvial deposits correspond to periods of low activity of the debris-flow catchment. Most important, however, paleo-erosion rates indicate a decreasing trend for the debris-flow activity from ca. 10'000 yr to the present, with values decreasing from ca. 21 to 0.8 mm/yr. During the same time span, the alluvial sediment supplied by the main catchment appears to have been steady, as indicated by a constant basin-averaged denudation rate of 0.45 mm/yr. The comparison of these results with the climatic history of the valley reveals that periods of high activity of the debris flow catchment (associated with higher 10Be-based erosion rates) correspond to periods of a wetter and cooler climate. In particular, the highest value (21 mm/yr) seems to be related to the late glacial phase, which presumably started after the LGM and terminated around 10'000 yr, while a reactivation of the debris-flow activity, with erosion rates around 1.0 mm/yr, corresponds to the Holocene climatic deterioration at ca. 3'500 yr B.P. The alluvial phase of the Zielbach catchment (erosion rate of ca. 0.43 mm/yr), marked by absent or lower debris-flow activity, seems to be related to the Holocene climatic optimum between 8'000 and 4'000 years ago.

Savi, S.; Norton, K. P.; Brardinoni, F.; Akçar, N.; Kubik, P.; Picotti, V.; Schlunegger, F.

2012-12-01

395

Energy flow and charged particle spectra in deep inelastic scattering at HERA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global properties of the hadronic final state in deep inelastic scattering events at HERA are investigated. The data are corrected for detector effects and are compared directly with QCD phenomenology. Energy flows in both the laboratory frame and the hadronic centre of mass system and energy-energy correlations in the laboratory frame are presented. Comparing various QCD models, the colour dipole model provides the only satisfactory description of the data. In the hadronic centre of mass system the momentum components of charged particles longitudinal and transverse to the virtual boson direction are measured and compared with lower energy lepton-nucleon scattering data as well as with e + e - dat from LEP.

Abt, I.; Ahmed, T.; Andreev, V.; Aid, S.; Andrieu, B.; Appuhn, R.-D.; Arpagaus, M.; Babaev, A.; Bärwolff, H.; Bán, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bassler, U.; Beck, H. P.; Behrend, H.-J.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Bergstein, H.; Bernardi, G.; Bernet, R.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Besançon, M.; Biddulph, P.; Binder, E.; Bizot, J. C.; Blobel, V.; Borras, K.; Bosetti, P. C.; Boudry, V.; Bourdarios, C.; Braemer, A.; Brasse, F.; Braun, U.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Büngener, L.; Bürger, J.; Büsser, F. W.; Buniatian, A.; Burke, S.; Buschhorn, G.; Campbell, A. J.; Carli, T.; Charles, F.; Chyla, J.; Clarke, D.; Clegg, A. B.; Colombo, M.; Coughlan, J. A.; Courau, A.; Coutures, Ch.; Cozzika, G.; Criegee, L.; Cvach, J.; Dagoret, S.; Dainton, J. B.; Danilov, M.; Dann, A. W. E.; Dau, W. D.; David, M.; Deffur, E.; Delcourt, B.; Del Buono, L.; Devel, M.; de Roeck, A.; di Nezza, P.; Dingus, P.; Dollfus, C.; Dowell, J. D.; Dreis, H. B.; Drescher, A.; Duboc, J.; Düllmann, D.; Dünger, O.; Duhm, H.; Ebbinghaus, R.; Eberle, M.; Ebert, J.; Ebert, T. R.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Ehrlichmann, H.; Eichenberger, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellis, N. N.; Ellison, R. J.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Evrard, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Feeken, D.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Fensome, I. F.; Ferencei, J.; Ferrarotto, F.; Flamm, K.; Flauger, W.; Fleischer, M.; Flieser, M.; Flügge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Fominykh, B.; Forbush, M.; Formánek, J.; Foster, J. M.; Franke, G.; Fretwurst, E.; Fuhrmann, P.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamerdinger, K.; Garvey, J.; Gayler, J.; Gebauer, M.; Gellrich, A.; Gennis, M.; Genzel, H.; Gerhards, R.; Godfrey, L.; Goerlach, U.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goldner, D.; Goodall, A. M.; Gorelov, I.; Goritchev, P.; Grab, C.; Grässler, H.; Grässler, R.; Greenshaw, T.; Greif, H.; Grindhammer, G.; Gruber, A.; Gruber, C.; Haack, J.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Hamon, O.; Hampel, M.; Hanlon, E. M.; Hapke, M.; Harjes, J.; Haydar, R.; Haynes, W. J.; Heatherington, J.; Hedberg, V.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herma, R.; Herynek, I.; Hildesheim, W.; Hill, P.; Hilton, C. D.; Hladký, J.; Hoeger, K. C.; Höppner, M.; Huet, Ph.; Hufnagel, H.; Huot, N.; Ibbotson, M.; Itterbeck, H.; Jabiol, M.-A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacobsson, C.; Jaffre, M.; Jansen, T.; Jönsson, L.; Johannsen, K.; Johnson, D. P.; Johnson, L.; Jung, H.; Kalmus, P. I. P.; Kant, D.; Kazarian, S.; Kaschowitz, R.; Kasselmann, P.; Kathage, U.; Kaufmann, H. H.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kermiche, S.; Keuker, C.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Knies, G.; Ko, W.; Köhler, T.; Kolanoski, H.; Kole, F.; Kolya, S. D.; Korbel, V.; Korn, M.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S. K.; Krasny, M. W.; Krücker, D.; Krüger, U.; Kubenka, J. P.; Küster, H.; Kuhlen, M.; Kur?a, T.; Kurzhöfer, J.; Kuznik, B.; Lacour, D.; Lamarche, F.; Lander, R.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Langkau, R.; Lanius, P.; Laporte, J. F.; Lebedev, A.; Leuschner, A.; Leverenz, C.; Levonian, S.; Lewin, D.; Ley, Ch.; Lindner, A.; Lindström, G.; Linsel, F.; Lipinski, J.; Loch, P.; Lohmander, H.; Lopez, G. C.; Lüers, D.; Lüke, D.; Magnussen, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mani, S.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martens, J.; Martin, R.; Martyn, H.-U.; Martyniak, J.; Masson, S.; Mavroidis, A.; Maxfield, S. J.; McMahon, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Mercer, D.; Merz, T.; Meyer, C. A.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Monnier, E.; Moreau, F.; Moreels, J.; Morris, J. V.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Murray, S. A.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Newton, D.; Neyret, D.; Nguyen, H. K.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nisius, R.; Nowak, G.; Noyes, G. W.; Nyberg, M.; Oberlack, H.; Obrock, U.; Olsson, J. E.; Orenstein, S.; Ould-Saada, F.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peppel, E.; Peters, S.; Phillips, H. T.; Phillips, J. P.; Pichler, Ch.; Pilgram, W.; Pitzl, D.; Prell, S.; Prosi, R.; Rädel, G.; Raupach, F.; Rauschnabel, K.; Reimer, P.; Reinshagen, S.; Ribarics, P.; Riech, V.; Riedlberger, J.; Riess, S.; Rietz, M.; Robertson, S. M.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rosenbauer, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Royon, C.; Rudowicz, M.; Ruffer, M.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sahlmann, N.; Sanchez, E.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Savitsky, M.; Schacht, P.; Schleper, P.; von Schlippe, W.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, D.; Schmitz, W.; Schöning, A.; Schröder, V.; Schuhmann, E.; Schulz, M.; Schwab, B.; Schwind, A.; Scobel, W.; Seehausen, U.; Sell, R.; Semenov, A.; Shekelyan, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shooshtari, H.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Siegmon, G.; Siewert, U.; Sirois, Y.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Smirnov, P.; Smith, J. R.; Soloviev, Y.; Spitzer, H.; Steenbock, M.; Steffen, P.; Steinberg, R.; Stella, B.; Stephens, K.; Stier, J.; Stösslein, U.; Strachota, J.; Straumann, U.; Struczinski, W.

1994-09-01

396

Energy flow in hadronic collision around ?s ~ 1 TeV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simple energy flow measurements at new pp colliders are suggested which will reflect the way in which interaction energy is divided between rest mass and kinetic energy of secondaries. Such experiments will contribute to resolution of a fundamental astrophysical problem, the composition of primary cosmic rays around 1015 eV. I am grateful to Professor Ch.Y. Christov, Professor P.K. Markov and Todor Stanev for their hospitality at the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy in Sofia, where this work was begun, and to Chris Quigg and J.D. Bjorken for the invitation to visit Fermilab, where it was completed.

Gaisser, T. K.

1981-04-01

397

Nonperturbative Flow Equations and Low--Energy QCD  

E-print Network

We review the formalism of the effective average action in quantum field theory which corresponds to a coarse grained free energy in statistical mechanics. The associated exact renormalization group equation and possible nonperturbative approximations for its solution are discussed. This is applied to QCD where one observes the consecutive emergence of mesonic bound states and spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking as the coarse graining scale is lowered. We finally present a study of the phenomenological importance of non--renormalizable terms in the effective linear meson model.

D. -U. Jungnickel; C. Wetterich

1996-10-11

398

Progress Towards Fuselage Drag Reduction via Active Flow Control: A Combined CFD and Experimental Effort  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A combined computational and experimental effort has been undertaken to study fuselage drag reduction on a generic, non-proprietary rotorcraft fuselage by the application of active ow control. Fuselage drag reduction is an area of research interest to both the United States and France and this area is being worked collaboratively as a task under the United States/France Memorandum of Agreement on Helicopter Aeromechanics. In the first half of this task, emphasis is placed on the US generic fuselage, the ROBIN-mod7, with the experimental work being conducted on the US side and complementary US and French CFD analysis of the baseline and controlled cases. Fuselage simulations were made using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes ow solvers and with multiple turbulence models. Comparisons were made to experimental data for numerical simulations of the isolated fuselage and for the fuselage as installed in the tunnel, which includes modeling of the tunnel contraction, walls, and support fairing. The numerical simulations show that comparisons to the experimental data are in good agreement when the tunnel and model support are included. The isolated fuselage simulations compare well to each other, however, there is a positive shift in the centerline pressure when compared to the experiment. The computed flow separation locations on the rear ramp region had only slight differences with and without the tunnel walls and model support. For the simulations, the flow control slots were placed at several locations around the flow separation lines as a series of eight slots that formed a nearly continuous U-shape. Results from the numerical simulations resulted in an estimated 35% fuselage drag reduction from a steady blowing flow control configuration and a 26% drag reduction for unsteady zero-net-mass flow control configuration. Simulations with steady blowing show a delayed flow separation at the rear ramp of the fuselage that increases the surface pressure acting on the ramp, thus decreasing the overall fuselage pressure drag.

Schaefler, Norman W.; Allan, Brian G.; Lienard, Caroline; LePape, Arnaud

2010-01-01

399

Energy Consumption of Actively Beating Flagella  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motile cilia and flagella are important for propelling cells or driving fluid over tissues. The microtubule-based core in these organelles, the axoneme, has a nearly universal ``9+2'' arrangement of 9 outer doublet microtubules assembled around two singlet microtubules in the center. Thousands of molecular motor proteins are attached to the doublets and walk on neighboring outer doublets. The motors convert the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis into sliding motion between adjacent doublet microtubules, resulting in precisely regulated oscillatory beating. Using demembranated sea urchin sperm flagella as an experimental platform, we simultaneously monitor the axoneme's consumption of ATP and its beating dynamics while key parameters, such as solution viscosity and ATP concentration, are varied. Insights into motor cooperativity during beating and energetic consequences of hydrodynamic interactions will be presented.

Chen, Daniel; Nicastro, Daniela; Dogic, Zvonimir

2012-02-01

400

Design and optimization of a large flow rate booster pump in SWRO energy recovery system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is a high energy-consumption industry, so energy efficiency is an important issue. Energy recovery systems, which contain a pressure exchanger and a booster pump, are widely used in SWRO plants. As a key part of energy recovery system, the difficulty of designing booster pumps lies in high inlet pressure, high medium causticity and large flow rate. High inlet pressure adds difficulties to seal design, and large flow rate and high efficiency requirement bring high demand for hydraulic design. In this paper, a 625 m3/h booster pump is designed and optimized according to the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation results. The impeller and volute is well designed, a new type of high pressure mechanical seal is applied and axial force is well balanced. After optimization based on blade redesign, the efficiency of the pump was improved. The best efficiency reaches more than 85% at design point according to the CFD simulation result.

Lai, Z. N.; Wu, P.; Wu, D. Z.; Wang, L. Q.

2013-12-01

401

[Variation of diversity and activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria community in the integrated vertical-flow constructed wetlands].  

PubMed

The activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in different layers of Integrated vertical-flow constructed wetlands (IVCW) treating eutrophic scenic water was measured, and the diversity and spatial distribution of AOB community structure in IVCW was investigated using PCR-DGGE. The results indicated that because of the integrated influence of competition of plant rhizodeposition, heterotrophic bacteria, DO and ammonia concentration, there were significant spatial differences in the activity and diversity of AOB along the flow direction of wetland. The activity of AOB was 0.79 mg x (kg x h)(-1) (in NO3- -N, the same below) near the surface of down-flow system in IVCW. From the surface of down-flow system to up-flow system, the activity of AOB decreased gradually, and slightly increased to 0.17 mg x (kg x h)(-1) near the surface of up-flow system. The spatial variation of diversity of AOB showed the similar change trend with the activity in IVCW and the diversity index in down-flow system (1.92) were higher than those in up-flow system (1.65). Most of AOB belong to oligotrophic bacterium in IVCW, and the population of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria showed a higher percentage of Nitrosomonas-like sequences from the wetland samples. Uncultured beta proteobacterium, Comamonas sp., Nitrosomonas oligotropha were also detected. The variation of the AOB community demonstrated spatial pattern in IVCW, which might be related to different wetland environment. PMID:18839566

Huang, De-feng; Li, Tian

2008-08-01

402

Numerical Simulation on the Continuous Operation of an Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage System Under Regional Groundwater Flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional numerical model for groundwater flow and heat transport is used to analyze an aquifer thermal energy storage system operating under a continuous flow regime. This study emphasizes the influence of regional groundwater flow on the performance of the system under various operation scenarios. The pressure gradient across the system, which determines the direction and velocity of regional groundwater

K. S. Lee

2011-01-01

403

NUCLEAR PHYSICS: Isospin Effects on Anisotropic Flows in Intermediate Energy Heavy Ion Collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anisotropic flows per nucleon (v1/A, v2/A, v3/A and v4/A) of light fragments up to the mass number 4 as a function of transverse momentum per nucleon are studied for 55 MeV/nucleon 58 Fe+58 Fe and 58Ni+58 Ni at large impact parameters by the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model. The effects of symmetry energy and nucleon-nucleon cross sections, which are both isospin-dependent on anisotropic flows, are studied in detail. In comparison of the two systems with or without symmetry potential term, the results show that the strength of flows is sensitive to symmetry potential and nucleon-nucleon cross sections, which mainly cause a repulsion effect in this energy region.

Yan, Ting-Zhi; Hu, Si-Ke; Guo, Wen-Xue; Wang, Sheng-Long; Xu, Jin-Ping

2009-11-01

404

Energy Efficient Engine Low Pressure Subsystem Flow Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this project is to provide the capability to analyze the aerodynamic performance of the complete low pressure subsystem (LPS) of the Energy Efficient Engine (EEE). The analyses were performed using three-dimensional Navier-Stokes numerical models employing advanced clustered processor computing platforms. The analysis evaluates the impact of steady aerodynamic interaction effects between the components of the LPS at design and off-design operating conditions. Mechanical coupling is provided by adjusting the rotational speed of common shaft-mounted components until a power balance is achieved. The Navier-Stokes modeling of the complete low pressure subsystem provides critical knowledge of component aero/mechanical interactions that previously were unknown to the designer until after hardware testing.

Hall, Edward J.; Lynn, Sean R.; Heidegger, Nathan J.; Delaney, Robert A.

1998-01-01

405

Conical Euler analysis and active roll suppression for unsteady vortical flows about rolling delta wings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A conical Euler code was developed to study unsteady vortex-dominated flows about rolling, highly swept delta wings undergoing either forced motions or free-to-roll motions that include active roll suppression. The flow solver of the code involves a multistage, Runge-Kutta time-stepping scheme that uses a cell-centered, finite-volume, spatial discretization of the Euler equations on an unstructured grid of triangles. The code allows for the additional analysis of the free to-roll case by simultaneously integrating in time the rigid-body equation of motion with the governing flow equations. Results are presented for a delta wing with a 75 deg swept, sharp leading edge at a free-stream Mach number of 1.2 and at 10 deg, 20 deg, and 30 deg angle of attack alpha. At the lower angles of attack (10 and 20 deg), forced-harmonic analyses indicate that the rolling-moment coefficients provide a positive damping, which is verified by free-to-roll calculations. In contrast, at the higher angle of attack (30 deg), a forced-harmonic analysis indicates that the rolling-moment coefficient provides negative damping at the small roll amplitudes. A free-to-roll calculation for this case produces an initially divergent response, but as the amplitude of motion grows with time, the response transitions to a wing-rock type of limit cycle oscillation, which is characteristic of highly swept delta wings. This limit cycle oscillation may be actively suppressed through the use of a rate-feedback control law and antisymmetrically deflected leading-edge flaps. Descriptions of the conical Euler flow solver and the free-to roll analysis are included in this report. Results are presented that demonstrate how the systematic analysis of the forced response of the delta wing can be used to predict the stable, neutrally stable, and unstable free response of the delta wing. These results also give insight into the flow physics associated with unsteady vortical flows about delta wings undergoing forced motions and free-to-roll motions, including the active suppression of the wing-rock type phenomenon. The conical Euler methodology developed is directly extend able to three-dimensional calculations.

Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Batina, John T.

1993-01-01

406

Energy-aware Activity Classification using Wearable Sensor Networks.  

PubMed

This paper presents implementation details, system characterization, and the performance of a wearable sensor network that was designed for human activity analysis. Specific machine learning mechanisms are implemented for recognizing a target set of activities with both out-of-body and on-body processing arrangements. Impacts of energy consumption by the on-body sensors are analyzed in terms of activity detection accuracy for out-of-body processing. Impacts of limited processing abilities for the on-body scenario are also characterized in terms of detection accuracy, by varying the background processing load in the sensor units. Impacts of varying number of sensors in terms of activity classification accuracy are also evaluated. Through a rigorous systems study, it is shown that an efficient human activity analytics system can be designed and operated even under energy and processing constraints of tiny on-body wearable sensors. PMID:25075266

Dong, Bo; Montoye, Alexander; Moore, Rebecca; Pfeiffer, Karin; Biswas, Subir

2013-05-29

407

Endogenous flow-induced superoxide stimulates Na/H exchange activity via PKC in thick ascending limbs.  

PubMed

Luminal flow stimulates Na reabsorption along the nephron and activates protein kinase C (PKC) which enhances endogenous superoxide (O(2) (-)) production by thick ascending limbs (TALs). Exogenously-added O(2) (-) augments TAL Na reabsorption, a process also dependent on PKC. Luminal Na/H exchange (NHE) mediates NaHCO?reabsorption. However, whether flow-stimulated, endogenously-produced O(2) (-) enhances luminal NHE activity and the signaling pathway involved are unclear. We hypothesized that flow-induced production of endogenous O2 (-) stimulates luminal NHE activity via PKC in TALs. Intracellular pH recovery was measured as an indicator of NHE activity in isolated, perfused rat TALs. Increasing luminal flow from 5 to 20 nl/min enhanced total NHE activity from 0.104 ± 0.031 to 0.167 ± 0.036 pH U/min, 81%. The O(2) (-) scavenger tempol decreased total NHE activity by 0.066 ± 0.011 pH U/min at 20 nl/min but had no significant effect at 5 nl/min. With the NHE inhibitor EIPA in the bath to block basolateral NHE, tempol reduced flow-enhanced luminal NHE activity by 0.029 ± 0.010 pH U/min, 30%. When experiments were repeated with staurosporine, a nonselective PKC inhibitor, tempol had no effect. Because PKC could mediate both induction of O2 (-) by flow and the effect of O(()-) on luminal NHE activity, we used hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase to elevate O(2) (-). Hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase increased luminal NHE activity by 0.099 ± 0.020 pH U/min, 137%. Staurosporine and the PKC?/?1-specific inhibitor Gö6976 blunted this effect. We conclude that flow-induced O(2) (-) stimulates luminal NHE activity in TALs via PKC?/?1. This accounts for part of flow-stimulated bicarbonate reabsorption by TALs. PMID:25080525

Hong, Nancy J; Garvin, Jeffrey L

2014-10-01

408

Design of a high-lift experiment in water including active flow control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the structural design of an active flow-control experiment. The aim of the experiment is to investigate the increase in efficiency of an internally blown Coanda flap using unsteady blowing. The system uses tailor-made microelectromechanical (MEMS) pressure sensors to determine the state of the oncoming flow and an actuated lip to regulate the mass flow and velocity of a stream near a wall over the internally blown flap. Sensors and actuators are integrated into a highly loaded system that is extremely compact. The sensors are connected to a bus system that feeds the data into a real-time control system. The piezoelectric actuators using the d 33 effect at a comparable low voltage of 120 V are integrated into a lip that controls the blowout slot height. The system is designed for closed-loop control that efficiently avoids flow separation on the Coanda flap. The setup is designed for water-tunnel experiments in order to reduce the free-stream velocity and the system’s control frequency by a factor of 10 compared with that in air. This paper outlines the function and verification of the system’s main components and their development.

Beutel, T.; Sattler, S.; El Sayed, Y.; Schwerter, M.; Zander, M.; Büttgenbach, S.; Leester-Schädel, M.; Radespiel, R.; Sinapius, M.; Wierach, P.

2014-07-01

409

Active Flow Separation Control of a Stator Vane Using Surface Injection in a Multistage Compressor Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Micro-flow control actuation embedded in a stator vane was used to successfully control separation and improve near stall performance in a multistage compressor rig at NASA Glenn. Using specially designed stator vanes configured with internal actuation to deliver pulsating air through slots along the suction surface, a research study was performed to identify performance benefits using this microflow control approach. Pressure profiles and unsteady pressure measurements along the blade surface and at the shroud provided a dynamic look at the compressor during microflow air injection. These pressure measurements lead to a tracking algorithm to identify the onset of separation. The testing included steady air injection at various slot locations along the vane. The research also examined the benefit of pulsed injection and actively controlled air injection along the stator vane. Two types of actuation schemes were studied, including an embedded actuator for on-blade control. Successful application of an online detection and flow control scheme will be discussed. Testing showed dramatic performance benefit for flow reattachment and subsequent improvement in diffusion through the use of pulsed controlled injection. The paper will discuss the experimental setup, the blade configurations, and preliminary CFD results which guided the slot location along the blade. The paper will also show the pressure profiles and unsteady pressure measurements used to track flow control enhancement, and will conclude with the tracking algorithm for adjusting the control.

Culley, Dennis E.; Bright, Michelle M.; Prahst, Patricia S.; Strazisar, Anthony J.

2003-01-01

410

Quiet Sun mini-coronal mass ejections activated by supergranular flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context: The atmosphere of the quiet Sun is controlled by photospheric flows sweeping up concentrations of mixed polarity magnetic field. Along supergranule boundaries and junctions, there is a strong correlation between magnetic flux and bright chromospheric and transition region emission. Aims: The aim is to investigate the relationship between photospheric flows and small flare-like brightenings seen in Extreme Ultraviolet images. Methods: We describe observations of small eruptions seen in quiet Sun images taken with the Extreme UltraViolet Imager (EUVI) on STEREO. The photospheric flows during the eruption build-up phase are investigated by tracking granules in high resolution MDI continuum images. Results: Eruptions with characteristics of small coronal mass ejections (CMEs) occur at the junctions of supergranular cells. The eruptions produce brightening at the onset site, dark cloud or small filament ejections, and faint waves moving with plane-of-sky speeds up to 100 km s-1. In the two examples studied, they appear to be activated by converging and rotating supergranular flows, twisting small concentrations of opposite polarity magnetic field. An estimate of the occurrence rate is about 1400 events per day over the whole Sun. One third of these events seem to be associated with waves. Typically, the waves last for about 30 min and travel a distance of 80 Mm, so at any one time they cover 1/50th of the lower corona. Movies are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Innes, D. E.; Genetelli, A.; Attie, R.; Potts, H. E.

2009-02-01

411

Electrical activity of the Hartmann layers relative to surface viscous shearing in an annular magnetohydrodynamic flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a first step towards two-phase magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), this paper addresses an original analytical coupling between surface rheology, e.g., a gradually oxidizing liquid metal surface, ruled by the Boussinesq number Bo, and a supporting annular MHD flow, ruled by the Hartmann number Ha, in the general layout of a classical annular deep-channel viscometer, as developed by Mannheimer and Schechter [J. Colloid Interface Sci. 32, 195-211 (1970)]. Using a matched asymptotic expansion based on the small parameter 1/Ha, we can express the surface velocity as a coupling variable in the jump momentum balance at the liquid surface. By solving the latter through the determination of the Green's function, the whole flow can be analytically calculated. A modified Boussinesq number, tilde{B_o}, is produced as a new non-dimensional parameter that provides the balance between surface viscous shearing and the Lorentz force. It is shown that the tilde{B_o} number drives the electrical activation of the Hartmann layers, heavily modifying the MHD flow topology and leading to the emergence of the Lorentz force, for which interaction with the flow is not classical. Finally, the evolution laws given in this study allow the determination of scaling laws for an original experimental protocol, which would make it possible to accurately determine the surface shear viscosity of a liquid metal with respect to the quality of the ambient atmosphere.

Delacroix, Jules; Davoust, Laurent

2014-03-01

412

The downstream wake response of marine current energy converters operating in shallow tidal flows  

E-print Network

The downstream wake response of marine current energy converters operating in shallow tidal flows, Southampton, UK 2 IT Power Ltd., Bristol, UK * Corresponding author. Tel: +44 7855037885, E-mail: jack emphasis on shallow tidal stream sites. Shallow tidal resources could be utilised for the deployment

Quartly, Graham

413

ENERGY FLOW AND DEPOSITION IN A 4-MW MUON-COLLIDER TARGET SYSTEM  

E-print Network

ENERGY FLOW AND DEPOSITION IN A 4-MW MUON-COLLIDER TARGET SYSTEM N. Souchlas , R.J. Weggel, Particle Beam Lasers, Inc., Northridge, CA 91324, USA, H.G Kirk, H.K. Sayed, BNL, Upton, NY 11973, USA, X tungsten shielding, as well as consideration of removing the 5-T re- sistive copper coils, thereby reducing

McDonald, Kirk

414

When Do Variable Flow Fume Hoods Save Energy? Implications for lab design and behavior  

E-print Network

maintains constant face velocity, varies flow rate · High capital cost but lower operating costs local climate, energy rates, efficiency to calc $/cfm & load costs http rate when closed using a low position sensor ­ Minimize face velocity to 100 ft/min Photo Credit: www

Hutyra, Lucy R.

415

Study of nuclear dynamics of neutron-rich colliding pair at energy of vanishing flow  

E-print Network

We study nuclear dynamics at the energy of vanishing flow of neutron-rich systems having N/Z ratio 1.0, 1.6 and 2.0 throughout the mass range at semi central colliding geometry. In particular we study the behavior of average and maximum density with N/Z dependence of the system.

Sakshi Gautam

2011-07-28

416

Damping of transient energy growth of three-dimensional perturbations in hydromagnetic pipe flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability of infinitesimal three-dimensional perturbations in hydromagnetic pipe flow where the applied magnetic field is in the streamwise direction is considered. The study is limited to the case of small magnetic Reynolds numbers and the main objective of the paper is to study the transient evolution of the kinetic energy. A general effect of the magnetic field is to

Hans O. Åkerstedt

1995-01-01

417

Continuum-particle hybrid coupling for mass, momentum, and energy transfers in unsteady fluid flow.  

PubMed

The aim of hybrid methods in simulations is to communicate regions with disparate time and length scales. Here, a fluid described at the atomistic level within an inner region P is coupled to an outer region C described by continuum fluid dynamics. The matching of both descriptions of matter is made across an overlapping region and, in general, consists of a two-way coupling scheme (C-->P and P-->C) that conveys mass, momentum, and energy fluxes. The contribution of the hybrid scheme hereby presented is twofold. First, it treats unsteady flows and, more importantly, it handles energy exchange between both C and P regions. The implementation of the C-->P coupling is tested here using steady and unsteady flows with different rates of mass, momentum and energy exchange. In particular, relaxing flows described by linear hydrodynamics (transversal and longitudinal waves) are most enlightening as they comprise the whole set of hydrodynamic modes. Applying the hybrid coupling scheme after the onset of an initial perturbation, the cell-averaged Fourier components of the flow variables in the P region (velocity, density, internal energy, temperature, and pressure) evolve in excellent agreement with the hydrodynamic trends. It is also shown that the scheme preserves the correct rate of entropy production. We discuss some general requirements on the coarse-grained length and time scales arising from both the characteristic microscopic and hydrodynamic scales. PMID:12786526

Delgado-Buscalioni, R; Coveney, P V

2003-04-01

418

Orbital rotation without orbital angular momentum: mechanical action of the spin part of the internal energy flow in light beams.  

PubMed

The internal energy flow in a light beam can be divided into the "orbital" and "spin" parts, associated with the spatial and polarization degrees of freedom of light. In contrast to the orbital one, experimental observation of the spin flow seems problematic because it is converted into an orbital flow upon tight focusing of the beam, usually applied for energy flow detection by means of the mechanical action upon probe particles. We propose a two-beam interference technique that results in an appreciable level of spin flow in moderately focused beams and detection of the orbital motion of probe particles within a field where the transverse energy circulation is associated exclusively with the spin flow. This result can be treated as the first demonstration of mechanical action of the spin flow of a light field. PMID:22418116

Angelsky, O V; Bekshaev, A Ya; Maksimyak, P P; Maksimyak, A P; Hanson, S G; Zenkova, C Yu

2012-02-13

419

Changes of the Solar Meridional Velocity Profile During Cycle 23 Explained by Flows Toward the Activity Belts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solar meridional flow is an important ingredient in Babcock-Leighton type models of the solar dynamo. Global variations of this flow have been suggested to explain the variations in the amplitudes and lengths of the activity cycles. Recently, cycle-related variations in the amplitude of the P 1 2 term in the Legendre decomposition of the observed meridional flow have been reported. The result is often interpreted in terms of an overall variation in the flow amplitude during the activity cycle. Using a semi-empirical model based upon the observed distribution of magnetic flux on the solar surface, we show that the reported variations of the P 1 2 term can be explained by the observed localized inflows into the active region belts. No variation of the overall meridional flow amplitude is required.

Cameron, R. H.; Schüssler, M.

2010-09-01

420

CHANGES OF THE SOLAR MERIDIONAL VELOCITY PROFILE DURING CYCLE 23 EXPLAINED BY FLOWS TOWARD THE ACTIVITY BELTS  

SciTech Connect

The solar meridional flow is an important ingredient in Babcock-Leighton type models of the solar dynamo. Global variations of this flow have been suggested to explain the variations in the amplitudes and lengths of the activity cycles. Recently, cycle-related variations in the amplitude of the P{sup 1}{sub 2} term in the Legendre decomposition of the observed meridional flow have been reported. The result is often interpreted in terms of an overall variation in the flow amplitude during the activity cycle. Using a semi-empirical model based upon the observed distribution of magnetic flux on the solar surface, we show that the reported variations of the P{sup 1}{sub 2} term can be explained by the observed localized inflows into the active region belts. No variation of the overall meridional flow amplitude is required.

Cameron, R. H.; Schuessler, M., E-mail: cameron@mps.mpg.d [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Sonnensystemforschung, 37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany)

2010-09-10

421

The effect of amphetamine on regional cerebral blood flow during cognitive activation in schizophrenia  

SciTech Connect

To explore the role of monoamines on cerebral function during specific prefrontal cognitive activation, we conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study of the effects of 0.25 mg/kg oral dextroamphetamine on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) as determined by 133Xe dynamic single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT) during performance of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and a sensorimotor control task. Ten patients with chronic schizophrenia who had been stabilized for at least 6 weeks on 0.4 mg/kg haloperidol participated. Amphetamine produced a modest, nonsignificant, task-independent, global reduction in rCBF. However, the effect of amphetamine on task-dependent activation of rCBF (i.e., WCST minus control task) was striking. Whereas on placebo no significant activation of rCBF was seen during the WCST compared with the control task, on amphetamine significant activation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) occurred (p = 0.0006). Both the mean number of correct responses and the mean conceptual level increased (p less than 0.05) with amphetamine relative to placebo. In addition, with amphetamine, but not with placebo, a significant correlation (p = -0.71; p less than 0.05) emerged between activation of DLPFC rCBF and performance of the WCST task. These findings are consistent with animal models in which mesocortical catecholaminergic activity modulates and enhances the signal-to-noise ratio of evoked cortical activity.

Daniel, D.G.; Weinberger, D.R.; Jones, D.W.; Zigun, J.R.; Coppola, R.; Handel, S.; Bigelow, L.B.; Goldberg, T.E.; Berman, K.F.; Kleinman, J.E. (Clinical Brain Disorders Branch, Saint Elizabeths, National Institute of of Mental Health, WA (USA))

1991-07-01

422

Free Magnetic Energy in Solar Active Regions above the Minimum-Energy Relaxed State  

E-print Network

To understand the physics of solar flares, including the local reorganisation of the magnetic field and the acceleration of energetic particles, we have first to estimate the free magnetic energy available for such phenomena, which can be converted into kinetic and thermal energy. The free magnetic energy is the excess energy of a magnetic configuration compared to the minimum-energy state, which is a linear force-free field if the magnetic helicity of the configuration is conserved. We investigate the values of the free magnetic energy estimated from either the excess energy in extrapolated fields or the magnetic virial theorem. For four different active regions, we have reconstructed the nonlinear force-free field and the linear force-free field corresponding to the minimum-energy state. The free magnetic energies are then computed. From the energy budget and the observed magnetic activity in the active region, we conclude that the free energy above the minimum-energy state gives a better estimate and more insights into the flare process than the free energy above the potential field state.

S. Regnier; E. R. Priest

2008-05-12

423

Search of Correlation Between A Flow Low Energy of Space Particles and Perturbation In Terrestrial Crust.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of the analysis of correlation of a flow of the charged space particles with seismic activity of the Earth aresubmitted. The experiment was carried out in 8 km. from Almaty on a seismic break in Large Almaty gorge. The experimental data received from counters of ionization G-M and from seismografe were used.

Babaev, M. K.; Baygubekov, A. S.; Martyanov, I. S.; Sadykiov, T. Kh.; Zastrozhnova, N. N.

424

Nuclear energy information flow from DOE to the public  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research was to study the DOE's program for educating the public about nuclear power and nuclear waste management. DOE's organizational structuree and the procedures used within this structure to disseminate information were studied and readability tests on nuclear information distributed by DOE were conducted. Initial information was obtained through interviews with 29 local, state, and federal DOE representatives. This was supplemented with additional information as it was released by the DOE. The primary goals of the DOE's information program are to encourage two-way communication between the DOE and the public and to encourage public participation in policy-making decisions. Most of this communication, however, is presented orally. Relative to other energy technologies and conservation, very few nuclear brochures are currently being distributed by the DOE. This is especially true with regard to information about nuclear waste. A recent public survey found that a majority of the public wants to learn more about nuclear power and that, with regard to the nuclear fuel cycle, the public wants most to learn about nuclear waste management. Thus, the DOE appears to be missing an eager audience.

Simmons, J.L.; Rankin, W.L.; Nealey, S.M.

1980-06-01

425

Reformulation and energy flow of the Cowling channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The question to which extent the divergence of the Hall current can be connected to the Pedersen current or to the closure current in the magnetosphere through field-aligned currents (FACs), that is, the Cowling channel process in the polar region, has long been debated but not fully understood. The present study reformulates the Cowling channel by introducing a two-layer model consisting of Hall and Pedersen conductivity layers with channel boundaries not only in the direction perpendicular to the channel but also in the direction along it. This new model enables us to better and more physically understand the connection between the Hall current, Pedersen current, and FAC. In particular, the finiteness of the channel along its direction enables us to understand that the primary nonzero electric field along the channel and FACs at the channel boundaries that faced each other in the channel direction carries the necessary energy for the Hall current to set up the secondary electric field from the magnetosphere. A case for a possible connection between the Pedersen and Hall currents is shown based on a polar current system derived from the Kamide-Richmond-Matsushita method. A more comprehensive analysis based on data is presented in the companion paper.

Fujii, R.; Amm, O.; Yoshikawa, A.; Ieda, A.; Vanhamäki, H.

2011-02-01

426

Detection of circulating platelet microaggregates and surface microthrombi during continuous flow LVAD: evidence for shear-induced platelet activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous flow left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are used for circulatory support. Despite heparin anticoagulation, thromboembolic complications occur frequently. It is believed that the thrombus formation is a result of activation of the intrinsic coagulation pathway by the pump surface. However, elevated fluid shear forces can activate platelets and induce platelet aggregates and thrombi. Shear-induced platelet activation requires von Willebrand

J. Linneweber; T. W. Chow; M. Kawamura; Y. Nose; J. L. Moake

2002-01-01

427

A cortico-hippocampal learning rule shapes inhibitory microcircuit activity to enhance hippocampal information flow  

PubMed Central

Summary How does coordinated activity between distinct brain regions implement a set of learning rules to sculpt information processing in a given neural circuit? Using interneuron cell-type specific optical activation and pharmacogenetic silencing in vitro, we show that temporally precise pairing of direct entorhinal perforant path (PP) and trisynaptic Schaffer collateral (SC) inputs to CA1 pyramidal cells selectively suppresses SC-associated perisomatic inhibition from cholecystokinin (CCK) expressing interneurons. The CCK interneurons provide a surprisingly strong feed-forward inhibitory drive to effectively control the coincident excitation of CA1 pyramidal neurons by convergent inputs. Thus, in-phase cortico-hippocampal activity provides a powerful heterosynaptic learning rule for long-term gating of information flow through the hippocampal excitatory macrocircuit by the silencing of the CCK inhibitory microcircuit. PMID:24050406

Basu, Jayeeta; Srinivas, Kalyan V.; Cheung, Stephanie K.; Taniguchi, Hiroki; Huang, Z. Josh

2013-01-01

428

Study on adsorption kinetic of aromatic hydrocarbons onto activated carbon in gaseous flow method.  

PubMed

The adsorption behavior of benzene, toluene, o-xylene, m-xylene, and p-xylene onto activated carbon was investigated using the flow method. The removal efficiency of aromatic hydrocarbons in the gaseous phase was estimated based on the adsorption kinetic constants and the saturated amount of aromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed on the activated carbon. The saturated amount of benzene and toluene adsorbed was greater than that of xylene adsorbed because the molecular sizes of benzene and toluene are smaller than that of xylene. The adsorption kinetic constant increased in the order of xylene, toluene, and benzene. Those of the three xylene isomers were similar. These results indicated that the adsorption rate of benzene by the activated carbon was the fastest and the kinetic constant depended upon the different between the boiling point and the melting point and the molecular size of the aromatic hydrocarbons. PMID:15158377

Kawasaki, Naohito; Kinoshita, Hideo; Oue, Takashi; Nakamura, Takeo; Tanada, Seiki

2004-07-01

429

Age and regional cerebral blood flow at rest and during cognitive activity  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between age and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) activation for cognitive tasks was investigated with the xenon (Xe 133) inhalation technique. The sample consisted of 55 healthy subjects, ranging in age from 18 to 72 years, who were studied during rest and during the performance of verbal analogy and spatial orientation tasks. The dependent measures were indexes of gray-matter rCBF and average rCBF (gray and white matter) as well as the percentage of gray-matter tissue. Advanced age was associated with reduced flow, particularly pronounced in anterior regions. However, the extent and pattern of rCBF changes during cognition was unaffected by age. For the percentage of gray matter, there was a specific reduction in anterior regions of the left hemisphere. The findings suggest the utility of this research paradigm for investigating neural underpinnings of the effects of dementia on cognitive functioning, relative to the effects of normal aging.

Gur, R.C.; Gur, R.E.; Obrist, W.D.; Skolnick, B.E.; Reivich, M.

1987-07-01

430

Lower rotation speed stimulates sympathetic activation during continuous-flow left ventricular assist device treatment.  

PubMed

Although the suppression of sympathetic activity is an essential mission for the current heart failure treatment strategy, little is known about the relationship between the rotation speed setting and autonomic nervous activity during continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD) treatment. We evaluated 23 adult patients with sinus rhythm (36 ± 13 years) who had received continuous-flow LVAD and been followed at our institute between March 2013 and August 2014. Heart rate variability measurement was executed along with hemodynamic study at 3 rotation speeds (low, middle, and high) at 5 weeks after LVAD implantation. Lower rotation speed was associated with higher ratio of low-frequency over high-frequency spectral level (LF/HF), representing enhanced sympathetic activation (p < 0.05 by repeated analyses of variance). Among hemodynamic parameters, cardiac index was exclusively associated with LFNU = LF/(LF + HF), representing relative sympathetic activity over parasympathetic one (p < 0.05). After 6 months LVAD support at middle rotation speed, 19 patients with higher LFNU eventually had higher plasma levels of B-type natriuretic peptide and achieved less LV reverse remodeling. A logistic regression analysis demonstrated that lower LFNU was significantly associated with improvement of LV reverse remodeling (p = 0.021, odds ratio 0.903) with a cut-off level of 55 % calculated by the ROC analysis (AUC 0.869). In conclusion, autonomic activity can vary in various rotation speeds. Patients with higher LFNU may better be controlled at higher rotation speed with the view point to suppress sympathetic activity and achieve LV reverse remodeling. PMID:25337982

Imamura, Teruhiko; Kinugawa, Koichiro; Nitta, Daisuke; Fujino, Takeo; Inaba, Toshiro; Maki, Hisataka; Hatano, Masaru; Kinoshita, Osamu; Nawata, Kan; Kyo, Shunei; Ono, Minoru

2014-10-22

431

Energy Expenditure during Sexual Activity in Young Healthy Couples  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine energy expenditure in kilocalories (kcal) during sexual activity in young healthy couples in their natural environment and compare it to a session of endurance exercise. Methods The study population consisted of twenty one heterosexual couples (age: 22.6 ± 2.8 years old) from the Montreal region. Free living energy expenditure during sexual activity and the endurance exercise was measured using the portable mini SenseWear armband. Perceived energy expenditure, perception of effort, fatigue and pleasure were also assessed after sexual activity. All participants completed a 30 min endurance exercise session on a treadmill at a moderate intensity. Results Mean energy expenditure during sexual activity was 101 kCal or 4.2 kCal/min in men and 69.1 kCal or 3.1 kCal/min in women. In addition, mean intensity was 6.0 METS in men and 5.6 METS in women, which represents a moderate intensity. Moreover, the energy expenditure and intensity during the 30 min exercise session in men was 276 kCal or 9.2 kCal/min and 8.5 METS, respectively and in women 213 kCal or 7.1 kCal/min and 8.4 METS, respectively. Interestingly, the highest range value achieved by men for absolute energy expenditure can potentially be higher than that of the mean energy expenditure of the 30 min exercise session (i.e. 306.1 vs. 276 kCal, respectively) whereas this was not observed in women. Finally, perceived energy expenditure during sexual activity was similar in men (100 kCal) and in women (76.2 kCal) when compared to measured energy expenditure. Conclusion The present study indicates that energy expenditure during sexual activity appears to be approximately 85 kCal or 3.6 kCal/min and seems to be performed at a moderate intensity (5.8 METS) in young healthy men and women. These results suggest that sexual activity may potentially be considered, at times, as a significant exercise. PMID:24205382

Frappier, Julie; Toupin, Isabelle; Levy, Joseph J.; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylene; Karelis, Antony D.

2013-01-01

432

Energy and materials flows in the production of liquid and gaseous oxygen  

SciTech Connect

Liquid and gaseous oxygen is produced in an energy-intensive air separation processo that also generates nitrogen. More than 65% of the cost of oxygen is attributable to energy costs. Energy use and materials flows are analyzed for various air separation methods. Effective approaches to energy and material conservation in air separation plants include efficient removal of contaminants (carbon dioxide and water), centralization of air products user-industries so that large air separation plants are cost-effective and the energy use in transportation is minimized, and increased production of nitrogen. Air separation plants can produce more than three times more nitrogen than oxygen, but present markets demand, at most, only 1.5 times more. Full utlization of liquid and gaseous nitrogen should be encouraged, so that the wasted separation energy is minimized. There are potential markets for nitrogen in, for example, cryogenic separation of metallic and plastic wastes, cryogenic particle size reduction, and production of ammonia for fertilizer.

Shen, S.; Wolsky, A.M.

1980-08-01

433

Time–activity budgets and energetics of Dipper Cinclus cinclus are dictated by temporal variability of river flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The white-throated Dipper (Cinclus cinclus) is unique among passerine birds by its reliance on diving to achieve energy gain in fast-flowing waters. Consequently, it should have evolved behavioural adaptations allowing responding directly to runoff patterns (one of the assumptions of the Natural Flow Regime Paradigm—NRFP). In this study (October 1998–August 2001), we investigated how behavioural and energy use strategies in

F. D'Amico; G. Hémery

2007-01-01

434

Bounded energy states in homogeneous turbulent shear flow: An alternative view  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The equilibrium structure of homogeneous turbulent shear flow is investigated from a theoretical standpoint. Existing turbulence models, in apparent agreement with physical and numerical experiments, predict an unbounded exponential time growth of the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate; only the anisotropy tensor and turbulent time scale reach a structural equilibrium. It is shown that if vortex stretching is accounted for in the dissipation rate transport equation, then there can exist equilibrium solutions, with bounded energy states, where the turbulence production is balanced by its dissipation. Illustrative calculations are present for a k-epsilon model modified to account for vortex stretching. The calculations indicate an initial exponential time growth of the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate for elapsed times that are as large as those considered in any of the previously conducted physical or numerical experiments on homogeneous shear flow. However, vortex stretching eventually takes over and forces a production-equals-dissipation equilibrium with bounded energy states. The validity of this result is further supported by an independent theoretical argument. It is concluded that the generally accepted structural equilibrium for homogeneous shear flow with unbounded component energies is in need of re-examination.

Bernard, Peter S.; Speziale, Charles G.

1990-01-01

435

Energy Expenditure and Habitual Physical Activities in Adolescent Sprint Athletes  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to assess total energy expenditure (TEE) and specific habitual physical activities in adolescent sprint athletes. Two methods used to estimate TEE, an activity diary (AD) and SenseWear armband (SWA), were compared. Sixteen athletes (6 girls, 10 boys, mean age 16.5 ± 1.6 yr) simultaneously wore a SWA and completed an AD and food diary during one week. Basal energy expenditure as given by the SWA when taken off was corrected for the appropriate MET value using the AD. TEE as estimated by the AD and SWA was comparable (3196 ± 590 kcal and 3012 ± 518 kcal, p = 0.113) without day-to-day variations in TEE and energy expended in activities of high intensity. Daily energy intake (2569 ± 508 kcal) did not match TEE according to both the AD and SWA (respectively p < 0.001 and p = 0.007). Athletes were in a supine position for a longer time on weekend days than on week days and slept longer on Sundays. Athletes reported a longer time of high-intensive physical activities in the AD than registered by the SWA on 4 out of 7 days. In addition to specific sprint activities on 3 to 7 days per week, 11 out of 16 athletes actively commuted to school where they participated in sports once or twice per week. The AD and the SWA are comparable in the estimation of TEE, which appears realistic and sustainable. The SWA offers an appropriate and objective method in the assessment of TEE, sleeping and resting in adolescent athletes on the condition that detailed information is given for the times the armband is not worn. The AD offers activity specific information but relies on the motivation, compliance and subjectivity of the individual, especially considering high-intensive intermittent training. Key points The activity diary and Sensewear armband provide comparable estimates of TEE in adolescent sprint athletes. A high inter-individual variation was observed in time spent in high-intensity physical activities, advocating an individual based assessment when coaching athletes. The activity diary is useful when detailed information on specific physical activities is desired. The Sensewear armband offers objective information on sleeping, resting, and physical activity duration. Wearing the Sensewear combined with reporting on activities when the Sensewear is not worn and when doing specific activities of interest results in more complete information. PMID:24149884

Aerenhouts, Dirk; Zinzen, Evert; Clarys, Peter

2011-01-01

436

Stress versus temperature dependent activation energies in creep  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The activation energy for creep at low stresses and elevated temperatures is lattice diffusion, where the rate controlling mechanism for deformation is dislocation climb. At higher stresses and intermediate temperatures, the rate controlling mechanism changes from that of dislocation climb to one of obstacle-controlled dislocation glide. Along with this change, there occurs a change in the activation energy. It is shown that a temperature-dependent Gibbs free energy does a good job of correlating steady-state creep data, while a stress-dependent Gibbs free energy does a less desirable job of correlating the same data. Applications are made to copper and a LiF-22 mol. percent CaF2 hypereutectic salt.

Freed, A. D.; Raj, S. V.; Walker, K. P.

1990-01-01

437