Flow cytometry-based apoptosis detection
Wlodkowic, Donald; Skommer, Joanna; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew
2013-01-01
An apoptosing cell demonstrates multitude of characteristic morphological and biochemical features, which vary depending on the stimuli and cell type. The gross majority of classical apoptotic hallmarks can be rapidly examined by flow and image cytometry. Cytometry thus became a technology of choice in diverse studies of cellular demise. A large variety of cytometric methods designed to identify apoptotic cells and probe mechanisms associated with this mode of cell demise have been developed during the past two decades. In the present chapter we outline a handful of commonly used methods that are based on the assessment of: mitochondrial transmembrane potential, activation of caspases, plasma membrane alterations and DNA fragmentation. PMID:19609746
Xue, Yong; Wilkes, Jon G.; Moskal, Ted J.; Williams, Anna J.; Cooper, Willie M.; Nayak, Rajesh; Rafii, Fatemeh; Buzatu, Dan A.
2016-01-01
Standard methods to detect Escherichia coli contamination in food use the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and agar culture plates. These methods require multiple incubation steps and take a long time to results. An improved rapid flow-cytometry based detection method was developed, using a fluorescence-labeled oligonucleotide probe specifically binding a16S rRNA sequence. The method positively detected 51 E. coli isolates as well as 4 Shigella species. All 27 non-E. coli strains tested gave negative results. Comparison of the new genetic assay with a total plate count (TPC) assay and agar plate counting indicated similar sensitivity, agreement between cytometry cell and colony counts. This method can detect a small number of E.coli cells in the presence of large numbers of other bacteria. This method can be used for rapid, economical, and stable detection of E. coli and Shigella contamination in the food industry and other contexts. PMID:26913737
Xue, Yong; Wilkes, Jon G; Moskal, Ted J; Williams, Anna J; Cooper, Willie M; Nayak, Rajesh; Rafii, Fatemeh; Buzatu, Dan A
2016-01-01
Standard methods to detect Escherichia coli contamination in food use the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and agar culture plates. These methods require multiple incubation steps and take a long time to results. An improved rapid flow-cytometry based detection method was developed, using a fluorescence-labeled oligonucleotide probe specifically binding a16S rRNA sequence. The method positively detected 51 E. coli isolates as well as 4 Shigella species. All 27 non-E. coli strains tested gave negative results. Comparison of the new genetic assay with a total plate count (TPC) assay and agar plate counting indicated similar sensitivity, agreement between cytometry cell and colony counts. This method can detect a small number of E.coli cells in the presence of large numbers of other bacteria. This method can be used for rapid, economical, and stable detection of E. coli and Shigella contamination in the food industry and other contexts. PMID:26913737
Gray, Sean; Weigel, Kris M.; Miller, Keith D.; Ndung'u, Joseph; Buscher, Philippe; Tran, Thao N.; Baird, Cheryl L.; Cangelosi, Gerard A.
2010-04-01
Novel methods are reported for evaluating and utilizing single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies derived from yeast-display libraries. Yeast-display was used to select scFv specific to invariant surface glycoproteins (ISG) of Trypanosoma brucei. A limiting step in the isolation of scFv from nonimmune libraries is the conversion of highly active yeast-displayed scFv into soluble antibodies that can be used in standard immunoassays. Challenges include limited solubility or activity following secretion and purification of scFv. For this reason, few scFv derived from yeast-display platforms have moved into development and implementation as diagnostic reagents. To address this problem, assays were developed that employ both yeastdisplayed and secreted scFv as analytical reagents. The first is a competitive inhibition flow cytometry (CIFC) assay that detects secreted scFv by virtue of its ability to competitively inhibit the binding of biotinylated antigen to yeast-displayed scFv. The second is an epitope binning assay that uses secreted scFv toidentify additional yeast-displayed scFv that bind nonoverlapping or noncompeting epitopes on an antigen. The epitope binning assay was used not only to identify sandwich assay pairs with yeast-displayed scFv, but also to identify active soluble scFv present in low concentration in a crude expression extract. Finally, a CIFC assay was developed that bypasses entirely the need for soluble scFv expression, by using yeast displayed scFv to detect unlabeled antigen in samples. These methods will facilitate the continued development and practical implementation of scFv derived from yeast-display libraries.
Flow-cytometry-based DNA hybidization and polymorphism analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Hong; Kommander, Kristina; White, P. S.; Nolan, John P.
1998-05-01
Functional analysis of the human genome, including the quantification of differential gene expression and the identification of polymorphic sites and disease genes, is an important element of the Human Genome Project. Current methods of analysis are mainly gel-based assays that are not well- suited to rapid genome-scale analyses. To analyze DNA sequence on a large scale, robust and high throughput assays are needed. We are developing a suite of microsphere-based approaches employing fluorescence detection to screen and analyze genomic sequence. Our approaches include competitive DNA hybridization to measure DNA or RNA targets in unknown samples, and oligo ligation or extension assays to analyze single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Apart from the advantages of sensitivity, simplicity, and low sample consumption, these flow cytometric approaches have the potential for high throughput multiplexed analysis using multicolored microspheres and automated sample handling.
A flow cytometry-based dopamine transporter binding assay using antagonist-conjugated quantum dots
Kovtun, Oleg; Ross, Emily; Tomlinson, Ian; Rosenthal, Sandra
2012-01-01
Here we present the development and validation of a flow cytometry-based dopamine transporter (DAT) binding assay that uses antagonist-conjugated quantum dots (QDs).We anticipate that our QD-based assay is of immediate value to the high throughput screening of novel DAT modulators.
In vitro flow cytometry-based screening platform for cellulase engineering
Körfer, Georgette; Pitzler, Christian; Vojcic, Ljubica; Martinez, Ronny; Schwaneberg, Ulrich
2016-01-01
Ultrahigh throughput screening (uHTS) plays an essential role in directed evolution for tailoring biocatalysts for industrial applications. Flow cytometry-based uHTS provides an efficient coverage of the generated protein sequence space by analysis of up to 107 events per hour. Cell-free enzyme production overcomes the challenge of diversity loss during the transformation of mutant libraries into expression hosts, enables directed evolution of toxic enzymes, and holds the promise to efficiently design enzymes of human or animal origin. The developed uHTS cell-free compartmentalization platform (InVitroFlow) is the first report in which a flow cytometry-based screened system has been combined with compartmentalized cell-free expression for directed cellulase enzyme evolution. InVitroFlow was validated by screening of a random cellulase mutant library employing a novel screening system (based on the substrate fluorescein-di-β-D-cellobioside), and yielded significantly improved cellulase variants (e.g. CelA2-H288F-M1 (N273D/H288F/N468S) with 13.3-fold increased specific activity (220.60 U/mg) compared to CelA2 wildtype: 16.57 U/mg). PMID:27184298
In vitro flow cytometry-based screening platform for cellulase engineering.
Körfer, Georgette; Pitzler, Christian; Vojcic, Ljubica; Martinez, Ronny; Schwaneberg, Ulrich
2016-01-01
Ultrahigh throughput screening (uHTS) plays an essential role in directed evolution for tailoring biocatalysts for industrial applications. Flow cytometry-based uHTS provides an efficient coverage of the generated protein sequence space by analysis of up to 10(7) events per hour. Cell-free enzyme production overcomes the challenge of diversity loss during the transformation of mutant libraries into expression hosts, enables directed evolution of toxic enzymes, and holds the promise to efficiently design enzymes of human or animal origin. The developed uHTS cell-free compartmentalization platform (InVitroFlow) is the first report in which a flow cytometry-based screened system has been combined with compartmentalized cell-free expression for directed cellulase enzyme evolution. InVitroFlow was validated by screening of a random cellulase mutant library employing a novel screening system (based on the substrate fluorescein-di-β-D-cellobioside), and yielded significantly improved cellulase variants (e.g. CelA2-H288F-M1 (N273D/H288F/N468S) with 13.3-fold increased specific activity (220.60 U/mg) compared to CelA2 wildtype: 16.57 U/mg). PMID:27184298
Alheim, Mats; Paul, Prashanta Kumer; Hauzenberger, Dan-Mikael; Wikström, Ann-Charlotte
2015-11-01
The presence of preformed donor-specific HLA antibodies leads to early antibody mediated kidney allograft rejection. Therefore, detection and avoidance of donor reactive HLA antibodies prior to transplantation is of outmost importance in order to minimize the risk of rejection. Detection of pre-formed HLA antibodies is currently performed using complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) assay alone or together with a flow cytometry based crossmatch (FCXM). This study was initiated to further evaluate our recently developed flow cytometry based procedure for determination of both cytotoxicity of and IgG binding to donor-derived lymphocytes by HLA antibodies. Highly enriched immuno-magnetic bead purified T and B lymphocytes were used as target cells for patient sera using 96-well plates. Importantly, the assay shows high sensitivity and specificity as determined by HLA typed donor cells and serum with defined HLA antibody IgG and C1q. Based on this and additional data generated in this paper, such as evaluation of appropriate serum and complements incubation times and assay reproducibility and stability, will enable us to more rapidly implement this assay in our clinical laboratory routines. In addition, we demonstrate that FCtox crossmatching of deceased donor cells has superior specificity compared to conventional CDC assay especially regarding high frequencies of false-positive reactions. PMID:26429307
Li, Huifen; Mao, Genxiang; Carlson, Joshua; Leng, Sean X
2015-09-01
Human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) is a ubiquitous pathogen that causes congenital infection and severe infections in immunocompromised patients. Chronic hCMV infection may also play an important role in immunosenescence and adverse health outcomes in older adults. THP-1, a human monocytic cell line and its derived macrophages serve as a useful cell culture model for mechanistic studies of hCMV infection and its underlying biology. A major methodological challenge is the lack of a quick and reliable tool to accurately determine the efficiency of hCMV infection in THP-1 derived macrophages. In this study, we developed a flow cytometry based method using commercially available monoclonal antibody (MAb) against hCMV immediate early (IE) antigen that can accurately determine infection efficiency. We used 0.5% formaldehyde for fixation, 90% methanol for permeabilization, and incubation with FITC conjugated MAb at 37°C. The method was tested by hCMV infection with laboratory Towne strain in the presence or absence of hydrocortisone. It was also compared with the routine flow cytometry protocol using Cytofix/Cytoperm solution and with immunofluorescence. The results indicate that this new method is reliable and time saving for accurate determination of infection efficiency. It may facilitate further investigations into the underlying biological mechanisms of hCMV infection. PMID:25958130
Urbani, Francesca; Proietti, Enrico
2013-01-01
The development of immune monitoring assays is essential to determine the immune responses against tumor-specific antigens (TSAs) and tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) and their possible correlation with clinical outcome in cancer patients receiving immunotherapies. Despite the wide range of techniques used, to date these assays have not shown consistent results among clinical trials and failed to define surrogate markers of clinical efficacy to antitumor vaccines. Multiparameter flow cytometry- (FCM-) based assays combining different phenotypic and functional markers have been developed in the past decade for informative and longitudinal analysis of polyfunctional T-cells. These technologies were designed to address the complexity and functional heterogeneity of cancer biology and cellular immunity and to define biomarkers predicting clinical response to anticancer treatment. So far, there is still a lack of standardization of some of these immunological tests. The aim of this review is to overview the latest technologies for immune monitoring and to highlight critical steps involved in some of the FCM-based cellular immune assays. In particular, our laboratory is focused on melanoma vaccine research and thus our main goal was the validation of a functional multiparameter test (FMT) combining different functional and lineage markers to be applied in clinical trials involving patients with melanoma. PMID:24195078
Salvagno, Camilla; de Visser, Karin E
2016-01-01
It is well established that tumors evolve together with nonmalignant cells, such as fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and immune cells. These cells constantly entangle and interact with each other creating the tumor microenvironment. Immune cells can exert both tumor-promoting and tumor-protective functions. Detailed phenotypic and functional characterization of intra-tumoral immune cell subsets has become increasingly important in the field of cancer biology and cancer immunology. In this chapter, we describe a method for isolation of viable and pure immune cell subsets from freshly isolated murine solid tumors and organs. First, we describe a protocol for the generation of single-cell suspensions from tumors and organs using mechanical and enzymatic strategies. In addition, we describe how immune cell subsets can be purified by consecutive magnetic cell sorting and multi-parameter flow cytometry-based cell sorting. PMID:27581019
Cui, Li-li; Kinnunen, Tuure; Boltze, Johannes; Nystedt, Johanna
2016-01-01
Complications of microocclusions have been reported after intra-arterial delivery of mesenchymal stromal cells. Hence, quantification and efficient limitation of cell clumps in suspension before transplantation is important to reduce the risk. We used a flow cytometry-based pulse-width assay to assess the effects of different cell suspension concentrations (0.2–2.0 × 106/mL), storage solutions (complete growth medium, Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline, and normal saline), storage time in suspension (0–9 h), and freeze-thawing procedure on the clumping of rat bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMMSCs) and also evaluated cell viability at the same time. Surprisingly, increasing the cell concentration did not result in more cell clumps in vitro. Freshly harvested (fresh) cells in normal saline had significantly fewer cell clumps and also displayed high viability (>90%). A time-dependent reduction in viability was observed for cells in all three storage solutions, without any significant change in the clumping tendency except for cells in medium. Fresh cells were more viable than their frozen-thawed counterparts, and fresh cells in normal saline had fewer cell clumps. In conclusion, cell clumping and viability could be affected by different cell preparation procedures, and quantification of cell clumping can be conducted using the flow cytometry-based pulse-width assay before intra-arterial cell delivery. PMID:27022399
2012-01-01
Background Antibodies play a central role in naturally acquired immunity against Plasmodium falciparum. Current assays to detect anti-plasmodial antibodies against native antigens within their cellular context are prone to bias and cannot be automated, although they provide important information about natural exposure and vaccine immunogenicity. A novel, cytometry-based workflow for quantitative detection of anti-plasmodial antibodies in human serum is presented. Methods Fixed red blood cells (RBCs), infected with late stages of P. falciparum were utilized to detect malaria-specific antibodies by flow cytometry with subsequent automated data analysis. Available methods for data-driven analysis of cytometry data were assessed and a new overlap subtraction algorithm (OSA) based on open source software was developed. The complete workflow was evaluated using sera from two GMZ2 malaria vaccine trials in semi-immune adults and pre-school children residing in a malaria endemic area. Results Fixation, permeabilization, and staining of infected RBCs were adapted for best operation in flow cytometry. As asexual blood-stage vaccine candidates are designed to induce antibody patterns similar to those in semi-immune adults, serial dilutions of sera from heavily exposed individuals were compared to naïve controls to determine optimal antibody dilutions. To eliminate investigator effects introduced by manual gating, a non-biased algorithm (OSA) for data-driven gating was developed. OSA-derived results correlated well with those obtained by manual gating (r between 0.79 and 0.99) and outperformed other model-driven gating methods. Bland-Altman plots confirmed the agreement of manual gating and OSA-derived results. A 1.33-fold increase (p=0.003) in the number of positive cells after vaccination in a subgroup of pre-school children vaccinated with 100 μg GMZ2 was present and in vaccinated adults from the same region we measured a baseline-corrected 1.23-fold, vaccine
Fabbrini, Monica; Sammicheli, Chiara; Margarit, Immaculada; Maione, Domenico; Grandi, Guido; Giuliani, Marzia Monica; Mori, Elena; Nuti, Sandra
2012-04-30
Opsonophagocytosis is the primary mechanism for the clearance of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) by the host, and levels of opsonic antibodies may correlate with protection in preclinical models. A killing-based opsonophagocytosis assay (OPA), can be used to determine the functional activity of vaccine-induced GBS-specific antibodies. The assay, which measures the number of bacterial colonies surviving phagocytic killing in the presence of specific antibodies and complement, is rather expensive, time-consuming and poorly standardized. Here we describe a rapid, sensitive and reproducible fluorescent OPA assay (fOPA) based on flow cytometry analysis (FACS), which allows internalized bacteria to be distinguished from those associated to the plasma membrane of phagocytic cells. Fixed GBS were labeled with pHrodo™, a fluorescent dye which dramatically increases the emitted fluorescence at the acidic conditions present in the phagocytic endosomal compartment. Labeled bacteria were incubated with HL-60 cells differentiated to phagocytes, antibodies and complement, and then analyzed by FACS. A further improvement to our method, allowing to reduce assay variability, consisted on a step of selection of effector cells among the HL-60 population. Analysis of sera from mice immunized with different GBS vaccines revealed comparable sensitivity and specificity with the traditional killing OPA assay (kOPA), and a good correlation between the fluorescent signal of bacteria internalized by HL-60 phagocytes and killing. Remarkably, the pHrodo-based approach reduced the variability observed with other fOPA assays. The obtained data indicate the proposed fOPA as a reliable and useful tool for functional antibody assessment. PMID:22309986
Righetto, L; Zaman, R U; Mahmud, Z H; Bertuzzo, E; Mari, L; Casagrandi, R; Gatto, M; Islam, S; Rinaldo, A
2015-08-01
Presence of Vibrio cholerae serogroups O1 and O139 in the waters of the rural area of Matlab, Bangladesh, was investigated with quantitative measurements performed with a portable flow cytometer. The relevance of this work relates to the testing of a field-adapted measurement protocol that might prove useful for cholera epidemic surveillance and for validation of mathematical models. Water samples were collected from different water bodies that constitute the hydrological system of the region, a well-known endemic area for cholera. Water was retrieved from ponds, river waters, and irrigation canals during an inter-epidemic time period. Each sample was filtered and analysed with a flow cytometer for a fast determination of V. cholerae cells contained in those environments. More specifically, samples were treated with O1- and O139-specific antibodies, which allowed precise flow-cytometry-based concentration measurements. Both serogroups were present in the environmental waters with a consistent dominance of V. cholerae O1. These results extend earlier studies where V. cholerae O1 and O139 were mostly detected during times of cholera epidemics using standard culturing techniques. Furthermore, our results confirm that an important fraction of the ponds' host populations of V. cholerae are able to self-sustain even when cholera cases are scarce. Those contaminated ponds may constitute a natural reservoir for cholera endemicity in the Matlab region. Correlations of V. cholerae concentrations with environmental factors and the spatial distribution of V. cholerae populations are also discussed. PMID:25496520
Buzatu, Dan A.; Moskal, Ted J.; Williams, Anna J.; Cooper, Willie Mae; Mattes, William B.; Wilkes, Jon G.
2014-01-01
Foodborne illnesses occur in both industrialized and developing countries, and may be increasing due to rapidly evolving food production practices. Yet some primary tools used to assess food safety are decades, if not centuries, old. To improve the time to result for food safety assessment a sensitive flow cytometer based system to detect microbial contamination was developed. By eliminating background fluorescence and improving signal to noise the assays accurately measure bacterial load or specifically identify pathogens. These assays provide results in minutes or, if sensitivity to one cell in a complex matrix is required, after several hours enrichment. Conventional assessments of food safety require 48 to 56 hours. The assays described within are linear over 5 orders of magnitude with results identical to culture plates, and report live and dead microorganisms. This system offers a powerful approach to real-time assessment of food safety, useful for industry self-monitoring and regulatory inspection. PMID:24718659
Chen, Jun; Young, Susan M.; Allen, Chris; Seeber, Andrew; Péli-Gulli, Marie-Pierre; Panchaud, Nicolas; Waller, Anna; Ursu, Oleg; Yao, Tuanli; Golden, Jennifer E.; Strouse, J. Jacob; Carter, Mark B.; Kang, Huining; Bologa, Cristian G.; Foutz, Terry D.; Edwards, Bruce S.; Peterson, Blake R.; Aubé, Jeffrey; Werner-Washburne, Margaret; Loewith, Robbie J.; De Virgilio, Claudio; Sklar, Larry A.
2012-01-01
TOR (target of rapamycin) is a serine/threonine kinase, evolutionarily conserved from yeast to human, which functions as a fundamental controller of cell growth. The moderate clinical benefit of rapamycin in mTOR-based therapy of many cancers favors the development of new TOR inhibitors. Here we report a high throughput flow cytometry multiplexed screen using five GFP-tagged yeast clones that represent the readouts of four branches of the TORC1 signaling pathway in budding yeast. Each GFP-tagged clone was differentially color-coded and the GFP signal of each clone was measured simultaneously by flow cytometry, which allows rapid prioritization of compounds that likely act through direct modulation of TORC1 or proximal signaling components. A total of 255 compounds were confirmed in dose-response analysis to alter GFP expression in one or more clones. To validate the concept of the high throughput screen, we have characterized CID 3528206, a small molecule most likely to act on TORC1 as it alters GFP expression in all five GFP clones in an analogous manner to rapamycin. We have shown that CID 3528206 inhibited yeast cell growth, and that CID 3528206 inhibited TORC1 activity both in vitro and in vivo with EC50s of 150 nM and 3.9 μM, respectively. The results of microarray analysis and yeast GFP collection screen further support the notion that CID 3528206 and rapamycin modulate similar cellular pathways. Together, these results indicate that the HTS has identified a potentially useful small molecule for further development of TOR inhibitors. PMID:22260433
Marits, Per; Wikström, Ann-Charlotte; Popadic, Dusan; Winqvist, Ola; Thunberg, Sarah
2014-08-01
The golden standard for functional evaluation of immunodeficiencies is the incorporation of [(3)H]-thymidine in a proliferation assay stimulated with mitogens. Recently developed whole blood proliferation assays have the advantage of parallel lymphocyte lineage analysis and in addition provide a non-radioactive alternative. Here we evaluate the Flow-cytometric Assay for Specific Cell-mediated Immune-response in Activated whole blood (FASCIA) in a comparison with [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation in four patients with severe combined immunodeficiency. The threshold for the minimum number of lymphocytes required for reliable responses in FASCIA is determined together with reference values from 100 healthy donors when stimulated with mitogens as well as antigen specific stimuli. Finally, responses against PWM and SEA+SEB stimuli are conducted with clinically relevant immunomodulatory compounds. We conclude that FASCIA is a rapid, stable and sensitive functional whole blood assay that requires small amounts of whole blood that can be used for reliable assessment of lymphocyte reactivity in patients. PMID:24909732
Poojan, Shiv; Kumar, Sushil
2011-02-01
A method to characterize and culture stem cells from neonate mouse epidermis after transplacental BrdU (bromo-deoxyuridine) administration is described. We have characterized stem cells by their properties viz. to retain BrdU label, adhere rapidly onto collagen-fibronectin substratum and express a specific biomarker beta-1-integrin. BrdU-labelled cells (detected using monoclonal antibody) constituted a sum of 18% of the total number of cells. The ability of freshly isolated keratinocytes [LRCs (label-retaining cells)] to bind to primary BrdU antibody or to pick up PI (propidium iodide) stain was distinguishable. Viable LRCs did not retain PI. Such cells, termed EpSC (epidermis stem cell), were PI negative and BrdU positive. EpSC constituted 6% of the total cell yield. Culture in low Ca2+ medium and susceptibility to differentiation in the presence of high Ca2+ levels further characterized the stem cells. This protocol is useful for studying transplacental carcinogenesis. PMID:21261598
2013-01-01
Background The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway plays an important role in multiple myeloma (MM), a blood cancer associated with uncontrolled proliferation of bone marrow plasma cells. This study aimed to develop a robust clinical pharmacodynamic (PD) assay to measure the on-target PD effects of the selective PI3K inhibitor GDC-0941 in MM patients. Methods We conducted an in vitro drug wash-out study to evaluate the feasibility of biochemical approaches in measuring the phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein (S6), one of the commonly used PD markers for PI3K pathway inhibition. We then developed a 7-color phospho-specific flow cytometry assay, or phospho flow assay, to measure the phosphorylation state of intracellular S6 in bone marrow aspirate (BMA) and peripheral blood (PB). Integrated mean fluorescence intensity (iMFI) was used to calculate fold changes of phosphorylation. Assay sensitivity was evaluated by comparing phospho flow with Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) assays. Finally, a sample handling method was developed to maintain the integrity of phospho signal during sample shipping and storage to ensure clinical application. Results The phospho flow assay provided single-cell PD monitoring of S6 phosphorylation in tumor and surrogate cells using fixed BMA and PB, assessing pathway modulation in response to GDC-0941 with sensitivity similar to that of MSD assay. The one-shot sample fixation and handling protocol herein demonstrated exceptional preservation of protein phosphorylation. In contrast, the IHC assay was less sensitive in terms of signal quantification while the biochemical approach (MSD) was less suitable to assess PD activities due to the undesirable impact associated with cell isolation on the protein phosphorylation in tumor cells. Conclusions We developed a robust PD biomarker assay for the clinical evaluation of PI3K inhibitors in MM, allowing one to decipher the PD response in a relevant cell
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Recent developments in spectrally encoded microspheres (SEMs)-based technologies provide high multiplexing possibilities. Most SEMs-based assays required a flow cytometer with sophisticated fluidics and optics. The new imaging superparamagnetic SEMs-based platform transports SEMs with considerably ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kong, Lingjie; Tang, Jianyong; Cui, Meng
2016-03-01
In vivo flow cytometry has found numerous applications in biology and pharmacology. However, conventional cytometry does not provide the detailed morphological information that is needed to fully determine the phenotype of individual circulating cells. Imaging cytometry, capable of visualizing the morphology and dynamics of the circulating cells at high spatiotemporal resolution, is highly desired. Current wide-field based image cytometers are limited in the imaging depth and provide only two-dimensional resolution. For deep tissue imaging, laser scanning two-photon fluorescence microscopy (TPM) is widely adopted. However, for applications in flow cytometry, the axial scanning speed of current TPMs is inadequate to provide high-speed cross-sectional imaging of vasculature. We have integrated an optical phase-locked ultrasound lens into a standard TPM and achieved microsecond-scale axial scanning. With a galvo scanner for transverse scanning, we achieved kHz cross-sectional frame rate. Here we report its applications for in vivo deformability cytometry and in vivo imaging flow cytometry, and demonstrate the capability of imaging dynamical morphologies of flowing cells, distinguishing cells and cellular clusters, and simultaneously quantifying different cell populations based on their fluorescent labels.
Sashihara, Junji; Burbelo, Peter D.; Savoldo, Barbara; Pierson, Theodore C.; Cohen, Jeffrey I.
2009-01-01
Measurement of neutralizing antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is important for evaluation of candidate vaccines. The current neutralization assay is based on antibody inhibition of EBV transformation of B cells and requires 6 weeks to perform. We developed a rapid, quantitative flow cytometry assay and show that neutralizing antibody titers measured by the new assay strongly correlate with antibody titers in the standard transformation-based assay. Antibodies to EBV gp350 and gp42 have been shown to block infection of B cells by EBV. Using new assays to quantify antibodies to these glycoproteins, we show for the first time that that human plasma contains high titers of antibody to gp42; these titers correlate with neutralization of EBV infectivity or transformation. Furthermore, we show that antibody titers to EBV gp350 correlate more strongly with neutralization than antibody titers to gp42. These assays should be useful in accessing antibody responses to candidate EBV vaccines. PMID:19584018
Numerical methods for turbulent flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turner, James C., Jr.
1988-09-01
It has generally become accepted that the Navier-Strokes equations predict the dynamic behavior of turbulent as well as laminar flows of a fluid at a point in space away form a discontinuity such as a shock wave. Turbulence is also closely related to the phenomena of non-uniqueness of solutions of the Navier-Strokes equations. These second order, nonlinear partial differential equations can be solved analytically for only a few simple flows. Turbulent flow fields are much to complex to lend themselves to these few analytical methods. Numerical methods, therefore, offer the only possibility of achieving a solution of turbulent flow equations. In spite of recent advances in computer technology, the direct solution, by discrete methods, of the Navier-Strokes equations for turbulent flow fields is today, and in the foreseeable future, impossible. Thus the only economically feasible way to solve practical turbulent flow problems numerically is to use statistically averaged equations governing mean-flow quantities. The objective is to study some recent developments relating to the use of numerical methods to study turbulent flow.
Flow analysis system and method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hill, Wayne S. (Inventor); Barck, Bruce N. (Inventor)
1998-01-01
A non-invasive flow analysis system and method wherein a sensor, such as an acoustic sensor, is coupled to a conduit for transmitting a signal which varies depending on the characteristics of the flow in the conduit. The signal is amplified and there is a filter, responsive to the sensor signal, and tuned to pass a narrow band of frequencies proximate the resonant frequency of the sensor. A demodulator generates an amplitude envelope of the filtered signal and a number of flow indicator quantities are calculated based on variations in amplitude of the amplitude envelope. A neural network, or its equivalent, is then used to determine the flow rate of the flow in the conduit based on the flow indicator quantities.
Vortex methods for separated flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spalart, Philippe R.
1988-01-01
The numerical solution of the Euler or Navier-Stokes equations by Lagrangian vortex methods is discussed. The mathematical background is presented and includes the relationship with traditional point-vortex studies, convergence to smooth solutions of the Euler equations, and the essential differences between two and three-dimensional cases. The difficulties in extending the method to viscous or compressible flows are explained. Two-dimensional flows around bluff bodies are emphasized. Robustness of the method and the assessment of accuracy, vortex-core profiles, time-marching schemes, numerical dissipation, and efficient programming are treated. Operation counts for unbounded and periodic flows are given, and two algorithms designed to speed up the calculations are described.
Flow Cytometry-Based Classification in Cancer Research: A View on Feature Selection
Hassan, S. Sakira; Ruusuvuori, Pekka; Latonen, Leena; Huttunen, Heikki
2015-01-01
In this paper, we study the problem of feature selection in cancer-related machine learning tasks. In particular, we study the accuracy and stability of different feature selection approaches within simplistic machine learning pipelines. Earlier studies have shown that for certain cases, the accuracy of detection can easily reach 100% given enough training data. Here, however, we concentrate on simplifying the classification models with and seek for feature selection approaches that are reliable even with extremely small sample sizes. We show that as much as 50% of features can be discarded without compromising the prediction accuracy. Moreover, we study the model selection problem among the ℓ1 regularization path of logistic regression classifiers. To this aim, we compare a more traditional cross-validation approach with a recently proposed Bayesian error estimator. PMID:27081305
Vortex methods for separated flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spalart, Philippe R.
1988-01-01
The numerical solution of the Euler or Navier-Stokes equations by Lagrangian vortex methods is discussed. The mathematical background is presented in an elementary fashion and includes the relationship with traditional point-vortex studies, the convergence to smooth solutions of the Euler equations, and the essential differences between two- and three-dimensional cases. The difficulties in extending the method to viscous or compressible flows are explained. The overlap with the excellent review articles available is kept to a minimum and more emphasis is placed on the area of expertise, namely two-dimensional flows around bluff bodies. When solid walls are present, complete mathematical models are not available and a more heuristic attitude must be adopted. The imposition of inviscid and viscous boundary conditions without conformal mappings or image vortices and the creation of vorticity along solid walls are examined in detail. Methods for boundary-layer treatment and the question of the Kutta condition are discussed. Practical aspects and tips helpful in creating a method that really works are explained. The topics include the robustness of the method and the assessment of accuracy, vortex-core profiles, timemarching schemes, numerical dissipation, and efficient programming. Calculations of flows past streamlined or bluff bodies are used as examples when appropriate.
Krylov methods for compressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tidriri, M. D.
1995-01-01
We investigate the application of Krylov methods to compressible flows, and the effect of implicit boundary conditions on the implicit solution of nonlinear problems. Two defect-correction procedures, namely, approximate factorization (AF) for structured grids and ILU/GMRES for general grids, are considered. Also considered here are Newton-Krylov matrix-free methods that we combined with the use of mixed discretization schemes in the implicitly defined Jacobian and its preconditioner. Numerical experiments that show the performance of our approaches are then presented.
Overview of multifluid-flow-calculation methods
Stewart, H.B.
1981-01-01
Two categories of numerical methods which may be useful in multiphase flow research are discussed. The first category includes methods which are specifically intended for accurate computation of discontinuities, such as the method of characteristics, particle-in-cell method, flux-corrected transport, and random choice methods. Methods in this category could be applied to research on rocket exhaust plumes and interior ballistics. The second category includes methods for smooth, subsonic flows, such as fractional step methods, semi-implicit method, and methods which treat convection implicitly. The subsonic flow methods could be of interest for ice flows. (LCL)
Insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece and method
Jones, Daniel O.
2000-01-01
A fluid flow passage bridgepiece for insertion into an open-face fluid flow channel of a fluid flow plate is provided. The bridgepiece provides a sealed passage from a columnar fluid flow manifold to the flow channel, thereby preventing undesirable leakage into and out of the columnar fluid flow manifold. When deployed in the various fluid flow plates that are used in a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, bridgepieces of this invention prevent mixing of reactant gases, leakage of coolant or humidification water, and occlusion of the fluid flow channel by gasket material. The invention also provides a fluid flow plate assembly including an insertable bridgepiece, a fluid flow plate adapted for use with an insertable bridgepiece, and a method of manufacturing a fluid flow plate with an insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece.
Gas flow meter and method for measuring gas flow rate
Robertson, Eric P.
2006-08-01
A gas flow rate meter includes an upstream line and two chambers having substantially equal, fixed volumes. An adjustable valve may direct the gas flow through the upstream line to either of the two chambers. A pressure monitoring device may be configured to prompt valve adjustments, directing the gas flow to an alternate chamber each time a pre-set pressure in the upstream line is reached. A method of measuring the gas flow rate measures the time required for the pressure in the upstream line to reach the pre-set pressure. The volume of the chamber and upstream line are known and fixed, thus the time required for the increase in pressure may be used to determine the flow rate of the gas. Another method of measuring the gas flow rate uses two pressure measurements of a fixed volume, taken at different times, to determine the flow rate of the gas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torizumi, Y.; Hirayama, N.; Maeda, T.
1983-01-01
Flow characteristics of a compressible gas flow through an orifice are investigated experimentally at pressure ratios below the regulation values of JIS and ASME. For practical mass flow measurements, a theoretical method of mass flow estimations is extended using one-dimensional flow theory and experimental data. Using the method, the accuracy of mass flow measurements with orifice meters is about + or 1% in the Reynolds number range of turbulent flows and also in supercritical flows. Tables of the product of flow coefficient and expansion factor are obtained by the method at various diameter ratios, pressure ratios, and specific heats.
Effect of flow fluctuations and nonflow on elliptic flow methods
Ollitrault, Jean-Yves; Poskanzer, Arthur M.; Voloshin, Sergei A.
2009-04-16
We discuss how the different estimates of elliptic flow are influenced by flow fluctuations and nonflow effects. It is explained why the event-plane method yields estimates between the two-particle correlation methods and the multiparticle correlation methods. It is argued that nonflow effects and fluctuations cannot be disentangled without other assumptions. However, we provide equations where, with reasonable assumptions about fluctuations and nonflow, all measured values of elliptic flow converge to a unique mean v_2,PP elliptic flow in the participant plane and, with a Gaussian assumption on eccentricity fluctuations, can be converted to the mean v_2,RP in the reaction plane. Thus, the 20percent spread in observed elliptic flow measurements from different analysis methods is no longer mysterious.
Natural Elements Method for Free Surface Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Darbani, M.; Ouahsine, A.; Villon, P.
2009-09-01
The Natural Element Method (NEM) is used to simulate a 2D shallow water flow in presence of free surface and a varying bathymetry. This meshless method used a fully Lagrangian formulation and natural neighbors, which remain a very striking problem related the boundary conditions. The method was succefully used to simulate dam-break flows by solving the fully nonlinear Shallow Water Equations (SWE) and by using an implicit scheme under a transient flow and the Coriolis effect.
On the Methods to Measure Powder Flow.
Tan, Geoffrey; Morton, David A V; Larson, Ian
2015-01-01
The flow of powders can often play a critical role in the manufacturing of pharmaceutical products. Many of these processes require good, consistent and predictable flow of powders to ensure continuous production of pharmaceutical dosages and to ensure their quality. Therefore, the flow of powders is of paramount importance to the pharmaceutical industry and thus the measuring and evaluating of powder flow is of utmost importance. At present, there are numerous methods in which the flow of powders can be measured. However, due to the complex and environment-dependent nature of powders, no one method exists that is capable of providing a complete picture of the behaviour of powders under dynamic conditions. Some of the most commonly applied methods to measure the flow of powders include: density indices, such as the Carr index and Hausner ratio, powder avalanching, the angle of repose (AOR), flow through an orifice, powder rheometry and shear cell testing. PMID:26446467
A survey of aftbody flow prediction methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Putnam, L. E.; Mace, J.
1981-01-01
A survey of computational methods used in the calculation of nozzle aftbody flows is presented. One class of methods reviewed are those which patch together solutions for the inviscid, boundary layer, and plume flow regions. The second class of methods reviewed are those which computationally solve the Navier Stokes equations over nozzle aftbodies with jet exhaust flow. Computed results from the methods are compared with experiment. Advantages and disadvantages of the various methods are discussed along with opportunities for further development of these methods.
A novel flow cytometric-based method to measure kinase inhibition in sputum from COPD subjects
Nicholson, G C; Holloway, R A; Leaker, B R; Kilty, I; Salganik, M; Tan, L; Barnes, P J; Donnelly, L E
2016-01-01
Introduction Janus kinases (JAKs) regulate inflammatory gene expression through phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins. Expression of STAT proteins is increased in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and may be involved in driving chronic inflammation. Oral JAK inhibitors are effective as anti-inflammatory therapy but exhibit dose-limiting adverse effects. Development of inhaled compounds would be enhanced by robust biomarkers that directly reflect the anti-inflammatory and pharmacological activity in the lung. Methods A novel flow cytometry assay was developed to measure STAT1 phosphorylation in sputum inflammatory cells. The standard sputum processing method was refined to improve sputum cell viability. The flow cytometric assay was used to assess the reproducibility of the measurement of STAT1 phosphorylation and the in vitro activity of a pan JAK-inhibitor on three separate visits in patients with COPD. Results Upregulation of STAT1 phosphorylation was measured following in vitro IFNγ stimulation of sputum macrophages (stimulated/unstimulated ratio 1.57; p<0.00001). Upregulation was inhibited following in vitro preincubation with a pan JAK-inhibitor (inhibited+stimulated/unstimulated ratio 0.97). STAT1 phosphorylation activity could only be measured in macrophages. Conclusions Sputum from patients with COPD can be used to reproducibly measure phospho-STAT expression in sputum macrophages. The flow cytometry-based method can be used to evaluate kinase inhibitors in vitro and subsequently in ex vivo studies. The assay is particularly useful for the assessment of inhaled compounds where whole blood assays may not be relevant. PMID:27403320
Simmons, Alan J; Banerjee, Amrita; McKinley, Eliot T; Scurrah, Cherie' R; Herring, Charles A; Gewin, Leslie S; Masuzaki, Ryota; Karp, Seth J; Franklin, Jeffrey L; Gerdes, Michael J; Irish, Jonathan M; Coffey, Robert J; Lau, Ken S
2015-01-01
Understanding heterogeneous cellular behaviors in a complex tissue requires the evaluation of signaling networks at single-cell resolution. However, probing signaling in epithelial tissues using cytometry-based single-cell analysis has been confounded by the necessity of single-cell dissociation, where disrupting cell-to-cell connections inherently perturbs native cell signaling states. Here, we demonstrate a novel strategy (Disaggregation for Intracellular Signaling in Single Epithelial Cells from Tissue—DISSECT) that preserves native signaling for Cytometry Time-of-Flight (CyTOF) and fluorescent flow cytometry applications. A 21-plex CyTOF analysis encompassing core signaling and cell-identity markers was performed on the small intestinal epithelium after systemic tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) stimulation. Unsupervised and supervised analyses robustly selected signaling features that identify a unique subset of epithelial cells that are sensitized to TNF-α-induced apoptosis in the seemingly homogeneous enterocyte population. Specifically, p-ERK and apoptosis are divergently regulated in neighboring enterocytes within the epithelium, suggesting a mechanism of contact-dependent survival. Our novel single-cell approach can broadly be applied, using both CyTOF and multi-parameter flow cytometry, for investigating normal and diseased cell states in a wide range of epithelial tissues. PMID:26519361
Simmons, Alan J; Banerjee, Amrita; McKinley, Eliot T; Scurrah, Cherie' R; Herring, Charles A; Gewin, Leslie S; Masuzaki, Ryota; Karp, Seth J; Franklin, Jeffrey L; Gerdes, Michael J; Irish, Jonathan M; Coffey, Robert J; Lau, Ken S
2015-10-01
Understanding heterogeneous cellular behaviors in a complex tissue requires the evaluation of signaling networks at single-cell resolution. However, probing signaling in epithelial tissues using cytometry-based single-cell analysis has been confounded by the necessity of single-cell dissociation, where disrupting cell-to-cell connections inherently perturbs native cell signaling states. Here, we demonstrate a novel strategy (Disaggregation for Intracellular Signaling in Single Epithelial Cells from Tissue-DISSECT) that preserves native signaling for Cytometry Time-of-Flight (CyTOF) and fluorescent flow cytometry applications. A 21-plex CyTOF analysis encompassing core signaling and cell-identity markers was performed on the small intestinal epithelium after systemic tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) stimulation. Unsupervised and supervised analyses robustly selected signaling features that identify a unique subset of epithelial cells that are sensitized to TNF-α-induced apoptosis in the seemingly homogeneous enterocyte population. Specifically, p-ERK and apoptosis are divergently regulated in neighboring enterocytes within the epithelium, suggesting a mechanism of contact-dependent survival. Our novel single-cell approach can broadly be applied, using both CyTOF and multi-parameter flow cytometry, for investigating normal and diseased cell states in a wide range of epithelial tissues. PMID:26519361
A novel microfluidic flow focusing method
Jiang, Hai; Weng, Xuan; Li, Dongqing
2014-01-01
A new microfluidic method that allows hydrodynamic focusing in a microchannel with two sheath flows is demonstrated. The microchannel network consists of a T-shaped main channel and two T-shaped branch channels. The flows of the sample stream and the sheath streams in the microchannel are generated by electroosmotic flow-induced pressure gradients. In comparison with other flow focusing methods, this novel method does not expose the sample to electrical field, and does not need any external pumps, tubing, and valves. PMID:25538810
Spectral methods for inviscid, compressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hussaini, M. Y.; Salas, M. D.; Zang, T. A.
1983-01-01
Report developments in the application of spectral methods to two dimensional compressible flows are reviewed. A brief introduction to spectral methods -- their history and especially their implementation -- is provided. The stress is on those techniques relevant to transonic flow computation. The spectral multigrid iterative methods are discussed with application to the transonic full potential equation. Discontinuous solutions of the Euler equations are considered. The key element is the shock fitting technique which is briefly explained.
Computational methods for ideal compressible flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vanleer, B.
1983-01-01
Conservative dissipative difference schemes for computing one dimensional flow are introduced, and the recognition and representation of flow discontinuities are discussed. Multidimensional methods are outlined. Second order finite volume schemes are introduced. Conversion of difference schemes for a single linear convection equation into schemes for the hyperbolic system of the nonlinear conservation laws of ideal compressible flow is explained. Approximate Riemann solvers are presented. Monotone initial value interpolation; and limiters, switches, and artificial dissipation are considered.
Solving functional flow equations with pseudospectral methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borchardt, J.; Knorr, B.
2016-07-01
We apply pseudospectral methods to integrate functional flow equations with high accuracy, extending earlier work on functional fixed point equations [J. Borchardt and B. Knorr, Phys. Rev. D 91, 105011 (2015)]. The advantages of our method are illustrated with the help of two classes of models: first, to make contact with literature, we investigate flows of the O (N ) model in three dimensions, for N =1 , 4 and in the large N limit. For the case of a fractal dimension, d =2.4 , and N =1 , we follow the flow along a separatrix from a multicritical fixed point to the Wilson-Fisher fixed point over almost 13 orders of magnitude. As a second example, we consider flows of bounded quantum-mechanical potentials, which can be considered as a toy model for Higgs inflation. Such flows pose substantial numerical difficulties, and represent a perfect test bed to exemplify the power of pseudospectral methods.
Improved Panel-Method/Potential-Flow Code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ashby, Dale L.
1991-01-01
Panel code PMARC (Panel Method Ames Research Center) numerically simulates flow field around complex three-dimensional bodies, such as complete aircraft models. Based on potential-flow theory. Written in FORTRAN 77, with exception of namelist extension used for input. Structure facilitates addition of new features to code and tailoring of code to specific problems and computer hardware constraints.
Lab-on-Chip Cytometry Based on Magnetoresistive Sensors for Bacteria Detection in Milk
Fernandes, Ana C.; Duarte, Carla M.; Cardoso, Filipe A.; Bexiga, Ricardo.; Cardoso, Susana.; Freitas, Paulo P.
2014-01-01
Flow cytometers have been optimized for use in portable platforms, where cell separation, identification and counting can be achieved in a compact and modular format. This feature can be combined with magnetic detection, where magnetoresistive sensors can be integrated within microfluidic channels to detect magnetically labelled cells. This work describes a platform for in-flow detection of magnetically labelled cells with a magneto-resistive based cell cytometer. In particular, we present an example for the validation of the platform as a magnetic counter that identifies and quantifies Streptococcus agalactiae in milk. PMID:25196163
Lab-on-chip cytometry based on magnetoresistive sensors for bacteria detection in milk.
Fernandes, Ana C; Duarte, Carla M; Cardoso, Filipe A; Bexiga, Ricardo; Cardoso, Susana; Freitas, Paulo P
2014-01-01
Flow cytometers have been optimized for use in portable platforms, where cell separation, identification and counting can be achieved in a compact and modular format. This feature can be combined with magnetic detection, where magnetoresistive sensors can be integrated within microfluidic channels to detect magnetically labelled cells. This work describes a platform for in-flow detection of magnetically labelled cells with a magneto-resistive based cell cytometer. In particular, we present an example for the validation of the platform as a magnetic counter that identifies and quantifies Streptococcus agalactiae in milk. PMID:25196163
Computational methods for unsteady transonic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edwards, John W.; Thomas, James L.
1987-01-01
Computational methods for unsteady transonic flows are surveyed with emphasis upon applications to aeroelastic analysis and flutter prediction. Computational difficulty is discussed with respect to type of unsteady flow; attached, mixed (attached/separated) and separated. Significant early computations of shock motions, aileron buzz and periodic oscillations are discussed. The maturation of computational methods towards the capability of treating complete vehicles with reasonable computational resources is noted and a survey of recent comparisons with experimental results is compiled. The importance of mixed attached and separated flow modeling for aeroelastic analysis is discussed and recent calculations of periodic aerodynamic oscillations for an 18 percent thick circular arc airfoil are given.
Computational methods for unsteady transonic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edwards, John W.; Thomas, J. L.
1987-01-01
Computational methods for unsteady transonic flows are surveyed with emphasis on prediction. Computational difficulty is discussed with respect to type of unsteady flow; attached, mixed (attached/separated) and separated. Significant early computations of shock motions, aileron buzz and periodic oscillations are discussed. The maturation of computational methods towards the capability of treating complete vehicles with reasonable computational resources is noted and a survey of recent comparisons with experimental results is compiled. The importance of mixed attached and separated flow modeling for aeroelastic analysis is discussed, and recent calculations of periodic aerodynamic oscillations for an 18 percent thick circular arc airfoil are given.
Tomographic methods in flow diagnostics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Decker, Arthur J.
1993-01-01
This report presents a viewpoint of tomography that should be well adapted to currently available optical measurement technology as well as the needs of computational and experimental fluid dynamists. The goals in mind are to record data with the fastest optical array sensors; process the data with the fastest parallel processing technology available for small computers; and generate results for both experimental and theoretical data. An in-depth example treats interferometric data as it might be recorded in an aeronautics test facility, but the results are applicable whenever fluid properties are to be measured or applied from projections of those properties. The paper discusses both computed and neural net calibration tomography. The report also contains an overview of key definitions and computational methods, key references, computational problems such as ill-posedness, artifacts, missing data, and some possible and current research topics.
Development of a novel cell sorting method that samples population diversity in flow cytometry.
Osborne, Geoffrey W; Andersen, Stacey B; Battye, Francis L
2015-11-01
Flow cytometry based electrostatic cell sorting is an important tool in the separation of cell populations. Existing instruments can sort single cells into multi-well collection plates, and keep track of cell of origin and sorted well location. However currently single sorted cell results reflect the population distribution and fail to capture the population diversity. Software was designed that implements a novel sorting approach, "Slice and Dice Sorting," that links a graphical representation of a multi-well plate to logic that ensures that single cells are sampled and sorted from all areas defined by the sort region/s. Therefore the diversity of the total population is captured, and the more frequently occurring or rarer cell types are all sampled. The sorting approach was tested computationally, and using functional cell based assays. Computationally we demonstrate that conventional single cell sorting can sample as little as 50% of the population diversity dependant on the population distribution, and that Slice and Dice sorting samples much more of the variety present within a cell population. We then show by sorting single cells into wells using the Slice and Dice sorting method that there are cells sorted using this method that would be either rarely sorted, or not sorted at all using conventional single cell sorting approaches. The present study demonstrates a novel single cell sorting method that samples much more of the population diversity than current methods. It has implications in clonal selection, stem cell sorting, single cell sequencing and any areas where population heterogeneity is of importance. PMID:25944021
An exact inverse method for subsonic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Daripa, Prabir
1988-01-01
A new inverse method for the aerodynamic design of airfoils is presented for subcritical flows. The pressure distribution in this method can be prescribed as a function of the arclength of the still unknown body. It is shown that this inverse problem is mathematically equivalent to solving only one nonlinear boundary value problem subject to known Dirichlet data on the boundary.
Semiempirical methods for computing turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Belov, I. A.; Ginzburg, I. P.
1986-01-01
Two semiempirical theories which provide a basis for determining the turbulent friction and heat exchange near a wall are presented: (1) the Prandtl-Karman theory, and (2) the theory utilizing an equation for the energy of turbulent pulsations. A comparison is made between exact numerical methods and approximate integral methods for computing the turbulent boundary layers in the presence of pressure, blowing, or suction gradients. Using the turbulent flow around a plate as an example, it is shown that, when computing turbulent flows with external turbulence, it is preferable to construct a turbulence model based on the equation for energy of turbulent pulsations.
Method and apparatus for controlling fluid flow
Miller, J.R.
1980-06-27
A method and apparatus for precisely controlling the rate (and hence amount) of fluid flow are given. The controlled flow rate is finely adjustable, can be extremely small (on the order of microliter-atmospheres per second), can be adjusted to zero (flow stopped), and is stable to better than 1% with time. The dead volume of the valve can be made arbitrarily small, in fact essentially zero. The valve employs no wearing mechanical parts (including springs, stems, or seals). The valve is finely adjustable, has a flow rate dynamic range of many decades, can be made compatible with any fluid, and is suitable for incorporation into an open or closed loop servo-control system.
Unstructured grid methods for compressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morgan, K.; Peraire, J.; Peiro, J.
1992-01-01
The implementation of the finite element method on unstructured triangular grids is described and the development of centered finite element schemes for the solution of the compressible Euler equation on general triangular and tetrahedral grids is discussed. Explicit and implicit Lax-Wendroff type methods and a method based upon the use of explicit multistep timestepping are considered. In the latter case, the convergence behavior of the method is accelerated by the incorporation of a fully unstructured multigrid procedure. The advancing front method for generating unstructured grids of triangles and tetrahedra is described and the application of adaptive mesh techniques to both steady and transient flow analysis is illustrated.
Method for identifying anomalous terrestrial heat flows
Del Grande, Nancy Kerr
1977-01-25
A method for locating and mapping the magnitude and extent of terrestrial heat-flow anomalies from 5 to 50 times average with a tenfold improved sensitivity over orthodox applications of aerial temperature-sensing surveys as used for geothermal reconnaissance. The method remotely senses surface temperature anomalies such as occur from geothermal resources or oxidizing ore bodies by: measuring the spectral, spatial, statistical, thermal, and temporal features characterizing infrared radiation emitted by natural terrestrial surfaces; deriving from these measurements the true surface temperature with uncertainties as small as 0.05 to 0.5 K; removing effects related to natural temperature variations of topographic, hydrologic, or meteoric origin, the surface composition, detector noise, and atmospheric conditions; factoring out the ambient normal-surface temperature for non-thermally enhanced areas surveyed under otherwise identical environmental conditions; distinguishing significant residual temperature enhancements characteristic of anomalous heat flows and mapping the extent and magnitude of anomalous heat flows where they occur.
Sawada, Takeshi; Watanabe, Masaru; Fujimura, Yuu; Yagishita, Shigehiro; Shimoyama, Tatsu; Maeda, Yoshiharu; Kanda, Shintaro; Yunokawa, Mayu; Tamura, Kenji; Tamura, Tomohide; Minami, Hironobu; Koh, Yasuhiro; Koizumi, Fumiaki
2016-03-01
Methods for the enumeration and molecular characterization of circulating tumor cells (CTC) have been actively investigated. However, such methods are still technically challenging. We have developed a novel epithelial cell adhesion molecule independent CTC enumeration system integrated with a sorting system using a microfluidics chip. We compared the number of CTC detected using our system with those detected using the CellSearch system in 46 patients with various cancers. We also evaluated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and PIK3CA mutations of captured CTC in a study of 4 lung cancer and 4 breast cancer patients. The percentage of samples with detected CTC was significantly higher with our system (65.2%) than with CellSearch (28.3%). The number of detected CTC per patient using our system was statistically higher than that using CellSearch (median 5, 0; P = 0.000172, Wilcoxon test). In the mutation analysis study, the number of detected CTC per patient was low (median for lung, 4.5; median for breast, 5.5); however, it was easy to detect EGFR and PIK3CA mutations in the CTC of 2 lung and 1 breast cancer patient, respectively, using a commercially available kit. Our system is more sensitive than CellSearch in CTC enumeration of various cancers and is also capable of detecting EGFR and PIK3CA mutations in the CTC of lung and breast cancer patients, respectively. PMID:26708016
Hydraulic flow visualization method and apparatus
Karidis, P.G.
1984-01-01
An apparatus and method for visualizing liquid flow. Pulses of gas bubbles are introduced into a liquid flow stream and a strobe light is operated at a frequency related to the frequency of the gas pulses to shine on the bubbles as they pass through the liquid stream. The gas pulses pass through a probe body having a valve element, and a reciprocating valve stem passes through the probe body to operate the valve element. A stem actuating device comprises a slidable reciprocating member, operated by a crank arm. The actuated member is adjustable to adjust the amount of the valve opening during each pulse.
Flow coating apparatus and method of coating
Hanumanthu, Ramasubrahmaniam; Neyman, Patrick; MacDonald, Niles; Brophy, Brenor; Kopczynski, Kevin; Nair, Wood
2014-03-11
Disclosed is a flow coating apparatus, comprising a slot that can dispense a coating material in an approximately uniform manner along a distribution blade that increases uniformity by means of surface tension and transfers the uniform flow of coating material onto an inclined substrate such as for example glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed is a method of flow coating a substrate using the apparatus such that the substrate is positioned correctly relative to the distribution blade, a pre-wetting step is completed where both the blade and substrate are completed wetted with a pre-wet solution prior to dispensing of the coating material onto the distribution blade from the slot and hence onto the substrate. Thereafter the substrate is removed from the distribution blade and allowed to dry, thereby forming a coating.
On Numerical Methods For Hypersonic Turbulent Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yee, H. C.; Sjogreen, B.; Shu, C. W.; Wang, W.; Magin, T.; Hadjadj, A.
2011-05-01
Proper control of numerical dissipation in numerical methods beyond the standard shock-capturing dissipation at discontinuities is an essential element for accurate and stable simulation of hypersonic turbulent flows, including combustion, and thermal and chemical nonequilibrium flows. Unlike rapidly developing shock interaction flows, turbulence computations involve long time integrations. Improper control of numerical dissipation from one time step to another would be compounded over time, resulting in the smearing of turbulent fluctuations to an unrecognizable form. Hypersonic turbulent flows around re- entry space vehicles involve mixed steady strong shocks and turbulence with unsteady shocklets that pose added computational challenges. Stiffness of the source terms and material mixing in combustion pose yet other types of numerical challenges. A low dissipative high order well- balanced scheme, which can preserve certain non-trivial steady solutions of the governing equations exactly, may help minimize some of these difficulties. For stiff reactions it is well known that the wrong propagation speed of discontinuities occurs due to the under-resolved numerical solutions in both space and time. Schemes to improve the wrong propagation speed of discontinuities for systems of stiff reacting flows remain a challenge for algorithm development. Some of the recent algorithm developments for direct numerical simulations (DNS) and large eddy simulations (LES) for the subject physics, including the aforementioned numerical challenges, will be discussed.
Method of fabricating a flow device
Hale, Robert L.
1978-01-01
This invention is a novel method for fabricating leak-tight tubular articles which have an interior flow channel whose contour must conform very closely with design specifications but which are composed of metal which tends to warp if welded. The method comprises designing two longitudinal half-sections of the article, the half-sections being contoured internally to cooperatively form the desired flow passageway. Each half-section is designed with a pair of opposed side flanges extending between the end flanges and integral therewith. The half-sections are positioned with their various flanges in confronting relation and with elongated metal gaskets extending between the confronting flanges for the length of the array. The gaskets are a deformable metal which is fusion-weldable to the end flanges. The mating side flanges are joined mechanically to deform the gaskets and provide a longitudinally sealed assembly. The portions of the end flanges contiguous with the ends of the gaskets then are welded to provide localized end welds which incorporate ends of the gaskets, thus transversely sealing the assembly. This method of fabrication provides leak-tight articles having the desired precisely contoured flow channels, whereas various conventional methods have been found unsatisfactory.
Lattice Boltzmann method and channel flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stensholt, Sigvat; Mongstad Hope, Sigmund
2016-07-01
Lattice Boltzmann methods are presented at an introductory level with a focus on fairly simple simulations that can be used to test and illustrate the model’s capabilities. Two scenarios are presented. The first is a simple laminar flow in a straight channel driven by a pressure gradient (Poiseuille flow). The second is a more complex, including a wedge where Moffatt vortices may be induced if the wedge is deep enough. Simulations of the Poiseuille flow scenario accurately capture the theoretical velocity profile. The experiment shows the location of the fluid-wall boundary and the effects viscosity has on the velocity and convergence time. The numerical capabilities of the lattice Boltzmann model are tested further by simulating the more complex Moffatt vortex scenario. The method reproduces with high accuracy the theoretical predction that Moffat vortices will not form in a wedge if the vertex angle exceeds 146°. Practical issues limitations of the lattice Boltzmann method are discussed. In particular the accuracy of the bounce-back boundary condition is first order dependent on the grid resolution.
Computational methods for vortex dominated compressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murman, Earll M.
1987-01-01
The principal objectives were to: understand the mechanisms by which Euler equation computations model leading edge vortex flows; understand the vortical and shock wave structures that may exist for different wing shapes, angles of incidence, and Mach numbers; and compare calculations with experiments in order to ascertain the limitations and advantages of Euler equation models. The initial approach utilized the cell centered finite volume Jameson scheme. The final calculation utilized a cell vertex finite volume method on an unstructured grid. Both methods used Runge-Kutta four stage schemes for integrating the equations. The principal findings are briefly summarized.
A Continuous Method for Gene Flow
Palczewski, Michal; Beerli, Peter
2013-01-01
Most modern population genetics inference methods are based on the coalescence framework. Methods that allow estimating parameters of structured populations commonly insert migration events into the genealogies. For these methods the calculation of the coalescence probability density of a genealogy requires a product over all time periods between events. Data sets that contain populations with high rates of gene flow among them require an enormous number of calculations. A new method, transition probability-structured coalescence (TPSC), replaces the discrete migration events with probability statements. Because the speed of calculation is independent of the amount of gene flow, this method allows calculating the coalescence densities efficiently. The current implementation of TPSC uses an approximation simplifying the interaction among lineages. Simulations and coverage comparisons of TPSC vs. MIGRATE show that TPSC allows estimation of high migration rates more precisely, but because of the approximation the estimation of low migration rates is biased. The implementation of TPSC into programs that calculate quantities on phylogenetic tree structures is straightforward, so the TPSC approach will facilitate more general inferences in many computer programs. PMID:23666937
Flow cytometric detection method for DNA samples
Nasarabadi,Shanavaz; Langlois, Richard G.; Venkateswaran, Kodumudi S.
2011-07-05
Disclosed herein are two methods for rapid multiplex analysis to determine the presence and identity of target DNA sequences within a DNA sample. Both methods use reporting DNA sequences, e.g., modified conventional Taqman.RTM. probes, to combine multiplex PCR amplification with microsphere-based hybridization using flow cytometry means of detection. Real-time PCR detection can also be incorporated. The first method uses a cyanine dye, such as, Cy3.TM., as the reporter linked to the 5' end of a reporting DNA sequence. The second method positions a reporter dye, e.g., FAM.TM. on the 3' end of the reporting DNA sequence and a quencher dye, e.g., TAMRA.TM., on the 5' end.
Flow cytometric detection method for DNA samples
Nasarabadi, Shanavaz; Langlois, Richard G.; Venkateswaran, Kodumudi S.
2006-08-01
Disclosed herein are two methods for rapid multiplex analysis to determine the presence and identity of target DNA sequences within a DNA sample. Both methods use reporting DNA sequences, e.g., modified conventional Taqman.RTM. probes, to combine multiplex PCR amplification with microsphere-based hybridization using flow cytometry means of detection. Real-time PCR detection can also be incorporated. The first method uses a cyanine dye, such as, Cy3.TM., as the reporter linked to the 5' end of a reporting DNA sequence. The second method positions a reporter dye, e.g., FAM, on the 3' end of the reporting DNA sequence and a quencher dye, e.g., TAMRA, on the 5' end.
Radioisotope method of compound flow analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petryka, Leszek; Zych, Marcin; Hanus, Robert; Sobota, Jerzy; Vlasak, Pavel; Malczewska, Beata
2015-05-01
The paper presents gamma radiation application to analysis of a multicomponent or multiphase flow. Such information as a selected component content in the mixture transported through pipe is crucial in many industrial or laboratory installations. Properly selected sealed radioactive source and collimators, deliver the photon beam, penetrating cross section of the flow. Detectors mounted at opposite to the source side of the pipe, allow recording of digital signals representing composition of the stream. In the present development of electronics, detectors and computer software, a significant progress in know-how of this field may be observed. The paper describes application of this method to optimization and control of hydrotransport of solid particles and propose monitoring facilitating prevent of a pipe clogging or dangerous oscillations.
Immersed boundary methods for viscoelastic particulate flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krishnan, Sreenath; Shaqfeh, Eric; Iaccarino, Gianluca
2015-11-01
Viscoelastic particulate suspensions play key roles in many energy applications. Our goal is to develop a simulation-based tool for engineering such suspensions. This study is concerned with fully resolved simulations, wherein all flow scales associated with the particle motion are resolved. The present effort is based on Immersed Boundary methods, in which the domain grids do not conform to particle geometry. In this approach, the conservation of momentum equations, which include both Newtonian and non-Newtonian stresses, are solved over the entire domain including the region occupied by the particles. The particles are defined on a separate Lagrangian mesh that is free to move over an underlying Eulerian grid. The development of an immersed boundary forcing technique for moving bodies within an unstructured-mesh, massively parallel, non-Newtonian flow solver is thus developed and described. The presentation will focus on the numerical algorithm and measures taken to enable efficient parallelization and transfer of information between the underlying fluid grid and the particle mesh. Several validation test cases will be presented including sedimentation under orthogonal shear - a key flow in drilling muds and fracking fluids.
A Filtering Method For Gravitationally Stratified Flows
Gatti-Bono, Caroline; Colella, Phillip
2005-04-25
Gravity waves arise in gravitationally stratified compressible flows at low Mach and Froude numbers. These waves can have a negligible influence on the overall dynamics of the fluid but, for numerical methods where the acoustic waves are treated implicitly, they impose a significant restriction on the time step. A way to alleviate this restriction is to filter out the modes corresponding to the fastest gravity waves so that a larger time step can be used. This paper presents a filtering strategy of the fully compressible equations based on normal mode analysis that is used throughout the simulation to compute the fast dynamics and that is able to damp only fast gravity modes.
Singularity embedding method in potential flow calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jou, W. H.; Huynh, H.
1982-01-01
The so-called H-type mesh is used in a finite-element (or finite-volume) calculation of the potential flow past an airfoil. Due to coordinate singularity at the leading edge, a special singular trial function is used for the elements neighboring the leading edge. The results using the special singular elements are compared to those using the regular elements. It is found that the unreasonable pressure distribution obtained by the latter is removed by the embedding of the singular element. Suggestions to extend the present method to transonic cases are given.
Transonic Flow Computations Using Nonlinear Potential Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holst, Terry L.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
This presentation describes the state of transonic flow simulation using nonlinear potential methods for external aerodynamic applications. The presentation begins with a review of the various potential equation forms (with emphasis on the full potential equation) and includes a discussion of pertinent mathematical characteristics and all derivation assumptions. Impact of the derivation assumptions on simulation accuracy, especially with respect to shock wave capture, is discussed. Key characteristics of all numerical algorithm types used for solving nonlinear potential equations, including steady, unsteady, space marching, and design methods, are described. Both spatial discretization and iteration scheme characteristics are examined. Numerical results for various aerodynamic applications are included throughout the presentation to highlight key discussion points. The presentation ends with concluding remarks and recommendations for future work. Overall. nonlinear potential solvers are efficient, highly developed and routinely used in the aerodynamic design environment for cruise conditions. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
An extended Lagrangian method for subsonic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liou, Meng-Sing; Loh, Ching Y.
1992-01-01
It is well known that fluid motion can be specified by either the Eulerian of Lagrangian description. Most of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) developments over the last three decades have been based on the Eulerian description and considerable progress has been made. In particular, the upwind methods, inspired and guided by the work of Gudonov, have met with many successes in dealing with complex flows, especially where discontinuities exist. However, this shock capturing property has proven to be accurate only when the discontinuity is aligned with one of the grid lines since most upwind methods are strictly formulated in 1-D framework and only formally extended to multi-dimensions. Consequently, the attractive property of crisp resolution of these discontinuities is lost and research on genuine multi-dimensional approach has just been undertaken by several leading researchers. Nevertheless they are still based on the Eulerian description.
Solution of plane cascade flow using improved surface singularity methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcfarland, E. R.
1981-01-01
A solution method has been developed for calculating compressible inviscid flow through a linear cascade of arbitrary blade shapes. The method uses advanced surface singularity formulations which were adapted from those found in current external flow analyses. The resulting solution technique provides a fast flexible calculation for flows through turbomachinery blade rows. The solution method and some examples of the method's capabilities are presented.
Flow "Fine" Synthesis: High Yielding and Selective Organic Synthesis by Flow Methods.
Kobayashi, Shū
2016-02-18
The concept of flow "fine" synthesis, that is, high yielding and selective organic synthesis by flow methods, is described. Some examples of flow "fine" synthesis of natural products and APIs are discussed. Flow methods have several advantages over batch methods in terms of environmental compatibility, efficiency, and safety. However, synthesis by flow methods is more difficult than synthesis by batch methods. Indeed, it has been considered that synthesis by flow methods can be applicable for the production of simple gasses but that it is difficult to apply to the synthesis of complex molecules such as natural products and APIs. Therefore, organic synthesis of such complex molecules has been conducted by batch methods. On the other hand, syntheses and reactions that attain high yields and high selectivities by flow methods are increasingly reported. Flow methods are leading candidates for the next generation of manufacturing methods that can mitigate environmental concerns toward sustainable society. PMID:26337828
Flow “Fine” Synthesis: High Yielding and Selective Organic Synthesis by Flow Methods
2015-01-01
Abstract The concept of flow “fine” synthesis, that is, high yielding and selective organic synthesis by flow methods, is described. Some examples of flow “fine” synthesis of natural products and APIs are discussed. Flow methods have several advantages over batch methods in terms of environmental compatibility, efficiency, and safety. However, synthesis by flow methods is more difficult than synthesis by batch methods. Indeed, it has been considered that synthesis by flow methods can be applicable for the production of simple gasses but that it is difficult to apply to the synthesis of complex molecules such as natural products and APIs. Therefore, organic synthesis of such complex molecules has been conducted by batch methods. On the other hand, syntheses and reactions that attain high yields and high selectivities by flow methods are increasingly reported. Flow methods are leading candidates for the next generation of manufacturing methods that can mitigate environmental concerns toward sustainable society. PMID:26337828
Calculation of transonic flows using an extended integral equation method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nixon, D.
1976-01-01
An extended integral equation method for transonic flows is developed. In the extended integral equation method velocities in the flow field are calculated in addition to values on the aerofoil surface, in contrast with the less accurate 'standard' integral equation method in which only surface velocities are calculated. The results obtained for aerofoils in subcritical flow and in supercritical flow when shock waves are present compare satisfactorily with the results of recent finite difference methods.
Nuclear reactor flow control method and apparatus
Church, John P.
1993-01-01
Method and apparatus for improving coolant flow in a nuclear reactor during accident as well as nominal conditions. The reactor has a plurality of fuel elements in sleeves and a plenum above the fuel and through which the sleeves penetrate. Holes are provided in the sleeve so that coolant from the plenum can enter the sleeve and cool the fuel. The number and size of the holes are varied from sleeve to sleeve with the number and size of holes being greater for sleeves toward the center of the core and less for sleeves toward the periphery of the core. Preferably the holes are all the same diameter and arranged in rows and columns, the rows starting from the bottom of every sleeve and fewer rows in peripheral sleeves and more rows in the central sleeves.
Nuclear reactor flow control method and apparatus
Church, J.P.
1993-03-30
Method and apparatus for improving coolant flow in a nuclear reactor during accident as well as nominal conditions. The reactor has a plurality of fuel elements in sleeves and a plenum above the fuel and through which the sleeves penetrate. Holes are provided in the sleeve so that coolant from the plenum can enter the sleeve and cool the fuel. The number and size of the holes are varied from sleeve to sleeve with the number and size of holes being greater for sleeves toward the center of the core and less for sleeves toward the periphery of the core. Preferably the holes are all the same diameter and arranged in rows and columns, the rows starting from the bottom of every sleeve and fewer rows in peripheral sleeves and more rows in the central sleeves.
Method and Apparatus for Measuring Fluid Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Nguyen, Thanh X. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)
1997-01-01
Method and apparatus for making measurements on fluids related to their complex permeability are disclosed. A microwave probe is provided for exposure to the fluids. The probe can be non-intrusive or can also be positioned at the location where measurements are to be made. The impedance of the probe is determined. in part. by the complex dielectric constant of the fluids at the probe. A radio frequency signal is transmitted to the probe and the reflected signal is phase and amplitude detected at a rapid rate for the purpose of identifying the fluids. Multiple probes may be selectively positioned to monitor the behavior of the fluids including their flow rate. Fluids may be identified as between two or more different fluids as well as multiple phases of the same fluid based on differences between their complex permittivities.
Method and device for measuring fluid flow
Atherton, Richard; Marinkovich, Phillip S.; Spadaro, Peter R.; Stout, J. Wilson
1976-11-23
This invention is a fluid flow measuring device for determining the coolant flow at the entrance to a specific nuclear reactor fuel region. The device comprises a plurality of venturis having the upstream inlet and throat pressure of each respectively manifolded together to provide one static pressure signal for each region monitored. The device provides accurate flow measurement with low pressure losses and uniform entrance and discharge flow distribution.
Review - Computational methods for internal flows with emphasis on turbomachinery
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcnally, W. D.; Sockol, P. M.
1985-01-01
Current computational methods for analyzing flows in turbomachinery and other related internal propulsion components are presented. The methods are divided into two classes. The inviscid methods deal specifically with turbomachinery applications. Viscous methods, deal with generalized duct flows as well as flows in turbomachinery passages. Inviscid methods are categorized into the potential, stream function, and Euler approaches. Viscous methods are treated in terms of parabolic, partially parabolic, and elliptic procedures. Various grids used in association with these procedures are also discussed.
Computational methods for internal flows with emphasis on turbomachinery
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcnally, W. D.; Sockol, P. M.
1981-01-01
Current computational methods for analyzing flows in turbomachinery and other related internal propulsion components are presented. The methods are divided into two classes. The inviscid methods deal specifically with turbomachinery applications. Viscous methods, deal with generalized duct flows as well as flows in turbomachinery passages. Inviscid methods are categorized into the potential, stream function, and Euler aproaches. Viscous methods are treated in terms of parabolic, partially parabolic, and elliptic procedures. Various grids used in association with these procedures are also discussed.
Method and apparatus for measuring flow velocity using matched filters
Raptis, Apostolos C.
1983-01-01
An apparatus and method for measuring the flow velocities of individual phase flow components of a multiphase flow utilizes matched filters. Signals arising from flow noise disturbance are extracted from the flow, at upstream and downstream locations. The signals are processed through pairs of matched filters which are matched to the flow disturbance frequency characteristics of the phase flow component to be measured. The processed signals are then cross-correlated to determine the transit delay time of the phase flow component between sensing positions.
Method and apparatus for measuring flow velocity using matched filters
Raptis, A.C.
1983-09-06
An apparatus and method for measuring the flow velocities of individual phase flow components of a multiphase flow utilizes matched filters. Signals arising from flow noise disturbance are extracted from the flow, at upstream and downstream locations. The signals are processed through pairs of matched filters which are matched to the flow disturbance frequency characteristics of the phase flow component to be measured. The processed signals are then cross-correlated to determine the transit delay time of the phase flow component between sensing positions. 8 figs.
Ocular Blood Flow Autoregulation Mechanisms and Methods
Luo, Xue; Shen, Yu-meng; Jiang, Meng-nan; Lou, Xiang-feng; Shen, Yin
2015-01-01
The main function of ocular blood flow is to supply sufficient oxygen and nutrients to the eye. Local blood vessels resistance regulates overall blood distribution to the eye and can vary rapidly over time depending on ocular need. Under normal conditions, the relation between blood flow and perfusion pressure in the eye is autoregulated. Basically, autoregulation is a capacity to maintain a relatively constant level of blood flow in the presence of changes in ocular perfusion pressure and varied metabolic demand. In addition, ocular blood flow dysregulation has been demonstrated as an independent risk factor to many ocular diseases. For instance, ocular perfusion pressure plays key role in the progression of retinopathy such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. In this review, different direct and indirect techniques to measure ocular blood flow and the effect of myogenic and neurogenic mechanisms on ocular blood flow are discussed. Moreover, ocular blood flow regulation in ocular disease will be described. PMID:26576295
Microfluidic devices and methods for integrated flow cytometry
Srivastava, Nimisha; Singh, Anup K.
2011-08-16
Microfluidic devices and methods for flow cytometry are described. In described examples, various sample handling and preparation steps may be carried out within a same microfluidic device as flow cytometry steps. A combination of imaging and flow cytometry is described. In some examples, spiral microchannels serve as incubation chambers. Examples of automated sample handling and flow cytometry are described.
Method and Apparatus for Measuring Fluid Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Nguyen, Than X. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)
1995-01-01
The invention is a method and apparatus for monitoring the presence, concentration, and the movement of fluids. It is based on utilizing electromagnetic measurements of the complex permittivity of the fluids for detecting and monitoring the fluid. More particularly the apparatus uses one or more microwave probes which are placed at the locations where the measurements are to be made. A radio frequency signal is transmitted to the probe and the reflected signal is phase and amplitude detected at a rapid rate for the purpose of identifying the fluids, based on their dielectric constant at the probe. The apparatus can be used for multiple purposes including measures of flow rates, turbulence, dispersion, fluid identification, and changes in flow conditions of multiple fluids or multiple states of a single fluid in a flowline or a holding container. The apparatus includes a probe consisting of two electrical conductors separated by an insulator. A radio frequency signal is communicated to the probe and is reflected back from the portion of the probe exposed to the fluid. The radio frequency signal also provides a reference signal. An oscillator generates a second signal which combined with each of the reference signal and the reflected signal to produce signals of lower frequencies to facilitate filtering and amplifying those signals. The two signals are then mixed in a detector to produce an output signal that is representative of the phase and amplitude change caused by the reflection of the signal at the probe exposed to the fluid. The detector may be a dual phase detector that provides two such output signals that are in phase quadrature. A phase shifter may be provided for selectively changing the phase of the reference signal to improve the sensitivity of at least one of the output signals for more accurate readings and/or for calibration purposes. The two outputs that are in quadrature with respect to each other may be simultaneously monitored to account for
Rapid flow cytometric measurement of protein inclusions and nuclear trafficking.
Whiten, D R; San Gil, R; McAlary, L; Yerbury, J J; Ecroyd, H; Wilson, M R
2016-01-01
Proteinaceous cytoplasmic inclusions are an indicator of dysfunction in normal cellular proteostasis and a hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases. We describe a simple and rapid new flow cytometry-based method to enumerate, characterise and, if desired, physically recover protein inclusions from cells. This technique can analyse and resolve a broad variety of inclusions differing in both size and protein composition, making it applicable to essentially any model of intracellular protein aggregation. The method also allows rapid quantification of the nuclear trafficking of fluorescently labelled molecules. PMID:27516358
Rapid flow cytometric measurement of protein inclusions and nuclear trafficking
Whiten, D. R.; San Gil, R.; McAlary, L.; Yerbury, J. J.; Ecroyd, H.; Wilson, M. R.
2016-01-01
Proteinaceous cytoplasmic inclusions are an indicator of dysfunction in normal cellular proteostasis and a hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases. We describe a simple and rapid new flow cytometry-based method to enumerate, characterise and, if desired, physically recover protein inclusions from cells. This technique can analyse and resolve a broad variety of inclusions differing in both size and protein composition, making it applicable to essentially any model of intracellular protein aggregation. The method also allows rapid quantification of the nuclear trafficking of fluorescently labelled molecules. PMID:27516358
On methods of estimating cosmological bulk flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nusser, Adi
2016-01-01
We explore similarities and differences between several estimators of the cosmological bulk flow, B, from the observed radial peculiar velocities of galaxies. A distinction is made between two theoretical definitions of B as a dipole moment of the velocity field weighted by a radial window function. One definition involves the three-dimensional (3D) peculiar velocity, while the other is based on its radial component alone. Different methods attempt at inferring B for either of these definitions which coincide only for the case of a velocity field which is constant in space. We focus on the Wiener Filtering (WF) and the Constrained Minimum Variance (CMV) methodologies. Both methodologies require a prior expressed in terms of the radial velocity correlation function. Hoffman et al. compute B in Top-Hat windows from a WF realization of the 3D peculiar velocity field. Feldman et al. infer B directly from the observed velocities for the second definition of B. The WF methodology could easily be adapted to the second definition, in which case it will be equivalent to the CMV with the exception of the imposed constraint. For a prior with vanishing correlations or very noisy data, CMV reproduces the standard Maximum Likelihood estimation for B of the entire sample independent of the radial weighting function. Therefore, this estimator is likely more susceptible to observational biases that could be present in measurements of distant galaxies. Finally, two additional estimators are proposed.
Polynominal Interpolation Methods for Viscous Flow Calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubin, S. G.; Khosla, P. K.
1976-01-01
Higher-order collocation procedures resulting in tridiagonal matrix systems are derived from polynomial spline interpolation and by Hermitian (Taylor series) finite-difference discretization. The similarities and special features of these different developments are discussed. The governing systems apply for both uniform and variable meshes. Hybrid schemes resulting from two different polynomial approximations for the first and second derivatives lead to a nonuniform mesh extension of the so-called compact or Pad? difference technique (Hermite 4). A variety of fourth-order methods are described and the Hermitian approach is extended to sixth-order (Hermite 6). The appropriate spline boundary conditions are derived for all procedures. For central finite differences, this leads to a two-point, second-order accurate generalization of the commonly used three-point end-difference formula. Solutions with several spline and Hermite procedures are presented for the boundary layer equations, with and without mass transfer, and for the incompressible viscous flow in a driven cavity. Divergence and nondivergence equations are considered for the cavity. Among the fourth-order techniques, it is shown that spline 4 has the smallest truncation error. The spline 4 procedure generally requires one-quarter the number of mesh points in a given coordinate direction as a central finite-difference calculation of equal accuracy. The Hermite 6 procedure leads to remarkably accurate boundary layer solutions.
Turbomachinery flow calculation on unstructured grids using finite element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koschel, W.; Vornberger, A.
An explicit finite-element scheme based on a two-step Taylor-Galerkin algorithm allows the solution of the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured grids. Mesh generation methods for unstructured grids are described which lead to efficient flow calculations. Turbulent flow is calculated by using an algebraic turbulence model. To test the numerical accuracy, a laminar and turbulent flow over a flat plate and the supersonic flow in a corner has been calculated. For validation the method is applied to the simulation of the inviscid flow through a transonic turbine cascade and the viscous flow through a subsonic turbine cascade.
Application of a parallel DSMC method to hypersonic rarefied flows
Wilmoth, R.G. )
1991-01-01
This paper describes a method for doing direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) calculations using parallel processing and presents some results of applying the method to several hypersonic, rarefied flow problems. The performance and efficiency of the parallel method are discussed. The applications described are the flow in a channel and the flow about a flat plate at incidence. The results show significant advantages of parallel processing over conventional scalar processing and demonstrate the scalability of the method to large problems. 8 refs.
Force-coupling method for flows with ellipsoidal particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, D.; Keaveny, E. E.; Maxey, M. R.; Karniadakis, G. E.
2009-06-01
The force-coupling method, previously developed for spherical particles suspended in a liquid flow, is extended to ellipsoidal particles. In the limit of Stokes flow, there is an exact correspondence with known analytical results for isolated particles. More generally, the method is shown to provide good approximate results for the particle motion and the flow field both in viscous Stokes flow and at finite Reynolds number. This is demonstrated through comparison between fully resolved direct numerical simulations and results from the numerical implementation of the force-coupling method with a spectral/hp element scheme. The motion of settling ellipsoidal particles and neutrally buoyant particles in a Poiseuille flow are discussed.
Field methods for measuring concentrated flow erosion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castillo, C.; Pérez, R.; James, M. R.; Quinton, J. N.; Taguas, E. V.; Gómez, J. A.
2012-04-01
techniques (3D) for measuring erosion from concentrated flow (pole, laser profilemeter, photo-reconstruction and terrestrial LiDAR) The comparison between two- and three-dimensional methods has showed the superiority of the 3D techniques for obtaining accurate cross sectional data. The results from commonly-used 2D methods can be subject to systematic errors in areal cross section that exceed magnitudes of 10 % on average. In particular, the pole simplified method has showed a clear tendency to understimate areas. Laser profilemeter results show that further research on calibrating optical devices for a variety of soil conditions must be carried out to improve its performance. For volume estimations, photo-reconstruction results provided an excellent approximation to terrestrial laser data and demonstrate that this new remote sensing technique has a promising application field in soil erosion studies. 2D approaches involved important errors even over short measurement distances. However, as well as accuracy, the cost and time requirements of a technique must be considered.
PDF methods for turbulent reactive flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hsu, Andrew T.
1995-01-01
Viewgraphs are presented on computation of turbulent combustion, governing equations, closure problem, PDF modeling of turbulent reactive flows, validation cases, current projects, and collaboration with industry and technology transfer.
Flow patterns measurements with PIV laser method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Podlinski, Janusz; Kocik, Marek; Dors, Miroslaw; Metel, Emilia; Mizeraczyk, Jerzy
2007-03-01
In this paper a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurement technique and it's application for the flow patterns measurements in our experiments is presented. Present PIV system consist of double Nd:YAG laser with pulse energy of 50 mJ, optics for transmission and formation a laser beam, two CCD cameras (Kodak MegaPlus ES-1.0 and FlowSense M2), Dantec processor PIV 1100 and PC computer with FlowManager software. The maximum measured area is 0.5 m2 and flow velocity in the range of 0-300 m/s. So far, the PIV measurements were carried out in hydrodynamic and transonic ducts, corona discharge reactors, electrostatic precipitator models and a microwave torch discharge reactor in The Szewalski Institute of Fluid Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Sciences in Gdansk. The PIV system was used also for the measurements of the velocity fields round the hull of the ship model in The Ship Design and Research Centre in Gdansk.
Moving and adaptive grid methods for compressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Trepanier, Jean-Yves; Camarero, Ricardo
1995-01-01
This paper describes adaptive grid methods developed specifically for compressible flow computations. The basic flow solver is a finite-volume implementation of Roe's flux difference splitting scheme or arbitrarily moving unstructured triangular meshes. The grid adaptation is performed according to geometric and flow requirements. Some results are included to illustrate the potential of the methodology.
Method and apparatus for monitoring two-phase flow. [PWR
Sheppard, J.D.; Tong, L.S.
1975-12-19
A method and apparatus for monitoring two-phase flow is provided that is particularly related to the monitoring of transient two-phase (liquid-vapor) flow rates such as may occur during a pressurized water reactor core blow-down. The present invention essentially comprises the use of flanged wire screens or similar devices, such as perforated plates, to produce certain desirable effects in the flow regime for monitoring purposes. One desirable effect is a measurable and reproducible pressure drop across the screen. The pressure drop can be characterized for various known flow rates and then used to monitor nonhomogeneous flow regimes. Another useful effect of the use of screens or plates in nonhomogeneous flow is that such apparatus tends to create a uniformly dispersed flow regime in the immediate downstream vicinity. This is a desirable effect because it usually increases the accuracy of flow rate measurements determined by conventional methods.
Noninvasive method of estimating human newborn regional cerebral blood flow
Younkin, D.P.; Reivich, M.; Jaggi, J.; Obrist, W.; Delivoria-Papadopoulos, M.
1982-12-01
A noninvasive method of estimating regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in premature and full-term babies has been developed. Based on a modification of the /sup 133/Xe inhalation rCBF technique, this method uses eight extracranial NaI scintillation detectors and an i.v. bolus injection of /sup 133/Xe (approximately 0.5 mCi/kg). Arterial xenon concentration was estimated with an external chest detector. Cerebral blood flow was measured in 15 healthy, neurologically normal premature infants. Using Obrist's method of two-compartment analysis, normal values were calculated for flow in both compartments, relative weight and fractional flow in the first compartment (gray matter), initial slope of gray matter blood flow, mean cerebral blood flow, and initial slope index of mean cerebral blood flow. The application of this technique to newborns, its relative advantages, and its potential uses are discussed.
A method of determining combustion gas flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bon Tempi, P. J.
1968-01-01
Zirconium oxide coating enables the determination of hot gas flow patterns on liquid rocket injector face and baffle surfaces to indicate modifications that will increase performance and improve combustion stability. The coating withstands combustion temperatures and due to the coarse surface and coloring of the coating, shows the hot gas patterns.
APPROXIMATE MULTIPHASE FLOW MODELING BY CHARACTERISTIC METHODS
The flow of petroleum hydrocarbons, organic solvents and other liquids that are immiscible with water presents the nation with some of the most difficult subsurface remediation problems. One aspect of contaminant transport associated releases of such liquids is the transport as a...
Embedded function methods for compressible high speed turbulent flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walker, J. D. A.
1989-01-01
Fundamental issues relating to compressible turbulent flow are addressed. The focus has been on developing methods and testing concepts for attached flows rather than trying to force a conventional law of the wall into a zone of backflow. Although the dynamics of the near-wall flow in an attached turbulent boundary layer are relatively well documented, the dynamical features of a zone of reversed turbulent flow are not, nor are they well understood. Incompressibility introduces effects and issues that have been dealt with only marginally in the literature, therefore, the present work has been focussed on attached high-speed flows. The wall function method has been extended up through the supersonic to hypersonic speeds. Algorithms have been successfully introduced into the code that calculates the flow all the way to the wall, and testing is being carried out for progressively more complex flow situations.
Methods for improved resolution of flow electrophoresis cells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mccreight, L. R.; Fogal, G. L.
1974-01-01
First method involves remote adjusting of zeta potential. Second approach sandwiches two conducting metal plates between opposite cell walls and thin insulating layer. Third method forces buffer to flow in direction opposite particle streams.
Evaluation of flow direction methods against field observations of overland flow dispersion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orlandini, Stefano; Moretti, Giovanni; Corticelli, Mauro A.; Santangelo, Paolo E.; Capra, Alessandro; Rivola, Riccardo; Albertson, John D.
2012-10-01
The D8, D8-LTD, D∞-LTD, D∞, MD∞, and MD8 flow direction methods are evaluated against field observations of overland flow dispersion obtained from novel experimental methods. Thin flows of cold water were released at selected points on a warmer slope and individual overland flow patterns originating from each of these points were observed using a terrestrial laser scanner and a thermal imaging camera. Land microtopography was determined by using laser returns from the dry land surface, whereas overland flow patterns were determined by using either laser returns or infrared emissions from the wetted portions of the land surface. Planar overland flow dispersion is found to play an important role in the region lying immediately downslope of the point source, but attenuates rapidly as flow propagates downslope. In contrast, existing dispersive flow direction methods are found to provide a continued dispersion with distance downslope. Predicted propagation patterns, for all methods considered here, depend critically on the size h of grid cells involved. All methods are found to be poorly sensitive in extremely fine grids (h ≤ 2 cm), and to be poorly specific in coarse grids (h = 2 m). Satisfactory results are, however, obtained in grids having resolutions h that approach the average flow width (50 cm), with the best performances displayed by the MD8 method in the finest grids (5 ≤ h ≤ 20 cm), and by the MD∞, D∞, and D∞-LTD methods in the coarsest grids (20 cm < h ≤ 1 m).
Ultrasonic fluid flow measurement method and apparatus
Kronberg, J.W.
1993-10-12
An apparatus for measuring the flow of a fluid in a pipe using ultrasonic waves. The apparatus comprises an ultrasonic generator, a lens for focusing the sound energy produced by the generator, and means for directing the focused energy into the side of the pipe through an opening and in a direction close to parallel to the long axis of the pipe. A cone carries the sound energy to the lens from the generator. Depending on the choice of materials, there may be a quarter-wave, acoustic impedance matching section between the generator and the cone to reduce the reflections of energy at the cone boundary. The lens material has an acoustic impedance similar to that of the cone material but a different sonic velocity so that the lens can converge the sound waves in the fluid. A transition section between the lens and the fluid helps to couple the energy to the fluid and assures it is directed as close to parallel to the fluid flow direction as possible. 3 figures.
Ultrasonic fluid flow measurement method and apparatus
Kronberg, James W.
1993-01-01
An apparatus for measuring the flow of a fluid in a pipe using ultrasonic waves. The apparatus comprises an ultrasonic generator, a lens for focusing the sound energy produced by the generator, and means for directing the focused energy into the side of the pipe through an opening and in a direction close to parallel to the long axis of the pipe. A cone carries the sound energy to the lens from the generator. Depending on the choice of materials, there may be a quarter-wave, acoustic impedance matching section between the generator and the cone to reduce the reflections of energy at the cone boundary. The lens material has an acoustic impedance similar to that of the cone material but a different sonic velocity so that the lens can converge the sound waves in the fluid. A transition section between the lens and the fluid helps to couple the energy to the fluid and assures it is directed as close to parallel to the fluid flow direction as possible.
A New Method for Stabilizing Non-Newtonian Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Symeonidis, V.; Ma, X.; Karniadakis, G. E.
2002-11-01
In this work we will demonstrate a robust and adjustable filtering method for viscoelastic flows, applied mainly on the FENE-P model, called the spectrally varying viscosity (SVV) method. We will present results demonstrating spectral accuracy and resolution studies on the benchmark two-dimensional flow around a cylinder in a symmetric channel, and in the analogous three-dimensional flow around a sphere in a tube. Unsteady results are included in three-dimensions, and we examine the flow around an ellipsoid in transitional and turbulent states. We demonstrate a set of stable parameters for the SVV filtering and compare these results with previous published works on the same benchmark problems.
Gravimetric method for the dynamic measurement of urine flow.
Steele, J E; Skarlatos, S; Brand, P H; Metting, P J; Britton, S L
1993-10-01
The rate of urine formation is a primary index of renal function, but no techniques are currently available to accurately measure low rates of urine flow on a continuous basis, such as are normally found in rats. We developed a gravimetric method for the dynamic measurement of urine flow in anesthetized rats. Catheters were inserted directly into the ureters close to the renal pelves, and a siphon was created to collect all of the urine formed as rapidly as it was produced. Urine flow was determined by measuring the weight of the urine using a direct-reading analytical balance interfaced to a computer. Basal urine flow was measured at 2-sec intervals for 30 to 60 min. The dynamic response of urine flow to a rapid decrease in arterial pressure produced by a bolus intravenous injection of acetylcholine (0.5 micrograms) was also measured. Intrinsic drift, evaporative losses, and the responsiveness of the system to several fixed pump flows in the low physiologic range were evaluated in vitro. The gravimetric method described was able to continuously measure basal urine flows that averaged 37.3 +/- 12.4 microliters/min. Error due to drift and evaporation was negligible, totaling less than 1% of the measured urine flow. Acetylcholine-induced declines in arterial pressure were followed within 8 sec by a decline in urine flow. These data demonstrate that this new gravimetric method provides a simple, inexpensive, dynamic measurement of urine flow in the microliter/min range. PMID:8372099
An airfoil design method for viscous flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Malone, J. B.; Narramore, J. C.; Sankar, L. N.
1990-01-01
An airfoil design procedure is described that has been incorporated into an existing two-dimensional Navier-Stokes airfoil analysis method. The resulting design method, an iterative procedure based on a residual-correction algorithm, permits the automated design of airfoil sections with prescribed surface pressure distributions. This paper describes the inverse design method and the technique used to specify target pressure distributions. An example airfoil design problem is described to demonstrate application of the inverse design procedure. It shows that this inverse design method develops useful airfoil configurations with a reasonable expenditure of computer resources.
Fourier time spectral method for subsonic and transonic flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhan, Lei; Liu, Feng; Papamoschou, Dimitri
2016-06-01
The time accuracy of the exponentially accurate Fourier time spectral method (TSM) is examined and compared with a conventional 2nd-order backward difference formula (BDF) method for periodic unsteady flows. In particular, detailed error analysis based on numerical computations is performed on the accuracy of resolving the local pressure coefficient and global integrated force coefficients for smooth subsonic and non-smooth transonic flows with moving shock waves on a pitching airfoil. For smooth subsonic flows, the Fourier TSM method offers a significant accuracy advantage over the BDF method for the prediction of both the local pressure coefficient and integrated force coefficients. For transonic flows where the motion of the discontinuous shock wave contributes significant higher-order harmonic contents to the local pressure fluctuations, a sufficient number of modes must be included before the Fourier TSM provides an advantage over the BDF method. The Fourier TSM, however, still offers better accuracy than the BDF method for integrated force coefficients even for transonic flows. A problem of non-symmetric solutions for symmetric periodic flows due to the use of odd numbers of intervals is uncovered and analyzed. A frequency-searching method is proposed for problems where the frequency is not known a priori. The method is tested on the vortex shedding problem of the flow over a circular cylinder.
Fourier time spectral method for subsonic and transonic flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhan, Lei; Liu, Feng; Papamoschou, Dimitri
2016-01-01
The time accuracy of the exponentially accurate Fourier time spectral method (TSM) is examined and compared with a conventional 2nd-order backward difference formula (BDF) method for periodic unsteady flows. In particular, detailed error analysis based on numerical computations is performed on the accuracy of resolving the local pressure coefficient and global integrated force coefficients for smooth subsonic and non-smooth transonic flows with moving shock waves on a pitching airfoil. For smooth subsonic flows, the Fourier TSM method offers a significant accuracy advantage over the BDF method for the prediction of both the local pressure coefficient and integrated force coefficients. For transonic flows where the motion of the discontinuous shock wave contributes significant higher-order harmonic contents to the local pressure fluctuations, a sufficient number of modes must be included before the Fourier TSM provides an advantage over the BDF method. The Fourier TSM, however, still offers better accuracy than the BDF method for integrated force coefficients even for transonic flows. A problem of non-symmetric solutions for symmetric periodic flows due to the use of odd numbers of intervals is uncovered and analyzed. A frequency-searching method is proposed for problems where the frequency is not known a priori. The method is tested on the vortex shedding problem of the flow over a circular cylinder.
Method and apparatus for coal analysis and flow measurement
Rollwitz, W.L.; King, J.D.
1985-07-23
A flow meter apparatus and method for measuring the flow, composition and heat content of coal is set forth. In the preferred and illustrated embodiment, the free or unpaired electron population of flowing coal is measured by electron magnetic resonance (EMR); the hydrogen nucleii population is measured by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). By calibration utilizing a standard specimen for a given type of coal, a profile for various types of coal can be obtained wherein measurement data is converted into an indication of the heat content typically measured in BTU per pound. This enables provision of a volumetric flow meter, a flow meter indicating flow in calorie content. This device enables integration to provide total heat content flow. Other variables describing the coal can be obtained.
Vortex method for blood flow through heart valves
McCracken, M.F.; Peskin, C.S.
1980-04-01
A combination vortex-grid method for solving the two-dimensional, incompressible Navier--Stokes equations in regions with complicated internal, elastic boundaries is presented. The authors believe the method to be applicable to the case of at least moderately high Reynolds number flow. The method is applied to the study of blood flow through the mammalian mitral valve. Previous work of Peskin is extended and the conjecture that the behavior of mammalian heart valves is independent of Reynolds number is supported.
Advanced surface paneling method for subsonic and supersonic flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erickson, L. L.; Johnson, F. T.; Ehlers, F. E.
1976-01-01
Numerical results illustrating the capabilities of an advanced aerodynamic surface paneling method are presented. The method is applicable to both subsonic and supersonic flow, as represented by linearized potential flow theory. The method is based on linearly varying sources and quadratically varying doublets which are distributed over flat or curved panels. These panels are applied to the true surface geometry of arbitrarily shaped three dimensional aerodynamic configurations.
Spectral multigrid methods with applications to transonic potential flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Streett, C. L.; Zang, T. A.; Hussaini, M. Y.
1983-01-01
Spectral multigrid methods are demonstrated to be a competitive technique for solving the transonic potential flow equation. The spectral discretization, the relaxation scheme, and the multigrid techniques are described in detail. Significant departures from current approaches are first illustrated on several linear problems. The principal applications and examples, however, are for compressible potential flow. These examples include the relatively challenging case of supercritical flow over a lifting airfoil.
Spectral multigrid methods with applications to transonic potential flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Streett, C. L.; Zang, T. A.; Hussaini, M. Y.
1985-01-01
Spectral multigrid methods are demonstrated to be a competitive technique for solving the transonic potential flow equation. The spectral discretization, the relaxation scheme, and the multigrid techniques are described in detail. Significant departures from current approaches are first illustrated on several linear problems. The principal applications and examples, however, are for compressible potential flow. These examples include the relatively challenging case of supercritical flow over a lifting airfoil.
Review of Upscaling Methods for Describing Unsaturated Flow
Wood, Brian D.
2000-09-26
Representing samll-scale features can be a challenge when one wants to model unsaturated flow in large domains. In this report, the various upscaling techniques are reviewed. The following upscaling methods have been identified from the literature: stochastic methods, renormalization methods, volume averaging and homogenization methods. In addition, a final technique, full resolution numerical modeling, is also discussed.
Computation of Transonic Flows Using Potential Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoist, Terry L.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)
1997-01-01
The proposed paper will describe the state of the art associated with numerical solution of the full or exact velocity potential equation for solving transonic, external-aerodynamic flows. The presentation will begin with a review of the literature emphasizing research activities of the past decade. Next, the various forms of the full or exact velocity potential equation, the equation's corresponding mathematical characteristics, and the derivation assumptions will be presented and described in detail. Impact of the derivation assumptions on simulation accuracy, especially with respect to shock wave capture, will be presented and discussed relative to the more complete Euler or Navier-Stokes formulations. The technical presentation will continue with a description of recently developed full potential numerical approach characteristics. This description will include governing equation nondimensionalization, physical-to-computational-domain mapping procedures, a limited description of grid generation requirements, the spatial discretization scheme, numerical implementation of boundary conditions, and the iteration scheme. The next portion of the presentation will present and discuss numerical results for several two- and three-dimensional aerodynamic applications. Included in the results section will be a discussion and demonstration of a typical grid refinement analysis for determining spatial convergence of the numerical solution and level of solution accuracy. Computer timings for a variety of full potential applications will be compared and contrasted with similar results for the Euler equation formulation. Finally. the presentation will end with concluding remarks and recommendations for future work.
An artificial energy method for calculating flows with shocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rose, M. E.
1980-01-01
The artificial-viscosity method, first proposed by von Neumann and Richtmyer, introduces an artificial viscous pressure term in regions of compression such that an increase in entropy occurs in shock transition zones. The paper describes how dissipative flows can be induced by reducing the total energy available for adiabatic processes in shock zones. A class of inviscid fluid flows, called semiflows, is described in which the flows exhibit thermodynamic differences. Induced dissipative flows modify the pressure in regions of compression in a manner analogous to the artificial-viscosity method and for a gas, the effect is equivalent to suitably modifying the gas constant in the equation of state. By employing MacCormack's method and the usual non-adiabatic equations, numerical solutions of a Riemann problem are compared with the modified artificial energy method, showing that the dissipation effect predicted by the analytical formulation is reflected in the numerical method as well.
A Reconstruction Method of Blood Flow Velocity in Left Ventricle Using Color Flow Ultrasound
Jang, Jaeseong; Ahn, Chi Young; Jeon, Kiwan; Heo, Jung; Lee, DongHak; Choi, Jung-il
2015-01-01
Vortex flow imaging is a relatively new medical imaging method for the dynamic visualization of intracardiac blood flow, a potentially useful index of cardiac dysfunction. A reconstruction method is proposed here to quantify the distribution of blood flow velocity fields inside the left ventricle from color flow images compiled from ultrasound measurements. In this paper, a 2D incompressible Navier-Stokes equation with a mass source term is proposed to utilize the measurable color flow ultrasound data in a plane along with the moving boundary condition. The proposed model reflects out-of-plane blood flows on the imaging plane through the mass source term. The boundary conditions to solve the system of equations are derived from the dimensions of the ventricle extracted from 2D echocardiography data. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated numerically using synthetic flow data acquired from simulating left ventricle flows. The numerical simulations show the feasibility and potential usefulness of the proposed method of reconstructing the intracardiac flow fields. Of particular note is the finding that the mass source term in the proposed model improves the reconstruction performance. PMID:26078773
Chaotic maps, Hamiltonian flows, and Holographic methods.
Curtright, T. L.; Zachos, C. K.; High Energy Physics; Univ. of Miami
2010-01-01
Holographic functional methods are introduced as probes of discrete time-stepped maps that lead to chaotic behavior. The methods provide continuous time interpolation between the time steps, thereby revealing the maps to be quasi-Hamiltonian systems underlain by novel potentials that govern the motion of a perceived point particle. Between turning points, the particle is strictly driven by Hamiltonian dynamics, but at each encounter with a turning point the potential changes abruptly, loosely analogous to the switchbacks on a mountain road. A sequence of successively deepening switchback potentials explains, in physical terms, the frequency cascade and trajectory folding that occur on the particular route to chaos revealed by the logistic map.
Vortical Flow Prediction Using an Adaptive Unstructured Grid Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pirzadeh, Shahyar Z.
2003-01-01
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method has been employed to compute vortical flows around slender wing/body configurations. The emphasis of the paper is on the effectiveness of an adaptive grid procedure in "capturing" concentrated vortices generated at sharp edges or flow separation lines of lifting surfaces flying at high angles of attack. The method is based on a tetrahedral unstructured grid technology developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. Two steady-state, subsonic, inviscid and Navier-Stokes flow test cases are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the method for solving practical vortical flow problems. The first test case concerns vortex flow over a simple 65 delta wing with different values of leading-edge radius. Although the geometry is quite simple, it poses a challenging problem for computing vortices originating from blunt leading edges. The second case is that of a more complex fighter configuration. The superiority of the adapted solutions in capturing the vortex flow structure over the conventional unadapted results is demonstrated by comparisons with the wind-tunnel experimental data. The study shows that numerical prediction of vortical flows is highly sensitive to the local grid resolution and that the implementation of grid adaptation is essential when applying CFD methods to such complicated flow problems.
Vortical Flow Prediction Using an Adaptive Unstructured Grid Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pirzadeh, Shahyar Z.
2001-01-01
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method has been employed to compute vortical flows around slender wing/body configurations. The emphasis of the paper is on the effectiveness of an adaptive grid procedure in "capturing" concentrated vortices generated at sharp edges or flow separation lines of lifting surfaces flying at high angles of attack. The method is based on a tetrahedral unstructured grid technology developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. Two steady-state, subsonic, inviscid and Navier-Stokes flow test cases are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the method for solving practical vortical flow problems. The first test case concerns vortex flow over a simple 65deg delta wing with different values of leading-edge bluntness, and the second case is that of a more complex fighter configuration. The superiority of the adapted solutions in capturing the vortex flow structure over the conventional unadapted results is demonstrated by comparisons with the windtunnel experimental data. The study shows that numerical prediction of vortical flows is highly sensitive to the local grid resolution and that the implementation of grid adaptation is essential when applying CFD methods to such complicated flow problems.
Construction of School Timetables by Flow Methods.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
de Werra, D.
In this paper, a heuristic algorithm for constructing school timetables is described. The algorithm is based on an exact method that applies to a family of particular timetable problems. The procedure has been used to construct timetables for Swiss schools having about 50 classes, 80 teachers, and 35 weekly periods. Less than five percent of…
PDF methods for combustion in high-speed turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pope, Stephen B.
1995-01-01
This report describes the research performed during the second year of this three-year project. The ultimate objective of the project is extend the applicability of probability density function (pdf) methods from incompressible to compressible turbulent reactive flows. As described in subsequent sections, progress has been made on: (1) formulation and modelling of pdf equations for compressible turbulence, in both homogeneous and inhomogeneous inert flows; and (2) implementation of the compressible model in various flow configurations, namely decaying isotropic turbulence, homogeneous shear flow and plane mixing layer.
Inconsistency of Species Tree Methods under Gene Flow.
Solís-Lemus, Claudia; Yang, Mengyao; Ané, Cécile
2016-09-01
Coalescent-based methods are now broadly used to infer evolutionary relationships between groups of organisms under the assumption that incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) is the only source of gene tree discordance. Many of these methods are known to consistently estimate the species tree when all their assumptions are met. Nonetheless, little work has been done to test the robustness of such methods to violations of their assumptions. Here, we study the performance of two of the most efficient coalescent-based methods, ASTRAL and NJst, in the presence of gene flow. Gene flow violates the assumption that ILS is the sole source of gene tree conflict. We find anomalous gene trees on three-taxon rooted trees and on four-taxon unrooted trees. These anomalous trees do not exist under ILS only, but appear because of gene flow. Our simulations show that species tree methods (and concatenation) may reconstruct the wrong evolutionary history, even from a very large number of well-reconstructed gene trees. In other words, species tree methods can be inconsistent under gene flow. Our results underline the need for methods like PhyloNet, to account simultaneously for ILS and gene flow in a unified framework. Although much slower, PhyloNet had better accuracy and remained consistent at high levels of gene flow. PMID:27151419
The art and science of flow control - case studies using flow visualization methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alvi, F. S.; Cattafesta, L. N., III
2010-04-01
Active flow control (AFC) has been the focus of significant research in the last decade. This is mainly due to the potentially substantial benefits it affords. AFC applications range from the subsonic to the supersonic (and beyond) regime for both internal and external flows. These applications are wide and varied, such as controlling flow transition and separation over various external components of the aircraft to active management of separation and flow distortion in engine components and over turbine and compressor blades. High-speed AFC applications include control of flow oscillations in cavity flows, supersonic jet screech, impinging jets, and jet-noise control. In this paper we review some of our recent applications of AFC through a number of case studies that illustrate the typical benefits as well as limitations of present AFC methods. The case studies include subsonic and supersonic canonical flowfields such as separation control over airfoils, control of supersonic cavity flows and impinging jets. In addition, properties of zero-net mass-flux (ZNMF) actuators are also discussed as they represent one of the most widely studied actuators used for AFC. In keeping with the theme of this special issue, the flowfield properties and their response to actuation are examined through the use of various qualitative and quantitative flow visualization methods, such as smoke, shadowgraph, schlieren, planar-laser scattering, and Particle image velocimetry (PIV). The results presented here clearly illustrate the merits of using flow visualization to gain significant insight into the flow and its response to AFC.
Evaluation of flow direction methods against field observations of overland flow dispersion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orlandini, S.; Moretti, G.; Corticelli, M. A.; Santangelo, P. E.; Capra, A.; Rivola, R.; Albertson, J. D.
2012-12-01
Despite the broad effort made in grid-based distributed catchment modeling to account for planar overland flow dispersion, actual dispersion experienced by overland flow along a natural slope has not been measured so far, and the ability of terrain analysis methods to reproduce this dispersion has not been evaluated. In the present study, the D8, D8-LTD, D∞ -LTD, D∞ , MD∞ , and MD8 flow direction methods are evaluated against field observations of overland flow dispersion obtained from novel experimental methods. Thin flows of cold (2--10oC) water were released at selected points on a warmer (15--30oC) slope and individual overland flow patterns originating from each of these points were observed using a terrestrial laser scanner and a thermal imaging camera. Prior to each experimental water release, a ScanStation C10 terrestrial laser scanner by Leica Geosystems was used to acquire a point cloud having average density of 25~points/cm2. This point cloud was used to generate alternative grid-based digital elevation models having resolution h ranging from 1~cm to 2~m. During the experiments, an Avio Advanced Thermo TVS-500EX camera by Nippon Avionics was used to monitor land surface temperature with resolution better than 0.05oC. The overland flow patterns were also found to be discernible in terrestrial laser scanner reflectance signal acquired immediately following the flow experiments. Overland flow patterns were determined by considering contrasted temperature and reflectance of the dry and wetted land surface portions. Predicted propagation patterns and observed flow patterns were compared by considering the fractions of flow released at the point source that propagates through the grid cells. Predictions of these quantities were directly provided by flow direction methods and by related flow accumulation algorithms. Suitable data for the comparison were derived from observed overland flow patterns by assuming a uniform distribution of flow along each
Developments in flow visualization methods for flight research
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holmes, Bruce J.; Obara, Clifford J.; Manuel, Gregory S.; Lee, Cynthia C.
1990-01-01
With the introduction of modern airplanes utilizing laminar flow, flow visualization has become an important diagnostic tool in determining aerodynamic characteristics such as surface flow direction and boundary-layer state. A refinement of the sublimating chemical technique has been developed to define both the boundary-layer transition location and the transition mode. In response to the need for flow visualization at subsonic and transonic speeds and altitudes above 20,000 feet, the liquid crystal technique has been developed. A third flow visualization technique that has been used is infrared imaging, which offers non-intrusive testing over a wide range of test conditions. A review of these flow visualization methods and recent flight results is presented for a variety of modern aircraft and flight conditions.
Pressure algorithm for elliptic flow calculations with the PDF method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anand, M. S.; Pope, S. B.; Mongia, H. C.
1991-01-01
An algorithm to determine the mean pressure field for elliptic flow calculations with the probability density function (PDF) method is developed and applied. The PDF method is a most promising approach for the computation of turbulent reacting flows. Previous computations of elliptic flows with the method were in conjunction with conventional finite volume based calculations that provided the mean pressure field. The algorithm developed and described here permits the mean pressure field to be determined within the PDF calculations. The PDF method incorporating the pressure algorithm is applied to the flow past a backward-facing step. The results are in good agreement with data for the reattachment length, mean velocities, and turbulence quantities including triple correlations.
DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: COLLOID POLISHING FILTER METHOD - FILTER FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC.
The Filter Flow Technology, Inc. (FFT) Colloid Polishing Filter Method (CPFM) was tested as a transportable, trailer mounted, system that uses sorption and chemical complexing phenomena to remove heavy metals and nontritium radionuclides from water. Contaminated waters can be pro...
Godunov Method for Calculating Multicomponent Heterogeneous Medium Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Surov, V. S.
2014-03-01
The modified Godunov method intended for integrating the nondivergent systems that describe a multivelocity heterogeneous mixture flow is presented. The linearized Riemann solver has been used in solving the Riemann problems.
Packet flow monitoring tool and method
Thiede, David R [Richland, WA
2009-07-14
A system and method for converting packet streams into session summaries. Session summaries are a group of packets each having a common source and destination internet protocol (IP) address, and, if present in the packets, common ports. The system first captures packets from a transport layer of a network of computer systems, then decodes the packets captured to determine the destination IP address and the source IP address. The system then identifies packets having common destination IP addresses and source IP addresses, then writes the decoded packets to an allocated memory structure as session summaries in a queue.
Panel-Method Computer Code For Potential Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ashby, Dale L.; Dudley, Michael R.; Iguchi, Steven K.
1992-01-01
Low-order panel method used to reduce computation time. Panel code PMARC (Panel Method Ames Research Center) numerically simulates flow field around or through complex three-dimensional bodies such as complete aircraft models or wind tunnel. Based on potential-flow theory. Facilitates addition of new features to code and tailoring of code to specific problems and computer-hardware constraints. Written in standard FORTRAN 77.
Estimation of instantaneous peak flow from maximum daily flow-a comparison of methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Jie; Haberlandt, Uwe
2013-04-01
Estimation of flood frequency based on instantaneous peak flow (IPF) is important for the design of hydraulic structures. However, observed flow data with high temporal resolution are scarce, especially regarding the limited length of the available flow time series. Here, three different methods are developed and compared to estimate the IPF based on maximum daily flow (MDF), which is available usually at more gauges and for longer time periods. In the first approach, simple linear regressions with non-intercept of probability weighted moments (PWM) or quantile values between IPF and MDF data are employed. Secondly, stepwise multiple linear regressions is used to generate regression equations describing the relationship between easily obtained catchment attributes and MDF predictors and the IPF as target variable. With the third method, the temporal scaling properties of IPF series based on the hypothesis of piece wise simple scaling are investigated for 3 different flow gauges with 15 min data and then utilized to estimate the IPF for all gauges in the area. The study region is the Aller-Leine river basin in northern Germany with 45 stream flow gauges. Cross validation results from the three presented models show good performance in reproducing the peak flow and the potential to be used in other catchment. The simple regressions are the easiest to apply given enough peak flow data, the scaling method is the most efficient one among these three models but stepwise multiple linear regressions gives the best results compared with the other two methods.
Nonlinear Green's function method for unsteady transonic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tseng, K.; Morino, L.
1982-01-01
Advantages to employing Green's function in describing unsteady three-dimensional transonic flows are explored. The development of the function for application to linear subsonic and supersonic unsteady aerodynamics is reviewed. It is shown that unique solutions are possible for external flows, with all functional expressions being defined in Prandtl-Glauert space. The development of methods of using the Green's function for transonic flows is traced, noting the necessity of including the effects of significant nonlinear terms. The steady-state problem is considered to demonstrate the shock-capturing ability of the method and the usefulness of the function in the incompressible, subsonic, transonic, and supersonic areas of potential unsteady three-dimensional flows around complex configurations. Computational time is asserted to be an order of magnitude less than with finite difference methods.
A Fast Estimation Method of Railway Passengers' Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagasaki, Yusaku; Asuka, Masashi; Komaya, Kiyotoshi
To evaluate a train schedule from the viewpoint of passengers' convenience, it is important to know each passenger's choice of trains and transfer stations to arrive at his/her destination. Because of difficulties of measuring such passengers' behavior, estimation methods of railway passengers' flow are proposed to execute such an evaluation. However, a train schedule planning system equipped with those methods is not practical due to necessity of much time to complete the estimation. In this article, the authors propose a fast passengers' flow estimation method that employs features of passengers' flow graph using preparative search based on each train's arrival time at each station. And the authors show the results of passengers' flow estimation applied on a railway in an urban area.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hamrick, Joseph T; Ginsburg, Ambrose; Osborn, Walter M
1952-01-01
A method is presented for analysis of the compressible flow between the hub and the shroud of mixed-flow impellers of arbitrary design. Axial symmetry was assumed, but the forces in the meridional (hub to shroud) plane, which are derived from tangential pressure gradients, were taken into account. The method was applied to an experimental mixed-flow impeller. The analysis of the flow in the meridional plane of the impeller showed that the rotational forces, the blade curvature, and the hub-shroud profile can introduce severe velocity gradients along the hub and the shroud surfaces. Choked flow at the impeller inlet as determined by the analysis was verified by experimental results.
On the no-field method for void time determination in flow field-flow fractionation.
Martin, Michel; Hoyos, Mauricio
2011-07-01
Elution time measurements of colloidal particles injected in a symmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (flow FFF) system when the inlet and outlet cross-flow connections are closed have been performed. This no-field method has been proposed earlier for void time (and void volume) determination in flow FFF Giddings et al. (1977). The elution times observed were much larger than expected on the basis of the channel geometrical volume and the flow rate. In order to explain these discrepancies, a flow model allowing the carrier liquid to flow through the porous walls toward the reservoirs located behind the porous elements and along these reservoirs was developed. The ratio between the observed elution time and expected one is found to depend only on a parameter which is a function of the effective permeability and thickness of the porous elements and of the channel thickness and length. The permeabilities of the frits used in the system were measured. Their values lead to predicted elution times in reasonable agreement with experimental ones, taking into account likely membrane protrusion inside the channel on system assembly. They comfort the basic feature of the flow model, in the no-field case. The carrier liquid mostly bypasses the channel to flow along the system mainly in the reservoir. It flows through the porous walls toward the reservoirs near channel inlet and again through the porous walls from the reservoirs to the channel near channel outlet before exiting the system. In order to estimate the extent of this bypassing process, it is desirable that the hydrodynamic characteristics of the permeable elements (permeability and thickness) are provided by flow FFF manufacturers. The model applies to symmetrical as well as asymmetrical flow FFF systems. PMID:21256498
A semi-probabilistic assessment method for flow slides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van den Ham, G.; Mastbergen, D.; de Groot, M.
2013-12-01
Flow slides in submerged slopes in non-lithified sandy and silty sediments form a major threat for flood defences along (estuary) coastlines and riverbanks in the Netherlands. Such flow slides may result in failure of levees and structures, eventually leading to flooding of the hinterland. Flow slide is a complex failure mechanism that includes both soil mechanical and hydraulic features. Two important sub-mechanisms are static liquefaction and breach flow. Static liquefaction entails the sudden loss of strength of loosely packed saturated sand or silt resulting in a collapse of the sand body. Breach flow is a more superficial process, involving the upslope retrogression of a local steep part of the slope which generates a turbulent sand-water mixture flow along the sand surface of the under water slope. Both mechanisms need a trigger, e.g. local steepening of the slope by erosion or slip failure. Although a breach flow slide generally takes more time than a liquefaction flow slide, both mechanisms result in a flowing sand-water mixture, that eventually resedimentates under a very gentle slope. Therefore in the analysis of historical flow slides it is often not clear to what extent static soil liquefaction and/or breach flow has played a role. In the current Dutch practice the prediction of levee failure due to flow sliding is based on either simple but conservative empirical rules based on documented historical flow slides in which distinction between mentioned sub-mechanisms is disregarded, or rather complex physical-based models describing mechanisms such as static liquefaction or breach flow. It will be presented how both approaches can be combined into a practical, probabilistic method for assessing dike failure due to flow sliding, accounting for uncertainties of the main influence factors. The method has recently been implemented in the so-called Dike Analysis Module (DAM). DAM is a platform for performing semi-automatic stability analyses on a large number
Method, apparatus and system for controlling fluid flow
McMurtrey, Ryan D.; Ginosar, Daniel M.; Burch, Joesph V.
2007-10-30
A system, apparatus and method of controlling the flow of a fluid are provided. In accordance with one embodiment of the present invention, a flow control device includes a valve having a flow path defined therethrough and a valve seat in communication with the flow path with a valve stem disposed in the valve seat. The valve stem and valve seat are cooperatively configured to cause mutual relative linear displacement thereof in response to rotation of the valve stem. A gear member is coupled with the rotary stem and a linear positioning member includes a portion which complementarily engages the gear member. Upon displacement of the linear positioning member along a first axis, the gear member and rotary valve stem are rotated about a second axis and the valve stem and valve seat are mutually linearly displaced to alter the flow of fluid through the valve.
A study of methods to estimate debris flow velocity
Prochaska, A.B.; Santi, P.M.; Higgins, J.D.; Cannon, S.H.
2008-01-01
Debris flow velocities are commonly back-calculated from superelevation events which require subjective estimates of radii of curvature of bends in the debris flow channel or predicted using flow equations that require the selection of appropriate rheological models and material property inputs. This research investigated difficulties associated with the use of these conventional velocity estimation methods. Radii of curvature estimates were found to vary with the extent of the channel investigated and with the scale of the media used, and back-calculated velocities varied among different investigated locations along a channel. Distinct populations of Bingham properties were found to exist between those measured by laboratory tests and those back-calculated from field data; thus, laboratory-obtained values would not be representative of field-scale debris flow behavior. To avoid these difficulties with conventional methods, a new preliminary velocity estimation method is presented that statistically relates flow velocity to the channel slope and the flow depth. This method presents ranges of reasonable velocity predictions based on 30 previously measured velocities. ?? 2008 Springer-Verlag.
A Semi-Implicit Lattice Method for Simulating Flow
Rector, David R.; Stewart, Mark L.
2010-09-20
We propose a new semi-implicit lattice numerical method for modeling fluid flow that depends only on local primitive variable information (density, pressure, velocity) and not on relaxed upstream distribution function values. This method has the potential for reducing parallel communication and permitting larger time steps compared to the lattice Boltzmann method. The lid-driven cavity is modeled to demonstrate the accuracy of the method.
Clearance gap flow: simulations by discontinuous Galerkin method and experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prausová, Helena; Bublík, Ondřej; Vimmr, Jan; Luxa, Martin; Hála, Jindřich
2015-05-01
Compressible viscous fluid flow in a narrow gap formed by two parallel plates in distance of 2 mm is investigated numerically and experimentally. Pneumatic and optical methods were used to obtain distribution of static to stagnation pressure ratio along the channel axis and interferograms including the free outflow behind the channel. Modern developing discontinuous Galerkin finite element method is implemented for numerical simulation of the fluid flow. The goal to make progress in knowledge of compressible viscous fluid flow characteristic phenomena in minichannels is satisfied by finding a suitable approach to this problem. Laminar, turbulent and transitional flow regime is examined and a good agreement of experimental and numerical results is achieved using γ - Reθt transition model.
Modeling Electrokinetic Flows by the Smoothed Profile Method
Luo, Xian; Beskok, Ali; Karniadakis, George Em
2010-01-01
We propose an efficient modeling method for electrokinetic flows based on the Smoothed Profile Method (SPM) [1–4] and spectral element discretizations. The new method allows for arbitrary differences in the electrical conductivities between the charged surfaces and the the surrounding electrolyte solution. The electrokinetic forces are included into the flow equations so that the Poisson-Boltzmann and electric charge continuity equations are cast into forms suitable for SPM. The method is validated by benchmark problems of electroosmotic flow in straight channels and electrophoresis of charged cylinders. We also present simulation results of electrophoresis of charged microtubules, and show that the simulated electrophoretic mobility and anisotropy agree with the experimental values. PMID:20352076
Topography Modeling in Atmospheric Flows Using the Immersed Boundary Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ackerman, A. S.; Senocak, I.; Mansour, N. N.; Stevens, D. E.
2004-01-01
Numerical simulation of flow over complex geometry needs accurate and efficient computational methods. Different techniques are available to handle complex geometry. The unstructured grid and multi-block body-fitted grid techniques have been widely adopted for complex geometry in engineering applications. In atmospheric applications, terrain fitted single grid techniques have found common use. Although these are very effective techniques, their implementation, coupling with the flow algorithm, and efficient parallelization of the complete method are more involved than a Cartesian grid method. The grid generation can be tedious and one needs to pay special attention in numerics to handle skewed cells for conservation purposes. Researchers have long sought for alternative methods to ease the effort involved in simulating flow over complex geometry.
Modeling groundwater flow by lattice Boltzmann method in curvilinear coordinates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Budinski, Ljubomir; Fabian, Julius; Stipic, Matija
2015-07-01
In order to promote the use of the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for the simulation of isotropic groundwater flow in a confined aquifer with arbitrary geometry, Poisson's equation was transformed into a curvilinear coordinate system. With the metric function between the physical and the computational domain established, Poisson's equation written in Cartesian coordinates was transformed in curvilinear coordinates. Following, the appropriate equilibrium function for the D2Q9 square lattice has been defined. The resulting curvilinear formulation of the LBM for groundwater flow is capable of modeling flow in domains of complex geometry with the opportunity of local refining/coarsening of the computational mesh corresponding to the complexity of the flow pattern and the required accuracy. Since the proposed form of the LBM uses the transformed equation of flow implemented in the equilibrium function, finding a solution does not require supplementary procedures along the curvilinear boundaries, nor in the zones requiring mesh density adjustments. Thus, the basic concept of the LBM is completely maintained. The improvement of the proposed LBM over the previously published classical methods is completely verified by three examples with analytical solutions. The results demonstrate the advantages of the proposed curvilinear LBM in modeling groundwater flow in complex flow domains.
Combustor flow computations in general coordinates with a multigrid method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shyy, Wei; Braaten, Mark E.
The computational approach presented for single-phase combusting turbulent flowfields balances the requirements of complex physical and chemical flow interactions with those of resolving the three-dimensional geometrical constraints of the combustor contours, film cooling slots, and circular dilution holes. Attention is given to the three-dimensional grid-generation algorithm, the two-dimensional adaptive grid method applied to recirculating turbulent reacting flows, and theory/data assessments for three-dimensional combusting flows in an annular gas turbine combustor.
Fiber optic liquid mass flow sensor and method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Korman, Valentin (Inventor); Gregory, Don Allen (Inventor); Wiley, John T. (Inventor); Pedersen, Kevin W. (Inventor)
2010-01-01
A method and apparatus are provided for sensing the mass flow rate of a fluid flowing through a pipe. A light beam containing plural individual wavelengths is projected from one side of the pipe across the width of the pipe so as to pass through the fluid under test. Fiber optic couplers located at least two positions on the opposite side of the pipe are used to detect the light beam. A determination is then made of the relative strengths of the light beam for each wavelength at the at least two positions and based at least in part on these relative strengths, the mass flow rate of the fluid is determined.
Assessment of nonequilibrium radiation computation methods for hypersonic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sharma, Surendra
1993-01-01
The present understanding of shock-layer radiation in the low density regime, as appropriate to hypersonic vehicles, is surveyed. Based on the relative importance of electron excitation and radiation transport, the hypersonic flows are divided into three groups: weakly ionized, moderately ionized, and highly ionized flows. In the light of this division, the existing laboratory and flight data are scrutinized. Finally, an assessment of the nonequilibrium radiation computation methods for the three regimes in hypersonic flows is presented. The assessment is conducted by comparing experimental data against the values predicted by the physical model.
An implicit Lagrangian lattice Boltzmann method for the compressible flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Guangwu; Dong, Yinfeng; Liu, Yanhong
2006-08-01
In this paper, we propose a new Lagrangian lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for simulating the compressible flows. The new scheme simulates fluid flows based on the displacement distribution functions. The compressible flows, such as shock waves and contact discontinuities are modelled by using Lagrangian LBM. In this model, we select the element in the Lagrangian coordinate to satisfy the basic fluid laws. This model is a simpler version than the corresponding Eulerian coordinates, because the convection term of the Euler equations disappears. The numerical simulations conform to classical results.
AN IMMERSED BOUNDARY METHOD FOR COMPLEX INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOWS
An immersed boundary method for time-dependant, three- dimensional, incompressible flows is presented in this paper. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are discretized using a low-diffusion flux splitting method for the inviscid fluxes and a second order central differenc...
The flow curvature method applied to canard explosion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ginoux, Jean-Marc; Llibre, Jaume
2011-11-01
The aim of this work is to establish that the bifurcation parameter value leading to a canard explosion in dimension 2 obtained by the so-called geometric singular perturbation method can be found according to the flow curvature method. This result will be then exemplified with the classical Van der Pol oscillator.
Study of the Transition Flow Regime using Monte Carlo Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hassan, H. A.
1999-01-01
This NASA Cooperative Agreement presents a study of the Transition Flow Regime Using Monte Carlo Methods. The topics included in this final report are: 1) New Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) procedures; 2) The DS3W and DS2A Programs; 3) Papers presented; 4) Miscellaneous Applications and Program Modifications; 5) Solution of Transitional Wake Flows at Mach 10; and 6) Turbulence Modeling of Shock-Dominated Fows with a k-Enstrophy Formulation.
Compressible flow calculations employing the Galerkin/least-squares method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shakib, F.; Hughes, T. J. R.; Johan, Zdenek
1989-01-01
A multielement group, domain decomposition algorithm is presented for solving linear nonsymmetric systems arising in the finite-element analysis of compressible flows employing the Galerkin/least-squares method. The iterative strategy employed is based on the generalized minimum residual (GMRES) procedure originally proposed by Saad and Shultz. Two levels of preconditioning are investigated. Applications to problems of high-speed compressible flow illustrate the effectiveness of the scheme.
Numerical simulation methods for the Rouse model in flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Howard, Michael P.; Milner, Scott T.
2011-11-01
Simulation of the Rouse model in flow underlies a great variety of numerical investigations of polymer dynamics, in both entangled melts and solutions and in dilute solution. Typically a simple explicit stochastic Euler method is used to evolve the Rouse model. Here we compare this approach to an operator splitting method, which splits the evolution operator into stochastic linear and deterministic nonlinear parts and takes advantage of an analytical solution for the linear Rouse model in terms of the noise history. We show that this splitting method has second-order weak convergence, whereas the Euler method has only first-order weak convergence. Furthermore, the splitting method is unconditionally stable, in contrast to the limited stability range of the Euler method. Similar splitting methods are applicable to a broad class of problems in stochastic dynamics in which noise competes with ordering and flow to determine steady-state order parameter structures.
Determination of renal blood flow by thermodilution method.
Leivestad, T; Brodwall, E K; Simonsen, S
1978-09-01
The single bolus thermodilution method for measurement of renal vein blood flow was tested. In model experiments the thermodilution method was compared with graduated cylinder measurements over a flow range from 50 to 1050 ml/min. There was a good correlation between the two methods (r = 0.98) with a mean of differences of 5.2%. In eighteen patients measurements were performed in duplicate in thirty-one renal veins. Comparison was made between the first (x) and second (u) measurement--performed within 3 min. The correlation between the two was very good (r = 0.99; y = 1.03x - 11.48). In twelve patients bilateral renal vein blood flow measurements were performed simultaneous to blood flow measurement by PAH clearance. The correlation between total flow measured by thermodilution (y) and by the clearance method (x) was good (r = 0.98; y = 0.79x + 221). It is concluded that the thermodilution method requires catheterization of the renal veins, but is otherwise simple to perform, is inexpensive and gives reliable results. It is particularly advantageous when repeated measurements in the study of acute changes in renal haemodynamics is desirable. PMID:705231
A nonintrusive method of quantifying flow visualization data in vortex flow fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sei, Vincent J.
1994-12-01
The High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) as well as other similar flight test aircraft have been using smoke flow visualization techniques to characterize the vortex flow created by leading edge extensions and the forebody. With the advent of video measurement techniques, this type of flow visualization can not only provide a qualitative assessment of the flow but also a quantitative measure to be used to validate computational fluid dynamic codes and wind tunnel test. One of the major drawbacks to employing video imaging was the introduction of false motion due to camera movement in flight. A relative motion approach using fixed targets along with the flow visualization scheme was utilized to remove unwanted motion. The relative motion algorithm was tested using a laboratory test setup where cameras underwent both translational and rotational motion to simulate both wing bending and torsion. The method was effective in removing both motions with only a slight loss of accuracy.
Hoskinson, Reed L.; Svoboda, John M.; Bauer, William F.; Elias, Gracy
2008-05-06
A method and apparatus is provided for monitoring a flow path having plurality of different solid components flowing therethrough. For example, in the harvesting of a plant material, many factors surrounding the threshing, separating or cleaning of the plant material and may lead to the inadvertent inclusion of the component being selectively harvested with residual plant materials being discharged or otherwise processed. In accordance with the present invention the detection of the selectively harvested component within residual materials may include the monitoring of a flow path of such residual materials by, for example, directing an excitation signal toward of flow path of material and then detecting a signal initiated by the presence of the selectively harvested component responsive to the excitation signal. The detected signal may be used to determine the presence or absence of a selected plant component within the flow path of residual materials.
Gpu Implementation of Preconditioning Method for Low-Speed Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jiale; Chen, Hongquan
2016-06-01
An improved preconditioning method for low-Mach-number flows is implemented on a GPU platform. The improved preconditioning method employs the fluctuation of the fluid variables to weaken the influence of accuracy caused by the truncation error. The GPU parallel computing platform is implemented to accelerate the calculations. Both details concerning the improved preconditioning method and the GPU implementation technology are described in this paper. Then a set of typical low-speed flow cases are simulated for both validation and performance analysis of the resulting GPU solver. Numerical results show that dozens of times speedup relative to a serial CPU implementation can be achieved using a single GPU desktop platform, which demonstrates that the GPU desktop can serve as a cost-effective parallel computing platform to accelerate CFD simulations for low-Speed flows substantially.
A multi-domain method for subsonic viscous flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chan, Daniel C.; Sindir, Munir M.
1992-01-01
We have developed a Schwarz type domain decomposition method for a pressure base, two- and three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver. This technique allows one to partition a flow path, which can be characterized by complex geometry and/or complicated flow physics, into smaller sub-domains according to the local geometric simplicity or estimated flow scales. We can, then, sweep the sub-domains in some order and solve the Navier-Stokes equations using as boundary conditions, along the domain interfaces, the Dirichlet conditions which are taken from the most recent update of the solution in the adjacent neighboring domains. With this technique, one can minimize the adverse effects caused by grid skewness and the stiffness problem caused by disparate flow scales. Here, we report the results of a few fundamental flow cases to demonstrate that a judicious use of the multi-domain method can offer a significant convergence acceleration over the traditional one-domain method. This method can be extended to exploit the architecture of a parallel computer to further improve the speed.
Electron-Beam Diagnostic Methods for Hypersonic Flow Diagnostics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1994-01-01
The purpose of this work was the evaluation of the use of electron-bean fluorescence for flow measurements during hypersonic flight. Both analytical and numerical models were developed in this investigation to evaluate quantitatively flow field imaging concepts based upon the electron beam fluorescence technique for use in flight research and wind tunnel applications. Specific models were developed for: (1) fluorescence excitation/emission for nitrogen, (2) rotational fluorescence spectrum for nitrogen, (3) single and multiple scattering of electrons in a variable density medium, (4) spatial and spectral distribution of fluorescence, (5) measurement of rotational temperature and density, (6) optical filter design for fluorescence imaging, and (7) temperature accuracy and signal acquisition time requirements. Application of these models to a typical hypersonic wind tunnel flow is presented. In particular, the capability of simulating the fluorescence resulting from electron impact ionization in a variable density nitrogen or air flow provides the capability to evaluate the design of imaging instruments for flow field mapping. The result of this analysis is a recommendation that quantitative measurements of hypersonic flow fields using electron-bean fluorescence is a tractable method with electron beam energies of 100 keV. With lower electron energies, electron scattering increases with significant beam divergence which makes quantitative imaging difficult. The potential application of the analytical and numerical models developed in this work is in the design of a flow field imaging instrument for use in hypersonic wind tunnels or onboard a flight research vehicle.
Simulation of turbulent flows using nodal integral method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Suneet
Nodal methods are the backbone of the production codes for neutron-diffusion and transport equations. Despite their high accuracy, use of these methods for simulation of fluid flow is relatively new. Recently, a modified nodal integral method (MNIM) has been developed for simulation of laminar flows. In view of its high accuracy and efficiency, extension of this method for the simulation of turbulent flows is a logical step forward. In this dissertation, MNIM is extended in two ways to simulate incompressible turbulent flows---a new MNIM is developed for the 2D k-epsilon equations; and 3D, parallel MNIM is developed for direct numerical simulations. Both developments are validated, and test problems are solved. In this dissertation, a new nodal numerical scheme is developed to solve the k-epsilon equations to simulate turbulent flows. The MNIM developed earlier for laminar flow equations is modified to incorporate eddy viscosity approximation and coupled with the above mentioned schemes for the k and epsilon equations, to complete the implementation of the numerical scheme for the k-epsilon model. The scheme developed is validated by comparing the results obtained by the developed method with the results available in the literature obtained using direct numerical simulations (DNS). The results of current simulations match reasonably well with the DNS results. The discrepancies in the results are mainly due to the limitations of the k-epsilon model rather than the deficiency in the developed MNIM. A parallel version of the MNIM is needed to enhance its capability, in order to carry out DNS of the turbulent flows. The parallelization of the scheme, however, presents some unique challenges as dependencies of the discrete variables are different from those that exist in other schemes (for example in finite volume based schemes). Hence, a parallel MNIM (PMNIM) is developed and implemented into a computer code with communication strategies based on the above mentioned
Fully consistent CFD methods for incompressible flow computations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolmogorov, D. K.; Shen, W. Z.; Sørensen, N. N.; Sørensen, J. N.
2014-06-01
Nowadays collocated grid based CFD methods are one of the most efficient tools for computations of the flows past wind turbines. To ensure the robustness of the methods they require special attention to the well-known problem of pressure-velocity coupling. Many commercial codes to ensure the pressure-velocity coupling on collocated grids use the so-called momentum interpolation method of Rhie and Chow [1]. As known, the method and some of its widely spread modifications result in solutions, which are dependent of time step at convergence. In this paper the magnitude of the dependence is shown to contribute about 0.5% into the total error in a typical turbulent flow computation. Nevertheless if coarse grids are used, the standard interpolation methods result in much higher non-consistent behavior. To overcome the problem, a recently developed interpolation method, which is independent of time step, is used. It is shown that in comparison to other time step independent method, the method may enhance the convergence rate of the SIMPLEC algorithm up to 25 %. The method is verified using turbulent flow computations around a NACA 64618 airfoil and the roll-up of a shear layer, which may appear in wind turbine wake.
Adaptive computational methods for SSME internal flow analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oden, J. T.
1986-01-01
Adaptive finite element methods for the analysis of classes of problems in compressible and incompressible flow of interest in SSME (space shuttle main engine) analysis and design are described. The general objective of the adaptive methods is to improve and to quantify the quality of numerical solutions to the governing partial differential equations of fluid dynamics in two-dimensional cases. There are several different families of adaptive schemes that can be used to improve the quality of solutions in complex flow simulations. Among these are: (1) r-methods (node-redistribution or moving mesh methods) in which a fixed number of nodal points is allowed to migrate to points in the mesh where high error is detected; (2) h-methods, in which the mesh size h is automatically refined to reduce local error; and (3) p-methods, in which the local degree p of the finite element approximation is increased to reduce local error. Two of the three basic techniques have been studied in this project: an r-method for steady Euler equations in two dimensions and a p-method for transient, laminar, viscous incompressible flow. Numerical results are presented. A brief introduction to residual methods of a-posterior error estimation is also given and some pertinent conclusions of the study are listed.
Nested Cartesian grid method in incompressible viscous fluid flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Yih-Ferng; Mittal, Rajat; Sau, Amalendu; Hwang, Robert R.
2010-09-01
In this work, the local grid refinement procedure is focused by using a nested Cartesian grid formulation. The method is developed for simulating unsteady viscous incompressible flows with complex immersed boundaries. A finite-volume formulation based on globally second-order accurate central-difference schemes is adopted here in conjunction with a two-step fractional-step procedure. The key aspects that needed to be considered in developing such a nested grid solver are proper imposition of interface conditions on the nested-block boundaries, and accurate discretization of the governing equations in cells that are with block-interface as a control-surface. The interpolation procedure adopted in the study allows systematic development of a discretization scheme that preserves global second-order spatial accuracy of the underlying solver, and as a result high efficiency/accuracy nested grid discretization method is developed. Herein the proposed nested grid method has been widely tested through effective simulation of four different classes of unsteady incompressible viscous flows, thereby demonstrating its performance in the solution of various complex flow-structure interactions. The numerical examples include a lid-driven cavity flow and Pearson vortex problems, flow past a circular cylinder symmetrically installed in a channel, flow past an elliptic cylinder at an angle of attack, and flow past two tandem circular cylinders of unequal diameters. For the numerical simulations of flows past bluff bodies an immersed boundary (IB) method has been implemented in which the solid object is represented by a distributed body force in the Navier-Stokes equations. The main advantages of the implemented immersed boundary method are that the simulations could be performed on a regular Cartesian grid and applied to multiple nested-block (Cartesian) structured grids without any difficulty. Through the numerical experiments the strength of the solver in effectively
Systems and methods for rebalancing redox flow battery electrolytes
Pham, Ai Quoc; Chang, On Kok
2015-03-17
Various methods of rebalancing electrolytes in a redox flow battery system include various systems using a catalyzed hydrogen rebalance cell configured to minimize the risk of dissolved catalyst negatively affecting flow battery performance. Some systems described herein reduce the chance of catalyst contamination of RFB electrolytes by employing a mediator solution to eliminate direct contact between the catalyzed membrane and the RFB electrolyte. Other methods use a rebalance cell chemistry that maintains the catalyzed electrode at a potential low enough to prevent the catalyst from dissolving.
Improved numerical methods for turbulent viscous recirculating flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Turan, A.; Vandoormaal, J. P.
1988-01-01
The performance of discrete methods for the prediction of fluid flows can be enhanced by improving the convergence rate of solvers and by increasing the accuracy of the discrete representation of the equations of motion. This report evaluates the gains in solver performance that are available when various acceleration methods are applied. Various discretizations are also examined and two are recommended because of their accuracy and robustness. Insertion of the improved discretization and solver accelerator into a TEACH mode, that has been widely applied to combustor flows, illustrates the substantial gains to be achieved.
Spectral methods for modeling supersonic chemically reacting flow fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Drummond, J. P.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Zang, T. A.
1985-01-01
A numerical algorithm was developed for solving the equations describing chemically reacting supersonic flows. The algorithm employs a two-stage Runge-Kutta method for integrating the equations in time and a Chebyshev spectral method for integrating the equations in space. The accuracy and efficiency of the technique were assessed by comparison with an existing implicit finite-difference procedure for modeling chemically reacting flows. The comparison showed that the procedure presented yields equivalent accuracy on much coarser grids as compared to the finite-difference procedure with resultant significant gains in computational efficiency.
Continuous-flow free acid monitoring method and system
Strain, J.E.; Ross, H.H.
1980-01-11
A free acid monitoring method and apparatus is provided for continuously measuring the excess acid present in a process stream. The disclosed monitoring system and method is based on the relationship of the partial pressure ratio of water and acid in equilibrium with an acid solution at constant temperature. A portion of the process stream is pumped into and flows through the monitor under the influence of gravity and back to the process stream. A continuous flowing sample is vaporized at a constant temperature and the vapor is subsequently condensed. Conductivity measurements of the condensate produces a nonlinear response function from which the free acid molarity of the sample process stream is determined.
Continuous-flow free acid monitoring method and system
Strain, James E.; Ross, Harley H.
1981-01-01
A free acid monitoring method and apparatus is provided for continuously measuring the excess acid present in a process stream. The disclosed monitoring system and method is based on the relationship of the partial pressure ratio of water and acid in equilibrium with an acid solution at constant temperature. A portion of the process stream is pumped into and flows through the monitor under the influence of gravity and back to the process stream. A continuous flowing sample is vaporized at a constant temperature and the vapor is subsequently condensed. Conductivity measurements of the condensate produces a nonlinear response function from which the free acid molarity of the sample process stream is determined.
Method for selectively controlling flow across slotted liners
Peavy, M.A.; Dees, J.M.
1993-08-31
A process is described for decreasing flow rate across the radial boundary of a selected interval in a well bore containing a slotted liner comprising: placing an explosive and an internally catalyzed resin solution inside an elongated container; locating the elongated container opposite the selected interval in the well bore where flow rate through the slotted liner is to be decreased; firing the explosive; and allowing the resin to cure on the slotted liner before initiating flow through the well. A method is described for decreasing production of unwanted fluids from a horizontal well containing a slotted liner comprising: placing an explosive and an internally catalyzed resin inside an elongated container; placing the elongated container opposite an interval in the horizontal well where unwanted fluid is entering the well bore through the slotted liner; firing the explosive; and permitting the resin to cure on the slotted liner before initiating flow in the well.
Combustor air flow control method for fuel cell apparatus
Clingerman, Bruce J.; Mowery, Kenneth D.; Ripley, Eugene V.
2001-01-01
A method for controlling the heat output of a combustor in a fuel cell apparatus to a fuel processor where the combustor has dual air inlet streams including atmospheric air and fuel cell cathode effluent containing oxygen depleted air. In all operating modes, an enthalpy balance is provided by regulating the quantity of the air flow stream to the combustor to support fuel cell processor heat requirements. A control provides a quick fast forward change in an air valve orifice cross section in response to a calculated predetermined air flow, the molar constituents of the air stream to the combustor, the pressure drop across the air valve, and a look up table of the orifice cross sectional area and valve steps. A feedback loop fine tunes any error between the measured air flow to the combustor and the predetermined air flow.
Finite element method application for turbulent and transitional flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sváček, Petr
2016-03-01
This paper is interested in numerical simulations of the interaction of the fluid flow with an airfoil. Particularly, the problem of the turbulent flow around the airfoil with elastic support is considered. The main attention is paid to the numerical approximation of the flow problem using the finite element approximations. The laminar - turbulence transition of the flow on the surface airfoil is considered. The chois of the transition model is discussed. The transition model based on the two equation k-ω turbulence model is used. The structure motion is described with the aid of two degrees of freedom. The motion of the computational domain is treated with the aid of the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method. Numerical results are shown.
New 3-D flow interpolation method on moving ADCP data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsubaki, R.; Kawahara, Y.; Muto, Y.; Fujita, I.
2012-05-01
A simple but accurate interpolation procedure for obtaining the three-dimensional distribution of three-component velocity data, from moving acoustic doppler current profiler (ADCP) observation data, is proposed. For understanding actual flow structure within a river with complex bathymetry, the three-dimensional mean velocity field provides a basic picture of the flow. For obtaining the three-dimensional distribution of three-component velocity data, in this work, anisotropic gridding was introduced in order to remove the random component of measured velocity data caused by the turbulence of the flow and measurement error. A continuity correction based on the pressure equation was used to reduce both random and systematic errors. The accuracy of the developed method was evaluated using three-dimensional flow simulation data from a detached-eddy simulation (DES). By using the procedure developed, the complex flow structure surrounding the spur dikes section in the Uji River was successfully visualized and explored. The proposed method shows superiorities in both accuracy and consistency for the interpolated velocity field, as compared to the kriging and inverse-distance weighted (IDW) methods.
a Spreading Blob Vortex Method for Viscous Bounded Flows.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rossi, Louis Frank
In this dissertation, I introduce a vortex method that is generally applicable to any two-dimensional, incompressible flow with or without boundaries. This method is deterministic, accurate, convergent, naturally adaptive, geometry independent and fully localized. For viscous flows, the vorticity distribution of each vortex element must evolve in addition to following a Lagrangian trajectory. My method relies upon an idea called core spreading. Core spreading is inconsistent by itself, but I have corrected it with a deterministic process known as "vortex fission" where one "fat" vortex is replaced by several "thinner" ones. Also, I examine rigorously a method for merging many blobs into one. This process maintains smaller problem sizes thus boosting the efficiency of the vortex method. To prove that this corrected core spreading method will converge uniformly, I adapted a continuous formalism to this grid-free scheme. This convergence theory does not rely on any form of grid. I only examine the linear problem where the flow field is specified, and treat the full nonlinear problem as a perturbation of the linear problem. The estimated rate of convergence is demonstrated to be sharp in several examples. Boundary conditions are approximated indirectly. The boundary is decomposed into a collection of small linear segments. I solve the no -slip and no-normal flow conditions simultaneously by superimposing a potential flow and injecting vorticity from the boundary consistent with the unsteady Rayleigh problem. Finally, the ultimate test for this new method is to simulate the wall jet. The simulations produce a dipole instability along the wall as observed in water tank and wind tunnel experiments and predicted by linear stability analysis. Moreover, the wavelength and height of these simulations agree quantitatively with experimental observations.
Implicit calculations of transonic flows using monotone methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goorjian, P. M.; van Buskirk, R.
1981-01-01
Implicit approximate-factorization algorithms have been developed that use monotone methods for the calculation of steady and unsteady transonic flows governed by the small-disturbance-potential equation. These algorithms use the new Engquist-Osher switch in the type-dependent differencing in place of the standard Murman-Cole switch. The resulting algorithms are more stable; hence, calculations can be done more efficiently. For steady flows, the convergence rate is about 35% faster, and for unsteady flows the allowable time step is about 10 times larger. These improvements are achieved with no increase in computer storage and with only minor modifications in codes that use the Murman-Cole switch. Also an implicit algorithm has been developed for the steady full-potential equation in one-dimension, which uses monotone methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jang, Jaeseong; Ahn, Chi Young; Jeon, Kiwan; Choi, Jung-il; Lee, Changhoon; Seo, Jin Keun
2015-03-01
A reconstruction method is proposed here to quantify the distribution of blood flow velocity fields inside the left ventricle from color Doppler echocardiography measurement. From 3D incompressible Navier- Stokes equation, a 2D incompressible Navier-Stokes equation with a mass source term is derived to utilize the measurable color flow ultrasound data in a plane along with the moving boundary condition. The proposed model reflects out-of-plane blood flows on the imaging plane through the mass source term. For demonstrating a feasibility of the proposed method, we have performed numerical simulations of the forward problem and numerical analysis of the reconstruction method. First, we construct a 3D moving LV region having a specific stroke volume. To obtain synthetic intra-ventricular flows, we performed a numerical simulation of the forward problem of Navier-Stokes equation inside the 3D moving LV, computed 3D intra-ventricular velocity fields as a solution of the forward problem, projected the 3D velocity fields on the imaging plane and took the inner product of the 2D velocity fields on the imaging plane and scanline directional velocity fields for synthetic scanline directional projected velocity at each position. The proposed method utilized the 2D synthetic projected velocity data for reconstructing LV blood flow. By computing the difference between synthetic flow and reconstructed flow fields, we obtained the averaged point-wise errors of 0.06 m/s and 0.02 m/s for u- and v-components, respectively.
Development of acoustic observation method for seafloor hydrothermal flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mochizuki, M.; Tamura, H.; Asada, A.; Kinoshita, M.; Tamaki, K.
2012-12-01
In October 2009, we conducted seafloor reconnaissance using a manned deep-sea submersible Shinkai6500 in Central Indian Ridge 18-20deg.S, where hydrothermal plume signatures were previously perceived. Acoustic video camera "DIDSON" was equipped on the top of Shinkai6500 in order to get acoustic video images of hydrothermal plumes. The acoustic video images of the hydrothermal plumes had been captured in three of seven dives. We could identify shadings inside the acoustic video images of the hydrothermal plumes. Silhouettes of the hydrothermal plumes varied from second to second, and the shadings inside them also varied. These variations corresponded to internal structures and flows of the plumes. DIDSON (Dual-Frequency IDentification SONar) is acoustic lens-based sonar. It has sufficiently high resolution and rapid refresh rate that it can substitute for optical system in turbid or dark water where optical systems fail. Ins. of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo has understood DIDSON's superior performance and tried to develop a new observation method based on DIDSON for hydrothermal discharging from seafloor vent. We expected DIDSON to reveal whole image of hydrothermal plume as well as detail inside the plume. The proposed method to observe and measure hydrothermal flow is the one to utilize a sheet-like acoustic beam. Scanning with concentrated acoustic beam gives distances to the edges of the hydrothermal flows. And then, the shapes of the flows can be identified even in low and zero visibility conditions. Tank experiment was conducted. The purposes of this experiment were to make an attempt at proposed method to delineate underwater hydrothermal flows and to understand relationships among acoustic video image, flow rate and water temperature. Water was heated in the hot tub and pumped to the water tank through the silicon tube. We observed water flows discharging from the tip of the tube with DIDSON. Flow rate had been controlled and temperatures of the
McGrail, Bernard P.; Martin, Paul F.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.
1999-01-01
The present invention is a method and apparatus for measuring coupled flow, transport and reaction processes under liquid unsaturated flow conditions. The method and apparatus of the present invention permit distinguishing individual precipitation events and their effect on dissolution behavior isolated to the specific event. The present invention is especially useful for dynamically measuring hydraulic parameters when a chemical reaction occurs between a particulate material and either liquid or gas (e.g. air) or both, causing precipitation that changes the pore structure of the test material.
New Methods for Sensitivity Analysis in Chaotic, Turbulent Fluid Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blonigan, Patrick; Wang, Qiqi
2012-11-01
Computational methods for sensitivity analysis are invaluable tools for fluid mechanics research and engineering design. These methods are used in many applications, including aerodynamic shape optimization and adaptive grid refinement. However, traditional sensitivity analysis methods break down when applied to long-time averaged quantities in chaotic fluid flowfields, such as those obtained using high-fidelity turbulence simulations. Also, a number of dynamical properties of chaotic fluid flows, most notably the ``Butterfly Effect,'' make the formulation of new sensitivity analysis methods difficult. This talk will outline two chaotic sensitivity analysis methods. The first method, the Fokker-Planck adjoint method, forms a probability density function on the strange attractor associated with the system and uses its adjoint to find gradients. The second method, the Least Squares Sensitivity method, finds some ``shadow trajectory'' in phase space for which perturbations do not grow exponentially. This method is formulated as a quadratic programing problem with linear constraints. This talk is concluded with demonstrations of these new methods on some example problems, including the Lorenz attractor and flow around an airfoil at a high angle of attack.
Validation of an Impedance Education Method in Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watson, Willie R.; Jones, Michael G.; Parrott, Tony L.
2004-01-01
This paper reports results of a research effort to validate a method for educing the normal incidence impedance of a locally reacting liner, located in a grazing incidence, nonprogressive acoustic wave environment with flow. The results presented in this paper test the ability of the method to reproduce the measured normal incidence impedance of a solid steel plate and two soft test liners in a uniform flow. The test liners are known to be locally react- ing and exhibit no measurable amplitude-dependent impedance nonlinearities or flow effects. Baseline impedance spectra for these liners were therefore established from measurements in a conventional normal incidence impedance tube. A key feature of the method is the expansion of the unknown impedance function as a piecewise continuous polynomial with undetermined coefficients. Stewart's adaptation of the Davidon-Fletcher-Powell optimization algorithm is used to educe the normal incidence impedance at each Mach number by optimizing an objective function. The method is shown to reproduce the measured normal incidence impedance spectrum for each of the test liners, thus validating its usefulness for determining the normal incidence impedance of test liners for a broad range of source frequencies and flow Mach numbers. Nomenclature
EPA flow reference method testing and analysis: Findings report. Appendices
1999-06-01
In the summer of 1997, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a series of week-long field tests at three electric utility sites to evaluate potential improvements to Method 2, EPA`s test method for measuring flue gas volumetric flow in stacks. The findings from that study are presented in document EPA/430-R-99-009a (NTIS Order Number PB99-150286). This document contains 10 appendices for that report.
Combined PDF/SPH method for compressible turbulent flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Welton, Walter Christian
A particle method which applies the probability density function (PDF) method to compressible turbulent flows is presented. Solution of the PDF equation is achieved using a Lagrangian/Monte Carlo approach which combines techniques borrowed from the field of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). This combination gives the method a unique ability to extract mean quantities, including the mean pressure gradient, directly from the particles using a grid-free approach. Two algorithms which greatly reduce the computational work for SPH in 1D and 2D have been developed to implement the method; for a simulation with N particles the computational work scales purely as {cal O}(N). The particle method has also been combined with a variance-reduction technique which can significantly reduce statistical error in first and second moments of selected mean flow quantities. When used with a second-order accurate predictor/corrector scheme, the resulting particle method provides a feasible way to obtain accurate PDF solutions to compressible turbulent flow problems. Results are presented for a variety of quasi-1D and 2D flows to demonstrate the method's robustness. These include solutions to both statistically stationary and nonstationary problems, and use both periodic and characteristic-based inflow/outflow boundary conditions. A 2D plane wake simulation also includes comparisons with experimental data and shows good agreement in spite of the simple turbulence model used. Comprehensive studies of numerical errors have also been performed, including a convergence study of the method. Detailed results are presented which confirm the expected behavior of each error.
Methods of Visually Determining the Air Flow Around Airplanes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gough, Melvin N; Johnson, Ernest
1932-01-01
This report describes methods used by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to study visually the air flow around airplanes. The use of streamers, oil and exhaust gas streaks, lampblack and kerosene, powdered materials, and kerosene smoke is briefly described. The generation and distribution of smoke from candles and from titanium tetrachloride are described in greater detail because they appear most advantageous for general application. Examples are included showing results of the various methods.
A Multi-domain Spectral Method for Supersonic Reactive Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Don, Wai-Sun; Gottlieb, David; Jung, Jae-Hun; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
This paper has a dual purpose: it presents a multidomain Chebyshev method for the solution of the two-dimensional reactive compressible Navier-Stokes equations, and it reports the results of the application of this code to the numerical simulations of high Mach number reactive flows in recessed cavity. The computational method utilizes newly derived interface boundary conditions as well as an adaptive filtering technique to stabilize the computations. The results of the simulations are relevant to recessed cavity flameholders.
Simple numerical method for predicting steady compressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vonlavante, Ernst; Nelson, N. Duane
1986-01-01
A numerical method for solving the isenthalpic form of the governing equations for compressible viscous and inviscid flows was developed. The method was based on the concept of flux vector splitting in its implicit form. The method was tested on several demanding inviscid and viscous configurations. Two different forms of the implicit operator were investigated. The time marching to steady state was accelerated by the implementation of the multigrid procedure. Its various forms very effectively increased the rate of convergence of the present scheme. High quality steady state results were obtained in most of the test cases; these required only short computational times due to the relative efficiency of the basic method.
Stochastic Collocation Method for Three-dimensional Groundwater Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, L.; Zhang, D.
2008-12-01
The stochastic collocation method (SCM) has recently gained extensive attention in several disciplines. The numerical implementation of SCM only requires repetitive runs of an existing deterministic solver or code as in the Monte Carlo simulation. But it is generally much more efficient than the Monte Carlo method. In this paper, the stochastic collocation method is used to efficiently qualify uncertainty of three-dimensional groundwater flow. We introduce the basic principles of common collocation methods, i.e., the tensor product collocation method (TPCM), Smolyak collocation method (SmCM), Stround-2 collocation method (StCM), and probability collocation method (PCM). Their accuracy, computational cost, and limitation are discussed. Illustrative examples reveal that the seamless combination of collocation techniques and existing simulators makes the new framework possible to efficiently handle complex stochastic problems.
Design method for the flow field and drag of bodies of revolution in incompressible flow
Wolfe, W.P.; Oberkampf, W.L.
1982-01-01
A design method has been developed for determining the flow field, pressure distribution, boundary layer separation point, and drag of bodies of revolution at zero angle of attack in incompressible flow. The approach taken is the classical coupling of potential and boundary solutions to obtain the flow field about the body. The potential solution is obtained by modeling the body with an axial distribution of source/sink elements whose strengths vary linearly along their length. The laminar and turbulent boundary layer solutions are obtained from conventional solutions of the momentum integral equation. An approximate method is used to estimate the boundary layer transition point on the body. An empirical base pressure correlation is used to determine the base drag. Body surface pressure distributions and drag predictions are compared with experimental measurements.
Traffic Flow Management Using Aggregate Flow Models and the Development of Disaggregation Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sun, Dengfeng; Sridhar, Banavar; Grabbe, Shon
2010-01-01
A linear time-varying aggregate traffic flow model can be used to develop Traffic Flow Management (tfm) strategies based on optimization algorithms. However, there are no methods available in the literature to translate these aggregate solutions into actions involving individual aircraft. This paper describes and implements a computationally efficient disaggregation algorithm, which converts an aggregate (flow-based) solution to a flight-specific control action. Numerical results generated by the optimization method and the disaggregation algorithm are presented and illustrated by applying them to generate TFM schedules for a typical day in the U.S. National Airspace System. The results show that the disaggregation algorithm generates control actions for individual flights while keeping the air traffic behavior very close to the optimal solution.
A Three-Dimensional Vortex Sheet Method for Multiphase Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stock, Mark; Dahm, Werner; Tryggvason, Gretar
2002-11-01
Previous work on a three-dimensional vortex-in-cell method is extended to include baroclinic vorticity generation in flows with large density ratios. A vortex sheet discretization is used both to maintain the boundary between different fluids or fluid phases, and to provide for a divergence-free vorticity field at all times. Automatic insertion and deletion of triangular elements allow the vortex sheet to maintain its connectivity and resolution during the simulation, despite extensive stretching of the material surface. The VIC grid provides regularization, and the simulation is inviscid at resolved scales. Computational results for flows with weak and strong density variations are presented.
A multilevel adaptive projection method for unsteady incompressible flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howell, Louis H.
1993-01-01
There are two main requirements for practical simulation of unsteady flow at high Reynolds number: the algorithm must accurately propagate discontinuous flow fields without excessive artificial viscosity, and it must have some adaptive capability to concentrate computational effort where it is most needed. We satisfy the first of these requirements with a second-order Godunov method similar to those used for high-speed flows with shocks, and the second with a grid-based refinement scheme which avoids some of the drawbacks associated with unstructured meshes. These two features of our algorithm place certain constraints on the projection method used to enforce incompressibility. Velocities are cell-based, leading to a Laplacian stencil for the projection which decouples adjacent grid points. We discuss features of the multigrid and multilevel iteration schemes required for solution of the resulting decoupled problem. Variable-density flows require use of a modified projection operator--we have found a multigrid method for this modified projection that successfully handles density jumps of thousands to one. Numerical results are shown for the 2D adaptive and 3D variable-density algorithms.
[Numerical methods for multi-fluid flows]. Final progress report
Pozrikidis, C.
1998-07-21
The central objective of this research has been to develop efficient numerical methods for computing multi-fluid flows with large interfacial deformations, and apply these methods to study the rheology of suspensions of deformable particles with viscous and non-Newtonian interfacial behavior. The mathematical formulation employs boundary-integral, immersed-boundary, and related numerical methods. Particles of interest include liquid drops with constant surface tension and capsules whose interfaces exhibit viscoelastic and incompressible characteristics. In one family of problems, the author has considered the shear-driven and pressure-driven flow of a suspension of two-dimensional liquid drops with ordered and random structure. In a second series of investigations, the author carried out dynamic simulations of two-dimensional, unbounded, doubly-periodic shear flows with random structure. Another family of problems addresses the deformation of three-dimensional capsules whose interfaces exhibit isotropic surface tension, viscous, elastic, or incompressible behavior, in simple shear flow. The numerical results extend previous asymptotic theories for small deformations and illuminate the mechanism of membrane rupture.
Modeling the flow in diffuse interface methods of solidification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Subhedar, A.; Steinbach, I.; Varnik, F.
2015-08-01
Fluid dynamical equations in the presence of a diffuse solid-liquid interface are investigated via a volume averaging approach. The resulting equations exhibit the same structure as the standard Navier-Stokes equation for a Newtonian fluid with a constant viscosity, the effect of the solid phase fraction appearing in the drag force only. This considerably simplifies the use of the lattice Boltzmann method as a fluid dynamics solver in solidification simulations. Galilean invariance is also satisfied within this approach. Further, we investigate deviations between the diffuse and sharp interface flow profiles via both quasiexact numerical integration and lattice Boltzmann simulations. It emerges from these studies that the freedom in choosing the solid-liquid coupling parameter h provides a flexible way of optimizing the diffuse interface-flow simulations. Once h is adapted for a given spatial resolution, the simulated flow profiles reach an accuracy comparable to quasiexact numerical simulations.
Modeling the flow in diffuse interface methods of solidification.
Subhedar, A; Steinbach, I; Varnik, F
2015-08-01
Fluid dynamical equations in the presence of a diffuse solid-liquid interface are investigated via a volume averaging approach. The resulting equations exhibit the same structure as the standard Navier-Stokes equation for a Newtonian fluid with a constant viscosity, the effect of the solid phase fraction appearing in the drag force only. This considerably simplifies the use of the lattice Boltzmann method as a fluid dynamics solver in solidification simulations. Galilean invariance is also satisfied within this approach. Further, we investigate deviations between the diffuse and sharp interface flow profiles via both quasiexact numerical integration and lattice Boltzmann simulations. It emerges from these studies that the freedom in choosing the solid-liquid coupling parameter h provides a flexible way of optimizing the diffuse interface-flow simulations. Once h is adapted for a given spatial resolution, the simulated flow profiles reach an accuracy comparable to quasiexact numerical simulations. PMID:26382542
Preconditioning methods for ideal and multiphase fluid flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Ashish
The objective of this study is to develop a preconditioning method for ideal and multiphase multispecies compressible fluid flow solver using homogeneous equilibrium mixture model. The mathematical model for fluid flow going through phase change uses density and temperature in the formulation, where the density represents the multiphase mixture density. The change of phase of the fluid is then explicitly determined using the equation of state of the fluid, which only requires temperature and mixture density. The method developed is based on a finite-volume framework in which the numerical fluxes are computed using Roe's approximate Riemann solver and the modified Harten, Lax and Van-leer scheme (HLLC). All speed Roe and HLLC flux based schemes have been developed either by using preconditioning or by directly modifying dissipation to reduce the effect of acoustic speed in its numerical dissipation when Mach number decreases. Preconditioning proposed by Briley, Taylor and Whitfield, Eriksson and Turkel are studied in this research, where as low dissipation schemes proposed by Rieper and Thornber, Mosedale, Drikakis, Youngs and Williams are also considered. Various preconditioners are evaluated in terms of development, performance, accuracy and limitations in simulations at various Mach numbers. A generalized preconditioner is derived which possesses well conditioned eigensystem for multiphase multispecies flow simulations. Validation and verification of the solution procedure are carried out on several small model problems with comparison to experimental, theoretical, and other numerical results. Preconditioning methods are evaluated using three basic geometries; 1) bump in a channel 2) flow over a NACA0012 airfoil and 3) flow over a cylinder, which are then compared with theoretical and numerical results. Multiphase capabilities of the solver are evaluated in cryogenic and non-cryogenic conditions. For cryogenic conditions the solver is evaluated by predicting
Review of Upscaling Methods for Describing Unsaturated Flow
BD Wood
2000-09-26
The representation of small-scale features can be a challenge when attempting to model unsaturated flow in large domains. Upscaling methods offer the possibility of reducing the amount of resolution required to adequately simulate such a problem. In this report, the various upscaling techniques that are discussed in the literature are reviewed. The following upscaling methods have been identified from the literature: (1) stochastic methods, (2) renormalization methods, and (3) volume averaging and homogenization methods; in addition, a final technique, full resolution numerical modeling, is also discussed. Each of these techniques has its advantages and disadvantages. The trade-off is a reduction in accuracy in favor of a method that is easier to employ. For practical applications, the most reasonable approach appears to be one in which any of the upscaling methods identified above maybe suitable for upscaling in regions where the variations in the parameter fields are small. For regions where the subsurface structure is more complex, only the homogenization and volume averaging methods are probably suitable. With the continual increases in computational capacity, fill-resolution numerical modeling may in many instances provide a tractable means of solving the flow problem in unsaturated systems.
Pseudo-compressibility methods for the incompressible flow equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Turkel, Eli; Arnone, A.
1993-01-01
Preconditioning methods to accelerate convergence to a steady state for the incompressible fluid dynamics equations are considered. The analysis relies on the inviscid equations. The preconditioning consists of a matrix multiplying the time derivatives. Thus the steady state of the preconditioned system is the same as the steady state of the original system. The method is compared to other types of pseudo-compressibility. For finite difference methods preconditioning can change and improve the steady state solutions. An application to viscous flow around a cascade with a non-periodic mesh is presented.
Wing analysis using a transonic potential flow computational method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Henne, P. A.; Hicks, R. M.
1978-01-01
The ability of the method to compute wing transonic performance was determined by comparing computed results with both experimental data and results computed by other theoretical procedures. Both pressure distributions and aerodynamic forces were evaluated. Comparisons indicated that the method is a significant improvement in transonic wing analysis capability. In particular, the computational method generally calculated the correct development of three-dimensional pressure distributions from subcritical to transonic conditions. Complicated, multiple shocked flows observed experimentally were reproduced computationally. The ability to identify the effects of design modifications was demonstrated both in terms of pressure distributions and shock drag characteristics.
The new performance calculation method of fouled axial flow compressor.
Yang, Huadong; Xu, Hong
2014-01-01
Fouling is the most important performance degradation factor, so it is necessary to accurately predict the effect of fouling on engine performance. In the previous research, it is very difficult to accurately model the fouled axial flow compressor. This paper develops a new performance calculation method of fouled multistage axial flow compressor based on experiment result and operating data. For multistage compressor, the whole compressor is decomposed into two sections. The first section includes the first 50% stages which reflect the fouling level, and the second section includes the last 50% stages which are viewed as the clean stage because of less deposits. In this model, the performance of the first section is obtained by combining scaling law method and linear progression model with traditional stage stacking method; simultaneously ambient conditions and engine configurations are considered. On the other hand, the performance of the second section is calculated by averaged infinitesimal stage method which is based on Reynolds' law of similarity. Finally, the model is successfully applied to predict the 8-stage axial flow compressor and 16-stage LM2500-30 compressor. The change of thermodynamic parameters such as pressure ratio, efficiency with the operating time, and stage number is analyzed in detail. PMID:25197717
State-of-the-art methods for multiphase flow pipelines
Crowley, C.J.; Barry, J.J.; Rothe, P.H.
1989-08-01
This report is the culmination of work on Design Methods for Multiphase Flow in Gas Pipelines'' sponsored by the Pipeline Research Committee of the American Gas Association on projects PR 172--609 and PR 172--904. Results from a series of projects to obtain pipeline data in the field, collect operating pipeline data, perform key laboratory experiments at prototypical conditions (large pipe size and high gas density), and to develop and recommend design methods over the past several years have been synthesized to create this report. Technical supervision of these projects has been provided by the Two-Phase Flow Supervisory Committee. This report concisely documents the state of the art in two-phase flow methods, in a manner suitable for use by analysts who want to develop computerized methods to perform the multiphase calculations. This document updates a previous report prepared approximately four years ago (Crowley and Rothe, 1986). Detailed background discussion of the development and selection of the multiphase models is presented in Volume 3 of that reference.
The New Performance Calculation Method of Fouled Axial Flow Compressor
Xu, Hong
2014-01-01
Fouling is the most important performance degradation factor, so it is necessary to accurately predict the effect of fouling on engine performance. In the previous research, it is very difficult to accurately model the fouled axial flow compressor. This paper develops a new performance calculation method of fouled multistage axial flow compressor based on experiment result and operating data. For multistage compressor, the whole compressor is decomposed into two sections. The first section includes the first 50% stages which reflect the fouling level, and the second section includes the last 50% stages which are viewed as the clean stage because of less deposits. In this model, the performance of the first section is obtained by combining scaling law method and linear progression model with traditional stage stacking method; simultaneously ambient conditions and engine configurations are considered. On the other hand, the performance of the second section is calculated by averaged infinitesimal stage method which is based on Reynolds' law of similarity. Finally, the model is successfully applied to predict the 8-stage axial flow compressor and 16-stage LM2500-30 compressor. The change of thermodynamic parameters such as pressure ratio, efficiency with the operating time, and stage number is analyzed in detail. PMID:25197717
A level-set method for interfacial flows with surfactant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Jian-Jun; Li, Zhilin; Lowengrub, John; Zhao, Hongkai
2006-03-01
A level-set method for the simulation of fluid interfaces with insoluble surfactant is presented in two-dimensions. The method can be straightforwardly extended to three-dimensions and to soluble surfactants. The method couples a semi-implicit discretization for solving the surfactant transport equation recently developed by Xu and Zhao [J. Xu, H. Zhao. An Eulerian formulation for solving partial differential equations along a moving interface, J. Sci. Comput. 19 (2003) 573-594] with the immersed interface method originally developed by LeVeque and Li and [R. LeVeque, Z. Li. The immersed interface method for elliptic equations with discontinuous coefficients and singular sources, SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 31 (1994) 1019-1044] for solving the fluid flow equations and the Laplace-Young boundary conditions across the interfaces. Novel techniques are developed to accurately conserve component mass and surfactant mass during the evolution. Convergence of the method is demonstrated numerically. The method is applied to study the effects of surfactant on single drops, drop-drop interactions and interactions among multiple drops in Stokes flow under a steady applied shear. Due to Marangoni forces and to non-uniform Capillary forces, the presence of surfactant results in larger drop deformations and more complex drop-drop interactions compared to the analogous cases for clean drops. The effects of surfactant are found to be most significant in flows with multiple drops. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the level-set method has been used to simulate fluid interfaces with surfactant.
Unstructured Mesh Methods for the Simulation of Hypersonic Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peraire, Jaime; Bibb, K. L. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
This report describes the research work undertaken at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The aim of this research is to identify effective algorithms and methodologies for the efficient and routine solution of hypersonic viscous flows about re-entry vehicles. For over ten years we have received support from NASA to develop unstructured mesh methods for Computational Fluid Dynamics. As a result of this effort a methodology based on the use, of unstructured adapted meshes of tetrahedra and finite volume flow solvers has been developed. A number of gridding algorithms flow solvers, and adaptive strategies have been proposed. The most successful algorithms developed from the basis of the unstructured mesh system FELISA. The FELISA system has been extensively for the analysis of transonic and hypersonic flows about complete vehicle configurations. The system is highly automatic and allows for the routine aerodynamic analysis of complex configurations starting from CAD data. The code has been parallelized and utilizes efficient solution algorithms. For hypersonic flows, a version of the, code which incorporates real gas effects, has been produced. One of the latest developments before the start of this grant was to extend the system to include viscous effects. This required the development of viscous generators, capable of generating the anisotropic grids required to represent boundary layers, and viscous flow solvers. In figures I and 2, we show some sample hypersonic viscous computations using the developed viscous generators and solvers. Although these initial results were encouraging, it became apparent that in order to develop a fully functional capability for viscous flows, several advances in gridding, solution accuracy, robustness and efficiency were required. As part of this research we have developed: 1) automatic meshing techniques and the corresponding computer codes have been delivered to NASA and implemented into the GridEx system, 2) a finite
Axial flow heat exchanger devices and methods for heat transfer using axial flow devices
Koplow, Jeffrey P.
2016-02-16
Systems and methods described herein are directed to rotary heat exchangers configured to transfer heat to a heat transfer medium flowing in substantially axial direction within the heat exchangers. Exemplary heat exchangers include a heat conducting structure which is configured to be in thermal contact with a thermal load or a thermal sink, and a heat transfer structure rotatably coupled to the heat conducting structure to form a gap region between the heat conducting structure and the heat transfer structure, the heat transfer structure being configured to rotate during operation of the device. In example devices heat may be transferred across the gap region from a heated axial flow of the heat transfer medium to a cool stationary heat conducting structure, or from a heated stationary conducting structure to a cool axial flow of the heat transfer medium.
Flow structures of Jupiter's Great Red Spot extracted by using optical flow method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Tianshu; Wang, Bo; Choi, David S.
2012-09-01
The flow structures of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) are studied based on a high-resolution velocity field extracted from the Galileo 1996 cloud images of the GRS by using the physics-based optical flow method. The mean transverse velocity profile across the anti-cyclonic near-elliptical collar of the GRS is obtained. The flow structures in the relatively quiescent inner region enclosed by the high-speed collar are revealed at a coarse-grained level. The cyclonic source node in the inner region is identified that is directly associated with the observed cyclonic rotation near the center of the GRS, and its significance in the maintenance of the GRS is explored by using a topological constraint.
Computational flow development for unsteady viscous flows: Foundation of the numerical method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bratanow, T.; Spehert, T.
1978-01-01
A procedure is presented for effective consideration of viscous effects in computational development of high Reynolds number flows. The procedure is based on the interpretation of the Navier-Stokes equations as vorticity transport equations. The physics of the flow was represented in a form suitable for numerical analysis. Lighthill's concept for flow development for computational purposes was adapted. The vorticity transport equations were cast in a form convenient for computation. A statement for these equations was written using the method of weighted residuals and applying the Galerkin criterion. An integral representation of the induced velocity was applied on the basis of the Biot-Savart law. Distribution of new vorticity, produced at wing surfaces over small computational time intervals, was assumed to be confined to a thin region around the wing surfaces.
Multiple light scattering methods for multiphase flow diagnostics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Estevadeordal, Jordi
2015-11-01
Multiphase flows of gases and liquids containing droplets, bubbles, or particulates present light scattering imaging challenges due to the interference from each phase, such as secondary reflections, extinctions, absorptions, and refractions. These factors often prevent the unambiguous detection of each phase and also produce undesired beam steering. The effects can be especially complex in presence of dense phases, multispecies flows, and high pressure environments. This investigation reports new methods for overcoming these effects for quantitative measurements of velocity, density, and temperature fields. The methods are based on light scattering techniques combining Mie and filtered Rayleigh scattering and light extinction analyses and measurements. The optical layout is designed to perform multiple property measurements with improved signal from each phase via laser spectral and polarization characterization, etalon decontamination, and use of multiple wavelengths and imaging detectors.
Embedded function methods for compressible high speed turbulent flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walker, J. D. A.
1994-01-01
This is the final report on the work performed on the grant 'Embedded Function Methods for Compressible High Speed Turbulent Flow' carried out at Lehigh University during the contract period from September, 1987, to October of 1991. Work has continued at Lehigh on this project on an unfunded basis to the present. The original proposed work had two separate thrusts which were associated with developing embedded function methods in order to obviate the need to expend computational resources on turbulent wall layers in Navier Stokes and boundary-layer calculations. Previous work on the incompressible problem had indicated that this could be done successfully for two-dimensional and three-dimensional incompressible flows. The central objective here was to extend the basic approach to the high speed compressible problem.
Silver and gold enhancement methods for lateral flow immunoassays.
Rodríguez, Myriam Oliveira; Covián, Lucía Blanco; García, Agustín Costa; Blanco-López, Maria Carmen
2016-02-01
Sensitivity is the main concern at the development of rapid test by lateral flow immunoassays. On the other hand, low limits of detection are often required at medical diagnostics and other field of analysis. To overcome this drawback, several enhancement protocols have been described. In this paper, we have selected different silver enhancement methods and one dual gold conjugation, and we critically compared the amplification produced when applied to a gold-nanoparticle based lateral flow immunoassay for the detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA). The highest amplification was obtained by using an immersion method based on a solution of silver nitrate and hydroquinone/citrate buffer in proportion 1:1. Under these conditions, the system is capable of detecting PSA within 20 min at levels as low as 0.1 ng/mL, with a 3-fold sensitivity improvement. PMID:26653449
Research on stochastic power-flow study methods. Final report
Heydt, G. T.
1981-01-01
A general algorithm to determine the effects of uncertainty in bus load and generation on the output of conventional power flow analysis is presented. The use of statistical moments is presented and developed as a means for representing the stochastic process. Statistical moments are used to describe the uncertainties, and facilitate the calculations of single and multivarlate probability density functions of input and output variables. The transformation of the uncertainty through the power flow equations is made by the expansion of the node equations in a multivariate Taylor series about an expected operating point. The series is truncated after the second order terms. Since the power flow equations are nonlinear, the expected values of output quantities is in general not the solution to the conventional load flow problem using expected values of input quantities. The second order transformation offers a correction vector and allows the consideration of larger uncertainties which have caused significant error in the current linear transformation algorithms. Voltage controlled busses are included with consideration of upper and lower limits. The finite reactive power available at generation sites, and fixed ranges of transformer tap movement may have a significant effect on voltage and line power flow statistics. A method is given which considers limitation constraints in the evaluation of all output quantities. The bus voltages, line power flows, transformer taps, and generator reactive power requirements are described by their statistical moments. Their values are expressed in terms of the probability that they are above or below specified limits, and their expected values given that they do fall outside the limits. Thus the algorithm supplies information about severity of overload as well as probability of occurrence. An example is given for an eleven bus system, evaluating each quantity separately. The results are compared with Monte Carlo simulation.
Singularity computations. [finite element methods for elastoplastic flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Swedlow, J. L.
1978-01-01
Direct descriptions of the structure of a singularity would describe the radial and angular distributions of the field quantities as explicitly as practicable along with some measure of the intensity of the singularity. This paper discusses such an approach based on recent development of numerical methods for elastoplastic flow. Attention is restricted to problems where one variable or set of variables is finite at the origin of the singularity but a second set is not.
Mathematical aspects of finite element methods for incompressible viscous flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gunzburger, M. D.
1986-01-01
Mathematical aspects of finite element methods are surveyed for incompressible viscous flows, concentrating on the steady primitive variable formulation. The discretization of a weak formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations are addressed, then the stability condition is considered, the satisfaction of which insures the stability of the approximation. Specific choices of finite element spaces for the velocity and pressure are then discussed. Finally, the connection between different weak formulations and a variety of boundary conditions is explored.
Method and apparatus for continuous flow injection extraction analysis
Hartenstein, Steven D.; Siemer, Darryl D.
1992-01-01
A method and apparatus for a continuous flow injection batch extraction aysis system is disclosed employing extraction of a component of a first liquid into a second liquid which is a solvent for a component of the first liquid, and is immiscible with the first liquid, and for separating the first liquid from the second liquid subsequent to extraction of the component of the first liquid.
Global convergence of inexact Newton methods for transonic flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Young, David P.; Melvin, Robin G.; Bieterman, Michael B.; Johnson, Forrester T.; Samant, Satish S.
1990-01-01
In computational fluid dynamics, nonlinear differential equations are essential to represent important effects such as shock waves in transonic flow. Discretized versions of these nonlinear equations are solved using iterative methods. In this paper an inexact Newton method using the GMRES algorithm of Saad and Schultz is examined in the context of the full potential equation of aerodynamics. In this setting, reliable and efficient convergence of Newton methods is difficult to achieve. A poor initial solution guess often leads to divergence or very slow convergence. This paper examines several possible solutions to these problems, including a standard local damping strategy for Newton's method and two continuation methods, one of which utilizes interpolation from a coarse grid solution to obtain the initial guess on a finer grid. It is shown that the continuation methods can be used to augment the local damping strategy to achieve convergence for difficult transonic flow problems. These include simple wings with shock waves as well as problems involving engine power effects. These latter cases are modeled using the assumption that each exhaust plume is isentropic but has a different total pressure and/or temperature than the freestream.
Newton like: Minimal residual methods applied to transonic flow calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wong, Y. S.
1984-01-01
A computational technique for the solution of the full potential equation is presented. The method consists of outer and inner iterations. The outer iterate is based on a Newton like algorithm, and a preconditioned Minimal Residual method is used to seek an approximate solution of the system of linear equations arising at each inner iterate. The present iterative scheme is formulated so that the uncertainties and difficulties associated with many iterative techniques, namely the requirements of acceleration parameters and the treatment of additional boundary conditions for the intermediate variables, are eliminated. Numerical experiments based on the new method for transonic potential flows around the NACA 0012 airfoil at different Mach numbers and different angles of attack are presented, and these results are compared with those obtained by the Approximate Factorization technique. Extention to three dimensional flow calculations and application in finite element methods for fluid dynamics problems by the present method are also discussed. The Inexact Newton like method produces a smoother reduction in the residual norm, and the number of supersonic points and circulations are rapidly established as the number of iterations is increased.
The Boundary Integral Equation Method for Porous Media Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, Mary P.
Just as groundwater hydrologists are breathing sighs of relief after the exertions of learning the finite element method, a new technique has reared its nodes—the boundary integral equation method (BIEM) or the boundary equation method (BEM), as it is sometimes called. As Liggett and Liu put it in the preface to The Boundary Integral Equation Method for Porous Media Flow, “Lately, the Boundary Integral Equation Method (BIEM) has emerged as a contender in the computation Derby.” In fact, in July 1984, the 6th International Conference on Boundary Element Methods in Engineering will be held aboard the Queen Elizabeth II, en route from Southampton to New York. These conferences are sponsored by the Department of Civil Engineering at Southampton College (UK), whose members are proponents of BIEM. The conferences have featured papers on applications of BIEM to all aspects of engineering, including flow through porous media. Published proceedings are available, as are textbooks on application of BIEM to engineering problems. There is even a 10-minute film on the subject.
Immersed boundary method for the MHD flows of liquid metals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grigoriadis, D. G. E.; Kassinos, S. C.; Votyakov, E. V.
2009-02-01
Wall-bounded magnetohydrodynamic (MHD hereafter) flows are of great theoretical and practical interest. Even for laminar cases, MHD simulations are associated with very high computational cost due to the resolution requirements for the Hartmann and side layers developing in the presence of solid obstacles. In the presence of turbulence, these difficulties are further compounded. Thus, MHD simulations in complex geometries are currently a challenge. The immersed boundary (IB hereafter) method is a reliable numerical tool for efficient hydrodynamic field simulations in arbitrarily geometries, but it has not yet been extended for MHD simulations. The present study forms the first attempt to apply the IB methodology for the computation of both the hydrodynamic and MHD fields. A consistent numerical methodology is presented that is appropriate for efficient 3D MHD simulations in geometrically complicated domains using cartesian flow solvers. For that purpose, a projection scheme for the electric current density is presented, based on an electric potential correction algorithm. A suitable forcing scheme for electric density currents in the vicinity of non-conducting immersed surfaces is also proposed. The proposed methodology has been first extensively tested for Hartmann layers in fully-developed and developing channel and duct flows at Hartmann numbers Ha=500-2000. In order to demonstrate the potential of the method, the three-dimensional MHD flow around a circular cylinder at Reynolds number Re=200 is also presented. The effects of grid resolution and variable arrangement on the simulation accuracy and consistency were examined. When compared with existing numerical or analytic solutions, excellent agreement was found for all the cases considered. The proposed projection and forcing schemes for current densities were found capable of satisfying the charge conservation law in the presence of immersed non-conducting boundaries. Finally, we show how the proposed
A multigrid nonoscillatory method for computing high speed flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, C. P.; Shieh, T. H.
1993-01-01
A multigrid method using different smoothers has been developed to solve the Euler equations discretized by a nonoscillatory scheme up to fourth order accuracy. The best smoothing property is provided by a five-stage Runge-Kutta technique with optimized coefficients, yet the most efficient smoother is a backward Euler technique in factored and diagonalized form. The singlegrid solution for a hypersonic, viscous conic flow is in excellent agreement with the solution obtained by the third order MUSCL and Roe's method. Mach 8 inviscid flow computations for a complete entry probe have shown that the accuracy is at least as good as the symmetric TVD scheme of Yee and Harten. The implicit multigrid method is four times more efficient than the explicit multigrid technique and 3.5 times faster than the single-grid implicit technique. For a Mach 8.7 inviscid flow over a blunt delta wing at 30 deg incidence, the CPU reduction factor from the three-level multigrid computation is 2.2 on a grid of 37 x 41 x 73 nodes.
Adaptive Discrete Equation Method for injection of stochastic cavitating flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geraci, Gianluca; Rodio, Maria Giovanna; Iaccarino, Gianluca; Abgrall, Remi; Congedo, Pietro
2014-11-01
This work aims at the improvement of the prediction and of the control of biofuel injection for combustion. In fact, common injector should be optimized according to the specific physical/chemical properties of biofuels. In order to attain this scope, an optimized model for reproducing the injection for several biofuel blends will be considered. The originality of this approach is twofold, i) the use of cavitating two-phase compressible models, known as Baer & Nunziato, in order to reproduce the injection, and ii) the design of a global scheme for directly taking into account experimental measurements uncertainties in the simulation. In particular, stochastic intrusive methods display a high efficiency when dealing with discontinuities in unsteady compressible flows. We have recently formulated a new scheme for simulating stochastic multiphase flows relying on the Discrete Equation Method (DEM) for describing multiphase effects. The set-up of the intrusive stochastic method for multiphase unsteady compressible flows in quasi 1D configuration will be presented. The target test-case is a multiphase unsteady nozzle for injection of biofuels, described by complex thermodynamics models, for which experimental data and associated uncertainties are available.
Selective flow path alpha particle detector and method of use
Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore
2002-01-01
A method and apparatus for monitoring alpha contamination are provided in which ions generated in the air surrounding the item, by the passage of alpha particles, are moved to a distant detector location. The parts of the item from which ions are withdrawn can be controlled by restricting the air flow over different portions of the apparatus. In this way, detection of internal and external surfaces separately, for instance, can be provided. The apparatus and method are particularly suited for use in undertaking alpha contamination measurements during the commissioning operations.
Per-channel basis normalization methods for flow cytometry data
Hahne, Florian; Khodabakhshi, Alireza Hadj; Bashashati, Ali; Wong, Chao-Jen; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Weng, Andrew P.; Seifert-Margolis, Vicky; Bourcier, Katarzyna; Asare, Adam; Lumley, Thomas; Gentleman, Robert; Brinkman, Ryan R.
2013-01-01
Between-sample variation in high throughput flow cytometry data poses a significant challenge for analysis of large scale data sets, such as those derived from multi-center clinical trials. It is often hard to match biologically relevant cell populations across samples due to technical variation in sample acquisition and instrumentation differences. Thus normalization of data is a critical step prior to analysis, particularly in large-scale data sets from clinical trials, where group specific differences may be subtle and patient-to-patient variation common. We have developed two normalization methods that remove technical between-sample variation by aligning prominent features (landmarks) in the raw data on a per-channel basis. These algorithms were tested on two independent flow cytometry data sets by comparing manually gated data, either individually for each sample or using static gating templates, before and after normalization. Our results show a marked improvement in the overlap between manual and static gating when the data are normalized, thereby facilitating the use of automated analyses on large flow cytometry data sets. Such automated analyses are essential for high throughput flow cytometry. PMID:19899135
A multilayer method of fundamental solutions for Stokes flow problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boselli, F.; Obrist, D.; Kleiser, L.
2012-07-01
The method of fundamental solutions (MFS) is a meshless method for the solution of boundary value problems and has recently been proposed as a simple and efficient method for the solution of Stokes flow problems. The MFS approximates the solution by an expansion of fundamental solutions whose singularities are located outside the flow domain. Typically, the source points (i.e. the singularities of the fundamental solutions) are confined to a smooth source layer embracing the flow domain. This monolayer implementation of the MFS (monolayer MFS) depends strongly on the location of the user-defined source points: On the one hand, increasing the distance of the source points from the boundary tends to increase the convergence rate. On the other hand, this may limit the achievable accuracy. This often results in an unfavorable compromise between the convergence rate and the achievable accuracy of the MFS. The idea behind the present work is that a multilayer implementation of the MFS (multilayer MFS) can improve the robustness of the MFS by efficiently resolving different scales of the solution by source layers at different distances from the boundary. We propose a block greedy-QR algorithm (BGQRa) which exploits this property in a multilevel fashion. The proposed multilayer MFS is much more robust than the monolayer MFS and can compute Stokes flows on general two- and three-dimensional domains. It converges rapidly and yields high levels of accuracy by combining the properties of distant and close source points. The block algorithm alleviates the overhead of multiple source layers and allows the multilayer MFS to outperform the monolayer MFS.
Numerical Method for Darcy Flow Derived Using Discrete Exterior Calculus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirani, A. N.; Nakshatrala, K. B.; Chaudhry, J. H.
2015-05-01
We derive a numerical method for Darcy flow, and also for Poisson's equation in mixed (first order) form, based on discrete exterior calculus (DEC). Exterior calculus is a generalization of vector calculus to smooth manifolds and DEC is one of its discretizations on simplicial complexes such as triangle and tetrahedral meshes. DEC is a coordinate invariant discretization, in that it does not depend on the embedding of the simplices or the whole mesh. We start by rewriting the governing equations of Darcy flow using the language of exterior calculus. This yields a formulation in terms of flux differential form and pressure. The numerical method is then derived by using the framework provided by DEC for discretizing differential forms and operators that act on forms. We also develop a discretization for a spatially dependent Hodge star that varies with the permeability of the medium. This also allows us to address discontinuous permeability. The matrix representation for our discrete non-homogeneous Hodge star is diagonal, with positive diagonal entries. The resulting linear system of equations for flux and pressure are saddle type, with a diagonal matrix as the top left block. The performance of the proposed numerical method is illustrated on many standard test problems. These include patch tests in two and three dimensions, comparison with analytically known solutions in two dimensions, layered medium with alternating permeability values, and a test with a change in permeability along the flow direction. We also show numerical evidence of convergence of the flux and the pressure. A convergence experiment is included for Darcy flow on a surface. A short introduction to the relevant parts of smooth and discrete exterior calculus is included in this article. We also include a discussion of the boundary condition in terms of exterior calculus.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcfarland, E. R.
1981-01-01
A solution method was developed for calculating compressible inviscid flow through a linear cascade of arbitrary blade shapes. The method uses advanced surface singularity formulations which were adapted from those in current external flow analyses. The resulting solution technique provides a fast flexible calculation for flows through turbomachinery blade rows. The solution method and some examples of the method's capabilities are presented.
Multi-rate flowing Wellbore electric conductivity logging method
Tsang, Chin-Fu; Doughty, Christine
2003-04-22
The flowing wellbore electric conductivity logging method involves the replacement of wellbore water by de-ionized or constant-salinity water, followed by constant pumping with rate Q, during which a series of fluid electric conductivity logs are taken. The logs can be analyzed to identify depth locations of inflow, and evaluate the transmissivity and electric conductivity (salinity) of the fluid at each inflow point. The present paper proposes the use of the method with two or more pumping rates. In particular it is recommended that the method be applied three times with pumping rates Q, Q /2, and 2Q. Then a combined analysis of the multi-rate data allows an efficient means of determining transmissivity and salinity values of all inflow points along a well with a confidence measure, as well as their inherent or far-field pressure heads. The method is illustrated by a practical example.
General flow field analysis methods for helicopter rotor aeroacoustics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Quackenbush, Todd R.; Lam, C. Gordon; Bliss, Donald B.
1991-01-01
Previous work in the analysis of rotor flow fields for aeroacoustic applications involved the preliminary development of an efficient and accurate Lagrangian simulation of the unsteady vorticity field in the vicinity of helicopter main rotor that could analyze a limited class of rotor/wake interactions. The capabilities of this analysis have subsequently been considerably enhanced to allow it to serve as the foundation for a general analysis of the rotor/wake interaction noise. This paper presents the details of these enhancements, which focus on the expansion of the reconstruction approach developed previously to handle arbitrary vortex wake interactions within three-dimensional regions located near or within the rotor disk. Also, the development of nearfield velocity corrections appropriate for the analysis of such interactions is described, as is a preliminary study of methods for using the new high-resolution flow field analysis for noise predictions. The results show that by employing this novel flow field reconstruction technique it is possible to employ full-span free wake analyses with temporal and spatial resolution suitable for acoustic applications while reducing the computation time required by one to two orders of magnitude relative to traditional methods.
Validation of a numerical method for unsteady flow calculations
Giles, M.; Haimes, R. . Dept. of Aeronautics and Astronautics)
1993-01-01
This paper describes and validates a numerical method for the calculation of unsteady inviscid and viscous flows. A companion paper compares experimental measurements of unsteady heat transfer on a transonic rotor with the corresponding computational results. The mathematical model is the Reynolds-averaged unsteady Navier-Stokes equations for a compressible ideal gas. Quasi-three-dimensionality is included through the use of a variable streamtube thickness. The numerical algorithm is unusual in two respects: (a) For reasons of efficiency and flexibility, it uses a hybrid Navier-Stokes/Euler method, and (b) to allow for the computation of stator/rotor combinations with arbitrary pitch ratio, a novel space-time coordinate transformation is used. Several test cases are presented to validate the performance of the computer program, UNSFLO. These include: (a) unsteady, inviscid flat plate cascade flows (b) steady and unsteady, viscous flat plate cascade flows, (c) steady turbine heat transfer and loss prediction. In the first two sets of cases comparisons are made with theory, and in the third the comparison is with experimental data.
A power flow method for evaluating vibration from underground railways
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hussein, M. F. M.; Hunt, H. E. M.
2006-06-01
One of the major sources of ground-borne vibration is the running of trains in underground railway tunnels. Vibration is generated at the wheel-rail interface, from where it propagates through the tunnel and surrounding soil into nearby buildings. An understanding of the dynamic interfaces between track, tunnel and soil is essential before engineering solutions to the vibration problem can be found. A new method has been developed to evaluate the effectiveness of vibration countermeasures. The method is based on calculating the mean power flow from the tunnel, paying attention to that part of the power which radiates upwards to places where buildings' foundations are expected to be found. The mean power is calculated for an infinite train moving through the tunnel with a constant velocity. An elegant mathematical expression for the mean power flow is derived, which can be used with any underground-tunnel model. To evaluate the effect of vibration countermeasures and track properties on power flow, a comprehensive three-dimensional analytical model is used. It consists of Euler-Bernoulli beams to account for the rails and the track slab. These are coupled in the wavenumber-frequency domain to a thin shell representing the tunnel embedded within an infinite continuum, with a cylindrical cavity representing the surrounding soil.
Improved vortex methods for three-dimensional flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Winckelmans, G.; Leonard, A.
1989-01-01
Robust numerical methods are developed for three-dimensional incompressible vortical flows, using Lagrangian vortex elements. A successful scheme must be able to handle regions of intense vortex stretching and vortex reconnection with reasonable accuracy (without diverging). Here, consideration is given to vortex particles, also commonly called vortons or vortex sticks. The following issues are discussed: (1) use of delta-function elements and weak solutions of the vorticity equation; (2) use of smoothed elements and the choice of the smoothing function; (3) representation of viscous effects and the redistribution of element strength; and (4) conservation laws (are they satisfied?). The various proposed schemes have been tested on flows involving a strong interaction between two vortex rings.
Deformation-phase measurement by optical flow method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Ran; Sun, Ping
2016-07-01
A novel algorithm which extract the out-of-plane component of deformation-phase from two continuous fringe patterns is proposed. The whole-field out-of-plane component of deformation-phase map is obtained by the estimations of the optical flow velocity field between two images and the local frequency of the original image. In this paper, the proposed algorithm is introduced and applied to simulated and experimental interferograms. Simulation and experimental results show that the new method can demodulate the out-of-plane component of deformation-phase from the visible optical flow velocity field without the operation of phase unwrapping. Further, the proposed algorithm provides a new approach for whole-field deformation-phase measurement and dynamic deformation measurement.
Method and apparatus for detecting laminar flow separation and reattachment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stack, John P. (Inventor); Mangalam, Sivaramakrishnan M. (Inventor)
1989-01-01
The invention is a method and apparatus for detecting laminar flow separation and flow reattachment of a fluid stream by simultaneously sensing and comparing a plurality of output signals, each representing the dynamic shear stress at one of an equal number of sensors spaced along a straight line on the surface of an airfoil or the like that extends parallel to the fluid stream. The output signals are concurrently compared to detect the sensors across which a reversal in phase of said output signal occurs, said detected sensors being in the region of laminar separation or reattachment. The novelty in this invention is the discovery and use of the phase reversal phenomena to detect laminar separation and attachment of a fluid stream from any surface such as an airfoil supported therein.
A nearly real-time UAV video flow mosaic method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, H.; Jiang, C.; Sun, M.; Li, X. D.; Xiang, R.; Liu, Lei
2014-12-01
In order to solve the problem of low accuracy and high computation cost of current video mosaic methods, and also to acquire large field of view images by the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), which have high accuracy and high resolution, this paper propose a method for near real-time mosaic of video flow, so that we can provide essential reference data for the earthquake relief, as well as post-disaster reconstruction and recovery, in time. In this method, we obtain the flight area scope in the route planning process, and calculate the sizes of each frame with sensor sizes and altitudes. Given an overlap degree, time intervals are calculated, and key frames are extracted. After that, feature points are detected in each frame, and they are matched using Hamming distance. The RANSAC algorithm is then applied to remove error matching and calculate parameters of the transformation model. In one-strip case, the newly extracted frame is taken as the reference image in the first half, while after the middle frame is extracted, it is the reference one until the end. Experimental results show that our method can reduce the cascading error, and improve the accuracy and quality of the mosaic images, near real-time mosaic of aerial video flow is feasible.
A diffusive information preservation method for small Knudsen number flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fei, Fei; Fan, Jing
2013-06-01
The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is a powerful particle-based method for modeling gas flows. It works well for relatively large Knudsen (Kn) numbers, typically larger than 0.01, but quickly becomes computationally intensive as Kn decreases due to its time step and cell size limitations. An alternative approach was proposed to relax or remove these limitations, based on replacing pairwise collisions with a stochastic model corresponding to the Fokker-Planck equation [J. Comput. Phys., 229, 1077 (2010); J. Fluid Mech., 680, 574 (2011)]. Similar to the DSMC method, the downside of that approach suffers from computationally statistical noise. To solve the problem, a diffusion-based information preservation (D-IP) method has been developed. The main idea is to track the motion of a simulated molecule from the diffusive standpoint, and obtain the flow velocity and temperature through sampling and averaging the IP quantities. To validate the idea and the corresponding model, several benchmark problems with Kn ˜ 10-3-10-4 have been investigated. It is shown that the IP calculations are not only accurate, but also efficient because they make possible using a time step and cell size over an order of magnitude larger than the mean collision time and mean free path, respectively.
Logically rectangular mixed methods for Darcy flow on general geometry
Arbogast, T.; Keenan, P.T.; Wheeler, M.F.; Yotov, I.
1995-12-31
The authors consider an expanded mixed finite element formulation (cell centered finite difference) for Darcy flow with a tensor absolute permeability. The reservoir can be geometrically general with internal features, but the computational domain is rectangular. The method is defined on a curvilinear grid that need not be orthogonal, obtained by mapping the rectangular, computational grid. The original flow problem becomes a similar problem with a modified permeability on the computational grid. Quadrature rules turn the mixed method into a cell-centered finite difference method with a 9 point stencil in 2-D and 19 in 3-D. As shown by theory and experiment, if the modified permeability on the computational domain is smooth, then the convergence rate is optimal and both pressure and velocity are superconvergent at certain points. If not, Lagrange multiplier pressures can be introduced on boundaries of elements so that optimal convergence is retained. This modification presents only small changes in the solution process; in fact, the same parallel domain decomposition algorithms can be applied with little or no change to the code if the modified permeability is smooth over the subdomains. This Lagrange multiplier procedure can be used to extend the difference scheme to multi-block domains, and to give a coupling with unstructured grids. In all cases, the mixed formulation is locally conservative. Computational results illustrate the advantage and convergence of this method.
A diffusive information preservation method for small Knudsen number flows
Fei, Fei; Fan, Jing
2013-06-15
The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is a powerful particle-based method for modeling gas flows. It works well for relatively large Knudsen (Kn) numbers, typically larger than 0.01, but quickly becomes computationally intensive as Kn decreases due to its time step and cell size limitations. An alternative approach was proposed to relax or remove these limitations, based on replacing pairwise collisions with a stochastic model corresponding to the Fokker–Planck equation [J. Comput. Phys., 229, 1077 (2010); J. Fluid Mech., 680, 574 (2011)]. Similar to the DSMC method, the downside of that approach suffers from computationally statistical noise. To solve the problem, a diffusion-based information preservation (D-IP) method has been developed. The main idea is to track the motion of a simulated molecule from the diffusive standpoint, and obtain the flow velocity and temperature through sampling and averaging the IP quantities. To validate the idea and the corresponding model, several benchmark problems with Kn ∼ 10{sup −3}–10{sup −4} have been investigated. It is shown that the IP calculations are not only accurate, but also efficient because they make possible using a time step and cell size over an order of magnitude larger than the mean collision time and mean free path, respectively.
Domain decomposition methods for the parallel computation of reacting flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keyes, David E.
1989-05-01
Domain decomposition is a natural route to parallel computing for partial differential equation solvers. In this procedure, subdomains of which the original domain of definition is comprised are assigned to independent processors at the price of periodic coordination between processors to compute global parameters and maintain the requisite degree of continuity of the solution at the subdomain interfaces. In the domain-decomposed solution of steady multidimensional systems of PDEs by finite difference methods using a pseudo-transient version of Newton iteration, the only portion of the computation which generally stands in the way of efficient parallelization is the solution of the large, sparse linear systems arising at each Newton step. For some Jacobian matrices drawn from an actual two-dimensional reacting flow problem, we make comparisons between relaxation-based linear solvers and also preconditioned iterative methods of Conjugate Gradient and Chebyshev type, focusing attention on both iteration count and global inner product count. The generalized minimum residual method with block-ILU preconditioning is judged the best serial method among those considered, and parallel numerical experiments on the Encore Multimax demostrate for it approximately 10-fold speedup on 16 processsors. The three special features of reacting flow models in relation to these linear systems are: the possibly large number of degrees of freedom per gridpoint, the dominance of dense intra-point source-term coupling over inter-point convective-diffusive coupling throughout significant portions of the flow-field and strong nonlinearities which restrict the time step to small values (independent of linear algebraic considerations) throughout significant portions of the iteration history. Though these features are exploited to advantage herein, many aspects of the paper are applicable to the modeling of general convective-diffusive systems.
An Engineering Aerodynamic Heating Method for Hypersonic Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Riley, Christopher J.; DeJarnette, Fred R.
1992-01-01
A capability to calculate surface heating rates has been incorporated in an approximate three-dimensional inviscid technique. Surface streamlines are calculated from the inviscid solution, and the axisymmetric analog is then used along with a set of approximate convective-heating equations to compute the surface heat transfer. The method is applied to blunted axisymmetric and three-dimensional ellipsoidal cones at angle of attack for the laminar flow of a perfect gas. The method is also applicable to turbulent and equilibrium-air conditions. The present technique predicts surface heating rates that compare favorably with experimental (ground-test and flight) data and numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes (NS) and viscous shock-layer (VSL) equations. The new technique represents a significant improvement over current engineering aerothermal methods with only a modest increase in computational effort.
Massively parallel simulations of multiphase flows using Lattice Boltzmann methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahrenholz, Benjamin
2010-03-01
In the last two decades the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) has matured as an alternative and efficient numerical scheme for the simulation of fluid flows and transport problems. Unlike conventional numerical schemes based on discretizations of macroscopic continuum equations, the LBM is based on microscopic models and mesoscopic kinetic equations. The fundamental idea of the LBM is to construct simplified kinetic models that incorporate the essential physics of microscopic or mesoscopic processes so that the macroscopic averaged properties obey the desired macroscopic equations. Especially applications involving interfacial dynamics, complex and/or changing boundaries and complicated constitutive relationships which can be derived from a microscopic picture are suitable for the LBM. In this talk a modified and optimized version of a Gunstensen color model is presented to describe the dynamics of the fluid/fluid interface where the flow field is based on a multi-relaxation-time model. Based on that modeling approach validation studies of contact line motion are shown. Due to the fact that the LB method generally needs only nearest neighbor information, the algorithm is an ideal candidate for parallelization. Hence, it is possible to perform efficient simulations in complex geometries at a large scale by massively parallel computations. Here, the results of drainage and imbibition (Degree of Freedom > 2E11) in natural porous media gained from microtomography methods are presented. Those fully resolved pore scale simulations are essential for a better understanding of the physical processes in porous media and therefore important for the determination of constitutive relationships.
Biochemical oxygen demand measurement by mediator method in flow system.
Liu, Ling; Bai, Lu; Yu, Dengbin; Zhai, Junfeng; Dong, Shaojun
2015-06-01
Using mediator as electron acceptor for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) measurement was developed in the last decade (BODMed). However, until now, no BOD(Med) in a flow system has been reported. This work for the first time describes a flow system of BOD(Med) method (BOD(Med)-FS) by using potassium ferricyanide as mediator and carbon fiber felt as substrate material for microbial immobilization. The system can determine the BOD value within 30 min and possesses a wider analytical linear range for measuring glucose-glutamic acid (GGA) standard solution from 2 up to 200 mg L(-1) without the need of dilution. The analytical performance of the BOD(Med)-FS is comparable or better than that of the previously reported BOD(Med) method, especially its superior long-term stability up to 2 months under continuous operation. Moreover, the BOD(Med)-FS has same determination accuracy with the conventional BOD5 method by measuring real samples from a local wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). PMID:25863368
Testing the global flow reconstruction method on coupled chaotic oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plachy, Emese; Kolláth, Zoltán
2010-03-01
Irregular behaviour of pulsating variable stars may occur due to low dimensional chaos. To determine the quantitative properties of the dynamics in such systems, we apply a suitable time series analysis, the global flow reconstruction method. The robustness of the reconstruction can be tested through the resultant quantities, like Lyapunov dimension and Fourier frequencies. The latter is specially important as it is directly derivable from the observed light curves. We have performed tests using coupled Rossler oscillators to investigate the possible connection between those quantities. In this paper we present our test results.
A Flow SPR Immunosensor Based on a Sandwich Direct Method
Tomassetti, Mauro; Conta, Giorgia; Campanella, Luigi; Favero, Gabriele; Sanzò, Gabriella; Mazzei, Franco; Antiochia, Riccarda
2016-01-01
In this study, we report the development of an SPR (Surface Plasmon Resonance) immunosensor for the detection of ampicillin, operating under flow conditions. SPR sensors based on both direct (with the immobilization of the antibody) and competitive (with the immobilization of the antigen) methods did not allow the detection of ampicillin. Therefore, a sandwich-based sensor was developed which showed a good linear response towards ampicillin between 10−3 and 10−1 M, a measurement time of ≤20 min and a high selectivity both towards β-lactam antibiotics and antibiotics of different classes. PMID:27187486
A Flow SPR Immunosensor Based on a Sandwich Direct Method.
Tomassetti, Mauro; Conta, Giorgia; Campanella, Luigi; Favero, Gabriele; Sanzò, Gabriella; Mazzei, Franco; Antiochia, Riccarda
2016-01-01
In this study, we report the development of an SPR (Surface Plasmon Resonance) immunosensor for the detection of ampicillin, operating under flow conditions. SPR sensors based on both direct (with the immobilization of the antibody) and competitive (with the immobilization of the antigen) methods did not allow the detection of ampicillin. Therefore, a sandwich-based sensor was developed which showed a good linear response towards ampicillin between 10(-3) and 10(-1) M, a measurement time of ≤20 min and a high selectivity both towards β-lactam antibiotics and antibiotics of different classes. PMID:27187486
An analysis method for two-dimensional transonic viscous flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bavitz, P. C.
1975-01-01
A method for the approximate calculation of transonic flow over airfoils, including shock waves and viscous effects, is described. Numerical solutions are obtained by use of a computer program which is discussed in the appendix. The importance of including the boundary layer in the analysis is clearly demonstrated, as well as the need to improve on existing procedures near the trailing edge. Comparisons between calculations and experimental data are presented for both conventional and supercritical airfoils, emphasis being on the surface pressure distribution, and good agreement is indicated.
COMPREHENSIVE METHOD OF CHARACTERISTICS MODELS FOR FLOW SIMULATION.
Lai, Chintu
1988-01-01
The use of the specified time interval (STI) numerical schemes has been popular in applying the method of characteristics (MOC) to unsteady open-channel flow problems. Studies and analyses of several variants of the STI schemes have led to the derivation of a new scheme, referred to herein as the multimode scheme, which combines implicit, temporal reachback, spatial reachback, and classical schemes into one. Three numerical models have been developed to implement the implicit and multimode schemes. Numerical analyses, numerical experiments, and field applications that verify, support, and demonstrate the enhanced model capabilities are presented.
A boundary element method for steady incompressible thermoviscous flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dargush, G. F.; Banerjee, P. K.
1991-01-01
A boundary element formulation is presented for moderate Reynolds number, steady, incompressible, thermoviscous flows. The governing integral equations are written exclusively in terms of velocities and temperatures, thus eliminating the need for the computation of any gradients. Furthermore, with the introduction of reference velocities and temperatures, volume modeling can often be confined to only a small portion of the problem domain, typically near obstacles or walls. The numerical implementation includes higher order elements, adaptive integration and multiregion capability. Both the integral formulation and implementation are discussed in detail. Several examples illustrate the high level of accuracy that is obtainable with the current method.
Variational method for finding periodic orbits in a general flow.
Lan, Yueheng; Cvitanović, Predrag
2004-01-01
A variational principle is proposed and implemented for determining unstable periodic orbits of flows as well as unstable spatiotemporally periodic solutions of extended systems. An initial loop approximating a periodic solution is evolved in the space of loops toward a true periodic solution by a minimization of local errors along the loop. The "Newton descent" partial differential equation that governs this evolution is an infinitesimal step version of the damped Newton-Raphson iteration. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated by its application to the Hénon-Heiles system, the circular restricted three-body problem, and the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky system in a weakly turbulent regime. PMID:14995703
Improved numerical method for subchannel cross-flow calculations
Kaya, S.; Anghaie, S.
1986-01-01
COBRA-OSU is a fast running computer code for coupled kinetic and thermal-hydraulic analysis of nuclear reactor core subchannels, currently under development at Oregon State University. This code is a modified version of COBRA-IV with two major improved features. First, COBRA-OSU uses the Gaussian elimination method instead of Gauss-Seidel iteration for subchannel cross-flow calculation. Second, COBRA-OSU has an additional model for regionwise point reactor kinetics which includes all major feedback reactivity effects on calculation of the axial power profile during the course of a transient. This paper summarizes the improved numerical features of the COBRA-OSU code.
Flow cytometric analysis of micronuclei in mammalian cell cultures: past, present and future.
Avlasevich, Svetlana; Bryce, Steven; De Boeck, Marlies; Elhajouji, Azeddine; Van Goethem, Freddy; Lynch, Anthony; Nicolette, John; Shi, Jing; Dertinger, Stephen
2011-01-01
The relative simplicity of the in vitro micronucleus (MNvit) endpoint has made it amenable to several automated scoring approaches. Flow cytometry is one such scoring platform that has been successfully employed. This review describes the origins of the MNvit assay, as well as the evolution and properties of flow cytometry-based scoring systems. While the current state-of-the-art methods acquire micronucleus (MN) frequency data very efficiently, it is becoming clear that they also endow the assay with high information content. For instance, simultaneous with MN frequency determinations, several additional endpoints are acquired that provide insights into cytotoxicity, cell cycle perturbations and, in the event of MN induction, information about genotoxic mode of action. This review concludes with a discussion regarding data gaps and also recommendations for additional work that is needed to more fully realise the potential of flow cytometric MNvit scoring. PMID:21164196
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubinov, Alexander E.; Mytareva, Lyubov'A.
2010-08-01
The current knowledge of the physics of electromagnetic cloaking of material objects by the wave flow method is reviewed. Experiments demonstrating the feasibility of this cloaking method are described. Some aspects of calculating cloak profiles are examined, and achievements and unsolved problems in the theory of the interaction of electromagnetic waves with shells are considered. Prospects for developing the cloaking method for waves of other physical nature (acoustic and probability density waves) are discussed.
A digital physics method for two-phase flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freed, David M.
1997-10-01
Digital Physics refers to a fully discrete, microdynamieal system whose mean behavior recovers real continuum physics. The purpose of this project is to develop a Digital Physics method by which to model the flow of single-component fluids with a non-ideal-gas equation of state, such as liquids and two-phase mixtures. The new system, called the multiphase system, is built upon the framework of a previously developed Digital Physics system. This original Digital Physics system, the standard system, is used to simulate low Mach number flow of an ideal gas. Previously, substantial performance improvements (compared to CFD numerical solvers) have been achieved with the standard system for hydrodynamic simulations of ideal gas flows. Hence the underlying motivation of this work is the development of a more efficient simulation tool for detailed two phase flow investigation as compared to current numerical methods. Specifically, the multiphase system simulates the local instantaneous flow field including explicit representation of the interfaces. The multiphase system contains significant extensions of the standard system, particularly a non-local operation allowing microscopic interactions at a distance, loosely mimicking a real liquid, while preserving exact (global) conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. It retains the advantages of Digital Physics compared to other lattice gas methods for flow modeling, such as Galilean invariance, elimination of the dynamic pressure anomaly, and a meaningful energy transport equation. In the multiphase system the energy degree of freedom has been extended to allow a consistent empirical thermodynamics suitable for a system with liquid-vapor coexistence. Thus in addition to correct hydrodynamic transport, the multiphase system achieves appropriate equations of state for the liquid and vapor phases; the current implementation employs a van der Waals thermodynamical system. The multiphase system does not model heat transfer
Visualization and Quantification of Fingering Flow Using Light Transmission Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rezanezhad, F.; Roth, K.
2007-12-01
With the aim of studying the physical process concerning the unstable fingering phenomena in two dimensions, experiments of vertical infiltration through layered sand were carried out in the laboratory using Hele-Shaw cells. We developed a light transmission method to measure the dynamics of water saturation within flow fingers in great detail with high spatial and temporal resolution. The method was calibrated using X-ray absorption. We improved the measured light transmission with correction for scattering effects through deconvolution with a point spread function which allows us to obtain quantitative high spatial resolution measurements. After fingers had fully developed, we added a dye tracer in order to distinguish mobile and immobile water fractions. Fully developed fingers consist of a tip, a core with mobile water, and a hull with immobile water. We analyzed the dynamics of water saturation within the finger tip, along the finger core behind the tip, and within the fringe of the fingers during radial growth. Our results confirm previous findings of saturation overshoot in the finger tips and revealed a saturation minimum behind the tip as a new feature. The finger development was characterized by a gradual increase in water content within the core of the finger behind this minimum and a gradual widening of the fingers to a quasi-stable state which evolves at time scales that are orders of magnitude longer than those of fingers' evolution. In this state, a sharp separation into a core with fast convective flow and a fringe with exceedingly slow flow was detected. All observed phenomena, with the exception of saturation overshoot, could be consistently explained based on the hysteretic behavior of the soil-water characteristic.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crane, R. A.; Cuthbert, M. O.; Timms, W.
2015-09-01
We present an interrupted-flow centrifugation technique to characterise preferential flow in low permeability media. The method entails a minimum of three phases: centrifuge-induced flow, no flow and centrifuge-induced flow, which may be repeated several times in order to most effectively characterise multi-rate mass transfer behaviour. In addition, the method enables accurate simulation of relevant in situ total stress conditions during flow by selecting an appropriate centrifugal force. We demonstrate the utility of the technique for characterising the hydraulic properties of smectite-clay-dominated core samples. All core samples exhibited a non-Fickian tracer breakthrough (early tracer arrival), combined with a decrease in tracer concentration immediately after each period of interrupted flow. This is indicative of dual (or multi-)porosity behaviour, with solute migration predominately via advection during induced flow, and via molecular diffusion (between the preferential flow network(s) and the low hydraulic conductivity domain) during interrupted flow. Tracer breakthrough curves were simulated using a bespoke dual porosity model with excellent agreement between the data and model output (Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient was > 0.97 for all samples). In combination, interrupted-flow centrifuge experiments and dual porosity transport modelling are shown to be a powerful method to characterise preferential flow in low permeability media.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crane, R. A.; Cuthbert, M. O.; Timms, W.
2015-01-01
We present an interrupted-flow centrifugation technique to characterise preferential flow in low permeability media. The method entails a minimum of three phases: centrifuge induced flow, no flow and centrifuge induced flow, which may be repeated several times in order to most effectively characterise multi-rate mass transfer behaviour. In addition, the method enables accurate simulation of relevant in situ total stress conditions during flow by selecting an appropriate centrifugal force level. We demonstrate the utility of the technique for characterising the hydraulic properties of smectite clay dominated core samples. All samples exhibited a non-Fickian tracer breakthrough (early tracer arrival), combined with a decrease in tracer concentration immediately after each period of interrupted-flow. This is indicative of dual (or multi) porosity behaviour, with solute migration predominately via advection during induced flow, and via molecular diffusion (between the preferential flow network(s) and the low hydraulic conductivity domain) during interrupted-flow. Tracer breakthrough curves were simulated using a bespoke dual porosity model with excellent agreement between the data and model output (Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient was >0.97 for all samples). In combination interrupted-flow centrifuge experiments and dual porosity transport modelling are shown to be a powerful method to characterise preferential flow in low permeability media.
A reconstruction method for gappy and noisy arterial flow data.
Yakhot, Alexander; Anor, Tomer; Karniadakis, George Em
2007-12-01
Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), Kriging interpolation, and smoothing are applied to reconstruct gappy and noisy data of blood flow in a carotid artery. While we have applied these techniques to clinical data, in this paper in order to rigorously evaluate their effectiveness we rely on data obtained by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Specifically, gappy data sets are generated by removing nodal values from high-resolution 3-D CFD data (at random or in a fixed area) while noisy data sets are formed by superimposing speckle noise on the CFD results. A combined POD-Kriging procedure is applied to planar data sets mimicking coarse resolution "ultrasound-like" blood flow images. A method for locating the vessel wall boundary and for calculating the wall shear stress (WSS) is also proposed. The results show good agreement with the original CFD data. The combined POD-Kriging method, enhanced by proper smoothing if needed, holds great potential in dealing effectively with gappy and noisy data reconstruction of in vivo velocity measurements based on color Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) imaging or magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). PMID:18092738
An Anelastic Allspeed Projection Method for GravitationallyStratified Flows
Gatti-Bono, Caroline; Colella, Phillip
2005-02-24
This paper looks at gravitationally-stratified atmospheric flows at low Mach and Froude numbers and proposes a new algorithm to solve the compressible Euler equations, in which the asymptotic limits are recovered numerically and the boundary conditions for block-structured local refinement methods are well-posed. The model is non-hydrostatic and the numerical algorithm uses a splitting to separate the fast acoustic dynamics from the slower anelastic dynamics. The acoustic waves are treated implicitly while the anelastic dynamics is treated semi-implicitly and an embedded-boundary method is used to represent mountain ranges. We present an example that verifies our asymptotic analysis and a set of results that compares very well with the classical gravity wave results presented by Durran.
Method and apparatus for controlling the flow rate of mercury in a flow system
Grossman, Mark W.; Speer, Richard
1991-01-01
A method for increasing the mercury flow rate to a photochemical mercury enrichment utilizing an entrainment system comprises the steps of passing a carrier gas over a pool of mercury maintained at a first temperature T1, wherein the carrier gas entrains mercury vapor; passing said mercury vapor entrained carrier gas to a second temperature zone T2 having temperature less than T1 to condense said entrained mercury vapor, thereby producing a saturated Hg condition in the carrier gas; and passing said saturated Hg carrier gas to said photochemical enrichment reactor.
Comparative analysis of whole blood lysis methods for flow cytometry.
Bossuyt, X; Marti, G E; Fleisher, T A
1997-06-15
We performed a parallel evaluation of six whole blood lysis methods comparing light scatter and quantitative fluorescence intensity based on quantitative flow cytometry, of selected lymphocyte subsets and CD34+ cells. Leukocytes prepared with FACS Lysing Solution (BDIS), Immunolyse (Coulter) and Optilyse B (Immunotech) consistently gave lower forward scatter values than those prepared with ACK (BioWhitaker), Ortho-mune (Ortho) and ImmunoPrep (Coulter). Debris, defined as CD45 negative events with the threshold off, accounted approximately 80% of all events with ACK and Ortho-mune. The other lysing methods consistently yielded less debris (approximately 50%) with Immunolyse generating only approximately 16% debris. Optilyse and FACS lyse consistently displayed the lowest percentage of lymphoid cells (CD45+/CD14-) in the three part differential. The percentage of CD3+, CD20+, CD5+, and CD16/CD56+ cells was consistent with all methods but CD4 and CD8 determinants showed inconsistent variation with ACK and Ortho-mune. In addition, the fluorescence intensity of CD14 PE and CD8 PE staining was markedly decreased on cells prepared with ImmunoPrep. Finally, the clearest separation of CD34+ cells was observed with ACK and Ortho-mune. Our data demonstrate that the method used for red cell lysis can have definite impact on immunophenotyping and selected methods appear to be more suitable for specific applications. PMID:9222098
A new general 1-D vadose zone flow solution method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ogden, Fred L.; Lai, Wencong; Steinke, Robert C.; Zhu, Jianting; Talbot, Cary A.; Wilson, John L.
2015-06-01
We have developed an alternative to the one-dimensional partial differential equation (PDE) attributed to Richards (1931) that describes unsaturated porous media flow in homogeneous soil layers. Our solution is a set of three ordinary differential equations (ODEs) derived from unsaturated flux and mass conservation principles. We used a hodograph transformation, the Method of Lines, and a finite water-content discretization to produce ODEs that accurately simulate infiltration, falling slugs, and groundwater table dynamic effects on vadose zone fluxes. This formulation, which we refer to as "finite water-content", simulates sharp fronts and is guaranteed to conserve mass using a finite-volume solution. Our ODE solution method is explicitly integrable, does not require iterations and therefore has no convergence limits and is computationally efficient. The method accepts boundary fluxes including arbitrary precipitation, bare soil evaporation, and evapotranspiration. The method can simulate heterogeneous soils using layers. Results are presented in terms of fluxes and water content profiles. Comparing our method against analytical solutions, laboratory data, and the Hydrus-1D solver, we find that predictive performance of our finite water-content ODE method is comparable to or in some cases exceeds that of the solution of Richards' equation, with or without a shallow water table. The presented ODE method is transformative in that it offers accuracy comparable to the Richards (1931) PDE numerical solution, without the numerical complexity, in a form that is robust, continuous, and suitable for use in large watershed and land-atmosphere simulation models, including regional-scale models of coupled climate and hydrology.
Bluff Body Flow Simulation Using a Vortex Element Method
Anthony Leonard; Phillippe Chatelain; Michael Rebel
2004-09-30
Heavy ground vehicles, especially those involved in long-haul freight transportation, consume a significant part of our nation's energy supply. it is therefore of utmost importance to improve their efficiency, both to reduce emissions and to decrease reliance on imported oil. At highway speeds, more than half of the power consumed by a typical semi truck goes into overcoming aerodynamic drag, a fraction which increases with speed and crosswind. Thanks to better tools and increased awareness, recent years have seen substantial aerodynamic improvements by the truck industry, such as tractor/trailer height matching, radiator area reduction, and swept fairings. However, there remains substantial room for improvement as understanding of turbulent fluid dynamics grows. The group's research effort focused on vortex particle methods, a novel approach for computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Where common CFD methods solve or model the Navier-Stokes equations on a grid which stretches from the truck surface outward, vortex particle methods solve the vorticity equation on a Lagrangian basis of smooth particles and do not require a grid. They worked to advance the state of the art in vortex particle methods, improving their ability to handle the complicated, high Reynolds number flow around heavy vehicles. Specific challenges that they have addressed include finding strategies to accurate capture vorticity generation and resultant forces at the truck wall, handling the aerodynamics of spinning bodies such as tires, application of the method to the GTS model, computation time reduction through improved integration methods, a closest point transform for particle method in complex geometrics, and work on large eddy simulation (LES) turbulence modeling.
Domain decomposition methods for the parallel computation of reacting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keyes, David E.
1988-01-01
Domain decomposition is a natural route to parallel computing for partial differential equation solvers. Subdomains of which the original domain of definition is comprised are assigned to independent processors at the price of periodic coordination between processors to compute global parameters and maintain the requisite degree of continuity of the solution at the subdomain interfaces. In the domain-decomposed solution of steady multidimensional systems of PDEs by finite difference methods using a pseudo-transient version of Newton iteration, the only portion of the computation which generally stands in the way of efficient parallelization is the solution of the large, sparse linear systems arising at each Newton step. For some Jacobian matrices drawn from an actual two-dimensional reacting flow problem, comparisons are made between relaxation-based linear solvers and also preconditioned iterative methods of Conjugate Gradient and Chebyshev type, focusing attention on both iteration count and global inner product count. The generalized minimum residual method with block-ILU preconditioning is judged the best serial method among those considered, and parallel numerical experiments on the Encore Multimax demonstrate for it approximately 10-fold speedup on 16 processors.
Numerical method of characteristics for one-dimensional blood flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Acosta, Sebastian; Puelz, Charles; Rivière, Béatrice; Penny, Daniel J.; Rusin, Craig G.
2015-08-01
Mathematical modeling at the level of the full cardiovascular system requires the numerical approximation of solutions to a one-dimensional nonlinear hyperbolic system describing flow in a single vessel. This model is often simulated by computationally intensive methods like finite elements and discontinuous Galerkin, while some recent applications require more efficient approaches (e.g. for real-time clinical decision support, phenomena occurring over multiple cardiac cycles, iterative solutions to optimization/inverse problems, and uncertainty quantification). Further, the high speed of pressure waves in blood vessels greatly restricts the time step needed for stability in explicit schemes. We address both cost and stability by presenting an efficient and unconditionally stable method for approximating solutions to diagonal nonlinear hyperbolic systems. Theoretical analysis of the algorithm is given along with a comparison of our method to a discontinuous Galerkin implementation. Lastly, we demonstrate the utility of the proposed method by implementing it on small and large arterial networks of vessels whose elastic and geometrical parameters are physiologically relevant.
Fujimura, N.; Ohta, M.; Abdo, G.; Ylmaz, H.; Lovblad, K.-O; Rüfenacht, D.A.
2006-01-01
Summary Stent implants placed across the neck of cerebral aneurysms are capable of reducing aneurysmal flow when coils are not used for filling the aneurysms. It is important to evaluate the effects of flow reduction caused by stent implants used for the treatment of cerebral aneurysms. Subtracted vortex centers path line method (SVC method) is one of the image post processing methods employed for quantitative flow measurement. We developed a modified SVC method by employing Cinematic Angiography (25 frames/s) and digital video recording (30 frames/s) with a commercial digital camera. We successfully compared the flow effectiveness using a tubular silicon model with a sidewall aneurysm. The result suggests that our modified SVC method is useful for a comparative examination of the effect of aneurysmal flow reduction caused by stent implants. PMID:20569631
Finite volume methods for submarine debris flows and generated waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jihwan; Løvholt, Finn; Issler, Dieter
2016-04-01
Submarine landslides can impose great danger to the underwater structures and generate destructive tsunamis. Submarine debris flows often behave like visco-plastic materials, and the Herschel-Bulkley rheological model is known to be appropriate for describing the motion. In this work, we develop numerical schemes for the visco-plastic debris flows using finite volume methods in Eulerian coordinates with two horizontal dimensions. We provide parameter sensitivity analysis and demonstrate how common ad-hoc assumptions such as including a minimum shear layer depth influence the modeling of the landslide dynamics. Hydrodynamic resistance forces, hydroplaning, and remolding are all crucial terms for underwater landslides, and are hence added into the numerical formulation. The landslide deformation is coupled to the water column and simulated in the Clawpack framework. For the propagation of the tsunamis, the shallow water equations and the Boussinesq-type equations are employed to observe how important the wave dispersion is. Finally, two cases in central Norway, i.e. the subaerial quick clay landslide at Byneset in 2012, and the submerged tsunamigenic Statland landslide in 2014, are both presented for validation. The research leading to these results has received funding from the Research Council of Norway under grant number 231252 (Project TsunamiLand) and the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement 603839 (Project ASTARTE).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
GELBART ABE; Bartnoff, Shepard
1947-01-01
A general method for studying the flow of a compressible fluid around a closed body was discussed in Part I of this report. Here, application is made to the specific case in which the linearized equation of state is used. For a given incompressible flow around a specific profile, a corresponding compressible flow is found. The flow at infinity remains unchanged. Detailed studies are made of the flow with circulation around a unit circle, and velocity distributions are found for a wide range of Mach number and angle of attack. Comparisons are made with other methods.
Flow Diode and Method for Controlling Fluid Flow Origin of the Invention
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dyson, Rodger W (Inventor)
2015-01-01
A flow diode configured to permit fluid flow in a first direction while preventing fluid flow in a second direction opposite the first direction is disclosed. The flow diode prevents fluid flow without use of mechanical closures or moving parts. The flow diode utilizes a bypass flowline whereby all fluid flow in the second direction moves into the bypass flowline having a plurality of tortuous portions providing high fluidic resistance. The portions decrease in diameter such that debris in the fluid is trapped. As fluid only travels in one direction through the portions, the debris remains trapped in the portions.
Asymptotic and Numerical Methods for Rapidly Rotating Buoyant Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grooms, Ian G.
This thesis documents three investigations carried out in pursuance of a doctoral degree in applied mathematics at the University of Colorado (Boulder). The first investigation concerns the properties of rotating Rayleigh-Benard convection -- thermal convection in a rotating infinite plane layer between two constant-temperature boundaries. It is noted that in certain parameter regimes convective Taylor columns appear which dominate the dynamics, and a semi-analytical model of these is presented. Investigation of the columns and of various other properties of the flow is ongoing. The second investigation concerns the interactions between planetary-scale and mesoscale dynamics in the oceans. Using multiple-scale asymptotics the possible connections between planetary geostrophic and quasigeostrophic dynamics are investigated, and three different systems of coupled equations are derived. Possible use of these equations in conjunction with the method of superparameterization, and extension of the asymptotic methods to the interactions between mesoscale and submesoscale dynamics is ongoing. The third investigation concerns the linear stability properties of semi-implicit methods for the numerical integration of ordinary differential equations, focusing in particular on the linear stability of IMEX (Implicit-Explicit) methods and exponential integrators applied to systems of ordinary differential equations arising in the numerical solution of spatially discretized nonlinear partial differential equations containing both dispersive and dissipative linear terms. While these investigations may seem unrelated at first glance, some reflection shows that they are in fact closely linked. The investigation of rotating convection makes use of single-space, multiple-time-scale asymptotics to deal with dynamics strongly constrained by rotation. Although the context of thermal convection in an infinite layer seems somewhat removed from large-scale ocean dynamics, the asymptotic
Valuing instream flows using the hedonic price method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Netusil, Noelwah R.; Summers, Matthew T.
2009-11-01
The Oregon Water Trust (OWT) uses a market-based approach to protect and enhance instream flows in Oregon. We use the hedonic price method to estimate the effect of numerous variables on the annualized price OWT pays for water rights: the amount of water protected by the transaction, transaction type (state approved or contractual agreement), presence of anadromous and/or resident fish, and if a fish is listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). We find evidence of a premium for state-approved transactions and for transactions that protect water in streams with listed species. Adjusting the amount of water protected by each transaction to include only rights that will be delivered with a high degree of certainty produces coefficient estimates that are similar, but more accurate, than using unadjusted water rights amounts.
Convection in Multiphase Fluid Flows Using Lattice Boltzmann Methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biferale, L.; Perlekar, P.; Sbragaglia, M.; Toschi, F.
2012-03-01
We present high-resolution numerical simulations of convection in multiphase flows (boiling) using a novel algorithm based on a lattice Boltzmann method. We first study the thermodynamical and kinematic properties of the algorithm. Then, we perform a series of 3D numerical simulations changing the mean properties in the phase diagram and compare convection with and without phase coexistence at Rayleigh number Ra˜107. We show that in the presence of nucleating bubbles non-Oberbeck-Boussinesq effects develop, the mean temperature profile becomes asymmetric, and heat-transfer and heat-transfer fluctuations are enhanced, at all Ra studied. We also show that small-scale properties of velocity and temperature fields are strongly affected by the presence of the buoyant bubble leading to high non-Gaussian profiles in the bulk.
Design of a Variational Multiscale Method for Turbulent Compressible Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Diosady, Laslo Tibor; Murman, Scott M.
2013-01-01
A spectral-element framework is presented for the simulation of subsonic compressible high-Reynolds-number flows. The focus of the work is maximizing the efficiency of the computational schemes to enable unsteady simulations with a large number of spatial and temporal degrees of freedom. A collocation scheme is combined with optimized computational kernels to provide a residual evaluation with computational cost independent of order of accuracy up to 16th order. The optimized residual routines are used to develop a low-memory implicit scheme based on a matrix-free Newton-Krylov method. A preconditioner based on the finite-difference diagonalized ADI scheme is developed which maintains the low memory of the matrix-free implicit solver, while providing improved convergence properties. Emphasis on low memory usage throughout the solver development is leveraged to implement a coupled space-time DG solver which may offer further efficiency gains through adaptivity in both space and time.
A general method to determine the stability of compressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guenther, R. A.; Chang, I. D.
1982-01-01
Several problems were studied using two completely different approaches. The initial method was to use the standard linearized perturbation theory by finding the value of the individual small disturbance quantities based on the equations of motion. These were serially eliminated from the equations of motion to derive a single equation that governs the stability of fluid dynamic system. These equations could not be reduced unless the steady state variable depends only on one coordinate. The stability equation based on one dependent variable was found and was examined to determine the stability of a compressible swirling jet. The second method applied a Lagrangian approach to the problem. Since the equations developed were based on different assumptions, the condition of stability was compared only for the Rayleigh problem of a swirling flow, both examples reduce to the Rayleigh criterion. This technique allows including the viscous shear terms which is not possible in the first method. The same problem was then examined to see what effect shear has on stability.
A Method of Detecting Fire Smoke by Using Optical Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Terada, Kenji; Miyahara, Hiroyuki; Nii, Yasutoshi
In this paper, the authors propose a method for detecting fire smoke by using the optical flow. This method is not influenced against the image obtainment environment. About 60,000 fires have occurred every year in Japan. To be most important to the fires is an early period fire fighting. At present, the automatic devices of detectiong fires is needed. The alarms which can detect smoke and heat are utilized to house fires. However, these alarms are not useful for the outside of house such as the incendiary or woodland fire. This method is able to detect such a flame that becomes a fire is the early period. First, the region of the flame in the images obtained from the observation camera is detected. Next, the characteristic quantity that expresses the smoke is extracted. This characteristic is not influenced to the motion such as the cloud, leaf and moving objects. In other words, the only smoke can be detected, from the range which looks like the flame in the image.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, J. L. C.; Rosen, R.; Dao, S. C.; Kwak, D.
1985-01-01
An implicit finite difference code cast in general curvilinear coordinates is further developed for three-dimensional incompressible turbulent flows. The code is based on the method of pseudocompressibility and utilizes the Beam and Warming implicit approximate factorization algorithm to achieve computational efficiency. A multiple-zone method is further extended to include composite-grids to overcome the excessive computer memory required for solving turbulent flows in complex three-dimensional geometries. A simple turbulence model is proposed for internal flows. The code is being used for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) internal flow analyses.
Groot Kormelink, Tom; Arkesteijn, Ger J A; Nauwelaers, Frans A; van den Engh, Ger; Nolte-'t Hoen, Esther N M; Wauben, Marca H M
2016-02-01
Submicron-sized vesicles released by cells are increasingly recognized for their role in intercellular communication and as biomarkers of disease. Methods for high-throughput, multi-parameter analysis of such extracellular vesicles (EVs) are crucial to further investigate their diversity and function. We recently developed a high-resolution flow cytometry-based method (using a modified BD Influx) for quantitative and qualitative analysis of EVs. The fact that the majority of EVs is <200 nm in size requires special attention with relation to specific conditions of the flow cytometer, as well as sample concentration and event rate. In this study, we investigated how (too) high particle concentrations affect high-resolution flow cytometry-based particle quantification and characterization. Increasing concentrations of submicron-sized particles (beads, liposomes, and EVs) were measured to identify coincidence and swarm effects, caused by the concurrent presence of multiple particles in the measuring spot. As a result, we demonstrate that analysis of highly concentrated samples resulted in an underestimation of the number of particles and an interdependent overestimation of light scattering and fluorescence signals. On the basis of this knowledge, and by varying nozzle size and sheath pressure, we developed a strategy for high-resolution flow cytometric sorting of submicron-sized particles. Using the adapted sort settings, subsets of EVs differentially labeled with two fluorescent antibodies could be sorted to high purity. Moreover, sufficient numbers of EVs could be sorted for subsequent analysis by western blotting. In conclusion, swarm effects that occur when measuring high particle concentrations severely hamper EV quantification and characterization. These effects can be easily overlooked without including proper controls (e.g., sample dilution series) or tools (e.g., oscilloscope). Providing that the event rate is well controlled, the sorting strategy we propose
Detection of Apoptotic Versus Autophagic Cell Death by Flow Cytometry.
Sica, Valentina; Maiuri, M Chiara; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo
2016-01-01
Different modes of regulated cell death (RCD) can be initiated by distinct molecular machineries and their morphological manifestations can be difficult to discriminate. Moreover, cells responding to stress often activate an adaptive response centered around autophagy, and whether such a response is cytoprotective or cytotoxic cannot be predicted based on morphological parameters only. Molecular definitions are therefore important to understand various RCD subroutines from a mechanistic perspective. In vitro, various forms of RCD including apoptosis and autophagic cell death can be easily discriminated from each other with assays that involve chemical or pharmacological interventions targeting key components of either pathway. Here, we detail a straightforward method to discriminate apoptosis from autophagic cell death by flow cytometry, based on the broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk and the genetic inhibition of ATG5. PMID:27108427
A proposed through-flow inverse method for the design of mixed-flow pumps
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Borges, Joao Eduardo
1991-01-01
A through-flow (hub-to-shroud) truly inverse method is proposed and described. It uses an imposition of mean swirl, i.e., radius times mean tangential velocity, given throughout the meridional section of the turbomachine as an initial design specification. In the present implementation, it is assumed that the fluid is inviscid, incompressible, and irrotational at inlet and that the blades are supposed to have zero thickness. Only blade rows that impart to the fluid a constant work along the space are considered. An application of this procedure to design the rotor of a mixed-flow pump is described in detail. The strategy used to find a suitable mean swirl distribution and the other design inputs is also described. The final blade shape and pressure distributions on the blade surface are presented, showing that it is possible to obtain feasible designs using this technique. Another advantage of this technique is the fact that it does not require large amounts of CPU time.
Flow in experimental berry aneurysms: method and model.
Kerber, C W; Heilman, C B
1983-01-01
This study addresses two basic questions: What are the flow dynamics in aneurysms? Can these flows be modified to enhance retention of adhesive? Using Pyrex glass bifurcations, fluid flow was studied in a variety of aneurysms placed at varying positions around the bifurcations. Indicators injected into the slipstreams were recorded and studied both by stop-frame high-speed movie analysis and with 35 mm slides. Even at low-flow rates, a central slipstream strikes the apex of bifurcations, and may be partly responsible for the initial production of berry aneurysms. A low-pressure zone occurs at the lateral angle of bifurcations, probably explaining the formation of endovascular cushions. Flow into symmetrically placed narrow neck aneurysms did not occur. Indicator entered the aneurysm in a turbulent fashion only when there was orifice (lip) asymmetry. Both lip asymmetry and rapid flow favor intraaneurysmal turbulent flow. PMID:6410748
Consistent lattice Boltzmann methods for incompressible axisymmetric flows.
Zhang, Liangqi; Yang, Shiliang; Zeng, Zhong; Yin, Linmao; Zhao, Ya; Chew, Jia Wei
2016-08-01
In this work, consistent lattice Boltzmann (LB) methods for incompressible axisymmetric flows are developed based on two efficient axisymmetric LB models available in the literature. In accord with their respective original models, the proposed axisymmetric models evolve within the framework of the standard LB method and the source terms contain no gradient calculations. Moreover, the incompressibility conditions are realized with the Hermite expansion, thus the compressibility errors arising in the existing models are expected to be reduced by the proposed incompressible models. In addition, an extra relaxation parameter is added to the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collision operator to suppress the effect of the ghost variable and thus the numerical stability of the present models is significantly improved. Theoretical analyses, based on the Chapman-Enskog expansion and the equivalent moment system, are performed to derive the macroscopic equations from the LB models and the resulting truncation terms (i.e., the compressibility errors) are investigated. In addition, numerical validations are carried out based on four well-acknowledged benchmark tests and the accuracy and applicability of the proposed incompressible axisymmetric LB models are verified. PMID:27627407
Consistent lattice Boltzmann methods for incompressible axisymmetric flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Liangqi; Yang, Shiliang; Zeng, Zhong; Yin, Linmao; Zhao, Ya; Chew, Jia Wei
2016-08-01
In this work, consistent lattice Boltzmann (LB) methods for incompressible axisymmetric flows are developed based on two efficient axisymmetric LB models available in the literature. In accord with their respective original models, the proposed axisymmetric models evolve within the framework of the standard LB method and the source terms contain no gradient calculations. Moreover, the incompressibility conditions are realized with the Hermite expansion, thus the compressibility errors arising in the existing models are expected to be reduced by the proposed incompressible models. In addition, an extra relaxation parameter is added to the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collision operator to suppress the effect of the ghost variable and thus the numerical stability of the present models is significantly improved. Theoretical analyses, based on the Chapman-Enskog expansion and the equivalent moment system, are performed to derive the macroscopic equations from the LB models and the resulting truncation terms (i.e., the compressibility errors) are investigated. In addition, numerical validations are carried out based on four well-acknowledged benchmark tests and the accuracy and applicability of the proposed incompressible axisymmetric LB models are verified.
Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient methods for low speed flow calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ajmani, Kumud; Ng, Wing-Fai; Liou, Meng-Sing
1993-01-01
An investigation is conducted into the viability of using a generalized Conjugate Gradient-like method as an iterative solver to obtain steady-state solutions of very low-speed fluid flow problems. Low-speed flow at Mach 0.1 over a backward-facing step is chosen as a representative test problem. The unsteady form of the two dimensional, compressible Navier-Stokes equations are integrated in time using discrete time-steps. The Navier-Stokes equations are cast in an implicit, upwind finite-volume, flux split formulation. The new iterative solver is used to solve a linear system of equations at each step of the time-integration. Preconditioning techniques are used with the new solver to enhance the stability and the convergence rate of the solver and are found to be critical to the overall success of the solver. A study of various preconditioners reveals that a preconditioner based on the lower-upper (L-U)-successive symmetric over-relaxation iterative scheme is more efficient than a preconditioner based on incomplete L-U factorizations of the iteration matrix. The performance of the new preconditioned solver is compared with a conventional line Gauss-Seidel relaxation (LGSR) solver. Overall speed-up factors of 28 (in terms of global time-steps required to converge to a steady-state solution) and 20 (in terms of total CPU time on one processor of a CRAY-YMP) are found in favor of the new preconditioned solver, when compared with the LGSR solver.
Devices and methods of operation thereof for providing stable flow for centrifugal compressors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Skoch, Gary J. (Inventor); Stevens, Mark A. (Inventor); Jett, Thomas A. (Inventor)
2008-01-01
Centrifugal compressor flow stabilizing devices and methods of operation thereof are disclosed that act upon the flow field discharging from the impeller of a centrifugal compressor and modify the flow field ahead of the diffuser vanes such that flow conditions contributing to rotating stall and surge are reduced or even eliminated. In some embodiments, shaped rods and methods of operation thereof are disclosed, whereas in other embodiments reverse-tangent air injection devices and methods are disclosed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zordan, M. D.; Leary, James F.
2011-02-01
The clonal isolation of rare cells, especially cancer and stem cells, in a population is important to the development of improved medical treatment. We have demonstrated that the Laser-Enabled Analysis and Processing (LEAP, Cyntellect Inc., San Diego, CA) instrument can be used to efficiently produce single cell clones by photoablative dilution. Additionally, we have also shown that cells present at low frequencies can be cloned by photoablative dilution after they are pre-enriched by flow cytometry based cell sorting. Circulating tumor cells were modeled by spiking isolated peripheral blood cells with cells from the lung carcinoma cell line A549. Flow cytometry based cell sorting was used to perform an enrichment sort of A549 cells directly into a 384 well plate. Photoablative dilution was performed with the LEAPTM instrument to remove any contaminating cells, and clonally isolate 1 side population cell per well. We were able to isolate and grow single clones of side population cells using this method at greater than 90% efficiency. We have developed a 2 step method that is able to perform the clonal isolation of rare cells based on a medically relevant functional phenotype.
Analysis of methods to estimate spring flows in a karst aquifer
Sepulveda, N.
2009-01-01
Hydraulically and statistically based methods were analyzed to identify the most reliable method to predict spring flows in a karst aquifer. Measured water levels at nearby observation wells, measured spring pool altitudes, and the distance between observation wells and the spring pool were the parameters used to match measured spring flows. Measured spring flows at six Upper Floridan aquifer springs in central Florida were used to assess the reliability of these methods to predict spring flows. Hydraulically based methods involved the application of the Theis, Hantush-Jacob, and Darcy-Weisbach equations, whereas the statistically based methods were the multiple linear regressions and the technology of artificial neural networks (ANNs). Root mean square errors between measured and predicted spring flows using the Darcy-Weisbach method ranged between 5% and 15% of the measured flows, lower than the 7% to 27% range for the Theis or Hantush-Jacob methods. Flows at all springs were estimated to be turbulent based on the Reynolds number derived from the Darcy-Weisbach equation for conduit flow. The multiple linear regression and the Darcy-Weisbach methods had similar spring flow prediction capabilities. The ANNs provided the lowest residuals between measured and predicted spring flows, ranging from 1.6% to 5.3% of the measured flows. The model prediction efficiency criteria also indicated that the ANNs were the most accurate method predicting spring flows in a karst aquifer. ?? 2008 National Ground Water Association.
On numerical methods in non-Newtonian flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fileas, G.
1982-12-01
The constitutive equations for non-Newtonian flows are presented and the various flow models derived from continuum mechanics and molecular theories are considered and evaluated. Detailed account is given of numerical simulation employing differential and integral models of different kinds of non-Newtonian flows using finite difference and finite element techniques. Procedures for computer set ups are described and references are given for finite difference, finite element and molecular theory based programs for several kinds of flow. Achievements and unreached goals in the field of numerical simulation of non-Newtonian flows are discussed and the lack of numerical work in the fields of suspension flows and heat transfer is pointed out. Finally, FFOCUS is presented as a newly built computer program which can simulate freezing flows of Newtonian fluids through various geometries and is aimed to be further developed to handle non-Newtonian freezing flows and certain types of suspension phenomena involved in corium flow after a hypothetical core melt down accident in a pressurized water reactor.
Calculation of unsteady transonic flows using the integral equation method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nixon, D.
1978-01-01
The basic integral equations for a harmonically oscillating airfoil in a transonic flow with shock waves are derived; the reduced frequency is assumed to be small. The problems associated with shock wave motion are treated using a strained coordinate system. The integral equation is linear and consists of both line integrals and surface integrals over the flow field which are evaluated by quadrature. This leads to a set of linear algebraic equations that can be solved directly. The shock motion is obtained explicitly by enforcing the condition that the flow is continuous except at a shock wave. Results obtained for both lifting and nonlifting oscillatory flows agree satisfactorily with other accurate results.
Testing the instream flow method in trout streams
Studley, T.K.; Railsback, S.F.; Asce, M.
1995-12-31
Pacific Gas and Electric Company`s (PG&E) Department of Research and Development and co-sponsors are fieldtesting the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) at a number of trout stream study sites. Fish populations, flows, and other variables were measured for an eight-year baseline period. Three levels of increasingly sophisticated predictions of population response to increased flows were made. The flow increases have been implemented and additional data are being collected to test the predictions. The baseline data and prediction analyses indicate that (1) using different habitat suitability criteria produces substantially different predictions of how populations respond to flow changes, (2) overlaps in habitat used by trout species can lead to misleading predictions of a population`s response to flow changes, and (3) factors other than habitat during summer low flows can limit trout populations (these include spawning habitat, high flows, stream channel characteristics, and stream temperature). Comprehensive field studies are expensive, but are more likely to result in instream flows that provide a cost-effective tradeoff between power and fisheries values.
Methods for the calculation of axial wave numbers in lined ducts with mean flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eversman, W.
1981-01-01
A survey is made of the methods available for the calculation of axial wave numbers in lined ducts. Rectangular and circular ducts with both uniform and non-uniform flow are considered as are ducts with peripherally varying liners. A historical perspective is provided by a discussion of the classical methods for computing attenuation when no mean flow is present. When flow is present these techniques become either impractical or impossible. A number of direct eigenvalue determination schemes which have been used when flow is present are discussed. Methods described are extensions of the classical no-flow technique, perturbation methods based on the no-flow technique, direct integration methods for solution of the eigenvalue equation, an integration-iteration method based on the governing differential equation for acoustic transmission, Galerkin methods, finite difference methods, and finite element methods.
Axial and Centrifugal Compressor Mean Line Flow Analysis Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Veres, Joseph P.
2009-01-01
This paper describes a method to estimate key aerodynamic parameters of single and multistage axial and centrifugal compressors. This mean-line compressor code COMDES provides the capability of sizing single and multistage compressors quickly during the conceptual design process. Based on the compressible fluid flow equations and the Euler equation, the code can estimate rotor inlet and exit blade angles when run in the design mode. The design point rotor efficiency and stator losses are inputs to the code, and are modeled at off design. When run in the off-design analysis mode, it can be used to generate performance maps based on simple models for losses due to rotor incidence and inlet guide vane reset angle. The code can provide an improved understanding of basic aerodynamic parameters such as diffusion factor, loading levels and incidence, when matching multistage compressor blade rows at design and at part-speed operation. Rotor loading levels and relative velocity ratio are correlated to the onset of compressor surge. NASA Stage 37 and the three-stage NASA 74-A axial compressors were analyzed and the results compared to test data. The code has been used to generate the performance map for the NASA 76-B three-stage axial compressor featuring variable geometry. The compressor stages were aerodynamically matched at off-design speeds by adjusting the variable inlet guide vane and variable stator geometry angles to control the rotor diffusion factor and incidence angles.
Quadrature Moments Method for the Simulation of Turbulent Reactive Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Raman, Venkatramanan; Pitsch, Heinz; Fox, Rodney O.
2003-01-01
A sub-filter model for reactive flows, namely the DQMOM model, was formulated for Large Eddy Simulation (LES) using the filtered mass density function. Transport equations required to determine the location and size of the delta-peaks were then formulated for a 2-peak decomposition of the FDF. The DQMOM scheme was implemented in an existing structured-grid LES solver. Simulations of scalar shear layer using an experimental configuration showed that the first and second moments of both reactive and inert scalars are in good agreement with a conventional Lagrangian scheme that evolves the same FDF. Comparisons with LES simulations performed using laminar chemistry assumption for the reactive scalar show that the new method provides vast improvements at minimal computational cost. Currently, the DQMOM model is being implemented for use with the progress variable/mixture fraction model of Pierce. Comparisons with experimental results and LES simulations using a single-environment for the progress-variable are planned. Future studies will aim at understanding the effect of increase in environments on predictions.
The least-squares finite element method for low-mach-number compressible viscous flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yu, Sheng-Tao
1994-01-01
The present paper reports the development of the Least-Squares Finite Element Method (LSFEM) for simulating compressible viscous flows at low Mach numbers in which the incompressible flows pose as an extreme. Conventional approach requires special treatments for low-speed flows calculations: finite difference and finite volume methods are based on the use of the staggered grid or the preconditioning technique; and, finite element methods rely on the mixed method and the operator-splitting method. In this paper, however, we show that such difficulty does not exist for the LSFEM and no special treatment is needed. The LSFEM always leads to a symmetric, positive-definite matrix through which the compressible flow equations can be effectively solved. Two numerical examples are included to demonstrate the method: first, driven cavity flows at various Reynolds numbers; and, buoyancy-driven flows with significant density variation. Both examples are calculated by using full compressible flow equations.
Method for flow cytometric monitoring of Renibacterium salmoninarum inactivation
Pascho, R.J.; Ongerth, J.E.
2000-01-01
with bacteriological culture (r2 ??? 0.22). In both assessments, there was a correlation between the estimates of inactivation based upon HRFI and CS analyses (r2 > 0.99). These results suggest that flow cytometry can be used as a supplementary or alternative method to bacteriological culture for monitoring the inactivation of R. salmoninarum.
Method for flow cytometric monitoring of Renibacterium salmoninarum inactivation.
Pascho, R J; Ongerth, J E
2000-07-14
estimates correlated with bacteriological culture (r2 < or = 0.22). In both assessments, there was a correlation between the estimates of inactivation based upon HRFI and CS analyses (r2 > 0.99). These results suggest that flow cytometry can be used as a supplementary or alternative method to bacteriological culture for monitoring the inactivation of R. salmoninarum. PMID:10950180
A velocity-correction projection method based immersed boundary method for incompressible flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Shanggui
2014-11-01
In the present work we propose a novel direct forcing immersed boundary method based on the velocity-correction projection method of [J.L. Guermond, J. Shen, Velocity-correction projection methods for incompressible flows, SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 41 (1)(2003) 112]. The principal idea of immersed boundary method is to correct the velocity in the vicinity of the immersed object by using an artificial force to mimic the presence of the physical boundaries. Therefore, velocity-correction projection method is preferred to its pressure-correction counterpart in the present work. Since the velocity-correct projection method is considered as a dual class of pressure-correction method, the proposed method here can also be interpreted in the way that first the pressure is predicted by treating the viscous term explicitly without the consideration of the immersed boundary, and the solenoidal velocity is used to determine the volume force on the Lagrangian points, then the non-slip boundary condition is enforced by correcting the velocity with the implicit viscous term. To demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method, several numerical simulations are performed and compared with the results in the literature. China Scholarship Council.
Effect of gas flow swirling on coating deposition by the cold gas-dynamic spray method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiselev, S. P.; Kiselev, V. P.; Zaikovskii, V. N.
2012-03-01
The effect of gas flow swirling on the process of coating deposition onto a target by the cold gas-dynamic spray method is studied experimentally and numerically. Flow swirling is found to change the gas flow field and to reduce the gas flow rate under typical conditions of cold gas-dynamic spray. In a non-swirled flow, the shape of the deposited spot is similar to a sharp cone. In contrast, the deposited spot in a swirled flow is shaped as a crater without particles at the center of this crater. It is found that this effect is caused by centrifugal forces acting on particles in a swirled gas flow.
A numerical method for a model of two-phase flow in a coupled free flow and porous media system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Jie; Sun, Shuyu; Wang, Xiao-Ping
2014-07-01
In this article, we study two-phase fluid flow in coupled free flow and porous media regions. The model consists of coupled Cahn-Hilliard and Navier-Stokes equations in the free fluid region and the two-phase Darcy law in the porous medium region. We propose a Robin-Robin domain decomposition method for the coupled Navier-Stokes and Darcy system with the generalized Beavers-Joseph-Saffman condition on the interface between the free flow and the porous media regions. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of this method.
Itzel, Gary Michael; Devine, II, Robert Henry; Chopra, Sanjay; Toornman, Thomas Nelson
2003-07-08
A coolant flow control structure is provided to channel cooling media flow to the fillet region defined at the transition between the wall of a nozzle vane and a wall of a nozzle segment, for cooling the fillet region. In an exemplary embodiment, the flow control structure defines a gap with the fillet region to achieve the required heat transfer coefficients in this region to meet part life requirements.
Piecewise uniform conduction-like flow channels and method therefor
Cummings, Eric B.; Fiechtner, Gregory J.
2006-02-28
A low-dispersion methodology for designing microfabricated conduction channels for on-chip electrokinetic-based systems is presented. The technique relies on trigonometric relations that apply for ideal electrokinetic flows, allowing faceted channels to be designed on chips using common drafting software and a hand calculator. Flows are rotated and stretched along the abrupt interface between adjacent regions with differing permeability. Regions bounded by interfaces form flow "prisms" that can be combined with other designed prisms to obtain a wide range of turning angles and expansion ratios while minimizing dispersion. Designs are demonstrated using two-dimensional numerical solutions of the Laplace equation.
Method and applications of fiber synthesis using laminar flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burns, Bradley Justin
A Laminar Flow Reactor (LFR) using the principles of hydrodynamic focusing was created and used to fabricate functional composite polymer fibers. These fibers had the ability to conduct or serve as a carrier for singlet oxygen-generating molecules. Critical to the process was designing an easy-to-fabricate, inexpensive device and developing a repeatable method that made efficient use of the materials. The initial designs used a planar layout and hydrodynamically focused in only one dimension while later versions switched to a two-fluid concentric design. Modeling was undertaken and verified for the different device layouts. Three types of conductive particles were embedded in the formed polymer: silver, indium tin oxide (ITO) and polyaniline. The polymer was also used as a carrier to two singlet oxygen generating molecules: Methylene Blue (MB) and perylene. Both were effective in killing Bacillus thuringiensis but MB leached from the fiber into the tested cell suspension. Perylene, which is not water soluble, did not leach out and was just as effective as MB. Research that was performed at ITT is also presented. A critical need exists to detect, identify, quantify, locate, and track virus and toxin aerosols to provide early warning during both light and dark conditions. The solution presented is a remote sensing technology using seeding particles. Seeding particles developed during this program provide specific identification of threat cloud content. When introduced to the threat cloud the seeders will bind specifically to the analyte of interest and upon interrogation from a stand off laser source will fluoresce. The fluorescent signal is detected from a distance using a long-range microscope and collection optics that allow detection of low concentrations of threat aerosols.
Base flow separation: A comparison of analytical and mass balance methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lott, Darline A.; Stewart, Mark T.
2016-04-01
Base flow is the ground water contribution to stream flow. Many activities, such as water resource management, calibrating hydrological and climate models, and studies of basin hydrology, require good estimates of base flow. The base flow component of stream flow is usually determined by separating a stream hydrograph into two components, base flow and runoff. Analytical methods, mathematical functions or algorithms used to calculate base flow directly from discharge, are the most widely used base flow separation methods and are often used without calibration to basin or gage-specific parameters other than basin area. In this study, six analytical methods are compared to a mass balance method, the conductivity mass-balance (CMB) method. The base flow index (BFI) values for 35 stream gages are obtained from each of the seven methods with each gage having at least two consecutive years of specific conductance data and 30 years of continuous discharge data. BFI is cumulative base flow divided by cumulative total discharge over the period of record of analysis. The BFI value is dimensionless, and always varies from 0 to 1. Areas of basins used in this study range from 27 km2 to 68,117 km2. BFI was first determined for the uncalibrated analytical methods. The parameters of each analytical method were then calibrated to produce BFI values as close to the CMB derived BFI values as possible. One of the methods, the power function (aQb + cQ) method, is inherently calibrated and was not recalibrated. The uncalibrated analytical methods have an average correlation coefficient of 0.43 when compared to CMB-derived values, and an average correlation coefficient of 0.93 when calibrated with the CMB method. Once calibrated, the analytical methods can closely reproduce the base flow values of a mass balance method. Therefore, it is recommended that analytical methods be calibrated against tracer or mass balance methods.
Development of a flow rate monitoring method for the wearable ventricular assist device driver.
Ohnuma, Kentaro; Homma, Akihiko; Sumikura, Hirohito; Tsukiya, Tomonori; Takewa, Yoshiaki; Mizuno, Toshihide; Mukaibayashi, Hiroshi; Kojima, Koichi; Katano, Kazuo; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki; Tatsumi, Eisuke
2015-06-01
Our research institute has been working on the development of a compact wearable drive unit for an extracorporeal ventricular assist device (VAD) with a pneumatically driven pump. A method for checking the pump blood flow on the side of the drive unit without modifying the existing blood pump and impairing the portability of it will be useful. In this study, to calculate the pump flow rate indirectly from measuring the flow rate of the driving air of the VAD air chamber, we conducted experiments using a mock circuit to investigate the correlation between the air flow rate and the pump flow rate as well as its accuracy and error factors. The pump flow rate was measured using an ultrasonic flow meter at the inflow and outflow tube, and the air flow was measured using a thermal mass flow meter at the driveline. Similarity in the instantaneous waveform was confirmed between the air flow rate in the driveline and the pump flow rate. Some limitations of this technique were indicated by consideration of the error factors. A significant correlation was found between the average pump flow rate in the ejecting direction and the average air flow rate in the ejecting direction (R2 = 0.704-0.856), and the air flow rate in the filling direction (R2 = 0.947-0.971). It was demonstrated that the average pump flow rate was estimated exactly in a wide range of drive conditions using the air flow of the filling phase. PMID:25500948
Flow prediction for three-dimensional intakes and ducts using viscous-inviscid interaction methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wrisdale, Ian Edward
1991-02-01
A numerical scheme for the prediction of flows in engine intakes is presented. The scheme, which employs a viscous-inviscid interaction approach, is aimed at the treatment of high Reynolds number flows in which a significant region of inviscid core flow exists in the intake. The scheme is restricted to the treatment of attached flows; however, it is suitable for the treatment of highly rotational flows. The subsonic core flow calculations in the intake duct are performed using an Euler space marching scheme. Accurate flow prediction using the scheme requires the specification of detailed boundary conditions at the inlet plane of the duct. Appropriate conditions have been obtained by using a finite volume time marching scheme to calculate the flow field around inlet cowls at incidence. Hence, the boundary conditions for the duct calculations take account of the lip flows which are dependent on free stream conditions, incidence, and the mass flow ratio. Careful matching of the cowl and duct calculations provides a solution of the complete inviscid flow field both internal and external. The viscous-inviscid interaction scheme couples the inviscid solutions to a fully three-dimensional boundary layer method using a displacement surface model. The integral boundary layer method is aimed at the treatment of attached, turbulent boundary layers and includes the effects of rotational outer flows. Although the method is restricted to attached flows it may be used to indicate the onset of three-dimensional flow separation. The coupling of the inviscid flows and the boundary layers on the internal and external surface of the intake provide a complete description of the entire flow field. Numerical examples are presented throughout the work to illustrate the various methods. The complete scheme is then used to calculate the flow in an S-shaped intake duct operating under choked conditions at varying angles of incidence.
Imbalance-correction grid-refinement method for lattice Boltzmann flow simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuwata, Y.; Suga, K.
2016-04-01
To enhance the accuracy and applicability of the zonal grid refinement method for the lattice Boltzmann method, a new method which minimizes the interface imbalances of mass and momentum is developed. This method introduces a correction step for the macroscopic flow variables such as the fluid density and velocity to remove their interface discontinuity. To demonstrate and evaluate the presently developed imbalance correction grid refinement method, large eddy simulations of turbulent channel and square cylinder flows are carried out. By changing the grid arrangement in the turbulent channel flows, it is confirmed that the present method reduces the sensitivity to the location of the grid refinement interface and minimizes the unphysically discontinuous profiles satisfactorily. Furthermore, the present method considerably improves mass conservation of the system, which is particularly important for long time periodical flow simulations. It is also confirmed that the present method generally improves the prediction performance of the square cylinder flows.
Lattice Boltzmann Method for 3-D Flows with Curved Boundary
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mei, Renwei; Shyy, Wei; Yu, Dazhi; Luo, Li-Shi
2002-01-01
In this work, we investigate two issues that are important to computational efficiency and reliability in fluid dynamics applications of the lattice, Boltzmann equation (LBE): (1) Computational stability and accuracy of different lattice Boltzmann models and (2) the treatment of the boundary conditions on curved solid boundaries and their 3-D implementations. Three athermal 3-D LBE models (D3QI5, D3Ql9, and D3Q27) are studied and compared in terms of efficiency, accuracy, and robustness. The boundary treatment recently developed by Filippova and Hanel and Met et al. in 2-D is extended to and implemented for 3-D. The convergence, stability, and computational efficiency of the 3-D LBE models with the boundary treatment for curved boundaries were tested in simulations of four 3-D flows: (1) Fully developed flows in a square duct, (2) flow in a 3-D lid-driven cavity, (3) fully developed flows in a circular pipe, and (4) a uniform flow over a sphere. We found that while the fifteen-velocity 3-D (D3Ql5) model is more prone to numerical instability and the D3Q27 is more computationally intensive, the 63Q19 model provides a balance between computational reliability and efficiency. Through numerical simulations, we demonstrated that the boundary treatment for 3-D arbitrary curved geometry has second-order accuracy and possesses satisfactory stability characteristics.
A direct-inverse method for transonic and separated flows about airfoils
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carlson, Leland A.
1990-01-01
A direct-inverse technique and computer program called TAMSEP that can be used for the analysis of the flow about airfoils at subsonic and low transonic freestream velocities is presented. The method is based upon a direct-inverse nonconservative full potential inviscid method, a Thwaites laminar boundary layer technique, and the Barnwell turbulent momentum integral scheme; and it is formulated using Cartesian coordinates. Since the method utilizes inverse boundary conditions in regions of separated flow, it is suitable for predicting the flow field about airfoils having trailing edge separated flow under high lift conditions. Comparisons with experimental data indicate that the method should be a useful tool for applied aerodynamic analyses.
Spacecraft heat transfer by two-phase flow method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hye, A.
1985-01-01
A refrigerator/freezer has been designed with an oil-free compressor to provide an economical two-phase flow system for heat transfer. A computer simulation has been done for the condenser and evaporator to determine the design parameters, such as length, diameter, and flow regimes, for different refrigerants and load requirements. A large Reynolds number was considered to ensure annular flow (in order to maximize heat transfer coefficients) and large Froude number. The simulation was correlated with the test data of a vapor compression refrigerator/freezer flown on STS-4 (which provided information on vapor compression in a zero-gravity environment). The two-phase system will be used for the Spacelab mission SLS-1 and can be used in future spacecraft and high-speed aircraft, where weight, volume, and power requirements are critical.
Detailed analysis of POD method applied on turbulent flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kellnerova, Radka; Kukacka, Libor; Uruba, Vaclav; Jurcakova, Klara; Janour, Zbynek
2012-04-01
Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) of a very turbulent flow inside a street canyon is performed. The energy contribution of each mode is obtained. Also, physical meaning of the POD result is clarified. Particular modes of POD are assigned to the particular flow events like a sweep event, a vortex behind a roof or a vortex at the bottom of a street. Test of POD sensitivity to the acquisition time of data records is done. Test with decreasing sample frequency is also executed. Further, interpolation of POD expansion coefficient is performed in order to test possible increase in sample frequency and get new information about the flow from the POD analysis. We tested a linear and a spline type of the interpolation and the linear one carried out a slightly better result.
Method and apparatus for adapting steady flow with cyclic thermodynamics
Swift, Gregory W.; Reid, Robert S.; Ward, William C.
2000-01-01
Energy transfer apparatus has a resonator for supporting standing acoustic waves at a selected frequency with a steady flow process fluid thermodynamic medium and a solid medium having heat capacity. The fluid medium and the solid medium are disposed within the resonator for thermal contact therebetween and for relative motion therebetween. The relative motion is produced by a first means for producing a steady velocity component and second means for producing an oscillating velocity component at the selected frequency and concomitant wavelength of the standing acoustic wave. The oscillating velocity and associated oscillating pressure component provide energy transfer between the steady flow process fluid and the solid medium as the steady flow process fluid moves through the resonator.
Lava flow rheology: A comparison of morphological and petrological methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chevrel, M. O.; Platz, T.; Hauber, E.; Baratoux, D.; Lavallée, Y.; Dingwell, D. B.
2013-12-01
In planetary sciences, the emplacement of lava flows is commonly modelled using a single rheological parameter (apparent viscosity or apparent yield strength) calculated from morphological dimensions using Jeffreys' and Hulme's equations. The rheological parameter is then typically further interpreted in terms of the nature and chemical composition of the lava (e.g., mafic or felsic). Without the possibility of direct sampling of the erupted material, the validity of this approach has remained largely untested. In modern volcanology, the complex rheological behaviour of lavas is measured and modelled as a function of chemical composition of the liquid phase, fractions of crystals and bubbles, temperature and strain rate. Here, we test the planetary approach using a terrestrial basaltic lava flow from the Western Volcanic Zone in Iceland. The geometric parameters required to employ Jeffreys' and Hulme's equations are accurately estimated from high-resolution HRSC-AX Digital Elevation Models. Samples collected along the lava flow are used to constrain a detailed model of the transient rheology as a function of cooling, crystallisation, and compositional evolution of the residual melt during emplacement. We observe that the viscosity derived from the morphology corresponds to the value estimated when significant crystallisation inhibits viscous deformation, causing the flow to halt. As a consequence, the inferred viscosity is highly dependent on the details of the crystallisation sequence and crystal shapes, and as such, is neither uniquely nor simply related to the bulk chemical composition of the erupted material. This conclusion, drawn for a mafic lava flow where crystallisation is the primary process responsible for the increase of the viscosity during emplacement, should apply to most of martian, lunar, or mercurian volcanic landforms, which are dominated by basaltic compositions. However, it may not apply to felsic lavas where vitrification resulting from
A New Method for Flow Rate Measurement in Millimeter-Scale Pipes
Ji, Haifeng; Gao, Xuemin; Wang, Baoliang; Huang, Zhiyao; Li, Haiqing
2013-01-01
Combining the Capacitively Coupled Contactless Conductivity Detection (C4D) technique and the principle of cross correlation flow measurement, a new method for flow rate measurement in millimeter-scale pipes was proposed. The research work included two parts. First, a new five-electrode C4D sensor was developed. Second, with two conductivity signals obtained by the developed sensor, the flow rate measurement was implemented by using the principle of cross correlation flow measurement. The experimental results showed that the proposed flow rate measurement method was effective, the developed five-electrode C4D sensor was successful, and the measurement accuracy was satisfactory. In five millimeter-scale pipes with different inner diameters of 0.5, 0.8, 1.8, 3.0 and 3.9 mm respectively, the maximum relative difference of the flow rate measurement between the reference flow rate and the measured flow rate was less than 5%. PMID:23353139
Method for computing three-dimensional turbulent flows
Bernard, P.S.; Berger, B.S.
1982-06-01
The MVC (mean vorticity and covariance) turbulence closure is derived for three-dimensional turbulent flows. The derivation utilizes Lagrangian time expansion techniques applied to the unclosed terms of the mean vorticity and covariance equations. The closed mean vorticity equation is applied to the numerical solution of fully developed three-dimensional channel flow. Anisotropies in the wall region are modelled by pairs of counterrotating streamwise vortices. The numerical results are in close agreement with experimental data. Analysis of the contributions of the terms in the mean vorticity equation gives insight into the dynamics of the turbulent boundary. 41 references, 7 figures.
Applications of domain decomposition methods to turbomachinery flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rai, M. M.
Domain decomposition techniques can be used to great advantage by computational fluid dynamicists in computing flows about complex geometries and adapting the grid to the solution. These techniques are particularly useful in computing flows about several bodies that are in relative motion such as rotor/stator configurations in turbomachinery or helicopter rotor/fuselage configurations. This paper discusses some of the basic ideas involved in transferring information between subdomains in a multidomain calculation and presents results for a simple rotor/stator configuration.
Computational Methods for Analyzing Fluid Flow Dynamics from Digital Imagery
Luttman, A.
2012-03-30
The main goal (long term) of this work is to perform computational dynamics analysis and quantify uncertainty from vector fields computed directly from measured data. Global analysis based on observed spatiotemporal evolution is performed by objective function based on expected physics and informed scientific priors, variational optimization to compute vector fields from measured data, and transport analysis proceeding with observations and priors. A mathematical formulation for computing flow fields is set up for computing the minimizer for the problem. An application to oceanic flow based on sea surface temperature is presented.
Simple Radiowave-Based Method For Measuring Peripheral Blood Flow Project
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J.
2014-01-01
Project objective is to design small radio frequency based flow probes for the measurement of blood flow velocity in peripheral arteries such as the femoral artery and middle cerebral artery. The result will be the technological capability to measure peripheral blood flow rates and flow changes during various environmental stressors such as microgravity without contact to the individual being monitored. This technology may also lead to an easier method of detecting venous gas emboli during extravehicular activities.
A comparison of computational methods for three-dimensional, turbulent turbomachinery flow fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kirtley, K. R.; Warfield, M.; Lakshminarayana, B.
1986-01-01
A space-marching method and a time-marching method have been used to compute the three-dimensional turbulent flow in an end wall cascade of airfoils. Using an identical grid and turbulence model, the two codes were used to predict a variety of flow quantities. Predictions by the two methods are compared to each other and to experimental data. In general both methods predict measured quantities well, with a small edge in prediction accuracy going to the space-marching method. Secondary flow comparisons show the time-marching solution more accurately predicting the underturning of the flow in the outer portion of the end wall boundary layer while the space-marching method more accurately predicted the overturning of the flow very near the end wall. The prediction comparisons are discussed along with computational details and other attributes of the two methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blais-Stevens, A.; Behnia, P.
2016-02-01
This research activity aimed at reducing risk to infrastructure, such as a proposed pipeline route roughly parallel to the Yukon Alaska Highway Corridor (YAHC), by filling geoscience knowledge gaps in geohazards. Hence, the Geological Survey of Canada compiled an inventory of landslides including debris flow deposits, which were subsequently used to validate two different debris flow susceptibility models. A qualitative heuristic debris flow susceptibility model was produced for the northern region of the YAHC, from Kluane Lake to the Alaska border, by integrating data layers with assigned weights and class ratings. These were slope angle, slope aspect, surficial geology, plan curvature, and proximity to drainage system. Validation of the model was carried out by calculating a success rate curve which revealed a good correlation with the susceptibility model and the debris flow deposit inventory compiled from air photos, high-resolution satellite imagery, and field verification. In addition, the quantitative Flow-R method was tested in order to define the potential source and debris flow susceptibility for the southern region of Kluane Lake, an area where documented debris flow events have blocked the highway in the past (e.g. 1988). Trial and error calculations were required for this method because there was not detailed information on the debris flows for the YAHC to allow us to define threshold values for some parameters when calculating source areas, spreading, and runout distance. Nevertheless, correlation with known documented events helped define these parameters and produce a map that captures most of the known events and displays debris flow susceptibility in other, usually smaller, steep channels that had not been previously documented.
Study of design and analysis methods for transonic flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murman, E. M.
1977-01-01
An airfoil design program and a boundary layer analysis were developed. Boundary conditions were derived for ventilated transonic wind tunnels and performing transonic windtunnel wall calculations. A computational procedure for rotational transonic flow in engine inlet throats was formulated. Results and conclusions are summarized.
Unstructured Mesh Methods for the Simulation of Hypersonic Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peraire, J.
1999-01-01
This report summarizes the research undertaken, at Aeronautics Department of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, during the approximately five year period, February 94 - March 99. This work is part of a larger effort aimed at providing a reliable fast turn around capability for the prediction of hypersonic flows over complete vehicle configurations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zang, Thomas A.; Mathelin, Lionel; Hussaini, M. Yousuff; Bataille, Francoise
2003-01-01
This paper describes a fully spectral, Polynomial Chaos method for the propagation of uncertainty in numerical simulations of compressible, turbulent flow, as well as a novel stochastic collocation algorithm for the same application. The stochastic collocation method is key to the efficient use of stochastic methods on problems with complex nonlinearities, such as those associated with the turbulence model equations in compressible flow and for CFD schemes requiring solution of a Riemann problem. Both methods are applied to compressible flow in a quasi-one-dimensional nozzle. The stochastic collocation method is roughly an order of magnitude faster than the fully Galerkin Polynomial Chaos method on the inviscid problem.
An empirical method for estimating travel times for wet volcanic mass flows
Pierson, Thomas C.
1998-01-01
Travel times for wet volcanic mass flows (debris avalanches and lahars) can be forecast as a function of distance from source when the approximate flow rate (peak discharge near the source) can be estimated beforehand. The near-source flow rate is primarily a function of initial flow volume, which should be possible to estimate to an order of magnitude on the basis of geologic, geomorphic, and hydrologic factors at a particular volcano. Least-squares best fits to plots of flow-front travel time as a function of distance from source provide predictive second-degree polynomial equations with high coefficients of determination for four broad size classes of flow based on near-source flow rate: extremely large flows (>1 000 000 m3/s), very large flows (10 000–1 000 000 m3/s), large flows (1000–10 000 m3/s), and moderate flows (100–1000 m3/s). A strong nonlinear correlation that exists between initial total flow volume and flow rate for "instantaneously" generated debris flows can be used to estimate near-source flow rates in advance. Differences in geomorphic controlling factors among different flows in the data sets have relatively little effect on the strong nonlinear correlations between travel time and distance from source. Differences in flow type may be important, especially for extremely large flows, but this could not be evaluated here. At a given distance away from a volcano, travel times can vary by approximately an order of magnitude depending on flow rate. The method can provide emergency-management officials a means for estimating time windows for evacuation of communities located in hazard zones downstream from potentially hazardous volcanoes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawabata, Jun-ichi; Shi-igai, Hiroyoshi; Yabuno, Kohei; Saito, Tadayuki
1992-06-01
The complex function method is applied to screen printing flow with low Reynolds number assuming that the printing ink is Newtonian. The screen printing flow is expressed through a Taylor flow in the corner. The pressure distribution, vorticity distribution and stream lines of the Taylor flow can easily be obtained by using the complex function method. A new model of the flow which may better express the screen printing is obtained through this method by placing a sink at the origin of the Taylor flow. The appropriate corner angle for printing, theoretically derived from this method as 65.4°, corresponds to the empirical angle in industrial use. The pressure distribution of this model shows good agreement with the experimental results obtained in the present work.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beatty, T. D.
1975-01-01
A theoretical method is presented for the computation of the flow field about an axisymmetric body operating in a viscous, incompressible fluid. A potential flow method was used to determine the inviscid flow field and to yield the boundary conditions for the boundary layer solutions. Boundary layer effects in the forces of displacement thickness and empirically modeled separation streamlines are accounted for in subsequent potential flow solutions. This procedure is repeated until the solutions converge. An empirical method was used to determine base drag allowing configuration drag to be computed.
General design method for three-dimensional potential flow fields. 1: Theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stanitz, J. D.
1980-01-01
A general design method was developed for steady, three dimensional, potential, incompressible or subsonic-compressible flow. In this design method, the flow field, including the shape of its boundary, was determined for arbitrarily specified, continuous distributions of velocity as a function of arc length along the boundary streamlines. The method applied to the design of both internal and external flow fields, including, in both cases, fields with planar symmetry. The analytic problems associated with stagnation points, closure of bodies in external flow fields, and prediction of turning angles in three dimensional ducts were reviewed.
System and method for bidirectional flow and controlling fluid flow in a conduit
Ortiz, Marcos German
1999-01-01
A system for measuring bidirectional flow, including backflow, of fluid in a conduit. The system utilizes a structural mechanism to create a pressure differential in the conduit. Pressure sensors are positioned upstream from the mechanism, at the mechanism, and downstream from the mechanism. Data from the pressure sensors are transmitted to a microprocessor or computer, and pressure differential detected between the pressure sensors is then used to calculate the backflow. Control signals may then be generated by the microprocessor or computer to shut off valves located in the conduit, upon the occurrence of backflow, or to control flow, total material dispersed, etc. in the conduit.
System and method for bidirectional flow and controlling fluid flow in a conduit
Ortiz, M.G.
1999-03-23
A system for measuring bidirectional flow, including backflow, of fluid in a conduit is disclosed. The system utilizes a structural mechanism to create a pressure differential in the conduit. Pressure sensors are positioned upstream from the mechanism, at the mechanism, and downstream from the mechanism. Data from the pressure sensors are transmitted to a microprocessor or computer, and pressure differential detected between the pressure sensors is then used to calculate the backflow. Control signals may then be generated by the microprocessor or computer to shut off valves located in the conduit, upon the occurrence of backflow, or to control flow, total material dispersed, etc. in the conduit. 3 figs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schmucker, R. H.
1983-01-01
Methods aimed at reduction of overexpansion and side load resulting from asymmetric flow separation for rocket nozzles with a high opening ratio are described. The methods employ additional measures for nozzles with a fixed opening ratio. The flow separation can be controlled by several types of nozzle inserts, the properties of which are discussed. Side loads and overexpansion can be reduced by adapting the shape of the nozzle and taking other additional measures for controlled separation of the boundary layer, such as trip wires.
Expiratory flow limitation definition, mechanisms, methods, and significance.
Tantucci, Claudio
2013-01-01
When expiratory flow is maximal during tidal breathing and cannot be increased unless operative lung volumes move towards total lung capacity, tidal expiratory flow limitation (EFL) is said to occur. EFL represents a severe mechanical constraint caused by different mechanisms and observed in different conditions, but it is more relevant in terms of prevalence and negative consequences in obstructive lung diseases and particularly in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although in COPD patients EFL more commonly develops during exercise, in more advanced disorder it can be present at rest, before in supine position, and then in seated-sitting position. In any circumstances EFL predisposes to pulmonary dynamic hyperinflation and its unfavorable effects such as increased elastic work of breathing, inspiratory muscles dysfunction, and progressive neuroventilatory dissociation, leading to reduced exercise tolerance, marked breathlessness during effort, and severe chronic dyspnea. PMID:23606962
Methods Used in Game Development to Foster FLOW
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jeppsen, Isaac Ben
2010-01-01
Games designed for entertainment have a rich history of providing compelling experiences. From consoles to PCs, games have managed to present intuitive and effective interfaces for a wide range of game styles to successfully allow users to "walk-up-and-play". Once a user is hooked, successful games artfully present challenging experiences just within reach of a user's ability, weaving each task and achievement into a compelling and engaging experience. In this paper, engagement is discussed in terms of the psychological theory of Flow. I argue that engagement should be one of the primary goals when developing a serious game and I discuss the best practices and techniques that have emerged from traditional video game development which help foster the creation of engaging, high Flow experiences.
Method of producing monolithic ceramic cross-flow filter
Larsen, David A.; Bacchi, David P.; Connors, Timothy F.; Collins, III, Edwin L.
1998-01-01
Ceramic filter of various configuration have been used to filter particulates from hot gases exhausted from coal-fired systems. Prior ceramic cross-flow filters have been favored over other types, but those previously horn have been assemblies of parts somehow fastened together and consequently subject often to distortion or delamination on exposure hot gas in normal use. The present new monolithic, seamless, cross-flow ceramic filters, being of one-piece construction, are not prone to such failure. Further, these new products are made by novel casting process which involves the key steps of demolding the ceramic filter green body so that none of the fragile inner walls of the filter is cracked or broken.
Method of producing monolithic ceramic cross-flow filter
Larsen, D.A.; Bacchi, D.P.; Connors, T.F.; Collins, E.L. III
1998-02-10
Ceramic filter of various configuration have been used to filter particulates from hot gases exhausted from coal-fired systems. Prior ceramic cross-flow filters have been favored over other types, but those previously have been assemblies of parts somehow fastened together and consequently subject often to distortion or delamination on exposure hot gas in normal use. The present new monolithic, seamless, cross-flow ceramic filters, being of one-piece construction, are not prone to such failure. Further, these new products are made by a novel casting process which involves the key steps of demolding the ceramic filter green body so that none of the fragile inner walls of the filter is cracked or broken. 2 figs.
Expiratory Flow Limitation Definition, Mechanisms, Methods, and Significance
Tantucci, Claudio
2013-01-01
When expiratory flow is maximal during tidal breathing and cannot be increased unless operative lung volumes move towards total lung capacity, tidal expiratory flow limitation (EFL) is said to occur. EFL represents a severe mechanical constraint caused by different mechanisms and observed in different conditions, but it is more relevant in terms of prevalence and negative consequences in obstructive lung diseases and particularly in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although in COPD patients EFL more commonly develops during exercise, in more advanced disorder it can be present at rest, before in supine position, and then in seated-sitting position. In any circumstances EFL predisposes to pulmonary dynamic hyperinflation and its unfavorable effects such as increased elastic work of breathing, inspiratory muscles dysfunction, and progressive neuroventilatory dissociation, leading to reduced exercise tolerance, marked breathlessness during effort, and severe chronic dyspnea. PMID:23606962
System and method measuring fluid flow in a conduit
Ortiz, M.G.; Kidd, T.G.
1999-05-18
A system is described for measuring fluid mass flow in a conduit in which there exists a pressure differential in the fluid between at least two spaced-apart locations in the conduit. The system includes a first pressure transducer disposed in the side of the conduit at a first location for measuring pressure of fluid at that location, a second or more pressure transducers disposed in the side of the conduit at a second location, for making multiple measurements of pressure of fluid in the conduit at that location, and a computer for computing the average pressure of the multiple measurements at the second location and for computing flow rate of fluid in the conduit from the pressure measurement by the first pressure transducer and from the average pressure calculation of the multiple measurements. 3 figs.
System and method measuring fluid flow in a conduit
Ortiz, Marcos German; Kidd, Terrel G.
1999-01-01
A system for measuring fluid mass flow in a conduit in which there exists a pressure differential in the fluid between at least two spaced-apart locations in the conduit. The system includes a first pressure transducer disposed in the side of the conduit at a first location for measuring pressure of fluid at that location, a second or more pressure transducers disposed in the side of the conduit at a second location, for making multiple measurements of pressure of fluid in the conduit at that location, and a computer for computing the average pressure of the multiple measurements at the second location and for computing flow rate of fluid in the conduit from the pressure measurement by the first pressure transducer and from the average pressure calculation of the multiple measurements.
Solution of Reactive Compressible Flows Using an Adaptive Wavelet Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zikoski, Zachary; Paolucci, Samuel; Powers, Joseph
2008-11-01
This work presents numerical simulations of reactive compressible flow, including detailed multicomponent transport, using an adaptive wavelet algorithm. The algorithm allows for dynamic grid adaptation which enhances our ability to fully resolve all physically relevant scales. The thermodynamic properties, equation of state, and multicomponent transport properties are provided by CHEMKIN and TRANSPORT libraries. Results for viscous detonation in a H2:O2:Ar mixture, and other problems in multiple dimensions, are included.
An unconditionally stable Runge-Kutta method for unsteady flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Chima, Rodrick V.
1989-01-01
A quasi-three-dimensional analysis was developed for unsteady rotor-stator interaction in turbomachinery. The analysis solves the unsteady Euler or thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations in a body-fitted coordinate system. It accounts for the effects of rotation, radius change, and stream surface thickness. The Baldwin-Lomax eddy viscosity model is used for turbulent flows. The equations are integrated in time using a four-stage Runge-Kutta scheme with a constant time step. Implicit residual smoothing was employed to accelerate the solution of the time accurate computations. The scheme is described and accuracy analyses are given. Results are shown for a supersonic through-flow fan designed for NASA Lewis. The rotor:stator blade ratio was taken as 1:1. Results are also shown for the first stage of the Space Shuttle Main Engine high pressure fuel turbopump. Here the blade ratio is 2:3. Implicit residual smoothing was used to increase the time step limit of the unsmoothed scheme by a factor of six with negligible differences in the unsteady results. It is felt that the implicitly smoothed Runge-Kutta scheme is easily competitive with implicit schemes for unsteady flows while retaining the simplicity of an explicit scheme.
An unconditionally stable Runge-Kutta method for unsteady flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Chima, Rodrick V.
1988-01-01
A quasi-three dimensional analysis was developed for unsteady rotor-stator interaction in turbomachinery. The analysis solves the unsteady Euler or thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations in a body fitted coordinate system. It accounts for the effects of rotation, radius change, and stream surface thickness. The Baldwin-Lomax eddy viscosity model is used for turbulent flows. The equations are integrated in time using a four stage Runge-Kutta scheme with a constant time step. Implicit residual smoothing was employed to accelerate the solution of the time accurate computations. The scheme is described and accuracy analyses are given. Results are shown for a supersonic through-flow fan designed for NASA Lewis. The rotor:stator blade ratio was taken as 1:1. Results are also shown for the first stage of the Space Shuttle Main Engine high pressure fuel turbopump. Here the blade ratio is 2:3. Implicit residual smoothing was used to increase the time step limit of the unsmoothed scheme by a factor of six with negligible differences in the unsteady results. It is felt that the implicitly smoothed Runge-Kutta scheme is easily competitive with implicit schemes for unsteady flows while retaining the simplicity of an explicit scheme.
Topology method for analyses of 3-D viscous flow structure in transonic turbomachinery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Yanhu; Wang, Baoguo; Shen, Mengyu
1997-12-01
A topology method is presented in this paper to reveal flow structure occurring inside turbomachinery, in which near wall flow structure is revealed by using wall limiting streamlines and space flow feature is revealed by using space streamlines and cross-section streamlines. As an example, a computational three-dimensional viscous flow field inside a transonic turbine cascade is studied. Through the analysis, the form and evolution of vortex system and the whole process of separation occurring within this cascade are revealed. The application of topology method for analyze flow structure inside turbomachinery is very important for understanding flow features and mechanism of flow loss even for improving the design of turbomachinery and increasing its efficiency.
An Empirical Method for Fast Prediction of Rarefied Flow Field around a Vertical Plate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Tao; Wang, Jiang-Feng
2016-06-01
Numerical study is conducted to investigate the effects of free-stream Knudsen (Kn) number on rarefied flow field around a vertical plate employing an unstructured DSMC method, and an empirical method for fast prediction of flow-field structure at different Kn numbers in a given inflow velocity is proposed. First, the flow at a velocity 7500m/s is simulated using a perfect-gas model with free-stream Kn changing from 0.035 to 13.36. The flow-field characteristics in these cases with varying Kn numbers are analyzed and a linear-expansion phenomenon as a function of the square of Kn is discovered. An empirical method is proposed for fast flow-field prediction at different Kn based on the least-square-fitting method. Further, the effects of chemical reactions on flow field are investigated to verify the applicability of the empirical method in the real gas conditions. Three of the cases in perfect-gas flow are simulated again by introducing five-species air chemical module. The flow properties with and without chemical reactions are compared. In the end, the variation of chemical-reaction flow field as a function of Kn is analyzed and it is shown that the empirical method are also suitable when considering chemical reactions.
Flow instability of a centrifugal pump determined using the energy gradient method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yi; Dong, Wenlong; He, Zhaohui; Huang, Yuanmin; Jiang, Xiaojun
2015-02-01
The stability of the centrifugal pump has not been well revealed because of the complexity of internal flow. To analyze the flow characteristics of a centrifugal pump operating at low capacity, methods of numerical simulation and experimental research were adopted in this paper. Characteristics of the inner flow were obtained. Standard k-ɛ turbulence models were used to calculate the inner flow of the pump under off-design conditions. The distribution of the energy gradient function K was obtained by three-dimensional numerical simulation at different flow rates. The relative velocity component was acquired from the absolute velocity obtained in particle image velocimetry. By comparing with experimental results, it was found that flow instability occurs at the position of maximum K. The flow stability reduces with an increasing flow rate. The research results provide a theoretical basis for the optimization design of a centrifugal pump.
Kinetic theory based new upwind methods for inviscid compressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deshpande, S. M.
1986-01-01
Two new upwind methods called the Kinetic Numerical Method (KNM) and the Kinetic Flux Vector Splitting (KFVS) method for the solution of the Euler equations have been presented. Both of these methods can be regarded as some suitable moments of an upwind scheme for the solution of the Boltzmann equation provided the distribution function is Maxwellian. This moment-method strategy leads to a unification of the Riemann approach and the pseudo-particle approach used earlier in the development of upwind methods for the Euler equations. A very important aspect of the moment-method strategy is that the new upwind methods satisfy the entropy condition because of the Boltzmann H-Theorem and suggest a possible way of extending the Total Variation Diminishing (TVD) principle within the framework of the H-Theorem. The ability of these methods in obtaining accurate wiggle-free solution is demonstrated by applying them to two test problems.
Tracking and Measurement of the Motion of Blood Cells Using Optical Flow Methods
Guo, Dongmin; Van de Ven, Anne L.; Zhou, Xiaobo
2014-01-01
The investigation of microcirculation is a critical task in biomedical and physiological research. In order to monitor human’s condition and develop effective therapies of some diseases, the microcirculation information, such as flow velocity and vessel density, must be evaluated in a noninvasive manner. As one of the tasks of microcirculation investigation, automatic blood cell tracking presents an effective approach to estimate blood flow velocity. Currently, the most common method for blood cell tracking is based on spatiotemporal image analysis, which has lots of limitations, such as the diameter of microvesssels cannot be too larger than blood cells or tracers, cells or tracers should have fixed velocity, and it requires the image with high qualification. In this paper, we propose an optical flow method for automatic cell tracking. The key algorithm of the method is to align an image to its neighbors in a large image collection consisting of a variety of scenes. Considering the method cannot solve the problems in all cases of cell movement, another optical flow method, SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform) flow, is also presented. The experimental results show that both methods can track the cells accurately. Optical flow is specially robust to the case where the velocity of cell is unstable, while SIFT flow works well when there are large displacement of cell between two adjacent frames. Our proposed methods outperform other methods when doing in vivo cell tracking, which can be used to estimate the blood flow directly and help to evaluate other parameters in microcirculation. PMID:24058034
Method and apparatus to measure vapor pressure in a flow system
Grossman, Mark W.; Biblarz, Oscar
1991-01-01
The present invention is directed to a method for determining, by a condensation method, the vapor pressure of a material with a known vapor pressure versus temperature characteristic, in a flow system particularly in a mercury isotope enrichment process.
Method of characteristics for three-dimensional axially symmetrical supersonic flows.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sauer, R
1947-01-01
An approximation method for three-dimensional axially symmetrical supersonic flows is developed; it is based on the characteristics theory (represented partly graphically, partly analytically). Thereafter this method is applied to the construction of rotationally symmetrical nozzles. (author)
A Method to Evaluate Groundwater flow system under the Seabed
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohara, N.; Marui, A.
2011-12-01
/ fresh water interface (position of the submarine groundwater discharge) may appear on the seafloor. Moreover, neither the salinity concentration nor the groundwater age depends on depth. It is thought that it is because that the groundwater forms the complex flow situation through the change in a long-term groundwater flow system. The technology to understand the coastal groundwater flow consists of remote sensing, geographical features analysis, surface of the earth investigation, geophysical exploration, drilling survey, and indoor examination and the measurement. Integration of each technology is needed to interpret groundwater flow system because the one is to catch the local groundwater flow in the time series and another one is to catch the long-term and regional groundwater flow in the general situation. The purpose of this study is to review the previous research of coastal groundwater flow, and to integrate an applicable evaluation approach to understand this mechanism. In this presentation, the review of the research and case study using numerical simulation are introduced.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mohn, L. W.
1975-01-01
The use of the Boeing TEA-230 Subsonic Flow Analysis method as a primary design tool in the development of cruise overwing nacelle configurations is presented. Surface pressure characteristics at 0.7 Mach number were determined by the TEA-230 method for a selected overwing flow-through nacelle configuration. Results of this analysis show excellent overall agreement with corresponding wind tunnel data. Effects of the presence of the nacelle on the wing pressure field were predicted accurately by the theoretical method. Evidence is provided that differences between theoretical and experimental pressure distributions in the present study would not result in significant discrepancies in the nacelle lines or nacelle drag estimates.
Method and system for measuring multiphase flow using multiple pressure differentials
Fincke, James R.
2001-01-01
An improved method and system for measuring a multiphase flow in a pressure flow meter. An extended throat venturi is used and pressure of the multiphase flow is measured at three or more positions in the venturi, which define two or more pressure differentials in the flow conduit. The differential pressures are then used to calculate the mass flow of the gas phase, the total mass flow, and the liquid phase. The method for determining the mass flow of the high void fraction fluid flow and the gas flow includes certain steps. The first step is calculating a gas density for the gas flow. The next two steps are finding a normalized gas mass flow rate through the venturi and computing a gas mass flow rate. The following step is estimating the gas velocity in the venturi tube throat. The next step is calculating the pressure drop experienced by the gas-phase due to work performed by the gas phase in accelerating the liquid phase between the upstream pressure measuring point and the pressure measuring point in the venturi throat. Another step is estimating the liquid velocity in the venturi throat using the calculated pressure drop experienced by the gas-phase due to work performed by the gas phase. Then the friction is computed between the liquid phase and a wall in the venturi tube. Finally, the total mass flow rate based on measured pressure in the venturi throat is calculated, and the mass flow rate of the liquid phase is calculated from the difference of the total mass flow rate and the gas mass flow rate.
An Efficient Inverse Aerodynamic Design Method For Subsonic Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Milholen, William E., II
2000-01-01
Computational Fluid Dynamics based design methods are maturing to the point that they are beginning to be used in the aircraft design process. Many design methods however have demonstrated deficiencies in the leading edge region of airfoil sections. The objective of the present research is to develop an efficient inverse design method which is valid in the leading edge region. The new design method is a streamline curvature method, and a new technique is presented for modeling the variation of the streamline curvature normal to the surface. The new design method allows the surface coordinates to move normal to the surface, and has been incorporated into the Constrained Direct Iterative Surface Curvature (CDISC) design method. The accuracy and efficiency of the design method is demonstrated using both two-dimensional and three-dimensional design cases.
Fictitious domain method for fully resolved reacting gas-solid flow simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Longhui; Liu, Kai; You, Changfu
2015-10-01
Fully resolved simulation (FRS) for gas-solid multiphase flow considers solid objects as finite sized regions in flow fields and their behaviours are predicted by solving equations in both fluid and solid regions directly. Fixed mesh numerical methods, such as fictitious domain method, are preferred in solving FRS problems and have been widely researched. However, for reacting gas-solid flows no suitable fictitious domain numerical method has been developed. This work presents a new fictitious domain finite element method for FRS of reacting particulate flows. Low Mach number reacting flow governing equations are solved sequentially on a regular background mesh. Particles are immersed in the mesh and driven by their surface forces and torques integrated on immersed interfaces. Additional treatments on energy and surface reactions are developed. Several numerical test cases validated the method and a burning carbon particles array falling simulation proved the capability for solving moving reacting particle cluster problems.
Method and apparatus for chemically altering fluids in continuous flow
Heath, W.O.; Virden, J.W. Jr.; Richardson, R.L.; Bergsman, T.M.
1993-10-19
The present invention relates to a continuous flow fluid reactor for chemically altering fluids. The reactor operates on standard frequency (50 to 60 Hz) electricity. The fluid reactor contains particles that are energized by the electricity to form a corona throughout the volume of the reactor and subsequently a non-equilibrium plasma that interacts with the fluid. Particles may form a fixed bed or a fluid bed. Electricity may be provided through electrodes or through an inductive coil. Fluids include gases containing exhaust products and organic fuels requiring oxidation. 4 figures.
Method and apparatus for chemically altering fluids in continuous flow
Heath, William O.; Virden, Jr., Judson W.; Richardson, R. L.; Bergsman, Theresa M.
1993-01-01
The present invention relates to a continuous flow fluid reactor for chemically altering fluids. The reactor operates on standard frequency (50 to 60 Hz) electricity. The fluid reactor contains particles that are energized by the electricity to form a corona throughout the volume of the reactor and subsequently a non-equilibrium plasma that interacts with the fluid. Particles may form a fixed bed or a fluid bed. Electricity may be provided through electrodes or through an inductive coil. Fluids include gases containing exhaust products and organic fuels requiring oxidation.
[Application of three heat pulse technique-based methods to determine the stem sap flow].
Wang, Sheng; Fan, Jun
2015-08-01
It is of critical importance to acquire tree transpiration characters through sap flow methodology to understand tree water physiology, forest ecology and ecosystem water exchange. Tri-probe heat pulse sensors, which are widely utilized in soil thermal parameters and soil evaporation measurement, were applied to implement Salix matsudana sap flow density (Vs) measurements via heat-ratio method (HRM), T-Max method (T-Max) and single-probe heat pulse probe (SHPP) method, and comparative analysis was conducted with additional Grainer's thermal diffusion probes (TDP) measured results. The results showed that, it took about five weeks to reach a stable measurement stage after TPHP installation, Vs measured with three methods in the early stage after installation was 135%-220% higher than Vs in the stable measurement stage, and Vs estimated via HRM, T-Max and SHPP methods were significantly linearly correlated with Vs estimated via TDP method, with R2 of 0.93, 0.73 and 0.91, respectively, and R2 for Vs measured by SHPP and HRM reached 0.94. HRM had relatively higher precision in measuring low rates and reverse sap flow. SHPP method seemed to be very promising to measure sap flow for configuration simplicity and high measuring accuracy, whereas it couldn' t distinguish directions of flow. T-Max method had relatively higher error in sap flow measurement, and it couldn' t measure sap flow below 5 cm3 · cm(-2) · h(-1), thus this method could not be used alone, however it could measure thermal diffusivity for calculating sap flow when other methods were imposed. It was recommended to choose a proper method or a combination of several methods to measure stem sap flow, based on specific research purpose. PMID:26685585
Wilson, John Thomas
2000-01-01
A mathematical technique of estimating low-flow frequencies from base-flow measurements was evaluated by using data for streams in Indiana. Low-flow frequencies at low- flow partial-record stations were estimated by relating base-flow measurements to concurrent daily flows at nearby streamflow-gaging stations (index stations) for which low-flowfrequency curves had been developed. A network of long-term streamflow-gaging stations in Indiana provided a sample of sites with observed low-flow frequencies. Observed values of 7-day, 10-year low flow and 7-day, 2-year low flow were compared to predicted values to evaluate the accuracy of the method. Five test cases were used to evaluate the method under a variety of conditions in which the location of the index station and its drainage area varied relative to the partial-record station. A total of 141 pairs of streamflow-gaging stations were used in the five test cases. Four of the test cases used one index station, the fifth test case used two index stations. The number of base-flow measurements was varied for each test case to see if the accuracy of the method was affected by the number of measurements used. The most accurate and least variable results were produced when two index stations on the same stream or tributaries of the partial-record station were used. All but one value of the predicted 7-day, 10-year low flow were within 15 percent of the values observed for the long-term continuous record, and all of the predicted values of the 7-day, 2-year lowflow were within 15 percent of the observed values. This apparent accuracy, to some extent, may be a result of the small sample set of 15. Of the four test cases that used one index station, the most accurate and least variable results were produced in the test case where the index station and partial-record station were on the same stream or on streams tributary to each other and where the index station had a larger drainage area than the partial-record station. In
High speed flow cytometer droplet formation system and method
Van den Engh, Ger
2000-01-01
A droplet forming flow cytometer system allows high speed processing without the need for high oscillator drive powers through the inclusion of an oscillator or piezoelectric crystal such as within the nozzle volume or otherwise unidirectionally coupled to the sheath fluid. The nozzle container continuously converges so as to amplify unidirectional oscillations which are transmitted as pressure waves through the nozzle volume to the nozzle exit so as to form droplets from the fluid jet. The oscillator is directionally isolated so as to avoid moving the entire nozzle container so as to create only pressure waves within the sheath fluid. A variation in substance concentration is achieved through a movable substance introduction port which is positioned within a convergence zone to vary the relative concentration of substance to sheath fluid while still maintaining optimal laminar flow conditions. This variation may be automatically controlled through a sensor and controller configuration. A replaceable tip design is also provided whereby the ceramic nozzle tip is positioned within an edge insert in the nozzle body so as to smoothly transition from nozzle body to nozzle tip. The nozzle tip is sealed against its outer surface to the nozzle body so it may be removable for cleaning or replacement.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, J. L. C.; Kwak, D.; Rogers, S. E.; Yang, R.-J.
1988-01-01
Incompressible Navier-Stokes solution methods are discussed with an emphasis on the pseudocompressibility method. A steady-state flow solver based on the pseudocompressibility approach is then described. This flow-solver code was used to analyze the internal flow in the Space Shuttle main engine hot-gas manifold. Salient features associated with this three-dimensional realistic flow simulation are discussed. Numerical solutions relevant to the current engine analysis and the redesign effort are discussed along with experimental results. This example demonstrates the potential of computational fluid dynamics as a design tool for aerospace applications.
Methods for Computationally Efficient Structured CFD Simulations of Complex Turbomachinery Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Herrick, Gregory P.; Chen, Jen-Ping
2012-01-01
This research presents more efficient computational methods by which to perform multi-block structured Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of turbomachinery, thus facilitating higher-fidelity solutions of complicated geometries and their associated flows. This computational framework offers flexibility in allocating resources to balance process count and wall-clock computation time, while facilitating research interests of simulating axial compressor stall inception with more complete gridding of the flow passages and rotor tip clearance regions than is typically practiced with structured codes. The paradigm presented herein facilitates CFD simulation of previously impractical geometries and flows. These methods are validated and demonstrate improved computational efficiency when applied to complicated geometries and flows.
Shaw, C G; Plewes, D B
1986-08-01
The pulsed-injection method for measuring the velocity of blood flow in intraarterial digital subtraction angiography is described. With this technique, contrast material is injected at a pulsing frequency as high as 15 Hz, so that two or more boluses can be imaged simultaneously. The velocity of flow is determined by measuring the spacing between the boluses and multiplying it by the pulsing frequency. Results of tests with phantoms correlate well with flow measurements obtained with a graduated cylinder for velocities ranging from 8 to 60 cm/sec. The potential of the method for time-dependent velocity measurement has been demonstrated with simulated pulsatile flows. PMID:3523598
A direct-inverse method for transonic and separated flows about airfoils
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carlson, K. D.
1985-01-01
A direct-inverse technique and computer program called TAMSEP that can be sued for the analysis of the flow about airfoils at subsonic and low transonic freestream velocities is presented. The method is based upon a direct-inverse nonconservative full potential inviscid method, a Thwaites laminar boundary layer technique, and the Barnwell turbulent momentum integral scheme; and it is formulated using Cartesian coordinates. Since the method utilizes inverse boundary conditions in regions of separated flow, it is suitable for predicing the flowfield about airfoils having trailing edge separated flow under high lift conditions. Comparisons with experimental data indicate that the method should be a useful tool for applied aerodynamic analyses.
Potential flow around two-dimensional airfoils using a singular integral method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nguyen, Yves; Wilson, Dennis
1987-01-01
The problem of potential flow around two-dimensional airfoils is solved by using a new singular integral method. The potential flow equations for incompressible potential flow are written in a singular integral equation. The equation is solved at N collocation points on the airfoil surface. A unique feature of this method is that the airfoil geometry is specified as an independent variable in the exact integral equation. Compared to other numerical methods, the present calculation procedure is much simpler and gives remarkable accuracy for many body shapes. An advantage of the present method is that it allows the inverse design calculation and the results are extremely accurate.
Newton-Krylov-Schwarz methods in unstructured grid Euler flow
Keyes, D.E.
1996-12-31
Newton-Krylov methods and Krylov-Schwarz (domain decomposition) methods have begun to become established in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) over the past decade. The former employ a Krylov method inside of Newton`s method in a Jacobian-free manner, through directional differencing. The latter employ an overlapping Schwarz domain decomposition to derive a preconditioner for the Krylov accelerator that relies primarily on local information, for data-parallel concurrency. They may be composed as Newton-Krylov-Schwarz (NKS) methods, which seem particularly well suited for solving nonlinear elliptic systems in high-latency, distributed-memory environments. We give a brief description of this family of algorithms, with an emphasis on domain decomposition iterative aspects. We then describe numerical simulations with Newton-Krylov-Schwarz methods on an aerodynamic application emphasizing comparisons with a standard defect-correction approach and subdomain preconditioner consistency.
Kingsmore, S.F.; Crockard, A.D.; Fay, A.C.; McNeill, T.A.; Roberts, S.D.; Thompson, J.M.
1988-01-01
Several flow cytometric methods for the measurement of circulating immune complexes (CIC) have recently become available. We report a Raji cell flow cytometric assay (FCMA) that uses aggregated human globulin (AHG) as primary calibrator. Technical advantages of the Raji cell flow cytometric assay are discussed, and its clinical usefulness is evaluated in a method comparison study with the widely used Raji cell immunoradiometric assay. FCMA is more precise and has greater analytic sensitivity for AHG. Diagnostic sensitivity by the flow cytometric method is superior in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis, and vasculitis patients: however, diagnostic specificity is similar for both assays, but the reference interval of FCMA is narrower. Significant correlations were found between CIC levels obtained with both methods in SLE, rheumatoid arthritis, and vasculitis patients and in longitudinal studies of two patients with cerebral SLE. The Raji cell FCMA is recommended for measurement of CIC levels to clinical laboratories with access to a flow cytometer.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Strong, Stuart L.; Meade, Andrew J., Jr.
1992-01-01
Preliminary results are presented of a finite element/finite difference method (semidiscrete Galerkin method) used to calculate compressible boundary layer flow about airfoils, in which the group finite element scheme is applied to the Dorodnitsyn formulation of the boundary layer equations. The semidiscrete Galerkin (SDG) method promises to be fast, accurate and computationally efficient. The SDG method can also be applied to any smoothly connected airfoil shape without modification and possesses the potential capability of calculating boundary layer solutions beyond flow separation. Results are presented for low speed laminar flow past a circular cylinder and past a NACA 0012 airfoil at zero angle of attack at a Mach number of 0.5. Also shown are results for compressible flow past a flat plate for a Mach number range of 0 to 10 and results for incompressible turbulent flow past a flat plate. All numerical solutions assume an attached boundary layer.
Abdi, Reza; Yasi, Mehdi
2015-01-01
The assessment of environmental flows in rivers is of vital importance for preserving riverine ecosystem processes. This paper addresses the evaluation of environmental flow requirements in three reaches along a typical perennial river (the Zab transboundary river, in north-west Iran), using different hydraulic, hydrological and ecological methods. The main objective of this study came from the construction of three dams and inter-basin transfer of water from the Zab River to the Urmia Lake. Eight hydrological methods (i.e. Tennant, Tessman, flow duration curve analysis, range of variability approach, Smakhtin, flow duration curve shifting, desktop reserve and 7Q2&10 (7-day low flow with a 2- and 10-year return period)); two hydraulic methods (slope value and maximum curvature); and two habitat simulation methods (hydraulic-ecologic, and Q Equation based on water quality indices) were used. Ecological needs of the riverine key species (mainly Barbus capito fish), river geometries, natural flow regime and the environmental status of river management were the main indices for determining the minimum flow requirements. The results indicate that the order of 35%, 17% and 18% of the mean annual flow are to be maintained for the upper, middle and downstream river reaches, respectively. The allocated monthly flow rates in the three Dams steering program are not sufficient to preserve the Zab River life. PMID:26204066
Numerical method for computing flow through partially saturated porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eaton, R. R.
This paper discusses the development of the finite element computer code SAGUARO which calculates the two-dimensional flow of mass and energy through porous media. The media may be saturated or partially saturated. SAGUARO solves the parabolic time-dependent mass transport equation which accounts for the presence of partially saturated zones through the use of highly non-linear material characteristic curves. The energy equation accounts for the possibility of partially-saturated regions by adjusting the thermal capacitances and thermal conductivities according to the volume fraction of water present in the local pores. The code capabilities are demonstrated through the presentation of a sample problem involving the one dimensional calculation of simultaneous energy transfer and water infiltration into partially saturated hard rock.
Methods to improve neural network performance in daily flows prediction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, C. L.; Chau, K. W.; Li, Y. S.
2009-06-01
SummaryIn this paper, three data-preprocessing techniques, moving average (MA), singular spectrum analysis (SSA), and wavelet multi-resolution analysis (WMRA), were coupled with artificial neural network (ANN) to improve the estimate of daily flows. Six models, including the original ANN model without data preprocessing, were set up and evaluated. Five new models were ANN-MA, ANN-SSA1, ANN-SSA2, ANN-WMRA1, and ANN-WMRA2. The ANN-MA was derived from the raw ANN model combined with the MA. The ANN-SSA1, ANN-SSA2, ANN-WMRA1 and ANN-WMRA2 were generated by using the original ANN model coupled with SSA and WMRA in terms of two different means. Two daily flow series from different watersheds in China (Lushui and Daning) were used in six models for three prediction horizons (i.e., 1-, 2-, and 3-day-ahead forecast). The poor performance on ANN forecast models was mainly due to the existence of the lagged prediction. The ANN-MA, among six models, performed best and eradicated the lag effect. The performances from the ANN-SSA1 and ANN-SSA2 were similar, and the performances from the ANN-WMRA1 and ANN-WMRA2 were also similar. However, the models based on the SSA presented better performance than the models based on the WMRA at all forecast horizons, which meant that the SSA is more effective than the WMRA in improving the ANN performance in the current study. Based on an overall consideration including the model performance and the complexity of modeling, the ANN-MA model was optimal, then the ANN model coupled with SSA, and finally the ANN model coupled with WMRA.
Laboratory Evaluation of Air Flow Measurement Methods for Residential HVAC Returns
Walker, Iain; Stratton, Chris
2015-07-01
This project improved the accuracy of air flow measurements used in commissioning California heating and air conditioning systems in Title 24 (Building and Appliance Efficiency Standards), thereby improving system performance and efficiency of California residences. The research team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory addressed the issue that typical tools used by contractors in the field to test air flows may not be accurate enough to measure return flows used in Title 24 applications. The team developed guidance on performance of current diagnostics as well as a draft test method for use in future evaluations. The series of tests performed measured air flow using a range of techniques and devices. The measured air flows were compared to reference air flow measurements using inline air flow meters built into the test apparatus. The experimental results showed that some devices had reasonable results (typical errors of 5 percent or less) but others had much bigger errors (up to 25 percent).
Method and apparatus for acoustically monitoring the flow of suspended solid particulate matter
Roach, Paul D.; Raptis, Apostolos C.
1982-01-01
A method and apparatus for monitoring char flow in a coal gasifier system cludes flow monitor circuits which measure acoustic attenuation caused by the presence of char in a char line and provide a char flow/no flow indication and an indication of relative char density. The flow monitor circuits compute the ratio of signals in two frequency bands, a first frequency band representative of background noise, and a second higher frequency band in which background noise is attenuated by the presence of char. Since the second frequency band contains higher frequencies, the ratio can be used to provide a flow/no flow indication. The second band can also be selected so that attenuation is monotonically related to particle concentration, providing a quantitative measure of char concentration.
A Phase-Field Method for Simulating Fluid-Structure Interactions in Multi-Phase Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Xiaoning; Karniadakis, George
2015-11-01
We investigate two-phase flow instabilities by numerical simulations of fluid structure interactions in two-phase flow. The first case is a flexible pipe conveying two fluids, which exhibits self-sustained oscillations at high Reynolds number and tension related parameter. Well-defined two-phase flow patterns, i.e., slug flow and bubbly flow, are observed. The second case is external two-phase cross flow past a circular cylinder, which induces a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability due to density stratification. We solve the Navier-Stokes equation coupled with the Cahn-Hilliard equation and the structure equation in an arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) framework. For the fluid solver, a spectral/hp element method is employed for spatial discretization and backward differentiation for time discretization. For the structure solver, a Galerkin method is used in Lagrangian coordinates for spatial discretization and the Newmark- β scheme for time discretization.
Computation of steady axisymmetric flow using a one-dimensional time-dependent method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walitt, L.
1974-01-01
An iterative numerical method for computing steady, three dimensional, viscous, compressible flow fields, about aerodynamic bodies was studied. In order to develop the iterative method economically, the primary emphasis was directed towards supersonic, axisymmetric flow. However, the technique readily extends to three spatial dimensions. The viscous flow field about a cone-cylinder-flare body was calculated and compared to existing experimental data. Numerical predictions of the cone boundary layer and the flow field shock wave structure agreed with corresponding measurements. A separation was calculated at the cylinder-flare junction in six iterations; however, the size of the vortex did not correspond to the measured size. It was estimated that fifty iterations would be required to properly define the vortex. It was concluded that the iteration technique is of limited value for plane two dimensional and axisymmetrix flows, but of great value for three-dimensional flows.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hess, J. L.; Mack, D. P.; Stockman, N. O.
1979-01-01
A panel method is used to calculate incompressible flow about arbitrary three-dimensional inlets with or without centerbodies for four fundamental flow conditions: unit onset flows parallel to each of the coordinate axes plus static operation. The computing time is scarcely longer than for a single solution. A linear superposition of these solutions quite rigorously gives incompressible flow about the inlet for any angle of attack, angle of yaw, and mass flow rate. Compressibility is accounted for by applying a well-proven correction to the incompressible flow. Since the computing times for the combination and the compressibility correction are small, flows at a large number of inlet operating conditions are obtained rather cheaply. Geometric input is aided by an automatic generating program. A number of graphical output features are provided to aid the user, including surface streamline tracing and automatic generation of curves of curves of constant pressure, Mach number, and flow inclination at selected inlet cross sections. The inlet method and use of the program are described. Illustrative results are presented.
Apparatus and method for constant flow oxidizing of organic materials
Surma, Jeffrey E.; Nelson, Norvell; Steward, G. Anthony; Bryan, Garry H.
1999-01-01
The invention is a method and apparatus using high cerium concentration in the anolyte of an electrochemical cell to oxidize organic materials. The method and apparatus further use an ultrasonic mixer to enhance the oxidation rate of the organic material in the electrochemical cell. A reaction vessel provides an advantage of independent reaction temperature control and electrochemical cell temperature control. A separate or independent reaction vessel may be used without an ultrasonic mixer to oxidize gaseous phase organic materials.
Chuah, Seong S; Woolfson, Peter I; Pullan, Brian R; Lewis, Philip S
2004-09-01
Limb blood flow is widely used as an indicator of the human vascular properties. There are only few non-invasive methods for its measurement such as venous occlusion plethysmography. However, several authors have questioned its validity. The problems appear to be related to the process of venous occlusion. We developed two methods to measure forearm blood flow by plethysmography without venous occlusion in combination with Doppler velocimetry (without imaging). Method 1: the gradient of a tangent drawn on the latter part of the down stroke of the plethysmographic volume pulse is an approximation of venous blood flow in the absence of diastolic blood flow. At equilibrium, it equals the average arterial flow in a cardiac cycle. The Doppler velocity waveform recorded simultaneously allows improvement of this approximation when there is diastolic blood flow. Method 2: the volume pulse detected by a plethysmograph calibrated in absolute volume is used to calibrate the velocity waveform recorded simultaneously to produce an approximation of arterial volumetric flow waveform. Bland-Altman analysis shows both methods have good correlation and agreement with venous occlusion plethysmography at rest. Method 1: mean difference (blood flow measured by venous occlusion minus calculated flow) = 0.10 ml/pulse (+/-0.18), limits of agreement = -0.41 and 0.61 ml/pulse. Method 2: mean difference = -0.041 ml/pulse (+/-0.15), limits of agreement = -0.45 and 0.37 ml/pulse. During hyperaemia, venous occlusion plethysmography grossly underestimated relative to the new methods. The new methods are not dependent on venous occlusion and produce consistent results with or without hyperaemia. PMID:15383087
Contrasting discharge computation methods in riverine and tidal-affected flows in Mississippi
Turnipseed, D.P.
2004-01-01
Recent advancements in acoustic science have improved the measurement of real-time flow conditions in complex open-channel flow systems with dynamic channel geometry, velocity distribution and direction, and other gradually varying hydraulic characteristics. In the lower Pascagoula River Basin, a drainage area of about 9,500 square miles in Mississippi, riverine and tidal-affected river reaches exist that exhibit fairly steady flows during and after rainfall runoff events, and unsteady flows during low flow, tidal-affected events. Fairly steady flows can be computed usually within 5 percent by using methods developed by the USGS. Accurate measurement and computation of varied, non-uniform open-channel hydraulic streamflow conditions have historically been difficult or impossible. Acoustic and conventional methodologies to measure velocity in an open-channel riverine and tidal-affected reach have been combined to compute continuous discharge during varied, nonuniform flows by using the relations of stage and area in concert with average velocity and index velocity. Due to the unique flow characteristics on the lower Pascagoula River in Mississippi, an independent means of computing high flows based on conventional methods of a log regression of stage and discharge for a range of stages was also used. The two methods were contrasted and had good correlation. Copyright ASCE 2004.
A Computational Method for Compressible Flows with Condensation in Power Plant Condensers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takahashi, Fumio; Harada, Iwao
A computational method for compressible flows with condensation was developed. Condensation was formulated by two thermodynamic equations of state for pressure and energy. These equations of state were simultaneously solved with the Euler equation and heat transfer equations. A finite volume method based on an approximate Riemann solver was adopted to solve the Euler equation. The computational method was applied to compressible flows in a condenser and a turbine exhaust hood. The flow regime changed widely from subsonic flow to transonic flow during a small decrease of cooling water temperature. Subcooling temperature from the annulus of the turbine blades to the condensate in the hot well was investigated. Results showed the subcooling temperature could be reduced by using an advanced steam guide which was designed to improve diffuser performance under widely changing conditions.
Method and apparatus for cold gas reinjection in through-flow and reverse-flow wave rotors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nalim, M. Razi (Inventor); Paxson, Daniel E. (Inventor)
1999-01-01
A method and apparatus for cold gas reinjection in through-flow and reverse-flow wave rotors having a plurality of channels formed around a periphery thereof. A first port injects a supply of cool air into the channels. A second port allows the supply of cool air to exit the channels and flow to a combustor. A third port injects a supply of hot gas from the combustor into the channels. A fourth port allows the supply of hot gas to exit the channels and flow to a turbine. A diverting port and a reinjection port are connected to the second and third ports, respectively. The diverting port diverts a portion of the cool air exiting through the second port as reinjection air. The diverting port is fluidly connected to the reinjection port which reinjects the reinjection air back into the channels. The reinjection air evacuates the channels of the hot gas resident therein and cools the channel walls, a pair of end walls of the rotor, ducts communicating with the rotor and subsequent downstream components. In a second embodiment, the second port receives all of the cool air exiting the channels and the diverting port diverts a portion of the cool air just prior to the cool air flowing to the combustor.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papanicolaou, N. C.; Aristotelous, A. C.
2015-10-01
In this work, we develop a High-Order Symmetric Interior Penalty (SIP) Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) Finite Element Method (FEM) to investigate convective flows in a rectangular cavity subject to both vertical and horizontal temperature gradients. The whole cavity is subject to gravity modulation (g-jitter), simulating a microgravity environment. The sensitivity of the bifurcation problem makes the use of a high-order accurate and efficient technique essential. Our method is validated by solving the plane-parallel flow problem and the results were found to be in good agreement with published results. The numerical method was designed to be easily extendable to even more complex flows.
A direct and inverse boundary layer method for subsonic flow over delta wings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woodson, S. H.; Dejarnette, F. R.
1986-01-01
A new inverse boundary layer method is developed and applied to incompressible flows with laminar separation and reattachment. Test cases for two dimensional flows are computed and the results are compared with those of other inverse methods. One advantage of the present method is that the calculation of the inviscid velocities may be determined at each marching step without having to iterate. The inverse method was incorporated with the direct method to calculate the incompressible, conical flow over a slender delta wing at incidence. The location of the secondary separation line on the leeward surface of the wing is determined and compared with experiment for a unit aspect ratio wing at 20.5 deg incidence. The viscous flow in the separated region was calculated using prescribed skin friction coefficients.
A pressure correction method for the calculation of compressible chemical reacting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Z. J.; Chen, C. P.; Chen, Y. S.
1992-01-01
A recently developed noniterative method for the solution of the transient fluid flow equations at all speed is extended to handle chemical reacting flows. The species conservation equations are loosely coupled into the predictor/multicorrector sequence of the solution procedure. A split-operator method separates the chemical kinetics terms from the fluid-dynamical terms, as well as an implicit differencing method enhance the numerical stability. The method was applied for turbulent diffusion flame calculations and for the analyses of high pressure, axisymmetric turbulent hypersonic nozzle flows. The diffusion flame results were compared with a similar pressure method for fast chemistry integration scheme without operator-splitting. Simulations of the nozzle flow indicated that the nonideal intermolecular effects must be included in the analysis and design of high pressure hypersonic nozzle.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sikarwar, Nidhi
The noise produced by the low bypass ratio turbofan engines used to power fighter aircraft is a problem for communities near military bases and for personnel working in close proximity to the aircraft. For example, carrier deck personnel are subject to noise exposure that can result in Noise-Induced Hearing Loss which in-turn results in over a billion dollars of disability payments by the Veterans Administration. Several methods have been proposed to reduce the jet noise at the source. These methods include microjet injection of air or water downstream of the jet exit, chevrons, and corrugated nozzle inserts. The last method involves the insertion of corrugated seals into the diverging section of a military-style convergent-divergent jet nozzle (to replace the existing seals). This has been shown to reduce both the broadband shock-associated noise as well as the mixing noise in the peak noise radiation direction. However, the original inserts were designed to be effective for a take-off condition where the jet is over-expanded. The nozzle performance would be expected to degrade at other conditions, such as in cruise at altitude. A new method has been proposed to achieve the same effects as corrugated seals, but using fluidic inserts. This involves injection of air, at relatively low pressures and total mass flow rates, into the diverging section of the nozzle. These fluidic inserts" deflect the flow in the same way as the mechanical inserts. The fluidic inserts represent an active control method, since the injectors can be modified or turned off depending on the jet operating conditions. Noise reductions in the peak noise direction of 5 to 6 dB have been achieved and broadband shock-associated noise is effectively suppressed. There are multiple parameters to be considered in the design of the fluidic inserts. This includes the number and location of the injectors and the pressures and mass flow rates to be used. These could be optimized on an ad hoc basis with
A higher order panel method for linearized supersonic flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ehlers, F. E.; Epton, M. A.; Johnson, F. T.; Magnus, A. E.; Rubbert, P. E.
1979-01-01
The basic integral equations of linearized supersonic theory for an advanced supersonic panel method are derived. Methods using only linear varying source strength over each panel or only quadratic doublet strength over each panel gave good agreement with analytic solutions over cones and zero thickness cambered wings. For three dimensional bodies and wings of general shape, combined source and doublet panels with interior boundary conditions to eliminate the internal perturbations lead to a stable method providing good agreement experiment. A panel system with all edges contiguous resulted from dividing the basic four point non-planar panel into eight triangular subpanels, and the doublet strength was made continuous at all edges by a quadratic distribution over each subpanel. Superinclined panels were developed and tested on s simple nacelle and on an airplane model having engine inlets, with excellent results.
Information Preservation (IP) Method in Simulation of Internal Rarefied Gas Flows in MEMS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Ching
2005-05-01
This paper reviews firstly methods for treating low speed rarefied gas flows: the linearised Boltzmann equation, the Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), the Navier-Stokes equation plus slip boundary conditions and the DSMC method, and discusses the difficulties in simulating low speed transitional MEMS flows, especially the internal flows. In particular, the present version of the LBM is shown unfeasible for simulation of MEMS flow in transitional regime. The information preservation (IP) method overcomes the difficulty of the statistical simulation caused by the small information to noise ratio for low speed flows by preserving the average information of the enormous number of molecules a simulated molecule represents. A kind of validation of the method is given in this paper. The specificities of the internal flows in MEMS, i.e. the low speed and the large length to width ratio, result in the problem of elliptic nature of the necessity to regulate the inlet and outlet boundary conditions that influence each other. Through the example of the IP calculation of the microchannel (thousands μm long) flow it is shown that the adoption of the conservative scheme of the mass conservation equation and the super relaxation method resolves this problem successfully. With employment of the same measures the IP method solves the thin film air bearing problem in transitional regime for authentic hard disc write/read head length (L = 1000μm) and provides pressure distribution in full agreement with the generalized Reynolds equation, while before this the DSMC check of the validity of the Reynolds equation was done only for short (L = 5μm) drive head. The author suggests degenerate the Reynolds equation to solve the microchannel flow problem in transitional regime, thus provides a means with merit of strict kinetic theory for testing various methods intending to treat the internal MEMS flows.
Direct Numerical Simulation of Incompressible Pipe Flow Using a B-Spline Spectral Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Loulou, Patrick; Moser, Robert D.; Mansour, Nagi N.; Cantwell, Brian J.
1997-01-01
A numerical method based on b-spline polynomials was developed to study incompressible flows in cylindrical geometries. A b-spline method has the advantages of possessing spectral accuracy and the flexibility of standard finite element methods. Using this method it was possible to ensure regularity of the solution near the origin, i.e. smoothness and boundedness. Because b-splines have compact support, it is also possible to remove b-splines near the center to alleviate the constraint placed on the time step by an overly fine grid. Using the natural periodicity in the azimuthal direction and approximating the streamwise direction as periodic, so-called time evolving flow, greatly reduced the cost and complexity of the computations. A direct numerical simulation of pipe flow was carried out using the method described above at a Reynolds number of 5600 based on diameter and bulk velocity. General knowledge of pipe flow and the availability of experimental measurements make pipe flow the ideal test case with which to validate the numerical method. Results indicated that high flatness levels of the radial component of velocity in the near wall region are physical; regions of high radial velocity were detected and appear to be related to high speed streaks in the boundary layer. Budgets of Reynolds stress transport equations showed close similarity with those of channel flow. However contrary to channel flow, the log layer of pipe flow is not homogeneous for the present Reynolds number. A topological method based on a classification of the invariants of the velocity gradient tensor was used. Plotting iso-surfaces of the discriminant of the invariants proved to be a good method for identifying vortical eddies in the flow field.
Compressible seal flow analysis using the finite element method with Galerkin solution technique
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zuk, J.
1974-01-01
A finite element method with a Galerkin solution (FEMGS) technique is formulated for the solution of nonlinear problems in high-pressure compressible seal flow analyses. An example of a three-dimensional axisymmetric flow having nonlinearities, due to compressibility, area expansion, and convective inertia, is used for illustrating the application of the technique.
DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-DIFFUSION FLUX-SPLITTING METHODS FOR DENSE GAS-SOLID FLOWS
The development of a class of low-diffusion upwinding methods for computing dense gas-solid flows is presented in this work. An artificial compressibility/low-Mach preconditioning strategy is developed for a hyperbolic two-phase flow equation system consisting of separate solids ...
Vortical Flow Prediction using an Adaptive Unstructured Grid Method. Chapter 11
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pirzadeh, Shahyar Z.
2009-01-01
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method has been employed to compute vortical flows around slender wing/body configurations. The emphasis of the paper is on the effectiveness of an adaptive grid procedure in "capturing" concentrated vortices generated at sharp edges or flow separation lines of lifting surfaces flying at high angles of attack. The method is based on a tetrahedral unstructured grid technology developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. Two steady-state, subsonic, inviscid and Navier-Stokes flow test cases are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the method for solving vortical flow problems. The first test case concerns vortex flow over a simple 65 delta wing with different values of leading-edge radius. Although the geometry is quite simple, it poses a challenging problem for computing vortices originating from blunt leading edges. The second case is that of a more complex fighter configuration. The superiority of the adapted solutions in capturing the vortex flow structure over the conventional unadapted results is demonstrated by comparisons with the wind-tunnel experimental data. The study shows that numerical prediction of vortical flows is highly sensitive to the local grid resolution and that the implementation of grid adaptation is essential when applying CFD methods to such complicated flow problems.
A method for measuring cooling air flow in base coolant passages of rotating turbine blades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liebert, C. H.; Pollack, F. G.
1975-01-01
Method accurately determines actual coolant mass flow rate in cooling passages of rotating turbine blades. Total and static pressures are measured in blade base coolant passages. Mass flow rates are calculated from these measurements of pressure, measured temperature and known area.
Emissivity corrected infrared method for imaging anomalous structural heat flows
Del Grande, Nancy K.; Durbin, Philip F.; Dolan, Kenneth W.; Perkins, Dwight E.
1995-01-01
A method for detecting flaws in structures using dual band infrared radiation. Heat is applied to the structure being evaluated. The structure is scanned for two different wavelengths and data obtained in the form of images. Images are used to remove clutter to form a corrected image. The existence and nature of a flaw is determined by investigating a variety of features.
Finite difference methods for the solution of unsteady potential flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Caradonna, F. X.
1982-01-01
Various problems which are confronted in the development of an unsteady finite difference potential code are reviewed mainly in the context of what is done for a typical small disturbance and full potential method. The issues discussed include choice of equations, linearization and conservation, differencing schemes, and algorithm development. A number of applications, including unsteady three dimensional rotor calculations, are demonstrated.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Macrossan, M. N.
1995-01-01
The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is the established technique for the simulation of rarefied gas flows. In some flows of engineering interest, such as occur for aero-braking spacecraft in the upper atmosphere, DSMC can become prohibitively expensive in CPU time because some regions of the flow, particularly on the windward side of blunt bodies, become collision dominated. As an alternative to using a hybrid DSMC and continuum gas solver (Euler or Navier-Stokes solver) this work is aimed at making the particle simulation method efficient in the high density regions of the flow. A high density, infinite collision rate limit of DSMC, the Equilibrium Particle Simulation method (EPSM) was proposed some 15 years ago. EPSM is developed here for the flow of a gas consisting of many different species of molecules and is shown to be computationally efficient (compared to DSMC) for high collision rate flows. It thus offers great potential as part of a hybrid DSMC/EPSM code which could handle flows in the transition regime between rarefied gas flows and fully continuum flows. As a first step towards this goal a pure EPSM code is described. The next step of combining DSMC and EPSM is not attempted here but should be straightforward. EPSM and DSMC are applied to Taylor-Couette flow with Kn = 0.02 and 0.0133 and S(omega) = 3). Toroidal vortices develop for both methods but some differences are found, as might be expected for the given flow conditions. EPSM appears to be less sensitive to the sequence of random numbers used in the simulation than is DSMC and may also be more dissipative. The question of the origin and the magnitude of the dissipation in EPSM is addressed. It is suggested that this analysis is also relevant to DSMC when the usual accuracy requirements on the cell size and decoupling time step are relaxed in the interests of computational efficiency.
Deng, Shijie; Wang, Peng; Liu, Shengnan; Zhao, Tianze; Xu, Shanzhi; Guo, Mingjiang; Yu, Xinglong
2016-01-01
A novel microfluidic flow rate detection method based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) temperature imaging is proposed. The measurement is performed by space-resolved SPR imaging of the flow induced temperature variations. Theoretical simulations and analysis were performed to demonstrate a proof of concept using this approach. Experiments were implemented and results showed that water flow rates within a wide range of tens to hundreds of μL/min could be detected. The flow rate sensor is resistant to disturbances and can be easily integrated into microfluidic lab-on-chip systems. PMID:27347960
Deng, Shijie; Wang, Peng; Liu, Shengnan; Zhao, Tianze; Xu, Shanzhi; Guo, Mingjiang; Yu, Xinglong
2016-01-01
A novel microfluidic flow rate detection method based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) temperature imaging is proposed. The measurement is performed by space-resolved SPR imaging of the flow induced temperature variations. Theoretical simulations and analysis were performed to demonstrate a proof of concept using this approach. Experiments were implemented and results showed that water flow rates within a wide range of tens to hundreds of μL/min could be detected. The flow rate sensor is resistant to disturbances and can be easily integrated into microfluidic lab-on-chip systems. PMID:27347960
Gur, D.; Yonas, H.; Jackson, D.L.; Wolfson, S.K. Jr.; Rockette, H.; Good, W.F.; Cook, E.E.; Arena, V.C.; Willy, J.A.; Maitz, G.S.
1985-10-01
Simultaneous measurements of cerebral blood flow have been performed in baboons to assess the correlation between the acute and invasive nondiffusible microsphere technique and the noninvasive xenon-enhanced CT method. Blood flows in small tissue volumes (approximately 1 cm3) were directly compared. The results of these studies demonstrate a statistically significant association between the two methods (P less than .001). Similar correlations were obtained by both the Kendall tau (tau) and the Spearman (r) methods. The problems and limitations of such correlations are discussed.
Emissivity corrected infrared method for imaging anomalous structural heat flows
Del Grande, N.K.; Durbin, P.F.; Dolan, K.W.; Perkins, D.E.
1995-08-22
A method for detecting flaws in structures using dual band infrared radiation is disclosed. Heat is applied to the structure being evaluated. The structure is scanned for two different wavelengths and data obtained in the form of images. Images are used to remove clutter to form a corrected image. The existence and nature of a flaw is determined by investigating a variety of features. 1 fig.
Finite difference methods for the solution of unsteady potential flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Caradonna, F. X.
1985-01-01
A brief review is presented of various problems which are confronted in the development of an unsteady finite difference potential code. This review is conducted mainly in the context of what is done for a typical small disturbance and full potential methods. The issues discussed include choice of equation, linearization and conservation, differencing schemes, and algorithm development. A number of applications including unsteady three-dimensional rotor calculation, are demonstrated.
High Order Finite Difference Methods for Multiscale Complex Compressible Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sjoegreen, Bjoern; Yee, H. C.
2002-01-01
The classical way of analyzing finite difference schemes for hyperbolic problems is to investigate as many as possible of the following points: (1) Linear stability for constant coefficients; (2) Linear stability for variable coefficients; (3) Non-linear stability; and (4) Stability at discontinuities. We will build a new numerical method, which satisfies all types of stability, by dealing with each of the points above step by step.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsumoto, Yuko; Ueno, Kazuyuki
2006-11-01
A new numerical method to calculate an incompressible flow, a dipole method, is proposed. In the dipole method, a flow field is represented by superposition of many dipolar vortices, and these dipolar vortices are replaced ``dipole elements.'' The dipole elements move in fluid. Each dipole element is characterized by two variables, dipole moment and core radius. The dipole moment is a vector quantity whose direction is the same as the axis of the dipolar vortex. The core radius is an effective radius of rotational flow region of the dipolar vortex. These variables, changed with time, are determined by the momentum conservation law where the flow around the dipolar vortex is assumed to be irrotational. This dipole element has a self-induced velocity. Time evolutions of a dipolar vortex in two cases of background flows are simulated, the first case is a strain flow, and the second one is a rotational flow of the Rankin's vortex. The results of the dipole method are compared to numerical simulations using the vortex method with the same initial condition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Örley, Felix; Pasquariello, Vito; Hickel, Stefan; Adams, Nikolaus A.
2015-02-01
The conservative immersed interface method for representing complex immersed solid boundaries or phase interfaces on Cartesian grids is improved and extended to allow for the simulation of weakly compressible fluid flows through moving geometries. We demonstrate that an approximation of moving interfaces by a level-set field results in unphysical oscillations in the vicinity of sharp corners when dealing with weakly compressible fluids such as water. By introducing an exact reconstruction of the cut-cell properties directly based on a surface triangulation of the immersed boundary, we are able to recover the correct flow evolution free of numerical artifacts. The new method is based on cut-elements. It provides sub-cell resolution of the geometry and handles flows through narrow closing or opening gaps in a straightforward manner. We validate our method with canonical flows around oscillating cylinders. We demonstrate that the method allows for an accurate prediction of flows around moving obstacles in weakly compressible liquid flows with cavitation effects. In particular, we show that the cavitating flow through a closing fuel injector control valve, which is an example for a complex application with interaction of stationary and moving parts, can be predicted by the method.
Numerical methods for simulating blood flow at macro, micro, and multi scales.
Imai, Yohsuke; Omori, Toshihiro; Shimogonya, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Takami; Ishikawa, Takuji
2016-07-26
In the past decade, numerical methods for the computational biomechanics of blood flow have progressed to overcome difficulties in diverse applications from cellular to organ scales. Such numerical methods may be classified by the type of computational mesh used for the fluid domain, into fixed mesh methods, moving mesh (boundary-fitted mesh) methods, and mesh-free methods. The type of computational mesh used is closely related to the characteristics of each method. We herein provide an overview of numerical methods recently used to simulate blood flow at macro and micro scales, with a focus on computational meshes. We also discuss recent progress in the multi-scale modeling of blood flow. PMID:26705108
A fast and accurate method to predict 2D and 3D aerodynamic boundary layer flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bijleveld, H. A.; Veldman, A. E. P.
2014-12-01
A quasi-simultaneous interaction method is applied to predict 2D and 3D aerodynamic flows. This method is suitable for offshore wind turbine design software as it is a very accurate and computationally reasonably cheap method. This study shows the results for a NACA 0012 airfoil. The two applied solvers converge to the experimental values when the grid is refined. We also show that in separation the eigenvalues remain positive thus avoiding the Goldstein singularity at separation. In 3D we show a flow over a dent in which separation occurs. A rotating flat plat is used to show the applicability of the method for rotating flows. The shown capabilities of the method indicate that the quasi-simultaneous interaction method is suitable for design methods for offshore wind turbine blades.
(Yet) A New Method for the Determination of Flow Directions and Contributing Areas over Gridded DEMs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shelef, E.; Hilley, G. E.
2012-12-01
Flow routing across real or modeled topography is required to calculate parameters such as water discharge, surface lowering rate, and the likelihood of slope failure. There are a number of ways in which this is accomplished using digital topography, but all distribute flow either down the steepest decent to the surrounding four (D4) or eight (D8) cells, or partition flow between these surrounding cells according to value of downslope magnitude (Dinf and multipel flow direction methods [MFD]). The latter three of these schemes may route flow diagonally to cells through the corners of the elevation cells, which distorts their sourced area and the length they traverse. This non-orthogonal routing produces an inconsistency that may impact models that use these routing schemes. To address this issue, we decompose the elevation grid into a set of right triangular facets anchored at three adjacent grid nodes. These facets are sorted according to mean elevation, and flow from each facet is routed to adjacent facets according to the slope of each triangle. Flow is progressively added and partitioned from highest triangle to lowest, allowing routing to be accomplished in approximately n(log(n)+1) operations (where n is the number of triangular facets). Finally, contributing area is calculated using the mean of the contributing area from the portions of the facets contained within the rectangular grid cell. This methodology allows cell-to-cell dispersion within a kernel of the topography but ultimately distributes flow along orthogonal boundaries of the grid. Thus, this method produces behavior similar to a nine-cell kernel method but has the benefit of routing flow along the gridded directions of the topography. This method was benchmarked against the other commonly used flow routing schemes, and was found to perform similarly to distributive nine-cell kernel methods such as Dinf and MFD methods. Cone tests, which are the common benchmark for these methods, tend to prefer
Method for inhibiting silica precipitation and scaling in geothermal flow systems
Harrar, J.E.; Lorensen, L.E.; Locke, F.E.
1980-06-13
A method for inhibiting silica scaling and precipitation in geothermal flow systems by on-line injection of low concentrations of cationic nitrogen-containing compounds, particularly polymeric imines, polymeric amines, and quaternary ammonium compounds is described.
Method for inhibiting silica precipitation and scaling in geothermal flow systems
Harrar, Jackson E.; Lorensen, Lyman E.; Locke, Frank E.
1982-01-01
A method for inhibiting silica scaling and precipitation in geothermal flow systems by on-line injection of low concentrations of cationic nitrogen-containing compounds, particularly polymeric imines, polymeric amines, and quaternary ammonium compounds.
Method For Enhanced Gas Monitoring In High Density Flow Streams
Von Drasek, William A.; Mulderink, Kenneth A.; Marin, Ovidiu
2005-09-13
A method for conducting laser absorption measurements in high temperature process streams having high levels of particulate matter is disclosed. An impinger is positioned substantially parallel to a laser beam propagation path and at upstream position relative to the laser beam. Beam shielding pipes shield the beam from the surrounding environment. Measurement is conducted only in the gap between the two shielding pipes where the beam propagates through the process gas. The impinger facilitates reduced particle presence in the measurement beam, resulting in improved SNR (signal-to-noise) and improved sensitivity and dynamic range of the measurement.
Aligned, short-fiber composites by novel flow processing methods
Guell, D.C.; Graham, A.L.; Papathanasiou, T.; Petrovic, J.J.
1993-01-01
A hydrodynamic method has been employed to align short, reinforcing fibers in polymer matrix composite materials. Samples of composite materials were prepared and tested two at a time (one with randomly oriented fibers and the other with aligned fibers) to isolate and directly measure the effect on mechanical properties of aligning the fibers. Data were collected for the ultimate tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, and ultimate tensile strain of the composite samples prepared. Results show that the aligned fibers were approximately twice as effective (as randomly oriented fibers) at stiffening and strengthening the composite in the alignment direction. 5 figs, 20 refs.
Aligned, short-fiber composites by novel flow processing methods
Guell, D.C.; Graham, A.L.; Papathanasiou, T.; Petrovic, J.J.
1993-03-01
A hydrodynamic method has been employed to align short, reinforcing fibers in polymer matrix composite materials. Samples of composite materials were prepared and tested two at a time (one with randomly oriented fibers and the other with aligned fibers) to isolate and directly measure the effect on mechanical properties of aligning the fibers. Data were collected for the ultimate tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, and ultimate tensile strain of the composite samples prepared. Results show that the aligned fibers were approximately twice as effective (as randomly oriented fibers) at stiffening and strengthening the composite in the alignment direction. 5 figs, 20 refs.
Method and apparatus for detecting laminar flow separation and reattachment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stack, John P. (Inventor); Mangalam, Sivaramakrishnan M. (Inventor)
1990-01-01
The invention is a method and apparatus for simultaneously detecting laminar separation and reattachment of a fluid stream such as an airstream from and to the upper surface of an airfoil by simultaneously sensing and comparing a plurality of output signals. Each signal represents the dynamic shear stress at one of an equal number of sensors spaced along a straight line on the surface of the airfoil that extends parallel to the airstream. The output signals are simultaneously compared to detect the sensors across which a reversal in phase of said output signal occurs, said detected sensors being in the region of laminar separation or reattachment.
Method and apparatus for measuring the mass flow rate of a fluid
Evans, Robert P.; Wilkins, S. Curtis; Goodrich, Lorenzo D.; Blotter, Jonathan D.
2002-01-01
A non invasive method and apparatus is provided to measure the mass flow rate of a multi-phase fluid. An accelerometer is attached to a pipe carrying a multi-phase fluid. Flow related measurements in pipes are sensitive to random velocity fluctuations whose magnitude is proportional to the mean mass flow rate. An analysis of the signal produced by the accelerometer shows a relationship between the mass flow of a fluid and the noise component of the signal of an accelerometer. The noise signal, as defined by the standard deviation of the accelerometer signal allows the method and apparatus of the present invention to non-intrusively measure the mass flow rate of a multi-phase fluid.
Solution of non-isoenergetic supersonic flows by method of characteristics, volume 3
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prozan, R. J.
1972-01-01
The calculation of supersonic flow fields by the method of characteristics. The theoretical approach to the solution of these flow fields and a computer program to implement the numerical solution of the flow equations are discussed. This versatile program has a flexible set of boundary conditions enabling the calculation of nozzles, plumes and many other complex flow fields. A complete derivation of the equations of motion for reacting gas systems is presented. An important consequence of this derivation is that, for the reaction assumptions which were made, the thermochemistry was shown to be uncoupled from the flow solution and as such could be solved separately. The methods of characteristics equations are shown to be formally the same for ideal, frozen, and equilibrium reacting gas mixtures.
Beam-modulation methods in quantitative and flow-visualization holographic interferometry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Decker, Arthur J.
1986-01-01
Heterodyne holographic interferometry and time-average holography with a frequency shifted reference beam are discussed. Both methods will be used for the measurement and visualization of internal transonic flows where the target facility is a flutter cascade. The background and experimental requirements for both methods are reviewed. Measurements using heterodyne holographic interferometry are presented. The performance of the laser required for time-average holography of time-varying transonic flows is discussed.
Beam-modulation methods in quantitative and flow visualization holographic interferometry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Decker, A.
1986-01-01
This report discusses heterodyne holographic interferometry and time-average holography with a frequency shifted reference beam. Both methods will be used for the measurement and visualization of internal transonic flows, where the target facility is a flutter cascade. The background and experimental requirements for both methods are reviewed. Measurements using heterodyne holographic interferometry are presented. The performance of the laser required for time-average holography of time-varying transonic flows is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawai, T.
Among the topics discussed are the application of FEM to nonlinear free surface flow, Navier-Stokes shallow water wave equations, incompressible viscous flows and weather prediction, the mathematical analysis and characteristics of FEM, penalty function FEM, convective, viscous, and high Reynolds number FEM analyses, the solution of time-dependent, three-dimensional and incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, turbulent boundary layer flow, FEM modeling of environmental problems over complex terrain, and FEM's application to thermal convection problems and to the flow of polymeric materials in injection molding processes. Also covered are FEMs for compressible flows, including boundary layer flows and transonic flows, hybrid element approaches for wave hydrodynamic loadings, FEM acoustic field analyses, and FEM treatment of free surface flow, shallow water flow, seepage flow, and sediment transport. Boundary element methods and FEM computational technique topics are also discussed. For individual items see A84-25834 to A84-25896
Spectral Element Method for the Simulation of Unsteady Compressible Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Diosady, Laslo Tibor; Murman, Scott M.
2013-01-01
This work uses a discontinuous-Galerkin spectral-element method (DGSEM) to solve the compressible Navier-Stokes equations [1{3]. The inviscid ux is computed using the approximate Riemann solver of Roe [4]. The viscous fluxes are computed using the second form of Bassi and Rebay (BR2) [5] in a manner consistent with the spectral-element approximation. The method of lines with the classical 4th-order explicit Runge-Kutta scheme is used for time integration. Results for polynomial orders up to p = 15 (16th order) are presented. The code is parallelized using the Message Passing Interface (MPI). The computations presented in this work are performed using the Sandy Bridge nodes of the NASA Pleiades supercomputer at NASA Ames Research Center. Each Sandy Bridge node consists of 2 eight-core Intel Xeon E5-2670 processors with a clock speed of 2.6Ghz and 2GB per core memory. On a Sandy Bridge node the Tau Benchmark [6] runs in a time of 7.6s.
Projection Method for Flows with Large Density Variations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heinrich, Juan C.; Westra, Douglas G.
2007-01-01
Numerical models of solidification including a mushy zone are notoriously inefficient; most of them are based on formulations that require the coupled solution of the velocity components in the momentum equation greatly restricting the range of applicability of the models. There are only two models known to the authors that have used a projection or fractional step formulation, but none of these were used to model problems of any significant size. A third model was only applied to a partial mushy zone with no all-fluid region. Our initial attempts at modeling directional solidification in the presence of a developing mushy zone using a projection formulation encountered very serious difficulties once solidification starts. These difficulties were traced to the inability of the method to deal with large local density differences in the vicinity of the fluid-mush interface. As a result, a modified formulation of the projection method has been developed, that maintains the coupling between the body force and the pressure gradient and is presented in this work. The new formulation is shown to be robust and efficient, and can be applied to problems involving very large meshes. This is illustrated in this work through its application to simulations involving Pb-Sb and Pb-Sn alloys.
A Conceptual Framework for the Indirect Method of Reporting Net Cash Flow from Operating Activities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wang, Ting J.
2010-01-01
This paper describes the fundamental concept of the reconciliation behind the indirect method of the statement of cash flows. A conceptual framework is presented to demonstrate how accrual and cash-basis accounting methods relate to each other and to illustrate the concept of reconciling these two accounting methods. The conceptual framework…
The Chimera Method of Simulation for Unsteady Three-Dimensional Viscous Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meakin, Robert L.
1996-01-01
The Chimera overset grid method is reviewed and discussed in the context of a method of solution and analysis of unsteady three-dimensional viscous flows. The state of maturity of the various pieces of support software required to use the approach is discussed. A variety of recent applications of the method is presented. Current limitations of the approach are defined.
Contactless flow measurement in liquid metal using electromagnetic time-of-flight method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubovikova, Nataliia; Resagk, Christian; Karcher, Christian; Kolesnikov, Yuri
2016-05-01
Measuring flow rates of liquid metal flows is of utmost importance in industrial applications such as metal casting, in order to ensure process efficiency and product quality. A non-contact method for flow rate control is described here. The method is known as time-of-flight Lorentz force velocimetry (LFV) and determines flow rate through measurement of Lorentz force that act on magnet systems that are placed close to the flow. In this method, a vortex generator is used to generate an eddy in the flow, with two magnet systems separated by a known distance placed downstream of the vortex generator. Each of the magnet systems has a force sensor attached to them which detects the passing of the eddy through its magnetic field as a significant perturbation in the force signal. The flow rate is estimated from the time span between the perturbations in the two force signals. In this paper, time-of-flight LFV technique is demonstrated experimentally for the case of liquid metal flow in a closed rectangular duct loop that is driven by an electromagnetic pump. A liquid metal alloy of gallium (Ga), indium (In) and tin (Sn)—GaInSn—is used as the working fluid. In contrast to prior works, for the first time, three-dimensional strain gauge force sensors were used for measuring Lorentz force to investigate the effect of flow disturbances in different directions for flow measurements by the time-of-flight LFV method. A prototype time-of-flight LFV flowmeter is developed, the operation of which in laboratory conditions is characterised by different experiments.
Compressible seal flow analysis using the finite element method with Galerkin solution technique
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zuk, J.
1974-01-01
High pressure gas sealing involves not only balancing the viscous force with the pressure gradient force but also accounting for fluid inertia--especially for choked flow. The conventional finite element method which uses a Rayleigh-Ritz solution technique is not convenient for nonlinear problems. For these problems, a finite element method with a Galerkin solution technique (FEMGST) was formulated. One example, a three-dimensional axisymmetric flow formulation has nonlinearities due to compressibility, area expansion, and convective inertia. Solutions agree with classical results in the limiting cases. The development of the choked flow velocity profile is shown.
A theoretical basis for extending surface-paneling methods to transonic flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erickson, L. L.; Strande, S. M.
1985-01-01
The surface integral terms in Green's third identity are often used to solve the Prandtl-Glauert (linear potential-flow) equation with panel methods. This can be done, as in the PAN AIR code, for either subsonic or supersonic flow about complete aircraft. The extension to transonic flow is suggested by the volume integral terms of Green's third identity. The mathematical basis for this extension, without the use of body-fitted grids, is presented. Supercritical transonic results computed from a two-dimensional transonic PAN AIR research code demonstrate the method.
Topology optimization of unsteady flow problems using the lattice Boltzmann method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nørgaard, Sebastian; Sigmund, Ole; Lazarov, Boyan
2016-02-01
This article demonstrates and discusses topology optimization for unsteady incompressible fluid flows. The fluid flows are simulated using the lattice Boltzmann method, and a partial bounceback model is implemented to model the transition between fluid and solid phases in the optimization problems. The optimization problem is solved with a gradient based method, and the design sensitivities are computed by solving the discrete adjoint problem. For moderate Reynolds number flows, it is demonstrated that topology optimization can successfully account for unsteady effects such as vortex shedding and time-varying boundary conditions. Such effects are relevant in several engineering applications, i.e. fluid pumps and control valves.
Application of shock capturing and characteristics methods to shuttle flow fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kutler, P.; Rakich, J. V.; Mateer, G. G.
1972-01-01
The calculation of real gas flows around the space shuttle vehicle can be accomplished by the method of characteristics (MOC) or shock capture technique (SCT). Results obtained with these methods for an early orbiter shape proposed by the North American Rockwell Corporation and also for the more recent 040A configuration suggested by NASA-MSC are presented. Results obtained with the SCT code demonstrate its three-dimensional, multiple shock capturing capability while results obtained with the MOC code demonstrate the calculation of equilibrium real gas flows and the determination of flow variables required for a heating analysis.
Solutions of turbulent backward-facing step flow with heat transfer using the finite volume method
Horstman, R.H.; Cochran, R.J.; Emergy, A.F.
1995-12-31
The heated turbulent flow over a backward-facing step is numerically solved using the commercial computational fluid dynamics program FLUENT. The methods used here consist of the default power-law upwinding scheme, default multigrid equation solution method and a standard k-{var_epsilon} turbulence model with wall functions. A total of four separate cases are reported. The four cases consist of combinations of partially and fully developed flow at the inlet with uniform or developed temperature profiles. Three mesh refinements are reported for each flow.
Solutions of turbulent backward-facing step flow with heat transfer using the finite volume method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horstman, R. H.; Cochran, R. J.; Emergy, A. F.
1995-03-01
The heated turbulent flow over a backward-facing step is numerically solved using the commercial computational fluid dynamics program FLUENT. The methods used here consist of the default power-law upwinding scheme, default multigrid equation solution method and a standard k-epsilon turbulence model with wall functions. A total of four separate cases are reported. The four cases consist of combinations of partially and fully developed flow at the inlet with uniform or developed temperature profiles. Three mesh refinements are reported for each flow.
New method of asymmetric flow field measurement in hypersonic shock tunnel.
Yan, D P; He, A Z; Ni, X W
1991-03-01
In this paper a method of large aperture (?500 mm) high sensitivity moire deflectometry is used to obtain multidirectional deflectograms of the asymmetric flow field in hypersonic (M = 10.29) shock tunnel. At the same time, a 3-D reconstructive method of the asymmetric flow field is presented which is based on the integration of the moire deflective angle and the double-cubic many-knot interpolating splines; it is used to calculate the 3-D density distribution of the asymmetric flow field. PMID:20582058
Numerical simulation of unsteady flow behind a backward-facing step by the vortex method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noda, Toshiaki; Nakanishi, Yuji; Kamemoto, Kyoji
1993-09-01
In this study, a two-dimensional flow behind a backward-facing step was calculated by the boundary element method with the vortex method. As a result of this analysis, velocity distributions and flow patterns were obtained. A tendency of reattachment point approached the result of the experiment. Reynolds stress and RMS (Root Mean Square) velocity fluctuation were calculated by using velocity distributions. The flow patterns show the development of a recirculating region in the initial stage. The calculated results have a qualitative good agreement with that of the experiment.
Computation of unsteady viscous flows past oscillating airfoils using the CPI method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guilmineau, E.; Queutey, P.
Numerical solution of the incompressible two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations, with the help of the CPI discretization, are presented for different airfoils. The strongly conservative equations are discretized with a finite volume method. The method uses a system of numerically generated curvilinear coordinates and re- tains the pressure and the cartesian velocity components as dependent variables on a non-staggered grid. Two flows around an airfoil are computed and compared to experimental results. First, the starting flow past a NACA 0012 airfoil oscillating at large incidences is investigated. Secondly, the turbulent flow past an AS 240 airfoil at a fixed incidence is studied.
A measurement method of the flow rate in a pipe using a microphone array
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Yong-Beum; Kim, Yang-Hann
2002-09-01
A method of measuring the flow rate in a pipe is proposed. The method utilizes one-dimensional acoustic pressure signals that are generated by a loud speaker. A microphone array mounted flush with the inner pipe wall is used to measure the signals. A formula for the flow rate, which is a function of the change of wave number, is derived from a simple mathematical model of sound field in the pipe conveying a viscous fluid. The change of the wave number, which is one of the results caused by flow, is estimated from the recursive relation among the measured microphone array signals. Since measurement errors, due to extraneous measurement noise and mismatch of response characteristics between microphones, exist in the estimated flow rate, a method of compensating the errors is proposed. By using this measurement method, the flow rate can be obtained more accurately than that of our previous method. To verify applicability of the measurement method, numerical simulation and experiments are performed. The estimated flow rates are within 5% error bound. copyright 2002 Acoustical Society of America.
Frequency-domain Monte Carlo method for linear oscillatory gas flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ladiges, Daniel R.; Sader, John E.
2015-03-01
Gas flows generated by resonating nanoscale devices inherently occur in the non-continuum, low Mach number regime. Numerical simulations of such flows using the standard direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method are hindered by high statistical noise, which has motivated the development of several alternate Monte Carlo methods for low Mach number flows. Here, we present a frequency-domain low Mach number Monte Carlo method based on the Boltzmann-BGK equation, for the simulation of oscillatory gas flows. This circumvents the need for temporal simulations, as is currently required, and provides direct access to both amplitude and phase information using a pseudo-steady algorithm. The proposed method is validated for oscillatory Couette flow and the flow generated by an oscillating sphere. Good agreement is found with an existing time-domain method and accurate numerical solutions of the Boltzmann-BGK equation. Analysis of these simulations using a rigorous statistical approach shows that the frequency-domain method provides a significant improvement in computational speed.
Shaw, Emily C.; Phinn, Stuart R.; Tilbrook, Bronte; Steven, Andy
2014-01-01
Coral reef calcification is predicted to decline as a result of ocean acidification and other anthropogenic stressors. The majority of studies predicting declines based on in situ relationships between environmental parameters and net community calcification rate have been location-specific, preventing accurate predictions for coral reefs globally. In this study, net community calcification and production were measured on a coral reef flat at One Tree Island, Great Barrier Reef, using Lagrangian flow respirometry and slack water methods. Net community calcification, daytime net photosynthesis and nighttime respiration were higher under the flow respirometry method, likely due to increased water flow relative to the slack water method. The two methods also varied in the degrees to which they were influenced by potential measurement uncertainties. The difference in the results from these two commonly used methods implies that some of the location-specific differences in coral reef community metabolism may be due to differences in measurement methods. PMID:25426626
Flow Applications of the Least Squares Finite Element Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jiang, Bo-Nan
1998-01-01
The main thrust of the effort has been towards the development, analysis and implementation of the least-squares finite element method (LSFEM) for fluid dynamics and electromagnetics applications. In the past year, there were four major accomplishments: 1) special treatments in computational fluid dynamics and computational electromagnetics, such as upwinding, numerical dissipation, staggered grid, non-equal order elements, operator splitting and preconditioning, edge elements, and vector potential are unnecessary; 2) the analysis of the LSFEM for most partial differential equations can be based on the bounded inverse theorem; 3) the finite difference and finite volume algorithms solve only two Maxwell equations and ignore the divergence equations; and 4) the first numerical simulation of three-dimensional Marangoni-Benard convection was performed using the LSFEM.
A comparison of several methods of solving nonlinear regression groundwater flow problems.
Cooley, R.L.
1985-01-01
Computational efficiency and computer memory requirements for four methods of minimizing functions were compared for four test nonlinear-regression steady state groundwater flow problems. The fastest methods were the Marquardt and quasi-linearization methods, which required almost identical computer times and numbers of iterations; the next fastest was the quasi-Newton method, and last was the Fletcher-Reeves method, which did not converge in 100 iterations for two of the problems.-from Author
A numerical method for computing unsteady 2-D boundary layer flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krainer, Andreas
1988-01-01
A numerical method for computing unsteady two-dimensional boundary layers in incompressible laminar and turbulent flows is described and applied to a single airfoil changing its incidence angle in time. The solution procedure adopts a first order panel method with a simple wake model to solve for the inviscid part of the flow, and an implicit finite difference method for the viscous part of the flow. Both procedures integrate in time in a step-by-step fashion, in the course of which each step involves the solution of the elliptic Laplace equation and the solution of the parabolic boundary layer equations. The Reynolds shear stress term of the boundary layer equations is modeled by an algebraic eddy viscosity closure. The location of transition is predicted by an empirical data correlation originating from Michel. Since transition and turbulence modeling are key factors in the prediction of viscous flows, their accuracy will be of dominant influence to the overall results.
Walker, Iain; Stratton, Chris
2015-08-01
This project improved the accuracy of air flow measurements used in commissioning California heating and air conditioning systems in Title 24 (Building and Appliance Efficiency Standards), thereby improving system performance and efficiency of California residences. The research team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory addressed the issue that typical tools used by contractors in the field to test air flows may not be accurate enough to measure return flows used in Title 24 applications. The team developed guidance on performance of current diagnostics as well as a draft test method for use in future evaluations. The study team prepared a draft test method through ASTM International to determine the uncertainty of air flow measurements at residential heating ventilation and air conditioning returns and other terminals. This test method, when finalized, can be used by the Energy Commission and other entities to specify required accuracy of measurement devices used to show compliance with standards.
Finite volume and finite element methods applied to 3D laminar and turbulent channel flows
Louda, Petr; Příhoda, Jaromír; Sváček, Petr; Kozel, Karel
2014-12-10
The work deals with numerical simulations of incompressible flow in channels with rectangular cross section. The rectangular cross section itself leads to development of various secondary flow patterns, where accuracy of simulation is influenced by numerical viscosity of the scheme and by turbulence modeling. In this work some developments of stabilized finite element method are presented. Its results are compared with those of an implicit finite volume method also described, in laminar and turbulent flows. It is shown that numerical viscosity can cause errors of same magnitude as different turbulence models. The finite volume method is also applied to 3D turbulent flow around backward facing step and good agreement with 3D experimental results is obtained.
A hybridized method for computing high-Reynolds-number hypersonic flow about blunt bodies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weilmuenster, K. J.; Hamilton, H. H., II
1979-01-01
A hybridized method for computing the flow about blunt bodies is presented. In this method the flow field is split into its viscid and inviscid parts. The forebody flow field about a parabolic body is computed. For the viscous solution, the Navier-Stokes equations are solved on orthogonal parabolic coordinates using explicit finite differencing. The inviscid flow is determined by using a Moretti type scheme in which the Euler equations are solved, using explicit finite differences, on a nonorthogonal coordinate system which uses the bow shock as an outer boundary. The two solutions are coupled along a common data line and are marched together in time until a converged solution is obtained. Computed results, when compared with experimental and analytical results, indicate the method works well over a wide range of Reynolds numbers and Mach numbers.
Optimization and testing of the tomographic method of velocity measurement in the flow volume
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bilsky, A. V.; Lozhkin, V. A.; Markovich, D. M.; Tokarev, M. P.; Shestakov, M. V.
2011-12-01
The optic noncontact method of velocity field measurement in the flow volume is considered in this paper for the purposes of hydroaerodynamic experiment. The essence of this method is measurement of particles motion in the flow during short periods between laser pulses. This study offers and implements several algorithmic optimizations, allowing data processing time reduction. It is shown that application of threshold background filtering on the recorded projections (particle images) and fast estimation of initial intensity distribution in the volume allows increasing the speed of tomographic reconstruction algorithm two or three times. Reconstruction accuracy and errors in determination of particle shift were studied in this work using artificial images. The described tomographic method for the velocity field estimation in the flow volume was used for diagnostics of a turbulent submerged jet flowing into a narrow channel. The application of developed approaches in experiment allowed us to obtain spatial distribution of the average velocity field and instantaneous velocity fields in the measurement area.
A pressure based method for the solution of viscous incompressible turbomachinery flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hobson, Garth Victor; Lakshminarayana, B.
1991-01-01
A new technique was developed for the solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The numerical technique, derived from a pressure substitution method (PSM), overcomes many of the deficiencies of the pressure correction method. This technique allows for the direct solution of the actual pressure in the form of a Poisson equation which is derived from the pressure weighted substitution of the full momentum equations into the continuity equation. Two dimensional internal flows are computed with this method. The prediction of cascade performance is presented. The extention of the pressure correction method for the solution of three dimensional flows is also presented.
A spectral optical flow method for determining velocities from digital imagery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hurlburt, Neal; Jaffey, Steve
2015-12-01
We present a method for determining surface flows from solar images based upon optical flow techniques. We apply the method to sets of images obtained by a variety of solar imagers to assess its performance. The opflow3d procedure is shown to extract accurate velocity estimates when provided perfect test data and quickly generates results consistent with completely distinct methods when applied on global scales. We also validate it in detail by comparing it to an established method when applied to high-resolution datasets and find that it provides comparable results without the need to tune, filter or otherwise preprocess the images before its application.
Investigation of an innovative method for DC flow suppression of double-inlet pulse tube coolers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, J. Y.; Luo, E. C.; Wu, Z. H.; Dai, W.; Zhu, S. L.
2007-05-01
The use of double-inlet mode in the pulse tube cooler opens up a possibility of DC flow circulating around the regenerator and the pulse tube. The DC flow sometimes deteriorates the performance of the cryocooler because such a steady flow adds an unwanted thermal load to the cold heat exchanger. It seems that this problem is still not well solved although a lot of effort has been made. Here we introduce a membrane-barrier method for DC flow suppression in double-inlet pulse tube coolers. An elastic membrane is installed between the pulse tube cooler inlet and the double-inlet valve to break the closed-loop flow path of DC flow. The membrane is acoustically transparent, but would block the DC flow completely. Thus the DC flow is thoroughly suppressed and the merit of double-inlet mode is remained. With this method, a temperature reduction of tens of Kelvin was obtained in our single-stage pulse tube cooler and the lowest temperature reached 29.8 K.
Vortex-enhanced mixing through active and passive flow control methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Depuru Mohan, N. K.; Greenblatt, D.; Nayeri, C. N.; Paschereit, C. O.; Panchapakesan, N. R.
2015-03-01
This study aims to understand the underlying physics of vortex-enhanced mixing through active and passive flow control methods. To find a best flow control method that enhances turbulent mixing through the generation of streamwise vortices, an experimental investigation was carried out to compare active and passive flow control methods of an incompressible axisymmetric jet. For active flow control, the lip of the circular jet was equipped with a single small flap deflected away from the jet stream at an angle of 30° to the jet axis. The flap incorporated a flow control slot through which steady and oscillatory suction were implemented. The active flow control methods require power input to the suction devices. For passive flow control, the lip of the circular jet was equipped with a single small delta tab deflected into the jet stream at an angle of 30° to the jet axis. The chord lengths of the flap and delta tab were one-sixth of the jet diameter. The momentum of jet increased in the case of active flow control by entraining the ambient fluid, whereas momentum decreased in the case of passive flow control. The effect of steady suction saturated for volumetric suction coefficient values greater than 0.82 %. The strength of streamwise vortices generated by the flap were greater than those generated by the delta tab. Steady suction produced positive pressures just downstream of the flow control slot in the central portion of the flap and negative pressures at the flap edges. Oscillatory suction was highly dependent on dimensionless frequency ( F +) based on the distance from the flow control slot to the flap trailing edge; the pressures on the central portion of the flap increased for F + ≤ 0.11 and then decreased for greater F +; finally attained negative pressures at F + = 0.44. The increase in jet momentum and turbulence intensity, combined with the induced streamwise vorticity, makes steady suction a potential concept for increasing propulsion efficiency
Aerodynamic flow simulation using a pressure-based method and a two-equation turbulence model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lai, Y. G. J.; Przekwas, A. J.; So, R. M. C.
1993-07-01
In the past, most aerodynamic flow calculations were carried out with density-based numerical methods and zero-equation turbulence models. However, pressure-based methods and more advanced turbulence models have been routinely used in industry for many internal flow simulations and for incompressible flows. Unfortunately, their usefulness in calculating aerodynamic flows is still not well demonstrated and accepted. In this study, an advanced pressure-based numerical method and a recently proposed near-wall compressible two-equation turbulence model are used to calculate external aerodynamic flows. Several TVD-type schemes are extended to pressure-based method to better capture discontinuities such as shocks. Some improvements are proposed to accelerate the convergence of the numerical method. A compressible near-wall two-equation turbulence model is then implemented to calculate transonic turbulent flows over NACA 0012 and RAE 2822 airfoils with and without shocks. The calculated results are compared with wind tunnel data as well as with results obtained from the Baldwin-Lomax model. The performance of the two-equation turbulence model is evaluated and its merits or lack thereof are discussed.
A variational multiscale method for particle-cloud tracking in turbomachinery flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corsini, A.; Rispoli, F.; Sheard, A. G.; Takizawa, K.; Tezduyar, T. E.; Venturini, P.
2014-11-01
We present a computational method for simulation of particle-laden flows in turbomachinery. The method is based on a stabilized finite element fluid mechanics formulation and a finite element particle-cloud tracking method. We focus on induced-draft fans used in process industries to extract exhaust gases in the form of a two-phase fluid with a dispersed solid phase. The particle-laden flow causes material wear on the fan blades, degrading their aerodynamic performance, and therefore accurate simulation of the flow would be essential in reliable computational turbomachinery analysis and design. The turbulent-flow nature of the problem is dealt with a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes model and Streamline-Upwind/Petrov-Galerkin/Pressure-Stabilizing/Petrov-Galerkin stabilization, the particle-cloud trajectories are calculated based on the flow field and closure models for the turbulence-particle interaction, and one-way dependence is assumed between the flow field and particle dynamics. We propose a closure model utilizing the scale separation feature of the variational multiscale method, and compare that to the closure utilizing the eddy viscosity model. We present computations for axial- and centrifugal-fan configurations, and compare the computed data to those obtained from experiments, analytical approaches, and other computational methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arattano, M.; Abancó, C.; Coviello, V.; Hürlimann, M.
2014-12-01
Ground vibration sensors have been increasingly used and tested, during the last few years, as devices to monitor debris flows and they have also been proposed as one of the more reliable devices for the design of debris flow warning systems. The need to process the output of ground vibration sensors, to diminish the amount of data to be recorded, is usually due to the reduced storing capabilities and the limited power supply, normally provided by solar panels, available in the high mountain environment. There are different methods that can be found in literature to process the ground vibration signal produced by debris flows. In this paper we will discuss the two most commonly employed: the method of impulses and the method of amplitude. These two methods of data processing are analyzed describing their origin and their use, presenting examples of applications and their main advantages and shortcomings. The two methods are then applied to process the ground vibration raw data produced by a debris flow occurred in the Rebaixader Torrent (Spanish Pyrenees) in 2012. The results of this work will provide means for decision to researchers and technicians who find themselves facing the task of designing a debris flow monitoring installation or a debris flow warning equipment based on the use of ground vibration detectors.
High fidelity digital inline holographic method for 3D flow measurements.
Toloui, Mostafa; Hong, Jiarong
2015-10-19
Among all the 3D optical flow diagnostic techniques, digital inline holographic particle tracking velocimetry (DIH-PTV) provides the highest spatial resolution with low cost, simple and compact optical setups. Despite these advantages, DIH-PTV suffers from major limitations including poor longitudinal resolution, human intervention (i.e. requirement for manually determined tuning parameters during tracer field reconstruction and extraction), limited tracer concentration, and expensive computations. These limitations prevent this technique from being widely used for high resolution 3D flow measurements. In this study, we present a novel holographic particle extraction method with the goal of overcoming all the major limitations of DIH-PTV. The proposed method consists of multiple steps involving 3D deconvolution, automatic signal-to-noise ratio enhancement and thresholding, and inverse iterative particle extraction. The entire method is implemented using GPU-based algorithm to increase the computational speed significantly. Validated with synthetic particle holograms, the proposed method can achieve particle extraction rate above 95% with fake particles less than 3% and maximum position error below 1.6 particle diameter for holograms with particle concentration above 3000 particles/mm^{3}. The applicability of the proposed method for DIH-PTV has been further validated using the experiment of laminar flow in a microchannel and the synthetic tracer flow fields generated using a DNS turbulent channel flow database. Such improvements will substantially enhance the implementation of DIH-PTV for 3D flow measurements and enable the potential commercialization of this technique. PMID:26480377
High-speed viscous flows past blunt bodies and compression corners with flux-split methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaitonde, Datta
1992-03-01
This effort investigates the accuracy of some flux-split algorithms in high-speed viscous flows. Three methods are examined: (1) MacCormack and Candler's (MC) scheme; (2) the van Leer (vL) scheme; and (3) the method of Roe. The problems studied include the blunt body flow at Mach 16 and the flow past a 240 compression corner at Mach 14. Higher order accuracy is obtained with the MUSCL approach. Viscous terms are centered in the full Navier-Stokes cell-centered implicit finite volume simulation. The results indicate a relative similarity of predicted surface pressure with all methods on both flows. However, considerable disparity exists in heat transfer prediction especially on the coarser meshes with van Leer's splitting exhibiting the most overprediction. Generally, however, this disparity-diminishes as the grid is refined. The occurrence of anomalous carbuncle solutions with Roe's scheme may be suppressed with appropriate increase in entropy cutoff with no significant penalty in accuracy. For the ramp flow, the MC method predicts the size of the separated-flow region most accurately, though some overprediction of heat transfer is observed. Roe's algorithm, and on the finer grids, van Leer's method also exhibit comparable results.
Comparison of rill flow velocity over frozen and thawed slopes with electrolyte tracer method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ban, Yunyun; Lei, Tingwu; Liu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Chao
2016-03-01
Freeze-thaw erosion is the primary soil water erosion form in high altitude and/or high latitude regions. The water flow velocity along an eroding rill over frozen and thawed slopes is vital to understanding of rill erosion hydrodynamics. This study experimentally measured rill flow velocity over frozen and thawed slopes using electrolyte trace method under Pulse Boundary Model. The experiments used three flow rates of 1, 2, and 4 L min-1, three slope gradients of 5°, 10°, and 15°. The temperature of the rill flow water was supplied at 0 °C as controlled with ice-water mixture. Seven sensors were used to measure flow velocity by tracing the solute transport process at 10, 110, 210, 310, 410, 510, and 610 cm distances from the electrolyte injection position. The measured velocity became steady at a distance of about 3 m from the electrolyte injection location, where the effect of the pulse boundary condition on the analytic solution to the partial differential equation becomes negligible. Results showed that flow velocity increased with slope gradient and flow rate on frozen slopes. A significant effect was observed on the steepest slope or at the highest flow rate over the thawed slope, which changed slightly on the gentle slopes and low flow rates. Flow velocity was about 25%, 30%, and 40% higher on the frozen soil than on the thawed slope at 5°, 10°, and 15° slopes and about 30% higher over the frozen slope at all flow rates. This study demonstrates that water over a frozen slope flows much faster than over a thawed slope. This study helps in the study and further understanding of the hydrodynamics of soil erosion and sediment transport behaviors of frozen and thawed slopes.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kwak, Dochan; Kiris, C.; Smith, Charles A. (Technical Monitor)
1998-01-01
Performance of the two commonly used numerical procedures, one based on artificial compressibility method and the other pressure projection method, are compared. These formulations are selected primarily because they are designed for three-dimensional applications. The computational procedures are compared by obtaining steady state solutions of a wake vortex and unsteady solutions of a curved duct flow. For steady computations, artificial compressibility was very efficient in terms of computing time and robustness. For an unsteady flow which requires small physical time step, pressure projection method was found to be computationally more efficient than an artificial compressibility method. This comparison is intended to give some basis for selecting a method or a flow solution code for large three-dimensional applications where computing resources become a critical issue.
A novel second order fast decoupled load flow method in polar coordinates
Nanda, J.; Kothari, D.P.; Srivastava, S.C. )
1988-01-01
This paper presents a novel and effective second order fast decoupled load flow model in polar co-ordinates employing a totally different approach than used in existing second order methods in polar co-ordinates. This work eliminates the need for storing and computing repeatedly the second order terms by prudently injecting the elements of the Hessian matrix into the Jacobian. This results in a memory requirement at par with the usual fast decoupled load flow method. Investigations reveal that for well-behaved systems, the new method and the fast decoupled load flow method have practically the same convergence properties, whereas for certain ill-conditioned systems, the new method shows distinctly better convergence properties.
López-López, Alberto; Flores-Payán, Valentín; León-Becerril, Elizabeth; Hernández-Mena, Leonel; Vallejo-Rodríguez, Ramiro
2016-01-01
Steroids are classified as endocrine disrupting chemicals; they are persistent with low biodegradability and are hardly degraded by conventional methods. Ozonation process has been effective for steroids degradation and the determination of the kinetics is a fundamental aspect for the design and operation of the reactor. This study assessed two methods: competitive kinetics and stopped flow, for determining the degradation kinetics of two steroids, estradiol (E2) and ethinylestradiol (EE2) in spiked water. Experiments were performed at pH 6, 21 °C, and using tertbutyl alcohol as scavenger of hydroxyl radicals; competitive kinetics method used sodium phenolate as reference compound. For the stopped flow, the experiments were performed in a BioLogic SFM-3000/S equipment. For both methods, the second order rate constants were in the order of 10(6) and 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) for E2 and EE2 respectively. The competitive kinetics can be applied with assurance and reliability but needing an additional analysis method to measure the residual concentrations. Stopped flow method allows the evaluation of the degradation kinetics in milliseconds and avoids the use of additional analytical methodologies; this method allows determining the reaction times on line. The methods are applicable for degradation of other emerging contaminants or other steroids and could be applied in water treatment at industrial level. Finally, it is important to consider the resources available to implement the most appropriate method, either competitive kinetics or the stopped-flow method. PMID:27478722
A zonal method for modeling powered-lift aircraft flow fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roberts, D. W.
1989-01-01
A zonal method for modeling powered-lift aircraft flow fields is based on the coupling of a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code to a potential flow code. By minimizing the extent of the viscous Navier-Stokes zones the zonal method can be a cost effective flow analysis tool. The successful coupling of the zonal solutions provides the viscous/inviscid interations that are necessary to achieve convergent and unique overall solutions. The feasibility of coupling the two vastly different codes is demonstrated. The interzone boundaries were overlapped to facilitate the passing of boundary condition information between the codes. Routines were developed to extract the normal velocity boundary conditions for the potential flow zone from the viscous zone solution. Similarly, the velocity vector direction along with the total conditions were obtained from the potential flow solution to provide boundary conditions for the Navier-Stokes solution. Studies were conducted to determine the influence of the overlap of the interzone boundaries and the convergence of the zonal solutions on the convergence of the overall solution. The zonal method was applied to a jet impingement problem to model the suckdown effect that results from the entrainment of the inviscid zone flow by the viscous zone jet. The resultant potential flow solution created a lower pressure on the base of the vehicle which produces the suckdown load. The feasibility of the zonal method was demonstrated. By enhancing the Navier-Stokes code for powered-lift flow fields and optimizing the convergence of the coupled analysis a practical flow analysis tool will result.
A Weight-Averaged Interpolation Method for Coupling Time-Accurate Rarefied and Continuum Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diaz, Steven William
A novel approach to coupling rarefied and continuum flow regimes as a single, hybrid model is introduced. The method borrows from techniques used in the simulation of spray flows to interpolate Lagrangian point-particles onto an Eulerian grid in a weight-averaged sense. A brief overview of traditional methods for modeling both rarefied and continuum domains is given, and a review of the literature regarding rarefied/continuum flow coupling is presented. Details of the theoretical development of the method of weighted interpolation are then described. The method evaluates macroscopic properties at the nodes of a CFD grid via the weighted interpolation of all simulated molecules in a set surrounding the node. The weight factor applied to each simulated molecule is the inverse of the linear distance between it and the given node. During development, the method was applied to several preliminary cases, including supersonic flow over an airfoil, subsonic flow over tandem airfoils, and supersonic flow over a backward facing step; all at low Knudsen numbers. The main thrust of the research centered on the time-accurate expansion of a rocket plume into a near-vacuum. The method proves flexible enough to be used with various flow solvers, demonstrated by the use of Fluent as the continuum solver for the preliminary cases and a NASA-developed Large Eddy Simulation research code, WRLES, for the full lunar model. The method is applicable to a wide range of Mach numbers and is completely grid independent, allowing the rarefied and continuum solvers to be optimized for their respective domains without consideration of the other. The work presented demonstrates the validity, and flexibility of the method of weighted interpolation as a novel concept in the field of hybrid flow coupling. The method marks a significant divergence from current practices in the coupling of rarefied and continuum flow domains and offers a kernel on which to base an ongoing field of research. It has the
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haviland, J. K.
1974-01-01
The results are reported of two unrelated studies. The first was an investigation of the formulation of the equations for non-uniform unsteady flows, by perturbation of an irrotational flow to obtain the linear Green's equation. The resulting integral equation was found to contain a kernel which could be expressed as the solution of the adjoint flow equation, a linear equation for small perturbations, but with non-constant coefficients determined by the steady flow conditions. It is believed that the non-uniform flow effects may prove important in transonic flutter, and that in such cases, the use of doublet type solutions of the wave equation would then prove to be erroneous. The second task covered an initial investigation into the use of the Monte Carlo method for solution of acoustical field problems. Computed results are given for a rectangular room problem, and for a problem involving a circular duct with a source located at the closed end.
Methods for Assessing Expiratory Flow Limitation during Tidal Breathing in COPD Patients
Koulouris, Nickolaos G.; Kaltsakas, Georgios; Palamidas, Anastasios F.; Gennimata, Sofia-Antiopi
2012-01-01
Patients with severe COPD often exhale along the same flow-volume curve during quite breathing as during forced expiratory vital capacity manoeuvre, and this has been taken as indicating expiratory flow limitation at rest (EFLT). Therefore, EFLT, namely, attainment of maximal expiratory flow during tidal expiration, occurs when an increase in transpulmonary pressure causes no increase in expiratory flow. EFLT leads to small airway injury and promotes dynamic pulmonary hyperinflation with concurrent dyspnoea and exercise limitation. In fact, EFLT occurs commonly in COPD patients (mainly in GOLD III and IV stage) in whom the latter symptoms are common. The existing up-to-date physiological methods for assessing expiratory flow limitation (EFLT) are reviewed in the present work. Among the currently available techniques, the negative expiratory pressure (NEP) has been validated in a wide variety of settings and disorders. Consequently, it should be regarded as a simple, non invasive, most practical, and accurate new technique. PMID:23008769
Detached eddy simulation of high-Reynolds-number turbulent flows using the immersed boundary method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernardini, Matteo; Pirozzoli, Sergio; Orlandi, Paolo
2015-11-01
Detached Eddy Simulation based on the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model is applied in conjunction with the immersed boundary method to simulate high-Reynolds number turbulent flows in complex geometries. A fourth-order, finite-difference solver capable of discretely preserving the kinetic energy in the limit of inviscid flow is adopted to solve the compressible Navier-Stokes equations and model-consistent, adaptive wall functions are employed to provide the proper numerical boundary conditions at the fluid/solid interface. Numerical tests, performed for several configurations involving massively separated flows, demonstrate that computations at high-Reynolds number, as typically occurring in flows of industrial relevance, can be successfully carried out using the immersed boundary strategy, providing predictions whose accuracy is comparable to that of standard, body-fitted, structured or unstructured flow solvers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hobson, G. V.; Lakshminarayana, B.
1990-01-01
A new method is presented for the solution of incompressible flow in generalized coordinates. This method is based on the substitution of the pressure weighted form of the momentum equations into the continuity equation. The algorithm is rigorously derived and a Fourier analysis is used to assess its suitability to act as an error smoother. Linear stability analysis results indicate that the performance of the new pressure substitution method (PSM) and the pressure correction method (PCM) is about the same at low Reynolds numbers, with no significant pressure gradient. At high Reynolds numbers the PSM shows much faster convergence. Likewise prediction of various flows indicate that the PSM has better accuracy for high Reynolds number flows with significant pressure gradients. Since most practical aerodynamic flows have significant pressure gradients, the PSM seems to be attractive for such flows. Solutions for both laminar and turbulent flow are compared with the experimental data. A two-equation low Reynolds number turbulence model is used to resolve the turbulent flowfield.
An analysis method for multistage transonic turbines with coolant mass flow addition
Mildner, F.; Gallus, H.E.
1998-10-01
The subject of this paper is a numerical method for the calculation of the transonic flow field of multistage turbines, taking high coolant flow into account. To reduce the processing time, a throughflow method based on the principles of Wu is used for the hub-to-tip calculation. The flow field is obtained by an iterative solution between a three-dimensional inviscid hyperbolic time-dependent algorithm with an implicit finite volume method for the blade-to-blade calculations using C-meshes and a single representative meridional S{sub 2m}-stream surface. Along the 2{sub 2m}-plane with respect to nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinates, the stream function equation governing fluid flow is established. The cooling air inflow inside the blade passage forbids the assumption of a constant mass flow along the main stream direction. To consider the change of the aerodynamic and thermodynamic behavior, a cooling air model was developed and implemented in the algorithm, which allows the mixing of radially arbitrarily distributed cooling air in the trailing edge section of each blade row. The viscous effects and the influence of cooling air mixing are considered by the use of selected loss correlations for profile, tip leakage, secondary flow and mixing losses in the S{sub 2m}-plane in terms of entropy. The method is applied to the four-stage high-temperature gas turbine Siemens KWU V84.3. The numerical results obtained are in good agreement with the experimental data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, Sang-Wook
1987-01-01
Various experimental, analytical, and numerical analysis methods for flow-solid interaction of a nest of cylinders subjected to cross flows are reviewed. A nest of cylinders subjected to cross flows can be found in numerous engineering applications including the Space Shuttle Maine Engine-Main Injector Assembly (SSME-MIA) and nuclear reactor heat exchangers. Despite its extreme importance in engineering applications, understanding of the flow-solid interaction process is quite limited and design of the tube banks are mostly dependent on experiments and/or experimental correlation equations. For future development of major numerical analysis methods for the flow-solid interaction of a nest of cylinders subjected to cross flow, various turbulence models, nonlinear structural dynamics, and existing laminar flow-solid interaction analysis methods are included.
On the lattice Boltzmann method for multiphase flows with large density ratios
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Seung Hyun; Pitsch, Heinz
2015-12-01
An analysis of the lattice Boltzmann (LB) method for multiphase flows with large density ratios is presented. It is shown that for incompressible, multiphase LB methods, the divergence-free condition is not satisfied within the formal accuracy of the LB method, when the density ratio between the two phases is large enough. The discrete differentiation-by-parts rule is responsible for this error. A new multiphase LB method to resolve this issue is proposed.
VOF Method for Simulation of Multiphase Incompressible Flows with Phase Change
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, S. P.; Ni, M. J.; Ma, H. Y.
2011-09-01
A volume-of-fluid method for simulation of incompressible multiphase flows with phase change is studied. We have simulated a series of processes of the vapor bubble deformation in a three-dimensional film boiling using volume of fluid (VOF) method, which include the generation, detachment and rising deformation of the bubble. Our numerical results show that the VOF method is a useful method to handle complex deformation of the liquid-vapor interface during film boiling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ouriev (Ur'ev), Boris; Windhab, Erich
2003-01-01
In this work a methodology for high-resolution time averaged two-dimensional flow mapping of converging flows was explored. Flow of non-transparent, highly concentrated shear-thinning and shear-thickening suspensions was circulating through the entrance flow adapter with adjustable position of the die entry. The entrance region was scanned with the distance resolution of 2.7 mm × 1 mm, radial to axial displacement respectively. The time averaged flow map was composed from one-dimensional flow profiles measured along the ultrasonic sensor beam using the ultrasonic pulsed echo Doppler technique. Priory to die entry visualization an investigation of flow properties was performed using a novel in-line non-invasive measuring technique. The method is based on combination of the ultrasound velocity profiler velocity monitoring and pressure difference method. The rheological flow properties were derived from simultaneous recording and on-line analysis of the velocity profiles across the tube channel and related radial shear stress profiles calculated from the pressure loss along the flow channel. For the first time the entrance flow of shear-thickening suspension could be visualized. A comparison between the flow of the investigated model suspensions was qualitatively analysed. This method gives an opportunity for time averaged flow mapping of viscoelastic and viscous, non-transparent, multiphase and highly concentrated fluids.
Syn, C.K.; Lesuer, D.R.
1994-12-31
This invention relates to a laminated metal composite, comprising alternating layers of low flow stress material and high flow stress material, and formed using flow constraining elements around each low flow stress layer; and a method of making same. A composite is a combination of at least two chemically distinct materials with a distinct interface separating the two materials. A metal matrix composite (MMC) is a composite material composed of a metal and a nonmetallic reinforcing agent such as silicon carbide (SiC) or graphite in continuous or discontinuous fiber, whisker, or discrete particulate form. A laminate is a material composed of several bonded layers. It is possible to have a laminate composed of multi-layers of a single type of material bonded to each other. However, such a laminate would not be considered to be a composite. The term {open_quotes}laminated metal composite{close_quotes} (LMC), as used herein, is intended to include a structural material composed of: (1) layers of metal or metal alloys interleaved with (2) a different metal, a metal alloy, or a metal matrix composite (MMC) containing strengthening agents.
Implicit method for the computation of unsteady flows on unstructured grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Venkatakrishnan, V.; Mavriplis, D. J.
1995-01-01
An implicit method for the computation of unsteady flows on unstructured grids is presented. Following a finite difference approximation for the time derivative, the resulting nonlinear system of equations is solved at each time step by using an agglomeration multigrid procedure. The method allows for arbitrarily large time steps and is efficient in terms of computational effort and storage. Inviscid and viscous unsteady flows are computed to validate the procedure. The issue of the mass matrix which arises with vertex-centered finite volume schemes is addressed. The present formulation allows the mass matrix to be inverted indirectly. A mesh point movement and reconnection procedure is described that allows the grids to evolve with the motion of bodies. As an example of flow over bodies in relative motion, flow over a multi-element airfoil system undergoing deployment is computed.
Borazjani, Iman; Westerdale, John; McMahon, Eileen M.; Rajaraman, Prathish K.; Heys, Jeffrey J.
2013-01-01
The left ventricle (LV) pumps oxygenated blood from the lungs to the rest of the body through systemic circulation. The efficiency of such a pumping function is dependent on blood flow within the LV chamber. It is therefore crucial to accurately characterize LV hemodynamics. Improved understanding of LV hemodynamics is expected to provide important clinical diagnostic and prognostic information. We review the recent advances in numerical and experimental methods for characterizing LV flows and focus on analysis of intraventricular flow fields by echocardiographic particle image velocimetry (echo-PIV), due to its potential for broad and practical utility. Future research directions to advance patient-specific LV simulations include development of methods capable of resolving heart valves, higher temporal resolution, automated generation of three-dimensional (3D) geometry, and incorporating actual flow measurements into the numerical solution of the 3D cardiovascular fluid dynamics. PMID:23690874
Sjogreen, B; Yee, H C
2007-12-12
Flows containing steady or nearly steady strong shocks in parts of the flow field, and unsteady turbulence with shocklets on other parts of the flow field are difficult to capture accurately and efficiently employing the same numerical scheme even under the multiblock grid or adaptive grid refinement framework. On one hand, sixth-order or higher shock-capturing methods are appropriate for unsteady turbulence with shocklets. On the other hand, lower order shock-capturing methods are more effective for strong steady shocks in terms of convergence. In order to minimize the shortcomings of low order and high order shock-capturing schemes for the subject flows, a multi-block overlapping grid with different orders of accuracy on different blocks is proposed. Test cases to illustrate the performance of the new solver are included.
Application of a multi-level grid method to transonic flow calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
South, J. C., Jr.; Brandt, A.
1976-01-01
A multi-level grid method was studied as a possible means of accelerating convergence in relaxation calculations for transonic flows. The method employs a hierarchy of grids, ranging from very coarse to fine. The coarser grids are used to diminish the magnitude of the smooth part of the residuals. The method was applied to the solution of the transonic small disturbance equation for the velocity potential in conservation form. Nonlifting transonic flow past a parabolic arc airfoil is studied with meshes of both constant and variable step size.
A new Lagrangian random choice method for steady two-dimensional supersonic/hypersonic flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Loh, C. Y.; Hui, W. H.
1991-01-01
Glimm's (1965) random choice method has been successfully applied to compute steady two-dimensional supersonic/hypersonic flow using a new Lagrangian formulation. The method is easy to program, fast to execute, yet it is very accurate and robust. It requires no grid generation, resolves slipline and shock discontinuities crisply, can handle boundary conditions most easily, and is applicable to hypersonic as well as supersonic flow. It represents an accurate and fast alternative to the existing Eulerian methods. Many computed examples are given.
Applications of the Lattice Boltzmann Method to Complex and Turbulent Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luo, Li-Shi; Qi, Dewei; Wang, Lian-Ping; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
We briefly review the method of the lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE). We show the three-dimensional LBE simulation results for a non-spherical particle in Couette flow and 16 particles in sedimentation in fluid. We compare the LBE simulation of the three-dimensional homogeneous isotropic turbulence flow in a periodic cubic box of the size 1283 with the pseudo-spectral simulation, and find that the two results agree well with each other but the LBE method is more dissipative than the pseudo-spectral method in small scales, as expected.
Using a partial-wave method for sound-mean-flow scattering problems.
Berthet, R; Coste, C
2003-03-01
We present a semianalytical method, based on a partial-wave expansion and valid in the short wavelength limit for small Mach number flows, to analyze sound-vortical-flow interactions. It is more powerful than ray-tracing methods because it gives both amplitude and phase of the sound wave, and because it is less restrictive on the smallness of the wavelength. In contrast with the Born approximation approach, this method allows the computation of the sound field in the whole interaction domain (including the near field), and preserves energy conservation. Vortical flows with finite circulation are amenable to our analysis, which gives a satisfactory description of wave front dislocation by vorticity, in good agreement with direct numerical simulations. We extend previous versions of this method to the case of smooth vorticity profiles which are observed in aeroacoustics experiments. PMID:12689176
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Zhi; Newling, Ben
2007-03-01
We present non-invasive, quantitative MRI wind-tunnel measurements in flowing gas (velocity > 10 m/s) at high Reynolds numbers (Re > 10^5). Our measurement method is three-dimensional and has the potential for saving time over traditional pointwise techniques. The method is suitable for liquids and for gases. We demonstrate the use of the technique on different test sections (bluff obstruction, clark Y-wing and cylinder). The mean velocity of gas flowing past those sections has been measured. We also investigate methods to measure flow correlation times by changing the acquisition interval between excitation of the sample and detection of the signal. This may be accomplished by making separate measurements or by using a multiple-point acquisition method. A measurement of correlation time allows us to map turbulent diffusivity. The MRI data are compared with computational fluid dynamics.
A Method for the Constrained Design of Natural Laminar Flow Airfoils
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Green, Bradford E.; Whitesides, John L.; Campbell, Richard L.; Mineck, Raymond E.
1996-01-01
A fully automated iterative design method has been developed by which an airfoil with a substantial amount of natural laminar flow can be designed, while maintaining other aerodynamic and geometric constraints. Drag reductions have been realized using the design method over a range of Mach numbers, Reynolds numbers and airfoil thicknesses. The thrusts of the method are its ability to calculate a target N-Factor distribution that forces the flow to undergo transition at the desired location; the target-pressure-N-Factor relationship that is used to reduce the N-Factors in order to prolong transition; and its ability to design airfoils to meet lift, pitching moment, thickness and leading-edge radius constraints while also being able to meet the natural laminar flow constraint. The method uses several existing CFD codes and can design a new airfoil in only a few days using a Silicon Graphics IRIS workstation.
An Implicit Immersed Boundary Method for Low Reynolds Number Incompressible Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Hyun Wook; Lee, Changhoon; Choi, Jung-Il
2013-11-01
We develop a new formulation of immersed boundary (IB) method based on direct forcing for incompressible viscous flows. The new algorithm for the present IB method is derived using a block LU decomposition and Taylor series expansion, and the direct forcing for imposing no-slip condition on the IB surface is calculated in an iterative procedure. We perform simulations of two-dimensional flows around a circular cylinder and three-dimensional flows over a sphere for low and moderate Reynolds numbers. The result shows that present method yield a better imposition of no-slip condition on IB surface for low Reynolds number with a fairly larger time step than other IB methods based on direct forcing. Supported by EDISON (2011-0029561) program of NRF.
On the use of optical flow methods with spin-tagging magnetic resonance imaging.
Moser, K W; Georgiadis, J G; Buckius, R O
2001-01-01
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a versatile noninvasive tool for achieving full-field quantitative visualization of biomedical fluid flows. In this study, two MRI velocimetry techniques (spin tagging and phase contrast) are used to obtain velocity measurements in a Poiseuille flow for Reynolds numbers below 1,000. Spin-tagging MRI velocimetry supplies the displacement of tagged grids of nuclear spins from which the velocity field can be inferred, while phase contrast MRI velocimetry directly provides velocity data for every pixel in the field of view. Although the phase contrast method is more accurate for this flow, this technique is more sensitive to errors from magnetic susceptibility gradients, higher order motions, and has limited dynamic range. Spin-tagging MRI velocimetry is a viable alternative if automatic methods for extracting velocity fields from the tags can be found. Optical flow, a technique originally developed for machine vision applications, is proposed here as a postprocessing step to obtain two-dimensional velocity fields from spin-tagging MRI images. Results with artificially generated grids demonstrate the robustness of the optical flow algorithm to noise and indicate that a 7%-10% average error can be expected from the optical flow calculations alone, independent of MRI image artifacts. Experiments on spin-tagging MRI images for a Re=230 Poiseuille flow gave an average error of 6.41%, which was consistent with the measurement error of the generated (synthetic) images with the same level of random noise superimposed. PMID:11219511
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsuchiya, Takenobu; Hatano, Yuichi; Mori, Yashunori; Shen, Rakushin; Endoh, Nobuyuki
2016-07-01
In this study, to estimate the local temperature changes caused by a thick blood vessel, the temperature distribution in a tissue phantom with a thick blood vessel during focused ultrasound irradiation was measured by a thermal imaging method. The blood flow rate in the simulated blood vessel was varied and the relationship between flow rate and temperature decrease was examined. The phantom using the thermal imaging method is divided into two parts, and the increases in temperature distribution as a function of blood flow rate are measured using a thermocamera under constant ultrasound irradiation. The irradiation conditions of ultrasound waves were a central frequency of 1 MHz, a wave number length of 200 cycles, and a duty ratio of 0.2. The irradiation duration was 5 min, and the ultrasound intensity I SPTA was 36 W/cm2. The amount of temperature decrease caused by the cooling effect of blood flow increased with the blood flow rate and it became constant at a certain threshold of blood flow rate. The threshold of blood flow rate is about 250 ml/min.
Research on optical fiber flow test method with non-intrusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shang, Ying; Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Chang; Zhao, Wenan
2014-06-01
In the field of oil well logging, real-time monitoring of the fluid flow parameter provides a scientific basis for oil and gas optimization exploration and increase in reservoir recovery, so a non-intrusive flow test method based on turbulent vibration was proposed. The specific length of the sensor fiber wound tightly around the outer wall of the pipe was connected with the optical fiber gratings at both ends, and the sensor fiber and the optical fiber gratings composed the flow sensing unit. The dynamic pressure was generated by the turbulence when fluid flows through the pipe, and the dynamic pressure resulted in the light phase shift of the sensor fiber. The phase information was demodulated by the fiber optic interferometer technology, time division multiplexing technology, and phase generated carrier modulation and demodulation techniques. The quadratic curve relationship between the phase change and flow rate was found by experimental data analysis, and the experiment confirmed the feasibility of the optical fiber flow test method with non-intrusion and achieved the real-time monitoring of the fluid flow.
A High-Resolution Godunov Method for Compressible Multi-Material Flow on Overlapping Grids
Banks, J W; Schwendeman, D W; Kapila, A K; Henshaw, W D
2006-02-13
A numerical method is described for inviscid, compressible, multi-material flow in two space dimensions. The flow is governed by the multi-material Euler equations with a general mixture equation of state. Composite overlapping grids are used to handle complex flow geometry and block-structured adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is used to locally increase grid resolution near shocks and material interfaces. The discretization of the governing equations is based on a high-resolution Godunov method, but includes an energy correction designed to suppress numerical errors that develop near a material interface for standard, conservative shock-capturing schemes. The energy correction is constructed based on a uniform pressure-velocity flow and is significant only near the captured interface. A variety of two-material flows are presented to verify the accuracy of the numerical approach and to illustrate its use. These flows assume an equation of state for the mixture based on Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) forms for the components. This equation of state includes a mixture of ideal gases as a special case. Flow problems considered include unsteady one-dimensional shock-interface collision, steady interaction of an planar interface and an oblique shock, planar shock interaction with a collection of gas-filled cylindrical inhomogeneities, and the impulsive motion of the two-component mixture in a rigid cylindrical vessel.
A high-resolution Godunov method for compressible multi-material flow on overlapping grids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banks, J. W.; Schwendeman, D. W.; Kapila, A. K.; Henshaw, W. D.
2007-04-01
A numerical method is described for inviscid, compressible, multi-material flow in two space dimensions. The flow is governed by the multi-material Euler equations with a general mixture equation of state. Composite overlapping grids are used to handle complex flow geometry and block-structured adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is used to locally increase grid resolution near shocks and material interfaces. The discretization of the governing equations is based on a high-resolution Godunov method, but includes an energy correction designed to suppress numerical errors that develop near a material interface for standard, conservative shock-capturing schemes. The energy correction is constructed based on a uniform-pressure-velocity flow and is significant only near the captured interface. A variety of two-material flows are presented to verify the accuracy of the numerical approach and to illustrate its use. These flows assume an equation of state for the mixture based on the Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) forms for the components. This equation of state includes a mixture of ideal gases as a special case. Flow problems considered include unsteady one-dimensional shock-interface collision, steady interaction of a planar interface and an oblique shock, planar shock interaction with a collection of gas-filled cylindrical inhomogeneities, and the impulsive motion of the two-component mixture in a rigid cylindrical vessel.
Research on optical fiber flow test method with non-intrusive
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shang, Ying; Liu, Xiao-hui; Wang, Chang; Zhao, Wen-an
2013-09-01
In the field of oil well logging, real-time monitoring of fluid flow parameter provides a scientific basis for oil and gas optimization exploration and increase of reservoir recovery, so the non-intrusive flow test method based on turbulent vibration is proposed. The specific length of sensor fiber wound tightly around the outer wall of the pipe is connected with the optical fiber gratings at both ends, the sensor fiber and the optical fiber gratings compose the flow sensing unit. The dynamic pressure is generated by the turbulence when fluid flows through the pipe, and the dynamic pressure results in the light phase shift of the sensor fiber. The phase information is demodulated by fiber optic interferometer technology, time division multiplexing technology and Phase Generated Carrier modulation and demodulation techniques. The quadratic curve relationship between phase change and flow rate is found by experimental data analysis, and the experiment confirms the feasibility of optical fiber flow test method with non-intrusive and implements the realtime monitoring of flow.
The Blow Up Method for Brakke Flows: Networks Near Triple Junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tonegawa, Yoshihiro; Wickramasekera, Neshan
2016-09-01
We introduce a parabolic blow-up method to study the asymptotic behavior of a Brakke flow of planar networks (that is a 1-dimensional Brakke flow in a two dimensional region) weakly close in a space-time region to a static multiplicity 1 triple junction J. We show that such a network flow is regular in a smaller space-time region, in the sense that it consists of three curves coming smoothly together at a single point at 120{^{circ}} angles, staying smoothly close to J and moving smoothly. Using this result and White's stratification theorem, we deduce that whenever a Brakke flow of networks in a space-time region {{mathcal {R}}} has no static tangent flow with density {{≥q}2}, there exists a closed subset {{Σ subset {mathcal {R}}}} of parabolic Hausdorff dimension at most 1 such that the flow is classical in {{mathcal {R}}backslashΣ}, that is near every point in {{mathcal {R}}backslashΣ}, the flow, if non-empty, consists of either an embedded curve moving smoothly or three embedded curves meeting smoothly at a single point at 120{^{circ}} angles and moving smoothly. In particular, such a flow is classical at all times except for a closed set of times of ordinary Hausdorff dimension at most {1/2}.
An analysis method for multi-component airfoils in separated flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rao, B. M.; Duorak, F. A.; Maskew, B.
1980-01-01
The multi-component airfoil program (Langley-MCARF) for attached flow is modified to accept the free vortex sheet separation-flow model program (Analytical Methods, Inc.-CLMAX). The viscous effects are incorporated into the calculation by representing the boundary layer displacement thickness with an appropriate source distribution. The separation flow model incorporated into MCARF was applied to single component airfoils. Calculated pressure distributions for angles of attack up to the stall are in close agreement with experimental measurements. Even at higher angles of attack beyond the stall, correct trends of separation, decrease in lift coefficients, and increase in pitching moment coefficients are predicted.
Synthesis of zinc ultrafine powders via the Guen-Miller flow-levitation method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jigatch, A. N.; Leipunskii, I. O.; Kuskov, M. L.; Afanasenkova, E. S.; Berezkina, N. G.; Gorbatov, S. A.
2015-12-01
Zinc ultrafine powders (UFPs) with the average particle size of 0.175 to 1.24 μm are synthesized via the flow-levitation method. The peculiarities of the formation of zinc UFPs are considered with respect to the carrier gas properties (heat capacity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion coefficient), as well as the gas flow parameters (pressure and flow rate). The obtained zinc particles are studied via scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The factors determining the crystal structure of zinc particles and their size distribution are discussed as well. The data on oxidation of zinc stored in unsealed containers under normal conditions are also presented.
Synthesis of zinc ultrafine powders via the Guen–Miller flow-levitation method
Jigatch, A. N. Leipunskii, I. O.; Kuskov, M. L.; Afanasenkova, E. S.; Berezkina, N. G.; Gorbatov, S. A.
2015-12-15
Zinc ultrafine powders (UFPs) with the average particle size of 0.175 to 1.24 μm are synthesized via the flow-levitation method. The peculiarities of the formation of zinc UFPs are considered with respect to the carrier gas properties (heat capacity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion coefficient), as well as the gas flow parameters (pressure and flow rate). The obtained zinc particles are studied via scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The factors determining the crystal structure of zinc particles and their size distribution are discussed as well. The data on oxidation of zinc stored in unsealed containers under normal conditions are also presented.
Application of Roe's method for the simulation of viscous flow in turbomachinery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siikonen, Timo; Pan, Huachen
A three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code for turbomachinery flows has been developed. The code is based on the existing computer code developed for external flows. For turbomachinery flows the Navier-Stokes equations are written in a Cartesian coordinate system rotating around the x-axis. Cartesian velocity components are used, which simplifies the modifications needed to the original code. Flux terms are evaluated utilizing Roe's method. The equations are solved with an implicit LU-factored scheme applying multigrid acceleration for the convergence. Comparisons are made with experimental data for an axial compressor.
Method and apparatus to measure vapor pressure in a flow system
Grossman, M.W.; Biblarz, O.
1991-10-15
The present invention is directed to a method for determining, by a condensation method, the vapor pressure of a material with a known vapor pressure versus temperature characteristic, in a flow system particularly in a mercury isotope enrichment process. 2 figures.
A finite element method for the computation of transonic flow past airfoils
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eberle, A.
1980-01-01
A finite element method for the computation of the transonic flow with shocks past airfoils is presented using the artificial viscosity concept for the local supersonic regime. Generally, the classic element types do not meet the accuracy requirements of advanced numerical aerodynamics requiring special attention to the choice of an appropriate element. A series of computed pressure distributions exhibits the usefulness of the method.
LABORATORY EVALUATION OF AIR FLOW MEASUREMENT METHODS FOR RESIDENTIAL HVAC RETURNS
Walker, Iain; Stratton, Chris
2015-02-01
This project improved the accuracy of air flow measurements used in commissioning California heating and air conditioning systems in Title 24 (Building and Appliance Efficiency Standards), thereby improving system performance and efficiency of California residences. The research team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory addressed the issue that typical tools used by contractors in the field to test air flows may not be accurate enough to measure return flows used in Title 24 applications. The team developed guidance on performance of current diagnostics as well as a draft test method for use in future evaluations. The series of tests performed measured air flow using a range of techniques and devices. The measured air flows were compared to reference air flow measurements using inline air flow meters built into the test apparatus. The experimental results showed that some devices had reasonable results (typical errors of 5 percent or less) but others had much bigger errors (up to 25 percent). Because manufacturers’ accuracy estimates for their equipment do not include many of the sources of error found in actual field measurements (and replicated in the laboratory testing in this study) it is essential for a test method that could be used to determine the actual uncertainty in this specific application. The study team prepared a draft test method through ASTM International to determine the uncertainty of air flow measurements at residential heating ventilation and air conditioning returns and other terminals. This test method, when finalized, can be used by the Energy Commission and other entities to specify required accuracy of measurement devices used to show compliance with standards.
Measurement of thickness of thin water film in two-phase flow by capacitance method
Sun, R.K.; Kolbe, W.F.; Leskovar, B.; Turko, B.
1981-09-01
A technique has been developed for measuring water film thickness in a two-phase annular flow system by the capacitance method. An experimental model of the flow system with two types of electrodes mounted on the inner wall of a cylindrical tube has been constructed and evaluated. The apparatus and its ability to observe fluctuations and wave motions of the water film passing over the electrodes is described in some detail.
Development of the Assessment Items of Debris Flow Using the Delphi Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Byun, Yosep; Seong, Joohyun; Kim, Mingi; Park, Kyunghan; Yoon, Hyungkoo
2016-04-01
In recent years in Korea, Typhoon and the localized extreme rainfall caused by the abnormal climate has increased. Accordingly, debris flow is becoming one of the most dangerous natural disaster. This study aimed to develop the assessment items which can be used for conducting damage investigation of debris flow. Delphi method was applied to classify the realms of assessment items. As a result, 29 assessment items which can be classified into 6 groups were determined.
Vectorization on the star computer of several numerical methods for a fluid flow problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lambiotte, J. J., Jr.; Howser, L. M.
1974-01-01
A reexamination of some numerical methods is considered in light of the new class of computers which use vector streaming to achieve high computation rates. A study has been made of the effect on the relative efficiency of several numerical methods applied to a particular fluid flow problem when they are implemented on a vector computer. The method of Brailovskaya, the alternating direction implicit method, a fully implicit method, and a new method called partial implicitization have been applied to the problem of determining the steady state solution of the two-dimensional flow of a viscous imcompressible fluid in a square cavity driven by a sliding wall. Results are obtained for three mesh sizes and a comparison is made of the methods for serial computation.
The Investigation of Ghost Fluid Method for Simulating the Compressible Two-Medium Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Hai Tian; Zhao, Ning; Wang, Donghong
2016-06-01
In this paper, we investigate the conservation error of the two-dimensional compressible two-medium flow simulated by the front tracking method. As the improved versions of the original ghost fluid method, the modified ghost fluid method and the real ghost fluid method are selected to define the interface boundary conditions, respectively, to show different effects on the conservation error. A Riemann problem is constructed along the normal direction of the interface in the front tracking method, with the goal of obtaining an efficient procedure to track the explicit sharp interface precisely. The corresponding Riemann solutions are also used directly in these improved ghost fluid methods. Extensive numerical examples including the sod tube and the shock-bubble interaction are tested to calculate the conservation error. It is found that these two ghost fluid methods have distinctive performances for different initial conditions of the flow field, and the related conclusions are made to suggest the best choice for the combination.
A high-order Legendre-WENO kernel density function method for modeling disperse flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Timothy; Pantano, Carlos
2015-11-01
We present a high-order kernel density function (KDF) method for disperse flow. The numerical method used to solve the system of hyperbolic equations utilizes a Roe-like update for equations in non-conservation form. We will present the extension of the low-order method to high order using the Legendre-WENO method and demonstrate the improved capability of the method to predict statistics of disperse flows in an accurate, consistent and efficient manner. By construction, the KDF method already enforced many realizability conditions but others remain. The proposed method also considers these constraints and their performance will be discussed. This project was funded by NSF project NSF-DMS 1318161.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Im, Dong-Kyun; Choi, Seongim; Hyuck Kwon, Jang
2015-01-01
The diagonally implicit harmonic balance method is developed in an overset mesh topology and applied to unsteady rotor flows analysis. Its efficiency is by reducing the complexity of a fully implicit harmonic balance method which becomes more flexible in handling the higher harmonics of the flow solutions. Applied to the overset mesh topology, the efficiency of the method becomes greater by reducing the number of solution interpolations required during the entire solution procedure as the method reduces the unsteady computation into periodic steady state. To verify the accuracy and efficiency of the method, both hovering and unsteady forward flight of Caradonna and Tung and AH-1G rotors are solved. Compared with wind-tunnel experiments, the numerical results demonstrate good agreements at computational cost an order of magnitude more efficient than the conventional time-accurate computation method. The proposed method has great potential in other engineering applications, including flapping wing vehicles, turbo-machinery, wind-turbines, etc.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wong, T. C.; Tiwari, S. N.
1984-01-01
The aerodynamic characteristics of potential flow past an axisymmetric slender body and a thin airfoil are calculated using a uniform perturbation analysis method. The method is based on the superposition of potentials of point singularities distributed inside the body. The strength distribution satisfies a linear integral equation by enforcing the flow tangency condition on the surface of the body. The complete uniform asymptotic expansion of its solution is obtained with respect to the slenderness ratio by modifying and adapting an existing technique. Results calculated by the perturbation analysis method are compared with the existing surface singularity panel method and some available analytical solutions for a number of cases under identical conditions. From these comparisons, it is found that the perturbation analysis method can provide quite accurate results for bodies with small slenderness ratio. The present method is much simpler and requires less memory and computation time than existing surface singularity panel methods of comparable accuracy.
Modeling flow through inline tube bundles using an adaptive immersed boundary method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Chunlei; Luo, Xiaoyu; Griffith, Boyce
2007-11-01
Fluid flow and its exerted forces on the tube bundle cylinders are important in designing mechanical/nuclear heat exchanger facilities. In this paper, we study the vortex structure of the flow around the tube bundle for different tube spacing. An adaptive, formally 2^nd order immersed boundary (IB) method is used to simulate the flow. One advantage of the IB method is its great flexibility and ease in positioning solid bodies in the fluid domain. Our IB approach uses a six-point regularized delta function and is a type of continuous forcing approach. Validation results obtained using the IB method for two-in-tandem cylinders compare well with those obtained using the finite volume or spectral element methods on unstructured grids. Subsequently, we simulated flow through six-row inline tube bundles with pitch-to-diameter ratios of 2.1, 3.2, and 4, respectively, on structured adaptively refined Cartesian grids. The IB method enables us to study the critical tube spacing when the flow regime switches from the vortex reattachment pattern to alternative individual vortex shedding.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhatia, Ankush
Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods are high-order accurate, compact-stencil methods, proven to possess favorable properties for highly efficient parallel systems, complex geometries and unstructured meshes. Coding effort is significantly reduced for compact-stencil DG methods in comparison to main stream finite difference and finite volume methods. This work successfully introduces DG methods to thermal ablation and non-equilibrium hypersonic flows. In the state-of-the-art hypersonic flow codes, surface heating predictions are very sensitive to mesh resolution in the shock. A minor misalignment can cause major changes in the heating predictions. This is due to the lack of high-order accuracy in current streamline methods and numerical errors associated with the shock capturing approach. Shock capturing methods like slope limiter or artificial viscosity, being empirical have errors in the shock region. This work employs r-p adaptivity to accurately capture the shock with p = 0 elements (first order accuracy). Smooth flow regions are captured using p greater than 0. This method is stable. Implicit methods are developed for solution advancement with high CFL numbers. Error in the shock is reduced by redistributing the elements (outside of the shock) to within the shock (r adaptivity). Inviscid and viscous hypersonic flow problems, with same accuracy as in h-p adaptivity method, are simulated with one-third elements. This methodology requires no a priori knowledge of the shock's location, and is suitable for detached shock problems. r-p adaptivity method has allowed for successful prediction of surface heating rate for hypersonic flow over cylinder. Additionally, good comparisons are made, for non-equilibrium hypersonic flows, to the published results. This tool is also used to determine the effect of micro-second pulsed sinusoidal Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) plasma actuators on the surface heating reduction for hypersonic flow over cylinder. A significant
Regional blood flows measured in Mongolian gerbil by a modified microsphere method.
Matsumoto, M; Kimura, K; Fujisawa, A; Matsuyama, T; Asai, T; Uyama, O; Yoneda, S; Abe, H
1982-06-01
Regional blood flow to major organs and regional cerebral blood flow were determined in seven anesthetized male gerbils by a modified microsphere method. Carbonized microspheres, 15 micrometers in diameter and labeled with 85Sr or 141Ce, were injected into the left ventricle by cardiac puncture through the closed thorax, and reference samples of known volume were withdrawn from tail-artery cannula. No significant hemodynamic alterations were observed during microsphere administration, and extraction of 15-micrometers microspheres by the pulmonary or systemic capillary beds was nearly 100%. The adequacy of mixing of microspheres in the left ventricle was also validated. The absolute regional blood flow to various organs and regional cerebral blood flow were expressed in terms of milliliters per minute per gram tissue weight, and the values mostly agreed with those reported previously in rats. The results indicate that the reference sample method can be applied to the gerbil. This method should allow the gerbil, which is an animal widely used in stroke research, to be conveniently used for hemodynamic studies when organ blood flow and regional cerebral blood flow are necessary. PMID:7091359
Suk, Heejun
2012-01-01
Abstract In articles published in 2009 and 2010, Suk and Yeh reported the development of an accurate and efficient particle tracking algorithm for simulating a path line under complicated unsteady flow conditions, using a range of elements within finite elements in multidimensions. Here two examples, an aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) example and a landfill leachate migration example, are examined to enhance the practical implementation of the proposed particle tracking method, known as Suk's method, to a real field of groundwater flow and transport. Results obtained by Suk's method are compared with those obtained by Pollock's method. Suk's method produces superior tracking accuracy, which suggests that Suk's method can describe more accurately various advection-dominated transport problems in a real field than existing popular particle tracking methods, such as Pollock's method. To illustrate the wide and practical applicability of Suk's method to random-walk particle tracking (RWPT), the original RWPT has been modified to incorporate Suk's method. Performance of the modified RWPT using Suk's method is compared with the original RWPT scheme by examining the concentration distributions obtained by the modified RWPT and the original RWPT under complicated transient flow systems. PMID:22476629
Variable parameter McCarthy-Muskingum routing method considering lateral flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yadav, Basant; Perumal, Muthiah; Bardossy, Andras
2015-04-01
The fully mass conservative variable parameter McCarthy-Muskingum (VPMM) method recently proposed by Perumal and Price (2013) for routing floods in channels and rivers without considering lateral flow is extended herein for accounting uniformly distributed lateral flow contribution along the reach. The proposed procedure is applied for studying flood wave movement in a 24.2 km river stretch between Rottweil and Oberndorf gauging stations of Neckar River in Germany wherein significant lateral flow contribution by intermediate catchment rainfall prevails during flood wave movement. The geometrical elements of the cross-sectional information of the considered routing river stretch without considering lateral flow are estimated using the Robust Parameter Estimation (ROPE) algorithm that allows for arriving at the best performing set of bed width and side slope of a trapezoidal section. The performance of the VPMM method is evaluated using the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency criterion as the objective function to be maximized using the ROPE algorithm. The twenty-seven flood events in the calibration set are considered to identify the relationship between 'total rainfall' and 'total losses' as well as to optimize the geometric characteristics of the prismatic channel (width and slope of the trapezoidal section). Based on this analysis, a relationship between total rainfall and total loss of the intermediate catchment is obtained and then used to estimate the lateral flow in the reach. Assuming the lateral flow hydrograph is of the form of inflow hydrograph and using the total intervening catchment runoff estimated from the relationship, the uniformly distributed lateral flow rate qL at any instant of time is estimated for its use in the VPMM routing method. All the 27 flood events are simulated using this routing approach considering lateral flow along the reach. Many of these simulations are able to simulate the observed hydrographs very closely. The proposed approach
Radiation-transport method to simulate noncontinuum gas flows for MEMS devices.
Gallis, Michail A.; Torczynski, John Robert
2004-01-01
A Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) typically consists of micron-scale parts that move through a gas at atmospheric or reduced pressure. In this situation, the gas-molecule mean free path is comparable to the geometric features of the microsystem, so the gas flow is noncontinuum. When mean-free-path effects cannot be neglected, the Boltzmann equation must be used to describe the gas flow. Solution of the Boltzmann equation is difficult even for the simplest case because of its sevenfold dimensionality (one temporal dimension, three spatial dimensions, and three velocity dimensions) and because of the integral nature of the collision term. The Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is the method of choice to simulate high-speed noncontinuum flows. However, since DSMC uses computational molecules to represent the gas, the inherent statistical noise must be minimized by sampling large numbers of molecules. Since typical microsystem velocities are low (< 1 m/s) compared to molecular velocities ({approx}400 m/s), the number of molecular samples required to achieve 1% precision can exceed 1010 per cell. The Discrete Velocity Gas (DVG) method, an approach motivated by radiation transport, provides another way to simulate noncontinuum gas flows. Unlike DSMC, the DVG method restricts molecular velocities to have only certain discrete values. The transport of the number density of a velocity state is governed by a discrete Boltzmann equation that has one temporal dimension and three spatial dimensions and a polynomial collision term. Specification and implementation of DVG models are discussed, and DVG models are applied to Couette flow and to Fourier flow. While the DVG results for these benchmark problems are qualitatively correct, the errors in the shear stress and the heat flux can be order-unity even for DVG models with 88 velocity states. It is concluded that the DVG method, as described herein, is not sufficiently accurate to simulate the low-speed gas flows
Quick Analysis Method for Estimating Debris Flow Prone Area Caused by Overflow from Landslide dam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shimizu, T.; Uchida, T.; Yamakoshi, T.; Yoshino, K.; Kisa, H.; Ishizuka, T.; Kaji, A.
2012-04-01
When earthquake or torrential rainfall cause deep catastrophic landslides, landslide dams can be formed in mountainous region. If water overflows from the landslide dams, large scale debris flow can occurs and possibly causes serious disasters in the downward region. Debris flow caused by the overflow from landslide dam is possible to affect the larger area than normal debris flow and flash flood. It is important for both a decision maker and resident in the area to recognize the disaster prone area as early as possible. For that reason, it is important to establish a quick analysis method for estimating debris flow prone area caused by overflow from landslide dams under the emergency situation. This situation requires the method to have both accuracy and speed for release. Nonetheless these two factors have trade-off relationship. We recently developed the quick analysis method to estimate debris flow disaster prone area caused by overflow from landslide dams. The method including the ways of efficient survey and numerical simulation programs called QUAD-L (QUick Analysis system for Debris flow caused by Landslide dam overflow). Our quick analysis system was actually applied to show the area for evacuation against debris flow caused by overflow from landslide dam formed by the 2011 Typhoon Talas which hit mainly the central region of Japan on September 2-4th, 2011. In addition to background of this application, since May 1st, 2011, Erosion and Sediment Control (SABO) Department of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, Japan (MLIT) launched a new scheme using above-mentioned quick analysis method.
Comparison of PDF and Moment Closure Methods in the Modeling of Turbulent Reacting Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Norris, Andrew T.; Hsu, Andrew T.
1994-01-01
In modeling turbulent reactive flows, Probability Density Function (PDF) methods have an advantage over the more traditional moment closure schemes in that the PDF formulation treats the chemical reaction source terms exactly, while moment closure methods are required to model the mean reaction rate. The common model used is the laminar chemistry approximation, where the effects of turbulence on the reaction are assumed negligible. For flows with low turbulence levels and fast chemistry, the difference between the two methods can be expected to be small. However for flows with finite rate chemistry and high turbulence levels, significant errors can be expected in the moment closure method. In this paper, the ability of the PDF method and the moment closure scheme to accurately model a turbulent reacting flow is tested. To accomplish this, both schemes were used to model a CO/H2/N2- air piloted diffusion flame near extinction. Identical thermochemistry, turbulence models, initial conditions and boundary conditions are employed to ensure a consistent comparison can be made. The results of the two methods are compared to experimental data as well as to each other. The comparison reveals that the PDF method provides good agreement with the experimental data, while the moment closure scheme incorrectly shows a broad, laminar-like flame structure.
Multi-wave ultrasonic Doppler method for measuring high flow-rates using staggered pulse intervals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muramatsu, Ei; Murakawa, Hideki; Sugimoto, Katsumi; Asano, Hitoshi; Takenaka, Nobuyuki; Furuichi, Noriyuki
2016-02-01
The ultrasonic pulsed Doppler method (UDM) can obtain a velocity profile along the path of an ultrasonic beam. However, the UDM measurement volume is relatively large and it is known that the measurement volume affects the measurement accuracy. In this study, the effect of the measurement volume on velocity and flow rate measurements is analytically and experimentally evaluated. The velocities measured using UDM are considered to be ensemble-averaged values over the measurement volume in order to analyze the velocity error due to the measurement volume, while the flow rates are calculated from the integration of the velocity profile across the pipe. The analytical results show that the channel width, i.e. the spatial resolution along the ultrasonic beam axis, rather than the ultrasonic beam diameter, strongly influences the flow rate measurement. To improve the accuracy of the flow rate, a novel method using a multi-wave ultrasonic transducer consisting of two piezo-electric elements with different basic frequencies is proposed to minimize the size of the measurement volume in the near-wall region of a pipe flow. The velocity profiles in the near-wall region are measured using an 8 MHz sensor with a small diameter, while those far from the transducer are measured using a hollow 2 MHz sensor in the multi-wave transducer. The applicability of the multi-wave transducer was experimentally investigated using the water flow-rate calibration facility at the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST). As a result, the errors in the flow rate were found to be below -1%, while the multi-wave method is shown to be particularly effective for measuring higher flow rates in a large-diameter pipe.