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Sample records for flow pressure-driven flow

  1. Pressure-driven peristaltic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingalev, S. V.; Lyubimov, D. V.; Lyubimova, T. P.

    2013-03-01

    The peristaltic motion of an incompressible fluid in two-dimensional channel is investigated. Instead of fixing the law of wall's coordinate variation, the law of pressure variation on the wall is fixed and the border's coordinate changes to provide the law of pressure variation on the wall. In case of small amplitude of pressure-variation on the wall A, expansion wave propagates along the length of channel and the wave results in the peristaltic transport of fluid. In the case of large A, the channel divides into two parts. The small pulsating part in the end of the tube creates the flow as a human heart, while the other big part loses this function. The solution of problem for the first peristaltic mode is stable, while the solution for the second "heart" mode is unstable and depends heavily on boundary conditions.

  2. Pressure driven flow in porous tubular membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilton, Nils; Martinand, Denis; Serre, Eric; Lueptow, Richard

    2011-11-01

    We consider the steady laminar flow of a Newtonian incompressible fluid in a porous tubular membrane with pressure-driven transmembrane flow. Due to its fundamental importance to membrane filtration systems, this flow has been studied extensively both analytically and numerically, yet a robust analytic solution has not been found. The problem is challenging due to the coupling between the transmembrane pressure and velocity with the simultaneous coupling between the axial pressure gradient and the axial velocity. We present a robust analytical solution which incorporates Darcy's law on the membrane surface. The solution is in the form of an asymptotic expansion about a small parameter related to the membrane permeability. We verify the analytical solution with comparison to 2-D spectral direct numerical simulations of ultrafiltration and microfiltration systems with typical operating conditions, as well as extreme cases of cross-flow reversal and axial flow exhaustion. In all cases, the agreement between the analytical and numerical results is excellent. Finally, we use the analytical and numerical results to provide guidelines about when common simplifying assumptions about the permeate flow may be made. Specifically, the assumptions of a parabolic axial velocity profile and uniform transmembrane velocity are valid only for small permeabilities.

  3. Pressure-driven suspension flow near jamming.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sangwon; Song, Yi-qiao; Garagash, Dmitry I; Lecampion, Brice; Desroches, Jean

    2015-02-27

    We report here magnetic resonance imaging measurements performed on suspensions with a bulk solid volume fraction (ϕ_{0}) up to 0.55 flowing in a pipe. We visualize and quantify spatial distributions of ϕ and velocity across the pipe at different axial positions. For dense suspensions (ϕ_{0}>0.5), we found a different behavior compared to the known cases of lower ϕ_{0}. Our experimental results demonstrate compaction within the jammed region (characterized by a zero macroscopic shear rate) from the jamming limit ϕ_{m}≈0.58 at its outer boundary to the random close packing limit ϕ_{rcp}≈0.64 at the center. Additionally, we show that ϕ and velocity profiles can be fairly well captured by a frictional rheology accounting for both further compaction of jammed regions as well as normal stress differences. PMID:25768782

  4. Effective slip in pressure-driven Stokes flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauga, Eric; Stone, Howard A.

    2003-08-01

    Nano-bubbles have recently been observed experimentally on smooth hydrophobic surfaces; cracks on a surface can likewise be the site of bubbles when partially wetting fluids are used. Because these bubbles may provide a zero shear stress boundary condition and modify considerably the friction generated by the solid boundary, it is of interest to quantify their influence on pressure-driven flow, with particular attention given to small geometries. We investigate two simple configurations of steady pressure-driven Stokes flow in a circular pipe whose surface contains periodically distributed regions of zero surface shear stress. In the spirit of experimental studies probing slip at solid surfaces, the effective slip length of the resulting flow is evaluated as a function of the degrees of freedom describing the surface heterogeneities, namely the relative width of the no-slip and no-shear stress regions and their distribution along the pipe. Comparison of the model with experimental studies of pressure-driven flow in capillaries and microchannels reporting slip is made and a possible interpretation of the experimental results is offered which is consistent with a large number of distributed slip domains such as nano-size and micron-size nearly flat bubbles coating the solid surface. Further, the possibility is suggested of a shear-dependent effective slip length, and an explanation is proposed for the seemingly paradoxical behaviour of the measured slip length increasing with system size, which is consistent with experimental results to date.

  5. Pressure-driven flow in a channel with porous walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qianlong; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2010-11-01

    The finite-Reynolds-number three-dimensional flow in a channel bounded by one and two parallel porous walls is studied numerically. The porous medium is modelled by spheres in a simple cubic arrangement. The results for the slip velocity at the surface of the porous layers are compared with the phenomenological Beavers-Joseph model. It is found that the value of the slip coefficient is different for pressure-driven and shear-driven flow. A modification of the relation is suggested to deal with this feature. Furthermore, detailed results on the flow structure and the hydrodynamic forces and couple acting on the sphere layer bounding the porous medium are reported and their dependence on the Reynolds number illustrated. It is shown that, at finite Reynolds numbers, a lift force acts on the spheres, which may be expected to contribute to the the mobilization of bottom sediments.

  6. Measurement and control of pressure driven flows in microfluidic devices using an optofluidic flow sensor

    PubMed Central

    Cheri, Mohammad Sadegh; Shahraki, Hamidreza; Sadeghi, Jalal; Moghaddam, Mohammadreza Salehi; Latifi, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Measurement and control of pressure-driven flow (PDF) has a great potential to enhance the performance of chemical and biological experiments in Lab on a Chip technology. In this paper, we present an optofluidic flow sensor for real-time measurement and control of PDF. The optofluidic flow sensor consists of an on-chip micro Venturi and two optical Fabry-Pérot (FP) interferometers. Flow rate was measured from the fringe shift of FP interferometers resulted from movement fluid in the on-chip micro Venturi. The experimental results show that the optofluidic flow sensor has a minimum detectable flow change of 5 nl/min that is suitable for real time monitoring and control of fluids in many chemical and biological experiments. A Finite Element Method is used to solve the three dimensional (3D) Navier–Stokes and continuity equations to validate the experimental results. PMID:25584118

  7. Dislodgement of carbon nanotube bundles under pressure driven flow.

    PubMed

    Baowan, Duangkamon; Cox, Barry J; Hill, James M

    2010-04-16

    Experimental and predicted flow rates through carbon nanotubes vary considerably but generally are reported to be well in excess of that predicted by the conventional Poiseuille flow, and therefore nanotubes embedded in a matrix might provide membranes with exceptional mass transport properties. In this paper, applied mathematical modelling is undertaken to estimate the three forces acting on a nanotube bundle, namely the molecular interaction force, the viscous force, and the static pressure force. In deducing estimates of these forces we introduce a modification of the notion of the effective dead area for a carbon nanotube membrane, and we calculate the total forces necessary to push one or more of the nanotubes out of the bundle, thus creating a channel through which further enhancement of flow may take place. However, careful analysis shows that the nett dislodgement force is entirely independent on the useable flow area, but rather depends only on the total cross-sectional area perpendicular to the flow. This rather surprising result is a consequence of the flow being steady and a balance of the viscous and pressure forces. PMID:20332554

  8. A pressure-driven flow analysis of gas trapping behavior in nanocomposite thermite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, K. T.; Bastea, S.; Kuntz, J. D.; Gash, A. E.

    2013-10-01

    This article is in direct response to a recently published article entitled Electrophoretic deposition and mechanistic studies of nano-Al/CuO thermites (K. T. Sullivan et al., J. Appl. Phys., 112(2), 2012), in which we introduced a non-dimensional parameter as the ratio of gas production to gas escape within a thin porous thermite film. In our original analysis, we had treated the problem as Fickian diffusion of gases through the porous network. However, we believe a more physical representation of the problem is to treat this as pressure-driven flow of gases in a porous medium. We offer a new derivation of the non-dimensional parameter which calculates gas velocity using the well-known Poiseuille's Law for pressure-driven flow in a pipe. This updated analysis incorporates the porosity, gas viscosity, and pressure gradient into the equation.

  9. Solitary and transitional waves in pressure-driven two-layer microchannel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisoev, G. M.; Bennett, C. J.

    2014-04-01

    Similar to the case of the gravity-driven flow (Sisoev and Bennett 2013 Fluid Dyn. Res. 45 015503) we use the integral method to derive evolution equations modeling a pressure-driven two-layer flow of immiscible viscous fluids in a plane microchannel. It is shown that the system possesses a vast set of steady-traveling solitary and transitional waves. Analysis of the phase trajectories of the relevant dynamical system indicates the existence of families of steady-traveling periodic waves.

  10. Lattice-Boltzmann simulation for pressure driven microscale gas flows in transition regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Xiang-Ji; Wu, Ze-Huan; Ba, Yao-Shuai; Lu, Yan-Jun; Zhu, Zhi-Peng; Ba, De-Chun

    2015-09-01

    This paper carries out numerical simulation for pressure driven microscale gas flows in transition flow regime. The relaxation time of LBM model was modified with the application of near wall effective mean free path combined with a combination of Bounce-back and Specular Reflection (BSR) boundary condition. The results in this paper are more close to those of DSCM and IP-DSCM compared with the results obtained by other LBM models. The calculation results show that in transition regime, with the increase of Knudsen number, the dimensionless slip velocity at the wall significantly increases, but the maximum linear deviation of nonlinear pressure distribution gradually decreases.

  11. Molecular simulation of pressure-driven fluid flow in nanoporous membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaba, Hiromitsu; Onumata, Yasushi; Nakao, Shin-ichi

    2007-08-01

    An extended nonequilibrium molecular dynamics technique has been developed to investigate the transport properties of pressure-driven fluid flow in thin nanoporous membranes. Our simulation technique allows the simulation of the pressure-driven permeation of liquids through membranes while keeping a constant driving pressure using fluctuating walls. The flow of argon in the liquid state was simulated on applying an external pressure difference of 2.4×106Pa through the slitlike and cylindrical pores. The volume flux and velocity distribution in the membrane pores were examined as a function of pore size, along with the interaction with the pore walls, and these were compared with values estimated using the Hagen-Poiseuille flow. The calculated velocity strongly depends on the strength of the interaction between the fluid and the atoms in the wall when the pore size is approximately <20σ. The calculated volume flux also shows a dependence on the interaction between the fluid and the atoms in the wall. The Hagen-Poiseuille law overestimates or underestimates the flux depending on the interaction. From the analysis of calculated results, a good linear correlation between the density of the fluid in the membrane pores and the deviation of the flux estimated from the Hagen-Poiseuille flow was found. This suggests that the flux deviation in nanopore from the Hagen-Poiseuille flow can be predicted based on the fluid density in the pores.

  12. Predicting the pressure driven flow of gases through micro-capillaries and micro-orifices

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, B.L.; Carlson, R.W.; Fischer, L.E.

    1994-11-01

    A large body of experimentally measured gas flow rates were obtained from the literature and then compared to the predictions obtained with constitutive flow equations. This was done to determine whether the equations apply to the predictions of gas flow rates from leaking containment vessels used to transport radioactive materials. The experiments consisted of measuring the volumetric pressure-driven flow of gases through micro-capillaries and micro-orifices. The experimental results were compared to the predictions obtained with the equations given in ANSI N14.5 the American National Standard for Radioactive Materials-Leakage Tests on Package for Shipment. The equations were applied to both (1) the data set according to the recommendations given in ANSI N14.5 and (2) globally to the complete data set. It was found that: The continuum and molecular flow equation provided good agreement between the experimental and calculated flow rates for flow rates less than about 1 atm{center_dot}cm{sup 3}/s. The choked flow equation resulted in over-prediction of the flow rates for flow rates less than about 1 atm-cm{sup 3}/s. For flow rates higher than 1 atm{center_dot}cm{sup 3}/s, the molecular and continuum flow equation over-predicted the measured flow rates and the predictions obtained with the choked flow equation agreed well with the experimental values. Since the flow rates of interest for packages used to transport radioactive materials are almost always less than 1 atm{center_dot}cm{sup 3}/s, it is suggested that the continuum and molecular flow equation be used for gas flow rate predictions related to these applications.

  13. Linear stability of pressure-driven flow over longitudinal superhydrophobic grooves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, K. H.; Teo, C. J.; Khoo, B. C.

    2016-02-01

    The modal analysis of pressure-driven flows in channels patterned with superhydrophobic surfaces containing periodic grooves and ribs aligned longitudinally to the flow direction has been performed. The effects of shear-free fraction (" separators=" δ ) and groove-rib spatial period normalized by full-channel height (" separators=" L ) on the linear flow stability of such flows have been explored. By performing a BiGlobal linear stability analysis via the pseudo-spectral method, such surfaces have been found to potentially exert a stabilizing or destabilizing effect on the base flow, depending predominantly on the normalized groove-rib spacing. For small values of L (i.e., L = 0.01 and 0.02), a stabilizing effect is predicted for flows over longitudinal superhydrophobic grooves, in agreement with the results obtained using a local stability analysis which employs a homogeneous slip condition along the walls. For a moderate value of normalized groove-rib spacing where the groove-rib periodic spacing is one-tenth of the channel height, the presence of longitudinal superhydrophobic grooves leads to flow instabilities at a lower critical Reynolds number. The redistribution of the base flow resulting from the vanishing shear rates along the liquid-gas interface could give rise to an inflectional instability that promotes temporal instability. The effects of patterning the superhydrophobic surfaces on one or both channel walls are also examined.

  14. Transverse migration of a polyelectrolyte driven by electric and pressure-driven flow fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladd, Tony; Kekre, Rahul; Butler, Jason

    2010-03-01

    Capillary electrophoresis experiments show that a flexible polyelectrolyte migrates under the combined action of electric and pressure-driven-flow fields [1]. When the fields act in conjunction, the polymer migrates to the center of the channel, but when the pressure gradient and external force act in opposite directions, the polymer migrates towards the boundaries. We have previously proposed that this is caused by long-range dipolar interactions between segments of the polyelectrolyte chain [2]. Due to the stretching and orientation of the chain by the local shear flow, there is a net motion transverse to the flow and field lines. Here I will describe a coarse-grained simulation of polyelectrolyte migration, including hydrodynamic interactions from the imposed flow and electric fields. The effects of the no-slip condition on the walls are included by regularized Green's functions. Our results explain the experimentally observed migration under different combinations of flow and electric field. [1] J. Zheng and E. S. Yeung. Anal. Chem., 74:4536, 2002; 75:3675, 2003. [2] O. B. Usta, J. E. Butler and A. J. C. Ladd. Phys. Rev. Lett., 98:098301, 2007.

  15. Kinetic theory of a confined polymer driven by an external force and pressure-driven flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Jason E.; Usta, O. Berk; Kekre, Rahul; Ladd, Anthony J. C.

    2007-11-01

    Kinetic theory is used to investigate the mechanisms causing cross-stream migration of confined polymers and polyelectrolytes under the influence of external forces and flow fields. Numerical simulations and experiments have demonstrated that confined polymers migrate towards the center of the channel in response to both external forces and uniaxial flows. Yet, migration towards the walls has been observed with combinations of external force and flow. In this paper, the kinetic theory for an elastic dumbbell developed by Ma and Graham [Phys. Fluids 17, 083103 (2005)] has been extended to account for the effects of an external force. Further modifications account for counterion screening within a Debye-Hückel approximation. This enables qualitative comparison with experimental results [Zheng and Yeung, Anal. Chem. 75, 3675 (2003)] on DNA migration under combined electric and pressure-driven flow fields. The comparison supports the contention [Long et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3858 (1996)] that the hydrodynamic interactions in polyelectrolytes decay algebraically, as 1/r3, rather than exponentially. The theory qualitatively reproduces results of both simulations and experiments for the migration of neutral polymers and polyelectrolytes. Concentration profiles similar to those found in numerical simulations are observed, but the Peclet numbers differ by factors of 2-3.

  16. Thermal transport characteristics of combined electroosmotic and pressure driven flow in soft nanofluidics.

    PubMed

    Matin, M H; Ohshima, H

    2016-08-15

    The present study deals with thermal transport characteristics of an electrolyte solution flowing through a slit nanochannel with polyelectrolyte walls, known as soft nanochannel. The sources of the fluid flow are the pressure gradient along the channel axis and the electrokinetic effects that trigger an electroosmotic flow under the impact of a uniformly applied electric field. The polyelectrolyte layer (PEL) is denoted as a fixed charge layer (FCL) and the electrolyte ions can be present both inside and outside the PEL. Therefore, the PEL-electrolyte interface acts as a semi-penetrable membrane. To the best of our knowledge, the thermal analysis of mixed electrokinetically and pressure driven flow in such soft nanochannels has never been addressed. The Poisson-Boltzmann equation is solved assuming the Debye-Huckel linearization for the low electric potential to provide us with analytical closed form solutions for the conservation equations. The conservation equations are solved to obtain the electric potential; velocity and temperature distributions in terms of governing dimensionless parameters. Also results for the Nusselt number are presented and discussed in detail. PMID:27214147

  17. Sedimentation of an elliptical particle in periodic oscillatory pressure driven flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Wenjun; Deng, Jianqiang; Cao, Zheng; Mei, Mei

    2015-12-01

    The sedimentation of a heavy elliptical particle in a two-dimensional channel filled with Newtonian fluid under oscillatory pressure driven flow has been numerically investigated by using the finite element arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method. The effects of particle Reynolds number, initial position, blockage ratio, as well as oscillation frequency and amplitude on the flow patterns during sedimentation have been studied. The results show that there exists an equilibrium position for high frequency flow, and the position of the heavier particle is closer to the centerline. As rotation contributes to non-uniform pressure on particle surface, the further initial position and lower amplitude lead to the larger scale zigzag migration; however, the maximum lateral displacements of these low frequency zigzag motions are nearly the same due to the consistent lubrication limit. Moreover, our simulation results indicate that there are five distinct modes of settling in oscillatory flow: horizontal with offset, oscillating, tumbling throughout channel, tumbling at one side and the special ‘resonance’ phenomenon. The ‘resonance’ induced by the wall is shown to have a close association with the harmonious change of drag and lift on particle surface, and be sensitive to the oscillation in the wake and the periodic discharge of vorticity from behind the body.

  18. Scaling Law for Cross-stream Diffusion in Microchannels under Combined Electroosmotic and Pressure Driven Flow.

    PubMed

    Song, Hongjun; Wang, Yi; Pant, Kapil

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical study of the cross-stream diffusion of an analyte in a rectangular microchannel under combined electroosmotic flow (EOF) and pressure driven flow to investigate the heterogeneous transport behavior and spatially-dependent diffusion scaling law. An analytical model capable of accurately describing 3D steady-state convection-diffusion in microchannels with arbitrary aspect ratios is developed based on the assumption of the thin Electric Double Layer (EDL). The model is verified against high-fidelity numerical simulation in terms of flow velocity and analyte concentration profiles with excellent agreement (<0.5% relative error). An extensive parametric analysis is then undertaken to interrogate the effect of the combined flow velocity field on the transport behavior in both the positive pressure gradient (PPG) and negative pressure gradient (NPG) cases. For the first time, the evolution from the spindle-shaped concentration profile in the PPG case, via the stripe-shaped profile (pure EOF), and finally to the butterfly-shaped profile in the PPG case is obtained using the analytical model along with a quantitative depiction of the spatially-dependent diffusion layer thickness and scaling law across a wide range of the parameter space. PMID:23554584

  19. Solute dispersion under electric and pressure driven flows; pore scale processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuai; Raoof, Amir; Schotting, Ruud

    2014-09-01

    Solute dispersion is one of the major mixing mechanisms in transport through porous media, originating from velocity variations at different scales, starting from the pore scale. Different driving forces, such as pressure driven flow (PDF) and electro-osmotic flow (EOF), establish different velocity profiles within individual pores, resulting in different spreading of solutes at this scale. While the velocity profile in PDF is parabolic due to the wall friction effects, the velocity in EOF is typically plug flow, due to the wall charge effects. In this study, we applied a pore network modeling formulation to simulate the velocity field driven by pressure and electric potential to calculate and compare the corresponding average solute dispersivity values. The influence of different driving forces on the hydrodynamic dispersion of a tracer solute is investigated. Applying the pore network modeling, we could capture the velocity variations among different pores, which is the main contribution for the dispersion coefficient. The correlation between pore velocities against pore sizes is found to be different for EOF and PDF, causing different solute dispersion coefficients. The results can provide insight into modeling of electrokinetic remediation for contaminant cleanup in low permeable soils.

  20. Aquaporin-1 facilitates pressure-driven water flow across the aortic endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tieuvi; Toussaint, Jimmy; Xue, Yan; Raval, Chirag; Cancel, Limary; Russell, Stewart; Shou, Yixin; Sedes, Omer; Sun, Yu; Yakobov, Roman; Tarbell, John M.; Jan, Kung-ming

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporin-1, a ubiquitous water channel membrane protein, is a major contributor to cell membrane osmotic water permeability. Arteries are the physiological system where hydrostatic dominates osmotic pressure differences. In the present study, we show that the walls of large conduit arteries constitute the first example where hydrostatic pressure drives aquaporin-1-mediated transcellular/transendothelial flow. We studied cultured aortic endothelial cell monolayers and excised whole aortas of male Sprague-Dawley rats with intact and inhibited aquaporin-1 activity and with normal and knocked down aquaporin-1 expression. We subjected these systems to transmural hydrostatic pressure differences at zero osmotic pressure differences. Impaired aquaporin-1 endothelia consistently showed reduced engineering flow metrics (transendothelial water flux and hydraulic conductivity). In vitro experiments with tracers that only cross the endothelium paracellularly showed that changes in junctional transport cannot explain these reductions. Percent reductions in whole aortic wall hydraulic conductivity with either chemical blocking or knockdown of aquaporin-1 differed at low and high transmural pressures. This observation highlights how aquaporin-1 expression likely directly influences aortic wall mechanics by changing the critical transmural pressure at which its sparse subendothelial intima compresses. Such compression increases transwall flow resistance. Our endothelial and historic erythrocyte membrane aquaporin density estimates were consistent. In conclusion, aquaporin-1 significantly contributes to hydrostatic pressure-driven water transport across aortic endothelial monolayers, both in culture and in whole rat aortas. This transport, and parallel junctional flow, can dilute solutes that entered the wall paracellularly or through endothelial monolayer disruptions. Lower atherogenic precursor solute concentrations may slow their intimal entrainment kinetics. PMID:25659484

  1. Aquaporin-1 facilitates pressure-driven water flow across the aortic endothelium.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tieuvi; Toussaint, Jimmy; Xue, Yan; Raval, Chirag; Cancel, Limary; Russell, Stewart; Shou, Yixin; Sedes, Omer; Sun, Yu; Yakobov, Roman; Tarbell, John M; Jan, Kung-ming; Rumschitzki, David S

    2015-05-01

    Aquaporin-1, a ubiquitous water channel membrane protein, is a major contributor to cell membrane osmotic water permeability. Arteries are the physiological system where hydrostatic dominates osmotic pressure differences. In the present study, we show that the walls of large conduit arteries constitute the first example where hydrostatic pressure drives aquaporin-1-mediated transcellular/transendothelial flow. We studied cultured aortic endothelial cell monolayers and excised whole aortas of male Sprague-Dawley rats with intact and inhibited aquaporin-1 activity and with normal and knocked down aquaporin-1 expression. We subjected these systems to transmural hydrostatic pressure differences at zero osmotic pressure differences. Impaired aquaporin-1 endothelia consistently showed reduced engineering flow metrics (transendothelial water flux and hydraulic conductivity). In vitro experiments with tracers that only cross the endothelium paracellularly showed that changes in junctional transport cannot explain these reductions. Percent reductions in whole aortic wall hydraulic conductivity with either chemical blocking or knockdown of aquaporin-1 differed at low and high transmural pressures. This observation highlights how aquaporin-1 expression likely directly influences aortic wall mechanics by changing the critical transmural pressure at which its sparse subendothelial intima compresses. Such compression increases transwall flow resistance. Our endothelial and historic erythrocyte membrane aquaporin density estimates were consistent. In conclusion, aquaporin-1 significantly contributes to hydrostatic pressure-driven water transport across aortic endothelial monolayers, both in culture and in whole rat aortas. This transport, and parallel junctional flow, can dilute solutes that entered the wall paracellularly or through endothelial monolayer disruptions. Lower atherogenic precursor solute concentrations may slow their intimal entrainment kinetics. PMID:25659484

  2. Capillary electrophoresis: Imaging of electroosmotic and pressure driven flow profiles in fused silica capillaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, George O., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    This study is a continuation of the summer of 1994 NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program. This effort is a portion of the ongoing work by the Biophysics Branch of the Marshall Space Flight Center. The work has focused recently on the separation of macromolecules using capillary electrophoresis (CE). Two primary goals were established for the effort this summer. First, we wanted to use capillary electrophoresis to study the electrohydrodynamics of a sample stream. Secondly, there was a need to develop a methodology for using CE for separation of DNA molecules of various sizes. In order to achieve these goals we needed to establish a procedure for detection of a sample plug under the influence of an electric field Detection of the sample with the microscope and image analysis system would be helpful in studying the electrohydrodynamics of this stream under load. Videotaping this process under the influence of an electric field in real time would also be useful. Imaging and photography of the sample/background electrolyte interface would be vital to this study. Finally, detection and imaging of electroosmotic flow and pressure driven flow must be accomplished.

  3. Nonlinear wave evolution in pressure-driven stratified flow of Newtonian and Herschel-Bulkley fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valluri, Prashant; Sahu, Kirti; Ding, Hang; Spelt, Peter; Matar, Omar; Lawrence, Chris

    2007-11-01

    Pressure-driven stratified channel flow of a Newtonian fluid flowing over a Herschel-Bulkley (HB) fluid is considered. The effects of yield stress and shear-thinning rheology on the nonlinear wave evolution are studied using numerical simulations; the HB rheology is regularized at low shear rates using a bi-viscosity formulation. Two different numerical methods were used to carry out the computations: a level-set method (based on that by Spelt, J. Comput. Phys. 2005) and a diffuse-interface method (based on that by Ding et al., J. Comput. Phys., in press). The simulations, which account for fluid inertia, surface tension and gravity are validated against linear theory predictions at early times. The results at later times show the spatio-temporal evolution into the nonlinear regime wherein waves are strongly deformed, leading to the onset of drop entrainment. It is shown that the apparent viscosity in the region of the HB fluid directly involved in the onset of entrainment is almost constant; unyielded regions are confined to wave troughs at late stages of the nonlinear evolution.

  4. Pressure-driven flow past spheres moving in a circular tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheard, G. J.; Ryan, K.

    A computational investigation, supported by a theoretical analysis, is performed to investigate a pressure-driven flow around a line of equispaced spheres moving at a prescribed velocity along the axis of a circular tube. This fundamental study underpins a range of applications including physiological circulation research. A spectral-element formulation in cylindrical coordinates is employed to solve for the incompressible fluid flow past the spheres, and the flows are computed in the reference frame of the translating spheres.Both the volume flow rate relative to the spheres and the forces acting on each sphere are computed for specific sphere-to-tube diameter ratios and sphere spacing ratios. Conditions at which zero axial force on the spheres are identified, and a region of unsteady flow is detected at higher Reynolds numbers (based on tube diameter and sphere velocity). A regular perturbation analysis and the reciprocal theorem are employed to predict flow rate and drag coefficient trends at low Reynolds numbers. Importantly, the zero drag condition is well-described by theory, and states that at this condition, the sphere velocity is proportional to the applied pressure gradient. This result was verified for a range of spacing and diameter ratios. Theoretical approximations agree with computational results for Reynolds numbers up to O(100).The geometry dependence of the zero axial force condition is examined, and for a particular choice of the applied dimensionless pressure gradient, it is found that this condition occurs at increasing Reynolds numbers with increasing diameter ratio, and decreasing Reynolds number with increasing sphere spacing.Three-dimensional simulations and predictions of a Floquet linear stability analysis independently elucidate the bifurcation scenario with increasing Reynolds number for a specific diameter ratio and sphere spacing. The steady axisymmetric flow first experiences a small region of time-dependent non

  5. Real-time Depth Sectioning: Isolating the Effect of Stress on Structure Development in Pressure-Driven Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Ballester, L.; Thurman, D; Kornfield, J

    2009-01-01

    Transient structure development at a specific distance from the channel wall in a pressure-driven flow is obtained from a set of real-time measurements that integrate contributions throughout the thickness of a rectangular channel. This 'depth sectioning method' retains the advantages of pressure-driven flow while revealing flow-induced structures as a function of stress. The method is illustrated by applying it to isothermal shear-induced crystallization of an isotactic polypropylene using both synchrotron x-ray scattering and optical retardance. Real-time, depth-resolved information about the development of oriented precursors reveals features that cannot be extracted from ex-situ observation of the final morphology and that are obscured in the depth-averaged in-situ measurements. For example, at 137 degrees C and at the highest shear stress examined (65 kPa), oriented thread-like nuclei formed rapidly, saturated within the first 7 s of flow, developed significant crystalline overgrowth during flow and did not relax after cessation of shear. At lower stresses, threads formed later and increased at a slower rate. The depth sectioning method can be applied to the flow-induced structure development in diverse complex fluids, including block copolymers, colloidal systems, and liquid-crystalline polymers.

  6. Continuous particle separation using pressure-driven flow-induced miniaturizing free-flow electrophoresis (PDF-induced μ-FFE).

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hyungkook; Kim, Youngkyu; Lim, Geunbae

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce pressure-driven flow-induced miniaturizing free-flow electrophoresis (PDF-induced μ-FFE), a novel continuous separation method. In our separation system, the external flow and electric field are applied to particles, such that particle movement is affected by pressure-driven flow, electroosmosis, and electrophoresis. We then analyzed the hydrodynamic drag force and electrophoretic force applied to the particles in opposite directions. Based on this analysis, micro- and nano-sized particles were separated according to their electrophoretic mobilities with high separation efficiency. Because the separation can be achieved in a simple T-shaped microchannel, without the use of internal electrodes, it offers the advantages of low-cost, simple device fabrication and bubble-free operation, compared with conventional μ-FFE methods. Therefore, we expect the proposed separation method to have a wide range of filtering/separation applications in biochemical analysis. PMID:26819221

  7. Continuous particle separation using pressure-driven flow-induced miniaturizing free-flow electrophoresis (PDF-induced μ-FFE)

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hyungkook; Kim, Youngkyu; Lim, Geunbae

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce pressure-driven flow-induced miniaturizing free-flow electrophoresis (PDF-induced μ-FFE), a novel continuous separation method. In our separation system, the external flow and electric field are applied to particles, such that particle movement is affected by pressure-driven flow, electroosmosis, and electrophoresis. We then analyzed the hydrodynamic drag force and electrophoretic force applied to the particles in opposite directions. Based on this analysis, micro- and nano-sized particles were separated according to their electrophoretic mobilities with high separation efficiency. Because the separation can be achieved in a simple T-shaped microchannel, without the use of internal electrodes, it offers the advantages of low-cost, simple device fabrication and bubble-free operation, compared with conventional μ-FFE methods. Therefore, we expect the proposed separation method to have a wide range of filtering/separation applications in biochemical analysis. PMID:26819221

  8. Continuous particle separation using pressure-driven flow-induced miniaturizing free-flow electrophoresis (PDF-induced μ-FFE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Hyungkook; Kim, Youngkyu; Lim, Geunbae

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce pressure-driven flow-induced miniaturizing free-flow electrophoresis (PDF-induced μ-FFE), a novel continuous separation method. In our separation system, the external flow and electric field are applied to particles, such that particle movement is affected by pressure-driven flow, electroosmosis, and electrophoresis. We then analyzed the hydrodynamic drag force and electrophoretic force applied to the particles in opposite directions. Based on this analysis, micro- and nano-sized particles were separated according to their electrophoretic mobilities with high separation efficiency. Because the separation can be achieved in a simple T-shaped microchannel, without the use of internal electrodes, it offers the advantages of low-cost, simple device fabrication and bubble-free operation, compared with conventional μ-FFE methods. Therefore, we expect the proposed separation method to have a wide range of filtering/separation applications in biochemical analysis.

  9. An analysis of pressure driven cross-flow through a long slot connecting two parallel channels

    SciTech Connect

    Shadday, M.A. Jr.

    1992-12-31

    Cross-flow between two parallel channels that were connected by a long narrow slot has been measured. The data was presented primarily in terms of transverse resistance coefficients. This data has been analyzed with momentum balances applied to both the axial and transverse components of the slot flow. The importance of wall friction to the slot flow and the necessity of calculating the axial component of the slot flow is demonstrated.

  10. Optic imaging of single and two-phase pressure-driven flows in nano-scale channels.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qihua; Ok, Jeong Tae; Sun, Yongpeng; Retterer, S T; Neeves, Keith B; Yin, Xiaolong; Bai, Baojun; Ma, Yinfa

    2013-03-21

    Microfluidic and nanofluidic devices have undergone rapid development in recent years. Functions integrated onto such devices provide lab-on-a-chip solutions for many biomedical, chemical, and engineering applications. In this paper, a lab-on-a-chip technique for direct visualization of the single- and two-phase pressure-driven flows in nano-scale channels was developed. The nanofluidic chip was designed and fabricated; concentration dependent fluorescence signal correlation was developed for the determination of flow rate. Experiments of single and two-phase flow in nano-scale channels with 100 nm depth were conducted. The linearity correlation between flow rate and pressure drop in nanochannels was obtained and fit closely into Poiseuille's Law. Meanwhile, three different flow patterns, single, annular, and stratified, were observed from the two-phase flow in the nanochannel experiments and their special features were described. A two-phase flow regime map for nanochannels is presented. Results are of critical importance to both fundamental study and many applications. PMID:23370894

  11. A stochastic two-scale model for pressure-driven flow between rough surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Roland; Lundström, Staffan; Wall, Peter; Almqvist, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Seal surface topography typically consists of global-scale geometric features as well as local-scale roughness details and homogenization-based approaches are, therefore, readily applied. These provide for resolving the global scale (large domain) with a relatively coarse mesh, while resolving the local scale (small domain) in high detail. As the total flow decreases, however, the flow pattern becomes tortuous and this requires a larger local-scale domain to obtain a converged solution. Therefore, a classical homogenization-based approach might not be feasible for simulation of very small flows. In order to study small flows, a model allowing feasibly-sized local domains, for really small flow rates, is developed. Realization was made possible by coupling the two scales with a stochastic element. Results from numerical experiments, show that the present model is in better agreement with the direct deterministic one than the conventional homogenization type of model, both quantitatively in terms of flow rate and qualitatively in reflecting the flow pattern. PMID:27436975

  12. Influence of pressure driven secondary flows on the behavior of turbofan forced mixers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B.; Povinelli, L.; Gerstenmaier, W.

    1980-01-01

    A finite difference procedure was developed to analyze the three dimensional subsonic turbulent flows in turbofan forced mixer nozzles. The method is based on a decomposition of the velocity field into primary and secondary flow components which are determined by solution of the equations governing primary momentum, secondary vorticity, thermal energy, and continuity. Experimentally, a strong secondary flow pattern was identified which is associated with the radial inflow and outflow characteristics of the core and fan streams and forms a very strong vortex system aligned with the radial interface between the core and fan regions. A procedure was developed to generate a similar generic secondary flow pattern in terms of two constants representing the average radial outflow or inflow in the core and fan streams as a percentage of the local streamwise velocity. This description of the initial secondary flow gave excellent agreement with experimental data. By identifying the nature of large scale secondary flow structure and associating it with characteristic mixer nozzle behavior, it is felt that the cause and effect relationship between lobe design and nozzle performance can be understood.

  13. Freezing and Pressure-Driven Flow of Solid Helium in Vycor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, James; Herman, Tobias; Beamish, John

    2005-07-01

    The recent torsional oscillator results of Kim and Chan suggest a supersolid phase transition in solid 4He confined in Vycor. We have used a capacitive technique to directly monitor density changes for helium confined in Vycor at low temperature and have used a piezoelectrically driven diaphragm to study the pressure-induced flow of solid helium into the Vycor pores. Our measurements showed no indication of a mass redistribution in the Vycor that could mimic supersolid decoupling and put an upper limit of about 0.003 μm/s on any pressure-induced supersolid flow in the pores of Vycor.

  14. Evaluation of a microchip electrophoresis-mass spectrometry platform deploying a pressure-driven make-up flow.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangtang; Zhao, Shulin; Liu, Yi-Ming

    2013-04-12

    Integration of a pressure-driven make-up flow (MUF) into a microchip electrophoresis (MCE) platform in order to facilitate its coupling with electrospray ionization-mass spectrometric detection (ESI-MS) is described. In the glass/PDMS hybrid microchip, a MUF channel was made to intersect with the MCE separation channel at an angle of 45°. The MUF was generated by a syringe pump. Microscopic image results from simulation studies showed that the pressure-driven MUF and the potential-driven electroosmotic flow in the MCE separation channel could be run separately without interfering with each other and mixed well at the joint point by adjusting either the MUF flow rate or the potential applied for MCE separation. The MUF had several desirable functions, including making the start of electrospray easy and cleaning the nanoESI emitter continuously when not spraying. High separation efficiency was achieved with the proposed MCE-nanoESI-MS system in separating an amino acid mixture containing glutamine, serine, threonine, phenylalanine, and glutamic acid. All of them were baseline separated from each other within 3 min. Plate numbers of >10,000 (on a 2.5 cm MCE separation channel) were obtained. The analytical platform also showed a linear response for quantification of DOPA with a detection limit (S/N=3) of 0.10 μM. In addition, on-line derivatization of MCE elutes in order to enhance MS detection sensitivity was easily carried out by adding the tagging reagent into the MUF. These results indicated that the present system might have a good potential in MCE-MS applications. PMID:23473508

  15. Non-isothermal flow through a rotating straight duct with wide range of rotational and pressure driven parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahiduzzaman, Mohammad; Alam, Md. Mahmud; Ferdows, M.; Sivasankaran, S.

    2013-10-01

    Numerical study is performed to investigate the Non-isothermal flow in a rotating straight duct under various flow conditions. Spectral method is applied as a main tool for the numerical technique, where the Chebyshev polynomial, the Collocation methods, the Arc-length method and the Newton-Raphson method are also used as secondary tools. The characteristics of the flow mentioned above are described here. The incompressible viscous steady Non-isothermal flow through a straight duct of rectangular cross-section rotating at a constant angular velocity about the center of the duct cross-section is investigated numerically to examine the combined effects of Rotation parameter (Coriolis force), Grashof number (parameter which is used in heat, transfer studies involving free, forced or natural convection and is equql to , where L is the characteristic length, ρ the density, g the acceleration due to gravity, β the thermal expansion coefficient, Δ T the temperature difference, μ the viscosity and ν the kinematic viscosity of the fluid. The expansion coefficient β is a measure of the rate at which the volume V of the fluid changes with temperature at a given pressure P), Prandtl number, aspect ratio and Pressure-driven parameter (centrifugal force) on the flow. We examine the structures in case of rotation of the duct axis and the Pressure-driven parameter with large aspect ratio where other parameters are fixed. The calculations are carried out for 0 ≤ T r ≤ 300, 2 ≤ γ ≤ 6, G r = 100, P r = 7.0 and 0 ≤ P r ≤ 800 by applying the Spectral method. When Ω > 0 and the rotation is in the same direction as the Coriolis force enforces the centrifugal force, multiple solutions of Non-symmetric the secondary flow patterns with 10-vortex (maximum) are obtained in case of T r = 100 and 150 with large aspect ratio. The intense of the temperature field is very strong near the heated wall in all cases. Finally, the overall solutions of the problems considered in

  16. Linear stability analysis of pressure-driven channel flow of a Newtonian and a Herschel-Bulkley fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Kirti; Valluri, Prashant; Spelt, Peter; Matar, Omar

    2007-11-01

    The linear stability of pressure-driven channel flow of a Newtonian layer past a non-Newtonian fluid is studied; the latter is assumed to possess a finite yield stress and to exhibit a power-law behaviour. Coupled Orr-Sommerfeld-type eigenvalue equations are derived and solved using a spectral collocation method in the absence of unyielded regions. The numerical solutions of these equations are in agreement with analytical predictions valid in the long-wave limit. Our results indicate that increasing the yield stress (prior to the formation of unyielded regions) and shear thickening tendency of the non-Newtonian fluid promote instability. An analysis of the disturbance `energy' illustrates the presence of an unstable, `interfacial' mode at all Reynolds numbers studied, and an additional, less unstable `shear' mode at relatively high Reynolds numbers. The influence of non-Newtonian rheology on the stability characteristics of these modes is elucidated.

  17. Linear instability of pressure-driven channel flow of a Newtonian and a Herschel-Bulkley fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, K. C.; Valluri, P.; Spelt, P. D. M.; Matar, O. K.

    2007-12-01

    The linear stability characteristics of pressure-driven two-layer channel flow are considered, wherein a Newtonian fluid layer overlies a layer of a Herschel-Bulkley fluid. A pair of coupled Orr-Sommerfeld eigenvalue equations are derived and solved using an efficient spectral collocation method for cases in which unyielded regions are absent. An asymptotic analysis is also carried out in the long-wave limit, the results of which are in excellent agreement with the numerical predictions. Our analytical and numerical results indicate that increasing the dimensionless yield stress, prior to the formation of unyielded plugs below the interface, is destabilizing. Increasing the shear-thinning tendency of the lower fluid is stabilizing.

  18. A study of pressure-driven displacement flow of two immiscible liquids using a multiphase lattice Boltzmann approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redapangu, Prasanna; Vanka, Pratap; Sahu, Kirti

    2012-11-01

    The pressure-driven displacement of two immiscible fluids in an inclined channel in the presence of viscosity and density gradients is investigated using a multiphase lattice Boltzmann approach. The effects of viscosity ratio, Atwood number, Froude number, capillary number and channel inclination are investigated through flow structures, front velocities and fluid displacement rates. Our results indicate that increasing viscosity ratio between the fluids decreases the displacement rate. We observe that increasing the viscosity ratio has a non-monotonic effect on the velocity of the leading front; however, the velocity of the trailing edge decreases with increasing the viscosity ratio. The displacement rate of the thin-layers formed at the later times of the displacement process increases with increasing the angle of inclination because of the increase in the intensity of the interfacial instabilities. Our results also predict the front velocity of the lock-exchange flow of two immiscible fluids in the exchange flow dominated regime. Department of Science and Technology, India.

  19. Gas-bubble snap-off under pressure driven flow in constricted noncircular capillaries

    SciTech Connect

    Kovscek, A.R.; Radke, C.J.

    1996-04-01

    A model for snap-off of a gas thread in a constricted cornered pore is developed. The time for wetting liquid to accumulate at a pore throat into an unstable collar is examined, as for the resulting pore-spanning lens to be displaced from the pore so that snap-off is the time may repeat. A comer-flow hydrodynamic analysis for the accumulation rate of wetting liquid due to both gradients in interfacial curvature and in applied liquid-phase pressure reveals that wetting-phase pressure gradients significantly increase the frequency of liquid accumulation for snap-off as compared to liquid rearrangement driven only by differences in pore-wall curvature. For moderate and large pressure gradients, the frequency of accumulation increases linearly with pressure gradient because of the increased rate of wetting liquid flow along pore comers. Pore topology is important to the theory, for pores with relatively small throats connected to large bodies demonstrate excellent ability to snapoff gas threads even when the initial capillary pressure is high or equivalently when the liquid saturation is low. A macroscopic momentum balance across the lens resulting from snap-off reveals that lens displacement rates are not linear with the imposed pressure drop. Instead, the frequency of lens displacement scales with powers between 0.5 and 0.6 for pores with dimensionless constriction radii between 0.15 and 0.40. Statistical percolation arguments are employed to form a generation rate expression and connect pore-level foam generation events to macroscopic pressure gradients in porous media. The rate of foam generation by capillary snap-off increases linearly with the liquid-phase pressure gradient and according to a power-law relationship with respect to the imposed gas-phase pressure gradient.

  20. X-ray evidence for capillary pressure driven flow in preserved core from The Geysers

    SciTech Connect

    Bonner, B.P.; Roberts, J.J.; Schneberk, D.J.

    1997-03-01

    Improved understanding of fluid storage and transport mechanisms relevant to The Geysers reservoir is fundamental to efficient and economic long term production of steam. X-ray computed tomographs of core from research borehole SB-15D made within 72 hours of drilling show characteristic x-ray attenuation profiles that can only be explained by imbibition of drilling fluid at reservoir conditions. The shape of the profile is highly diagnostic. Early time scans, when interpreted taking into account independent measurements of pore size distribution, permeabilities and capillary pressures for the rock matrix sampled by SB-15D, are consistent with strong capillary suctions for the recovered rocks. This indirect indication of imbibition under reservoir conditions, along with detailed analysis of x-ray attenuation in recovered core, suggests that water content was low in much of the preserved core. These measurements are part of a series of laboratory experiments monitored by x-ray methods intended to evaluate movement of various fluids to determine the relative importance capillarity, Darcy flow and vapor phase diffusion.

  1. Near-wall similarity in three-dimensional turbulent boundary layers. I - Model review. II - Pressure-driven flow results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, F. J.; Mcallister, J. E.; Tennant, M. H.

    1982-01-01

    Eleven proposed models for near-wall similarity for three-dimensional turbulent boundary layer flows are reviewed. Six of these models are comparatively simple scalar models and five are more complex and/or two-component vector models. Ten of the models can be tested as to their validity or predictive capability with the aid of measured mean velocity field, wall pressure field, and direct wall shear stress field (magnitude and direction) data. One of the models cannot be tested owing to its dependence on two parameters that are at present extremely difficult (if not impossible) to measure. Ten three-dimensional near-wall similarity models are then evaluated with direct wall shear, velocity field, and pressure gradient data from a three-dimensional pressure-driven boundary layer flow. In a primary focus of the interval where y+ is between 50 and 300, graphical results suggest that six simpler models and the freestream component of one complex model are adequate for profiles with monotone increasing skew up to about 15 deg.

  2. Coarse-grained theory to predict red blood cell migration in pressure-driven flow at zero Reynolds number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Qin M.; Narsimhan, Vivek; Shaqfeh, Eric S. G.

    2015-11-01

    The pressure-driven flow of blood in a rectangular channel is studied via the development of a modified Boltzmann collision theory. It is well known that the deformability of red blood cells(RBC) creates a hydrodynamic lift away from the channel walls and most importantly, forms a cell-free or `Fahraeus-Lindqvist'' layer at the wall. A theory is presented to predict the uneven concentration distribution of RBCs in the cross-stream direction. We demonstrate that cell migration is mainly due to the balance between the hydrodynamic lift from the wall and cell-cell binary collisions. Each of these components is determined independently via boundary element simulations. The lift velocity shows a scaling with wall displacement law similar to that from previous vesicle experiments. The collisional displacements vary nonlinearly with cross-stream positions -a key input to the theory. Unlike the case of simple shear flow, a nonlocal shear rate correction is necessary to overcome the problem of zero lift and collision at the centerline. Finally a diffusional term is added to account for higher order collisions. The results indicate a decrease in cell-free layer thickness with increasing RBC volume fraction that is in good agreement with simulation of blood in 10-20% range of hematocrit.

  3. Influence of Hall Current and Viscous Dissipation on Pressure Driven Flow of Pseudoplastic Fluid with Heat Generation: A Mathematical Study.

    PubMed

    Noreen, Saima; Qasim, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the influence of heat sink (or source) on the peristaltic motion of pseudoplastic fluid in the presence of Hall current, where channel walls are non-conducting in nature. Flow analysis has been carried out under the approximations of a low Reynolds number and long wavelength. Coupled equations are solved using shooting method for numerical solution for the axial velocity function, temperature and pressure gradient distributions. We analyze the influence of various interesting parameters on flow quantities. The present study can be considered as a mathematical presentation of the dynamics of physiological organs with stones. PMID:26083027

  4. Influence of Hall Current and Viscous Dissipation on Pressure Driven Flow of Pseudoplastic Fluid with Heat Generation: A Mathematical Study

    PubMed Central

    Noreen, Saima; Qasim, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the influence of heat sink (or source) on the peristaltic motion of pseudoplastic fluid in the presence of Hall current, where channel walls are non-conducting in nature. Flow analysis has been carried out under the approximations of a low Reynolds number and long wavelength. Coupled equations are solved using shooting method for numerical solution for the axial velocity function, temperature and pressure gradient distributions. We analyze the influence of various interesting parameters on flow quantities. The present study can be considered as a mathematical presentation of the dynamics of physiological organs with stones. PMID:26083027

  5. Alterations in streaming potential in presence of time periodic pressure-driven flow of a power law fluid in narrow confinements with nonelectrostatic ion-ion interactions.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Jayabrata; Ghosh, Uddipta; Chakraborty, Suman

    2014-03-01

    We study the coupled effect of electrokinetic phenomena and fluid rheology in altering the induced streaming potential in narrow fluidic confinements, which is manifested by establishing a time periodic pressure-driven flow in presence of electrical double layer phenomenon. However, in sharp contrast with reported literature, we take into account nonelectrostatic ion-ion interactions toward estimating the same in addition to electrostatic interactions and steric effects. We employ power law based rheological model for estimating the induced streaming potential. We bring out an intricate interaction between nonelectrostatic interactions and fluid rheology on the concerned electrokinetic phenomena, bearing immense consequences toward designing of integrated lab-on-a-chip-based microdevices and nanodevices. PMID:24132646

  6. Interfacial instability of thin liquid films at the walls of a parallel-plate channel, sheared by pressure-driven gas flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vécsei, Miklós; Dietzel, Mathias; Hardt, Steffen

    2015-11-01

    Gas flow between liquid films is a commonly used model system for flows in the respiratory system and is also present during flow boiling in microchannels. The emergence of long-wavelength interfacial instabilities due to viscous stresses is a well-known property of these systems. We show that its description is often reducible to two coupled partial differential equations. Thus the characteristic quantities, such as the most unstable wavelength and the marginally stable wavenumber, can be obtained in a straightforward manner from the linear stability analysis. The analysis of the weakly nonlinear equations shows that if the material properties of the liquid films and their undisturbed thicknesses are identical, their interfaces should only be destabilized by the inertial forces. Moreover, for this configuration the emerging patterns on the two interfaces are found to be identical in the long-time limit. A different setup, where the liquid films have identical material properties, but their undisturbed thicknesses differ, is studied numerically. The results show that even for this configuration the interfacial deformations of the two films remain closely correlated for a broad range of parameters.

  7. Separated flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, W. L., III; Dunham, R. E., Jr.; Goodman, W. L.; Howard, F. G.; Margason, R. J.; Rudy, D. H.; Rumsey, C. L.; Stough, H. P., III; Thomas, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    A brief overview of flow separation phenomena is provided. Langley has many active research programs in flow separation related areas. Three cases are presented which describe specific examples of flow separation research. In each example, a description of the fundamental fluid physics and the complexity of the flow field is presented along with a method of either reducing or controlling the extent of separation. The following examples are discussed: flow over a smooth surface with an adverse pressure gradient; flow over a surface with a geometric discontinuity; and flow with shock-boundary layer interactions. These results will show that improvements are being made in the understanding of flow separation and its control.

  8. Oscillatory Magnetogasdynamic Slip Flow in a Microchannel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Ramesh

    2009-11-01

    The problem of pressure driven Magnetogasdynamic (MGD) slip flow with small rarefaction through a long micro-channel is considered. The flow is driven by steady or oscillatory pressure gradient. The study of MGD flows in microchannels is of great interest since they occur in magnetic thin films and other electromagnetic micro-scale devices. In obtaining the micro-fluidic solutions in the presence of a magnetic field, some additional physical, mathematical and numerical issues need to be considered. These issues deal with the scaling laws for micro-scale MHD flows and the relevant parameters such as Mach number, Reynolds number, Hartmann number, magnetic Reynolds number, and Knudsen number. For planar constant area micro-channel, it is possible to obtain the analytical solutions for both steady and oscillatory pressure driven flows. As physically expected, the higher value of the magnetic field (higher Hartmann number) flattens the velocity profile in the channel.

  9. Flow visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, Leonard M.

    Flow visualization techniques are reviewed, with particular attention given to those applicable to liquid helium flows. Three techniques capable of obtaining qualitative and quantitative measurements of complex 3D flow fields are discussed including focusing schlieren, particle image volocimetry, and holocinematography (HCV). It is concluded that the HCV appears to be uniquely capable of obtaining full time-varying, 3D velocity field data, but is limited to the low speeds typical of liquid helium facilities.

  10. Flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard M.

    1991-01-01

    Flow visualization techniques are reviewed, with particular attention given to those applicable to liquid helium flows. Three techniques capable of obtaining qualitative and quantitative measurements of complex 3D flow fields are discussed including focusing schlieren, particle image volocimetry, and holocinematography (HCV). It is concluded that the HCV appears to be uniquely capable of obtaining full time-varying, 3D velocity field data, but is limited to the low speeds typical of liquid helium facilities.

  11. Flow chamber

    DOEpatents

    Morozov, Victor

    2011-01-18

    A flow chamber having a vacuum chamber and a specimen chamber. The specimen chamber may have an opening through which a fluid may be introduced and an opening through which the fluid may exit. The vacuum chamber may have an opening through which contents of the vacuum chamber may be evacuated. A portion of the flow chamber may be flexible, and a vacuum may be used to hold the components of the flow chamber together.

  12. Rock flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matveyev, S. N.

    1986-01-01

    Rock flows are defined as forms of spontaneous mass movements, commonly found in mountainous countries, which have been studied very little. The article considers formations known as rock rivers, rock flows, boulder flows, boulder stria, gravel flows, rock seas, and rubble seas. It describes their genesis as seen from their morphological characteristics and presents a classification of these forms. This classification is based on the difference in the genesis of the rubbly matter and characterizes these forms of mass movement according to their source, drainage, and deposit areas.

  13. Swirl flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, A. K.; Lilley, D. G.; Syred, N.

    Attention is given to the range of swirl phenomena occurring in both the atmosphere and man-made devices which may involve combustion-generated reacting flows. Experimental studies have established that swirl has large scale favorable effects on various aspects of flowfields, such as jet growth, entrainment and decay in inert flows and flame size, shape and stability in reacting flows. Mathematical modeling and numerical prediction for swirling flows combine experimental and theoretical combustion aerodynamics with sophisticated computational fluid dynamics to reduce development program costs and duration. Attention is given to practical combustor design in gas turbine engines, industrial furnaces, and waste incinerators, as well as to the effects of combustor swirl flow on the pollutant content of exhaust gases.

  14. The effect of sheared toroidal rotation on pressure driven magnetic islands in toroidal plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegna, C. C.

    2016-05-01

    The impact of sheared toroidal rotation on the evolution of pressure driven magnetic islands in tokamak plasmas is investigated using a resistive magnetohydrodynamics model augmented by a neoclassical Ohm's law. Particular attention is paid to the asymptotic matching data as the Mercier indices are altered in the presence of sheared flow. Analysis of the nonlinear island Grad-Shafranov equation shows that sheared flows tend to amplify the stabilizing pressure/curvature contribution to pressure driven islands in toroidal tokamaks relative to the island bootstrap current contribution. As such, sheared toroidal rotation tends to reduce saturated magnetic island widths.

  15. Turbulence modeling for separated flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durbin, Paul A.

    1994-01-01

    Two projects are described in this report. The first involves assessing turbulence models in separated flow. The second addresses the anomalous behavior of certain turbulence models in stagnation point flow. The primary motivation for developing turbulent transport models is to provide tools for computing non-equilibrium, or complex, turbulent flows. Simple flows can be analyzed using data correlations or algebraic eddy viscosities, but in more complicated flows such as a massively separated boundary layer, a more elaborate level of modeling is required. It is widely believed that at least a two-equation transport model is required in such cases. The transport equations determine the evolution of suitable velocity and time-scales of the turbulence. The present study included assessment of second-moment closures in several separated flows, including sharp edge separation; smooth wall, pressure driven separation; and unsteady vortex shedding. Flows with mean swirl are of interest for their role in enhancing mixing both by turbulent and mean motion. The swirl can have a stabilizing effect on the turbulence. An axi-symmetric extension to the INS-2D computer program was written adding the capability of computing swirling flow. High swirl can produce vortex breakdown on the centerline of the jet and it occurs in various combustors.

  16. Effects of impact velocity on pressure-driven nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hailong; Cao, Guoxin

    2013-09-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the pressure-driven water infiltration behavior of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), in which water molecules can infiltrate into CNTs from outside upon an external impact load. According to the direction of impact mechanical wave, the infiltration procedure can be divided into the forward stage (stage I) and the reflected stage (stage II). At the forward stage of mechanical wave, the flow behavior strongly depends on the impact velocity but it is essentially not very sensitive to the tube radius. With a higher impact velocity, the water flow has a higher transport velocity, a lower density, a weaker CNT-water interaction, a higher potential energy, and a more disordered structure shown by a wider distribution of water dipole and OH bonds orientations. At the reflected stage, due to the impact pressure effect, the water structure is significantly changed, and the flow behavior is less sensitive to the impact velocity but more sensitive to the tube radius. After the reflected wave passed the water molecules inside CNTs, the water density and potential are significantly increased, which initiates a significant change for the water structure inside CNTs, especially for small size tubes. In a small tube like (10,10), a new water conformation is created in the reflected procedure, while there is no such new structure created in a larger tube like (20,20). Due to the different structures, the behavior of the pressure-driven water flow inside CNTs is significantly different than the steady flow.

  17. Enhanced fluid flow through nanoscale carbon pipes.

    PubMed

    Whitby, Max; Cagnon, Laurent; Thanou, Maya; Quirke, Nick

    2008-09-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical studies demonstrate that pressure driven flow of fluids through nanoscale ( d < 10 nm) carbon pores occurs 4 to 5 orders of magnitude faster than predicted by extrapolation from conventional theory. Here, we report experimental results for flow of water, ethanol, and decane through carbon nanopipes with larger inner diameters (43 +/- 3 nm) than previously investigated. We find enhanced transport up to 45 times theoretical predictions. In contrast to previous work, in our systems, decane flows faster than water. These nanopipes were composed of amorphous carbon deposited from ethylene vapor in alumina templates using a single step fabrication process. PMID:18680352

  18. Flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinkamp, John A.

    1984-09-01

    Flow cytometry instrumentation developed from early efforts to count cells and particles in liquid suspension as they passed through a sensing device. Since the mid-1960's sophisticated instruments have been designed for analyzing cells based on various cytological, biochemical, and functional properties. These instruments have revolutionized automated cell analysis methods in that measurements are made at high speed, multiparameter data is correlated on each cell, statistical precision is high, and cells are separated in high purity from heterogeneous mixtures for identification and functional analysis. Advanced instruments capable of measuring cell volume, surface area, multicolor fluorescence, fluorescence polarization, light scatter within various angular regions, and axial light loss (extinction) at different wavelengths are being used in biomedical research for analyzing and sorting normal and abnormal cell populations. This article reviews the development of flow cytometers, the conceptual basis of flow measurements, and discusses some of the numerous applications of the technology in biology and medicine.

  19. FLOW GATING

    DOEpatents

    Poppelbaum, W.J.

    1962-12-01

    BS>This invention is a fast gating system for eiectronic flipflop circuits. Diodes connect the output of one circuit to the input of another, and the voltage supply for the receiving flip-flop has two alternate levels. When the supply is at its upper level, no current can flow through the diodes, but when the supply is at its lower level, current can flow to set the receiving flip- flop to the same state as that of the circuit to which it is connected. (AEC)

  20. Flow cytometer

    DOEpatents

    Van den Engh, G.

    1995-11-07

    A Faraday cage is described which encloses the flow chamber of a cytometer. Ground planes associated with each field deflection plate inhibit electric fields from varying the charge on designated events/droplets and further concentrates. They also increase forces applied to a passing charged event for accurate focus while concomitantly inhibiting a potential shock hazard. 4 figs.

  1. Lubrication Flows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papanastasiou, Tasos C.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses fluid mechanics for undergraduates including the differential Navier-Stokes equations, dimensional analysis and simplified dimensionless numbers, control volume principles, the Reynolds lubrication equation for confined and free surface flows, capillary pressure, and simplified perturbation techniques. Provides a vertical dip coating…

  2. Flow cytometer

    DOEpatents

    van den Engh, Ger

    1995-01-01

    A Faraday cage enclosing the flow chamber of a cytometer and ground planes associated with each field deflection plate in concert therewith inhibit electric fields from varying the charge on designated events/droplets and further concentrates and increases forces applied to a charged event passing therethrough for accurate focus thereof while concomitantly inhibiting a potential shock hazard.

  3. Yield Hardening of Electrorheological Fluids in Channel Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helal, Ahmed; Qian, Bian; McKinley, Gareth H.; Hosoi, A. E.

    2016-06-01

    Electrorheological fluids offer potential for developing rapidly actuated hydraulic devices where shear forces or pressure-driven flow are present. In this study, the Bingham yield stress of electrorheological fluids with different particle volume fractions is investigated experimentally in wall-driven and pressure-driven flow modes using measurements in a parallel-plate rheometer and a microfluidic channel, respectively. A modified Krieger-Dougherty model can be used to describe the effects of the particle volume fraction on the yield stress and is in good agreement with the viscometric data. However, significant yield hardening in pressure-driven channel flow is observed and attributed to an increase and eventual saturation of the particle volume fraction in the channel. A phenomenological physical model linking the densification and consequent microstructure to the ratio of the particle aggregation time scale compared to the convective time scale is presented and used to predict the enhancement in yield stress in channel flow, enabling us to reconcile discrepancies in the literature between wall-driven and pressure-driven flows.

  4. Systolic flow

    SciTech Connect

    Tsay, J.C.; Yuan, S. )

    1990-03-01

    This paper presents a formal algebraic notation to express the global data interacting activities of a systolic array. The notation we use is the generating function. Using generating functions, we can describe the velocity and the moving path of a data stream at any time. Several generating functions can be grouped together to form a systolic flow which can aid the specification, design, and verification of a systolic array.

  5. Immiscible liquid-liquid pressure-driven flow in capillary tubes: Experimental results and numerical comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Edson J.; Thompson, Roney L.; Niero, Debora C.

    2015-08-01

    The immiscible displacement of one viscous liquid by another in a capillary tube is experimentally and numerically analyzed in the low inertia regime with negligible buoyancy effects. The dimensionless numbers that govern the problem are the capillary number Ca and the viscosity ratio of the displaced to the displacing fluids Nμ. In general, there are two output quantities of interest. One is associated to the relation between the front velocity, Ub, and the mean velocity of the displaced fluid, U ¯ 2 . The other is the layer thickness of the displaced fluid that remains attached to the wall. We compute these quantities as mass fractions in order to make them able to be compared. In this connection, the efficiency mass fraction, me, is defined as the complement of the mass fraction of the displaced fluid that leaves the tube while the displacing fluid crosses its length. The geometric mass fraction, mg, is defined as the fraction of the volume of the layer that remains attached to the wall. Because in gas-liquid displacement, these two quantities coincide, it is not uncommon in the literature to use mg as a measure of the displacement efficiency for liquid-liquid displacements. However, as is shown in the present paper, these two quantities have opposite tendencies when we increase the viscosity of the displacing fluid, making this distinction a crucial aspect of the problem. Results from a Galerkin finite element approach are also presented in order to make a comparison. Experimental and numerical results show that while the displacement efficiency decreases, the geometrical fraction increases when the viscosity ratio decreases. This fact leads to different decisions depending on the quantity to be optimized. The quantitative agreement between the numerical and experimental results was not completely achieved, especially for intermediate values of Ca. The reasons for that are still under investigation. The experiments conducted were able to achieve a wide range of Ca. We show that in the range 1 < Nμ < 2, wavy shape instabilities appear at the interface and that increasing capillary number the amplitude of those waves increases. A deeper investigation on the operation window where these instabilities occur is in order.

  6. Marangoni Effects on the Bubble Dynamics in a Pressure Driven Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Chang-Won; Maruvada, S. R. K.

    1996-01-01

    The motion of air bubbles and water drops in a Hele-Shaw cell filled with a silicone oil has been studied experimentally and theoretically. By adding a predetermined amount of a surfactant to the water drops we attempted to investigate the surfactant influence systematically. While the motion of air bubbles was in reasonable agreement with the predictions of Taylor and Saffman, water drops behaved quite differently in that the translational velocities were smaller by an order of magnitude and their shapes were very unusual as observed previously by Kopf-Sill and Homsy. Assuming that the surrounding fluid wets the solid wall and the bubble (or the drop) surface is rigid due to the surfactant influence, we have estimated the translational velocity of an elliptic bubble. The calculated velocities were in good agreement with the observations indicating that the surfactant influence could retard the bubble motion significantly. The present study also indicates that the unusual bubble shapes are also due to the surfactant influence.

  7. Continental Lower-crustal Flow: Channel Flow and Laminar Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LI, Dewei

    Numerous geological, geophysical and geochemical investigations and finite element modeling indicate that crustal flow layers exist in the continental crust. Both channel flow model and laminar flow model have been created to explain the flow laws and flow mechanisms. As revealed by the channel flow model, a low-viscosity channel in middle to lower crust in orogen or plateau with thick crust and high elevation would flow outward from mountain root in response to lateral pressure gradient resulted from topographic loading or to denudation. However, according to the laminar flow model proposed based on investigation of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, circulative movement of crustal lithologies with different rheological properties between basin and orogen would occur, under the driving forces resulted from dehydration and melting of subduction plate on active continental margin and from thermal energy related to upwelling and diapiring of intercontinental mantle plume or its gravitational interactions. Similarly, when driven by gravity, the softened or melted substances of the lower crust in a basin would flow laterally toward adjacent mountain root, which would result in a thinned basin crust and a thickened orogenic crust. Partially melted magma within the thickened orogenic lower crust would cause vertical movement of metamorphic rocks of lower to middle crust due to density inversion, and the vertical main stress induced by thermal underplating of lower crust would in turn lead to formation of metamorphic core complexes and low-angle detachment fault systems. Lateral spreading of uplifting mountain due to gravitation potential would result in thrust fault systems on the border between mountain and basin. Meanwhile, detritus produced synchronously by intense erosion of uplifting mountain would be transported and deposited along the marginal deep depression in the foreland basin dragged by lower crust flow. Channel flow is similar to laminar flow in a variety of aspects

  8. Lava Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03658 Lava Flows

    These relatively young lava flows are part of Arsia Mons.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -22.5N, Longitude 242.3E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  9. Flow accelerated organic coating degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qixin

    Applying organic coatings is a common and the most cost effective way to protect metallic objects and structures from corrosion. Water entry into coating-metal interface is usually the main cause for the deterioration of organic coatings, which leads to coating delamination and underfilm corrosion. Recently, flowing fluids over sample surface have received attention due to their capability to accelerate material degradation. A plethora of works has focused on the flow induced metal corrosion, while few studies have investigated the flow accelerated organic coating degradation. Flowing fluids above coating surface affect corrosion by enhancing the water transport and abrading the surface due to fluid shear. Hence, it is of great importance to understand the influence of flowing fluids on the degradation of corrosion protective organic coatings. In this study, a pigmented marine coating and several clear coatings were exposed to the laminar flow and stationary immersion. The laminar flow was pressure driven and confined in a flow channel. A 3.5 wt% sodium chloride solution and pure water was employed as the working fluid with a variety of flow rates. The corrosion protective properties of organic coatings were monitored inline by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurement. Equivalent circuit models were employed to interpret the EIS spectra. The time evolution of coating resistance and capacitance obtained from the model was studied to demonstrate the coating degradation. Thickness, gloss, and other topography characterizations were conducted to facilitate the assessment of the corrosion. The working fluids were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) and conductivity measurement. The influence of flow rate, fluid shear, fluid composition, and other effects in the coating degradation were investigated. We conclude that flowing fluid on the coating surface accelerates the transport of water, oxygen, and ions into the coating, as

  10. Apparent Viscosity of Active Nematics in Poiseuille Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Zhenlu; Su, Jianbing; Zeng, Xiaoming

    2015-09-01

    A Leslie-Erickson continuum hydrodynamic for flowing active nematics has been used to characterize active particle systems such as bacterial suspensions. The behavior of such a system under a plane pressure-driven Poiseuille flow is analyzed. When plate anchoring is tangential and normal, we find the apparent viscosity formula indicating a significant difference between tangential anchoring and normal anchoring conditions for both active rodlike and discoid nematics.

  11. Unsteady flow motions in the supraglottal region during phonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Haoxiang; Dai, Hu

    2008-11-01

    The highly unsteady flow motions in the larynx are not only responsible for producing the fundamental frequency tone in phonation, but also have a significant contribution to the broadband noise in the human voice. In this work, the laryngeal flow is modeled either as an incompressible pulsatile jet confined in a two-dimensional channel, or a pressure-driven flow modulated by a pair of viscoelastic vocal folds through the flow--structure interaction. The flow in the supraglottal region is found to be dominated by large-scale vortices whose unsteady motions significantly deflect the glottal jet. In the flow--structure interaction, a hybrid model based on the immersed-boundary method is developed to simulate the flow-induced vocal fold vibration, which involves a three-dimensional vocal fold prototype and a two-dimensional viscous flow. Both the flow behavior and the vibratory characteristics of the vocal folds will be presented.

  12. Environment Flow Assessment with Flow Regime Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, J.; Ho, C. C.; Chang, L. C.

    2015-12-01

    To avoid worsen river and estuarine ecosystems cause by overusing water resources, environmental flows conservation is applied to reduce the impact of river environment. Environmental flows refer to water provided within a river, wetland or coastal zone to sustain ecosystems and benefits to human wellbeing. Environment flow assessment is now widely accepted that a naturally variable flow regime, rather than just a minimum low flow. In this study, we propose four methods, experience method, Tenant method, hydraulic method and habitat method to assess the environmental flow of base flow, flush flow and overbank flow with different discharge, frequency and occurrence period. Dahan River has been chosen as a case to demonstrate the assessment mechanism. The alternatives impact analysis of environment and human water used provides a reference for stakeholders when holding an environmental flow consultative meeting.

  13. Flow distances on open flow networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Liangzhu; Lou, Xiaodan; Shi, Peiteng; Wang, Jun; Huang, Xiaohan; Zhang, Jiang

    2015-11-01

    An open flow network is a weighted directed graph with a source and a sink, depicting flux distributions on networks in the steady state mode of an open flow system. Energetic food webs, economic input-output networks, and international trade networks are open flow network models of energy flows between species, money or value flows between industrial sectors, and goods flows between countries, respectively. An open flow network is different from a closed flow network because it considers the flows from or to the environment (the source and the sink). For instance, in energetic food webs, species obtain energy not only from other species but also from the environment (sunlight), and species also dissipate energy to the environment. Flow distances between any two nodes i and j are defined as the average number of transition steps of a random walker along the network from i to j. The conventional method for the calculation of the random walk distance on closed flow networks cannot be applied to open flow networks. Therefore, we derive novel explicit expressions for flow distances of open flow networks according to their underlying Markov matrix of the network in this paper. We apply flow distances to two types of empirical open flow networks, including energetic food webs and economic input-output networks. In energetic food webs, we visualize the trophic level of each species and compare flow distances with other distance metrics on the graph. In economic input-output networks, we rank sectors according to their average flow distances and cluster sectors into different industrial groups with strong connections. Other potential applications and mathematical properties are also discussed. To summarize, flow distance is a useful and powerful tool to study open flow systems.

  14. Flow direction determination of lava flows.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. I.; Rhodes, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    The flow direction technique, previously applied to ash-flow sheets, can be used to determine direction of movement and locate eruptive centers for lava flows. The method provides statistically stronger and more consistent flow direction data for lava than ash-flow tuff. The accuracy and reliability of the technique was established on the porphyritic basaltic andesite of Mount Taylor, New Mexico, which erupted from a known center, the Mount Taylor Amphitheater. The technique was then applied to volcanic units with unknown sources: the John Kerr Peak Quartz Latite and mid-Tertiary andesite flows in the Mogollon Mountains, both in southwestern New Mexico. The flow direction technique indicated flow patterns and suggested source areas for each rock unit. In the Mogollon Mountains flow direction measurements were supported by independent directional criteria such as dips of cross beds, stratigraphic thickening, facies changes, and megascopic textures.-

  15. Low volume flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Meixler, Lewis D.

    1993-01-01

    The low flow monitor provides a means for determining if a fluid flow meets a minimum threshold level of flow. The low flow monitor operates with a minimum of intrusion by the flow detection device into the flow. The electrical portion of the monitor is externally located with respect to the fluid stream which allows for repairs to the monitor without disrupting the flow. The electronics provide for the adjustment of the threshold level to meet the required conditions. The apparatus can be modified to provide an upper limit to the flow monitor by providing for a parallel electronic circuit which provides for a bracketing of the desired flow rate.

  16. Laminar Flow Aircraft Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Louis J. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    Various topics telative to laminar flow aircraft certification are discussed. Boundary layer stability, flaps for laminar flow airfoils, computational wing design studies, manufacturing requirements, windtunnel tests, and flow visualization are among the topics covered.

  17. Relaminarization of fluid flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narasimha, R.; Sreenivasan, K. R.

    1979-01-01

    The mechanisms of the relaminarization of turbulent flows are investigated with a view to establishing any general principles that might govern them. Three basic archetypes of reverting flows are considered: the dissipative type, the absorptive type, and the Richardson type exemplified by a turbulent boundary layer subjected to severe acceleration. A number of other different reverting flows are then considered in the light of the analysis of these archetypes, including radial Poiseuille flow, convex boundary layers, flows reverting by rotation, injection, and suction, as well as heated horizontal and vertical gas flows. Magnetohydrodynamic duct flows are also examined. Applications of flow reversion for turbulence control are discussed.

  18. Multiphase flow calculation software

    DOEpatents

    Fincke, James R.

    2003-04-15

    Multiphase flow calculation software and computer-readable media carrying computer executable instructions for calculating liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of high void fraction multiphase flows. The multiphase flow calculation software employs various given, or experimentally determined, parameters in conjunction with a plurality of pressure differentials of a multiphase flow, preferably supplied by a differential pressure flowmeter or the like, to determine liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flows. Embodiments of the multiphase flow calculation software are suitable for use in a variety of applications, including real-time management and control of an object system.

  19. Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulation of pressure-driven water transport through modified CNT membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Luying; Dumont, Randall S.; Dickson, James M.

    2013-03-01

    Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations are presented to investigate the effect of water-membrane interactions on the transport properties of pressure-driven water flow passing through carbon nanotube (CNT) membranes. The CNT membrane is modified with different physical properties to alter the van der Waals interactions or the electrostatic interactions between water molecules and the CNT membranes. The unmodified and modified CNT membranes are models of simplified nanofiltration (NF) membranes at operating conditions consistent with real NF systems. All NEMD simulations are run with constant pressure difference (8.0 MPa) temperature (300 K), constant pore size (0.643 nm radius for CNT (12, 12)), and membrane thickness (6.0 nm). The water flow rate, density, and velocity (in flow direction) distributions are obtained by analyzing the NEMD simulation results to compare transport through the modified and unmodified CNT membranes. The pressure-driven water flow through CNT membranes is from 11 to 21 times faster than predicted by the Navier-Stokes equations. For water passing through the modified membrane with stronger van der Waals or electrostatic interactions, the fast flow is reduced giving lower flow rates and velocities. These investigations show the effect of water-CNT membrane interactions on water transport under NF operating conditions. This work can help provide and improve the understanding of how these membrane characteristics affect membrane performance for real NF processes.

  20. Portable peak flow meters.

    PubMed

    McNaughton, J P

    1997-02-01

    There are several portable peak flow meters available. These instruments vary in construction and performance. Guidelines are recommended for minimum performance and testing of portable peak flow meters, with the aim of establishing a procedure for standardizing all peak flow meters. Future studies to clarify the usefulness of mechanical test apparatus and clinical trials of peak flow meters are also recommended. PMID:9098706

  1. Freshwater Flow Charts - 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiper, G V

    2003-11-21

    This report covers the following: (1) Explanation of Charts Showing Freshwater Flow in 1995; (2) Estimated U.S. Freshwater Flow in 1995 (chart); (3) Estimated California Freshwater Flow in 1995 (chart); (4) Estimated New Mexico Freshwater Flow in 1995 (chart); and (5) Web locations and credits.

  2. Brain-Flow Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Robert J.

    The brain-flow writing technique, which might also be called the "fast flow" technique, offers a particularly useful means of helping adults overcome writer's block. It also offers some bonuses in the form of enhanced creativity, improved thought-flow, and much faster writing output. There are six steps to brain-flow writing. In the first, or…

  3. Portable wastewater flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Robert M.

    1999-02-02

    A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under fill pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

  4. Portable wastewater flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under full pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

  5. Intelligent Flow Control Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Anthony R (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention is an intelligent flow control valve which may be inserted into the flow coming out of a pipe and activated to provide a method to stop, measure, and meter flow coming from the open or possibly broken pipe. The intelligent flow control valve may be used to stop the flow while repairs are made. Once repairs have been made, the valve may be removed or used as a control valve to meter the amount of flow from inside the pipe. With the addition of instrumentation, the valve may also be used as a variable area flow meter and flow controller programmed based upon flowing conditions. With robotic additions, the valve may be configured to crawl into a desired pipe location, anchor itself, and activate flow control or metering remotely.

  6. Variation in polydispersity in pump- and pressure-driven micro-droplet generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Wen; Jacobi, Ian; Li, Songjing; Stone, Howard A.

    2015-11-01

    The polydispersity of droplets produced in a typical T-junction microfluidic channel under both syringe-pump-driven and pressure-driven flow configurations is measured quantitatively. Both flow systems exhibit high-frequency flow fluctuations that result in an intrinsic polydispersity due to the mechanism of droplet generation. In addition to this intrinsic polydispersity, the syringe-pump-driven device also exhibits low-frequency fluctuations due to mechanical oscillations of the pump, which overwhelm the high-frequency flow fluctuations and produce a signficantly heightened level of polydispersity. The quantitative difference in polydispersity between the two configurations and time-resolved measurements of individual droplet sizes are presented in order to enable the design of better flow control systems for droplet production.

  7. From connected pathway flow to ganglion dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rücker, M.; Berg, S.; Armstrong, R. T.; Georgiadis, A.; Ott, H.; Schwing, A.; Neiteler, R.; Brussee, N.; Makurat, A.; Leu, L.; Wolf, M.; Khan, F.; Enzmann, F.; Kersten, M.

    2015-05-01

    During imbibition, initially connected oil is displaced until it is trapped as immobile clusters. While initial and final states have been well described before, here we image the dynamic transient process in a sandstone rock using fast synchrotron-based X-ray computed microtomography. Wetting film swelling and subsequent snap off, at unusually high saturation, decreases nonwetting phase connectivity, which leads to nonwetting phase fragmentation into mobile ganglia, i.e., ganglion dynamics regime. We find that in addition to pressure-driven connected pathway flow, mass transfer in the oil phase also occurs by a sequence of correlated breakup and coalescence processes. For example, meniscus oscillations caused by snap-off events trigger coalescence of adjacent clusters. The ganglion dynamics occurs at the length scale of oil clusters and thus represents an intermediate flow regime between pore and Darcy scale that is so far dismissed in most upscaling attempts.

  8. Compressible Flow Toolbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melcher, Kevin J.

    2006-01-01

    The Compressible Flow Toolbox is primarily a MATLAB-language implementation of a set of algorithms that solve approximately 280 linear and nonlinear classical equations for compressible flow. The toolbox is useful for analysis of one-dimensional steady flow with either constant entropy, friction, heat transfer, or Mach number greater than 1. The toolbox also contains algorithms for comparing and validating the equation-solving algorithms against solutions previously published in open literature. The classical equations solved by the Compressible Flow Toolbox are as follows: The isentropic-flow equations, The Fanno flow equations (pertaining to flow of an ideal gas in a pipe with friction), The Rayleigh flow equations (pertaining to frictionless flow of an ideal gas, with heat transfer, in a pipe of constant cross section), The normal-shock equations, The oblique-shock equations, and The expansion equations.

  9. Unsteady flow volumes

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, B.G.; Lane, D.A.; Max, N.L.

    1995-03-01

    Flow volumes are extended for use in unsteady (time-dependent) flows. The resulting unsteady flow volumes are the 3 dimensional analog of streamlines. There are few examples where methods other than particle tracing have been used to visualize time varying flows. Since particle paths can become convoluted in time there are additional considerations to be made when extending any visualization technique to unsteady flows. We will present some solutions to the problems which occur in subdivision, rendering, and system design. We will apply the unsteady flow volumes to a variety of field types including moving multi-zoned curvilinear grids.

  10. Localized electric field induced transition and miniaturization of two-phase flow patterns inside microchannels.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Abhinav; Tiwari, Vijeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mandal, Tapas Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar

    2014-10-01

    Strategic application of external electrostatic field on a pressure-driven two-phase flow inside a microchannel can transform the stratified or slug flow patterns into droplets. The localized electrohydrodynamic stress at the interface of the immiscible liquids can engender a liquid-dielectrophoretic deformation, which disrupts the balance of the viscous, capillary, and inertial forces of a pressure-driven flow to engender such flow morphologies. Interestingly, the size, shape, and frequency of the droplets can be tuned by varying the field intensity, location of the electric field, surface properties of the channel or fluids, viscosity ratio of the fluids, and the flow ratio of the phases. Higher field intensity with lower interfacial tension is found to facilitate the oil droplet formation with a higher throughput inside the hydrophilic microchannels. The method is successful in breaking down the regular pressure-driven flow patterns even when the fluid inlets are exchanged in the microchannel. The simulations identify the conditions to develop interesting flow morphologies, such as (i) an array of miniaturized spherical or hemispherical or elongated oil drops in continuous water phase, (ii) "oil-in-water" microemulsion with varying size and shape of oil droplets. The results reported can be of significance in improving the efficiency of multiphase microreactors where the flow patterns composed of droplets are preferred because of the availability of higher interfacial area for reactions or heat and mass exchange. PMID:25044128

  11. Flow Instability and Flow Control Scaling Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ness, Daniel; Corke, Thomas; Morris, Scott

    2006-11-01

    A flow instability that is receptive to perturbations is present in the tip clearance leakage flow over the tip of a turbine blade. This instability was investigated through the introduction of active flow control in the viscous flow field. Control was implemented in the form of a dielectric barrier discharge created by a weakly-ionized plasma actuation arrangement. The experimental setup consisted of a low-speed linear turbine cascade made up of an array of nine Pratt & Whitney ``PakB'' turbine blades. This idealized cascade configuration was used to examine the tip clearance leakage flow that exists within the low pressure turbine stage of a gas-turbine engine. The center blade of the cascade array had a variable tip clearance up to five percent chord. Reynolds numbers based on axial blade chord varied from 10^4 to 10^5. Multi-port pressure probe measurements, as well as Stereo Particle Image Velocimetry were used to document the dependence of the instability on the frequency and amplitude of flow control perturbations. Scaling laws based on the variation of blade tip clearance height and inflow conditions were investigated. These results permitted an improved understanding of the mechanism of flow instability.

  12. Adjustable flow restrictor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tufte, R. J.

    1970-01-01

    Flow-rate restrictor with sharp-edged threads generates turbulence in the fluid flow, providing greater pressure reduction than is possible with a smooth-walled device. It is less susceptible to clogging.

  13. Peak flow meter (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A peak flow meter is commonly used by a person with asthma to measure the amount of air that can be ... become narrow or blocked due to asthma, peak flow values will drop because the person cannot blow ...

  14. Urination - difficulty with flow

    MedlinePlus

    ... at night? Has the force of your urine flow decreased? Do you have dribbling or leaking urine? ... conditions or surgeries that could affect your urine flow? What medicines do you take? Tests that may ...

  15. Handbook of flow visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wen-Jei

    The present conference flow visualization encompasses the fundamental principles of visualization, methods for visualizing different flow types, image processing and computer-assisted methods, and a number of practical applications of the methodologies for studying heat transfer, gas-turbine-disk cooling flows, indoor environments, building aerodynamics, and land vehicles. Specific issues addressed include fluid dynamics, the basics of heat and mass transfer, electrical discharges, liquid crystals, streaming birefringence, speckle photography, Schlieren methods, surface tracing, planar fluorescence imaging in gases, digital processing in interferograms, and ultrasonic image processing. Also addressed are computer-aided flow visualization, flow-field survey data, thermography, flow solutions with scalar variable presentation, and special applications including aerospace and wind-tunnel testing, internal flows, and explosive flows such as shock tubes and blast waves.

  16. Flow Control Effectiveness at High Speed Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontis, K.; Lada, C.

    2005-02-01

    The effects of two important flow control techniques, i.e. jet control and dimples, on the aerodynamic characteristics and performance of a number of body configurations have been studied experimentally. The dimple studies have been carried out in a transonic-supersonic wind tunnel and the jet studies in a hypersonic gun tunnel at a Mach number of 8.2. Air was used as the working gas. The tests employed schlieren photography and oil-flow to study the overall flow field. Quantitative studies have been made by pressure measurements.

  17. Ultrasonic flow metering system

    DOEpatents

    Gomm, Tyler J.; Kraft, Nancy C.; Mauseth, Jason A.; Phelps, Larry D.; Taylor, Steven C.

    2002-01-01

    A system for determining the density, flow velocity, and mass flow of a fluid comprising at least one sing-around circuit that determines the velocity of a signal in the fluid and that is correlatable to a database for the fluid. A system for determining flow velocity uses two of the inventive circuits with directional transmitters and receivers, one of which is set at an angle to the direction of flow that is different from the others.

  18. Lyotropics Under Extensional Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idziak, Stefan H. J.; Welch, Sarah E.; Kisilak, Marsha; Mugford, Chas; Sirota, Eric B.

    2000-03-01

    X-ray diffraction has been used to study the effects of extensional flow on a soft, flexible lamellar membrane system comprised of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), dodecane, pentanol and water. The intermembrane spacing is observed to decrease discontinuously as a function of the flow rate. A new x-ray extensional flow cell suitable for the study of any non-viscous fluid under extensional flow was developed for these measurements.

  19. Direct force wall shear measurements in pressure-driven three-dimensional turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcallister, J. E.; Tennant, M. H.; Pierce, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    Unique, simultaneous direct measurements of the magnitude and direction of the local wall shear stress in a pressure-driven three-dimensional turbulent boundary layer are presented. The flow is also described with an oil streak wall flow pattern, a map of the wall shear stress-wall pressure gradient orientations, a comparison of the wall shear stress directions relative to the directions of the nearest wall velocity as measured with a typical, small boundary layer directionally sensitive claw probe, as well as limiting wall streamline directions from the oil streak patterns, and a comparison of the freestream streamlines and the wall flow streamlines. A review of corrections for direct force sensing shear meters for two-dimensional flows is presented with a brief discussion of their applicability to three-dimensional devices.

  20. Flow reduction in microchannels coated with a polymer brush.

    PubMed

    Lanotte, Luca; Guido, Stefano; Misbah, Chaouqi; Peyla, Philippe; Bureau, Lionel

    2012-09-25

    We report on the design of microchannels made of glass capillary coated with polymer brushes elaborated by the so-called "grafting-from" technique. We present measurements of velocity profiles for pressure-driven flows of water in such "hairy" capillaries. We show that the flow reduction induced by the presence of the brush is unexpectedly greater than what could be anticipated from simple geometric arguments on the reduction of the effective capillary diameter or from predictions by models describing the brush layer as a poro-elastic boundary. PMID:22935030

  1. Elbow mass flow meter

    DOEpatents

    McFarland, Andrew R.; Rodgers, John C.; Ortiz, Carlos A.; Nelson, David C.

    1994-01-01

    Elbow mass flow meter. The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity.

  2. Integer Equal Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, C A; Schulz, A S

    2009-01-07

    The integer equal flow problem is an NP-hard network flow problem, in which all arcs in given sets R{sub 1}, ..., R{sub {ell}} must carry equal flow. We show this problem is effectively inapproximable, even if the cardinality of each set R{sub k} is two. When {ell} is fixed, it is solvable in polynomial time.

  3. Flow boiling in vertical down-flow

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, T.; Fighetti, C.; Reddy, G.; Yang, B.; Jafri, T. ); McAssey, E. ); Qureshi, Z. )

    1989-01-01

    An experimental program has been conducted to investigate the onset of Ledinegg instability in vertical down-flow. For three size uniformly heated test sections with L/D ratios from 100 to 150, the pressure drop under subcooled boiling conditions has been obtained for a wide range of operating parameters. The results are presented in non-dimensional forms which correlate the important variables and provide techniques for predicting the onset of flow instability. 3 refs.

  4. Flow boiling in vertical down-flow

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, T.; Fighetti, C.; Reddy, G.; Yang, B.; Jafri, T.; McAssey, E.; Qureshi, Z.

    1989-12-31

    An experimental program has been conducted to investigate the onset of Ledinegg instability in vertical down-flow. For three size uniformly heated test sections with L/D ratios from 100 to 150, the pressure drop under subcooled boiling conditions has been obtained for a wide range of operating parameters. The results are presented in non-dimensional forms which correlate the important variables and provide techniques for predicting the onset of flow instability. 3 refs.

  5. Flow quality measurements in compressible subsonic flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stainback, P. Calvin; Johnson, Charles B.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose is to re-examine the heat transfer from a hot-wire probe in the compressible subsonic flow regime; describe the three-wire hot-wire probe calibration and data reduction techniques used to measure the velocity, density, and total temperature fluctuation; and present flow quality results obtained in the Langley 0.3 meter Transonic Cryogenic Wind Tunnel and in flight with the NASA JetStar from the same three-wire hot-wire probe.

  6. Lateral flow strip assay

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, Robin R.; Benett, William J.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Pearson, Francesca S.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  7. Modeling Pressure-Driven Transport of Proteins through a Nanochannel

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Rogan; Comer, Jeffrey; Ginsberg, Mark D.; Aksimentiev, Aleksei

    2012-01-01

    Reducing the size of a nanofluidic channel not only creates new opportunities for high-precision manipulation of biological macromolecules, but also makes the performance of the entire nanofluidic system more susceptible to undesirable interactions between the transported biomolecules and the walls of the channel. In this manuscript, we report molecular dynamics simulations of a pressure-driven flow through a silica nanochannel that characterized, with atomic resolution, adsorption of a model protein to its surface. Although the simulated adsorption of the proteins was found to be nonspecific, it had a dramatic effect on the rate of the protein transport. To determine the relative strength of the protein–silica interactions in different adsorbed states, we simulated flow-induced desorption of the proteins from the silica surface. Our analysis of the protein conformations in the adsorbed states did not reveal any simple dependence of the adsorption strength on the size and composition of the protein–silica contact, suggesting that the heterogeneity of the silica surface may be a important factor. PMID:22611338

  8. Flow cytometry apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkel, D.

    1991-01-29

    This paper describes an apparatus for orienting cells in a sheath fluid in a otometer/sorter. It comprises: flow chamber; means for flowing the sheath fluid through the flow chamber along a direction of flow; means for obstructing the flow of the sheath fluid in the flow chamber with a first dimension, which extends substantially across the flow chamber and is substantially perpendicular to the direction of flow and with a thickness perpendicular to the first dimension of the obstructing means wherein the sheath fluid flows around the thickness so that the sheath fluid converges in only one dimension at the downstream edge of the means for obstructing; and means for introducing the cells through the means for obstructing the flow to the region where the sheath fluid converges in only one dimension in the sheath fluid to orient the cells, with an aperture wherein as the cells pass from the means for introducing the cells to the region where the sheath fluid converges the cells pass through the aperture with a cross-sectional length substantially less than or equal to the thickness of the means for obstructing the flow.

  9. Gas flow control valve

    SciTech Connect

    Phlipot, J.R.; Pinkston, S.R.; Nurre, H.

    1988-02-09

    A compact gas flow control valve is described comprising a valve body having a first, rotor cavity-defining portion and a second cover portion covering the rotor cavity, at least one of the body portions including inlet means communicating with the rotor chamber for receiving gas under pressure for providing the gas to the rotor chamber, at least one of the body portions including outlet means for delivery of the gas by the flow control valve, a rotor within the rotor cavity, the rotor including a flat surface, a flow control plate carried by the rotor, the flow control plate covering and lying against the flat surface of the rotor, the rotor having ports opening through the rotor surface, the ports being of sufficiently large size as not to limit the flow of the gas therethrough. The flow control plate comprises a thin, flat metal disc provided with gas flow control orifices extending therethrough and spaced circumferentially around the disc and in registry with respective ones of the ports, the rotor being of substantially greater thickness than the disc, the gas flow control being of different sizes and passage means for providing communication between the outlet means and at least a selected one of the flow control plate origices, selector means for orienting the rotor to permit flow only through selected flow control plate orifices and a corresponding rotor port for delivery by the outlet means.

  10. Low flow fume hood

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Geoffrey C.; Feustel, Helmut E.; Dickerhoff, Darryl J.

    2002-01-01

    A fume hood is provided having an adequate level of safety while reducing the amount of air exhausted from the hood. A displacement flow fume hood works on the principal of a displacement flow which displaces the volume currently present in the hood using a push-pull system. The displacement flow includes a plurality of air supplies which provide fresh air, preferably having laminar flow, to the fume hood. The displacement flow fume hood also includes an air exhaust which pulls air from the work chamber in a minimally turbulent manner. As the displacement flow produces a substantially consistent and minimally turbulent flow in the hood, inconsistent flow patterns associated with contaminant escape from the hood are minimized. The displacement flow fume hood largely reduces the need to exhaust large amounts of air from the hood. It has been shown that exhaust air flow reductions of up to 70% are possible without a decrease in the hood's containment performance. The fume hood also includes a number of structural adaptations which facilitate consistent and minimally turbulent flow within a fume hood.

  11. Gas flow through rotameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, H.; Escorza, M. M.

    1983-01-01

    Using data available for small rotameters that use spherical floats in gas flow, a linear relationship is derived. It is noted that the relationship provides a good fit for variable volumetric flow, density, and viscosity at constant flow height. With low Reynolds numbers (Re being less than 1), the product of the variable volumetric flow and the viscosity becomes constant; at high Reynolds numbers (Re being greater than 2000), the product of the variable volumetric flow and the square root of the density becomes constant. It is pointed out that the equation given here can be used to obtain an indirect calibration with any gas of known density and viscosity. The constancy of the product of the variable volumetric flow and viscosity at low variable volumetric flows is seen as suggesting the development of simple, inexpensive gas viscometers using rotameter technology.

  12. Flow separation detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mateer, G. C.; Brosh, A. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An arrangement for sensing the fluid separation along a surface which employs a thermally insulating element having a continuous surface blending into and forming a part of the fluid flow surface is described. A sudden decrease in the temperature of the downstream sensor conductor and concomitant increase in the temperature of the upstream sensor conductor is an indication of the separation. When the temperatures are returned to the state achieved during normal flow, the indicator thereby indicates the normal, attached fluid flow. The conductors may be, for example, wires or thin films, and should be within the viscous sub-layer of the expected fluid flow. A single heater and several pairs of sensors and corresponding sensor conductors may be used to detect not only the fluid flow and the separation, but the direction of the fluid flow, over the fluid flow surface.

  13. HPFTP flow diverter analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spadley, L. W.

    1985-01-01

    A computational fluid flow analysis on the flow diverter system under consideration for the Space Shuttle main engine high pressure fuel turbopump (SSME HPFTP) is proposed. A three dimensional viscous flow environment is computed to optimize the geometric configuration and location of the flow diverter system. The analysis consists of a fully turbulent cold flow calculation by Navier-Stokes equations and a Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model. The equations are numerically by a finite difference/element procedure. The results will provide the steady and unsteady pressure field and thermal environment required to assess the usefulness of the flow diverter system in deflecting the cold flow away from the hot turbine components. A geometry optimization study determines the best diverter shape and location to avoid larger thermal gradients on the rotor/stator components.

  14. How does a pressure-driven foam jam in a straight channel?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewari, Shubha; Menon, Karthik; Govindarajan, Rama

    2015-11-01

    A Newtonian fluid and a foam flow differently. We highlight this contrast in the pressure-driven flow of a foam through a straight channel. Unlike a Newtonian fluid, a foam in a straight channel does not flow below a threshold driving force. Just above this yield threshold, the flow is intermittent (stick-slip), and crosses over to smooth flow as the driving force is increased. We report on a numerical investigation of these different regimes using a modified version of Durian's bubble model with an added short-ranged attraction potential to account for the effects of disjoining pressures. The crossover from one regime to the other is characterized by an evolution of the flow velocity profile from plug-like to one where the shear layer is much broader. The mean rate of neighbour changes per bubble increases as flow moves towards the steady regime with a distribution that broadens with the strength of the driving. We show that the stick-slip and steady flow regimes can be distinguished by the spectrum of energy fluctuations during the flow. We also vary the strength of the attractive potential and highlight the effect this has on the different regimes.

  15. A unified scaling model for flow through a lattice of microfabricated posts.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Nimisha; Din, Changsong; Judson, Andrew; MacDonald, Noel C; Meinhart, Carl D

    2010-05-01

    A scaling model is presented for low Reynolds number viscous flow within an array of microfabricated posts. Such posts are widely used in several lab-on-a-chip applications such as heat pipes, antibody arrays and biomolecule separation columns. Finite element simulations are used to develop a predictive model for pressure driven viscous flow through posts. The results indicate that the flow rate per unit width scales as approximately h1.17g1.33/d0.5 where h is the post height, d post diameter and g is the spacing between the posts. These results compare favorably to theoretical limits. The scaling is extended to capillary pressure driven viscous flows. This unified model is the first report of a scaling that incorporates both viscous and capillary forces in the microfabricated post geometry. The model is consistent with Washburn dynamics and was experimentally validated to within 8% using wetting on microfabricated silicon posts. PMID:20390133

  16. Channel flow of a tensorial shear-thinning Maxwell model: Lattice Boltzmann simulations.

    PubMed

    Papenkort, S; Voigtmann, Th

    2014-04-28

    We discuss pressure-driven channel flow for a model of shear-thinning glass-forming fluids, employing a modified lattice-Boltzmann (LB) simulation scheme. The model is motivated by a recent microscopic approach to the nonlinear rheology of colloidal suspensions and captures a nonvanishing dynamical yield stress and the appearance of normal-stress differences and a flow-induced pressure contribution. The standard LB algorithm is extended to deal with tensorial, nonlinear constitutive equations of this class. The new LB scheme is tested in 2D pressure-driven channel flow and reproduces the analytical steady-state solution. The transient dynamics after startup and removal of the pressure gradient reproduce a finite stopping time for the cessation flow of yield-stress fluids in agreement with previous analytical estimates. PMID:24784287

  17. Forces on particles in microstreaming flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Rallabandi, Bhargav; Thameem, Raqeeb

    2015-11-01

    In various microfluidic applications, vortical steady streaming from ultrasonically driven microbubbles is used in concert with a pressure-driven channel flow to manipulate objects. While a quantitative theory of this boundary-induced streaming is available, little work has been devoted to a fundamental understanding of the forces exerted on microparticles in boundary streaming flows, even though the differential action of such forces is central to applications like size-sensitive sorting. Contrary to other microfluidic sorting devices, the forces in bubble microstreaming act over millisecond times and micron length scales, without the need for accumulated deflections over long distances. Accordingly, we develop a theory of hydrodynamic forces on the fast time scale of bubble oscillation using the lubrication approximation, showing for the first time how particle displacements are rectified near moving boundaries over multiple oscillations in parallel with the generation of the steady streaming flow. The dependence of particle migration on particle size and the flow parameters is compared with experimental data. The theory is applicable to boundary streaming phenomena in general and demonstrates how particles can be sorted very quickly and without compromising device throughput. We acknowledge support by the National Science Foundation under grant number CBET-1236141.

  18. 46 CFR 154.546 - Excess flow valve: Closing flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excess flow valve: Closing flow. 154.546 Section 154.546... and Process Piping Systems § 154.546 Excess flow valve: Closing flow. (a) The rated closing flow of vapor or liquid cargo for an excess flow valve must be specially approved by the Commandant (CG-522)....

  19. 46 CFR 154.546 - Excess flow valve: Closing flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Excess flow valve: Closing flow. 154.546 Section 154.546... and Process Piping Systems § 154.546 Excess flow valve: Closing flow. (a) The rated closing flow of vapor or liquid cargo for an excess flow valve must be specially approved by the Commandant (CG-522)....

  20. 46 CFR 154.546 - Excess flow valve: Closing flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Excess flow valve: Closing flow. 154.546 Section 154.546... and Process Piping Systems § 154.546 Excess flow valve: Closing flow. (a) The rated closing flow of vapor or liquid cargo for an excess flow valve must be specially approved by the Commandant (CG-ENG)....

  1. 46 CFR 154.546 - Excess flow valve: Closing flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Excess flow valve: Closing flow. 154.546 Section 154.546... and Process Piping Systems § 154.546 Excess flow valve: Closing flow. (a) The rated closing flow of vapor or liquid cargo for an excess flow valve must be specially approved by the Commandant (CG-ENG)....

  2. Make peak flow a habit!

    MedlinePlus

    Asthma - make peak flow a habit; Reactive airway disease - peak flow; Bronchial asthma - peak flow ... your airways are narrowed and blocked due to asthma, your peak flow values drop. You can check ...

  3. Measurements in a pressure-driven and a shear-driven three-dimensional turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, F. J.; Mcallister, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Results of mean velocity field, wall static pressure field and simultaneous, direct force measurements of the local wall shear stress magnitude and direction are reported for a pressure-driven and a shear-driven three-dimensional turbulent boundary layer. These data, particularly the direct force local wall shear data, were obtained to test the validity of several of the near-wall similarity models proposed in the literature for such flows.

  4. Concentric Split Flow Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stapleton, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A concentric split flow filter may be configured to remove odor and/or bacteria from pumped air used to collect urine and fecal waste products. For instance, filter may be designed to effectively fill the volume that was previously considered wasted surrounding the transport tube of a waste management system. The concentric split flow filter may be configured to split the air flow, with substantially half of the air flow to be treated traveling through a first bed of filter media and substantially the other half of the air flow to be treated traveling through the second bed of filter media. This split flow design reduces the air velocity by 50%. In this way, the pressure drop of filter may be reduced by as much as a factor of 4 as compare to the conventional design.

  5. Do Ions Flow Freely Through Confined DNA?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azad, Zubair; Riehn, Robert

    Double-stranded DNA in an aqueous solution is characterized by a strongly localized counter-ion cloud. Classical experiments have shown that the mobility of large DNA coils is independent of the number of basepairs, leading to an interpretation that the molecule can be understood as a collection of segments with constant mobility whose interactions are effectively screened from each other. This ``free-draining'' assumption posits that DNA and other electrolytes will not influence each other's mobility. In this talk, we call this assumption into question when the local concentration of DNA is increased beyond that of a self-avoiding random walk by nanoconfinement. We present translocation of DNA and fluorescent tracer ions under established chemical gradients, pressure-driven flow, and electrophoresis in nanochannels with cross sections that are 100 nm x 100 nm. We present evidence that interactions between the DNA and ionic tracers are a non-linear function of the applied fields.

  6. Solids mass flow determination

    DOEpatents

    Macko, Joseph E.

    1981-01-01

    Method and apparatus for determining the mass flow rate of solids mixed with a transport fluid to form a flowing mixture. A temperature differential is established between the solids and fluid. The temperature of the transport fluid prior to mixing, the temperature of the solids prior to mixing, and the equilibrium temperature of the mixture are monitored and correlated in a heat balance with the heat capacities of the solids and fluid to determine the solids mass flow rate.

  7. Two phase potential flow

    SciTech Connect

    Wallis, G.B.

    1991-06-01

    New results for the flow of a dispersion of particles in an inviscid irrotational flow are reported. Equations of motion for an isotropic assembly have been derived and applied to several example problems. Theorems have been derived relating the macroscopic (averaged) properties of flows composed of unit cells. The effective conductivity of a suspension has been obtained in new ways, using the method of images, and related to forces exerted by a fluid on particles when there is relative motion. 11 refs.

  8. Color Doppler flow imaging.

    PubMed

    Foley, W D; Erickson, S J

    1991-01-01

    The performance requirements and operational parameters of a color Doppler system are outlined. The ability of an operator to recognize normal and abnormal variations in physiologic flow and artifacts caused by noise and aliasing is emphasized. The use of color Doppler flow imaging is described for the vessels of the neck and extremities, upper abdomen and abdominal transplants, obstetrics and gynecology, dialysis fistulas, and testicular and penile flow imaging. PMID:1898567

  9. Polyoxometalate flow battery

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Travis M.; Pratt, Harry D.

    2016-03-15

    Flow batteries including an electrolyte of a polyoxometalate material are disclosed herein. In a general embodiment, the flow battery includes an electrochemical cell including an anode portion, a cathode portion and a separator disposed between the anode portion and the cathode portion. Each of the anode portion and the cathode portion comprises a polyoxometalate material. The flow battery further includes an anode electrode disposed in the anode portion and a cathode electrode disposed in the cathode portion.

  10. Microparticle Flow Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R.

    2005-01-01

    The microparticle flow sensor (MFS) is a system for identifying and counting microscopic particles entrained in a flowing liquid. The MFS includes a transparent, optoelectronically instrumented laminar-flow chamber (see figure) and a computer for processing instrument-readout data. The MFS could be used to count microparticles (including micro-organisms) in diverse applications -- for example, production of microcapsules, treatment of wastewater, pumping of industrial chemicals, and identification of ownership of liquid products.

  11. Multiple sort flow cytometer

    DOEpatents

    Engh, G. van den; Esposito, R.J.

    1996-01-09

    A flow cytometer utilizes multiple lasers for excitation and respective fluorescence of identified dyes bonded to specific cells or events to identify and verify multiple events to be sorted from a sheath flow and droplet stream. Once identified, verified and timed in the sheath flow, each event is independently tagged upon separation from the flow by an electrical charge of +60, +120, or +180 volts and passed through oppositely charged deflection plates with ground planes to yield a focused six way deflection of at least six events in a narrow plane. 8 figs.

  12. Excess flow shutoff valve

    DOEpatents

    Kiffer, Micah S.; Tentarelli, Stephen Clyde

    2016-02-09

    Excess flow shutoff valve comprising a valve body, a valve plug, a partition, and an activation component where the valve plug, the partition, and activation component are disposed within the valve body. A suitable flow restriction is provided to create a pressure difference between the upstream end of the valve plug and the downstream end of the valve plug when fluid flows through the valve body. The pressure difference exceeds a target pressure difference needed to activate the activation component when fluid flow through the valve body is higher than a desired rate, and thereby closes the valve.

  13. Oscillatory electrohydrodynamic gas flows

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, F.C.; McKinney, P.J.; Davidson, J.H.

    1995-09-01

    Prior numerical solutions of electrohydrodynamic flows in a positive-corona, wire-plate electrostatic precipitator are extended to reveal steady-periodic electrohydrodynamic flows. Previously, only steady solutions were reported. The present study includes results for flows with Reynolds numbers from 0 to 4,800 and with dimensionless electric number ranging from 0.06 to {infinity}. Results indicate that two regimes of low frequency oscillatory flow occur. The first regime is characterized by a single recirculating vortex that oscillates in strength between one and five Hertz. The second regime is characterized by two counter-rotating vortices that oscillate in strength at a frequency near one Hertz.

  14. Multiple sort flow cytometer

    DOEpatents

    Van den Engh, Ger; Esposito, Richard J.

    1996-01-01

    A flow cytometer utilizes multiple lasers for excitation and respective fluorescence of identified dyes bonded to specific cells or events to identify and verify multiple events to be sorted from a sheath flow and droplet stream. Once identified, verified and timed in the sheath flow, each event is independently tagged upon separation from the flow by an electrical charge of +60, +120, or +180 volts and passed through oppositely charged deflection plates with ground planes to yield a focused six way deflection of at least six events in a narrow plane.

  15. Near-wall similarity in a pressure-driven three-dimensional turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, F. J.; Mcallister, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    Mean velocity, measured wall pressure and wall shear stress fields were made in a three dimensional pressure-driven turbulent boundary layer created by a cylinder with trailing edge placed normal to a flat plate floor. The direct force wall shear stress measurements were made with floating element direct force sensing shear meter that responded to both the magnitude and direction of the local wall shear stress. The ability of 10 near wall similarity models to describe the near wall velocity field for the measured flow under a wide range of skewing conditions and a variety of pressure gradient and wall shear vector orientations was used.

  16. Stokes flow in a pipe with distributed regions of slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauga, Eric; Stone, Howard A.

    2002-11-01

    Steady pressure-driven Stokes flow in a circular pipe is investigated analytically in the case where the pipe surface contains periodically distributed transverse regions of zero surface shear stress. One physical motivation for this problem is the recent experimental observation of nanobubbles on smooth hydrophobic surfaces (Ishida et al. (2000) Langmuir vol. 16, Tyrrell and Attard (2001) Phys. Rev. Lett. vol. 87) while a second motivation is the possible presence of bubbles trapped on rough surfaces. The bubbles may provide a zero shear stress boundary condition for the flow and modify considerably the friction generated by the solid boundary. In the spirit of experimental studies probing apparent slip at solid surfaces, the effective slip length of the resulting macroscopic flow is evaluated numerically and asymptotically as a function of the relative width of the no-slip and no-shear stress regions and their distribution along the pipe. Comparison of the model with experimental studies of pressure-driven flow in capillaries and microchannels is made and a possible interpretation of the results is offered which is consistent with a large number of nano-size and micron-size bubbles coating the solid surface. Finally, an explanation for the seemingly paradoxical behavior of the measured slip length increasing with system size reported by Watanabe et al. (1999) (J. Fluid Mech. vol. 381) is proposed and the possibility of a shear-dependent effective slip length is suggested.

  17. Flow rate measuring devices for gas flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonfig, K. W.

    1985-07-01

    Flowrate measuring devices are described: volume meter with fixed or mobile walls; turbine meter; throttling procedure; ultrasonic and Doppler methods; vortex method; rotary flowmeter; and swinging body flow measuring procedure. Flowrate can also be measured from the force exerted on bodies immersed in a fluid or based on thermodynamical principles. The characteristics and operating envelope of each device/method are given.

  18. Confinement and flow of microscopic defects in layered liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shojaei-Zadeh, Shahab

    The term layered liquid applies to a broad range of materials containing anisotropic molecules that arrange themselves in parallel stacks. Examples are concentrated surfactant solutions, block copolymers, bio-membranes, liquid crystalline polymers, and liquid crystals. Due to the solid-like nature of these materials, microscopic defects form when their parallel layer structure is disturbed by external forces, surface interactions, or geometrical confinement. Unlike in solid crystals, defects formed here can flow and we show that the presence of defects changes the flow characteristics of these materials. In this work, we first introduce three different methods for using surface treatments to control the size and ordering of a particular class of defects known as focal conics: within closed PDMS microchannels, on PDMS surfaces covered with nanoscale cracks, and within ordered microcavities formed in PDMS films. We then examine the flow behavior of these defects in microchannels, using both surface tension differences and pressure gradients to drive the flow. A microfluidic network is designed and developed to enable more precise control over the pressure driven flow. Driving flow within this microfluidic network enables simultaneous visualization of the defect texture evolution and measurement of the pressure gradient-flow rate relationship. Our measurements show that the flow properties of layered liquids under confinement are different from their bulk, possibly due to the interaction of defects with each other and with the flow itself.

  19. Turbulence in Compressible Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Lecture notes for the AGARD Fluid Dynamics Panel (FDP) Special Course on 'Turbulence in Compressible Flows' have been assembled in this report. The following topics were covered: Compressible Turbulent Boundary Layers, Compressible Turbulent Free Shear Layers, Turbulent Combustion, DNS/LES and RANS Simulations of Compressible Turbulent Flows, and Case Studies of Applications of Turbulence Models in Aerospace.

  20. Elbow mass flow meter

    DOEpatents

    McFarland, A.R.; Rodgers, J.C.; Ortiz, C.A.; Nelson, D.C.

    1994-08-16

    The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity. 3 figs.

  1. Lava Flow Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. Jeffrey

    1996-01-01

    This grant originally had four major tasks, all of which were addressed to varying extents during the course of the research: (1) Measure the fractal dimensions of lava flows as a function of topography, substrate, and rheology; (2) The nature of lava tube systems and their relation to flow fields; (3) A quantitative assessment of lava flow dynamics in light of the fractal nature of lava flow margins; and (4) Development and application of a new remote sensing tool based on fractal properties. During the course of the research, the project expanded to include the following projects: (1) A comparison of what we can-learn from remote sensing studies of lava flow morphology and from studies of samples of lava flows; (2) Study of a terrestrial analog of the nakhlites, one of the groups of meteorites from Mars; and (3) Study of the textures of Hawaiian basalts as an aid in understanding the dynamics (flow rates, inflation rates, thermal history) of flow interiors. In addition, during the first year an educational task (development and writing of a teacher's guide and activity set to accompany the lunar sample disk when it is sent to schools) was included.

  2. Flow between contrarotating disks

    SciTech Connect

    Gan, X.; Kilic, M.; Owen, J.M.

    1995-04-01

    The paper describes a combined experimental and computational study of laminar and turbulent flow between contrarotating disks. Laminar computations produce Batchelor-type flow: radial outflow occurs in boundary layers on the disks and inflow is confined to a thin shear layer in the midplane; between the boundary layers and the shear layer, two contrarotating cores of fluid are formed. Turbulent computations (using a low-Reynolds-number {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model) and LDA measurements provide no evidence for Batchelor-type flow, even for rotational Reynolds numbers as low as 2.2 {times} 10{sup 4}. While separate boundary layers are formed on the disks, radial inflow occurs in a single interior core that extends between the two boundary layers; in the core, rotational effects are weak. Although the flow in the core was always found to be turbulent, the flow in the boundary layers could remain laminar for rotational Reynolds numbers up to 1.2 {times} 10{sup 5}. For the case of a superposed outflow, there is a source region in which the radial component of velocity is everywhere positive; radially outward of this region, the flow is similar to that described above. Although the turbulence model exhibited premature transition from laminar to turbulent flow in the boundary layers, agreement between the computed and measured radial and tangential components of velocity was mainly good over a wide range of nondimensional flow rates and rotational Reynolds numbers.

  3. Hanford basalt flow mineralogy

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, L.L.

    1980-09-01

    Mineralogy of the core samples from five core wells was examined in some detail. The primary mineralogy study included an optical examination of polished mounts, photomicrographs, chemical analyses of feldspars, pyroxenes, metallic oxides and microcrystalline groundmasses and determination from the chemical analyses of the varieties of feldspars, pyroxenes and metallic oxides. From the primary mineralogy data, a firm understanding of the average Hanford basalt flow primary mineralogy emerged. The average primary feldspar was a laboradorite, the average pyroxene was an augite and the average metallic oxide was a solid solution of ilmenite and magnetite. Secondary mineralization consisted of vug filling and joint coating, chiefly with a nontronite-beidellite clay, several zeolites, quartz, calcite, and opal. Specific flow units also were examined to determine the possibility of using the mineralogy to trace flows between core wells. These included units of the Pomona, the Umatilla and a high chromium flow just below the Huntzinger. In the Umatilla, or high barium flow, the compositional variation of the feldspars was unique in range. The pyroxenes in the Pomona were relatively highly zoned and accumulated chromium. The high chromium flow contained chromium spinels that graded in chromium content into simple magnetites very low in chromium content. A study of the statistical relationships of flow unit chemical constituents showed that flow unit constituents could be roughly correlated between wells. The probable cause of the correlation was on-going physical-chemical changes in the source magma.

  4. Flow compensating pressure regulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baehr, E. F. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for regulating pressure of treatment fluid during ophthalmic procedures is described. Flow sensing and pressure regulating diaphragms are used to modulate a flow control valve. The pressure regulating diaphragm is connected to the flow control valve to urge the valve to an open position due to pressure being applied to the diaphragm by bias means such as a spring. The flow sensing diaphragm is mechanically connected to the flow control valve and urges it to an opened position because of the differential pressure on the diaphragm generated by a flow of incoming treatment fluid through an orifice in the diaphragm. A bypass connection with a variable restriction is connected in parallel relationship to the orifice to provide for adjusting the sensitivity of the flow sensing diaphragm. A multiple lever linkage system is utilized between the center of the second diaphragm and the flow control valve to multiply the force applied to the valve by the other diaphragm and reverse the direction of the force.

  5. Traffic Flow Estimates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Vincent G.

    1981-01-01

    Two examples are given of ways traffic engineers estimate traffic flow. The first, Floating Car Method, involves some basic ideas and the notion of relative velocity. The second, Maximum Traffic Flow, is viewed to involve simple applications of calculus. The material provides insight into specialized applications of mathematics. (MP)

  6. Growing with the Flows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durkin, Dorothy

    2010-01-01

    People live and work in an era of transformation and uncertainty; they know that things are changing, but they are not sure where they are headed. One of the key forces of change is the enormous flow of information that individuals and institutions consume and produce. Awareness of knowledge flow is essential, but so is the sense that neither…

  7. Microelectromechanical flow control apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat

    2009-06-02

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) flow control apparatus is disclosed which includes a fluid channel formed on a substrate from a first layer of a nonconducting material (e.g. silicon nitride). A first electrode is provided on the first layer of the nonconducting material outside the flow channel; and a second electrode is located on a second layer of the nonconducting material above the first layer. A voltage applied between the first and second electrodes deforms the fluid channel to increase its cross-sectional size and thereby increase a flow of a fluid through the channel. In certain embodiments of the present invention, the fluid flow can be decreased or stopped by applying a voltage between the first electrode and the substrate. A peristaltic pumping of the fluid through the channel is also possible when the voltage is applied in turn between a plurality of first electrodes and the substrate. A MEM flow control assembly can also be formed by providing one or more MEM flow control devices on a common substrate together with a submicron filter. The MEM flow control assembly can optionally include a plurality of pressure sensors for monitoring fluid pressure and determining flow rates through the assembly.

  8. Flow and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly

    1997-01-01

    Describes potential role of flow experiences in motivating students to learn. Discusses the characteristics of flow: goals are clear, feedback is immediate, skills match challenges, concentration is deep, problems are forgotten, control is possible, self-consciousness disappears, sense of time is altered, and experience becomes autotelic. Then…

  9. Field-Flow Fractionation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Karin D.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a technique for separating samples that range over 15 orders of magnitude in molecular weight. Discusses theory, apparatus, and sample preparation techniques. Lists several types of field-flow fractionation (FFF) and their uses: sedimentation FFF, thermal FFF, flow FFF, electrical FFF, and steric FFF. (ML)

  10. AUTO-EXPANSIVE FLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physics suggests that the interplay of momentum, continuity, and geometry in outward radial flow must produce density and concomitant pressure reductions. In other words, this flow is intrinsically auto-expansive. It has been proposed that this process is the key to understanding...

  11. Flow cytometry of sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Gledhill, B.L.

    1987-09-21

    This brief paper summarizes automated flow cytometric determination of sperm morphology and flow cytometry/sorting of sperm with application to sex preselection. In the latter context, mention is made of results of karyotypic determination of sex chromosome ratios in albumin-processed human sperm. 23 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. Modeling blood flow heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    King, R B; Raymond, G M; Bassingthwaighte, J B

    1996-01-01

    It has been known for some time that regional blood flows within an organ are not uniform. Useful measures of heterogeneity of regional blood flows are the standard deviation and coefficient of variation or relative dispersion of the probability density function (PDF) of regional flows obtained from the regional concentrations of tracers that are deposited in proportion to blood flow. When a mathematical model is used to analyze dilution curves after tracer solute administration, for many solutes it is important to account for flow heterogeneity and the wide range of transit times through multiple pathways in parallel. Failure to do so leads to bias in the estimates of volumes of distribution and membrane conductances. Since in practice the number of paths used should be relatively small, the analysis is sensitive to the choice of the individual elements used to approximate the distribution of flows or transit times. Presented here is a method for modeling heterogeneous flow through an organ using a scheme that covers both the high flow and long transit time extremes of the flow distribution. With this method, numerical experiments are performed to determine the errors made in estimating parameters when flow heterogeneity is ignored, in both the absence and presence of noise. The magnitude of the errors in the estimates depends upon the system parameters, the amount of flow heterogeneity present, and whether the shape of the input function is known. In some cases, some parameters may be estimated to within 10% when heterogeneity is ignored (homogeneous model), but errors of 15-20% may result, even when the level of heterogeneity is modest. In repeated trials in the presence of 5% noise, the mean of the estimates was always closer to the true value with the heterogeneous model than when heterogeneity was ignored, but the distributions of the estimates from the homogeneous and heterogeneous models overlapped for some parameters when outflow dilution curves were

  13. Red blood cell in simple shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Wei; Hew, Yayu; Chen, Yeng-Long

    2013-03-01

    The dynamics of red blood cells (RBC) in blood flow is critical for oxygen transport, and it also influences inflammation (white blood cells), thrombosis (platelets), and circulatory tumor migration. The physical properties of a RBC can be captured by modeling RBC as lipid membrane linked to a cytoskeletal spectrin network that encapsulates cytoplasm rich in hemoglobin, with bi-concave equilibrium shape. Depending on the shear force, RBC elasticity, membrane viscosity, and cytoplasm viscosity, RBC can undergo tumbling, tank-treading, or oscillatory motion. We investigate the dynamic state diagram of RBC in shear and pressure-driven flow using a combined immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method with a multi-scale RBC model that accurately captures the experimentally established RBC force-deformation relation. It is found that the tumbling (TU) to tank-treading (TT) transition occurs as shear rate increases for cytoplasm/outer fluid viscosity ratio smaller than 0.67. The TU frequency is found to be half of the TT frequency, in agreement with experiment observations. Larger viscosity ratios lead to the disappearance of stable TT phase and unstable complex dynamics, including the oscillation of the symmetry axis of the bi-concave shape perpendicular to the flow direction. The dependence on RBC bending rigidity, shear modulus, the order of membrane spectrin network and fluid field in the unstable region will also be discussed.

  14. Loaded magnetohydrodynamic flows in Kerr spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Globus, Noemie; Levinson, Amir

    2013-10-01

    The effect of mass and energy loading on the efficiency at which energy can be extracted magnetically from a Kerr black hole is explored, using a semianalytic, ideal magnetohydrodynamics model that incorporates plasma injection on magnetic field lines. We find a critical load below which the specific energy of the plasma inflowing into the black hole is negative, and above which it is positive, and identify two types of flows with distinct properties; at subcritical loads a magnetic outflow is launched from the ergosphere, owing to extraction of the black hole spin energy, as originally proposed by Blandford and Znajek. At supercritical loads the structure of the flow depends on the details of the injection process. In cases where the injected plasma is relativistically hot, a pressure-driven, double transmagnetosonic flow is launched from a stagnation point located outside the ergosphere, between the inner and outer light cylinders. Some fraction of the energy deposited in the magnetosphere is then absorbed by the black hole and the rest emerges at infinity in the form of a relativistic outflow. When the injected plasma is cold an outflow may not form at all. We discuss the implications of our results to gamma ray bursts and active galactic nuclei.

  15. Turbulent multiphase flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faeth, G. M.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements and predictions of the structure of several multiphase flows are considered. The properties of dense sprays near the exits of pressure-atomizing injectors and of noncombusting and combusting dilute dispersed flows in round-jet configurations are addressed. It is found that the properties of dense sprays exhibit structure and mixing properties similar to variable-density single-phase flows at high Reynolds numbers within the atomization regime. The degree of development and turbulence levels at the injector exit have a surprisingly large effect on the structure and mixing properties of pressure-atomized sprays, particularly when the phase densities are large. Contemporary stochastic analysis of dilute multiphase flows provides encouraging predictions of turbulent dispersion for a wide variety of jetlike flows, particle-laden jets in gases and liquids, noncondensing and condensing bubbly jets, and nonevaporating, evaporating, and combusting sprays.

  16. Flows with tip leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John

    The flow development within the tip gap and the flow tip leakage, applying Navier-Stokes codes, are discussed. The loss production, the turbine inefficiency and the heat transfer to the blade tip, are considered. The measurements and calculations used demonstrate features of the flow, such as separation and reattachment on the blade tip, shock formation in the tip gap, and formation and dissipation of tip gap secondary kinetic energy. A procedure for calculating turbine blade tip temperatures is included. The results for a centrifugal compressor show the interaction of the tip leakage and passage flows. The radial blackflow near the shroud wall at low off-design flow rates is considered. The calculations demonstrate the potential use of a computational fluid dynamics code for predicting a centrifugal compressor map.

  17. Flow measuring structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boiten, W.

    1993-11-01

    The use of flow measuring structures is one of the various methods for the continuous measurement of discharges in open channels. In this report a brief summary of these methods is presented to get some insight in the selection of the most appropriate method. Then the distinct functions of water control structures are described. The flow measuring structures are classified according to international rules. The fields of application are dealt with and the definitions of weir flow are given. Much attention is paid to the aspects of how to select the most suitable flow measuring structure. The accuracy in the evaluation of the discharge has been related to the different error sources. A review of international standards on flow measuring structures concludes the report.

  18. Base Flow Model Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, Neeraj; Brinckman, Kevin; Jansen, Bernard; Seiner, John

    2011-01-01

    A method was developed of obtaining propulsive base flow data in both hot and cold jet environments, at Mach numbers and altitude of relevance to NASA launcher designs. The base flow data was used to perform computational fluid dynamics (CFD) turbulence model assessments of base flow predictive capabilities in order to provide increased confidence in base thermal and pressure load predictions obtained from computational modeling efforts. Predictive CFD analyses were used in the design of the experiments, available propulsive models were used to reduce program costs and increase success, and a wind tunnel facility was used. The data obtained allowed assessment of CFD/turbulence models in a complex flow environment, working within a building-block procedure to validation, where cold, non-reacting test data was first used for validation, followed by more complex reacting base flow validation.

  19. Telescope enclosure flow visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Fred F.; Wong, Woon-Yin; Baldwin, Jack; Siegmund, Walter A.; Limmongkol, Siriluk; Comfort, Charles H.

    1991-12-01

    Dome-induced thermal disturbances that degrade seeing can originate when temperature differences exist between the interior and exterior of a telescope enclosure. It is important to design enclosures which minimize the effect. One design aid is to model the enclosure and study the flow patterns in and around the model at various angles to the flow direction. We have used a water tunnel and models of spherical, octagonal, and rectangular enclosures to investigate the flow characteristics as a function of angle and venting configuration. In addition to a large video data-base, numerical results yield flushing times for all models and all venting arrangements. We have also investigated the comparative merits of passive venting as opposed to active forced flow circulation for the 4m telescope enclosure at the NOAO Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory at La Serena, Chile. Finally, the flow characteristics of a tracking half-shroud were studied as a possible shield for the enclosureless case.

  20. Vortex flow hysteresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, A. M., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to quantify the hysteresis associated with various vortex flow transition points and to determine the effect of planform geometry. The transition points observed consisted of the appearance (or disappearance) of trailing edge vortex burst and the transition to (or from) flat plate or totally separated flows. Flow visualization with smoke injected into the vortices was used to identify the transitions on a series of semi-span models tested in a low speed tunnel. The planforms tested included simple deltas (55 deg to 80 deg sweep), cranked wings with varying tip panel sweep and dihedral, and a straked wing. High speed movies at 1000 frames per second were made of the vortex flow visualization in order to better understand the dynamics of vortex flow, burst and transition.

  1. Gas Flow Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, Thomas; Ihlefeld, Curtis; Slack, Barry

    2010-01-01

    This system provides a portable means to detect gas flow through a thin-walled tube without breaking into the tubing system. The flow detection system was specifically designed to detect flow through two parallel branches of a manifold with only one inlet and outlet, and is a means for verifying a space shuttle program requirement that saves time and reduces the risk of flight hardware damage compared to the current means of requirement verification. The prototype Purge Vent and Drain Window Cavity Conditioning System (PVD WCCS) Flow Detection System consists of a heater and a temperature-sensing thermistor attached to a piece of Velcro to be attached to each branch of a WCCS manifold for the duration of the requirement verification test. The heaters and thermistors are connected to a shielded cable and then to an electronics enclosure, which contains the power supplies, relays, and circuit board to provide power, signal conditioning, and control. The electronics enclosure is then connected to a commercial data acquisition box to provide analog to digital conversion as well as digital control. This data acquisition box is then connected to a commercial laptop running a custom application created using National Instruments LabVIEW. The operation of the PVD WCCS Flow Detection System consists of first attaching a heater/thermistor assembly to each of the two branches of one manifold while there is no flow through the manifold. Next, the software application running on the laptop is used to turn on the heaters and to monitor the manifold branch temperatures. When the system has reached thermal equilibrium, the software application s graphical user interface (GUI) will indicate that the branch temperatures are stable. The operator can then physically open the flow control valve to initiate the test flow of gaseous nitrogen (GN2) through the manifold. Next, the software user interface will be monitored for stable temperature indications when the system is again at

  2. Flow of two immiscible fluids in a periodically constricted tube: Transitions to stratified, segmented, churn, spray, or segregated flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraggedakis, D.; Kouris, Ch.; Dimakopoulos, Y.; Tsamopoulos, J.

    2015-08-01

    We study the flow of two immiscible, Newtonian fluids in a periodically constricted tube driven by a constant pressure gradient. Our volume-of-fluid algorithm is used to solve the governing equations. First, the code is validated by comparing its predictions to previously reported results for stratified and pulsing flow. Then, it is used to capture accurately all the significant topological changes that take place. Initially, the fluids have a core-annular arrangement, which is found to either remain the same or change to a different arrangement depending on the fluid properties, the pressure driving the flow, or the flow geometry. The flow-patterns that appear are the core-annular, segmented, churn, spray, and segregated flow. The predicted scalings near pinching of the core fluid concur with similarity predictions and earlier numerical results [I. Cohen et al., "Two fluid drop snap-off problem: Experiments and theory," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1147-1150 (1999)]. Flow-pattern maps are constructed in terms of the Reynolds and Weber numbers. Our result provides deeper insights into the mechanism of the pattern transitions and is in agreement with previous studies on core-annular flow [Ch. Kouris and J. Tsamopoulos, "Core-annular flow in a periodically constricted circular tube, I. Steady state, linear stability and energy analysis," J. Fluid Mech. 432, 31-68 (2001) and Ch. Kouris et al., "Comparison of spectral and finite element methods applied to the study of interfacial instabilities of the core-annular flow in an undulating tube," Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids 39(1), 41-73 (2002)], segmented flow [E. Lac and J. D. Sherwood, "Motion of a drop along the centreline of a capillary in a pressure-driven flow," J. Fluid Mech. 640, 27-54 (2009)], and churn flow [R. Y. Bai et al., "Lubricated pipelining—Stability of core annular-flow. 5. Experiments and comparison with theory," J. Fluid Mech. 240, 97-132 (1992)].

  3. Lava flows are fractals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruno, B. C.; Taylor, G. J.; Rowland, S. K.; Lucey, P. G.; Self, S.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented of a preliminary investigation of the fractal nature of the plan-view shapes of lava flows in Hawaii (based on field measurements and aerial photographs), as well as in Idaho and the Galapagos Islands (using aerial photographs only). The shapes of the lava flow margins are found to be fractals: lava flow shape is scale-invariant. This observation suggests that nonlinear forces are operating in them because nonlinear systems frequently produce fractals. A'a and pahoehoe flows can be distinguished by their fractal dimensions (D). The majority of the a'a flows measured have D between 1.05 and 1.09, whereas the pahoehoe flows generally have higher D (1.14-1.23). The analysis is extended to other planetary bodies by measuring flows from orbital images of Venus, Mars, and the moon. All are fractal and have D consistent with the range of terrestrial a'a and have D consistent with the range of terrestrial a'a and pahoehoe values.

  4. Rotating Bondi Accretion Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Myeong-Gu; Han, Du-Hwan

    2016-06-01

    The characteristics of accretion flow onto a black hole are determined by the physical condition of gas at large radius. When the gas has no angular momentum and is polytropic, the accretion flow becomes the classic Bondi flow. The mass accretion rate in such case is an eigenvalue and uniquely determined by the density and the temperature of the surrounding gas for a given black hole mass. When the gas has angular momentum above some critical value, the angular momentum of the gas should be removed by viscosity to reach the black hole horizon. We study, within the slim disk approximation, rotating polytropic accretion flow with alpha viscosity as an an extension of the Bondi flow. The characteristics of the accretion flow are now determined by the temperature, density, and angular momentum of the gas at the outer boundary. We explore the effects of the viscosity parameter and the outer boundary radius on the physical characteristic of the flow, especially on the mass accretion rate, and compare the result with previous works of Park (2009) and Narayan & Fabian (2011).

  5. Flow-duration curves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Searcy, James Kincheon

    1959-01-01

    The flow-duration curve is a cumulative frequency curve that shows the percent of time specified discharges were equaled or exceeded during a given period. It combines in one curve the flow characteristics of a stream throughout the range of discharge, without regard to the sequence of occurrence. If the period upon which the curve is based represents the long-term flow of a stream, the curve may be used to predict the distribution of future flows for water- power, water-supply, and pollution studies. This report shows that differences in geology affect the low-flow ends of flow-duration curves of streams in adjacent basins. Thus, duration curves are useful in appraising the geologic characteristics of drainage basins. A method for adjusting flow-duration curves of short periods to represent long-term conditions is presented. The adjustment is made by correlating the records of a short-term station with those of a long-term station.

  6. Numerical calculations of flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D.; Vogel, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    Numerical calculations were made of flow fields generated by various aerodynamic configurations. Data cover flow fields generated by a finitely thick lifting three dimensional wing with subsonic tips moving at supersonic speeds, cross flow instability associated with lifting delta wing configurations such as space shuttles, and flow fields produced by a lifting elliptic cone. Finite difference techniques were used to determine elliptic cone flow.

  7. Flow-induced vibration

    SciTech Connect

    Blevins, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    This book reports on dimensional analysis; ideal fluid models; vortex-induced vibration; galloping and flutter; instability of tube and cylinder arrays; vibrations induced by oscillating flow; vibration induced by turbulence and sound; damping of structures; sound induced by vortex shedding; vibrations of a pipe containing a fluid flow; indices. It covers the analysis of the vibrations of structures exposed to fluid flows; explores applications for offshore platforms and piping; wind-induced vibration of buildings, bridges, and towers; and acoustic and mechanical vibration of heat exchangers, power lines, and process ducting.

  8. Flow stress of copper

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, O.B.

    1987-10-01

    The reverse microflow associated with the Bauschinger effect in copper strained into stage II is characterized experimentally and analyzed in terms of the theory of obstacle-controlled flow and established composite theory. The results are discussed in the light of observations by electron microscopy, deformation calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. It is suggested that the overall flow resistance arises from an interplay of two modes of obstacle controlled glide, none of which dominate the flow stress. One mode occurs inside regions of high local dislocation density (inclusions) where individual forest dislocations oppose glide on the primary slip system. The second mode is bowing of dislocations between the inclusions.

  9. Geophysical fluid flow experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broome, B. G.; Fichtl, G.; Fowlis, W.

    1979-01-01

    The essential fluid flow processes associated with the solar and Jovian atmospheres will be examined in a laboratory experiment scheduled for performance on Spacelab Missions One and Three. The experimental instrumentation required to generate and to record convective fluid flow is described. Details of the optical system configuration, the lens design, and the optical coatings are described. Measurement of thermal gradient fields by schlieren techniques and measurement of fluid flow velocity fields by photochromic dye tracers is achieved with a common optical system which utilizes photographic film for data recording. Generation of the photochromic dye tracers is described, and data annotation of experimental parameters on the film record is discussed.

  10. Tank depletion flow controller

    DOEpatents

    Georgeson, Melvin A.

    1976-10-26

    A flow control system includes two bubbler tubes installed at different levels within a tank containing such as radioactive liquid. As the tank is depleted, a differential pressure transmitter monitors pressure differences imparted by the two bubbler tubes at a remote, shielded location during uniform time intervals. At the end of each uniform interval, balance pots containing a dense liquid are valved together to equalize the pressures. The resulting sawtooth-shaped signal generated by the differential pressure transmitter is compared with a second sawtooth signal representing the desired flow rate during each time interval. Variations in the two signals are employed by a control instrument to regulate flow rate.

  11. Bypass Flow Study

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Schultz

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the fluid dynamics experiments in the MIR (Matched Index of-Refraction) flow system at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is to develop benchmark databases for the assessment of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions of the momentum equations, scalar mixing, and turbulence models for the flow ratios between coolant channels and bypass gaps in the interstitial regions of typical prismatic standard fuel element (SFE) or upper reflector block geometries of typical Modular High-temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (MHTGR) in the limiting case of negligible buoyancy and constant fluid properties. The experiments use Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to measure the velocity fields that will populate the bypass flow study database.

  12. Aircraft Laminar Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslin, Ronald D.

    1998-01-01

    Aircraft laminar flow control (LFC) from the 1930's through the 1990's is reviewed and the current status of the technology is assessed. Examples are provided to demonstrate the benefits of LFC for subsonic and supersonic aircraft. Early studies related to the laminar boundary-layer flow physics, manufacturing tolerances for laminar flow, and insect-contamination avoidance are discussed. LFC concept studies in wind-tunnel and flight experiments are the major focus of the paper. LFC design tools are briefly outlined for completeness.

  13. Magnetic vortex filament flows

    SciTech Connect

    Barros, Manuel; Cabrerizo, Jose L.; Fernandez, Manuel; Romero, Alfonso

    2007-08-15

    We exhibit a variational approach to study the magnetic flow associated with a Killing magnetic field in dimension 3. In this context, the solutions of the Lorentz force equation are viewed as Kirchhoff elastic rods and conversely. This provides an amazing connection between two apparently unrelated physical models and, in particular, it ties the classical elastic theory with the Hall effect. Then, these magnetic flows can be regarded as vortex filament flows within the localized induction approximation. The Hasimoto transformation can be used to see the magnetic trajectories as solutions of the cubic nonlinear Schroedinger equation showing the solitonic nature of those.

  14. Shroud leakage flow discouragers

    DOEpatents

    Bailey, Jeremy Clyde; Bunker, Ronald Scott

    2002-01-01

    A turbine assembly includes a plurality of rotor blades comprising a root portion, an airfoil having a pressure sidewall and a suction sidewall, and a top portion having a cap. An outer shroud is concentrically disposed about said rotor blades, said shroud in combination with said tip portions defining a clearance gap. At least one circumferential shroud leakage discourager is disposed within the shroud. The leakage discourager(s) increase the flow resistance and thus reduce the flow of hot gas flow leakage for a given pressure differential across the clearance gap to improve overall turbine efficiency.

  15. Initiation of slug flow

    SciTech Connect

    Hanratty, T.J.; Woods, B.D.

    1995-12-31

    The initiation of slug flow in a horizontal pipe can be predicted either by considering the stability of a slug or by considering the stability of a stratified flow. Measurements of the shedding rate of slugs are used to define necessary conditions for the existence of a slug. Recent results show that slugs develop from an unstable stratified flow through the evolution of small wavelength waves into large wavelength waves that have the possibility of growing to form a slug. The mechanism appears to be quite different for fluids with viscosities close to water than for fluids with large viscosities (20 centipoise).

  16. Flow and evaporation in single micrometer and nanometer scale pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Velasco, A. E.; Yang, C.; Siwy, Z. S.; Taborek, P.; Toimil-Molares, M. E.

    2014-07-21

    We report measurements of pressure driven flow of fluids entering vacuum through a single pipe of micrometer or nanometer scale diameter. Nanopores were fabricated by etching a single ion track in polymer or mica foils. A calibrated mass spectrometer was used to measure the flow rates of nitrogen and helium through pipes with diameter ranging from 10 μm to 31 nm. The flow of gaseous and liquid nitrogen was studied near 77 K, while the flow of helium was studied from the lambda point (2.18 K) to above the critical point (5.2 K). Flow rates were controlled by changing the pressure drop across the pipe in the range 0–31 atm. When the pressure in the pipe reached the saturated vapor pressure, an abrupt flow transition was observed. A simple viscous flow model is used to determine the position of the liquid/vapor interface in the pipe. The observed mass flow rates are consistent with no slip boundary conditions.

  17. Pressure-driven fast reaction and recovery of peptide receptor for an electronic nose application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Yong Kyoung; Lee, Sang-Myung; Chae, Myung-Sic; Yoon Kang, Ji; Song Kim, Tae; Seon Hwang, Kyo; Hoon Lee, Jeong

    2014-02-01

    Combining a highly sensitive sensor platform with highly selective recognition elements is essential for micro/nanotechnology-based electronic nose applications. Particularly, the regeneration sensor surface and its conditions are key issues for practical e-nose applications. We propose a highly sensitive piezoelectric-driven microcantilever array chip with highly selective peptide receptors. By utilizing the peptide receptor, which was discovered by a phase display screening process, we immobilized a dinitrotoluene (DNT) specific peptide as well as a DNT nonspecific peptide on the surface of the cantilever array. The delivery of DNT gas via pressure-driven flow led to a greater instant response of ˜30 Hz, compared to diffusion only (˜15 Hz for 15 h). Using a simple pressure-driven air flow of ˜50 sccm, we confirmed that a ratio of ˜70% of the specific-bounded sites from DNT gas molecules could be regenerated, showing re-usability of the peptide receptor in on-site monitoring for electronic nose applications.

  18. Pressure-driven fast reaction and recovery of peptide receptor for an electronic nose application

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Yong Kyoung; Lee, Sang-Myung; Chae, Myung-Sic; Yoon Kang, Ji; Song Kim, Tae; Seon Hwang, Kyo E-mail: jhlee@kw.ac.kr; Hoon Lee, Jeong E-mail: jhlee@kw.ac.kr

    2014-02-24

    Combining a highly sensitive sensor platform with highly selective recognition elements is essential for micro/nanotechnology-based electronic nose applications. Particularly, the regeneration sensor surface and its conditions are key issues for practical e-nose applications. We propose a highly sensitive piezoelectric-driven microcantilever array chip with highly selective peptide receptors. By utilizing the peptide receptor, which was discovered by a phase display screening process, we immobilized a dinitrotoluene (DNT) specific peptide as well as a DNT nonspecific peptide on the surface of the cantilever array. The delivery of DNT gas via pressure-driven flow led to a greater instant response of ∼30 Hz, compared to diffusion only (∼15 Hz for 15 h). Using a simple pressure-driven air flow of ∼50 sccm, we confirmed that a ratio of ∼70% of the specific-bounded sites from DNT gas molecules could be regenerated, showing re-usability of the peptide receptor in on-site monitoring for electronic nose applications.

  19. Low pressure stagnation flow reactor with a flow barrier

    DOEpatents

    Vosen, Steven R.

    2001-01-01

    A flow barrier disposed at the periphery of a workpiece for achieving uniform reaction across the surface of the workpiece, such as a semiconductor wafer, in a stagnation flow reactor operating under the conditions of a low pressure or low flow rate. The flow barrier is preferably in the shape of annulus and can include within the annular structure passages or flow channels for directing a secondary flow of gas substantially at the surface of a semiconductor workpiece. The flow barrier can be constructed of any material which is chemically inert to reactive gases flowing over the surface of the semiconductor workpiece.

  20. Flow visualization in long neck Helmholtz resonators with grazing flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.; Rice, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    Both oscillating and steady flows were applied to a single plexiglass resonator cavity with colored dyes injected in both the orifice and grazing flow field to record the motion of the fluid. For oscillatory flow, the instantaneous dye streamlines were similar for both the short and long-neck orifices. The orifice flow blockage appears to be independent of orifice length for a fixed amplitude of flow oscillation and magnitude of the grazing flow. The steady flow dye studies showed that the acoustic and steady flow resistances do not necessarily correspond for long neck orifices.

  1. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    1984-08-07

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  2. Flow modifying device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelm, J. S.; Vickers, E. C.; Williams, J. J.; Taylor, J. R. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A swirler for a gas turbine engine combustor is disclosed for simultaneously controlling combustor flow rate, swirl angle, residence time and fuel-air ratio to provide three regimes of operation. A first regime is provided in which fuel-air ratio is less than stoichiometric, NOx is produced at one level, and combustor flow rate is high. In a second regime, fuel-air ratio is nearly stoichiometric, NOx production is less than that of the first regime, and combustor flow rate is low. In a third regime, used for example at highoff, fuel-air ratio is greater than stoichiometric and the combustor flow rate is less than in either of the other regimes.

  3. Digital work-flow

    PubMed Central

    MARSANGO, V.; BOLLERO, R.; D’OVIDIO, N.; MIRANDA, M.; BOLLERO, P.; BARLATTANI, A.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective. The project presents a clinical case in which the digital work-flow procedure was applied for a prosthetic rehabilitation in natural teeth and implants. Materials. Digital work-flow uses patient’s photo for the aesthetic’s planning, digital smile technology for the simulation of the final restoration and real time scanning to register the two arches. Than the scanning are sent to the laboratory that proceed with CAD-CAM production. Results. Digital work-flow offers the opportunities to easily speak with laboratory and patients, gives better clinical results and demonstrated to be a less invasiveness method for the patient. Conclusion. Intra-oral scanner, digital smile design, preview using digital wax-up, CAD-CAM production, are new predictable opportunities for prosthetic team. This work-flow, compared with traditional methods, is faster, more precise and predictable. PMID:25694797

  4. Cash Flow Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littman, George W., III

    1979-01-01

    Proper cash flow planning allows a school business administrator to determine the availability of cash for operating expenses, the need for bank loans to cover these expenses, and the availability of idle cash for investment. (Author)

  5. RG flows and instantons

    SciTech Connect

    Gava, Edi

    2012-09-24

    In these two lectures I discuss RG flow solutions in (1,0) six dimensional supergravity involving SU(2) Yang-Mills instantons. in the conformally flat part of the 6D metric. The solutions interpolate between two (4,0) supersymmetric AdS{sub 3} Multiplication-Sign S{sup 3} backgrounds with different values of AdS{sub 3} and S{sup 3} radii and describe RG flows in the dual 2D SCFT. The flows described are of v.e.v. type, driven by a vacuum expectation value of a (not exactly) marginal operator of dimension 2 in the UV. We give an interpretation of the supergravity solution in terms of the D1/D5 system in type I string theory on K3, whose effective field theory is expected to flow to a (4,0) SCFT in the infrared.

  6. Flow in data racks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoch, Lukáš; Matěcha, Jan; Novotný, Jan; Nožička, Jiří; Pohan, Petr

    2014-03-01

    This paper deals with the flow in data racks. The aim of this work is to find a new arrangement of elements regulating the flow in the data rack so that the aerodynamic losses and the recirculation zones were minimized. The main reason for solving this problem is to reduce the costs of data racks cooling. Another problem to be solved is a reverse flow in the servers, thus not cooled, occuring due to the underpressure in the recirculation zones. In order to solve the problem, the experimental and numerical model of 27U data rack fitted with 10 pieces of server models with a total input of 10 kW was created. Different configurations of layout of elements affecting the flow in the inlet area of the data rack were compared. Depending on the results achieved, design solutions for the improvement of existing solutions were adopted and verified by numerical simulations.

  7. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  8. Greenland Ice Flow

    NASA Video Gallery

    Greenland looks like a big pile of snow seen from space using a regular camera. But satellite radar interferometry helps us detect the motion of ice beneath the snow. Ice starts flowing from the fl...

  9. Complex Flow Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-05-01

    This report documents findings from a workshop on the impacts of complex wind flows in and out of wind turbine environments, the research needs, and the challenges of meteorological and engineering modeling at regional, wind plant, and wind turbine scales.

  10. Visualising patient flow.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Andrew; Boyle, Justin; Khanna, Sankalp

    2012-01-01

    We describe the development of a method to distil routinely collected clinical data into patient flow information to aid hospital bed management. Using data from state-wide emergency department and inpatient clinical information systems, a user-friendly interface was developed to visualise patient flow conditions for a particular hospital. The historical snapshots employ a variable time scale, allowing flow to be visualised across a day, week, month or year. Flow information includes occupancy, arrival and departure rates, length-of-stay and access block observations, which can be filtered by age, departure status, diagnosis, elective status, triage category, and admission unit. The tool may be helpful in supporting hospital bed managers in their daily decision making. PMID:22797023

  11. Flow characteristics and methods of flow calculation of high-speed compressible flow through pipe orifices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torizumi, Y.; Hirayama, N.; Maeda, T.

    1983-01-01

    Flow characteristics of a compressible gas flow through an orifice are investigated experimentally at pressure ratios below the regulation values of JIS and ASME. For practical mass flow measurements, a theoretical method of mass flow estimations is extended using one-dimensional flow theory and experimental data. Using the method, the accuracy of mass flow measurements with orifice meters is about + or 1% in the Reynolds number range of turbulent flows and also in supercritical flows. Tables of the product of flow coefficient and expansion factor are obtained by the method at various diameter ratios, pressure ratios, and specific heats.

  12. Optimal Flow Control Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allan, Brian; Owens, Lewis

    2010-01-01

    In support of the Blended-Wing-Body aircraft concept, a new flow control hybrid vane/jet design has been developed for use in a boundary-layer-ingesting (BLI) offset inlet in transonic flows. This inlet flow control is designed to minimize the engine fan-face distortion levels and the first five Fourier harmonic half amplitudes while maximizing the inlet pressure recovery. This concept represents a potentially enabling technology for quieter and more environmentally friendly transport aircraft. An optimum vane design was found by minimizing the engine fan-face distortion, DC60, and the first five Fourier harmonic half amplitudes, while maximizing the total pressure recovery. The optimal vane design was then used in a BLI inlet wind tunnel experiment at NASA Langley's 0.3-meter transonic cryogenic tunnel. The experimental results demonstrated an 80-percent decrease in DPCPavg, the reduction in the circumferential distortion levels, at an inlet mass flow rate corresponding to the middle of the operational range at the cruise condition. Even though the vanes were designed at a single inlet mass flow rate, they performed very well over the entire inlet mass flow range tested in the wind tunnel experiment with the addition of a small amount of jet flow control. While the circumferential distortion was decreased, the radial distortion on the outer rings at the aerodynamic interface plane (AIP) increased. This was a result of the large boundary layer being distributed from the bottom of the AIP in the baseline case to the outer edges of the AIP when using the vortex generator (VG) vane flow control. Experimental results, as already mentioned, showed an 80-percent reduction of DPCPavg, the circumferential distortion level at the engine fan-face. The hybrid approach leverages strengths of vane and jet flow control devices, increasing inlet performance over a broader operational range with significant reduction in mass flow requirements. Minimal distortion level requirements

  13. Entropy of stochastic flows

    SciTech Connect

    Dorogovtsev, Andrei A

    2010-06-29

    For sets in a Hilbert space the concept of quadratic entropy is introduced. It is shown that this entropy is finite for the range of a stochastic flow of Brownian particles on R. This implies, in particular, the fact that the total time of the free travel in the Arratia flow of all particles that started from a bounded interval is finite. Bibliography: 10 titles.

  14. Cryogenic Flow Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justak, John

    2010-01-01

    An acousto-optic cryogenic flow sensor (CFS) determines mass flow of cryogens for spacecraft propellant management. The CFS operates unobtrusively in a high-pressure, high-flowrate cryogenic environment to provide measurements for fluid quality as well as mass flow rate. Experimental hardware uses an optical plane-of-light (POL) to detect the onset of two-phase flow, and the presence of particles in the flow of water. Acousto-optic devices are used in laser equipment for electronic control of the intensity and position of the laser beam. Acousto-optic interaction occurs in all optical media when an acoustic wave and a laser beam are present. When an acoustic wave is launched into the optical medium, it generates a refractive index wave that behaves like a sinusoidal grating. An incident laser beam passing through this grating will diffract the laser beam into several orders. Its angular position is linearly proportional to the acoustic frequency, so that the higher the frequency, the larger the diffracted angle. If the acoustic wave is traveling in a moving fluid, the fluid velocity will affect the frequency of the traveling wave, relative to a stationary sensor. This frequency shift changes the angle of diffraction, hence, fluid velocity can be determined from the diffraction angle. The CFS acoustic Bragg grating data test indicates that it is capable of accurately determining flow from 0 to 10 meters per second. The same sensor can be used in flow velocities exceeding 100 m/s. The POL module has successfully determined the onset of two-phase flow, and can distinguish vapor bubbles from debris.

  15. Neurophysiology of pipe flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkley, Dwight

    2014-11-01

    This work explores the connection between the transition to turbulence in pipe flow and the dynamics of excitable media, as exemplified by nerve cells. The primary goal is to leverage years of extensive analysis of neural systems to understand the dynamics of transitional turbulence. To demonstrate the predictive nature of the approach, model simulations will be presented for puffs in pipe flow for cases not previously studied experimentally.

  16. Go With the Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Under SBIR (Small Business Innovative Research) contracts with Lewis Research Center, Nektonics, Inc., developed coating process simulation tools, known as Nekton. This powerful simulation software is used specifically for the modeling and analysis of a wide range of coating flows including thin film coating analysis, polymer processing, and glass melt flows. Polaroid, Xerox, 3M, Dow Corning, Mead Paper, BASF, Mitsubishi, Chugai, and Dupont Imaging Systems are only a few of the companies that presently use Nekton.

  17. Ozone flow visualization techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickerson, R. R.; Stedman, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    Flow visualization techniques using ozone for tracing gas flows are proposed whereby ozone is detected through its strong absorption of ultraviolet light, which is easily made visible with fluorescent materials, or through its reaction with nitric oxide to form excited nitrogen dioxide, which in relaxing emits detectable light. It is shown that response speeds in the kHz range are possible with an ultraviolet detection system for initial ozone concentrations of about 1%.

  18. Ultrasonic colour flow imaging.

    PubMed

    Wells, P N

    1994-12-01

    Real-time ultrasonic colour flow imaging, which was first demonstrated to be feasible only about a decade ago, has come into widespread clinical use. Ultrasound is scattered by ensembles of red blood cells. The ultrasonic frequency that gives the best signal-to-noise ratio for backscattering from blood depends on the required penetration. The frequency of ultrasound backscattered from flowing blood is shifted by the Doppler effect. The direction of flow can be determined by phase quadrature detection, and range selectivity can be provided by pulse-echo time-delay measurements. The Doppler frequency spectrum can be determined by Fourier analysis. Early two- and three-dimensional flow-imaging systems used slow manual scanning; velocity colour coding was introduced. Real-time colour flow imaging first became feasible when autocorrelation detection was used to extract the Doppler signal. Time-domain processing, which is a broad-band technique, was also soon shown to be practicable, for analysing both radio-frequency pulse-echo wavetrains and two-dimensional image speckle. Frequency- and time-domain processing both require effective cancellation of stationary echoes. The time-domain approach seems to have advantages in relation to both aliasing and the effects of attenuation in overlying tissues. Colour-coding schemes that can be interpreted without the need to refer to keys have been adopted, for both velocity and flow disturbance. Colour coding according to signal power has also been reintroduced. Three-dimensional display has been demonstrated. In interpreting colour flow images, it is important to understand the functions of critical system controls and the origins of artifacts. Various strategies can be adopted to increase the image frame rate. The problems of performance measurement and safety need to be kept under review. There are numerous opportunities for further development of ultrasonic colour flow imaging, including improvements in system design, methods of

  19. High Speed Vortex Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Wilcox, Floyd J., Jr.; Bauer, Steven X. S.; Allen, Jerry M.

    2000-01-01

    A review of the research conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Langley Research Center (LaRC) into high-speed vortex flows during the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s is presented. The data reviewed is for flat plates, cavities, bodies, missiles, wings, and aircraft. These data are presented and discussed relative to the design of future vehicles. Also presented is a brief historical review of the extensive body of high-speed vortex flow research from the 1940s to the present in order to provide perspective of the NASA LaRC's high-speed research results. Data are presented which show the types of vortex structures which occur at supersonic speeds and the impact of these flow structures to vehicle performance and control is discussed. The data presented shows the presence of both small- and large scale vortex structures for a variety of vehicles, from missiles to transports. For cavities, the data show very complex multiple vortex structures exist at all combinations of cavity depth to length ratios and Mach number. The data for missiles show the existence of very strong interference effects between body and/or fin vortices and the downstream fins. It was shown that these vortex flow interference effects could be both positive and negative. Data are shown which highlights the effect that leading-edge sweep, leading-edge bluntness, wing thickness, location of maximum thickness, and camber has on the aerodynamics of and flow over delta wings. The observed flow fields for delta wings (i.e. separation bubble, classical vortex, vortex with shock, etc.) are discussed in the context of' aircraft design. And data have been shown that indicate that aerodynamic performance improvements are available by considering vortex flows as a primary design feature. Finally a discussing of a design approach for wings which utilize vortex flows for improved aerodynamic performance at supersonic speed is presented.

  20. Holographic subsonic flow visualization.

    PubMed

    Reinheimer, C J; Wiswall, C E; Schmiege, R A; Harris, R J; Dueker, J E

    1970-09-01

    A pulsed ruby laser holographic interferometer was used to detect density gradients in the airflow around an airfoil at subsonic speeds in a low speed wind tunnel. These experiments proved that vibration of the optical components or object between exposures of the interferometric hologram does not destroy the detection of density gradients but actually can aid in the flow visualization. The density gradients determined from the fringe pattern analysis are consistent with the anticipated flow pattern. PMID:20094197

  1. Electrochemical flow capacitors

    DOEpatents

    Gogotsi, Yury; Presser, Volker; Kumbur, Emin Caglan

    2015-10-27

    The present invention generally relates to devices for energy storage technologies, and more particularly to electrochemical flow capacitor systems and applications. In some aspects, these flow capacitors have at least one electrode comprising a non-stationary solid or semi-solid composition comprising supercapacitive particles and an electrolytic solvent in electrical communication with at least one current collector, and energy is stored and/or released by charging and/or discharging the electrode(s).

  2. Magnetically stimulated fluid flow patterns

    ScienceCinema

    Martin, Jim; Solis, Kyle

    2014-08-06

    Sandia National Laboratories' Jim Martin and Kyle Solis explain research on the effects of magnetic fields on fluid flows and how they stimulate vigorous flows. Fluid flow is a necessary phenomenon in everything from reactors to cooling engines in cars.

  3. Magnetically stimulated fluid flow patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Jim; Solis, Kyle

    2014-03-06

    Sandia National Laboratories' Jim Martin and Kyle Solis explain research on the effects of magnetic fields on fluid flows and how they stimulate vigorous flows. Fluid flow is a necessary phenomenon in everything from reactors to cooling engines in cars.

  4. Conjugate flow action functionals

    SciTech Connect

    Venturi, Daniele

    2013-11-15

    We present a new general framework to construct an action functional for a non-potential field theory. The key idea relies on representing the governing equations relative to a diffeomorphic flow of curvilinear coordinates which is assumed to be functionally dependent on the solution field. Such flow, which will be called the conjugate flow, evolves in space and time similarly to a physical fluid flow of classical mechanics and it can be selected in order to symmetrize the Gâteaux derivative of the field equations with respect to suitable local bilinear forms. This is equivalent to requiring that the governing equations of the field theory can be derived from a principle of stationary action on a Lie group manifold. By using a general operator framework, we obtain the determining equations of such manifold and the corresponding conjugate flow action functional. In particular, we study scalar and vector field theories governed by second-order nonlinear partial differential equations. The identification of transformation groups leaving the conjugate flow action functional invariant could lead to the discovery of new conservation laws in fluid dynamics and other disciplines.

  5. Conjugate flow action functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venturi, Daniele

    2013-11-01

    We present a new general framework to construct an action functional for a non-potential field theory. The key idea relies on representing the governing equations relative to a diffeomorphic flow of curvilinear coordinates which is assumed to be functionally dependent on the solution field. Such flow, which will be called the conjugate flow, evolves in space and time similarly to a physical fluid flow of classical mechanics and it can be selected in order to symmetrize the Gâteaux derivative of the field equations with respect to suitable local bilinear forms. This is equivalent to requiring that the governing equations of the field theory can be derived from a principle of stationary action on a Lie group manifold. By using a general operator framework, we obtain the determining equations of such manifold and the corresponding conjugate flow action functional. In particular, we study scalar and vector field theories governed by second-order nonlinear partial differential equations. The identification of transformation groups leaving the conjugate flow action functional invariant could lead to the discovery of new conservation laws in fluid dynamics and other disciplines.

  6. Sperm Motility in Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guasto, Jeffrey; Juarez, Gabriel; Stocker, Roman

    2012-11-01

    A wide variety of plants and animals reproduce sexually by releasing motile sperm that seek out a conspecific egg, for example in the reproductive tract for mammals or in the water column for externally fertilizing organisms. Sperm are aided in their quest by chemical cues, but must also contend with hydrodynamic forces, resulting from laminar flows in reproductive tracts or turbulence in aquatic habitats. To understand how velocity gradients affect motility, we subjected swimming sperm to a range of highly-controlled straining flows using a cross-flow microfluidic device. The motion of the cell body and flagellum were captured through high-speed video microscopy. The effects of flow on swimming are twofold. For moderate velocity gradients, flow simply advects and reorients cells, quenching their ability to cross streamlines. For high velocity gradients, fluid stresses hinder the internal bending of the flagellum, directly inhibiting motility. The transition between the two regimes is governed by the Sperm number, which compares the external viscous stresses with the internal elastic stresses. Ultimately, unraveling the role of flow in sperm motility will lead to a better understanding of population dynamics among aquatic organisms and infertility problems in humans.

  7. Flow between eccentric cylinders: a shear-extensional controllable flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Guoqiang; Wang, Mengmeng; Wang, Xiaolin; Jin, Gang

    2016-05-01

    In this work the non-Newtonian fluid between eccentric cylinders is simulated with finite element method. The flow in the annular gap between the eccentric rotating cylinders was found to be a shear-extensional controllable flow. The influence of rotating speed, eccentricity as well as the radius ratio on the extensional flow in the vicinity of the minimum gap between the inner and outer cylinder was quantitatively investigated. It was found that both the strengths of shear flow and extensional flow could be adjusted by changing the rotating speed. In respect to extensional flow, it was also observed that the eccentricity and radius ratio exert significant influences on the ratio of extensional flow. And it should be noted that the ratio of extensional flow in the mix flow could be increased when increasing the eccentricity and the ratio of shear flow in the mix flow could be increased when increasing the radius ratio.

  8. Which Way Is the Flow?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David

    1999-01-01

    The line integral convolution (LIC) technique has been known to be an effective tool for depicting flow patterns in a given vector field. There have been many extensions to make it run faster and reveal useful flow information such as velocity magnitude, motion, and direction. There are also extensions to unsteady flows and 3D vector fields. Surprisingly, none of these extensions automatically highlight flow features, which often represent the most important and interesting physical flow phenomena. In this sketch, a method for highlighting flow direction in LIC images is presented. The method gives an intuitive impression of flow direction in the given vector field and automatically reveals saddle points in the flow.

  9. Planetary heat flow measurements.

    PubMed

    Hagermann, Axel

    2005-12-15

    The year 2005 marks the 35th anniversary of the Apollo 13 mission, probably the most successful failure in the history of manned spaceflight. Naturally, Apollo 13's scientific payload is far less known than the spectacular accident and subsequent rescue of its crew. Among other instruments, it carried the first instrument designed to measure the flux of heat on a planetary body other than Earth. The year 2005 also should have marked the launch of the Japanese LUNAR-A mission, and ESA's Rosetta mission is slowly approaching comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Both missions carry penetrators to study the heat flow from their target bodies. What is so interesting about planetary heat flow? What can we learn from it and how do we measure it?Not only the Sun, but all planets in the Solar System are essentially heat engines. Various heat sources or heat reservoirs drive intrinsic and surface processes, causing 'dead balls of rock, ice or gas' to evolve dynamically over time, driving convection that powers tectonic processes and spawns magnetic fields. The heat flow constrains models of the thermal evolution of a planet and also its composition because it provides an upper limit for the bulk abundance of radioactive elements. On Earth, the global variation of heat flow also reflects the tectonic activity: heat flow increases towards the young ocean ridges, whereas it is rather low on the old continental shields. It is not surprising that surface heat flow measurements, or even estimates, where performed, contributed greatly to our understanding of what happens inside the planets. In this article, I will review the results and the methods used in past heat flow measurements and speculate on the targets and design of future experiments. PMID:16286290

  10. Physics of Zonal Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Kimitaka

    2005-10-01

    This talk describes an overview of zonal flow physics, covering the theory, simulation and experiment. The zonal flows are excited nonlinearly by drift wave fluctuations, and suppress the turbulence and transport, so as to realize a self-regulating state for turbulence and mesoscale structure. This recognition is the central of recent paradigm shift in plasma physics, i.e., the preceding linear, local and deterministic pictures of instability and transport have been taken over by the new nonlinear, nonlocal (in real and wavenumber spaces) and statistical pictures of them. The zonal flow phenomenon, i.e., the global axial vector fields are generated by the release of global free energy in scalar fields through exciting turbulence, is a typical example of the fundamental issues in modern physics. In this review, the progresses made by theory and simulations, such as the linear damping rate, nonlinear mechanisms for growth and saturation, law of energy partition between turbulence and flow, life time of zonal flow, and so on, are explained. The transport by drift wave fluctuations, which are dressed by zonal flows, is discussed. Then experimental observations and verifications, which have been piled up rapidly in basic plasma experiments and confinement research, are explained, highlighting the integration with theory and simulation. Generalization to include magnetic field (zonal field) is addressed, in the light of the study of dynamo. Zonal flows in both laboratory and planetary-solar circumstances are discussed as well. This presentation illustrates the fast evolution of the physics of turbulence and structure formation of plasmas in the nature and laboratory. In collaboration with S.-I. Itoh, P. H. Diamond, T. S. Hahm, A. Fujisawa, G. R. Tynan and M. Yagi.

  11. Hybrid continuum-molecular modelling of multiscale internal gas flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patronis, Alexander; Lockerby, Duncan A.; Borg, Matthew K.; Reese, Jason M.

    2013-12-01

    We develop and apply an efficient multiscale method for simulating a large class of low-speed internal rarefied gas flows. The method is an extension of the hybrid atomistic-continuum approach proposed by Borg et al. (2013) [28] for the simulation of micro/nano flows of high-aspect ratio. The major new extensions are: (1) incorporation of fluid compressibility; (2) implementation using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method for dilute rarefied gas flows, and (3) application to a broader range of geometries, including periodic, non-periodic, pressure-driven, gravity-driven and shear-driven internal flows. The multiscale method is applied to micro-scale gas flows through a periodic converging-diverging channel (driven by an external acceleration) and a non-periodic channel with a bend (driven by a pressure difference), as well as the flow between two eccentric cylinders (with the inner rotating relative to the outer). In all these cases there exists a wide variation of Knudsen number within the geometries, as well as substantial compressibility despite the Mach number being very low. For validation purposes, our multiscale simulation results are compared to those obtained from full-scale DSMC simulations: very close agreement is obtained in all cases for all flow variables considered. Our multiscale simulation is an order of magnitude more computationally efficient than the full-scale DSMC for the first and second test cases, and two orders of magnitude more efficient for the third case.

  12. Hybrid continuum–molecular modelling of multiscale internal gas flows

    SciTech Connect

    Patronis, Alexander; Lockerby, Duncan A.; Borg, Matthew K.; Reese, Jason M.

    2013-12-15

    We develop and apply an efficient multiscale method for simulating a large class of low-speed internal rarefied gas flows. The method is an extension of the hybrid atomistic–continuum approach proposed by Borg et al. (2013) [28] for the simulation of micro/nano flows of high-aspect ratio. The major new extensions are: (1) incorporation of fluid compressibility; (2) implementation using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method for dilute rarefied gas flows, and (3) application to a broader range of geometries, including periodic, non-periodic, pressure-driven, gravity-driven and shear-driven internal flows. The multiscale method is applied to micro-scale gas flows through a periodic converging–diverging channel (driven by an external acceleration) and a non-periodic channel with a bend (driven by a pressure difference), as well as the flow between two eccentric cylinders (with the inner rotating relative to the outer). In all these cases there exists a wide variation of Knudsen number within the geometries, as well as substantial compressibility despite the Mach number being very low. For validation purposes, our multiscale simulation results are compared to those obtained from full-scale DSMC simulations: very close agreement is obtained in all cases for all flow variables considered. Our multiscale simulation is an order of magnitude more computationally efficient than the full-scale DSMC for the first and second test cases, and two orders of magnitude more efficient for the third case.

  13. Flow: Statistics, visualization and informatics for flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Frelinger, Jacob; Kepler, Thomas B; Chan, Cliburn

    2008-01-01

    Flow is an open source software application for clinical and experimental researchers to perform exploratory data analysis, clustering and annotation of flow cytometric data. Flow is an extensible system that offers the ease of use commonly found in commercial flow cytometry software packages and the statistical power of academic packages like the R BioConductor project. PMID:18559108

  14. Chemical reacting flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mularz, Edward J.; Sockol, Peter M.

    1987-01-01

    Future aerospace propulsion concepts involve the combination of liquid or gaseous fuels in a highly turbulent internal air stream. Accurate predictive computer codes which can simulate the fluid mechanics, chemistry, and turbulence combustion interaction of these chemical reacting flows will be a new tool that is needed in the design of these future propulsion concepts. Experimental and code development research is being performed at Lewis to better understand chemical reacting flows with the long term goal of establishing these reliable computer codes. The approach to understanding chemical reacting flows is to look at separate simple parts of this complex phenomena as well as to study the full turbulent reacting flow process. As a result research on the fluid mechanics associated with chemical reacting flows was initiated. The chemistry of fuel-air combustion is also being studied. Finally, the phenomena of turbulence-combustion interaction is being investigated. This presentation will highlight research, both experimental and analytical, in each of these three major areas.

  15. Chemical reacting flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mularz, Edward J.; Sockol, Peter M.

    1990-01-01

    Future aerospace propulsion concepts involve the combustion of liquid or gaseous fuels in a highly turbulent internal airstream. Accurate predictive computer codes which can simulate the fluid mechanics, chemistry, and turbulence-combustion interaction of these chemical reacting flows will be a new tool that is needed in the design of these future propulsion concepts. Experimental and code development research is being performed at LeRC to better understand chemical reacting flows with the long-term goal of establishing these reliable computer codes. Our approach to understand chemical reacting flows is to look at separate, more simple parts of this complex phenomenon as well as to study the full turbulent reacting flow process. As a result, we are engaged in research on the fluid mechanics associated with chemical reacting flows. We are also studying the chemistry of fuel-air combustion. Finally, we are investigating the phenomenon of turbulence-combustion interaction. Research, both experimental and analytical, is highlighted in each of these three major areas.

  16. Micromodel foam flow study

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, K.T.; Radke, C.J.

    1990-10-01

    Foams are often utilized as part of enhanced oil recovery techniques. This report presents the results of a micromodel foam flow study. Micromodels are valuable tools in uncovering capillary phenomena responsible for lamellae generation and coalescence during foam flow in porous media. Among the mechanisms observed are snap-off, weeping-flow breakup, and lamella division and leave behind. Coalescence mechanisms include dynamic capillary-pressure-induced lamella drainage and gas diffusion. These phenomena are sensitive to the mode of injection, the local capillary environment, and the geometry of the pore structure. An important consideration in presenting a tractable model of foam flow behavior is the ability to identify the pore-level mechanisms having the greatest impact on foam texture. The predominant mechanisms will vary depending upon the application for foam as an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) fluid. Both simultaneous gas and surfactant injection and surfactant alternating with gas injection (SAG) have been used to create foam for mobility control in EOR projects. The model developed is based on simultaneous gas and surfactant injection during steady-state conditions into a Berea sandstone core. The lamellae generation and coalescence mechanisms included in this model are snap-off, lamella division, and dynamic capillary-pressure-induced lamella drainage. This simplified steady-state model serves as a foundation for developing more complete rate expressions and for extending the population balance to handle transient foam flow behavior. 70 refs., 30 figs.

  17. Flocking in Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouellette, Nicholas; Khurana, Nidhi

    2013-03-01

    Models of active, self-propelled particles with simple interaction rules have long been shown to produce large-scale emergent behavior reminiscent of collective animal motion seen in nature. Such model flocks can be shown to be robust against random noise terms added to the equations. But real animals, such as birds, fish, or insects, live in fluid environments, where the background flow field is nonzero and is often turbulent. In this case, the fluctuations experienced by the individuals in the aggregation are not random, but rather are correlated in space and time. We explore the impact of such spatiotemporally correlated perturbations on flocking by numerically simulating the behavior of a simple flocking model in a turbulent-like flow field produced by a kinematic simulation. The introduction of flow strongly changes the flock formation dynamics. Additionally, we find that under some conditions the background flow tends to break stable flocks into smaller units. We study these clusters, and discuss their relation to the underlying flow field.

  18. National Flow Cytometry Resource

    SciTech Connect

    Bell-Prince, C.; Dickson, J.A.; Jett, J.H.; Stevenson, A.P.; Sklar, L.A. )

    1993-01-01

    thee National Flow Cytometry and Sorting Resource (NFCR) was established in 1982 to develop advanced flow cytometric instrumentation and methodology, to provide facilities for using the fruits of the NFCR developments in collaborative projects and to disseminate the results to the cytometry community at large. Achievements of the NFCR for 1992 include: (1) preliminary studies of DNA inactivation in preparation for the development of an optical chromosome sorter; (2) modeling of real-time cytometry data using th ISML software package on a Cray supercomputer; (3) execution of proof-of-principle experiments on a phase sensitive flow cytometer in which cellular fluorescence lifetimes were determined; (4) continued development of the DiDAC data acquisition system to include bit mapped sorting and multi-laser capabilities; (5) development of new display modalities for flow cytometric data using the high level graphics language IDL; (6) development and testing of new approaches to clustering of multivariate data; (7) novel applications of Fourier transform flow cytometry to questions of cell activation and molecular structure.

  19. Arsia Mons Surface Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Today's VIS image of lava flows south of Arsia Mons shows a broad, rough surfaced flow (brighter in image). The brighter flow splits at the bottom and then rejoins again, leaving a window of older flow visible. Note how the flows overlap at the bottom of the image.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -22.6, Longitude 239.7 East (120.3 West). 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  20. Two-phase flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacina, Robert R.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental program to characterize the spray from candidate nozzles for icing-cloud simulation is discussed. One canidate nozzle, which is currently used for icing research, has been characterized for flow and drop size. The median-volume diameter (MVD) from this air-assist nozzle is compared with correlations in the literature. The new experimental spray facility is discussed, and the drop-size instruments are discussed in detail. Since there is no absolute standard for drop-size measurements and there are other limitations, such as drop -size range and velocity range, several instruments are used and results are compared. A two-phase model was developed at Pennsylvania State University. The model uses the k-epsilon model of turbulence in the continous phase. Three methods for treating the discrete phase are used: (1) a locally homogeneous flow (LHF) model, (2) a deterministic separated flow (DSF) model, and (3) a stochastic separated flow (SSF) model. In the LHF model both phases have the same velocity and temperature at each point. The DSF model provides interphase transport but ignores the effects of turbulent fluctuations. In the SSF model the drops interact with turbulent eddies whose properties are determined by the k-epsilon turbulence model. The two-phase flow model has been extended to include the effects of evaporation and combustion.

  1. Marte Vallis Platy Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-442, 4 August 2003

    The Marte Vallis system, located east of Cerberus and west of Amazonis Planitia, is known for its array of broken, platy flow features. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a close-up view of some of these plates; they appear to be like puzzle pieces that have been broken apart and moved away from each other. The Mars science community has been discussing these features for the past several years--either the flows in Marte Vallis are lava flows, or mud flows. In either case, the material was very fluid and had a thin crust on its surface. As the material continued to flow through the valley system, the crust broke up into smaller plates that were then rafted some distance down the valley. This picture is located near 6.9oN, 182.8oW. It is illuminated by sunlight from the left.

  2. Piezoelectric axial flow microvalve

    DOEpatents

    Gemmen, Randall; Thornton, Jimmy; Vipperman, Jeffrey S.; Clark, William W.

    2007-01-09

    This invention is directed to a fuel cell operable with a quantity of fuel and a quantity of an oxidizer to produce electrical power, the fuel cell including a fuel cell body including a labyrinth system structured to permit the fuel and the oxidizer to flow therethrough; at least a first catalyst in fluid communication with the labyrinth; and at least a first microvalve operably disposed within at least a portion of the labyrinth. The microvalve utilizes a deflectable member operable upon the application of a voltage from a voltage source. The microvalve includes an elongated flow channel formed therein and extending substantially longitudinally between the first and second ends to permit substantially longitudinal flow of the fluid therethrough and between the first and second ends; and the deflectable member disposed on the valve body, the deflectable member including at least a first piezoelectric portion that is piezoelectrically operable to deflect the deflectable member between an open position and a closed position upon the application of a voltage, the deflectable member in the closed position being operable to resist the flow of the fluid through the flow channel.

  3. Gas flow through rough microchannels in the transition flow regime.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zilong; Chen, Yongping; Shao, Chenxi

    2016-01-01

    A multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model of Couette flow is developed to investigate the rarified gas flow through microchannels with roughness characterized by fractal geometry, especially to elucidate the coupled effects of roughness and rarefaction on microscale gas flow in the transition flow regime. The results indicate that the surface roughness effect on gas flow behavior becomes more significant in rarefied gas flow with the increase of Knudsen number. We find the gas flow behavior in the transition flow regime is more sensitive to roughness height than that in the slip flow regime. In particular, the influence of fractal dimension on rarefied gas flow behavior is less significant than roughness height. PMID:26871175

  4. Steady Capillary Driven Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weislogel, Mark M.

    1996-01-01

    A steady capillary driven flow is developed for a liquid index in a circular tube which is partially coated with a surface modifier to produce a discontinuous wetting condition from one side of the tube to the other. The bulk flow is novel in that it is truly steady, and controlled solely by the physics associated with dynamic wetting. The influence of gravity on the flow is minimized through the use of small diameter tubes approximately O(1 mm) tested horizontally in a laboratory and larger tubes approximately O(10 mm) tested in the low gravity environment of a drop tower. Average steady velocities are predicted and compared against a large experimental data set which includes the effects of tube dimensions and fluid properties. The sensitivity of the velocity to surface cleanliness is dramatic and the advantages of experimentation in a microgravity environment are discussed.

  5. Workshop on hypersonic flow

    SciTech Connect

    Povinelli, L.A.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of research activity on the application of computational fluid dynamics (CDF) for hypersonic propulsion systems. After the initial consideration of the highly integrated nature of air-breathing hypersonic engines and airframe, attention is directed toward computations carried out for the components of the engine. A generic inlet configuration is considered in order to demonstrate the highly three dimensional viscous flow behavior occurring within rectangular inlets. Reacting flow computations for simple jet injection as well as for more complex combustion chambers are then discussed in order to show the capability of viscous finite rate chemical reaction computer simulations. Finally, the nozzle flow fields are demonstrated, showing the existence of complex shear layers and shock structure in the exhaust plume. The general issues associated with code validation as well as the specific issue associated with the use of CFD for design are discussed. A prognosis for the success of CFD in the design of future propulsion systems is offered.

  6. Mechanics of blood flow.

    PubMed

    Skalak, R; Keller, S R; Secomb, T W

    1981-05-01

    The historical development of the mechanics of blood flow can be traced from ancient times, to Leonardo da Vinci and Leonhard Euler and up to the present times with increasing biological knowledge and mathematical analysis. In the last two decades, quantitative and numerical methods have steadily given more complete and precise understanding. In the arterial system wave propagation computations based on nonlinear one-dimensional modeling have given the best representation of pulse wave propagation. In the veins, the theory of unsteady flow in collapsible tubes has recently been extensively developed. In the last decade, progress has been made in describing the blood flow at junctions, through stenoses, in bends and in capillary blood vessels. The rheological behavior of individual red blood cells has been explored. A working model consists of an elastic membrane filled with viscous fluid. This model forms a basis for understanding the viscous and viscoelastic behavior of blood. PMID:7024641

  7. Microfluidic binary phase flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelescu, Dan; Menetrier, Laure; Wong, Joyce; Tabeling, Patrick; Salamitou, Philippe

    2004-03-01

    We present a novel binary phase flow regime where the two phases differ substantially in both their wetting and viscous properties. Optical tracking particles are used in order to investigate the details of such multiphase flow inside capillary channels. We also describe microfluidic filters we have developed, capable of separating the two phases based on capillary pressure. The performance of the filters in separating oil-water emulsions is discussed. Binary phase flow has been previously used in microchannels in applications such as emulsion generation, enhancement of mixing and assembly of custom colloidal paticles. Such microfluidic systems are increasingly used in a number of applications spanning a diverse range of industries, such as biotech, pharmaceuticals and more recently the oil industry.

  8. Alkaline quinone flow battery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kaixiang; Chen, Qing; Gerhardt, Michael R; Tong, Liuchuan; Kim, Sang Bok; Eisenach, Louise; Valle, Alvaro W; Hardee, David; Gordon, Roy G; Aziz, Michael J; Marshak, Michael P

    2015-09-25

    Storage of photovoltaic and wind electricity in batteries could solve the mismatch problem between the intermittent supply of these renewable resources and variable demand. Flow batteries permit more economical long-duration discharge than solid-electrode batteries by using liquid electrolytes stored outside of the battery. We report an alkaline flow battery based on redox-active organic molecules that are composed entirely of Earth-abundant elements and are nontoxic, nonflammable, and safe for use in residential and commercial environments. The battery operates efficiently with high power density near room temperature. These results demonstrate the stability and performance of redox-active organic molecules in alkaline flow batteries, potentially enabling cost-effective stationary storage of renewable energy. PMID:26404834

  9. Paraelectric gas flow accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, Daniel M. (Inventor); Wilkinson, Stephen P. (Inventor); Roth, J. Reece (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A substrate is configured with first and second sets of electrodes, where the second set of electrodes is positioned asymmetrically between the first set of electrodes. When a RF voltage is applied to the electrodes sufficient to generate a discharge plasma (e.g., a one-atmosphere uniform glow discharge plasma) in the gas adjacent to the substrate, the asymmetry in the electrode configuration results in force being applied to the active species in the plasma and in turn to the neutral background gas. Depending on the relative orientation of the electrodes to the gas, the present invention can be used to accelerate or decelerate the gas. The present invention has many potential applications, including increasing or decreasing aerodynamic drag or turbulence, and controlling the flow of active and/or neutral species for such uses as flow separation, altering heat flow, plasma cleaning, sterilization, deposition, etching, or alteration in wettability, printability, and/or adhesion.

  10. Microwave fluid flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Billeter, Thomas R.; Philipp, Lee D.; Schemmel, Richard R.

    1976-01-01

    A microwave fluid flow meter is described utilizing two spaced microwave sensors positioned along a fluid flow path. Each sensor includes a microwave cavity having a frequency of resonance dependent upon the static pressure of the fluid at the sensor locations. The resonant response of each cavity with respect to a variation in pressure of the monitored fluid is represented by a corresponding electrical output which can be calibrated into a direct pressure reading. The pressure drop between sensor locations is then correlated as a measure of fluid velocity. In the preferred embodiment the individual sensor cavities are strategically positioned outside the path of fluid flow and are designed to resonate in two distinct frequency modes yielding a measure of temperature as well as pressure. The temperature response can then be used in correcting for pressure responses of the microwave cavity encountered due to temperature fluctuations.

  11. Hospital free cash flow.

    PubMed

    Kauer, R T; Silvers, J B

    1991-01-01

    Hospital managers may find it difficult to admit their investments have been suboptimal, but such investments often lead to poor returns and less future cash. Inappropriate use of free cash flow produces large transaction costs of exit. The relative efficiency of investor-owned and tax-exempt hospitals in the product market for hospital services is examined as the free cash flow theory is used to explore capital-market conditions of hospitals. Hypotheses concerning the current competitive conditions in the industry are set forth, and the implications of free cash flow for risk, capital-market efficiency, and the cost of capital to tax-exempt institution is compared to capital-market norms. PMID:1743965

  12. Electrocapturing flow cell

    DOEpatents

    Morozov, Victor

    2011-04-05

    A flow cell for electrophoretically-assisted capturing analytes from a flow. The flow cell includes a specimen chamber, a first membrane, a second membrane, a first electrode chamber, and a second electrode chamber. The specimen chamber may have a sample inlet and a sample outlet. A first portion of the first membrane may be coupled to a first portion of the specimen chamber. A first portion of the second membrane may be coupled to a second portion of the specimen chamber. The first electrode chamber may be configured to accept a charge. A portion of the first electrode chamber may be coupled to a second portion of the first membrane. A second electrode chamber may be configured to accept an opposite charge. A portion of the second electrode chamber may be coupled to a second portion of the second membrane.

  13. Tomographic multiphase flow measurement.

    PubMed

    Sætre, C; Johansen, G A; Tjugum, S A

    2012-07-01

    Measurement of multiphase flow of gas, oil and water is not at all trivial and in spite of considerable achievements over the past two decades, important challenges remain (Corneliussen et al., 2005). These are related to reducing measurement uncertainties arising from variations in the flow regime, improving long term stability and developing new means for calibration, adjustment and verification of the multiphase flow meters. This work focuses on the first two issues using multi gamma beam (MGB) measurements for identification of the type of flow regime. Further gamma ray tomographic measurements are used for reference of the gas/liquid distribution. For the MGB method one Am-241 source with principal emission at 59.5 keV is used because this relatively low energy enables efficient collimation and thereby shaping of the beams, as well as compact detectors. One detector is placed diametrically opposite the source whereas the second is positioned to the side so that this beam is close to the pipe wall. The principle is then straight forward to compare the measured intensities of these detectors and through that identify the flow pattern, i.e. the instantaneous cross-sectional gas-liquid distribution. The measurement setup also includes Compton scattering measurements, which can provide information about the changes in the water salinity for flow segments with high water liquid ratio and low gas fractions. By measuring the transmitted intensity in short time slots (<100 ms), rapid regime variations are revealed. From this we can select the time sections suitable for salinity measurements. Since the salinity variations change at the time scale of hours, a running average can be performed to increase the accuracy of the measurements. Recent results of this work will be presented here. PMID:22341954

  14. Arsia Mons Lava Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The lava flows from Arsia Mons are some of the youngest flows in the region. The region of flows south of the volcano have had little modification and appear very similar in appearance to Hawaiian lava flows. This VIS image shows typical flows for the region. The flows are long, fairly narrow, overlapping, and with various surface features and textures.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -19.5, Longitude 240.1 East (119.9 West). 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  15. Interactive Flow in Exercise Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Rebecca; Smith, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    A phenomenology of the bodily experience of interactive flow adds to Csikszentmihalyi's flow theory. Whereas Csikszentmihalyi attended to teachers' and students' experiences of flow separately, this inquiry explores flow through three water-inspired layers of physical interaction between fitness professionals and their clients. Teaching fitness is…

  16. ANISOTROPIC FLOW AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    TANG,A.H.

    2004-03-15

    We present the first measurement of directed flow (v{sub 1}) at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). v{sub 1} is found to be consistent with zero at pseudorapidities {eta} from -1.2 to 1.2, then rises to the level of a couple of percent over the range 2.4 < |{eta}| < 4. The latter observation is similar to that from NA49 if the SPS rapidities are shifted by the difference in beam rapidity between RHIC and SPS. We studied the evolution of elliptic flow from p + p collisions through d + Au collision, and onto Au + Au collisions. Measurements of higher harmonics are presented and discussed.

  17. Spiral Flow Separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed liquid-separating device relies on centrifugal force in liquid/liquid or liquid/solid mixture in spiral path. Operates in continuous flow at relatively high rates. Spiral tubes joined in sequence, with outlet tubes connected to joints. Cross-sectional areas of successive spiral tubes decreases by cross-sectional areas of outlet tubes. Centrifugal force pushes denser particles or liquids to outer edge of spiral, where removed from flow. Principle exploited to separate solids from wastewater, oil from fresh or salt water, or contaminants from salt water before evaporation. Also used to extract such valuable materials as precious metals from slurries.

  18. Olympus Mons Lava Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-525, 26 October 2003

    This May 2003 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows lava flows on the lower northern flanks of the large martian volcano, Olympus Mons. Located near 21.9oN, 132.9oW, the image features flows that moved down the north slope, toward the north/northeast (top/upper right). Sunlight illuminates this scene from the left/lower left; the picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across.

  19. Flow line sampler

    DOEpatents

    Nicholls, Colin I.

    1992-07-14

    An on-line product sampling apparatus and method for measuring product samples from a product stream (12) in a flow line (14) having a sampling aperture (11), includes a sampling tube (18) for containing product samples removed from flow line (14). A piston (22) removes product samples from the product stream (12) through the sampling aperture (11) and returns samples to product stream (12). A sensor (20) communicates with sample tube (18), and senses physical properties of samples while the samples are within sample tube (18). In one embodiment, sensor (20) comprises a hydrogen transient nuclear magnetic resonance sensor for measuring physical properties of hydrogen molecules.

  20. Flow in cyclic cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, William H.; Dizgah, Azadeh Moradinezhad

    2010-10-15

    In this paper, we use a known duality between expanding and contracting cosmologies to construct a dual of the inflationary flow hierarchy applicable to contracting cosmologies such as ekpyrotic and cyclic models. We show that the inflationary flow equations are invariant under the duality and therefore apply equally well to inflation or to cyclic cosmology. We construct a self-consistent small-parameter approximation dual to the slow-roll approximation in inflation, and calculate the power spectrum of perturbations in this limit. We also recover the matter-dominated contracting solution of Wands, and the recently proposed adiabatic ekpyrosis solution.

  1. Characterizing Branched Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drury, Byron; Klales, Anna; Heller, Eric

    2014-03-01

    Branched flow appears in a variety of physical systems spanning length scales from microns to thousands of kilometers. For instance, it plays an important role in both electron transport in two dimensional electron gases and the propagation of tsunamis in the ocean. Branches have typically been identified with caustics in the theoretical literature, but concentrations of flux recognizable as branches can arise from other mechanisms. We propose a generalized definition of branching based on a local measure of the stability of trajectories. We analytically and numerically study the characteristics of Hamiltonian flow in phase space and characterize the relationship between branch formation and trajectory stability.

  2. Propeller flow visualization techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefko, G. L.; Paulovich, F. J.; Greissing, J. P.; Walker, E. D.

    1982-01-01

    Propeller flow visualization techniques were tested. The actual operating blade shape as it determines the actual propeller performance and noise was established. The ability to photographically determine the advanced propeller blade tip deflections, local flow field conditions, and gain insight into aeroelastic instability is demonstrated. The analytical prediction methods which are being developed can be compared with experimental data. These comparisons contribute to the verification of these improved methods and give improved capability for designing future advanced propellers with enhanced performance and noise characteristics.

  3. IGS Data Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, Carey

    2006-01-01

    The IGS analysis centers and user community in general need to be assured that the data centers archive a consistent set of files. Changes to the archives can occur because of the re-publishing of data, the transmission of historic data, and the resulting re-distribution (or lack thereof) of these data from data center to data center. To ensure the quality of the archives, a defined data flow and method of archive population needs to be established. This poster will diagram and review the current IGS data flow, discuss problems that have occurred, and provide recommendations for improvement.

  4. On solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations for unsteady flows at very low Mach numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pletcher, R. H.; Chen, K.-H.

    1993-01-01

    The properties of a preconditioned, coupled, strongly implicit finite difference scheme for solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in primitive variables are investigated for two unsteady flows at low speeds, namely the impulsively started driven cavity and the startup of pipe flow. For the shear-driven cavity flow, the computational effort was observed to be nearly independent of Mach number, especially at the low end of the range considered. This Mach number independence was also observed for steady pipe flow calculations; however, rather different conclusions were drawn for the unsteady calculations. In the pressure-driven pipe startup problem, the compressibility of the fluid began to significantly influence the physics of the flow development at quite low Mach numbers. The present scheme was observed to produce the expected characteristics of completely incompressible flow when the Mach number was set at very low values. Good agreement with incompressible results available in the literature was observed.

  5. Measurements of laminar and turbulent flow in a curved duct with thin inlet boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, A. M. K. P.; Whitelaw, J. H.; Yianneskis, M.

    1981-01-01

    Laser Doppler velocimetry was used to measure the laminar and turbulent flow in a 90 deg square bend of strong curvature. The boundary layers at the inlet to the bend were approximately 25 percent and 15 percent of the hydraulic diameter for the laminar and turbulent flows, respectively. The development of the pressure driven secondary motion is more rapid for laminar flow: the maximum cross stream component measured was 60 percent of the bulk velocity in contrast to 40 percent for turbulent flow. The streamwise isotachs show that, for laminar flow, large velocities are found progressively nearer to the outer radius of the bend and along the sidewalls. For turbulent flow, the isotachs move towards the inner radius until about 60 deg around the bend where strong secondary motion results in a similar redistribution. Turbulence level and shear stress measurements are also presented.

  6. Flow-induced channel formation in the cytoplasm of motile cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guy, Robert D.; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki; Wright, Grady B.

    2011-07-01

    A model is presented to explain the development of flow channels within the cytoplasm of the plasmodium of the giant amoeba Physarum polycephalum. The formation of channels is related to the development of a self-organizing tubular network in large cells. Experiments indicate that the flow of cytoplasm is involved in the development and organization of these networks, and the mathematical model proposed here is motivated by recent experiments involving the observation of development of flow channel in small cells. A model of pressure-driven flow through a polymer network is presented in which the rate of flow increases the rate of depolymerization. Numerical solutions and asymptotic analysis of the model in one spatial dimension show that under very general assumptions this model predicts the formation of channels in response to flow.

  7. Siphon flows in isolated magnetic flux tubes. II - Adiabatic flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montesinos, Benjamin; Thomas, John H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper extends the study of steady siphon flows in isolated magnetic flux tubes surrounded by field-free gas to the case of adiabatic flows. The basic equations governing steady adiabatic siphon flows in a thin, isolated magnetic flux tube are summarized, and qualitative features of adiabatic flows in elevated, arched flux tubes are discussed. The equations are then cast in nondimensional form and the results of numerical computations of adiabatic siphon flows in arched flux tubes are presented along with comparisons between isothermal and adiabatic flows. The effects of making the interior of the flux tube hotter or colder than the surrounding atmosphere at the upstream footpoint of the arch is considered. In this case, is it found that the adiabatic flows are qualitatively similar to the isothermal flows, with adiabatic cooling producing quantitative differences. Critical flows can produce a bulge point in the rising part of the arch and a concentration of magnetic flux above the bulge point.

  8. Flow and Sedimentation of particulate suspensions in Fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Tak Shing; Koplik, Joel

    2011-03-01

    Suspended particles are commonly found in reservoir fluids. They alter the rheology of the flowing liquids and may obstruct transport by narrowing flow channels due to gravitational sedimentation. An understanding of the dynamics of particle transport and deposition is, therefore, important to many geological, enviromental and industrial processes. Realistic geological fractures usually have irregular surfaces with self-affine structures, and the surface roughness plays a crucial role in the flow and sedimentation processes. Recently, we have used the lattice Boltzmann method to study the combined effects of sedimentation and transport of particles suspended in a Newtonian fluid in a pressure-driven flow in self-affine channels, which is especially relevant to clogging phenomena where sediments may block fluid flows in narrow constrictions of the channels. The lattice Boltzmann method is flexible and particularly suitable for handling irregular geometry. Our work covers a broad range in Reynolds and buoyancy numbers, and in particle concentrations. In this talk, we focus on the transitions between the ``jammed'' and the ``flow'' states in fractures, and on the effects of nonuniform particle size distributions. Work supported by DOE and NERSC.

  9. Oscillating laminar electrokinetic flow in infinitely extended circular microchannels.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, A; Masliyah, J H; Yang, J

    2003-05-01

    This article addresses the problem of oscillating laminar electrokinetic liquid flow in an infinitely extended circular microchannel. Based on the Debye-Huckel approximation for low surface potential at the channel wall, a complex variable approach is used to obtain an analytical solution for the flow. The complex counterparts of the flow rate and the current are linearly dependent on the pressure gradient and the external electric field. This property is used to show that Onsager's principle of reciprocity continues to be valid (involving the complex quantities) for the stated problem. During oscillating pressure-driven flow, the electroviscous effect for a given value of the normalized reciprocal electrical double-layer (EDL) thickness is observed to attain a maximum at a certain normalized frequency. In general, an increasing normalized frequency results in a reduction of EDL effects, leading to (i). a volumetric flow rate in the case of streaming potential approaching that predicted by the theory without EDL effects, and (ii). a reduction in the volumetric flow rate in the case of electroosmosis. PMID:12725819

  10. Infinitesimal Conical Supersonic Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busemann, Adolf

    1947-01-01

    The calculation of infinitesimal conical supersonic flow has been applied first to the simplest examples that have also been calculated in another way. Except for the discovery of a miscalculation in an older report, there was found the expected conformity. The new method of calculation is limited more definitely to the conical case.