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1

The Colors of Flowers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners perform an experiment to find out what determines a flower's color. Learners extract petal juice, use acid and base indicators, and observe chemical reactions to investigate how the amount of acid or base influences the color of a flower petal.

Friday, Science

2010-01-01

2

The colorful language of Australian flowers  

PubMed Central

The enormous increase in phylogenetic information in recent years has allowed many old questions to be reexamined from a macroevolutionary perspective. We have recently considered evolutionary convergence in floral colors within pollination syndromes, using bird-pollinated species in Australia. We combined quantitative measurements of floral reflectance spectra, models of avian color vision, and a phylogenetic tree of 234 Australian species to show that bird-pollinated flowers as a group do not have colors that are significantly different from the colors of insect-pollinated flowers. However, about half the bird-pollinated flowers have convergently evolved a narrow range of colors with dominant long-wavelength reflection far more often than would be expected by chance. These convergent colors would be seen as distinctly different from other floral colors in our sample when viewed by honeyeaters (family Meliphagidae), birds with a phylogenetically ancestral type of color vision and the dominant avian pollinators in Australia. Our analysis shows how qualitative ideas in natural history, like the concept of pollination syndromes, can be given more precise definition and rigorous statistical testing that takes into account phylogenetic information.

Burd, Martin; Stayton, C Tristan; Shrestha, Mani; Dyer, Adrian G

2014-01-01

3

Flower choice in honeybees: Effects of food value and flower density  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the effects of food value on the flower choice, individual honeybees (Apis mellifera) were offered a choice of 25 % sucrose solution (SS) and 1 of 6 different SSs, ranging from 5 % to 50 % SS, at either a low\\u000a or a high flower density. Artificial flowers were filled with each SS. The honeybees showed a stronger

Osamu Ohguchi

1983-01-01

4

Why sexually deceptive orchids have colored flowers  

PubMed Central

Sexually deceptive orchids provide no reward to their pollinators. Instead, they mimic the sex pheromone of receptive insect females to attract males which pollinate the flowers in mating attempts. Nearly all species of the Mediterranean orchid genus Ophrys are sexually deceptive and pollinated by solitary bees and wasps. Due to the use of a highly specific olfactory communication channel most Ophrys species have, in contrast to food deceptive or rewarding orchids, an inconspicuous greenish perianth and a dark brownish labellum. However, some species possess a bright pink or white perianth, and the functional significant of such color signals in the orchid-pollinator communication system is unknown. We recently showed that the pink perianth of Ophrys heldreichii increases the performance of its bee pollinator, males of the long-horned bee Eucera (Tetralonia) berlandi, to detect the flower at short-range. At great distances (>30 cm) from the flower, male search behavior was found to be olfactory guided and unaffected by the spectral property of the perianth, i.e., chromatic and green receptor-specific contrast. However, in the near vicinity of the flower (<30 cm), where spatial vision is sufficient to detect the flower, search time only correlated with the green receptor-specific contrast between the perianth and the background. PMID:20585505

Streinzer, Martin; Paulus, Hannes F

2010-01-01

5

Review article Color vision and color choice behavior  

E-print Network

to the human eye. Since this pioneering work, color vision in honey- bees has been extensively investigatedReview article Color vision and color choice behavior of the honey bee W Backhaus Institüt für 1992; accepted 22 April 1993) Summary A general introduction to color vision in honeybees has

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

6

The Flavonoid Pathway Regulates the Petal Colors of Cotton Flower  

PubMed Central

Although biochemists and geneticists have studied the cotton flower for more than one century, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the dramatic color change that occurs during its short developmental life following blooming. Through the analysis of world cotton germplasms, we found that all of the flowers underwent color changes post-anthesis, but there is a diverse array of petal colors among cotton species, with cream, yellow and red colors dominating the color scheme. Genetic and biochemical analyses indicated that both the original cream and red colors and the color changes post-anthesis were related to flavonoid content. The anthocyanin content and the expression of biosynthesis genes were both increased from blooming to one day post-anthesis (DPA) when the flower was withering and undergoing abscission. Our results indicated that the color changes and flavonoid biosynthesis of cotton flowers were precisely controlled and genetically regulated. In addition, flavonol synthase (FLS) genes involved in flavonol biosynthesis showed specific expression at 11 am when the flowers were fully opened. The anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) genes, which are responsible for proanthocyanidins biosynthesis, showed the highest expression at 6 pm on 0 DPA, when the flowers were withered. Light showed primary, moderate and little effects on flavonol, anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthesis, respectively. Flavonol biosynthesis was in response to light exposure, while anthocyanin biosynthesis was involved in flower color changes. Further expression analysis of flavonoid genes in flowers of wild type and a flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) silenced line showed that the development of cotton flower color was controlled by a complex interaction between genes and light. These results present novel information regarding flavonoids metabolism and flower development. PMID:23951318

Tan, Jiafu; Wang, Maojun; Tu, Lili; Nie, Yichun; Lin, Yongjun; Zhang, Xianlong

2013-01-01

7

Metabolie Engineering of Flower Color in Ornamental Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in the knowledge of plant pigment pathways at genetic, biochemical and molecular levels, and the establishment of genetic transformation methods for an increasing number of plant species have paved the way to genetic engineering of flower and plant color for ornamental purposes. From trial-and-error approaches based on the available few genes, the trend is now to comprehensively study the

Carlo Rosati; Philippe Simoneau

2006-01-01

8

186 DARWIN'S HERITAGE TODAY The Effects of Flower Color Transitions  

E-print Network

186 DARWIN'S HERITAGE TODAY The Effects of Flower Color Transitions on Diversification Rates, evolutionary genetics, pollination ecology, and floral pigment biochemistry. Her work is currently supported is an Associate Professor of Plant Evolutionary Biology at Southeast- ern Louisiana University located in Hammond

Rausher, Mark D.

9

Color as a factor in food choice.  

PubMed

From birth, nature teaches us to make judgements on our environment based in large measure on color. As such, it plays a key role in food choice by influencing taste thresholds, sweetness perception, food preference, pleasantness, and acceptability. Its role is elusive and difficult to quantify, however, which at times has placed color in a secondary role to the other sensory characteristics, a position not entirely consistent with the facts. Color, in a quantitative sense, has been shown to be able to replace sugar and still maintain sweetness perception in flavored foods. It interferes with judgments of flavor intensity and identification and in so doing has been shown to dramatically influence the pleasantness and acceptability of foods. Studies in the literature have used cross-sectional population panels to study these effects, but a recent investigation of color-sensory interactions in beverages has compared the response of a college age group with the response of a panel consisting of a more mature population. Interestingly, the older group showed significant differences from the college age group in their response to the effects of color on several sensory parameters as well as showing a direct correlation between beverage consumption and color. Color is often taken for granted, but this position must be reevaluated in view of such studies and the need to create more appealing foods for different segments of our society. PMID:8424857

Clydesdale, F M

1993-01-01

10

Genetic engineering of novel flower colors in floricultural plants: recent advances via transgenic approaches.  

PubMed

Since the first successful genetic engineering of flower color in petunia, several new techniques have been developed and applied to modify flower color not only in model plants but also in floricultural plants. A typical example is the commercial violet-flowered carnation "Moondust series" developed by Suntry Ltd. and Florigene Ltd. More recently, blue-flowered roses have been successfully produced and are expected to be commercially available in the near future. In recent years, successful modification of flower color by sophisticated regulation of flower-pigment metabolic pathways has become possible. In this chapter, we review recent advances in flower color modification by genetic engineering, especially focusing on the methodology. We have included our own recent results on successful production of flower-color-modified transgenic plants in a model plant, tobacco and an ornamental plant, gentian. Based on these results, genetic engineering of flower color for improvement of floricultural plants is discussed. PMID:20099113

Nishihara, Masahiro; Nakatsuka, Takashi

2010-01-01

11

Abstract It is usually assumed that the choice behavior of bees for floral colors is influenced by innate prefer-  

E-print Network

Abstract It is usually assumed that the choice behavior of bees for floral colors is influenced to rewarding flowers bees learn to as- sociate their colors with a reward. This learning process leads and over innate preferences. This work investigates how bumble bees (Bombus terrestris) chose among

Menzel, Randolf - Institut für Biologie

12

Pollinator-mediated selection on flower color, flower scent and flower morphology of Hemerocallis: evidence from genotyping individual pollen grains on the stigma.  

PubMed

To trace the fate of individual pollen grains through pollination processes, we determined genotypes of single pollen grains deposited on Hemerocallis stigmas in an experimental mixed-species array. Hemerocallis fulva, pollinated by butterflies, has diurnal, reddish and unscented flowers, and H. citrina, pollinated by hawkmoths, has nocturnal, yellowish and sweet scent flowers. We observed pollinator visits to an experimental array of 24 H. fulva and 12 F2 hybrids between the two species (H. fulva and H. citrina) and collected stigmas after every trip bout of swallowtail butterflies or hawkmoths. We then measured selection by swallowtail butterflies or hawkmoths through male and female components of pollination success as determined by single pollen genotyping. As expected, swallowtail butterflies imposed selection on reddish color and weak scent: the number of outcross pollen grains acquired is a quadratic function of flower color with the maximum at reddish color, and the combined pollination success was maximal at weak scent (almost unrecognizable for human). This explains why H. fulva, with reddish flowers and no recognizable scent, is mainly pollinated by swallowtail butterflies. However, we found no evidence of hawkmoths-mediated selection on flower color or scent. Our findings do not support a hypothesis that yellow flower color and strong scent intensity, the distinctive floral characteristics of H. citrina, having evolved in adaptations to hawkmoths. We suggest that the key trait that triggers the evolution of nocturnal flowers is flowering time rather than flower color and scent. PMID:24376890

Hirota, Shun K; Nitta, Kozue; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Kawakubo, Nobumitsu; Yasumoto, Akiko A; Yahara, Tetsukazu

2013-01-01

13

Pollinator-Mediated Selection on Flower Color, Flower Scent and Flower Morphology of Hemerocallis: Evidence from Genotyping Individual Pollen Grains On the Stigma  

PubMed Central

To trace the fate of individual pollen grains through pollination processes, we determined genotypes of single pollen grains deposited on Hemerocallis stigmas in an experimental mixed-species array. Hemerocallis fulva, pollinated by butterflies, has diurnal, reddish and unscented flowers, and H. citrina, pollinated by hawkmoths, has nocturnal, yellowish and sweet scent flowers. We observed pollinator visits to an experimental array of 24 H. fulva and 12 F2 hybrids between the two species (H. fulva and H. citrina) and collected stigmas after every trip bout of swallowtail butterflies or hawkmoths. We then measured selection by swallowtail butterflies or hawkmoths through male and female components of pollination success as determined by single pollen genotyping. As expected, swallowtail butterflies imposed selection on reddish color and weak scent: the number of outcross pollen grains acquired is a quadratic function of flower color with the maximum at reddish color, and the combined pollination success was maximal at weak scent (almost unrecognizable for human). This explains why H. fulva, with reddish flowers and no recognizable scent, is mainly pollinated by swallowtail butterflies. However, we found no evidence of hawkmoths-mediated selection on flower color or scent. Our findings do not support a hypothesis that yellow flower color and strong scent intensity, the distinctive floral characteristics of H. citrina, having evolved in adaptations to hawkmoths. We suggest that the key trait that triggers the evolution of nocturnal flowers is flowering time rather than flower color and scent. PMID:24376890

Hirota, Shun K.; Nitta, Kozue; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Kawakubo, Nobumitsu; Yasumoto, Akiko A.; Yahara, Tetsukazu

2013-01-01

14

Genetic engineering of flavonoid pigments to modify flower color in floricultural plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in genetic transformation techniques enable the production of desirable and novel flower colors in some important\\u000a floricultural plants. Genetic engineering of novel flower colors is now a practical technology as typified by commercialization\\u000a of a transgenic blue rose and blue carnation. Many researchers exploit knowledge of flavonoid biosynthesis effectively to\\u000a obtain unique flower colors. So far, the main

Masahiro NishiharaTakashi Nakatsuka; Takashi Nakatsuka

2011-01-01

15

Modification of flower color in torenia (Torenia fournieri Lind.) by genetic transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We modified flower color in torenia (Torenia fournieri Lind.) by transferring the chalcone synthase (CHS) or the dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR) gene in sense or antisense orientation by Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer. The modification patterns of flower color among the transformants formed three groups: (1) same color as the wild-type plant; (2) whole corolla changed to a uniformly light color; and (3) with

Ryutaro Aida; Sanae Kishimoto; Yoshikazu Tanaka; Michio Shibata

2000-01-01

16

Protocol for inducing flower color somaclonal variation in Torenia (Torenia fournieri Lind.).  

PubMed

White or light purple flower color Torenia (Torenia fournieri Lind.) varieties were successfully developed from the parental variety having violet flowers. This was accomplished by reducing Fe micronutrient in the culture media for the induction of in vitro flowering. The flower induction was highest in modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing strength of macroelements, microelements, organic additives, and full Fe (M1) when compared to MS medium containing strength of macronutrients, micronutrients, full Fe, and full organic additives (M2). The flower color was stable in two new Torenia varieties through three generations ex vitro. The results showed a wide range of somaclonal variation in flower colors; early flowering occurred in MS medium containing strength of macroelements, microelements, Fe, and full strength of organic additives (M3). The selection of desirable somaclones and their micropropagation in subsequent generations led to the development of new and stable Torenia lines. PMID:23179719

Nhut, Duong Tan; Hai, Nguyen Thanh; Thu, Pham Thi Minh; Thi, Nguyen Ngoc; Hien, Truong Thi Dieu; Tuan, Tran Trong; Nam, Nguyen Ba; Huy, Nguyen Phuc; Chien, Hoang Xuan; Jain, Shri Mohan

2013-01-01

17

Individual and Population Shifts in Flower Color by Scarlet Gilia: A Mechanism for Pollinator Tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual plants and populations of scarlet gilia (Ipomopsis aggregata) shift from darker to lighter corolla colors during the flowering season. Shifts to lighter color coincide with emigration of hummingbirds from the system. In the absence of hummingbirds, lighter colors attract the remaining pollinator, a hawkmoth. Comparison of plants that shift to lighter colors with those that fail to shift shows

Ken N. Paige; Thomas G. Whitham

1985-01-01

18

Individual and population shifts in flower color by scarlet gilia: a mechanism for pollinator tracking.  

PubMed

Individual plants and populations of scarlet gilia (Ipomopsis aggregata) shift from darker to lighter corolla colors during the flowering season. Shifts to lighter color coincide with emigration of hummingbirds from the system. In the absence of hummingbirds, lighter colors attract the remaining pollinator, a hawkmoth. Comparison of plants that shift to lighter colors with those that fail to shift shows that shifting is adaptive in that it enhances reproductive success because of the preference of hawkmoths for lighter colored flowers. Color shifting therefore provides a mechanism for plants to track changing pollinator abundances. PMID:17742104

Paige, K N; Whitham, T G

1985-01-18

19

Inheritance of flower color and spininess in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.).  

PubMed

Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) flowers are used for coloring and flavoring food and also as fresh-cut and dried flowers. The most important characteristics which contribute to the ornamental value of safflower are flower color and spinelessness. The objective of this study was to determine the inheritance mode and the number of genes controlling spininess and flower color in some Iranian genotypes of safflower. The results indicated that the existence of spines on the leaves and bracts of safflower is controlled by a single dominant gene in which the spiny phenotype was completely dominant to spineless. In some crosses, flower color was controlled by two epistatic loci each with two alleles, resulting in a ratio of 13:3 in the segregating F2 population for plants with orange and yellow flowers. Also, other mechanisms of genetic control, such as duplicate dominance and duplicate recessive types of epistasis, were observed for flower color in other crosses that led to ratios of 7:9 and 15:1 for plants with orange and yellow flowers, respectively. The results suggest that for ornamental use or in the food dying industry, genotypes with orange or yellow flowers and without spines on the leaves and bracts can be produced. PMID:15220395

Pahlavani, M H; Mirlohi, A F; Saeidi, G

2004-01-01

20

Flower Choice and Learning in Foraging Bumblebees: Effects of Variation in Nectar Volume and Concentration  

E-print Network

Flower Choice and Learning in Foraging Bumblebees: Effects of Variation in Nectar Volume Introduction Many flower visitors, including bumblebees, interact with a diversity of host plants. Proficiency is available. Honeybees and bumblebees also possess an impressive capacity to learn how to find and extract

Thomson, James D.

21

The effect of flower-like and non-flower-like visual properties on choice of unrewarding patterns by bumblebees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How do distinct visual stimuli help bumblebees discover flowers before they have experienced any reward outside of their nest? Two visual floral properties, type of a pattern (concentric vs radial) and its position on unrewarding artificial flowers (central vs peripheral on corolla), were manipulated in two experiments. Both visual properties showed significant effects on floral choice. When pitted against each other, pattern was more important than position. Experiment 1 shows a significant effect of concentric pattern position, and experiment 2 shows a significant preference towards radial patterns regardless of their position. These results show that the presence of markings at the center of a flower are not so important as the presence of markings that will direct bees there.

Orbn, Levente L.; Plowright, Catherine M. S.

2013-07-01

22

Visual constraints in foraging bumblebees: Flower size and color affect search time and flight behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

In optimal foraging theory, search time is a key variable defining the value of a prey type. But the sensory-perceptual processes that constrain the search for food have rarely been considered. Here we evaluate the flight behavior of bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) searching for artificial flowers of various sizes and colors. When flowers were large, search times correlated well with the

J. Spaethe; J. Tautz; L. Chittka

2001-01-01

23

Allelic variation of soybean flower color gene W4 encoding dihydroflavonol 4-reductase 2  

PubMed Central

Background Flower color of soybean is primarily controlled by six genes, viz., W1, W2, W3, W4, Wm and Wp. This study was conducted to investigate the genetic and chemical basis of newly-identified flower color variants including two soybean mutant lines, 222-A-3 (near white flower) and E30-D-1 (light purple flower), a near-isogenic line (Clark-w4), flower color variants (T321 and T369) descended from the w4-mutable line and kw4 (near white flower, Glycine soja). Results Complementation tests revealed that the flower color of 222-A-3 and kw4 was controlled by the recessive allele (w4) of the W4 locus encoding dihydroflavonol 4-reductase 2 (DFR2). In 222-A-3, a single base was deleted in the first exon resulting in a truncated polypeptide consisting of 24 amino acids. In Clark-w4, base substitution of the first nucleotide of the fourth intron abolished the 5? splice site, resulting in the retention of the intron. The DFR2 gene of kw4 was not expressed. The above results suggest that complete loss-of-function of DFR2 gene leads to near white flowers. Light purple flower of E30-D-1 was controlled by a new allele at the W4 locus, w4-lp. The gene symbol was approved by the Soybean Genetics Committee. In E30-D-1, a single-base substitution changed an amino acid at position 39 from arginine to histidine. Pale flowers of T369 had higher expression levels of the DFR2 gene. These flower petals contained unique dihydroflavonols that have not yet been reported to occur in soybean and G. soja. Conclusions Complete loss-of-function of DFR2 gene leads to near white flowers. A new allele of the W4 locus, w4-lp regulates light purple flowers. Single amino acid substitution was associated with light purple flowers. Flower petals of T369 had higher levels of DFR2 gene expression and contained unique dihydroflavonols that are absent in soybean and G. soja. Thus, mutants of the DFR2 gene have unique flavonoid compositions and display a wide variety of flower color patterns in soybean, from near white, light purple, dilute purple to pale. PMID:24602314

2014-01-01

24

Bidirectional flower color and shape changes allow a second opportunity for pollination.  

PubMed

Flowers act as "sensory billboards" with multiple signals (color, morphology, odor) attracting and manipulating potential pollinators. Many use changing signals as indicators that visitation and/or pollination have occurred). Floral color change is commonly used to transmit this information (often correlated with reduced nectar reward) and can be specifically triggered by pollination or visitation. By retaining color-changed flowers, plants benefit from larger floral displays but also indicate at close range which flowers are still rewarding (and still unpollinated), so that visitors forage more efficiently. However, the legume Desmodium setigerum shows a unique ability, if inadequately pollinated, to reverse its flowers' color and shape changes. Single visits by bees mechanically depress the keel and expose stigma and anthers (termed "tripping"); visits also initiate a rapid color change from lilac to white and turquoise and a slower morphological change, the upper petal folding downwards over the reproductive parts. But flowers receiving insufficient pollen can partially reopen, re-exposing the stigma, with a further color change to deeper turquoise and/or lilac. Thus, most flowers achieve pollination from one bee visit, but those with inadequate pollen receipt can reverse their signals, earning a "second chance" by eliciting attention from other potential pollinators. PMID:19409788

Willmer, Pat; Stanley, Dara A; Steijven, Karin; Matthews, Iain M; Nuttman, Clive V

2009-06-01

25

Herbivore pressure by weevils associated with flower color polymorphism in Geranium thunbergii (Geraniaceae).  

PubMed

Although floral herbivory has recently received increased attention as an important factor influencing plant reproduction, relatively little is known about how its frequency and intensity vary depending on traits of host plants. Here we report that herbivore pressure by a weevil, Zacladus geranii, is associated with a flower color polymorphism of Geranium thunbergii (Geraniaceae). Pink and white flower color morphs have been reported in G. thunbergii, and we found in a three-year field survey in multiple populations that, generally, adult weevils more preferentially visited white flowers than pink flowers. Consistently, we found more severe damage by weevil larvae in white flowers. Overall herbivore pressure for G. thunbergii varied strongly between populations, and the difference seems to be partly explained by the co-occurrence of a related plant species, Geranium yezoense, in a population, as weevils preferred it to both color morphs of G. thunbergii, thereby relaxing overall herbivore pressure for G. thunbergii. Nonetheless, despite such high variability, the preference of weevils for white morphs over pink morphs of G. thunbergii was found across multiple populations. We discuss possible mechanisms causing the association between flower color and herbivore preference as well as its evolutionary consequences. PMID:24253757

Tsuchimatsu, Takashi; Yoshitake, Hiraku; Ito, Motomi

2014-03-01

26

Competition for hummingbird pollination shapes flower color variation in andean solanaceae.  

PubMed

One classic explanation for the remarkable diversity of flower colors across angiosperms involves evolutionary shifts among different types of pollinators with different color preferences. However, the pollinator shift model fails to account for the many examples of color variation within clades that share the same pollination system. An alternate explanation is the competition model, which suggests that color divergence evolves in response to interspecific competition for pollinators, as a means to decrease interspecific pollinator movements. This model predicts color overdispersion within communities relative to null assemblages. Here, we combine morphometric analyses, field surveys, and models of pollinator vision with a species-level phylogeny to test the competition model in the primarily hummingbird-pollinated clade Iochrominae (Solanaceae). Results show that flower color as perceived by pollinators is significantly overdispersed within sites. This pattern is not simply due to phylogenetic history: phylogenetic community structure does not deviate from random expectations, and flower color lacks phylogenetic signal. Moreover, taxa that occur in sympatry occupy a significantly larger volume of color space than those in allopatry, supporting the hypothesis that competition in sympatry drove the evolution of novel colors. We suggest that competition among close relatives may commonly underlie floral divergence, especially in species-rich habitats where congeners frequently co-occur. PMID:24766107

Muchhala, Nathan; Johnsen, Snke; Smith, Stacey Dewitt

2014-08-01

27

Flower color polymorphism in Iris lutescens (Iridaceae): biochemical analyses in light of plant-insect interactions.  

PubMed

We describe a flower color polymorphism in Iris lutescens, a species widespread in the Northern part of the Mediterranean basin. We studied the biochemical basis of the difference between purple and yellow flowers, and explored the ecological and evolutionary consequences of such difference, in particular visual discrimination by insects, a potential link with scent emitted and the association between color and scent. Anthocyanins were found to be present in much greater concentrations in purple flowers than in yellow ones, but the anthocyanin composition did not differ between color morphs. Likewise, no quantitative difference in anthocyanin content was found between vegetative tissues of the two morphs. Floral anthocyanins were dominated by delphinidin 3-O-(p-coumaroylrutinoside)-5-O-glucoside (also called delphanin) and its aliphatic derivatives. Small amounts of delphinidin 3-O-(p-caffeoylrutinoside)-5-O-glucoside and its aliphatic derivatives were also characterized. Based on a description of bumblebees' (one of the main pollinators of I. lutescens) color perception, purple and yellow flowers of I. lutescens could be visually discriminated as blue and blue-green, respectively, and likely by a wide variety of other insects. The overall chemical composition of the scent produced was not significantly different between morphs, being dominated by terpenoids, mainly myrcene, (E)-?-ocimene and limonene. A slight color-scent correlation was nevertheless detected, consistent with the shared biosynthetic origin of both pigments and volatile compounds. Therefore in this species, the difference in the amounts of pigments responsible for flower color difference seems to be the major difference between the two morphs. Pollinators are probably the main selective agent driving the evolution of flower color polymorphism in I. lutescens, which represents a suitable species for investigating how such polymorphism is maintained. PMID:23790644

Wang, Hui; Conchou, Lucie; Bessire, Jean-Marie; Cazals, Guillaume; Schatz, Bertrand; Imbert, Eric

2013-10-01

28

Comparing distributions of color words: pitfalls and metric choices.  

PubMed

Computational methods have started playing a significant role in semantic analysis. One particularly accessible area for developing good computational methods for linguistic semantics is in color naming, where perceptual dissimilarity measures provide a geometric setting for the analyses. This setting has been studied first by Berlin & Kay in 1969, and then later on by a large data collection effort: the World Color Survey (WCS). From the WCS, a dataset on color naming by 2 616 speakers of 110 different languages is made available for further research. In the analysis of color naming from WCS, however, the choice of analysis method is an important factor of the analysis. We demonstrate concrete problems with the choice of metrics made in recent analyses of WCS data, and offer approaches for dealing with the problems we can identify. Picking a metric for the space of color naming distributions that ignores perceptual distances between colors assumes a decorrelated system, where strong spatial correlations in fact exist. We can demonstrate that the corresponding issues are significantly improved when using Earth Mover's Distance, or Quadratic [Formula: see text]-square Distance, and we can approximate these solutions with a kernel-based analysis method. PMID:24586580

Vejdemo-Johansson, Mikael; Vejdemo, Susanne; Ek, Carl-Henrik

2014-01-01

29

Visual constraints in foraging bumblebees: flower size and color affect search time and flight behavior.  

PubMed

In optimal foraging theory, search time is a key variable defining the value of a prey type. But the sensory-perceptual processes that constrain the search for food have rarely been considered. Here we evaluate the flight behavior of bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) searching for artificial flowers of various sizes and colors. When flowers were large, search times correlated well with the color contrast of the targets with their green foliage-type background, as predicted by a model of color opponent coding using inputs from the bees' UV, blue, and green receptors. Targets that made poor color contrast with their backdrop, such as white, UV-reflecting ones, or red flowers, took longest to detect, even though brightness contrast with the background was pronounced. When searching for small targets, bees changed their strategy in several ways. They flew significantly slower and closer to the ground, so increasing the minimum detectable area subtended by an object on the ground. In addition, they used a different neuronal channel for flower detection. Instead of color contrast, they used only the green receptor signal for detection. We relate these findings to temporal and spatial limitations of different neuronal channels involved in stimulus detection and recognition. Thus, foraging speed may not be limited only by factors such as prey density, flight energetics, and scramble competition. Our results show that understanding the behavioral ecology of foraging can substantially gain from knowledge about mechanisms of visual information processing. PMID:11259668

Spaethe, J; Tautz, J; Chittka, L

2001-03-27

30

Flower color alteration in Lotus japonicus by modification of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

To establish a model system for alteration of flower color by carotenoid pigments, we modified the carotenoid biosynthesis\\u000a pathway of Lotus japonicus using overexpression of the crtW gene isolated from marine bacteria Agrobacterium aurantiacum and encoding ?-carotene ketolase (4,4?-?-oxygenase) for the production of pink to red color ketocarotenoids. The crtW gene with the transit peptide sequence of the pea Rubisco

Sakae Suzuki; Masahiro Nishihara; Takashi Nakatsuka; Norihiko Misawa; Isao Ogiwara; Saburo Yamamura

2007-01-01

31

Gene Loss and Parallel Evolution Contribute to Species Difference in Flower Color  

PubMed Central

Although the importance of regulatory and functional sequence evolution in generating species differences has been studied to some extent, much less is known about the role of other types of genomic changes, such as fluctuation in gene copy number. Here, we apply analyses of gene function and expression of anthocyanin pigment pathway genes, as well as cosegregation analyses in backcross populations, to examine the genetic changes involved in the shift from blue to red flowers in Andean Iochroma (Solanaceae). We demonstrate that deletion of a gene coding for an anthocyanin pathway enzyme was necessary for the transition to red floral pigmentation. The downregulation of a second pathway gene was also necessary for the novel flower color, and this regulatory pattern parallels the genetic change in the two other red-flowered species in the sister family Convolvulaceae in which flower color change has been examined genetically. Finally, we document a shift in enzymatic function at a third locus, but the importance of this change in the transition to red flowers depends on the exact order with which the three changes occurred. This study shows that gene inactivation or loss can be involved in the origin of phenotypic differences between species, thereby restricting the possibility of reversion to the ancestral state. It also demonstrates that parallel evolution of red flowers in three different species occurs via a common developmental/regulatory change but by mutations in different genes. PMID:21551271

Smith, Stacey D.; Rausher, Mark D.

2011-01-01

32

Gene loss and parallel evolution contribute to species difference in flower color.  

PubMed

Although the importance of regulatory and functional sequence evolution in generating species differences has been studied to some extent, much less is known about the role of other types of genomic changes, such as fluctuation in gene copy number. Here, we apply analyses of gene function and expression of anthocyanin pigment pathway genes, as well as cosegregation analyses in backcross populations, to examine the genetic changes involved in the shift from blue to red flowers in Andean Iochroma (Solanaceae). We demonstrate that deletion of a gene coding for an anthocyanin pathway enzyme was necessary for the transition to red floral pigmentation. The downregulation of a second pathway gene was also necessary for the novel flower color, and this regulatory pattern parallels the genetic change in the two other red-flowered species in the sister family Convolvulaceae in which flower color change has been examined genetically. Finally, we document a shift in enzymatic function at a third locus, but the importance of this change in the transition to red flowers depends on the exact order with which the three changes occurred. This study shows that gene inactivation or loss can be involved in the origin of phenotypic differences between species, thereby restricting the possibility of reversion to the ancestral state. It also demonstrates that parallel evolution of red flowers in three different species occurs via a common developmental/regulatory change but by mutations in different genes. PMID:21551271

Smith, Stacey D; Rausher, Mark D

2011-10-01

33

Flower color alteration in Lotus japonicus by modification of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway.  

PubMed

To establish a model system for alteration of flower color by carotenoid pigments, we modified the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway of Lotus japonicus using overexpression of the crtW gene isolated from marine bacteria Agrobacterium aurantiacum and encoding beta-carotene ketolase (4,4'-beta-oxygenase) for the production of pink to red color ketocarotenoids. The crtW gene with the transit peptide sequence of the pea Rubisco small subunit under the regulation of the CaMV35S promoter was introduced to L. japonicus. In most of the resulting transgenic plants, the color of flower petals changed from original light yellow to deep yellow or orange while otherwise exhibiting normal phenotype. HPLC and TLC analyses revealed that leaves and flower petals of these plants accumulated novel carotenoids, believed to be ketocarotenoids consisting of including astaxanthin, adonixanthin, canthaxanthin and echinenone. Results indicated that modification of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway is a means of altering flower color in ornamental crops. PMID:17265153

Suzuki, Sakae; Nishihara, Masahiro; Nakatsuka, Takashi; Misawa, Norihiko; Ogiwara, Isao; Yamamura, Saburo

2007-07-01

34

Functional evolution of an anthocyanin pathway enzyme during a flower color transition.  

PubMed

Dissecting the genetic basis for the evolution of species differences requires a combination of phylogenetic and molecular genetic perspectives. By mapping the genetic changes and their phenotypic effects onto the phylogeny, it is possible to distinguish changes that may have been directly responsible for a new character state from those that fine tune the transition. Here, we use phylogenetic and functional methods to trace the evolution of substrate specificity in dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (Dfr), an anthocyanin pathway gene known to be involved in the transition from blue to red flowers in Iochroma. Ancestral state reconstruction indicates that three substitutions occurred during the flower color transition, whereas several additional substitutions followed the transition. Comparisons of enzymatic function between ancestral proteins in blue- and red-flowered lineages and proteins from present-day taxa demonstrate that evolution of specificity for red pigment precursors was caused by the first three substitutions, which were fixed by positive selection and which differ from previously documented mutations affecting specificity. Two inferred substitutions subsequent to the initial flower color transition were also adaptive and resulted in an additional increase in specificity for red precursors. Epistatic interactions among both sets of substitutions may have limited the order of substitutions along branches of the phylogeny leading from blue-pigmented ancestors to the present-day red-flowered taxa. These results suggest that the species differences in DFR specificity may arise by a combination of selection on flower color and selection for improved pathway efficiency but that the exact series of genetic changes resulting in the evolution of specificity is likely to be highly contingent on the starting state. PMID:23155005

Smith, Stacey D; Wang, Shunqi; Rausher, Mark D

2013-03-01

35

Downregulation of putative UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase gene alters flower coloring in Phalaenopsis.  

PubMed

Anthocyanin is the primary pigment contributing to red, violet, and blue flower color formation. The solubility of anthocyanins is enhanced by UDP glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) through transfer of the glucosyl moiety from UDP-glucose to 3-hydroxyl group to produce the first stable pigments. To assess the possibility that UFGT is involved in the flower color formation in Phalaenopsis, the transcriptional activities of PeUFGT3, and other flower color-related genes in developing red or white flower buds were examined using RT-PCR analysis. In contrast with chalcone synthase, chalcone isomerase, and anthocyanidin synthase genes, PeUFGT3 transcriptional activity was higher expressed in the red color of Phalaenopsis cultivars. In the red labellum of Phalaenopsis 'Luchia Lady', PeUFGT3 also showed higher expression levels than that in the white perianth. PeUFGT3 was predominantly expressed in the red region of flower among various Phalaenopsis cultivars. To investigate the role of PeUFGT3 in red flower color formation, PeUFGT3 was specifically knocked down using RNA interference technology via virus inducing gene silencing in Phalaenopsis. The PeUFGT3-suppressed Phalaenopsis exhibited various levels of flower color fading that was well correlated with the extent of reduced level of PeUFGT3 transcriptional activity. Furthermore, there was a significant decrease in anthocyanin content in the PeUFGT3-suppressed Phalaenopsis flowers. The decrease of anthocyanin content due to PeUFGT3 gene silencing possibly caused the faded flower color in PeUFGT3-suppressed Phalaenopsis. Consequently, these results suggested that the glycosylation-related gene PeUFGT3 plays a critical role in red color formation in Phalaenopsis. PMID:21274540

Chen, Wen-Huei; Hsu, Chi-Yin; Cheng, Hao-Yun; Chang, Hsiang; Chen, Hong-Hwa; Ger, Mang-Jye

2011-06-01

36

Stability of flower colors due to anthocyanin-flavone copigmentation in Japanese garden iris, Iris ensata Thunb  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fading of flower color in bluish purple and reddish purple cultivars of Iris ensata and the in vitro stability of malvidin 3RGac5Gand petunidin 3RGac5G due to copigmentation with isovetixin under different pH conditions were\\u000a examined. The bluish purple cultivars exhibited higher flower color stability than the reddish purple cultivars 2 days after\\u000a anthesis. In the absence of isovitexin, malvidin

T. Yabuya; M. Saito; T. Iwashina; M. Yamaguchi

2000-01-01

37

Relationship between the composition of flavonoids and flower colors variation in tropical water lily (Nymphaea) cultivars.  

PubMed

Water lily, the member of the Nymphaeaceae family, is the symbol of Buddhism and Brahmanism in India. Despite its limited researches on flower color variations and formation mechanism, water lily has background of blue flowers and displays an exceptionally wide diversity of flower colors from purple, red, blue to yellow, in nature. In this study, 34 flavonoids were identified among 35 tropical cultivars by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode array detection (DAD) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Among them, four anthocyanins: delphinidin 3-O-rhamnosyl-5-O-galactoside (Dp3Rh5Ga), delphinidin 3-O-(2"-O-galloyl-6"-O-oxalyl-rhamnoside) (Dp3galloyl-oxalylRh), delphinidin 3-O-(6"-O-acetyl-?-glucopyranoside) (Dp3acetylG) and cyanidin 3- O-(2"-O-galloyl-galactopyranoside)-5-O-rhamnoside (Cy3galloylGa5Rh), one chalcone: chalcononaringenin 2'-O-galactoside (Chal2'Ga) and twelve flavonols: myricetin 7-O-rhamnosyl-(1 ? 2)-rhamnoside (My7RhRh), quercetin 7-O-galactosyl-(1 ? 2)-rhamnoside (Qu7GaRh), quercetin 7-O-galactoside (Qu7Ga), kaempferol 7-O-galactosyl-(1 ? 2)-rhamnoside (Km7GaRh), myricetin 3-O-galactoside (My3Ga), kaempferol 7-O-galloylgalactosyl-(1 ? 2)-rhamnoside (Km7galloylGaRh), myricetin 3-O-galloylrhamnoside (My3galloylRh), kaempferol 3-O-galactoside (Km3Ga), isorhamnetin 7-O-galactoside (Is7Ga), isorhamnetin 7-O-xyloside (Is7Xy), kaempferol 3-O-(3"-acetylrhamnoside) (Km3-3"acetylRh) and quercetin 3-O-acetylgalactoside (Qu3acetylGa) were identified in the petals of tropic water lily for the first time. Meanwhile a multivariate analysis was used to explore the relationship between pigments and flower color. By comparing, the cultivars which were detected delphinidin 3-galactoside (Dp3Ga) presented amaranth, and detected delphinidin 3'-galactoside (Dp3'Ga) presented blue. However, the derivatives of delphinidin and cyanidin were more complicated in red group. No anthocyanins were detected within white and yellow group. At the same time a possible flavonoid biosynthesis pathway of tropical water lily was presumed putatively. These studies will help to elucidate the evolution mechanism on the formation of flower colors and provide theoretical basis for outcross breeding and developing health care products from this plant. PMID:22485167

Zhu, Manlan; Zheng, Xuchen; Shu, Qingyan; Li, Hui; Zhong, Peixing; Zhang, Huijin; Xu, Yanjun; Wang, Lijin; Wang, Liangsheng

2012-01-01

38

Relationship between the Composition of Flavonoids and Flower Colors Variation in Tropical Water Lily (Nymphaea) Cultivars  

PubMed Central

Water lily, the member of the Nymphaeaceae family, is the symbol of Buddhism and Brahmanism in India. Despite its limited researches on flower color variations and formation mechanism, water lily has background of blue flowers and displays an exceptionally wide diversity of flower colors from purple, red, blue to yellow, in nature. In this study, 34 flavonoids were identified among 35 tropical cultivars by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode array detection (DAD) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Among them, four anthocyanins: delphinidin 3-O-rhamnosyl-5-O-galactoside (Dp3Rh5Ga), delphinidin 3-O-(2?-O-galloyl-6?-O-oxalyl-rhamnoside) (Dp3galloyl-oxalylRh), delphinidin 3-O-(6?-O-acetyl-?-glucopyranoside) (Dp3acetylG) and cyanidin 3- O-(2?-O-galloyl-galactopyranoside)-5-O-rhamnoside (Cy3galloylGa5Rh), one chalcone: chalcononaringenin 2?-O-galactoside (Chal2?Ga) and twelve flavonols: myricetin 7-O-rhamnosyl-(1?2)-rhamnoside (My7RhRh), quercetin 7-O-galactosyl-(1?2)-rhamnoside (Qu7GaRh), quercetin 7-O-galactoside (Qu7Ga), kaempferol 7-O-galactosyl-(1?2)-rhamnoside (Km7GaRh), myricetin 3-O-galactoside (My3Ga), kaempferol 7-O-galloylgalactosyl-(1?2)-rhamnoside (Km7galloylGaRh), myricetin 3-O-galloylrhamnoside (My3galloylRh), kaempferol 3-O-galactoside (Km3Ga), isorhamnetin 7-O-galactoside (Is7Ga), isorhamnetin 7-O-xyloside (Is7Xy), kaempferol 3-O-(3?-acetylrhamnoside) (Km3-3?acetylRh) and quercetin 3-O-acetylgalactoside (Qu3acetylGa) were identified in the petals of tropic water lily for the first time. Meanwhile a multivariate analysis was used to explore the relationship between pigments and flower color. By comparing, the cultivars which were detected delphinidin 3-galactoside (Dp3Ga) presented amaranth, and detected delphinidin 3?-galactoside (Dp3?Ga) presented blue. However, the derivatives of delphinidin and cyanidin were more complicated in red group. No anthocyanins were detected within white and yellow group. At the same time a possible flavonoid biosynthesis pathway of tropical water lily was presumed putatively. These studies will help to elucidate the evolution mechanism on the formation of flower colors and provide theoretical basis for outcross breeding and developing health care products from this plant. PMID:22485167

Zhu, Manlan; Zheng, Xuchen; Shu, Qingyan; Li, Hui; Zhong, Peixing; Zhang, Huijin; Xu, Yanjun; Wang, Lijin; Wang, Liangsheng

2012-01-01

39

Flowers & Pollinators Flowers as resources  

E-print Network

Flowers & Pollinators Flowers as resources How flowers "control" plant mating Evolution of pollinator interactions #12;Diversity of Floral Form and Function · Why are flowers so diverse? ­ Form ­ Color ­ Size ­ Arrangement ­ Sexual function · Selection by pollinators? #12;Wind pollination

Cruzan, Mitchell B.

40

Relative Role of Flower Color and Scent on Pollinator Attraction: Experimental Tests using F1 and F2 Hybrids of Daylily and Nightlily  

PubMed Central

The daylily (Hemerocallis fulva) and nightlily (H. citrina) are typical examples of a butterfly-pollination system and a hawkmoth-pollination system, respectively. H. fulva has diurnal, reddish or orange-colored flowers and is mainly pollinated by diurnal swallowtail butterflies. H. citrina has nocturnal, yellowish flowers with a sweet fragrance and is pollinated by nocturnal hawkmoths. We evaluated the relative roles of flower color and scent on the evolutionary shift from a diurnally flowering ancestor to H. citrina. We conducted a series of experiments that mimic situations in which mutants differing in either flower color, floral scent or both appeared in a diurnally flowering population. An experimental array of 66 potted plants, mixed with 24 plants of H. fulva and 12 plants of either F1 or F2 hybrids, were placed in the field, and visitations of swallowtail butterflies and nocturnal hawkmoths were recorded with camcorders. Swallowtail butterflies preferentially visited reddish or orange-colored flowers and hawkmoths preferentially visited yellowish flowers. Neither swallowtail butterflies nor nocturnal hawkmoths showed significant preferences for overall scent emission. Our results suggest that mutations in flower color would be more relevant to the adaptive shift from a diurnally flowering ancestor to H. citrina than that in floral scent. PMID:22720016

Hirota, Shun K.; Nitta, Kozue; Kim, Yuni; Kato, Aya; Kawakubo, Nobumitsu; Yasumoto, Akiko A.; Yahara, Tetsukazu

2012-01-01

41

Common name Scientific name Flower Color March April May June July August Sept. Oct. Nov. 1. Bloodroot Sanguinaria canadensis White  

E-print Network

Common name Scientific name Flower Color March April May June July August Sept. Oct. Nov. 1-eyed Susan Rudbeckia triloba Yellow 13. Dense Blazing-star Liatris spicata var. spicata Rosy-pink 14. Green Blazing-star Liatris scariosa var. scariosa Rosy-pink 17. White Wood Aster Eurybia divaricata White 18

Mohaghegh, Shahab

42

Consumers' Willingness to Pay for the Color of Salmon: A Choice Experiment with Real Economic Incentives  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most retail markets, sellers post the price and consumers choose which products to buy. We designed an experimental market with posted prices to investigate consumers' willingness to pay for the color of salmon. Salmon fillets varying in color and price were displayed in twenty choice scenarios. In each scenario, the participants chose which of two salmon fillets they wanted

Frode Alfnes; Atle G. Guttormsen; Gro Steine; Kari Kolstad

2006-01-01

43

An experimental test of female choice relative to male structural coloration in eastern bluebirds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several experimental studies have shown that female birds use ornamental melanin and carotenoid plumage coloration as criteria\\u000a in mate choice. Whether females choose mates based on natural variation in structural coloration, however, has not been well\\u000a established. Male eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) display brilliant ultraviolet (UV)-blue plumage coloration on their head, back, wings, and tail, which is positively correlated\\u000a with

Mark Liu; Lynn Siefferman; Geoffrey E. Hill

2007-01-01

44

Observational Conditioning in Flower Choice Copying by Bumblebees (Bombus terrestris): Influence of Observer Distance and Demonstrator Movement  

PubMed Central

Background Bumblebees use information provided inadvertently by conspecifics when deciding between different flower foraging options. Such social learning might be explained by relatively simple associative learning mechanism: the bee may learn to associate conspecifics with nectar or pollen reward through previous experience of foraging jointly. However, in some studies, observers were guided by choices of demonstrators viewed through a screen, so no reward was given to the observers at the time of seeing other bees flowers choice and no demonstrator bee was present at the moment of decision. This behaviour, referred to observational conditioning, implies an additional associative step as the positive value of conspecific is transferred to the associated flower. Here we explore the role of demonstrator movement, and the distance between observers and demonstrators that is required for observation conditioning to take place. Methodology/Principal Findings We identify the conditions under which observational conditioning occurs in the widespread European species Bombus terrestris. The presence of artificial demonstrator bees leads to a significant change in individual colour preference toward the indicated colour if demonstrators were moving and observation distance was limited (15 cm), suggesting that observational conditioning could only influence relatively short-range foraging decisions. In addition, the movement of demonstrators is a crucial factor for observational conditioning, either due to the more life-like appearance of moving artificial bees or an enhanced detectability of moving demonstrators, and an increased efficiency at directing attention to the indicated flower colour. Conclusion Bumblebees possess the capacity to learn the quality of a flower by distal observation of other foragers choices. This confirms that social learning in bees involves more advanced processes than simple associative learning, and indicates that observational conditioning might be widespread in pollinating insects, raising intriguing questions for the underlying mechanisms as well as the spread of social information in pollinator-plant interactions. PMID:24516654

Avargues-Weber, Aurore; Chittka, Lars

2014-01-01

45

Rational choices for the wavelengths of a two color interferometer  

SciTech Connect

If in a two color interferometer for plasma density measurements, the two wavelengths are chosen to have a ratio that is a rational number, and if the signals from each of the wavelengths are multiplied in frequency by the appropriate integer of the rational number and then heterodyned together, the resultant signal will have all effects of component motion nulled out. A phase measurement of this signal will have only plasma density information in it. With CO{sub 2} lasers, it is possible to find suitable wavelength pairs which are close enough to rational numbers to produce an improvement of about 100 in density resolution, compared to standard two color interferometers.

Jobes, F.C.

1995-07-01

46

Flower Engineers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on pages 24-29) combines science and art to introduce learners to how different animal pollinators spread pollen from one plant to another, and how certain shapes, colors, and smells of different flowers attract particular pollinators. In Part One, learners draw and label a flower based on a Pollinator Chart, then build the flower. In Part Two, learners survey others in their class or group to see if they can tell which kinds of pollinator their model flower would attract.

Museum, University O.; Nebraska Cooperative Extension 4-H Youth Development

2001-01-01

47

Altered trans-regulatory control of gene expression in multiple anthocyanin genes contributes to adaptive flower color evolution in Mimulus aurantiacus.  

PubMed

A fundamental goal in evolutionary biology is to identify the molecular changes responsible for adaptive evolution. In this study, we describe a genetic analysis to determine whether the molecular changes contributing to adaptive flower color divergence in Mimulus aurantiacus affect gene expression or enzymatic activity. High performance liquid chromatography analysis confirms that flower color differences are caused by the presence versus absence of anthocyanin pigments. Cosegregation analysis and in vitro enzymatic assays rule out mutations that affect enzymatic function in the anthocyanin pathway genes. By contrast, cosegregation of gene expression with flower color suggests that tissue-specific differences in pigment production are caused by the coordinated regulatory control of three anthocyanin pathway genes. We provide evidence indicating that these expression differences are caused by a locus that acts in trans- and explains 45% of the phenotypic variance in flower color. A second locus with sequence similarity to the R2R3 MYB family of transcription factors explains 9% of the variation but does so in a complex fashion. These results demonstrate one of only two examples where we have clear evidence of both the adaptive nature of a flower color transition and evidence for its genetic basis. In both cases, mutations appear to affect expression of the anthocyanin structural genes. Future studies will allow us to determine whether these differences represent a real bias in favor of mutations that affect gene expression. PMID:19029190

Streisfeld, Matthew A; Rausher, Mark D

2009-02-01

48

Molecular Analysis of Anthocyanin Biosynthetic Genes and Control of Flower Coloration by Flavonoid 3?,5?Hydroxylase (F3?5?H) in Dendrobium moniliforme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dendrobium moniliforme is a native species of Korea. The flower of this species is composed of a reproductive column and white perianths including\\u000a petals, sepals and lip, but the base of the column bears reddish purple pigment spots. Anthocyanins are major pigments that\\u000a contribute flower color in Dendrobium. Three key anthocyanin biosynthetic genes encoding dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), chalcone synthase (CHS),

Sung Soo Whang; Wan Sook Um; In-Ja Song; Pyung Ok Lim; Kyung Choi; Kwang-Woo Park; Kyung-Won Kang; Mi Sun Choi; Ja Choon Koo

2011-01-01

49

Mapping individual variation in male mating preference space: multiple choice in a color polymorphic cichlid fish.  

PubMed

Sexual selection theory largely rests on the assumption that populations contain individual variation in mating preferences and that individuals are consistent in their preferences. However, there are few empirical studies of within-population variation and even fewer have examined individual male mating preferences. Here, we studied a color polymorphic population of the Lake Victoria cichlid fish Neochromis omnicaeruleus, a species in which color morphs are associated with different sex-determining factors. Wild-caught males were tested in three-way choice trials with multiple combinations of different females belonging to the three color morphs. Compositional log-ratio techniques were applied to analyze individual male mating preferences. Large individual variation in consistency, strength, and direction of male mating preferences for female color morphs was found and hierarchical clustering of the compositional data revealed the presence of four distinct preference groups corresponding to the three color morphs in addition to a no-preference class. Consistency of individual male mating preferences was higher in males with strongest preferences. We discuss the implications of these findings for our understanding of the mechanisms underlying polymorphism in mating preferences. PMID:19473391

Pierotti, Michele E R; Martn-Fernndez, Josep A; Seehausen, Ole

2009-09-01

50

Ferric ions involved in the flower color development of the Himalayan blue poppy, Meconopsis grandis.  

PubMed

The Himalayan blue poppy, Meconopsis grandis, has sky blue-colored petals, although the anthocyanidin nucleus of the petal pigment is cyanidin. The blue color development in this blue poppy involving ferric ions was therefore studied. We analyzed the vacuolar pH, and the organic and inorganic components of the colored cells. A direct measurement by a proton-selective microelectrode revealed that the vacuolar pH value was 4.8. The concentrations of the total anthocyanins in the colored cells were around 5mM, and ca. three times more concentrated flavonols were detected. Fe was detected by atomic analysis of the colored cells, and the ratio of Fe to anthocyanins was ca. 0.8 eq. By mixing the anthocyanin, flavonol and metal ion components in a buffered aq. solution at pH 5.0, we were able to reproduce the same blue color; the visible absorption spectrum and CD were identical to those in the petals, with Fe(3+), Mg(2+) and flavonol being essential for the blue color. The blue pigment in Meconopsis should be a new type of metal complex pigment that is different from a stoichiometric supramolecular pigment such as commelinin or protocyanin. PMID:16678868

Yoshida, Kumi; Kitahara, Sayoko; Ito, Daisuke; Kondo, Tadao

2006-05-01

51

A single-base substitution suppresses flower color mutation caused by a novel miniature inverted-repeat transposable element in gentian.  

PubMed

We investigated the genetic basis for the derivation of pink coloration in petals from blue flowers in cultivated gentians. Using a revertant blue-flower phenotype that arose spontaneously from a pink-flowered cultivar, we sought to elucidate the molecular mechanism of flower color restoration caused by a suppressor mutation. Detailed sequencing analysis identified three novel deficient flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) alleles in pink-flowered gentians in addition to two mutations identified previously (Nakatsuka et al. in Mol Genet Genomics 275:231-241, 2006). Among the deficient alleles, one allele that contained a novel miniature inverted-repeat transposable element (GtMITE1) insertion in an intron of F3'5'H was shown to cause missplicing, resulting in abnormal F3'5'H transcripts and the pink-flower phenotype. The other two mutations were identified as a single-nucleotide insertion and gypsy-Ty3 retrotransposon (Tgt1) insertion within exon 1 and exon 2 of the F3'5'H gene, respectively. The blue-flowered revertant mutant contained a single-nucleotide spontaneous mutation immediately 3' of the TAA target site duplication and the GtMITE1 insertion, which caused restoration of normal splicing of F3'5'H and the normal blue-flower phenotype. Transient expression assays in gentian flowers in vivo demonstrated that normal F3'5'H splicing pattern was recovered from missplicing induced by the GtMITE1 insertion by the single-nucleotide substitution. These findings extend our knowledge of genomic evolution by transposable elements and spontaneous mutations in Gentiana species of economic and medical importance. PMID:22002873

Nishihara, Masahiro; Hikage, Takashi; Yamada, Eri; Nakatsuka, Takashi

2011-12-01

52

It is a delight to observe hummingbirds feeding from garden flowers. With striking colors,  

E-print Network

(Archilochus colubris). Notice the ruby-colored throat of the male (above). Hummingbirds in Your Backyard #12-throated Hummingbird (Archilochus colu- bris) that makes an occasional appearance. The Ruby-throated Hummingbird

Jawitz, James W.

53

Altered trans-Regulatory Control of Gene Expression in Multiple Anthocyanin Genes Contributes to Adaptive Flower Color Evolution in Mimulus aurantiacus  

E-print Network

Altered trans-Regulatory Control of Gene Expression in Multiple Anthocyanin Genes Contributes to Adaptive Flower Color Evolution in Mimulus aurantiacus Matthew A. Streisfeld and Mark D. Rausher Department responsible for adaptive evolution. In this study, we describe a genetic analysis to determine whether

Oregon, University of

54

Anthocyanin components and mechanism for color development in blue Veronica flowers.  

PubMed

3-Di-p-coumaroylsophoroside-5-malonylglucoside and its demalonyl derivative were isolated from blue petals of Veronica persica Poiret. Blue, violet and purple cells coexist in the petal. These colors might be due to the varying pH of the vacuole between 5 and 7 unit. Only the demalonylated pigment was detected in the blue anthers. PMID:19809174

Mori, Mihoko; Kondo, Tadao; Yoshida, Kumi

2009-10-01

55

Do flower color and floral scent of silene species affect host preference of Hadena bicruris, a seed-eating pollinator, under field conditions?  

PubMed

Specialization in plant-insect interactions is an important driver of evolutionary divergence; yet, plant traits mediating such interactions are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated how flower color and floral scent are related to seed predation by a seed-eating pollinator. We used field-transplanted recombinant F2 hybrids between Silene latifolia and S. dioica that are the preferred and alternative hosts of the moth Hadena bicruris and crosses within these species for comparison. We scored seed predation and flower color and analyzed floral scent. Pinker S. dioica-like flowers and emission of ?-pinene decreased the odds of seed predation while emission of benzyl acetate and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one increased the odds of seed predation. Emission of these compounds did not differ significantly between the two Silene species. Our results suggest that flower color plays an important role in the specific interaction of H. bicruris with its preferred host S. latifolia. The compounds ?-pinene, benzyl acetate and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one could represent non-specific deterrents and attractants to ovipositing moths. Alternatively, emission of these compounds could be related to herbivory or pathogen attack and act as a signal for host quality. This would weaken the predictability of the plant's costs and benefits of the interaction and act to maintain an imperfect degree of specialization. PMID:24905986

Page, Paul; Favre, Adrien; Schiestl, Florian P; Karrenberg, Sophie

2014-01-01

56

Do Flower Color and Floral Scent of Silene Species affect Host Preference of Hadena bicruris, a Seed-Eating Pollinator, under Field Conditions?  

PubMed Central

Specialization in plantinsect interactions is an important driver of evolutionary divergence; yet, plant traits mediating such interactions are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated how flower color and floral scent are related to seed predation by a seed-eating pollinator. We used field-transplanted recombinant F2 hybrids between Silene latifolia and S. dioica that are the preferred and alternative hosts of the moth Hadena bicruris and crosses within these species for comparison. We scored seed predation and flower color and analyzed floral scent. Pinker S. dioica-like flowers and emission of ?-pinene decreased the odds of seed predation while emission of benzyl acetate and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one increased the odds of seed predation. Emission of these compounds did not differ significantly between the two Silene species. Our results suggest that flower color plays an important role in the specific interaction of H. bicruris with its preferred host S. latifolia. The compounds ?-pinene, benzyl acetate and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one could represent non-specific deterrents and attractants to ovipositing moths. Alternatively, emission of these compounds could be related to herbivory or pathogen attack and act as a signal for host quality. This would weaken the predictability of the plant's costs and benefits of the interaction and act to maintain an imperfect degree of specialization. PMID:24905986

Page, Paul; Favre, Adrien; Schiestl, Florian P.; Karrenberg, Sophie

2014-01-01

57

Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using this project will expose you to concepts of color, color wheels, color combinations, and techniques of using color. Use the following links, follow the directions to define color terms, create color schemes and explore the use of color in creating designs. Color Scheme Generator 2 This site identifiesbasic terms related to color, using acolor wheeland making color schemes. Color Theory This site explains terminology of color. Color Theory Tutorial This site gives excellent examples and information about ...

Dent, Mrs.

2010-03-23

58

The effect of male coloration on female mate choice in closely related Lake Victoria cichlids ( Haplochromis nyererei complex)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effect of male coloration on interspecific female mate choice in two closely related species of haplochromine\\u000a cichlids from Lake Victoria. The species differ primarily in male coloration. Males of one species are red, those of the other\\u000a are blue. We recorded the behavioral responses of females to males of both species in paired male trials under white

Ole Seehausen; Jacques J. M. van Alphen

1998-01-01

59

Local adaptation and matching habitat choice in female barn owls with respect to melanic coloration.  

PubMed

Local adaptation is a major mechanism underlying the maintenance of phenotypic variation in spatially heterogeneous environments. In the barn owl (Tyto alba), dark and pale reddish-pheomelanic individuals are adapted to conditions prevailing in northern and southern Europe, respectively. Using a long-term dataset from Central Europe, we report results consistent with the hypothesis that the different pheomelanic phenotypes are adapted to specific local conditions in females, but not in males. Compared to whitish females, reddish females bred in sites surrounded by more arable fields and less forests. Colour-dependent habitat choice was apparently beneficial. First, whitish females produced more fledglings when breeding in wooded areas, whereas reddish females when breeding in sites with more arable fields. Second, cross-fostering experiments showed that female nestlings grew wings more rapidly when both their foster and biological mothers were of similar colour. The latter result suggests that mothers should particularly produce daughters in environments that best match their own coloration. Accordingly, whiter females produced fewer daughters in territories with more arable fields. In conclusion, females displaying alternative melanic phenotypes bred in habitats providing them with the highest fitness benefits. Although small in magnitude, matching habitat selection and local adaptation may help maintain variation in pheomelanin coloration in the barn owl. PMID:22070193

Dreiss, A N; Antoniazza, S; Burri, R; Fumagalli, L; Sonnay, C; Frey, C; Goudet, J; Roulin, Alexandre

2012-01-01

60

Choice.  

PubMed

Understanding how and why analysands make the choices they do is central to both the clinical and the theoretical projects of psychoanalysis. And yet we know very little about the process of choice or about the relationship between choices and motives. A striking parallel is to be found between the ways choice is narrated in ancient Greek texts and the experience of analysts as they observe patients making choices in everyday clinical work. Pursuing this convergence of classical and contemporary sensibilities will illuminate crucial elements of the various meanings of choice, and of the way that these meanings change over the course of psychoanalytic treatment. PMID:18802123

Greenberg, Jay

2008-09-01

61

Wide variety of flower-color and -shape mutants regenerated from leaf cultures irradiated with ion beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efficiency of ion-beam irradiation combined with tissue culture in obtaining floral mutants was investigated and compared with those of gamma rays and X-rays in carnation. Leaf segments of carnation plants in vitro were irradiated with the 220 MeV carbon ions, and cultured till the shoot regenerated. The carbon ion had the highest effect in reducing the regeneration frequency, and the RBE value with respect to gamma-rays was four. The higher mutation frequency and the wider mutation spectrum were obtained in plants irradiated with the carbon ions than low LET radiations. Three new carnation varieties developed by ion-beam irradiation were applied for the registration of the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. The results indicate that ion beam irradiation could induce wide variety of flower-color and -shape mutants, and that the combined method of ion-beam irradiation with tissue culture is useful to obtain the commercial varieties in a short time.

Okamura, M.; Yasuno, N.; Ohtsuka, M.; Tanaka, A.; Shikazono, N.; Hase, Y.

2003-05-01

62

Sexual Dimorphism of Staminate- and Pistillate-Phase Flowers of Saponaria officinalis (Bouncing Bet) Affects Pollinator Behavior and Seed Set  

PubMed Central

The sequential separation of male and female function in flowers of dichogamous species allows for the evolution of differing morphologies that maximize fitness through seed siring and seed set. We examined staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of protandrous Saponaria officinalis for dimorphism in floral traits and their effects on pollinator attraction and seed set. Pistillate-phase flowers have larger petals, greater mass, and are pinker in color, but due to a shape change, pistillate-phase flowers have smaller corolla diameters than staminate-phase flowers. There was no difference in nectar volume or sugar content one day after anthesis, and minimal evidence for UV nectar guide patterns in staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers. When presented with choice arrays, pollinators discriminated against pistillate-phase flowers based on their pink color. Finally, in an experimental garden, in 2012 there was a negative correlation between seed set of an open-pollinated, emasculated flower and pinkness (as measured by reflectance spectrometry) of a pistillate-phase flower on the same plant in plots covered with shade cloth. In 2013, clones of genotypes chosen from the 2012 plants that produced pinker flowers had lower seed set than those from genotypes with paler flowers. Lower seed set of pink genotypes was found in open-pollinated and hand-pollinated flowers, indicating the lower seed set might be due to other differences between pink and pale genotypes in addition to pollinator discrimination against pink flowers. In conclusion, staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of S. officinalis are dimorphic in shape and color. Pollinators discriminate among flowers based on these differences, and individuals whose pistillate-phase flowers are most different in color from their staminate-phase flowers make fewer seeds. We suggest morphological studies of the two sex phases in dichogamous, hermaphroditic species can contribute to understanding the evolution of sexual dimorphism in plants without the confounding effects of genetic differences between separate male and female individuals. PMID:24690875

Davis, Sandra L.; Dudle, Dana A.; Nawrocki, Jenna R.; Freestone, Leah M.; Konieczny, Peter; Tobin, Michael B.; Britton, Michael M.

2014-01-01

63

Sexual dimorphism of staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of Saponaria officinalis (bouncing bet) affects pollinator behavior and seed set.  

PubMed

The sequential separation of male and female function in flowers of dichogamous species allows for the evolution of differing morphologies that maximize fitness through seed siring and seed set. We examined staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of protandrous Saponaria officinalis for dimorphism in floral traits and their effects on pollinator attraction and seed set. Pistillate-phase flowers have larger petals, greater mass, and are pinker in color, but due to a shape change, pistillate-phase flowers have smaller corolla diameters than staminate-phase flowers. There was no difference in nectar volume or sugar content one day after anthesis, and minimal evidence for UV nectar guide patterns in staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers. When presented with choice arrays, pollinators discriminated against pistillate-phase flowers based on their pink color. Finally, in an experimental garden, in 2012 there was a negative correlation between seed set of an open-pollinated, emasculated flower and pinkness (as measured by reflectance spectrometry) of a pistillate-phase flower on the same plant in plots covered with shade cloth. In 2013, clones of genotypes chosen from the 2012 plants that produced pinker flowers had lower seed set than those from genotypes with paler flowers. Lower seed set of pink genotypes was found in open-pollinated and hand-pollinated flowers, indicating the lower seed set might be due to other differences between pink and pale genotypes in addition to pollinator discrimination against pink flowers. In conclusion, staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of S. officinalis are dimorphic in shape and color. Pollinators discriminate among flowers based on these differences, and individuals whose pistillate-phase flowers are most different in color from their staminate-phase flowers make fewer seeds. We suggest morphological studies of the two sex phases in dichogamous, hermaphroditic species can contribute to understanding the evolution of sexual dimorphism in plants without the confounding effects of genetic differences between separate male and female individuals. PMID:24690875

Davis, Sandra L; Dudle, Dana A; Nawrocki, Jenna R; Freestone, Leah M; Konieczny, Peter; Tobin, Michael B; Britton, Michael M

2014-01-01

64

Reverted glutathione S-transferase-like genes that influence flower color intensity of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) originated from excision of a transposable element  

PubMed Central

A glutathione S-transferase-like gene, DcGSTF2, is responsible for carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower color intensity. Two defective genes, DcGSTF2mu with a nonsense mutation and DcGSTF2-dTac1 containing a transposable element dTac1, have been characterized in detail in this report. dTac1 is an active element that produces reverted functional genes by excision of the element. A pale-pink cultivar Daisy carries both defective genes, whereas a spontaneous deep-colored mutant Daisy-VPR lost the element from DcGSTF2-dTac1. This finding confirmed that dTac1 is active and that the resulting reverted gene, DcGSTF2rev1, missing the element is responsible for this color change. Crosses between the pale-colored cultivar 06-LA and a deep-colored cultivar Spectrum produced segregating progeny. Only the deep-colored progeny had DcGSTF2rev2 derived from the Spectrum parent, whereas progeny with pale-colored flowers had defective forms from both parents, DcGSTF2mu and DcGSTF2-dTac1. Thus, DcGSTF2rev2 had functional activity and likely originated from excision of dTac1 since there was a footprint sequence at the vacated site of the dTac1 insertion. Characterizing the DcGSTF2 genes in several cultivars revealed that the two functional genes, DcGSTF2rev1 and DcGSTF2rev2, have been used for some time in carnation breeding with the latter in use for more than half a century. PMID:24399917

Momose, Masaki; Itoh, Yoshio; Umemoto, Naoyuki; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

2013-01-01

65

Variability in color-choice Stroop performance within and across EEG and MRI laboratory contexts.  

PubMed

To examine the reproducibility of the Stroop effect, behavioral data from 22 healthy female individuals were repeatedly (three-month interval between two separate measurement sessions) obtained while performing a color-choice Stroop task under realistic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) laboratory conditions. At the group statistical level, the Stroop effect, indicated by longer response times for incongruent than for congruent stimulus conditions, was consistently present for almost all examined measurement levels. However, differential effects of laboratory contexts on retest reproducibility were observed across repeated measurement levels, both within and between sessions. These results challenge existing theories about the underlying nature of Stroop interference processing. It appears necessary to apply a multitheoretical approach, because intraindividual variability within and across measurement sessions suggests potential fluctuations in the individual mental strategies applied, recruitment of varying memory resources, the influence of mediator variables such as working memory capacity and/or attention, and many more possible variations. Single-observation studies run the risk of favoring a single theoretical concept and therefore underestimating the individual factor. We further conclude that dependent analysis-of-variance statistics are a more fit test for reproducibility than are correlative reliability estimations. PMID:25085739

Fehr, T; Wiechert, J; Erhard, P

2014-11-01

66

Niche overlap and diet breadth in bumblebees; are rare species more specialized in their choice of flowers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecology of all bumblebees (Bombus spp.) is similar, yet some species have declined greatly while others remain abundant. We examine whether abundance is related to diet breadth. The floral visits of bumblebees were examined on Salisbury Plain, UK. All of the species examined gathered pollen mostly from Fabaceae. All species gathered nectar from a broader range of flowers than

Dave Goulson; Ben Darvill

2004-01-01

67

FEMALE MATE CHOICE IN RELATION TO STRUCTURAL PLUMAGE COLORATION IN BLUE GROSBEAKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plumage blueness in Blue Grosbeaks (Passerina caerulea) is related to nutritional condition during molt, and bluer males hold larger territories with more food resources. We tested the hypothesis that females use male plumage brightness as a criterion in choosing mates. In a mate-choice aviary, we pre- sented females with a choice between males whose feathers were either brightened with blue

Barbara Ballentine; Geoffrey E. Hill

2003-01-01

68

The b Gene of Pea Encodes a Defective Flavonoid 3?,5?-Hydroxylase, and Confers Pink Flower Color1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

The inheritance of flower color in pea (Pisum sativum) has been studied for more than a century, but many of the genes corresponding to these classical loci remain unidentified. Anthocyanins are the main flower pigments in pea. These are generated via the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway, which has been studied in detail and is well conserved among higher plants. A previous proposal that the Clariroseus (B) gene of pea controls hydroxylation at the 5? position of the B ring of flavonoid precursors of the anthocyanins suggested to us that the gene encoding flavonoid 3?,5?-hydroxylase (F3?5?H), the enzyme that hydroxylates the 5? position of the B ring, was a good candidate for B. In order to test this hypothesis, we examined mutants generated by fast neutron bombardment. We found allelic pink-flowered b mutant lines that carried a variety of lesions in an F3?5?H gene, including complete gene deletions. The b mutants lacked glycosylated delphinidin and petunidin, the major pigments present in the progenitor purple-flowered wild-type pea. These results, combined with the finding that the F3?5?H gene cosegregates with b in a genetic mapping population, strongly support our hypothesis that the B gene of pea corresponds to a F3?5?H gene. The molecular characterization of genes involved in pigmentation in pea provides valuable anchor markers for comparative legume genomics and will help to identify differences in anthocyanin biosynthesis that lead to variation in pigmentation among legume species. PMID:22492867

Moreau, Carol; Ambrose, Mike J.; Turner, Lynda; Hill, Lionel; Ellis, T.H. Noel; Hofer, Julie M.I.

2012-01-01

69

Mood color choice helps to predict response to hypnotherapy in patients with irritable bowel syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Approximately two thirds of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) respond well to hypnotherapy. However, it is time consuming as well as expensive to provide and therefore a way of predicting outcome would be extremely useful. The use of imagery and color form an integral part of the hypnotherapeutic process and we have hypothesised that investigating color and how it relates to mood might help to predict response to treatment. In order to undertake this study we have previously developed and validated a method of presenting colors to individuals for research purposes called the Manchester Color Wheel (MCW). Using this instrument we have been able to classify colors into positive, neutral and negative shades and this study aimed to assess their predictive role in hypnotherapy. Methods 156 consecutive IBS patients (aged 14-74, mean 42.0 years, 127 (81%) females, 29 (19%) males) were studied. Before treatment, each patient was asked to relate their mood to a color on the MCW as well as completing the IBS Symptom Severity Score, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) Scale, the Non-colonic Symptom Scale, the Quality of Life Scale and the Tellegen Absorption Scale (TAS) which is a measure of hypnotisability. Following hypnotherapy all these measures were repeated with the exception of the TAS. Results For patients with a positive mood color the odds of responding to hypnotherapy were nine times higher than that of those choosing either a neutral or negative color or no color at all (odds ratio: 8.889; p = 0.042). Furthermore, a high TAS score and the presence of HAD anxiety also had good predictive value (odds ratio: 4.024; p = 0.092, 3.917; p < 0.001 respectively) with these markers and a positive mood color being independent of each other. In addition, these factors could be combined to give an even stronger prediction of outcome. Twice as many responders (63, 77.8%) had a positive mood color or were anxious or had a high TAS score compared with 32 (42.7%) without these factors (p < 0.001). Conclusion A positive mood color, especially when combined with HAD anxiety and a high TAS score, predict a good response to hypnotherapy. PMID:21138549

2010-01-01

70

Glowing Flowers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Student teams learn about engineering design of green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) and their use in medical research, including stem cell research. They simulate the use of GFPs by adding fluorescent dye to water and letting a flower or plant to transport the dye throughout its structure. Students apply their knowledge of GFPs to engineering applications in the medical, environmental and space exploration fields. Due to the fluorescing nature of the dye, plant life of any color, light or dark, can be used unlike dyes that can only be seen in visible light.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

71

Female mate choice and male red coloration in a natural three-spined  

E-print Network

aculeatus) population Theo C. M. Bakker Beat Mundwiler Universitat Bern, Zoologisches Institut, Abt, presence of eggs in the nest, and nesting early in the repro- ductive season (Goldschmidt and Bakker, 1990-colored males in simultaneous (McLennan, 1991; McLennan and McPhail, 1990; Milinski and Bakker, 1990

72

COLORS!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project, students will learn about primary, secondary, and complementary colors. After exploring a few sites and participating in a few deep questions as a class, they will create an optical illusion using complimentary colors. Younger students who are learning this unit will need to do this activity with a parent or as a class with a teacher or aide. INTRODUCTION: Questions to discuss with the students: 1. What colors do you see in this room? 2. What are some jobs that use colors? An Artist? Decorator? ...

Sarah

2009-09-28

73

Color-Changing Carnations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners place cut flowers in colored water and observe how the flowers change. The flowers absorb the water through the stem and leaves. By watching the journey of harmless food coloring, learners can see all the places water goes in a plant.

Museum Of Science And Industry, Chicago

2012-01-01

74

Tissue culture-induced flower-color changes in Saintpaulia caused by excision of the transposon inserted in the flavonoid 3', 5' hydroxylase (F3'5'H) promoter.  

PubMed

The variegated Saintpaulia cultivar Thamires (Saintpaulia sp.), which has pink petals with blue splotches, is generally maintained by leaf cuttings. In contrast, tissue culture-derived progeny of the cultivar showed not only a high percentage of mutants with solid-blue petals but also other solid-color variants, which have not been observed from leaf cuttings. Solid-color phenotypes were inherited stably by their progeny from tissue culture. Petals from each solid-color variant were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and shown to contain different proportions of three main anthocyanin derivatives: malvidin, peonidin, and pelargonidin. Analysis of flavonoid 3', 5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) sequences showed no differences in the coding region among the variants and variegated individuals. However, a transposon belonging to the hAT superfamily was found in the promoter region of variegated individuals, and the presence of transposon-related insertions or deletions correlated with the observed flower-color phenotypes. Solid-blue flower mutants contained 8-base pair (bp) insertions (transposon excision footprints), while solid-pink mutants had 58- to 70-bp insertions, and purple- and deep-purple mutants had 21- and 24-bp deletions, respectively. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that F3'5'H expression levels correlated with insertions and deletions (indels) caused by hAT excision, resulting in flower-color differences. Our results showed that tissue culture of Saintpaulia 'Thamires' elicits transposon excision, which in turn alters F3'5'H expression levels and flower colors. PMID:21293860

Sato, Mitsuru; Kawabe, Takashi; Hosokawa, Munetaka; Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Doi, Motoaki

2011-05-01

75

Hibiscus flower  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The flower is the reproductive structure of the angiosperms. Many angiosperms need insects to transfer pollen from one flower to the stigma of another. After fertilization, the ovules inside the flower develop into seeds. Enclosed seeds distinguish angiosperms from gymnosperms.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-13

76

Apple Scab of Flowering Crabapples  

E-print Network

Apple Scab of Flowering Crabapples Flowering crabapples add color and beauty to many home leaves and defoliation by early summer. The cause of this problem is a fungus disease known as apple scab. The same disease is also a common problem on eating apples, refer to BP-1 (Apple Scab in the Home Fruit

77

Abstract The effect of two components of male court-ship, color and display behavior, on female choice of  

E-print Network

pigment (C and NC), and a dynamic trait, high and low display rate (HD and LD), on female response preferred animations with high display rates when both animations displayed color (CHD vs CLD and the no-color/high-display animation when the two were paired. Conversely, color became a criterion

Kodric-Brown, Astrid

78

Flower Powder  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity, learners use artificial bees and paper models of flowers to find out how bees transfer pollen from one flower to another. Background information discusses bees and other pollinators such as hummingbirds and butterflies, and describes the way bees move pollen around. Learners use pollen boards to pick up pollen from real flowers, make paper flowers to learn how real flowers are structured, use model flowers and artificial bees to act out bees visiting flowers for pollen, and use artificial bees to collect real pollen. Learners are asked to consider other kinds of pollination (wind, water or larger animals) and the impact on pollination when bees are killed with insect poison.

Science, Lawrence H.

1979-01-01

79

Colorful Collage: Visions of Flowers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The technique of what people today call "collage" is not new. In Victorian times, elaborate art was created from bristly horsehair as a type of collage. The modern collage dates to the early 1900s when Picasso pasted newspaper on a drawing. In 1919 Karl Schwitters, a German artist, developed collage into an art form that was as important as

Skophammer, Karen

2011-01-01

80

Composite Flowers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, part of Jim Conrad's Backyard Nature Plant web page, discusses this very large family of plants, which includes the sunflower, dandelion, and chrysanthemum. Here you will find information about the composite family's flower structure and the three kinds of composite flowers: ray only, disk only, and ray and disk. There is also a section on how to analyze disk and ray flower structures.

Conrad, Jim

2007-12-17

81

Laboratory analysis of flower constancy in foraging bumblebees: Bombus ternarius and B. terricola  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.We established apparently normal foraging behavior in captive bumblebees utilizing artificial flowers. Syrup rewards of flowers visited were experimentally manipulated to correspond to nectar volumes found in flowers utilized in the field.2.Bees became >90% flower-constant to either of two flower types (distinguished by color) when rewarded with 1.0 l 50% sucrose at each visit to flowers of one color, while

Bernd Heinrich; Patricia R. Mudge; Pamela G. Deringis

1977-01-01

82

Flower Fisting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay asks about the fate of flowers in an age of colony collapse disorder and market-driven industrial agriculture. From human hand-pollination to the genetic selection of self-pollinating crops, contemporary responses to CCD bring to ironic conclusion certain tropes of flowers as figures of deceit, mortality, transience, and appearance without substance. Taking \\

Anne-Lise Franois

2011-01-01

83

Colors, Colors?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity related to the famous "Stroop Effect," learners explore how words influence what we see and how the brain handles "mixed messages." Learners read colored words and are asked to say the color of the word, not what the word says. Learners use a data table to keep track of where they have trouble reading the colors. They analyze this data by answering questions and drawing conclusions. Learners can also take this test using the online version.

Songstad, Susan

2009-01-01

84

Inheritance of yellow-flowered characteristic and yellow pigments in diploid cyclamen ( Cyclamen persicum Mill.) cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mode of inheritance of the yellow-flowered phenotype of yellow-flowered cyclamen was investigated. All F1 progenies obtained by reciprocal crosses between yellow- and white-flowered cultivars were white-flowered and did not contain chalcone, the main pigment of yellow-flowered cyclamen. The segregation ratio of flower colors in most of F2 and BC1 progenies fitted the expected Mendelian ratio, showing that the yellow-flowered

Takejiro Takamura; Tsuyoshi Tomihama; Ikuo Miyajima

1995-01-01

85

Anthocyanin pigmentation of lisianthus flower petals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most lisianthus flowers anthocyanin coloration occurs very late in petal development just preceding unfurling of the petals. We have developed through breeding several lisianthus lines in which coloration occurs at a very early developmental stage. Using these lines and lines in which coloration occurs at a late stage, we study the trait of anthocyanin synthesis timing both genetically and

Michal Oren-Shamir; Liat Shaked-Sachray; Ada Nissim-Levi; Ron Ecker

1999-01-01

86

Arabidopsis: Flower Development and  

E-print Network

organ identity during the development of all flowers. See also: Flowers Mutations affecting flowersArabidopsis: Flower Development and Patterning Beth A Krizek, University of South Carolina (ELS) article Arabidopsis: Flower Development and Patterning by John L Bowman The development

Krizek, Beth

87

College Major Choice for Students of Color: Toward a Model of Recruitment for the Agricultural Education Profession  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the reasons students, identifying as non-White, made the decision to pursue a career in agricultural education. This phenomenological study allowed the researchers to obtain the overall phenomenon of the thought processes that encompass decisions of students of color when selecting an

Vincent, Stacy K.; Henry, Anna L.; Anderson, James C., II

2012-01-01

88

Flowers & Weeds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the topics and teaching strategies employed in an Issues in Biology course. Discusses flowers, plant breeding, potatoes and tomatoes, the chocolate tree, weeds, Arabidopis, gene transfers, and plant genes/human genes. Contains 22 references. (JRH)

Flannery, Maura C.

1996-01-01

89

The regulation of carotenoid pigmentation in flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carotenoids fulfill many processes that are essential for normal growth and development in plants, but they are also responsible for the breathtaking variety of red-to-yellow colors we see in flowers and fruits. Although such visual diversity helps to attract pollinators and encourages herbivores to distribute seeds, humans also benefit from the aesthetic properties of flowers and an entire floriculture industry

Changfu Zhu; Chao Bai; Georgina Sanahuja; Dawei Yuan; Gemma Farr; Shaista Naqvi; Lianxuan Shi; Teresa Capell; Paul Christou

2010-01-01

90

Flowering and expression of flowering-related genes under long-day conditions with light-emitting diodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of light quality on flowering time were investigated in Gypsophila paniculata, which is a long-day cut flower, and with Arabidopsis under long-day conditions with light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Gypsophila paniculata plants were grown under natural daylight and flowering was controlled by long-day treatment with a weak LED light of a single\\u000a color in the night. Flowering was promoted not

Yoshimi Hori; Koji Nishidate; Manabu Nishiyama; Koki Kanahama; Yoshinori Kanayama

91

EFFECT OF DENSITY AND FLOWER SIZE ON THE REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS OF NOTHOSCORDUM GRAMINUM (ALLIACEAE) EFECTO DE LA DENSIDAD Y TAMAO FLORAL SOBRE EL EXITO REPRODUCTIVO DE NOTHOSCORDUM GRAMINUM (ALLIACEAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The size, form and color are signals used by flowers to attract their pollinators. Large and showy color flowers usually receive higher pollinators visitation rates. According to the optimal forage theory, pollinators would tend to visit flower patches where they obtain the maximum reward regarding the energy expenditure in flower search. In high density patches, flowers are very close each

Marco A. Molina-Montenegro; Lohengrin A. Cavieres

92

Flowers in Their Variety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the diversity of flowers with regard to the flower paintings of Pierre-Joseph Redoute, books about flowers, and research in genetic studies. Discusses gardening flowers and flowering strategies and criticizes the fact that biology education has moved steadily away from plants. (KHR)

Flannery, Maura C.

2002-01-01

93

Flower diversity and angiosperm diversification.  

PubMed

The flower itself, which comprises most of the evolutionary innovations of flowering plants, bears special significance for understanding the origin and diversification of angiosperms. The sudden origin of angiosperms in the fossil record poses unanswered questions on both the origins of flowering plants and their rapid spread and diversification. Central to these questions is the role that the flower, and floral diversity, played. Recent clarifications of angiosperm phylogeny provide the foundation for investigating evolutionary transitions in floral features and the underlying genetic mechanisms of stasis and change. The general features of floral diversity can best be addressed by considering key patterns of variation: an undifferentiated versus a differentiated perianth; elaboration of perianth organs in size and color; merosity of the flower; and phyllotaxy of floral organs. Various models of gene expression now explain the regulation of floral organization and floral organ identity; the best understood are the ABC(E) model and its modifications, but other gene systems are important in specific clades and require further study. Furthermore, the propensity for gene and genome duplications in angiosperms provides abundant raw material for novel floral features--emphasizing the importance of understanding the conservation and diversification of gene lineages and functions in studies of macroevolution. PMID:24395253

Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E

2014-01-01

94

The regulation of carotenoid pigmentation in flowers.  

PubMed

Carotenoids fulfill many processes that are essential for normal growth and development in plants, but they are also responsible for the breathtaking variety of red-to-yellow colors we see in flowers and fruits. Although such visual diversity helps to attract pollinators and encourages herbivores to distribute seeds, humans also benefit from the aesthetic properties of flowers and an entire floriculture industry has developed on the basis that new and attractive varieties can be produced. Over the last decade, much has been learned about the impact of carotenoid metabolism on flower color development and the molecular basis of flower color. A number of different regulatory mechanisms have been described ranging from the transcriptional regulation of genes involved in carotenoid synthesis to the control of carotenoid storage in sink organs. This means we can now explain many of the natural colorful varieties we see around us and also engineer plants to produce flowers with novel and exciting varieties that are not provided by nature. PMID:20688043

Zhu, Changfu; Bai, Chao; Sanahuja, Georgina; Yuan, Dawei; Farr, Gemma; Naqvi, Shaista; Shi, Lianxuan; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul

2010-12-01

95

Infants' Recognition of Objects Using Canonical Color  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We explored infants' ability to recognize the canonical colors of daily objects, including two color-specific objects (human face and fruit) and a non-color-specific object (flower), by using a preferential looking technique. A total of 58 infants between 5 and 8 months of age were tested with a stimulus composed of two color pictures of an object

Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Yang, Jiale; Otsuka, Yumiko; Dan, Ippeita; Masuda, Tomohiro; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.

2010-01-01

96

Bird-pollinated flowers in an evolutionary and molecular context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolutionary shifts to bird pollination (ornithophily) have occurred independently in many lineages of flowering plants. This shift affects many floral features, particularly those responsible for the attraction of birds, deterrence of illegitimate flower visitors (particularly bees), pro- tection from vigorous foraging by birds, and accurate placement of pollen on bird's bodies. Red coloration appears to play a major role in

Quentin Cronk; Isidro Ojeda

2010-01-01

97

Discovering Flowers in a New Light  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children love observing seeds change as they germinate and grow into tall healthy plants, but how can teachers make investigating plants an exciting and immediate event? Microscopy might just be the answer. Although most students have seen flowers, not many have looked closely at their various structures or seen their colorful designs only

McNall, Rebecca L.; Bell, Randy L.

2004-01-01

98

Design a Hummingbird Flower.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity that engages students in designing and making an artificial flower adapted for pollination by hummingbirds. Students work in teams to design flowers that maximize the benefit from attracting hummingbirds. Examines characteristics of real flowers adapted to pollination by hummingbirds. (DLH)

Bailey, Kim

2002-01-01

99

Bee on flower  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bees visit flowering plants to collect nectar so they can store it as honey back at their hives. As a bee visits one flower after another, pollen collects on its entire body and especially on the legs. Bees help pollinate flowers while they collect nectar. This is a mutualistic behavior.

N/A N/A (None;)

2006-07-15

100

Flower Dissection Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, this site presents a simple Flower Dissection Lab using orchids and composite flowers. This pdf document contains the materials needed and instructions for the lab, as well as a worksheet for students to complete as they dissect their flower.

2007-12-27

101

Sepal phenolic profile during Helleborus niger flower development.  

PubMed

Morphological changes and phenolic patterns of developing hellebore sepals and the effects of pistil removal on these parameters were studied by comparing six flower stages of Helleborus niger. Color changes were evaluated colorimetrically, chlorophyll content was measured spectrophotometrically, and anthocyanins and flavonols were identified and quantified with HPLC-MS. Pistil removal not only altered the morphological development of hellebore flower resulting in smaller flower and significant color changes but also lead to several biochemical modifications. Five cyanidin glycosides have been identified from the group of anthocyanins in hellebore. Individual and total anthocyanin content increased from bud to subsequent developmental stages. Moreover, significantly higher content levels of individual and total anthocyanins have been measured in non-pollinated flower sepals compared to sepals of pollinated flowers. From the group of flavonols eight quercetin and kaempferol compounds have been quantified in hellebore sepals. Flavonol content significantly decreased during flower development with lowest levels recorded in sepals of non-pollinated and senescent pollinated hellebore flowers. Sepals of pollinated flowers contained highest levels of chlorophyll and significantly lower amounts of chlorophyll were measured in non-pollinated flowers and in sepals of senescent stage. PMID:23796521

Schmitzer, Valentina; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Stampar, Franci

2013-11-01

102

Effects of colony need for water on optimal food choice in honey-bees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of flower abundance on foraging selectivity were tested experimentally using honey-bees (Apis mellifera). Individual bees were offered a choice of artificial flowers, each containing either 20% or 40% sucrose solution, in either low or high flower density situations. From May to September an increase in flower density did not result in any statistically significant increase in preference for

Osamu Ohguchi; Kiyoshi Aoki

1983-01-01

103

Yellow flowers generated by expression of the aurone biosynthetic pathway  

PubMed Central

Flower color is most often conferred by colored flavonoid pigments. Aurone flavonoids confer a bright yellow color on flowers such as snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) and dahlia (Dahlia variabilis). A. majus aureusidin synthase (AmAS1) was identified as the key enzyme that catalyzes aurone biosynthesis from chalcones, but transgenic flowers overexpressing AmAS1 gene failed to produce aurones. Here, we report that chalcone 4?-O-glucosyltransferase (4?CGT) is essential for aurone biosynthesis and yellow coloration in vivo. Coexpression of the Am4?CGT and AmAS1 genes was sufficient for the accumulation of aureusidin 6-O-glucoside in transgenic flowers (Torenia hybrida). Furthermore, their coexpression combined with down-regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in yellow flowers. An Am4?CGT-GFP chimeric protein localized in the cytoplasm, whereas the AmAS1(N1-60)-RFP chimeric protein was localized to the vacuole. We therefore conclude that chalcones are 4?-O-glucosylated in the cytoplasm, their 4?-O-glucosides transported to the vacuole, and therein enzymatically converted to aurone 6-O-glucosides. This metabolic pathway is unique among the known examples of flavonoid, including anthocyanin biosynthesis because, for all other compounds, the carbon backbone is completed before transport to the vacuole. Our findings herein not only demonstrate the biochemical basis of aurone biosynthesis but also open the way to engineering yellow flowers for major ornamental species lacking this color variant. PMID:16832053

Ono, Eiichiro; Fukuchi-Mizutani, Masako; Nakamura, Noriko; Fukui, Yuko; Yonekura-Sakakibara, Keiko; Yamaguchi, Masaatsu; Nakayama, Toru; Tanaka, Takaharu; Kusumi, Takaaki; Tanaka, Yoshikazu

2006-01-01

104

Temperate flowering phenology.  

PubMed

Individuals, families, networks, and botanic gardens have made records of flowering times of a wide range of plant species over many years. These data can highlight year to year changes in seasonal events (phenology) and those datasets covering long periods draw interest for their perspective on plant responses to climate change. Temperate flowering phenology is complex, using environmental cues such as temperature and photoperiod to attune flowering to appropriate seasonal conditions. Here we give an overview of flowering phenological recording, outline different patterns of flowering, and look at the interpretation of datasets in relation to seasonal and climatic change. PMID:20576790

Tooke, Fiona; Battey, Nicholas H

2010-06-01

105

Scholarship Awards, College Choice, and Student Engagement in College Activities: A Study of High-Achieving Low-Income Students of Color  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Using two-wave survey data on the 2001 cohort of the Gates Millennium Scholarship (GMS) recipients and comparison nonrecipients, this study examines the relationship between scholarship awards and student engagement in college activities. The results indicate that scholarship awards such as GMS directly affect student college choice decisions. Receiving GMS awards increased the probability of attending private, 4-year colleges and decreased

Shouping Hu

2010-01-01

106

Scholarship Awards, College Choice, and Student Engagement in College Activities: A Study of High-Achieving Low-Income Students of Color  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using two-wave survey data on the 2001 cohort of the Gates Millennium Scholarship (GMS) recipients and comparison nonrecipients, this study examines the relationship between scholarship awards and student engagement in college activities. The results indicate that scholarship awards such as GMS directly affect student college choice decisions. Receiving GMS awards increased the probability of attending private, 4-year colleges and decreased

Shouping Hu

2010-01-01

107

Scholarship Awards, College Choice, and Student Engagement in College Activities: A Study of High-Achieving Low-Income Students of Color  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using two-wave survey data on the 2001 cohort of the Gates Millennium Scholarship (GMS) recipients and comparison nonrecipients, this study examines the relationship between scholarship awards and student engagement in college activities. The results indicate that scholarship awards such as GMS directly affect student college choice decisions.

Hu, Shouping

2010-01-01

108

Reversion of flowering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reversion from floral to vegetative growth is under environmental control in many plant species. However the factors regulating\\u000a floral reversion, and the events at the shoot apex that take place when it occurs, have received less attention than those\\u000a associated with the transition to flowering.\\u000a \\u000a Reversions may be categorized as flower reversion, in which the flower meristem resumes leaf production,

N. H. Battey; R. F. Lyndon

1990-01-01

109

Iridescent flowers? Contribution of surface structures to optical signaling.  

PubMed

The color of natural objects depends on how they are structured and pigmented. In flowers, both the surface structure of the petals and the pigments they contain determine coloration. The aim of the present study was to assess the contribution of structural coloration, including iridescence, to overall floral coloration. We studied the reflection characteristics of flower petals of various plant species with an imaging scatterometer, which allows direct visualization of the angle dependence of the reflected light in the hemisphere above the petal. To separate the light reflected by the flower surface from the light backscattered by the components inside (e.g. the vacuoles), we also investigated surface casts. A survey among angiosperms revealed three different types of floral surface structure, each with distinct reflections. Petals with a smooth and very flat surface had mirror-like reflections and petal surfaces with cones yielded diffuse reflections. Petals with striations yielded diffraction patterns when single cells were illuminated. The iridescent signal, however, vanished when illumination similar to that found in natural conditions was applied. Pigmentary rather than structural coloration determines the optical appearance of flowers. Therefore, the hypothesized signaling by flowers with striated surfaces to attract potential pollinators presently seems untenable. PMID:24713039

van der Kooi, Casper J; Wilts, Bodo D; Leertouwer, Hein L; Staal, Marten; Elzenga, J Theo M; Stavenga, Doekele G

2014-07-01

110

Delayed choice without choice  

E-print Network

A critical note on some of the existing proposals for performing the "delayed choice" experiment is placed. By abandoning the original idea and intention, some modern theoretical proposals and experimental evidence are simply incorrectly understood/interpreted. In effect, the Complementarity principle remains practically intact.

M. Dugic

2012-11-07

111

Enriching tortoises: assessing color preference.  

PubMed

Environmental enrichment is a principle that is used to enhance the quality of care for nonhuman animals in captivity. To achieve this, it is necessary to understand the animal's needs. This study focused on color preference to provide food stimuli as a source of environmental enrichment for the tortoise, Chelonoidis denticulata. During this study, the stimuli green-, blue-, yellow-, and red-colored bananas and plaster blocks were randomly offered to the tortoises. Analysis of the data showed that the tortoises had a preference for the stimuli dyed with colors red and yellow over the other presented colors. It was possible to conclude that presenting food in different colors stimulated the animals to evaluate their environment and make choices in relation to their color preference. Thus, this experiment introduced an element of choice into their lives, beyond identifying color food preferences for the tortoises. The element of choice is known to be important to animal welfare. PMID:24911428

Passos, Luiza F; Mello, Humberto Espirito Santo; Young, Robert John

2014-01-01

112

Occurrence of nudicaulin structural variants in flowers of papaveraceous species.  

PubMed

The intense color of yellow Papaver nudicaule flowers is conferred by the presence of nudicaulins, a group of alkaloids with a unique pentacyclic skeleton composed of an indole ring and a polyphenolic moiety. Petals from eight different Papaveraceae species composed of different color varieties were probed for the presence of nudicaulins. In addition to their occurrence in yellow P. nudicaule flowers, nudicaulins I-VIII were detected and quantified in orange flowers of P. nudicaule, and in yellow and orange Papaver alpinum flowers. Meconopsis cambrica petals showed a divergent nudicaulin spectrum, with compounds having an attached 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl group (HMG) instead of a malonyl unit at one of the glucose units. Flavonols and anthocyanins that accompany nudicaulins were identified. The taxonomical significance of the occurrence of nudicaulins is briefly discussed. PMID:23684236

Tatsis, Evangelos C; Bhm, Hartmut; Schneider, Bernd

2013-08-01

113

STOCKING UNDER DYNAMIC CHOICE  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that consumers, when faced with limited choices or temporary stock-outs, will often chose different sizes, colors or brands rather than go home empty handed. Intuitively, a firm's decisions about the level of variety they offer and the quantity of inventory they stock ought to account for such behavior. In this talk, we present recent work on

Garett van Ryzin; Siddarth Mahajan

2000-01-01

114

Bee inside flower retrieving nectar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The bee obtains nectar from the flower to make into honey. During this process, the bee is covered in pollen that will be transferred to other flowers for reproduction. Both the bee and the flower benefit from this process.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2006-12-30

115

Early Spring Flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

YOUR readers will doubtless have been observing how the mildness of the weather this winter, so far, has hastened on the spring flowers. I am inclined to think that some of the dates mentioned below have not often been paralleled. The dates in brackets, of the usual flowering times, have been taken from Babington's ``Manual of Botany'' and Johnson's ``Gardeners'

E. Armitage

1898-01-01

116

Homology modeling and dynamics study of aureusidin synthaseAn important enzyme in aurone biosynthesis of snapdragon flower  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aurones, a class of plant flavonoids, provide bright yellow color on some important ornamental flowers, such as cosmos, coreopsis, and snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus). Recently, it has been elucidated that aureusidin synthase (AUS), a homolog of plant polyphenol oxidase (PPO), plays a key role in the yellow coloration of snapdragon flowers. In addition, it has been shown that AUS is a

Pavadai Elumalai; Hsuan-Liang Liu

2011-01-01

117

Flowering and expression of flowering-related genes under long-day conditions with light-emitting diodes.  

PubMed

The effects of light quality on flowering time were investigated in Gypsophila paniculata, which is a long-day cut flower, and with Arabidopsis under long-day conditions with light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Gypsophila paniculata plants were grown under natural daylight and flowering was controlled by long-day treatment with a weak LED light of a single color in the night. Flowering was promoted not by blue light, but by far-red light in G. paniculata, while flowering was promoted by both light colors in Arabidopsis. FT homologs of G. paniculata GpFT1 and GpFT2 were differentially expressed under long-day conditions with white light, suggesting that they play roles in flowering at different stages of reproductive development. GpFTs and FT gene expression was not induced by far-red light in G. paniculata or Arabidopsis. Instead, the expression of the SOC1 homolog of G. paniculata GpSOC1 and SOC1 was induced by far-red light in G. paniculata and Arabidopsis. Flowering was promoted by induction of FT and SOC1 expression with blue light in Arabidopsis, whereas GpFTs and GpSOC1 expression was low with blue light induction in G. paniculata. The relationship between flowering and the expression of FT and SOC1 in Arabidopsis was confirmed with ft and soc1 mutants. These results suggest that long-day conditions with far-red light promote flowering through SOC1 and its homologs, while the conditions with blue light do not promote flowering in G. paniculata, because of low expression of GpFTs and GpSOC1 in contrast to that in Arabidopsis. PMID:21431295

Hori, Yoshimi; Nishidate, Koji; Nishiyama, Manabu; Kanahama, Koki; Kanayama, Yoshinori

2011-08-01

118

Say it with flowers  

PubMed Central

The timing of reproduction is a critical determinant of fitness, especially in organisms inhabiting seasonal environments. Increasing evidence suggests that inter-plant communication plays important roles in plant functioning. Here, we tested the hypothesis that flowering coordination can involve communication between neighboring plants. We show that soil leachates from Brassica rapa plants growing under long-day conditions accelerated flowering and decreased allocation to vegetative organs in target plants growing under non-inductive short-day conditions. The results suggest that besides endogenous signaling and external abiotic cues, flowering timing may involve inter-plant communication, mediated by root exudates. The study of flowering communication is expected to illuminate neglected aspects of plant reproductive interactions and to provide novel opportunities for controlling the timing of plant reproduction in agricultural settings. PMID:24598343

Falik, Omer; Hoffmann, Ishay; Novoplansky, Ariel

2014-01-01

119

Stars and Flowers, Flowers and Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The author, a graduated from the Bucharest University (1964), actually living and working in Israel, concerns his book to variable stars and flowers, two domains of his interest. The analogies includes double stars, eclipsing double stars, eclipses, Big Bang. The book contains 34 chapters, each of which concerns various relations between astronomy and other sciences and pseudosciences such as Psychology, Religion, Geology, Computers and Astrology (to which the author is not an adherent). A special part of the book is dedicated to archeoastronomy and ethnoastronomy, as well as to history of astronomy. Between the main points of interest of these parts: ancient sanctuaries in Sarmizegetusa (Dacia), Stone Henge(UK) and other. The last chapter of the book is dedicated to flowers. The book is richly illustrated. It is designed for a wide circle of readers.

Minti, Hari

2012-12-01

120

My favourite flowering image.  

PubMed

When Nick Battey asked me to write an essay on my favourite flowering image, I rummaged through my mind and some old photographs, and while there are several aesthetically striking images (after all, the photographs are of flowers) three candidates stood out. In each of the cases, it was the first photographic evidence of a 'eureka' moment, one of those rare moments of revelation that one has in their scientific career. PMID:20231329

Bowman, John L

2013-12-01

121

Flower Constancy, Insect Psychology, and Plant Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Individuals of some species of pollinating insects tend to restrict their visits to only a few of the available plant species, in the process bypassing valuable food sources. The question of why this flower constancy exists is a rich and important one with implications for the organization of natural communities of plants, floral evolution, and our understanding of the learning processes involved in finding food. Some scientists have assumed that flower constancy is adaptive per se. Others argued that constancy occurs because memory capacity for floral features in insects is limited, but attempts to identify the limitations often remained rather simplistic. We elucidate now different sensory and motor memories from natural foraging tasks are stored and retrieved, using concepts from modern learning science and visual search, and conclude that flower constancy is likely to have multiple causes. Possible constraints favoring constancy are interference sensitivity of short-term memory, and temporal limitations on retrieving information from long-term memory as rapidly as from short-term memory, but further empirical evidence is needed to substantiate these possibilities. In addition, retrieving memories may be slower and more prone to errors when there are several options than when an insect copes with only a single task. In addition to memory limitations, we also point out alternative explanations for flower constancy. We then consider the way in which floral parameters, such as interplant distances, nectar rewards, flower morphology, and floral color (as seen through bees' eyes) affect constancy. Finally, we discuss the implications of pollinator constancy for plant evolution. To date there is no evidence that flowers have diverged to favor constancy, although the appropriate tests may not have yet been conducted. However, there is good evidence against the notion that pollinator constancy is involved in speciation or maintenance of plant species integrity.

Chittka, Lars; Thomson, James D.; Waser, Nickolas M.

122

Molecular characterization of mutations in white-flowered torenia plants  

PubMed Central

Background Torenia (Torenia fournieri Lind.) is a model plant increasingly exploited in studies in various disciplines, including plant engineering, biochemistry, physiology, and ecology. Additionally, cultivars with different flower colors have been bred and made commercially available. Flower color in torenia is mainly attributed to the accumulation of anthocyanins, but the molecular mechanisms inducing flower color mutations in torenia have not been well elucidated. In this study, we therefore attempted to identify the cause of white coloration in torenia by comparing the white-flowered cultivar Crown White (CrW) with Crown Violet (CrV), a violet-flowered variety. Results In an expression analysis, no flavanone 3-hydroxylase (TfF3H) transcript accumulation was detected in CrW petals. Sequence analyses revealed that a novel long terminal repeat (LTR)-type retrotransposable element, designated as TORE1 (Torenia retrotransposon 1), is inserted into the 5?-upstream region of the TfF3H gene in CrW. A transient expression assay using torenia F3H promoters with or without TORE1 insertion showed that the TORE1 insertion substantially suppressed F3H promoter activity, suggesting that this insertion is responsible for the absence of F3H transcripts in white petals. Furthermore, a transformation experiment demonstrated that the introduction of a foreign gentian F3H cDNA, GtF3H, into CrW was able to recover pink-flower pigmentation, indicating that F3H deficiency is indeed the cause of the colorless flower phenotype in CrW. Detailed sequence analysis also identified deletion mutations in flavonoid 3?-hydroxylase (TfF3?H) and flavonoid 3?,5?- hydroxylase (TfF3?5?H) genes, but these were not directly responsible for white coloration in this cultivar. Conclusions Taken together, a novel retrotransposable element, TORE1, inserted into the F3H 5?-upstream region is the cause of deficient F3H transcripts in white-flowered torenia, thereby leading to reduced petal anthocyanin levels. This is the first report of a retrotransposable element involved in flower color mutation in the genus Torenia. PMID:24694353

2014-01-01

123

Refuges, flower strips, biodiversity and agronomic interest.  

PubMed

Several arthropods are natural predators of pests, and they are able to reduce and control their population development. FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais (Federation Regionate de Defense contre les Organismes Nuisibles = Regional Federation for Pest Control) has begun for a long time to form farmers to the recognition of beneficial arthropods and to show them their usefulness. These beneficial insects or arachnids are present everywhere, in orchards and even in fields which are areas relatively poor in biodiversity. Adults feed in the flower strips instead larvae and some adults feed on preys such as aphids or caterpillars. Most of the time, beneficial insects can regulate pest but sometimes, in agricultural area, they can't make it early enough and efficiently. Their action begin too late and there biodiversity and number are too low. It's possible to enhance their action by manipulating the ecological infrastructures, like sewing flower strips or installing refuges. Flower strips increase the density of natural enemies and make them be present earlier in the field in order to control pests. Refuges permit beneficial's to spend winter on the spot. So they're able to be active and to grow in number earlier. From 2004 to 2007, on the one hand, FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais has developed a research program. Its purpose was to inventory practices and also tools and means available and to judge the advisability of using such or such beneficial refuge in orchards. On the second hand, it studied the impact in orchard of refuges on population of beneficial's and the difference there were between manufactured refuges and homemade refuges. Interesting prospects were obtained with some of them. Otherwise, since 2003, FREDON has studied flower strips influence on beneficial population and their impact on pest control. In cabbage fields, results of trials have shown that flower strips lead to a reduction of aphid number under acceptable economic level, up to 50 meters from flower strips. Results showed that in France it was mainly syrphids that control aphid populations. The choice of flowers Families to include in flower strip is important. You have to avoid choosing the same plant family as the one of the crop you want to protect because you would risk to attract pests and diseases in the field. In fact, it's important to choose the optimal diversity of plant Family and not the greatest diversity. PMID:19226774

Roy, Grgory; Wateau, Karine; Legrand, Mickal; Oste, Sandrine

2008-01-01

124

8.G Flower Vases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: My sisters birthday is in a few weeks and I would like to buy her a new vase to keep fresh flowers in her house. She often forgets to water her flower...

125

Novel coloured flowers.  

PubMed

The floricultural industry has focused its attention primarily on the development of novel coloured and longer living cut flowers. The basis for this was laid down some years ago through the isolation of 'blue' genes and ethylene biosynthesis genes. Recently, a novel 'blue' gene has been discovered and yellow pigments were produced in petunias by addition of a new branch to the phenylpropanoid pathway. More insight was obtained into the sequestration of anthocyanin pigments into storage vacuoles. Significant progress has been achieved in the commercialisation of genetically modified flower varieties. PMID:10209139

Mol, J; Cornish, E; Mason, J; Koes, R

1999-04-01

126

Color Thieves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This story poses a challenge to its readers to solve the mystery of light, color, and how we see color. It also asks the question, "What is color?" After investigating the phenomena of color and color filters, students should realize that light is made up

Konicek-Moran, Richard

2009-04-01

127

In vitro flowering of orchids.  

PubMed

Flowering is the most elusive and fascinating of all plant developmental processes. The ability to induce flowering in vitro in orchids would reduce the relatively long juvenile phase and provide deeper insight into the physiological, genetic and molecular aspects of flowering. This review synthesizes all available studies that have been conducted on in vitro flowering of orchids with the objective of providing valuable clues as to the mechanism(s) that is possibly taking place. PMID:23883072

Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Kerbauy, Gilberto B; Zeng, Songjun; Chen, Zhilin; Duan, Jun

2014-03-01

128

Flowers of the sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

`Flowers of the sea' is an attempt to respond to the question of dream writing with a different type of gesture. It was written in 2004, coming out of work done in what you might call the field of creative-critical writing, and is part of a series of what I call `legends'. Three of these legends have been published elsewhere,

Jonathan Tiplady

2008-01-01

129

Flowers of Wisteria floribunda  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Flowers of Wisteria floribunda, a well-known ornamental plant from East Asia. Wisteria has been placed in the predominantly tropical tribe Millettieae by its morphological similarities. However, molecular evidence suggests that Wisteria and a tropical genus Callerya are closer to many temperate herbaceous legumes but not to other Millettieae members.

Jer-Ming Hu (University of California;Section of Evolution and Ecology ADR;POSTAL)

2004-03-09

130

User Choice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In vocational education and training (VET), user choice is a means of achieving a more client-responsive training system by allowing clients to have greater choice over how their training needs are met. Funding arrangements linked in some direct way to the expressed demands of individual clients are essential for effective operation of a user

Smith, Joy Selby

131

Color realism and color science  

E-print Network

The target article is an attempt to make some progress on the problem of color realism. Are objects colored? And what is the nature of the color properties? We defend the view that physical objects (for instance, tomatoes, ...

Byrne, Alex

132

Colored lattices  

PubMed Central

Combinations of translations and color permutations are derived that leave a periodic array of colored pointsa colored latticeapparently unchanged. It is found that there are three types of colored lattices: (1) those in which all rows and nets have more than one color, (2) those in which there are rows with only one color, and (3) those in which there are both rows and nets with only one color. The color permutation groups of colored lattices are all Abelian. The direct product of three independent cyclic subgroups is required by type 1, but only two are required by type 2; in type 3 the color permutation group consists of the n powers of a cyclic permutation of all n colors presenti.e., the group consists of a single cycle. PMID:16592585

Harker, David

1978-01-01

133

Floral color change and the attraction of insect pollinators in lungwort ( Pulmonaria collina )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effect of floral color change on long- and short-distance attraction of insect pollinators to the herb lungwort, Pulmonaria collina. Lungwort flowers change color with age from red to blue. Young red flowers had a significantly greater pollen and nectar\\u000a reward and were significantly more often unpollinated than old blue ones. Red and blue flowers both influenced long-distance

Reik Oberrath; Katrin Bhning-Gaese

1999-01-01

134

CUT FLOWER VARIETY TRIAL RESULTS 2007 H.C. WIEN, Department of Horticulture  

E-print Network

with long stems. ABC Lavender is productive in an interesting color. Several lines from Sakata broaden series make a single flower look double; Wonderous Light Brown is an attractive caramel color. Pumpkin, the standards in the Benary Giant series were taller and more productive than Zowie Yellow Flame. #12

Pawlowski, Wojtek

135

Colorful Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is an color-making activity where students use food coloring, eyedroppers, and water to make various colored solutions. Included are the needed materials and procedures. Students are asked to write up the formulas for making their favorite color. (KR)

Williams, Suzanne

1991-01-01

136

Flowering and Pollination  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This pdf includes background information and an activity for engaging students in the processes that occur during pollination, fertilization and seed development in Fast Plants. Pollination is explained and illustrated and an activity for students to pollinate Fast Plants and observe reproductive development is described.In participating in this activity students will: understand flowering as the sexually mature stage of plant development; understand where and how ovules and pollen originate (male and female gamete formation); explore the parts of the flower and the role that each part plays in reproduction; observe the reproductive tissues of plants, including pollen and stigma, under magnification; understand the interdependent coevolutionary relationship of bees and brassicas; and begin the process of reproduction in their Fast Plants by performing a pollination using a beestick, setting the stage for future developmental events.

Program, The W.

137

Fish and Flowers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We all know rain makes the flowers grow but sometimes fish help too. Thats according to University of Florida ecologist Robert Holt. He and his colleagues studied eight freshwater ponds. There, bees pollinate nearby flowers, while dragonflies prey on the bees. But fish control the dragonfly population by eating their larvae. Holts team compared the flora around ponds with fish to ponds without. Ponds that had fish in them tended to have fewer larval dragonflies, and fewer adult dragonflies which meant more bees, and more frequent pollinations. Plants around fishless ponds, on the other hand, were more likely to be pollen starved. The study suggests one way that the effects of overfishing may ripple onto land. A more complete description of the research and a transcript of the audio file is included. In addition, links to additional resources are included for further inquiry.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2005-12-05

138

Inflorescence with Flowers of Purple Loosestrife, Lythrum salicaria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Inflorescence with flowers of purple loosestrife, Lythrum salicaria (left panel). Depending on the relative length of styles with respect to stamens within flowers, individuals are categorized into three floral morphs. The three floral morphs also differ in size and shape of stigmas (right panel). Stigmas (top–long morph, middle–mid morph, and bottom–short morph, in the right panel; bar = 200 µm) are digitally false-colored computer-enhanced images from scanning electron micrographs. Photo credit: M. Biernacki, T. K. Mal, R. J. Williams, and The Camera Shop, Broomall, Pennsylvania.

2004-03-09

139

Color Mixing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an online activity where learners can virtually mix different colors of light or paint (you can switch between them) and see how the colors combine. It demonstrates how millions of colors are created on computer monitors and TVs, and in art and printing. Learners can try to match a given target color ("Mix to Match"), or simply play around with mixtures ("Mix for Fun"). Background information explains how light is additive (more colors tends towards white), whereas paint absorbs color and is subtractive (more colors tends towards black). There's also information about how the human eye works.

Industry, Oregon M.

2002-01-01

140

Pigments of cotton flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryThe flower petals of the Uppam cotton plant (G. herbaceum) contain as their main components gossypitrin and quercetin. An appreciable quantity of a new glycosidic pigment and a small\\u000a quantity of gossypetin were also isolated. Uppam petals, therefore, differ in their composition from those ofG. herbaceum examined by Perkin who probably obtained his supply of the petals from the North

K. Neelakantam; T. R. Seshadri; R. H. Ramachandra Rao

1935-01-01

141

How flowers catch raindrops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several species of plants have raindrop-sized flowers that catch raindrops opportunistically in order to spread their 0.3-mm seeds distances of over 1 m. In the following fluid dynamics video, we show examples of these plants and some of the high speed videography used to visualize the splash dynamics responsible for raindrop-driven seed dispersal. Experiments were conducted on shape mimics of

Guillermo Amador; Yasukuni Yamada; David Hu

2011-01-01

142

Conservatory of Flowers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

San Francisco's Conservatory of Flowers at Golden Gate Park has recently reopened to the public after a year of renovation to repair damage from a devastating windstorm in 1995. The Conservatory's attractive Web site offers a virtual tour, highlighting the Conservatory's "dramatic new exhibits and horticultural displays." Visitors can also learn more about featured plants (palms, at the moment), check out an online photo gallery, and learn all about the restoration of Conservatory buildings and displays.

143

Choice Plans: A Glossary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Choice plans include private schools (voucher plans, tax credits and deductions, and contract services and charter plans) and public schools (intradistrict choice, interdistrict choice, and statewide choice). Issues spanning both areas are those of curricular choice and residential choice. (SLD)

Heleen, Owen

1992-01-01

144

How Our Environment Affects Color Vision  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab (Activity #1 on page), learners explore how we see color. Learners set up an experiment to evaluate how a group of learners view different colors as presented on different background colors and under different lighting conditions. Learners collect data and then answer questions to help them analyze their findings. Learners will consider how designers make choices about colors when creating products and marketing materials.

Szaflarski, Diane M.

2009-01-01

145

Flowers that threaten Funza.  

PubMed

Water shortages have resulted from agricultural development in a rural area outside Bogota, Colombia. These shortages have increased women's work load and caused problems in managing households because the water must be boiled before ingestion. In the community of Funza, women must obtain clean water in buckets at night from the main valve, which has insufficient water pressure and a slow stream. Some barrios collect water on a weekly basis. The local restaurant in town obtains water once a week from a tanker; the town is lucky to receive water three times a week. Men assume that women will take care of the problem. The mayor says that the piped water from Bogota will soon be connected and that each barrio will have its own valve. Women are concerned that the supply, even with new valves, will be limited and mixed with dirty lagoon water. Experts are saying that the water shortage and quality problems that began seven years ago will lead to rationing within three to six years. The flower companies, that came to the area 22 years age, are blamed for the water problems. People say that the flower companies have piped clean water from the area's supply in the San Patricia and that underground sources of water have been used up as well. The industry provides jobs and income, which have improved the standard of living, but there is little consideration given to the water supply. The community shifted water sources to the lagoon at a time when the water was being contaminated by sewage and pesticides and chemicals from the flower companies. PMID:12287011

Kendall, S

1993-01-01

146

Flower scents from the Pacific.  

PubMed

For a long time, exotic scents from the islands of the South Pacific have universally been appreciated. Most frequently, fragrant flowers (e.g., frangipani, jasmine sambac, tiar, pua kenikeni) are used locally for ornamental purposes such as flower garlands (leis). Despite their powerful and delightful fragrance, very few of these flowers have been commercially employed in this part of the world for perfume manufacturing. Creative perfumers are nevertheless strongly interested to better understand these fragrances and to use them, either genuine or artificially reconstituted. Analytical results on the fragrance of these flowers are reported, together with some economical considerations. PMID:18618387

Joulain, Daniel

2008-06-01

147

Why do honeybees reject certain flowers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Honeybees often approach flowers of Lotus corniculatus and then fly away without attempting to extract nectar. These rejected flowers contained 41% less nectar than my random sample. The accepted flowers contained 24% more nectar than my random sample. The differences among these three flower-groups were due to differences in the percent of empty flowers in each group rather than the

Peter B. Wetherwax

1986-01-01

148

Color realism and color science.  

PubMed

The target article is an attempt to make some progress on the problem of color realism. Are objects colored? And what is the nature of the color properties? We defend the view that physical objects (for instance, tomatoes, radishes, and rubies) are colored, and that colors are physical properties, specifically, types of reflectance. This is probably a minority opinion, at least among color scientists. Textbooks frequently claim that physical objects are not colored, and that the colors are "subjective" or "in the mind." The article has two other purposes: First, to introduce an interdisciplinary audience to some distinctively philosophical tools that are useful in tackling the problem of color realism and, second, to clarify the various positions and central arguments in the debate. The first part explains the problem of color realism and makes some useful distinctions. These distinctions are then used to expose various confusions that often prevent people from seeing that the issues are genuine and difficult, and that the problem of color realism ought to be of interest to anyone working in the field of color science. The second part explains the various leading answers to the problem of color realism, and (briefly) argues that all views other than our own have serious difficulties or are unmotivated. The third part explains and motivates our own view, that colors are types of reflectances and defends it against objections made in the recent literature that are often taken as fatal. PMID:14598439

Byrne, Alex; Hilbert, David R

2003-02-01

149

The Color of Childrens Gender Stereotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the impact of gender and gender-related color stereotypes, 98 Israeli preschoolers and 3rd graders chose between\\u000a booklets mismatched in the stereotypicality of color (pink vs. blue) versus illustration (Batman vs. Bratz) and subsequently\\u000a colored gender-stereotyped versus gender-neutral illustrations with male and female-stereotyped color crayons. Color was ignored\\u000a in booklet choice. More colors were used for figures stereotypically associated

Rachel Karniol

2011-01-01

150

Color notations  

E-print Network

This study presents research regarding the language of colors and of computers. The focus was color: translated through personal imagery, transferred and changed through media, and programmed through the computer. The ...

Gardner, Nancy

1981-01-01

151

Bubble Colors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Exploratorium site provides an explanation of how soap films produce color bands. Wave interference is used to explain the colors observed without mathematics. Photos illustrate the phenomenon and drawings help make the explanation clear.

2008-06-19

152

Seeing Color  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colors are powerful tools for engaging children, from the youngest years onward. We hang brightly patterned mobiles above their cribs and help them learn the names of colors as they begin to record their own ideas in pictures and words. Colors can also open the door to an invisible world of electromagnetism, even when children can barely imagine

Texley, Juliana

2005-01-01

153

Light-colored fluorineless titanium-based enamels for steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present work is to obtain titanium-based enamel containing coatings posessing thermally stable coloration for domestic articles, in particular, for steel vessels. When developing colored coatings, the choice of the enamel base is of paramount importance since the color of the coating and the color stability depend to a considerable extent on the enamel matrix composition. The

L. D. Antonova; D. F. Ushakov; M. S. Zakharov

1985-01-01

154

Angelina's choice  

PubMed Central

This is an opinion piece on how a celebritys personal choice to undergo prophylactic mastectomy on discovery of an aberrant gene, when publicly promoted, carries in itself the power to influence and impact healthcare trends and decisions. When celebrities advocate causes that are universally and uniformly acceptable and indisputable as the best in the realm of healthcare and cure (e.g. no smoking), it creates well-being and awareness in society at large. But those which are personal choices made out of a repertoire of other available and effective options may, because of celebrity preference, don the mantle of a norm. They thus run the danger of being blindly replicated by others without proper awareness and knowledge of the true potential of disease, risk factors, and other existing remedial or risk-reducing measures. Society should thus be encouraged to question, debate, and understand the validity, authenticity, and reason of the choices, especially those with a medical basis. This tempering of information with intelligence and rationale and making informed choices based on facts will serve humanity as a whole. PMID:24455660

Goel, Nishu Singh

2013-01-01

155

Choice Matters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how the author allows the children to make choices about their art and writing, enabling them to make connections between their own lives and work. Suggests that educators need to provide doorways to the things that give students ideas: books, music, objects, pictures, smells, sounds, and textures. (SG)

Hicks, Darcy

2001-01-01

156

Teaching Through Trade Books: Flower Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Summer is here and flowers are in bloom! Each flowering plant produces a unique bloom that provides opportunities for students to make observations about plants. By comparing and contrasting flowers, students can connect their learning to the larger pictu

Royce, Christine A.

2009-07-01

157

Color Quiz  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Please take this Quiz. It is not that hard. Remember If you understand color, you will be able to use color in your artwork more effectively. For your Quiz please answer the 18 questions below. Here are some sites you have already seen that will help you answer the questions. Color Theory Color Vocabulary Wikipedia color theory You may write your answers down on a piece of paper or you can type the answers up. Make sure name, period, and date are on assignment ...

Freeman, Ms.

2006-02-14

158

Color Quiz  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Please take this Quiz. It is not that hard. Remember If you understand color, you will be able to use color in your artwork more effectively. For your Quiz please answer the 18 questions below. Here are some sites you have already seen that will help you answer the questions. Color Theory Color Vocabulary Wikipedia color theory You may write your answers down on a piece of paper or you can type the answers up. Make sure name, period, and date are on assignment ...

Jolene

2008-09-29

159

Flowers: More Than Just Pretty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Children love to look at flowers but few are inclined to become familiar with the structure and function of the flower. This story is aimed at providing some motivation for children to learn about one of the most important evolutionary developments in the

Konicek-Moran, Richard

2009-04-01

160

Color Terms and Color Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In their lead articles, both Kowalski and Zimiles (2006) and O'Hanlon and Roberson (2006) declare a general relation between color term knowledge and the ability to conceptually represent color. Kowalski and Zimiles, in particular, argue for a priority for the conceptual representation in color term acquisition. The complexities of the interaction

Davidoff, Jules

2006-01-01

161

Color Categories and Color Appearance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary

Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

2012-01-01

162

Infants' recognition of objects using canonical color.  

PubMed

We explored infants' ability to recognize the canonical colors of daily objects, including two color-specific objects (human face and fruit) and a non-color-specific object (flower), by using a preferential looking technique. A total of 58 infants between 5 and 8 months of age were tested with a stimulus composed of two color pictures of an object placed side by side: a correctly colored picture (e.g., red strawberry) and an inappropriately colored picture (e.g., green-blue strawberry). The results showed that, overall, the 6- to 8-month-olds showed preference for the correctly colored pictures for color-specific objects, whereas they did not show preference for the correctly colored pictures for the non-color-specific object. The 5-month-olds showed no significant preference for the correctly colored pictures for all object conditions. These findings imply that the recognition of canonical color for objects emerges at 6 months of age. PMID:20015514

Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Yang, Jiale; Otsuka, Yumiko; Dan, Ippeita; Masuda, Tomohiro; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K

2010-03-01

163

The influence of pigmentation patterning on bumblebee foraging from flowers of Antirrhinum majus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Patterns of pigmentation overlying the petal vasculature are common in flowering plants and have been postulated to play a role in pollinator attraction. Previous studies report that such venation patterning is significantly more attractive to bee foragers in the field than ivory or white flowers without veins. To dissect the ways in which venation patterning of pigment can influence bumblebee behaviour, we investigated the response of flower-nave individuals of Bombus terrestris to veined, ivory and red near-isogenic lines of Antirrhinum majus. We find that red venation shifts flower colour slightly, although the ivory background is the dominant colour. Bees were readily able to discriminate between ivory and veined flowers under differential conditioning but showed no innate preference when presented with a free choice of rewarding ivory and veined flowers. In contrast, both ivory and veined flowers were selected significantly more often than were red flowers. We conclude that advantages conferred by venation patterning might stem from bees learning of their use as nectar guides, rather than from any innate preference for striped flowers.

Whitney, Heather M.; Milne, Georgina; Rands, Sean A.; Vignolini, Silvia; Martin, Cathie; Glover, Beverley J.

2013-03-01

164

The influence of pigmentation patterning on bumblebee foraging from flowers of Antirrhinum majus.  

PubMed

Patterns of pigmentation overlying the petal vasculature are common in flowering plants and have been postulated to play a role in pollinator attraction. Previous studies report that such venation patterning is significantly more attractive to bee foragers in the field than ivory or white flowers without veins. To dissect the ways in which venation patterning of pigment can influence bumblebee behaviour, we investigated the response of flower-nave individuals of Bombus terrestris to veined, ivory and red near-isogenic lines of Antirrhinum majus. We find that red venation shifts flower colour slightly, although the ivory background is the dominant colour. Bees were readily able to discriminate between ivory and veined flowers under differential conditioning but showed no innate preference when presented with a free choice of rewarding ivory and veined flowers. In contrast, both ivory and veined flowers were selected significantly more often than were red flowers. We conclude that advantages conferred by venation patterning might stem from bees learning of their use as nectar guides, rather than from any innate preference for striped flowers. PMID:23420080

Whitney, Heather M; Milne, Georgina; Rands, Sean A; Vignolini, Silvia; Martin, Cathie; Glover, Beverley J

2013-03-01

165

Color Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Color, flavor, and texture are the three principal quality attributes that determine food acceptance, and color has a far greater influence on our judgment than most of us appreciate. We use color to determine if a banana is at our preferred ripeness level, and a discolored meat product can warn us that the product may be spoiled. The marketing departments of our food corporations know that, for their customers, the color must be "right." The University of California Davis scorecard for wine quality designates four points out of 20, or 20% of the total score, for color and appearance (1). Food scientists who establish quality control specifications for their product are very aware of the importance of color and appearance. While subjective visual assessment and use of visual color standards are still used in the food industry, instrumental color measurements are extensively employed. Objective measurement of color is desirable for both research and industrial applications, and the ruggedness, stability, and ease of use of today's color measurement instruments have resulted in their widespread adoption.

Wrolstad, Ronald E.; Smith, Daniel E.

166

Color categories and color appearance  

PubMed Central

We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the bluegreen boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary were perceptually exaggerated. This task did not require overt judgments of the perceived colors, and the tendency to group showed only a weak and inconsistent categorical bias. In a second case, we analyzed results from two prior studies of hue scaling of chromatic stimuli (De Valois, De Valois, Switkes, & Mahon, 1997; Malkoc, Kay, & Webster, 2005), to test whether color appearance changed more rapidly around the bluegreen boundary. In this task observers directly judge the perceived color of the stimuli and these judgments tended to show much stronger categorical effects. The differences between these tasks could arise either because different signals mediate color grouping and color appearance, or because linguistic categories might differentially intrude on the response to color and/or on the perception of color. Our results suggest that the interaction between language and color processing may be highly dependent on the specific task and cognitive demands and strategies of the observer, and also highlight pronounced individual differences in the tendency to exhibit categorical responses. PMID:22176751

Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

2011-01-01

167

Processing of Color Words Activates Color Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether color representations are routinely activated when color words are processed. Congruency effects of colors and color words were observed in both directions. Lexical decisions on color words were faster when preceding colors matched the color named by the word. Color-discrimination responses

Richter, Tobias; Zwaan, Rolf A.

2009-01-01

168

Canna indica flower: New source of anthocyanins.  

PubMed

In this study the red flowers of Canna indica (Cannaceae) were extracted by using sonicator and isolation of anthocyanins have been carried out. Four anthocyanin pigments have been isolated apart from quercetin and lycopene. They are Cyanidin-3-O-(6''-O-?-rhamnopyranosyl)-?-glucopyranoside (1), Cyanidin-3-O-(6''-O-?-rhamnopyranosyl)-?-galactopyranoside (2), Cyanidin-3-O-?-glucopyranoside (3) and Cyanidin-O-?-galactopyranoside (4). These compounds were isolated by using HPLC and their structures were subsequently determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, i.e., (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, HMQC, HMBC, ESI-MS, FTIR, UV-Visible etc. The isolated compounds showed good antioxidant activity thus makes it suitable for use in food coloration and as a nutraceutical. Thus it is a promising pigment source for food applications. PMID:20926305

Srivastava, Jyoti; Vankar, Padma S

2010-12-01

169

Carpet choices for healthcare facilities.  

PubMed

Carpet as a floorcovering choice in healthcare facilities is increasing in popularity. Technological advances have made carpet an appropriate choice not only for common areas and offices, but also for patient rooms. Color options are diverse, and can serve patient care concerns, such as orientation for patients with Alzheimer's disease. Carpet performance is related to its density, construction and fiber/yarn type. Many carpet types have antimicrobial treatments to aid in reducing the propagation and spread of microorganisms. Carpet is also tested for emissions of volatile organic compounds based on industry criteria. Proper maintenance is essential to maintaining carpet appearance and useful life. PMID:10134936

Wise, K O

1994-07-01

170

Epigenetic regulation of photoperiodic flowering  

PubMed Central

The cytidine analogue 5-azacytidine, which causes DNA demethylation, induced flowering in the non-vernalization-requiring plants Perilla frutescens var. crispa, Silene armeria and Pharbitis nil (synonym Ipomoea nil) under non-inductive photoperiodic conditions, suggesting that the expression of photoperiodic flowering-related genes is regulated epigenetically by DNA methylation. The flowering state induced by DNA demethylation was not heritable. Changes in the genome-wide methylation state were examined by methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis. This analysis indicated that the DNA methylation state was altered by the photoperiodic condition. DNA demethylation also induced dwarfism, and the induced dwarfism of P. frutescens was heritable. PMID:20448475

2010-01-01

171

Propagation and chimeral characterization of two reverse pinwheel flowering African violet clones  

E-print Network

) is a pinwheel flowering A&ican violet with two light violet stripes extending the length of each corolla segment on each side of the parallel white center stripe. These violet stripes match to the color 93B on the R. H. S. Colour Chart (Royal...) is a pinwheel flowering A&ican violet with two light violet stripes extending the length of each corolla segment on each side of the parallel white center stripe. These violet stripes match to the color 93B on the R. H. S. Colour Chart (Royal...

Sandall, Sharon Katrina

2012-06-07

172

Pollinator-mediated selection on flower color allele drives reinforcement.  

PubMed

Reinforcement is the process by which reduced hybrid fitness generates selection favoring the evolution of stronger prezygotic reproductive barriers between emerging species. Using common-garden field experiments, we quantified the strength of reinforcing selection in nature by demonstrating strong selection favoring an allele conferring increased pigment intensity in the plant Phlox drummondii in areas of sympatry with the closely related species Phlox cuspidata. Incomplete hybrid sterility between the two species generates selection for traits that decrease interspecies hybridization. In contrast, selection on this locus is undetectable in the absence of P. cuspidata. We demonstrate that reinforcing selection is generated by nonrandom pollinator movement, in which pollinators move less frequently between intensely pigmented P. drummondii and P. cuspidata than between lightly pigmented P. drummondii and P. cuspidata. PMID:22300852

Hopkins, Robin; Rausher, Mark D

2012-03-01

173

Physiologia Plantarum 2007 Copyright Physiologia Plantarum 2007, ISSN 0031-9317 Temperature-sensitive anthocyanin production in flowers  

E-print Network

. The goal of this project was to investigate the chemical basis for the color plasticity. To test downstream, whereas the overall tem- perature effect appears to be controlled upstream. Introduction Recently solar radiation, thus warming flowers and developing seeds. Lightly colored spikes absorb Abbreviations

Lacey, Elizabeth P.

174

Color reflection holography using four recording wavelengths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a theoretical analysis of color reflection holography using four recording wavelengths. The color reproduction of the hologram is discussed using the 1976 CIE chromaticity diagram. The optimum combination of the four wavelengths which minimizes the distance between the reconstructed image and the object points is calculated using nonlinear least square method. It is found that the extremely good color reproduction can be achieved by four- wavelength recording. We also analyze the color reproduction for the four practical laser wavelengths. The optimum choice of the wavelengths and the attainable color reproduction are discussed.

Kubota, Toshihiro; Takabayashi, Emi; Kashiwagi, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Masachika; Ueda, Kenji

2001-06-01

175

Chasmogamous Flowering in Viola palustris L  

Microsoft Academic Search

AFTER a short burst of chasmogamous flowering in early spring, plants of V. palustris, like those of many other violet species, produce a succession of cleistogamous flowers throughout the summer. Such a change in flowering habit could be associated with changes in day-length, as in V. fimbriatula and V. papilionacea with which Allard and Garner1 obtained chasmogamous flowers only in

L. T. Evans

1956-01-01

176

Farming and Gardening: Flower Garden  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will Explore the relationships between fractions and percents while creating a grid of different flowers in a garden. Then the students will combine this grid with others to apply the concepts to a larger set.

Math, Pbs T.

2010-01-01

177

Photoperiodic induction of synchronous flowering  

E-print Network

.............................................................. Photoperiodic induction development has been overlooked, but recent studies have shown that photoperiodic induction of synchronous the induction of flowering in `short-day plants' in response to declining day length4 (Fig. 2a; 108 N, 168 S

Renner, Susanne

178

Flowering in Lotus pedunculatus Cav  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of light intensity and light-break treatments on inflorescence initiation and flower development were investigated in a north German variety of Lotus pedunculatus Cav. in controlled environment cabinets. A 110 scale of inflorescence and flower development is described and used as a basis for recording results.To determine the effects of light intensity, plants were grown in 16-hour photo-periods made

R. G. Thomas; B. J. Forde

1967-01-01

179

The Scent of Lotus Flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solvent extract of Nelumbo nucifera Shinnyoren flowers was investigated by GC and GC\\/MS. Seventy compounds were identified with the major constituents being hydrocarbons representing more than 75% of the extract. 1,4-Dimethoxybenzene, 1,8-cineole, terpinen-4-ol and linalool were found to be indispensible in characterizing the scent of lotus flower. Using headspace analysis, the volatiles of 44 cultivars of N. nucifera, one

Akihiko Omata; Katsuyuki Yomogida; Shoji Nakamura; Tadao Ohta; Yasuko Izawa; Satomi Watanabe

1991-01-01

180

Influence of flower bud density, flower bud drop and fruit set on apricot productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flower bud density, flower bud drop and fruit set were studied for nine apricot cultivars in order to understand the influence of these variables on apricot biology and productivity. Cultivars in southern Spain were chosen as representatives of different flowering times and productivity. Results indicate differences among cultivars in the studied parameters. Low flower bud production, high flower bud drop

N. Alburquerque; L. Burgos; J. Egea

2004-01-01

181

Down the tube: pollinators, predators, and the evolution of flower shape in the alpine skypilot, Polemonium viscosum.  

PubMed

We address how a conflict between pollinator attraction and avoidance of flower predation influences the evolution of flower shape in Polemonium viscosum. Flower shape in P. viscosum is the product of an isometric relationship between genetically correlated (rA = 0.70) corolla flare and length. Bumblebee pollinators preferentially visit flowers that are more flared and have longer tubes, selecting for a funnel-shaped corolla. However, flower shape also influences nectar-foraging ants that sever the style at its point of attachment to the ovary. Surveys of ant damage show that plants having flowers with flared, short corollas are most vulnerable to ant predation. Consistent with this result, the ratio of corolla length to flare is significantly greater in a krummholz (high predation risk) population than in a tundra (low predation risk) population. To explicitly test whether the evolution of a better defended flower would exact a cost in pollination, we created tubular flowers by constricting the corolla during development. Performance of tubular flowers and natural controls was compared for defensive and attractive functions. In choice trials, ants entered control flowers significantly more often than tubular ones, confirming that the evolution of tubular flowers would reduce the risk of predation. However, in a bumblebee-pollinated population, tubular flowers received significantly less pollen and set fewer seeds than controls. A fitness model incorporating these data predicts that in the absence of the genetic correlation between corolla length and flare, intermittent selection for defense could allow tubular flowers to spread in the krummholz population. However, in the tundra, where bumblebees account for nearly all pollination, the model predicts that tubular flowers should always confer a fitness disadvantage. PMID:11761057

Galen, C; Cuba, J

2001-10-01

182

Chromaticity gamut enhancement by heptatone multi-color printing Victor Ostromoukhov  

E-print Network

by a choice of three basic color-matching functions [WYS82]. Any color visible by the human eye canChromaticity gamut enhancement by heptatone multi-color printing Victor Ostromoukhov Peripheral. The present paper studies the chromaticity gamut of multi-color printing processes. Heptatone (7- color

Ostromoukhov, Victor

183

Color Blind or Color Conscious?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A color-blind approach often signifies that an educator has not considered what racial/ethnic identity means to youngsters. Students want to find themselves reflected in the faces of teachers and other students. Color-conscious teachers seek out materials that positively reflect students' identities and initiate discussions about race and racism.

Tatum, Beverly Daniel

1999-01-01

184

Bird-pollinated flowers in an evolutionary and molecular context.  

PubMed

Evolutionary shifts to bird pollination (ornithophily) have occurred independently in many lineages of flowering plants. This shift affects many floral features, particularly those responsible for the attraction of birds, deterrence of illegitimate flower visitors (particularly bees), protection from vigorous foraging by birds, and accurate placement of pollen on bird's bodies. Red coloration appears to play a major role in both bee-deterrence and bird-attraction. Other mechanisms of bird-attraction include the production of abundant dilute nectar and the provision of secondary perches (for non-hovering birds). As a result of selection for similar phenotypic traits in unrelated bird-pollinated species, a floral syndrome of ornithophily can be recognized, and this review surveys the component floral traits. The strong convergent evolution evident in bird-pollinated flowers raises a question about the nature of the genetic mechanisms underlying such transitions and whether the same gene systems are involved in most cases. As yet there is too little information to answer this question. However, some promising model systems have been developed that include closely related bee and bird-pollinated flowers, such as Ipomoea, Mimulus, and Lotus. Recent studies of floral developmental genetics have identified numerous genes important in the development of the floral phenotype, which are also potential candidates for involvement in shifts between bee-pollination and bird pollination. As more whole-genome information becomes available, progress should be rapid. PMID:18326865

Cronk, Quentin; Ojeda, Isidro

2008-01-01

185

Color Theory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site, developed by the Exploratories Project at Brown University, provides a series of applets to help users understand the various concepts in Color Theory. In the combined Color Mixing applet, undergraduate and high school students can discover how lights, paints, and filters interact. Users can learn about the properties of incoming light, frequency, and reflectance. The site also provides activities for metamers, Triple Cell Response, and much more. Anyone seeking help with color concepts will benefit from this educational, interactive Web site.

186

Colorful Electrophoresis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners follow step-by-step instructions to build a gel electrophoresis chamber using inexpensive materials from local hardware and electronic stores. Then, learners follow instructions to simulate DNA electrophoresis using food colors from the kitchen pantry.

Utah, University O.

2012-01-01

187

Synchronous Pulsed Flowering: Analysis of the Flowering Phenology in Juncus (Juncaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The timing of flowering within and among individuals is of fundamental biological importance because of its influence on total seed production and, ultimately, fitness. Traditional descriptive parameters of flowering phenology focus on onset and duration of flowering and on synchrony among individuals. These parameters do not adequately account for variability in flowering across the flowering duration at individual and population level. This study aims to analyse the flowering phenology of wind-pollinated Juncus species that has been described as temporally highly variable (pulsed flowering). Additionally, an attempt is made to identify proximate environmental factors that may cue the flowering, and ultimate causes for the flowering patterns are discussed. Methods Flowering phenology was examined in populations of nine Juncus species by estimating flowering synchrony and by using the coefficient of variation (CV) to describe the temporal variation in flowering on individual and population levels. Phenologies were compared with null models to test which patterns deviate from random flowering. All parameters assessed were compared with each other and the performance of the parameters in response to randomization and varying synchrony was evaluated using a model population. Flowering patterns were correlated with temperature and humidity. Key Results Most flowering patterns of Juncus were best described as synchronous pulsed flowering, characterized as population-wide concerted flowering events separated by days with no or few open flowers. Flowering synchrony and variability differed from a random pattern in most cases. CV values in combination with a measure of synchrony differentiated among flowering patterns found. Synchrony varied among species and was independent from variability in flowering. Neither temperature nor humidity could be determined as potential cues for the flowering pulses. Conclusions The results indicate that selection may act independently on synchrony and variability. We propose that synchronous pulsed flowering in Juncus is an evolved strategy that provides selective benefits by increasing outcrossing and by spreading the risk of reproductive failure. PMID:17881343

Michalski, Stefan G.; Durka, Walter

2007-01-01

188

Relationship of visual and olfactory signal parameters in a food-deceptive flower  

E-print Network

Relationship of visual and olfactory signal parameters in a food-deceptive flower mimicry system C on pollinator behavior. Here, we have reanalyzed a case of specialized food mimicry between the orchid Orchis as of two phylogenetically related orchids. By using a color vision model, we mapped each species' visual

Menzel, Randolf - Institut für Biologie

189

Transcriptome Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes Relevant to Variegation in Peach Flowers  

PubMed Central

Background Variegation in flower color is commonly observed in many plant species and also occurs on ornamental peaches (Prunus persica f. versicolor [Sieb.] Voss). Variegated plants are highly valuable in the floricultural market. To gain a global perspective on genes differentially expressed in variegated peach flowers, we performed large-scale transcriptome sequencing of white and red petals separately collected from a variegated peach tree. Results A total of 1,556,597 high-quality reads were obtained, with an average read length of 445 bp. The ESTs were assembled into 16,530 contigs and 42,050 singletons. The resulting unigenes covered about 60% of total predicted genes in the peach genome. These unigenes were further subjected to functional annotation and biochemical pathway analysis. Digital expression analysis identified a total of 514 genes differentially expressed between red and white flower petals. Since peach flower coloration is determined by the expression and regulation of structural genes relevant to flavonoid biosynthesis, a detailed examination detected four key structural genes, including C4H, CHS, CHI and F3H, expressed at a significantly higher level in red than in white petal. Except for the structural genes, we also detected 11 differentially expressed regulatory genes relating to flavonoid biosynthesis. Using the differentially expressed structural genes as the test objects, we validated the digital expression results by using quantitative real-time PCR, and the differential expression of C4H, CHS and F3H were confirmed. Conclusion In this study, we generated a large EST collection from flower petals of a variegated peach. By digital expression analysis, we identified an informative list of candidate genes associated with variegation in peach flowers, which offered a unique opportunity to uncover the genetic mechanisms underlying flower color variegation. PMID:24603808

Yu, Faxin; Li, Shuxian; Yin, Tongming

2014-01-01

190

Preferred color spaces for white balancing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When rendering photographs, it is important to preserve the gray tones despite variations in the ambient illumination. When the illuminant is known, white balancing that preserves gray tones can be performed in many different color spaces; the choice of color space influences the renderings of other colors. In this behavioral study, we ask whether users have a preference for the color space where white balancing is performed. Subjects compared images using a white balancing transformation that preserved gray tones, but the transformation was applied in one of the four different color spaces: XYZ, Bradford, a camera sensor RGB and the sharpened RGB color space. We used six scenes types (four portraits, fruit, and toys) acquired under three calibrated illumination environments (fluorescent, tungsten, and flash). For all subjects, transformations applied in XYZ and sharpened RGB were preferred to those applied in Bradford and device color space.

Xiao, Feng; Farrell, Joyce E.; DiCarlo, Jeffrey M.; Wandell, Brian A.

2003-05-01

191

Anatomical and biochemical studies of bicolored flower development in Muscari latifolium.  

PubMed

The inflorescence of the broad-leafed grape hyacinth, Muscari latifolium, shows an interesting, two-tone appearance with the upper flowers being pale blue and the lower ones purple. To elucidate the mechanism of the differential color development, anatomical research was carried out and a cytological study of the colored protoplasts in which the shapes of the cells accumulating anthocyanin were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Next, vacuolar pH was recorded using a pH meter with a micro combination pH electrode, and the sap's metal-ion content was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The anthocyanin and co-pigment composition was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Chemical analyses reveal that the difference in metal-ion content of the two parts was not great. The vacuolar pHs of the upper and lower flowers were 5.91 and 5.84, respectively, with the difference being nonsignificant. HPLC results indicate that the dihydroflavonol and flavonol contents are also very similar in the two sorts of flower. However, the upper flowers contained only delphinidin, whereas the lower flowers also contained cyanidin. The total anthocyanin content in the lower flowers was 4.36mgg(-1), which is approximately seven times higher than in the upper flowers, while the delphinidin content is four times higher. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis established that the two-tone flower was a result of different expressions of the F3'5'H, F3'H and DFR genes, and these lead to different amounts of anthocyanin. PMID:23677687

Qi, Yinyan; Lou, Qian; Li, Huibo; Yue, Juan; Liu, Yali; Wang, Yuejin

2013-12-01

192

There is More to Color Scales than Meets the Eye: A Review on the Use of Color in Visualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The appropriate use of color in Visualization is a very important subject. The choice of the proper color scale to use with a particular data set is not just a matter of choosing the prettiest representation. Throughout the years researchers have studied this subject and managed to propose guidelines which help users along the process of color scale selection. This

Samuel S. Silva; Joaquim Madeira; Beatriz Sousa Santos

2007-01-01

193

Color vision test  

MedlinePLUS

... test checks your ability to distinguish between different colors. ... Eye test - color; Vision test - color; Ishihara color vision test ... be asked to determine the intensity of a color, especially in one eye compared to the other. This is often tested ...

194

Bee getting nectar from a lavender flower  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The bee obtains nectar to take to the beehive where it is used to make honey and provide food for the bees. The bee grabs pollen and transfers it to other flowers. This is called pollination and helps flowers reproduce.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2006-12-30

195

Symmetry is in the eye of the `beeholder': innate preference for bilateral symmetry in flower-nave bumblebees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bilateral symmetry has been considered as an indicator of phenotypic and genotypic quality supporting innate preferences for highly symmetric partners. Insect pollinators preferentially visit flowers of a particular symmetry type, thus leading to the suggestion that they have innate preferences for symmetrical flowers or flower models. Here we show that flower-nave bumblebees (Bombus terrestris), with no experience of symmetric or asymmetric patterns and whose visual experience was accurately controlled, have innate preferences for bilateral symmetry. The presence of color cues did not influence the bees' original preference. Our results thus show that bilateral symmetry is innately preferred in the context of food search, a fact that supports the selection of symmetry in flower displays. Furthermore, such innate preferences indicate that the nervous system of nave animals may be primed to respond to relevant sensory cues in the environment.

Rodrguez, Ivana; Gumbert, Andreas; Hempel de Ibarra, Natalie; Kunze, Jan; Giurfa, Martin

196

Symmetry is in the eye of the beeholder: innate preference for bilateral symmetry in flower-nave bumblebees.  

PubMed

Bilateral symmetry has been considered as an indicator of phenotypic and genotypic quality supporting innate preferences for highly symmetric partners. Insect pollinators preferentially visit flowers of a particular symmetry type, thus leading to the suggestion that they have innate preferences for symmetrical flowers or flower models. Here we show that flower-nave bumblebees (Bombus terrestris), with no experience of symmetric or asymmetric patterns and whose visual experience was accurately controlled, have innate preferences for bilateral symmetry. The presence of color cues did not influence the bees' original preference. Our results thus show that bilateral symmetry is innately preferred in the context of food search, a fact that supports the selection of symmetry in flower displays. Furthermore, such innate preferences indicate that the nervous system of nave animals may be primed to respond to relevant sensory cues in the environment. PMID:15278213

Rodrguez, Ivana; Gumbert, Andreas; Hempel de Ibarra, Natalie; Kunze, Jan; Giurfa, Martin

2004-08-01

197

The Preference for Symmetry in Flower-Naive and Not-so-Naive Bumblebees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Truly flower-naive bumblebees, with no prior rewarded experience for visits on any visual patterns outside the colony, were tested for their choice of bilaterally symmetric over asymmetric patterns in a radial-arm maze. No preference for symmetry was found. Prior training with rewarded black and white disks did, however, lead to a significant

Plowright, C. M. S.; Evans, S. A.; Leung, J. Chew; Collin, C. A.

2011-01-01

198

How Bumblebees First Find Flowers: Habituation of Visual Pattern Preferences, Spontaneous Recovery, and Dishabituation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments examined the exploratory behaviour of flower-naive bumblebees. Bees were tested four times in a 12-arm radial arm maze in which they never received reward. Patterned and unpatterned stimuli were presented at the end of each corridor and the choices of the bees were recorded. We examined the effects of two variables, time and the

Plowright, C. M. S.; Simonds, V. M.; Butler, M. A.

2006-01-01

199

Colored Shadows  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity demonstrates the additive properties of light. Different-colored lights are shown on the same spot on a screen so that the reflecting light is white. Colored shadows, however, can be made by holding an object between the light sources and the screen. The site provides an explanation for how this occurs along with extension activities and information about the eyeâs retina. Materials needed and assembly instructions are also included. This activity is part of Exploratorium's Science Snacks series.

2008-06-19

200

Flower development of Begonia franconis Liebm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chapter 1The effects of growth-regulating substances and environmental conditions on the composition of Begonia franconis Liebm. inflorescences were analysed. The inflorescences are generally composed of two male flowers and one terminal female flower.Auxins, gibberellins, and cytokinins, added to the branch apices, as well as low light intensity, promoted male flowering by increasing the number of male flowers. Removal of branches

J. Berghoef

1979-01-01

201

Sequential flowering of neighboring goldenrods and the movements of the flower predator Epicauta pennsylvanica  

Microsoft Academic Search

As neighboring plants flower sequentially, do flower feeders preferentially remain in the area, rather than move to another area with flowering plants? I examined the movements of the meloid beetle Epicauta pennsylvanica, a flower predator specializing on Solidago, in four types of replicated experimental plots monocultures of Solidago altissima, or S. altissima interplanted with members of the same genus,

R. J. Goldburg

1987-01-01

202

A Flower of Tibouchina semidecandra,  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A flower of Tibouchina semidecandra, a well-known ornamental from southeastern Brazil. Tibouchinais a member of the large tropical family Melastomataceae and together with other Melastomeae has been regarded as representing a relatively basal element of the family. Molecular evidence suggests that Tibouchina, Melastoma, Osbeckia, and other Melastomeae represent a derived clade of Melastomataceae that only recently reached Africa and tropical Asia.

Susanne Renner (University of Missouri-St. Louis;Department of Biology ADR;POSTAL)

2004-03-09

203

Parental Choice Options.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the many dramatically different forms of school choice proposals, warning against implementing sharply limited and regulated school choice plans and arguing that if the failure of school choice is wrongly attributed to too much choice rather than too little, broader and freer experiments in choice could be politically doomed. Focuses on

Merrifield, John D.

2000-01-01

204

6, 1105111066, 2006 Sea ice, frost flowers  

E-print Network

ACPD 6, 11051­11066, 2006 Sea ice, frost flowers and halogen activation W. R. Simpson et al. Title than potential frost flower contact W. R. Simpson 1 , D. Carlson 1 , G. Hoenninger 1,2, , T. A. Douglas. Simpson (ffwrs@uaf.edu) 11051 #12;ACPD 6, 11051­11066, 2006 Sea ice, frost flowers and halogen activation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

205

Rufous hummingbirds' memory for flower location  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used an open-field analogue of the eight-arm radial maze to investigate the role of memory during foraging by rufous hummingbirds, Selasphorus rufus. In experiment 1 we attempted to determine whether birds were able to differentiate between flowers of the same type that they had emptied, flowers they had seen but not visited and new flowers. They were tested with

Jonathan Henderson; T. Andrew Hurly; Susan D. Healy

2001-01-01

206

Flower Evolution: The Origin and Subsequent Diversification  

E-print Network

for the development of the flower. Likewise, a view to the fossil record can provide documentation of reproductiveFlower Evolution: The Origin and Subsequent Diversification of the Angiosperm Flower Chelsea D Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics is online at ecolsys.annualreviews.org This article's doi

207

Vestigial Corolla in Flowers of Birdsfoot Trefoil  

Microsoft Academic Search

flower buds are round, whereas those of normal flowers are boat shaped. The leaves and stems of the mutants A naturally occurring floral mutant is infrequently observed in are phenotypically normal. some populations of birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.). The petals of mutant flowers are folded inward and do not extend fully, Induced mutants similar to vc have been reported

P. R. Beuselinck; R. L. McGraw

2000-01-01

208

Spring Flowers: Harvest of a Sensitive Eye  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defining and describing a number of spring flowers, this article includes illustrations and explanations that demonstrate "art and science are born of the same parents". The flowers discussed are skunk cabbage, bellwort, spring beauty, jack-in-the-pulpit, Solomon's seal, wild geranium, showy orchids, moccasin flower, bluets, apple, and Indian

Clark, Eloise; Levin, Ted

1978-01-01

209

Harmonious colors: from alchemy to science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a very long tradition in designing color palettes for various applications, going back to at least the Upanishad. Although color palettes have been influenced by the available colorants, starting with the advent of aniline dyes in the late 1850s there have been few physical limits on the choice of individual colors. This abundance of choices exacerbates the problem of limiting the number of colors in a palette, i.e., in keeping them into a manageable quantity. For example, it is not practical for a car company to offer each model in hundreds of colors. Instead, for each model year a small number of color palettes is offered, each containing the colors for the body, trim, interior, etc. Another example is the fashion industry, where in addition to solid colors there are also patterns, leading to a huge variety of combinations that would be impossible to stock. The traditional solution is that of "color forecasting." Color consultants assess the sentiment or affective state of a target customer class and compare it with new colorants offered by the industry. They assemble a limited color palette, name the colors according to the sentiment, and publish their result. Textile manufacturers will produce fabrics in these colors and fashion designers will design clothes, accessories, and furniture based on these fabrics. Eventually, the media will communicate these forecasts to the consumers, who will be admired by their cohorts when they choose colors from the forecast palette, which by then is widely diffused. The color forecasting business is very labor intensive and difficult, thus for years computer engineers have tried to come up with algorithms to design harmonious color palettes, alas with little commercial success. For example, Johannes Itten's color theory has been implemented many times, but despite Itten's success in the Bauhaus artifacts, the computer tools have been of little utility. Indeed, contrary to the auditory sense, there is no known physiological mechanism sustaining harmony and the term "harmonious" just has the informal meaning of "going well together." We argue that the intellectual flaw resides in the belief that a masterful individual can devise a "perfect methodology" that the engineer can then reduce to practice in a computer program. We suggest that the correct approach is to consider color forecasting as an act of distillation, where a palette is digested from the sentiment of a very large number of people. We describe how this approach can be reduced to an algorithm by replacing the subjective process with a data analytic process.

Beretta, Giordano B.; Moroney, Nathan M.

2012-01-01

210

Preference for oddity: uniqueness heuristic or hierarchical choice process?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional economic theories assume decision makers in multialternative choice tasks assign a value to each option and\\u000a then express rational preferences. Here, I report an apparent violation of such rationality in gray jays (Perisoreus canadensis). I tested the jays preference in a quaternary choice task where three options were the same color and the fourth option\\u000a was a different color.

Thomas A. Waite

2008-01-01

211

School Choice vs. School Choice. Policy Backgrounder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper recommends replacing the existing U.S. school choice system, which relies on the housing market to ration educational opportunity, with one that creates a level playing field upon which schools compete for students, and students and their parents exercise choice. Section 1 describes the current school choice system, which works well for

Goodman, John C.; Moore, Matt

212

Profiling Color  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines philosophically the nature and possible moral justification of racial profiling in terms of color profiling.\\u000a Precisely what is such profiling, and can it ever be morally justified? If so, under what conditions is it morally justified?

J. Angelo Corlett

2011-01-01

213

Cross-cultural color-odor associations.  

PubMed

Colors and odors are associated; for instance, people typically match the smell of strawberries to the color pink or red. These associations are forms of crossmodal correspondences. Recently, there has been discussion about the extent to which these correspondences arise for structural reasons (i.e., an inherent mapping between color and odor), statistical reasons (i.e., covariance in experience), and/or semantically-mediated reasons (i.e., stemming from language). The present study probed this question by testing color-odor correspondences in 6 different cultural groups (Dutch, Netherlands-residing-Chinese, German, Malay, Malaysian-Chinese, and US residents), using the same set of 14 odors and asking participants to make congruent and incongruent color choices for each odor. We found consistent patterns in color choices for each odor within each culture, showing that participants were making non-random color-odor matches. We used representational dissimilarity analysis to probe for variations in the patterns of color-odor associations across cultures; we found that US and German participants had the most similar patterns of associations, followed by German and Malay participants. The largest group differences were between Malay and Netherlands-resident Chinese participants and between Dutch and Malaysian-Chinese participants. We conclude that culture plays a role in color-odor crossmodal associations, which likely arise, at least in part, through experience. PMID:25007343

Levitan, Carmel A; Ren, Jiana; Woods, Andy T; Boesveldt, Sanne; Chan, Jason S; McKenzie, Kirsten J; Dodson, Michael; Levin, Jai A; Leong, Christine X R; van den Bosch, Jasper J F

2014-01-01

214

Flower scent composition in night-flowering Silene species (Caryophyllaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Floral scent of 13 night-flowering Silene species (Caryophyllaceae) was collected by headspace adsorption and analysed via gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Benzenoids together with isoprenoids dominated the scent in all species. Among the benzenoids, benzaldehyde (Silene subconica 35.5%, Silene succulenta 23.1%, Silene sericea 15.6%, Silene vulgaris 12.2%, and Silene nutans 9.9%), methylbenzoate (Silene saxifraga 96.1%, S. succulenta 15.2%), benzyl acetate

A. Jrgens; T. Witt; G. Gottsberger

2002-01-01

215

Effects of shade on plant growth and flower quality in the herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.).  

PubMed

Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) is an important ornamental plant used in urban green spaces, but little is known about whether it can grow in a shaded environment or understory. In this study, effects of shade on plant growth and flower quality in the herbaceous peony were investigated. The results showed that P.lactiflora morphology parameters, including plant height, leaf number, stem diameter, branch number, node number and plant crown width, were higher in plants grown with sun exposure compared to those grown in shade; however, opposite trends were observed for the top and middle leaf areas of the plant. Compared with sun exposure, shade decreased P. lactiflora photosynthetic capacity, light saturation point (LSP) and light compensation point (LCP) and increased the apparent quantum yield (AQY), mainly due to declined stomatal conduction (Gs). These decreases caused the soluble sugar, soluble protein and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents to decline, which led to delayed initial flowering date, prolonged flowering time, reduced flower fresh weight, increased flower diameter and faded flower color. Through cloning and expression analysis of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, we determined that the fading of flower color was the result of reduced anthocyanin content, which was caused by the combined activity of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes and, in particular, of the upstream phenylalanine ammonialyase gene (PlPAL) and chalcone synthase gene (PlCHS). These results could provide us with a theoretical basis for further application of P.lactiflora in the greening of urban spaces and an understanding of the mechanisms behind the changes induced by shade. PMID:23141672

Zhao, Daqiu; Hao, Zhaojun; Tao, Jun

2012-12-01

216

Flowering in Lotus pedunculatus cav  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photoperiodic control of flowering in a north German variety of Lotus pedunculatus Cav. was investigated in the glasshouse under both natural and incandescent light. For four clones studied, the critical daylength for inflorescence initiation under natural light alone ranged from 145 to over 150 hours.The requirement for long days was satisfied in short days by a two-hour light-break in the

D. J. Forde; R. G. Thomas

1966-01-01

217

Color and Scent: How Single Genes Influence Pollinator Attraction  

E-print Network

Color and Scent: How Single Genes Influence Pollinator Attraction H. SHEEHAN, K. HERMANN, AND C.kuhlemeier@ips.unibe.ch A major function of angiosperm flowers is the recruitment of animal pollinators that serve to transfer pollen among conspecific plants. Distinct sets of floral characteristics, called pollination syndromes

Kuhlemeier, Cris

218

2009 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University 2901-1075 Virginia Cooperative Extension programs and employment are open to all, regardless of race, color, national origin, sex, religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, o  

E-print Network

programs and employment are open to all, regardless of race, color, national origin, sex, religion, age flowers. `Gold Flame', about 4 feet tall at maturity, is a popular cultivar because the new foliage, and orange fall color. Comments: Spireas are among the easiest flowering shrubs to grow. Vanhoutte spirea

Liskiewicz, Maciej

219

2009 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University 2901-1035 Virginia Cooperative Extension programs and employment are open to all, regardless of race, color, national origin, sex, religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, o  

E-print Network

programs and employment are open to all, regardless of race, color, national origin, sex, religion, age, spreading There are hundreds of evergreen azalea cultivars which vary in hardiness, size, form, flower color and related species that grow well in your area. Kurume Azaleas: #12;2 `Pink Pearl' has pink flowers. `Flame

Liskiewicz, Maciej

220

Early flower development in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed Central

The early development of the flower of Arabidopsis thaliana is described from initiation until the opening of the bud. The morphogenesis, growth rate, and surface structure of floral organs were recorded in detail using scanning electron microscopy. Flower development has been divided into 12 stages using a series of landmark events. Stage 1 begins with the initiation of a floral buttress on the flank of the apical meristem. Stage 2 commences when the flower primordium becomes separate from the meristem. Sepal primordia then arise (stage 3) and grow to overlie the primordium (stage 4). Petal and stamen primordia appear next (stage 5) and are soon enclosed by the sepals (stage 6). During stage 6, petal primordia grow slowly, whereas stamen primordia enlarge more rapidly. Stage 7 begins when the medial stamens become stalked. These soon develop locules (stage 8). A long stage 9 then commences with the petal primordia becoming stalked. During this stage all organs lengthen rapidly. This includes the gynoecium, which commences growth as an open-ended tube during stage 6. When the petals reach the length of the lateral stamens, stage 10 begins. Stigmatic papillae appear soon after (stage 11), and the petals rapidly reach the height of the medial stamens (stage 12). This final stage ends when the 1-millimeter-long bud opens. Under our growing conditions 1.9 buds were initiated per day on average, and they took 13.25 days to progress through the 12 stages from initiation until opening. PMID:2152125

Smyth, D R; Bowman, J L; Meyerowitz, E M

1990-01-01

221

Catching ants with honey: an experimental test of distraction and satiation as alternative modes of escape from flower-damaging ants.  

PubMed

According to the distraction hypothesis, extrafloral nectaries (EFN) evolved under selection to entice ants away from floral nectaries, reducing ant-mediated damage to flowers and/or interference with pollinators. Predator-satiation, through production of nectar in either surplus flowers or EFN, provides an alternative mechanism for reducing the impact of ants as flower visitors. I tested these two hypotheses by experimentally adding EFN to flowering plants of the alpine wildflower, Polemonium viscosum, and by surveying the relationship between ant visitation and nectary number in nature. Plants of P. viscosum lack EFN and experience flower damage by ants of Formica neorufibarbus gelida. Ant behavior was compared on plants with five flowers and three experimental EFN and on controls with equal floral display, but no EFN. Addition of EFN increased flower visitation by ants. The effect of EFN on flower visitation did not depend on proximity of EFN to flowers or attractiveness of EFN to ants. Findings suggest that ants perceived patch quality on a whole plant basis, rather than responding to EFN and flowers as distinct nectar patches. Ant visitation did not keep pace with nectary number in nature. The relationship between ant visitation and nectary number per plant was weak and shallow as predicted under satiation. Ant foraging choices on experimental inflorescences showed that ants bypass flowers avoided by earlier ants, enhancing probability of escape via satiation. Results do not support the idea that EFN evolve to reduce flower visitation by ants, but show instead that nectar in surplus flowers can satiate ants and reduce their negative impacts on flower function and integrity. PMID:15800742

Galen, Candace

2005-06-01

222

Flower colour adaptation in a mimetic orchid  

PubMed Central

Although the tremendous variability in floral colour among angiosperms is often attributed to divergent selection by pollinators, it is usually difficult to preclude the possibility that floral colour shifts were driven by non-pollinator processes. Here, we examine the adaptive significance of flower colour in Disa ferruginea, a non-rewarding orchid that is thought to attract its butterfly pollinator by mimicking the flowers of sympatric nectar-producing species. Disa ferruginea has red flowers in the western part of its range and orange flowers in the eastern parta colour shift that we hypothesized to be the outcome of selection for resemblance to different local nectar-producing plants. Using reciprocal translocations of red and orange phenotypes as well as arrays of artificial flowers, we found that the butterfly Aeropetes tulbaghia, the only pollinator of the orchid, preferred both the red phenotype and red artificial flowers in the west where its main nectar plant also has red flowers, and both the orange phenotype and orange artificial flowers in the east, where its main nectar plant has orange flowers. This phenotype by environment interaction demonstrates that the flower colour shift in D. ferruginea is adaptive and driven by local colour preference in its pollinator. PMID:22298842

Newman, Ethan; Anderson, Bruce; Johnson, Steven D.

2012-01-01

223

PERCEIVING COLOR Visual Perception  

E-print Network

also on the response of the eye Multiplication of color spectrum with the luminous efficacy function X's Additive Color Wheel Three colors to create a reasonable subset Devices Even Eye Same color can be created1 PERCEIVING COLOR Visual Perception Slide 2 Aditi Majumder, UCI Functions of Color Vision Object

Majumder, Aditi

224

Spectral sensitivities and color signals in a polymorphic damselfly.  

PubMed

Animal communication relies on conspicuous signals and compatible signal perception abilities. Good signal perception abilities are particularly important for polymorphic animals where mate choice can be a challenge. Behavioral studies suggest that polymorphic damselflies use their varying body colorations and/or color patterns as communication signal for mate choice and to control mating frequencies. However, solid evidence for this hypothesis combining physiological with spectral and behavioral data is scarce. We investigated this question in the Australian common blue tail damselfly, Ischnura heterosticta, which has pronounced female-limited polymorphism: andromorphs have a male-like blue coloration and gynomorphs display green/grey colors. We measured body color reflectance and investigated the visual capacities of each morph, showing that I. heterosticta have at least three types of photoreceptors sensitive to UV, blue, and green wavelength, and that this visual perception ability enables them to detect the spectral properties of the color signals emitted from the various color morphs in both males and females. We further demonstrate that different color morphs can be discriminated against each other and the vegetation based on color contrast. Finally, these findings were supported by field observations of natural mating pairs showing that mating partners are indeed chosen based on their body coloration. Our study provides the first comprehensive evidence for the function of body coloration on mate choice in polymorphic damselflies. PMID:24498233

Huang, Shao-chang; Chiou, Tsyr-huei; Marshall, Justin; Reinhard, Judith

2014-01-01

225

Spectral Sensitivities and Color Signals in a Polymorphic Damselfly  

PubMed Central

Animal communication relies on conspicuous signals and compatible signal perception abilities. Good signal perception abilities are particularly important for polymorphic animals where mate choice can be a challenge. Behavioral studies suggest that polymorphic damselflies use their varying body colorations and/or color patterns as communication signal for mate choice and to control mating frequencies. However, solid evidence for this hypothesis combining physiological with spectral and behavioral data is scarce. We investigated this question in the Australian common blue tail damselfly, Ischnura heterosticta, which has pronounced female-limited polymorphism: andromorphs have a male-like blue coloration and gynomorphs display green/grey colors. We measured body color reflectance and investigated the visual capacities of each morph, showing that I. heterosticta have at least three types of photoreceptors sensitive to UV, blue, and green wavelength, and that this visual perception ability enables them to detect the spectral properties of the color signals emitted from the various color morphs in both males and females. We further demonstrate that different color morphs can be discriminated against each other and the vegetation based on color contrast. Finally, these findings were supported by field observations of natural mating pairs showing that mating partners are indeed chosen based on their body coloration. Our study provides the first comprehensive evidence for the function of body coloration on mate choice in polymorphic damselflies. PMID:24498233

Huang, Shao-chang; Chiou, Tsyr-huei; Marshall, Justin; Reinhard, Judith

2014-01-01

226

Hidden Color  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the acceptance of QCD as the fundamental theory of strong interactions, one of the basic problems in the analysis of nuclear phenomena became how to consistently account for the effects of the underlying quark/gluon structure of nucleons and nuclei. Besides providing more detailed understanding of conventional nuclear physics, QCD may also point to novel phenomena accessible by new or upgraded nuclear experimental facilities. We discuss a few interesting applications of QCD to nuclear physics with an emphasis on the hidden color degrees of freedom.

Ji, C.-R.

2014-10-01

227

Anthocyanins as Functional Food Colors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthocyanins, a proanthocyanidin-type of flavonoid, contain an abundance of functional phytochemicals and occur in fruits such as cranberry, blueberry, orange, apple and in vegetables such as tomato, sweet pepper, spinach, and radishes. Functional and essential diets have been ingested in daily life since the primitive era of history. When anthocyanins are coupled with some water-soluble sugar molecules, their color becomes red, yellow, violet, or blue. It is very intriguing that anthocyanins provide the colorful variety of pigments for pansies, petunias, plums, and other diverse flowers. Chlorophyll in various fruits and vegetables is the main green phyto-component, while anthocyanins are probably the most important visible plant pigments in the natural kingdom having specific colors. Anthocyanins have been clinically used in many folklore medicines worldwide. Anthocyanins could provide health benefits for age-related diseases as well as other diseases. Anthocyanins have higher antioxidant capacity against oxidative stress induced by excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide, and thus the human body might be protected from oxidative injury by anthocyanins. On the basis of these facts, we review the synthesis of plant flavonoids and their ability to scavenge oxidants, inhibit or activate enzymes, and the safety of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanidins present in common foods.

Motohashi, Noboru; Sakagami, Hiroshi

228

Somatic mutations caused by excision of the transposable element, Tpn1 , from the DFR gene for pigmentation in sub-epidermal layer of periclinally chimeric flowers of Japanese morning glory and their germinal transmission to their progeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pigmentation in flowers of Japanese morning glory is intense in the epidermal layer, lighter in the subepidermis, and much lighter in the internal tissues; by contrast coloration in stems occurs only in the sub-epidermal layer. The a-3\\u000a\\u000af\\u000a mutant of Japanese morning glory bears white flowers with normal-colored flecks and sectors, and its variegation also occurs in leaves and stems.

Y. Inagaki; Y. Hisatomi; S. Iida

1996-01-01

229

Advanced Ocean Color Monitor (OCM) Feasibility Study. Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After a theoretical analysis of the radiometric and geometric performances of the ocean color monitor instrument and a comparative study of the different configurations, a choice is made to select the instrument characteristics better adjusted to the Euro...

G. Cerutti-maori

1983-01-01

230

Fluorescence detection of tyrosinase activity on dopamine-betaxanthin purified from Portulaca oleracea (common purslane) flowers.  

PubMed

Tyrosinase or polyphenol oxidase (EC 1.14.18.1) is one of the key enzymes for the biosynthesis of natural pigment betalains. These are an important class of water-soluble pigments, characteristic of plants belonging to the order Caryophyllales. In this work, dopamine-betaxanthin (also known as miraxanthin V) is reported as the pigment responsible for the bright coloration in yellow flowers of Portulaca oleracea (common purslane). The natural pigment is purified, and used as a substrate for the catecholase (diphenolase) activity of the enzyme tyrosinase. A new, continuous method to follow the activity is developed based on the fluorescent properties of the betaxanthin. Fluorescence of the enzyme activity derived products is reported for the first time. Relevance of the fluorescent phenomenon is discussed based on fluorescence images and the description of a physiological inner filter effect present in flowers of P. oleracea. The first description of the betalain content in flower pistils is also provided. PMID:19227976

Ganda-Herrero, Fernando; Jimnez-Atinzar, Mercedes; Cabanes, Juana; Escribano, Josefa; Garca-Carmona, Francisco

2009-03-25

231

Flavonoids from Abutilon theophrasti flowers.  

PubMed

Nine flavonoid compounds: kaempferol 3-0-beta-(6"-p-coumaroyl)-glucopyranoside, myricetin 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside, quercetin 3-0-beta-glucopyranoside, quercetin 3-0-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->6)-beta-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 3-0-beta-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 3-0-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->6)-beta-glucopyranoside, quercetin 7-0-beta-glucoside, quercetin 7-0-beta-diglucoside, kaempferol 7-0-beta-diglucoside were isolated and identified from the flowers of Abutilon theophrasti. PMID:16161355

Mat?awska, Irena; Sikorska, Maria

2005-01-01

232

Color Theory for Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson will introduce students to color theory with a focus on the use of color in digital design. Students will discover the color wheel, and color harmonies. Color is a very powerful tool in design. It can, enhance a message, give an object visual weight and emphasis, and add richness and depth to a design. We can use color to signify data, to draw attention to a particular object, or to set a mood. Color ...

Jensen, Mr.

2009-10-04

233

Learning About Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project, students will learn about primary, secondary, and complementary colors. Students will also learn about warm & cool colors, along with tints & shades. Lastly, they will create an optical illusion using complimentary colors. INTRODUCTION: Welcome students! Begin by watching this fun video about colors. LEARNING ABOUT COLOR: Now, that you've had an introduction to colors, lets play a little game! Click on the link below. Carmine s Introduction to Color Awesome! Click on the links below ...

Erickson, Whitni

2009-04-18

234

COLORS Magazine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

COLORS Magazine was willed into existence in 1991 by photographer Oliviero Toscani and art director Tibor Kalman. Its goal was simple: "to show the world to the world.â The publication looks at social issues around the world through thoughtful prose and meaningful visuals. Visitors can click on the Stories tab to click through a visual field of photos that lead to such stories as military service in South Korea and cuts to public spending in the United Kingdom. The Notebooks area brings together commentaries from all over the world as part of a collaboration with Reporters sans Frontieres. The Projects area contains links to special issues and projects, such as the News Machine that "churns your tweets through different media filters.â Interested users can learn about obtaining a print subscription or explore the corresponding blog.

235

Disruptive Coloration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most animals are patterned. While some markings may serve as an advertisement, many appear to function in concealment. Because of the principal way in which they seem to function, such markings are often termed disruptive coloration . Although there are a number of characteristics that may influence the effectiveness of markings in disruption; this study will only focus on two aspects: (1) the effectiveness of the position of markings in blurring or enhancing outline, and (2) the degree to which strongly contrasting markings may interfere with or aid recognition. In regard to the former, it must be kept in mind that the profile changes with change in viewing angle. Thus the pattern seen in relation to the profile most commonly presented to predator (or prey) is of most interest to us here.

Ipsen, David; Gillfillan, Gretchen L.; Judy Diamond (Revised New Edition); Judy Scotchmoor (Revised New Edition); Stebbins, Robert

2009-04-01

236

Your Genes, Your Choices  

MedlinePLUS

Your Genes, Your Choices describes the Human Genome Project, the science behind it, and the ethical, legal, and social ... Nothing could be further from the truth. Your Genes, Your Choices points out how the progress of ...

237

A Chromoplast-Specific Carotenoid Biosynthesis Pathway Is Revealed by Cloning of the Tomato white-flower Locus[W  

PubMed Central

Carotenoids and their oxygenated derivatives xanthophylls play essential roles in the pigmentation of flowers and fruits. Wild-type tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) flowers are intensely yellow due to accumulation of the xanthophylls neoxanthin and violaxanthin. To study the regulation of xanthophyll biosynthesis, we analyzed the mutant white-flower (wf). It was found that the recessive wf phenotype is caused by mutations in a flower-specific ?-ring carotene hyroxylase gene (CrtR-b2). Two deletions and one exon-skipping mutation in different CrtR-b2 wf alleles abolish carotenoid biosynthesis in flowers but not leaves, where the homologous CrtR-b1 is constitutively expressed. A second ?-carotene hydroxylase enzyme as well as flower- and fruit-specific geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase, phytoene synthase, and lycopene ?-cyclase together define a carotenoid biosynthesis pathway active in chromoplasts only, underscoring the crucial role of gene duplication in specialized plant metabolic pathways. We hypothesize that this pathway in tomato was initially selected during evolution to enhance flower coloration and only later recruited to enhance fruit pigmentation. The elimination of ?-carotene hydroxylation in wf petals results in an 80% reduction in total carotenoid concentration, possibly caused by the inability of petals to store high concentrations of carotenoids other than xanthophylls and by degradation of ?-carotene, which accumulates as a result of the wf mutation but is not due to altered expression of genes in the biosynthetic pathway. PMID:16816137

Galpaz, Navot; Ronen, Gil; Khalfa, Zehava; Zamir, Dani; Hirschberg, Joseph

2006-01-01

238

Privatization and Educational Choice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book describes how and why educational choice movements will affect public education. It uses a public-choice approach to argue that both the supporters and opponents of private and school choice have failed to address several critical issues. Following an introductory chapter, chapter 2 is devoted to the rationale for contracting out

Lieberman, Myron

239

Moth using proboscis to get food from flower  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Not only bees pollinate flowers. Moths have a specialized mouth structure called a proboscis that is used to extract nectar and pollinate the flower. The moth benefits by getting food and the flower benefits by being pollinated.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2006-12-30

240

7 CFR 52.1006 - Color.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

If the whole or pitted dates or whole dry dates for processing possess a reasonably good color, a score of 16 or 17 points may be given. Dates that fall into this classification shall not be graded above U.S. Grade B or U.S. Choice or U.S. Grade B (Dry) or...

2010-01-01

241

Plant physiology Acclimatization and flower induction  

E-print Network

Plant physiology Acclimatization and flower induction of tissue culture derived cocoyam (Xanthosoma, 100%). From the successfully acclimatized plants, 200 plants were taken for artificial flower induction studies. Gibberellic acid (GA3) was sprayed on the tissue culture- derived cocoyam plants (TCP

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

242

Bee covered in pollen inside a flower  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Unlike animals, plants are unable to move and find other plants to mate with. Thus, plants rely on insects and other animals to transfer pollen (male sperm) from one flower to the female sex organ (carpels) on another flower. This is called pollination.

Katie Hale (CSUF;Biological Sciences)

2007-06-19

243

Flowers that destroy high-latitude ozone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Satellite estimates of worldwide bromine levels and sea ice coverage were analyzed. Results indicate a correlation between frost flowers and ozone depletion. Researchers suggest that trace gases produced by frost flowers may explain the huge amounts of aerosols seen in the polar troposphere and the thinning of the ozone layer during the polar sunrise.

Al., Kaleschke E.; Agu

244

Flowers help bees cope with uncertainty: signal detection and the function of floral complexity  

PubMed Central

Plants often attract pollinators with floral displays composed of visual, olfactory, tactile and gustatory stimuli. Since pollinators' responses to each of these stimuli are usually studied independently, the question of why plants produce multi-component floral displays remains relatively unexplored. Here we used signal detection theory to test the hypothesis that complex displays reduce a pollinator's uncertainty about the floral signal. Specifically, we asked whether one component of the floral display, scent, improved a bee's certainty about the value of another component, color hue. We first trained two groups of bumble bees (Bombus impatiens Cresson) to discriminate between rewarding and unrewarding artificial flowers of slightly different hues in the presence vs absence of scent. In a test phase, we presented these bees with a gradient of floral hues and assessed their ability to identify the hue rewarded during training. We interpreted the extent to which bees' preferences were biased away from the unrewarding hue (peak shift) as an indicator of uncertainty in color discrimination. Our data show that the presence of an olfactory signal reduces uncertainty regarding color: not only was color learning facilitated on scented flowers but also bees showed a lower amount of peak shift in the presence of scent. We explore potential mechanisms by which scent might reduce uncertainty about color, and discuss the broader significance of our results for our understanding of signal evolution. PMID:21147975

Leonard, Anne S.; Dornhaus, Anna; Papaj, Daniel R.

2011-01-01

245

Chemical Compositionand Anti-acetyl cholinesterase Activity of Flower Essential Oils of Artemisiaannuaat Different Flowering Stage  

PubMed Central

The chemical composition of the essential oils of flower at the pre-flowering, full-flowering and post-flowering stage of A. annua was analyzed by GC and GC/MS and sixty-two components were identified. The main compounds in the pre-flowering oil were ?-myrcene (37.71%), 1, 8-cineole (16.11%) and camphor (14.97%). The full-flowering oil contained predominantly caryophyllene (19.4%), germacrene D (18.1%), camphor (15.84%), 1, 8-cineole (10.6%) and (Z)-?-farnesene (9.43%). The major constituents identified in the post-flowering oil were camphor (16.62%), caryophyllene (16.27%), ?-caryophyllene oxide (15.84%), ?-farnesene (9.05%) and (-)-spathulenol (7.21%). The variety of anti-AChE activity of flower oil of A. annua at three flowering stage might be a result of the variety of the content and interaction of those terpenoids with anti-AChE activity. The greatest acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.13 0.02 mg mL-1) was exhibited by the essential oil of flower of A. annua at post-flowering stage. PMID:24250353

Yu, Zhengwen; Wang, Bochu; Yang, Fumei; Sun, Qianyun; Yang, Zhannan; Zhu, Liancai

2011-01-01

246

Flowering time regulation produces much fruit  

PubMed Central

Summary of recent advances Many of the molecular details regarding the promotion of flowering in response to prolonged exposure to cold temperatures (vernalization) and daylength have recently been elucidated in Arabidopsis. The daylength and vernalization pathway converge in the regulation of floral promoters referred to as floral integrators. In the meristem, vernalization promotes flowering through the epigenetic repression of the floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C. This allows for the induction of floral integrators by CONSTANS under inductive long days. In the vasculature of leaves, CONSTANS protein is produced only in long days where it acts to promote the expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). FT protein is then translocated to the meristem where it acts to promote floral induction. Thus a detailed molecular framework for the regulation of flowering time has now been established in Arabidopsis. PMID:18938104

Michaels, Scott D.

2009-01-01

247

Chest Color and Social Status in Male Geladas ( Theropithecus gelada )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conspicuous colored patches on animals often serve as sexually selected signals that advertise male quality. Such colored\\u000a traits facilitate assessment of risks associated with a specific contest or benefits associated with a specific mate choice.\\u000a Here, we investigate whether a colored patch of skin on the chests of male geladas (Theropithecus gelada) is a sexually selected signal. Specifically, we examine

Thore J. Bergman; Lucy Ho; Jacinta C. Beehner

2009-01-01

248

Color constrasts in advertising: facade colors of food and drink consumption venues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The building facade has a visually defined impact and there are numerous forces driving the choice of colors used. Commercial premises such as pubs, restaurants and bars are normally but not always clearly marked as such. Although we human beings can have the option of free choice in the colors we use around the home there are numerous positive driving forces dictating those we use in business life. Many of these factors have been identified. They depend on the type of population these venues serve, their geography and their traditions.

Hutchings, John

2002-06-01

249

Color Blindness Simulations  

MedlinePLUS

Color blindness Simulations Normal Color Vision Deuteranopia Color blindness marked by confusion of purplish red and green Tritanopia A dichromatism in ... and green and reduced sensitivity to monochromatic lights. Simulations created using Image J 1.22d, National Institutes ...

250

Induction of flowering by 5-azacytidine in some plant species: relationship between the stability of photoperiodically induced flowering and flower-inducing effect of DNA demethylation.  

PubMed

The flower-inducing effect of 5-azacytidine, a DNA demethylating reagent, was examined in several plant species with a stable or unstable photoperiodically induced flowering state under non-inductive photoperiodic conditions. The long day plant Silene armeria, whose flowering state is stable and the short day plant Pharbitis nil, whose flowering state is unstable were induced to flower by 5-azacytidine under a non-inductive condition. Thus, the replacement of photoinduction by 5-azacytidine treatment is not specific to Perilla frutescens. On the other hand, 5-azacytidine did not induce flowering in Xanthium strumarium whose flowering state is stable and Lemna paucicostata whose flowering state is unstable. Thus, epigenetics caused by DNA demethylation may be involved in the regulation of photoperiodic flowering irrespective of the stability of the photoperiodically induced flowering state. PMID:18251884

Kondo, Hiroshi; Miura, Takashi; Wada, Kaede C; Takeno, Kiyotoshi

2007-11-01

251

Why do Manduca sexta feed from white flowers? Innate and learnt colour preferences in a hawkmoth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flower colour is an important signal used by flowering plants to attract pollinators. Many anthophilous insects have an innate colour preference that is displayed during their first foraging bouts and which could help them locate their first nectar reward. Nevertheless, learning capabilities allow insects to switch their colour preferences with experience and thus, to track variation in floral nectar availability. Manduca sexta, a crepuscular hawkmoth widely studied as a model system for sensory physiology and behaviour, visits mostly white, night-blooming flowers lacking UV reflectance throughout its range in the Americas. Nevertheless, the spectral sensitivity of the feeding behaviour of nave moths shows a narrow peak around 450 nm wavelengths, suggesting an innate preference for the colour blue. Under more natural conditions (i.e. broader wavelength reflectance) than in previous studies, we used dual choice experiments with blue- and white-coloured feeders to investigate the innate preference of nave moths and trained different groups to each colour to evaluate their learning capabilities. We confirmed the innate preference of M. sexta for blue and found that these moths were able to switch colour preferences after training experience. These results unequivocally demonstrate that M. sexta moths innately prefer blue when presented against white flower models and offer novel experimental evidence supporting the hypothesis that learning capabilities could be involved in their foraging preferences, including their widely observed attraction to white flowers in nature.

Goyret, Joaqun; Pfaff, Michael; Raguso, Robert A.; Kelber, Almut

2008-06-01

252

The Purpose and Power of Color in Industrial Design: Encouraging the Meaningful Use of Color in Design Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color may be the most influential factor in the decision to buy, or not to buy. In Malcolm Gladwell's book, Blink: The Power of Thinking without Thinking, he suggests that when presented with a choice, the subconscious mind makes a decision within just a few seconds. Even before one rationalizes and investigates the choices, through rapid cognition, the mind has

Jason A. Morris

253

Perspective: matching, mate choice, and speciation.  

PubMed

Matching was developed in the 1960s to match such entities as residents and hospitals, colleges and students, or employers and employees. This approach is based on "preference lists," whereby each participant ranks potential partners according to his/her preferences and tries to match with the highest-ranking partner available. Here, we discuss the implications of matching for the study of mate choice and speciation. Matching differs from classic approaches in several respects, most notably because under this theoretical framework, the formation of mating pairs is context-dependant (i.e., it depends on the configuration of pairings in the entire population), because the stability of mating pairs is considered explicitly, and because mate choice is mutual. The use of matching to study mate choice and speciation is not merely a theoretical curiosity; its application can generate counter-intuitive predictions and lead to conclusions that differ fundamentally from classic theories about sexual selection and speciation. For example, it predicts that when mate choice is mutual and the stability of mating pairs is critical for successful reproduction, sympatric speciation is a robust evolutionary outcome. Yet the application of matching to the study of mate choice and speciation has been largely dominated by theoretical studies. We present the hamlets, a group of brightly colored Caribbean coral reef fishes in the genus Hypoplectrus (Serranidae), as a particularly apt system to test empirically specific predictions generated by the application of matching to mate choice and speciation. PMID:21624930

Puebla, O; Bermingham, E; Guichard, F

2011-09-01

254

Flower opening and closure: an update.  

PubMed

This review is an update of a 2003 review (Journal of Experimental Botany 54,1801-1812) by the same corresponding author. Many examples of flower opening have been recorded using time-lapse photography, showing its velocity and the required elongation growth. Ethylene regulates flower opening, together with at least gibberellins and auxin. Ethylene and gibberellic acid often promote and inhibit, respectively, the expression of DELLA genes and the stability of DELLA proteins. DELLA results in growth inhibition. Both hormones also inhibited and promoted, respectively, the expression of aquaporin genes required for cell elongation. Arabidopsis miRNA319a mutants exhibited narrow and short petals, whereby miRNA319a indirectly regulates auxin effects. Flower opening in roses was controlled by a NAC transcription factor, acting through miRNA164. The regulatory role of light and temperature, in interaction with the circadian clock, has been further elucidated. The end of the life span in many flowers is determined by floral closure. In some species pollination resulted in earlier closure of turgid flowers, compared with unpollinated flowers. It is hypothesized that this pollination-induced effect is only found in flowers in which closure is regulated by ethylene. PMID:25135521

van Doorn, Wouter G; Kamdee, Chanattika

2014-11-01

255

Flowering phenology in subalpine meadows: does climate variation influence community co-flowering patterns?  

PubMed

Climate change is expected to alter patterns of species co-occurrence, in both space and time. Species-specific shifts in reproductive phenology may alter the assemblages of plant species in flower at any given time during the growing season. Temporal overlap in the flowering periods (co-flowering) of animal-pollinated species may influence reproductive success if competitive or facilitative interactions between plant species affect pollinator services. We used a 33-year data set on flowering phenology in subalpine meadows in Colorado, USA, to determine whether interannual variation in snowmelt date, which marks the start of the growing season, affected co-flowering patterns. For two of four species considered, we found a significant relationship between snowmelt timing and composition of the assemblage of co-flowering plants. In years of early snowmelt, Lathyrus lanszwertii var. leucanthus (Fabaceae), the species we investigated in most detail, tended to overlap with earlier-flowering species and with fewer species overall. In particular, overlap with the flowering period of Lupinus polyphyllus var. prunophilus, with which Lathyrus leucanthus shares pollinators, was significantly reduced in early-snowmelt years. The observed association between timing of snowmelt and patterns of flowering overlap could not have been predicted simply by examining temporal trends in the dates of peak flowering of the dominant species in the community, as peak flowering dates have largely shifted in parallel with respect to snowmelt date. However, subtle interspecific differences in responsiveness of flowering time, duration, and intensity to interannual climate variation have likely contributed to the observed relationship. Although much of the year-to-year variation in flowering overlap remains unexplained by snowmelt date, our finding of a measurable signal of climate variation suggests that future climate change may lead to altered competitive environments for these wildflower species. PMID:20392008

Forrest, Jessica; Inouye, David W; Thomson, James D

2010-02-01

256

Uniform color space based on color matching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research intends to explore with a uniform color space based on the CIE 1931 x-y chromatic coordinate system. The goal is to improve the non-uniformity of the CIE 1931 x-y chromaticity diagram such as to approach the human color sensation as possible; however, its simple methodology still can be kept. In spite of the existence of various kinds of the uniform color coordinate systems built up early (CIE u'-v', CIE Lab, CIE LUV, etc.), the establishment of a genuine uniform color space is actually still an important work both for the basic research in color science and the practical applications of colorimetry, especially for recent growing request in illumination engineering and in display technology. In this study, the MacAdam ellipses and the Munsell color chips are utilized for the comparison with the human color sensation. One specific linear transformation matrix is found for the CIE 1931 color matching functions (see manuscript) to become the novel uniform ones. With the aid of the optimization method, the transformation matrix can be easily discovered and makes the 25 MacAdam ellipses are similar to each other in the novel uniform color space. On the other hand, the perfectiveness of the equal-hue curves and the equal-chroma contours from the Mnusell color chips evaluates for the best optimization conditions among several different definitions for the similarity of all the MacAdam ellipses. Finally, the color difference between any two colors can be simply measured by the Euclidean distance in the novel uniform color space and is still fitted to the human color sensation.

Liao, Shih-Fang; Yang, Tsung-Hsun; Lee, Cheng-Chung

2007-09-01

257

Issues in word choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses word choice for natural language generation. It examines 11 issues, the solutions that have been proposed for them, and their implications for design. The issues are:How are appropriate words chosen?How is conciseness ensured?When does choice stop?How are patterns of lexicalization respected?How are interactions among choices handrled?How are the correct parts of speech chosen?How are words chosen to

Nigel Ward

1988-01-01

258

Color Me Understood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the "color system" as a way of grouping children into different personality types based on a certain color: orange, blue, green, and gold. Lists stress producers for specific color people. Asserts that, through making groups of different colors, children begin to see the various specialties others can bring to the group and learn to

Harris, Judy J.

2000-01-01

259

Color Transfer between Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Often this means removing a dominant and undesirable color cast, such as the yellow in photos taken under incandescent illumination. This article describes a method for a more general form of color correction that borrows one image's color characteristics from anoth-er. Figure 1 shows an example of this process, where we applied the colors of a sunset photograph to a

Erik Reinhard; Michael Ashikhmin; Bruce Gooch; Peter Shirley

2001-01-01

260

Changes in first flowering dates and flowering duration of 232 plant species on the island of Guernsey.  

PubMed

Climate change has affected plant phenology; increasing temperatures are associated with advancing first flowering dates. The impact on flowering duration, however, has rarely been studied. In this study, we analysed first flowering dates and flowering durations from a 27 year dataset of weekly flower observations on 232 plant species from the island of Guernsey in the English Channel. The aim of this study was to explore variation in trends and relationships between first flowering dates, flowering duration and temperature. We specifically looked for evidence that traits, such as life forms and phylogenetic groups, explained variation in sensitivity of first flowering and flowering duration among species. Overall trends revealed significantly earlier flowering over time, by an average of 5.2daysdecade(-1) since 1985. A highly significant shortening of flowering duration was observed by an average of 10daysdecade(-1) . Correlations between first flowering, flowering duration and year varied between different species, traits and flowering periods. Significant differences among traits were observed for first flowering and to a lesser degree for flowering duration. Overall, in comparison to first flowering, more species had significant trends in flowering duration. Temperature relationships revealed large differences in strength and direction of response. 55% of the species revealed a significant negative relationship of first flowering dates and temperature. In contrast, only 19% of flowering durations had a significant negative temperature relationship. The advance in first flowering date together with a shortening of flowering duration suggests potentially serious impacts on pollinators, which might pose a major threat to biodiversity, agriculture and horticulture. Human health, in terms of pollen allergies, however, might benefit from a shortening of specific plant pollen seasons. PMID:24639048

Bock, Anna; Sparks, Tim H; Estrella, Nicole; Jee, Nigel; Casebow, Andrew; Schunk, Christian; Leuchner, Michael; Menzel, Annette

2014-11-01

261

Auxin in scapes, flower buds, flowers, and fruits of daffodil ( Narcissus pseudonarcissus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffusates from flower buds, flower fruits, and scape segments, and extracts of flower stalks of Narcissus pseudonarcissus contain an auxin active in the Avena geo-curvature test. The auxin behaved like indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with neutral and basic solvents on different adsorbents. After TLC, the auxin of the extracts showed chromogenic reactions identical with those of IAA;

Eckhardt Edelbluth; Harald Kaldewey

1976-01-01

262

RGB Additive Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Color is all around us. RGB is the color system that is used when mixing light. The RGB system is what we use in computers, televisions, stage lighting, displays and more. It is also called the additive color system because the colors are combined or added to each other to make the colors that we see. What wavelength goes with a color? Remember that a a nanometer is a unit of length in the metric system equal to one billionth of a meter. NASA What is a wave? NASA Color Why is the sky blue? What is RGB and how and where is it used? RGB World 21st Century Color Theory RGB colors are identified on computers by a color value that ranges for R, G, and B, ...

Engelman, Mr.

2010-12-05

263

Photosynthesis by flowers in Encelia farinosa and Encelia californica (Asteraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photosynthetic rates by flowers of the shrubs Encelia farinosa and E. californica were studied during three phenological stages of flower development. Both gross photosynthesis and dark respiration rates in the flowers were of similar magnitude and decreased with floral development. Floral photosynthetic rates were saturated by an irradiance equivalent to one half full noon sunlight. Net photosynthesis of flowers was

Kenneth S. Werk; James R. Ehleringer

1983-01-01

264

Antimicrobial activity of flowers from Anthemis cotula  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flavonoid containing total extract of Anthemis cotula flowers, tested at the concentration of 200 ?g\\/ml, showed interesting antimicrobial activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive microorganisms.

M. V Quarenghi; M. L Tereschuk; M. D Baigori; L. R Abdala

2000-01-01

265

Antimicrobial activity of flowers from Anthemis cotula.  

PubMed

The flavonoid containing total extract of Anthemis cotula flowers, tested at the concentration of 200 microg/ml, showed interesting antimicrobial activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive microorganisms. PMID:11077183

Quarenghi, M V; Tereschuk, M L; Baigori, M D; Abdala, L R

2000-12-01

266

"Say it...near the flower shop": further evidence of the effect of flowers on mating.  

PubMed

For millennia, flowers have been used to convey romance. In this study, 18-25-year-old women (N = 600) walking alone in a shopping mall were approached by an attractive 20-year-old male-confederate who solicited them for their phone number. The women were solicited as they were walking in the area of a flower shop, a cake shop, or a women's shoes shop. It was found that women agreed more favorably to the confederate's courtship solicitation when solicited in the area of the flower shop. Positive mood induced by exposure to flowers was used to explain these results. PMID:22930994

Guguen, Nicolas

2012-01-01

267

Armstrong v. Flowers Hospital, Inc.  

PubMed

A U.S. district court in Alabama held that a pregnant nurse had not been the target of discrimination as a result of the termination of her employment by Flowers Hospital for refusal to provide home care services to a patient suffering from AIDS and an accompanying infectious disease, cryptococcal meningitis. First, the plaintiff-nurse, Armstrong, failed to show that nonpregnant nurses were being treated differently because all nurses were required to treat AIDS patients. Second, the Pregnancy Discrimination Act 1978 does not require employers to make special accommodations for pregnant women. Armstrong contended that her fear was not of the AIDS per se, but rather that she was concerned about exposing herself and her fetus to the infectious diseases common in AIDS patients. The hospital contended that its policy does not allow nurses to refuse to treat any assigned patients, especially because all precautionary measures are practiced in accordance with Centers for Disease Control guidelines for treatment and home care. PMID:11648617

1993-02-01

268

Phytochrome, plant growth and flowering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attempts to use artificially lit cabinets to grow plants identical to those growing in sunlight have provided compelling evidence of the importance of light quality for plant growth. Changing the balance of red (R) to far-red (FR) radiation, but with a fixed photosynthetic input can shift the phytochrome photoequilibrium in a plant and generate large differences in plant growth. With FR enrichment the plants elongate, and may produce more leaf area and dry matter. Similar morphogenic responses are also obtained when light quality is altered only briefly (15-30 min) at the end-of-the-day. Conversely, for plants grown in natural conditions the response of plant form to selective spectral filtering has again shown that red and far-red wavebands are important as found by Kasperbauer and coworkers. Also, where photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) of sunlight have been held constant, the removal of far-red alone alters plant growth. With FR depletion plants grown in sunlight are small, more branched and darker green. Here we examine the implications for plant growth and flowering when the far-red composition of incident radiation in plant growth chambers is manipulated.

King, R. W.; Bagnall, D. J.

1994-01-01

269

Synesthesia: When colors count  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tacitly held assumption in synesthesia research is the unidirectionality of digitcolor associations. This notion is based on synesthetes' report that digits evoke a color percept, but colors do not elicit any numerical impression. In a random color generation task, we found evidence for an implicit co-activation of digits by colors, a finding that constrains neurological theories concerning cross-modal associations

Daria Knoch; Lorena R. R. Gianotti; Christine Mohr; Peter Brugger

2005-01-01

270

Molecular Biology and Biotechnology of Flower Pigments  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The major pigments responsible for flower colour are flavonoids (particularly anthocyanins) and carotenoids, with betalains\\u000a occurring in a relatively small number of species. Flavonoids and betalains are water-soluble and generally located in the\\u000a vacuole. Carotenoids are lipid-soluble, plastid-located terpenoids, which for pigmentation of flowers accumulate in specialized\\u000a plastids called chromoplasts. The biosynthetic pathways for flavonoids and carotenoids have been characterized

K. M. Davies; K. E. Schwinn

271

Classification and geography of the flowering plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thome, Robert F. (Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden, Claremont, CA 91711). Classification and geography of the flowering plants.\\u000a Bot. Rev.58(3): 225348. 1992.This treatment of the flowering plants is the latest revision of my classification of the Class Angiospermae\\u000a and replaces my 1983 and more recent 1992 synopses. An update is necessary because so much new information has been published\\u000a in

Robert F. Thorne

1992-01-01

272

Why Is a Flower Five-Petaled?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines why many flowers are five-petaled through the use of a five-petaled model that draws insights from the location of cell clusters at a shoot apex, rather than by way of the Fibonacci sequence or the golden ratio as in the past. The conclusion drawn is that flowers are most likely to be five-petaled, followed by six-petaled;

Nishiyama, Yutaka

2004-01-01

273

Sexual interference within flowers of Chamerion angustifolium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hermaphroditism is prevalent in plants but may allow interference between male function (pollen removal and dispersal) and\\u000a female function (pollen receipt and seed production) within a flower. Temporal or spatial segregation of gender within a hermaphroditic\\u000a flower may evolve to reduce this interference and enhance male and female reproductive success. We tested this hypothesis\\u000a using Chamerion angustifolium (Onagraceae), in which

Matthew B. Routley; Brian C. Husband

2006-01-01

274

Evolution of flower shape in Plantago lanceolata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plantago lanceolata produces small actinomorphic (radially symmetric), wind-pollinated flowers that have evolved from a zygomorphic, biotically\\u000a pollinated ancestral state. To understand the developmental mechanisms that might underlie this change in flower shape, and\\u000a associated change in pollination syndrome, we analyzed the role of CYC-like genes in P. lanceolata. Related zygomorphic species have two CYC-like genes that are expressed asymmetrically in

Wesley Reardon; David A. Fitzpatrick; Mario A. Fares; Jacqueline M. Nugent

2009-01-01

275

The Choice Controversy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Issues in school choice--constitutionality, feasibility, equity, and educational productivity--are examined in this book. The controversy requires an ongoing analysis of the origins of the school-choice movement, the kinds of plans proposed and implemented, their educational and social consequences, and the philosophical assumptions underlying the

Cookson, Peter W., Jr., Ed.

276

School Choice Slandered.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critiques the criticism leveled at Milwaukee's (Wisconsin) four-year-old Parental Choice Program, a program designed to open private school choice through a voucher program. It discusses John Witte's reports which criticize the program and how these reports are flawed and inaccurate depictions of the program's progress and impact. (GLR)

McGroarty, Daniel

1994-01-01

277

Comparing Your Treatment Choices  

Cancer.gov

The charts below list 9 common questions and answers for the 3 treatment choices discussed in this booklet. As mentioned before, most men will need more information than found in this booklet to reach their decisions. You may use the questions in these charts as a guide for talking with your doctor or learning more about your choices.

278

Attention in risky choice.  

PubMed

Previous research on the processes involved in risky decisions has rarely linked process data to choice directly. We used a simple measure based on the relative amount of attentional deployment to different components (gains/losses and their probabilities) of a risky gamble during the choice process, and we related this measure to the actual choice. In an experiment we recorded the decisions, decision times, and eye movements of 80 participants who made decisions on 11 choice problems. We used the number of eye fixations and fixation transitions to trace the deployment of attention during the choice process and obtained the following main results. First, different components of a gamble attracted different amounts of attention depending on participants' actual choice. This was reflected in both the number of fixations and the fixation transitions. Second, the last-fixated gamble but not the last-fixated reason predicted participants' choices. Third, a comparison of data obtained with eye tracking and data obtained with verbal protocols from a previous study showed a large degree of convergence regarding the process of risky choice. Together these findings tend to support dimensional decision strategies such as the priority heuristic. PMID:25226548

Brandsttter, Eduard; Krner, Christof

2014-10-01

279

More Choice, Less Crime  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research debates whether public school choice improves students' academic outcomes, but there is little examination of its effects on their nonacademic outcomes. We use data from a nationally representative sample of high school students, a previously developed Tiebout choice measure, and metropolitan-level data on teenage arrest rates to

Dills, Angela K.; Hernandez-Julian, Rey

2011-01-01

280

Tense Choices in Citations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines tense, aspect, and voice choices in the reporting verbs in a corpus of research articles from the "Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine." Investigates how such choices correlate with other syntactic elements in the citations, as well as with the discourse functions of the citations in their contexts. (TB)

Hawes, Thomas; Thomas, Sarah

1997-01-01

281

Passengers' Airport Choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modelling airport choice of passengers has been a subject of interest for air transport scientists and airport managers already for a while. Wilken, Berster and Gelhausen have reported of a market segment specific model approach to airport choice in Germany in a paper entitled \\

Marc Christopher Gelhausen

2007-01-01

282

Comparative evolution of flower and fruit morphology  

PubMed Central

Angiosperm diversification has resulted in a vast array of plant morphologies. Only recently has it been appreciated that diversification might have proceeded quite differently for the two key diagnostic structures of this clade, flowers and fruits. These structures are hypothesized to have experienced different selective pressures via their interactions with animals in dispersal mutualisms, resulting in a greater amount of morphological diversification in animal-pollinated flowers than in animal-dispersed fruits. I tested this idea using size and colour traits for the flowers and fruits of 472 species occurring in three floras (St John, Hawaii and the Great Plains). Phylogenetically controlled analyses of nearest-neighbour distances in multidimensional trait space matched the predicted pattern: in each of the three floras, flowers were more divergent from one another than were fruits. In addition, the spacing of species clusters differed for flowers versus fruits in the flora of St John, with clusters in flower space more divergent than those in fruit space. The results are consistent with the idea that a major driver of angiosperm diversification has been stronger selection for divergent floral morphology than for divergent fruit morphology, although genetic, physiological and ecological constraints may also play a role. PMID:19474045

Whitney, Kenneth D.

2009-01-01

283

Haptic choice blindness  

PubMed Central

Choice blindness is the failure to notice a mismatch between intention and outcome when making decisions. It is unknown whether choice blindness occurs when participants have extended interaction with real objects. Here, we examined the case when objects could be touched but not seen. Participants examined pairs of common, everyday objects inside a specially constructed box where a silent turntable was used to switch objects between initial choice and later justification. For similar pairs of objects, we found detection rates of around 22%, consistent with previous studies of choice blindness. For pairs consisting of more distinctive exemplars, the detection rate rose to 70%. Our results indicate that choice blindness does occur after haptic interaction with real objects, but is strongly modulated by similarity. PMID:23799197

Steenfeldt-Kristensen, Catherine; Thornton, Ian M.

2013-01-01

284

Choice and reinforcement delay  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies of choice between two delayed reinforcers have indicated that the relative immediacy of the reinforcer is a major determinant of the relative frequency of responding. Parallel studies of choice between two interresponse times have found exceptions to this generality. The present study looked at the choice by pigeons between two delays, one of which was always four times longer than the other, but whose absolute durations were varied across conditions. The results indicated that choice is not uniquely determined by the relative immediacy of reinforcement, but that absolute delays are also involved. Models for concurrent chained schedules appear to be more applicable to the present data than the matching relation; however, these too failed to predict choice for long delays.

Gentry, G.D.; Marr, M.J.

1980-01-01

285

Identification of volatile compounds released from dry scented Thai flowers and their potential application in flower-mixed tea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scented Thai flowers have been traditionally used for several applications. One traditional practice is to use flowers in food and drink, for example, adding scented flowers in sweets and beverages. Scented flowers provide good aroma, resulting in good emotions and commonly known as aromatherapy. The purpose of this research was to develop a new tea beverage with increased aroma of

R. Samakradhamrongthai; N. Utama-Ang; Prodpran Thakeow

286

2009 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University 2901-1064 Virginia Cooperative Extension programs and employment are open to all, regardless of race, color, national origin, sex, religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, o  

E-print Network

color, and tends to retain its leaves until later in the fall. `Autumn Flame' has an early display programs and employment are open to all, regardless of race, color, national origin, sex, religion, age with a spectacular fall foliage color. It has showy red flowers in the spring. There are many cultivars

Liskiewicz, Maciej

287

Biotechnological production of colorants.  

PubMed

The color of food and drinks is important, as it is associated with freshness and taste. Despite that natural colorants are more expensive to produce, less stable to heat and light, and less consistent in color range, natural colorants have been gaining market share in recent years. The background is that artificial colorants are often associated with negative health aspects. Considerable progress has been made towards the fermentative production of some colorants. Because colorant biosynthesis is under close metabolic control, extensive strain and process development are needed in order to establish an economical production process. Another approach is the synthesis of colors by means of biotransformation of adequate precursors. Algae represent a promising group of microorganisms that have shown a high potential for the production of different colorants, and dedicated fermentation and downstream technologies have been developed. This chapter reviews the available information with respect to these approaches. PMID:24037500

de Boer, Lex

2014-01-01

288

A model for polyandry in oaks via female choice: a rigged lottery  

E-print Network

A model for polyandry in oaks via female choice: a rigged lottery Kathleen J. Craft, Joel S. Brown methods: Two-phase weighted lottery held in each female flower. Pollen clouds are modelled using one are aborted. Lottery #1 is based solely on each `father's' geographic distance from each maternal tree. Closer

Ashley, Mary V.

289

Choice, freedom, and freedom of choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues in favour of a distinction between freedom and freedom of choice a distinction that economists and political philosophers have so far either ignored or drawn wrongly. Drawing the distinction correctly may help to resolve a number of disputes in contemporary political philosophy and non-welfarist normative economics regarding the so-called preference-based account of freedom and the relevance,

Ian Carter; Strada Nuova

2004-01-01

290

The blue anthocyanin pigments from the blue flowers of Heliophila coronopifolia L. (Brassicaceae).  

PubMed

Six acylated delphinidin glycosides (pigments 1-6) and one acylated kaempferol glycoside (pigment 9) were isolated from the blue flowers of cape stock (Heliophila coronopifolia) in Brassicaceae along with two known acylated cyanidin glycosides (pigments 7 and 8). Pigments 1-8, based on 3-sambubioside-5-glucosides of delphinidin and cyanidin, were acylated with hydroxycinnamic acids at 3-glycosyl residues of anthocyanidins. Using spectroscopic and chemical methods, the structures of pigments 1, 2, 5, and 6 were determined to be: delphinidin 3-O-[2-O-(?-xylopyranosyl)-6-O-(acyl)-?-glucopyranoside]-5-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-?-glucopyranoside], in which acyl moieties were, respectively, cis-p-coumaric acid for pigment 1, trans-caffeic acid for pigment 2, trans-p-coumaric acid for pigment 5 (a main pigment) and trans-ferulic acid for pigment 6, respectively. Moreover, the structure of pigments 3 and 4 were elucidated, respectively, as a demalonyl pigment 5 and a demalonyl pigment 6. Two known anthocyanins (pigments 7 and 8) were identified to be cyanidin 3-(6-p-coumaroyl-sambubioside)-5-(6-malonyl-glucoside) for pigment 7 and cyanidin 3-(6-feruloyl-sambubioside)-5-(6-malonyl-glucoside) for pigment 8 as minor anthocyanin pigments. A flavonol pigment (pigment 9) was isolated from its flowers and determined to be kaempferol 3-O-[6-O-(trans-feruloyl)-?-glucopyranoside]-7-O-cellobioside-4'-O-glucopyranoside as the main flavonol pigment. On the visible absorption spectral curve of the fresh blue petals of this plant and its petal pressed juice in the pH 5.0 buffer solution, three characteristic absorption maxima were observed at 546, 583 and 635 nm. However, the absorption curve of pigment 5 (a main anthocyanin in its flower) exhibited only one maximum at 569 nm in the pH 5.0 buffer solution, and violet color. The color of pigment 5 was observed to be very unstable in the pH 5.0 solution and soon decayed. In the pH 5.0 solution, the violet color of pigment 5 was restored as pure blue color by addition of pigment 9 (a main flavonol in this flower) like its fresh flower, and its blue solution exhibited the same three maxima at 546, 583 and 635 nm. On the other hand, the violet color of pigment 5 in the pH 5.0 buffer solution was not restored as pure blue color by addition of deacyl pigment 9 or rutin (a typical flower copigment). It is particularly interesting that, a blue anthocyanin-flavonol complex was extracted from the blue flowers of this plant with H(2)O or 5% HOAc solution as a dark blue powder. This complex exhibited the same absorption maxima at 546, 583 and 635 nm in the pH 5.0 buffer solution. Analysis of FAB mass measurement established that this blue anthocyanin-flavonol complex was composed of one molecule each of pigment 5 and pigment 9, exhibiting a molecular ion [M+1] (+) at 2102 m/z (C(93)H(105)O(55) calc. 2101.542). However, this blue complex is extremely unstable in acid solution. It really dissociates into pigment 5 and pigment 9. PMID:21903230

Saito, Norio; Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Toki, Kenjiro; Shinoda, Koichi; Shigihara, Atsushi; Honda, Toshio

2011-12-01

291

From A Physical Color Stimulus To A Psychological Color Percept  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper discusses the complexity of color vision in humans, considering the main aspects involved: the physical aspect, the psychophysical aspect, the physiological aspect and the psychological aspect. The meanings of the term color associated to each such aspect (asfor example, color stimulus, color valence, neural color signal and color percept) are introduced. Some types of color defective vision, relevant for color display users, are indicated. The methods to generate color stimuli in modern display devices, employing different technologies, are compared.

Sporea, Dan G.; Tonnquist, Gunnar

1989-08-01

292

Color visualization of cyclic magnitudes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We exploit the perceptual, circular ordering of the hues in a technique for the visualization of cyclic variables. The hue is thus meaningfully used for the indication of variables such as the azimuth and the units of the measurement of time. The cyclic (or circular) variables may be both of the continuous type or the discrete type; among the first there is azimuth and among the last you find the musical notes and the days of the week. A correspondence between the values of a cyclic variable and the chromatic hues, where the natural circular ordering of the variable is respected, is called a color code for the variable. We base such a choice of hues on an assignment of of the unique hues red, yellow, green and blue, or one of the 8 even permutations of this ordered list, to 4 cardinal values of the cyclic variable, suitably ordered; color codes based on only 3 cardinal points are also possible. Color codes, being intuitive, are easy to remember. A possible low accuracy when reading instruments that use this technique is compensated by fast, ludic and intuitive readings; also, the use of a referential frame makes readings precise. An achromatic version of the technique, that can be used by dichromatic people, is proposed.

Restrepo, Alfredo; Estupin, Viviana

2014-02-01

293

Colors of maximal saturation.  

PubMed

The spectrum locus on the CIE Chromaticity Diagram represents monochromatic stimuli which have been exposed to a dark adapted fovea. Some of these colors can be made to appear more saturated by chromatic adaptation. The colors both inside the spectrum locus and the supersaturated colors outside are bounded by a four-sided boundary line which constitutes the locus of colors of maximal saturation. An attempt has been made to show how this quadrilateral is related to the fundamental colors and to a zone theory of color vision. PMID:8539020

Fry, G A

1995-08-01

294

Radiation coloration resistant glass  

DOEpatents

A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10.sup.7 rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency.

Tomozawa, Minoru (Troy, NY); Watson, E. Bruce (Troy, NY); Acocella, John (Troy, NY)

1986-01-01

295

Radiation coloration resistant glass  

DOEpatents

A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10[sup 7] rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency. 3 figs.

Tomozawa, M.; Watson, E.B.; Acocella, J.

1986-11-04

296

Flower scent composition in diurnal Silene species (Caryophyllaceae): phylogenetic constraints or adaption to flower visitors?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative analysis of the flower volatiles of 10 day-flowering Silene species native to Central Europe was made to improve the understanding of the pollination biology and evolution of floral odours in the genus. Floral scent was collected by dynamic headspace adsorption and analysed via gas chromatographymass spectrometry. In total, 60 compounds could be identified by their mass spectra as

Andreas Jrgens

2004-01-01

297

Control of flowering and storage organ formation in potato by FLOWERING LOCUS T  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal fluctuations in day length regulate important aspects of plant development such as the flowering transition or, in potato (Solanum tuberosum), the formation of tubers. Day length is sensed by the leaves, which produce a mobile signal transported to the shoot apex or underground stems to induce a flowering transition or, respectively, a tuberization transition. Work in Arabidopsis, tomato and

Cristina Navarro; Jos A. Abelenda; Eduard Cruz-Or; Carlos A. Cullar; Shojiro Tamaki; Javier Silva; Ko Shimamoto; Salom Prat

2011-01-01

298

A Stochastic Flowering Model Describing an Asynchronically Flowering Set of Trees  

PubMed Central

A general stochastic model is presented that simulates the time course of flowering of individual trees and populations, integrating the synchronization of flowering both between and within trees. Making some hypotheses, a simplified expression of the model, called the shoot model, is proposed, in which the synchronization of flowering both between and within trees is characterized by specific parameters. Two derived models, the tree model and the population model, are presented. They neglect the asynchrony of flowering, respectively, within trees, and between and within trees. Models were fitted and tested using data on flowering of Psidium cattleianum observed at study sites at elevations of 200, 520 and 890 m in Runion Island. The shoot model fitted the data best and reproduced the strong irregularities in flowering shown by empirical data. The asynchrony of flowering in P. cattleianum was more pronounced within than between trees. Simulations showed that various flowering patterns can be reproduced by the shoot model. The use of different levels of organization of the general model is discussed. PMID:12234153

NORMAND, F.; HABIB, R.; CHADUF, J.

2002-01-01

299

PSYCHOPATHOLOGY AND SOCIOMETRIC CHOICE  

E-print Network

Previous research has suggested that except for paranoid schizophrenics, similarity in diagnostic category has little effect on sociometric choice among patients. A sociometric study was conducted employing MMPI scales as well as diagnostic categories on 84 hospitalized psychiatric patients. When diagnostic labels from the patients ' charts were used, results showed no relationship between sociometric choice and diagnosis. However, patients classified by highest MMPI scale or by MMPI code type made positive sociometric choices among themselves. Psychopathology has been related to difficulties in interpersonal relationships (Ansbacher

Russell Eisenman

300

Flower Volatiles, Crop Varieties and Bee Responses  

PubMed Central

Pollination contributes to an estimated one third of global food production, through both the improvement of the yield and the quality of crops. Volatile compounds emitted by crop flowers mediate plant-pollinator interactions, but differences between crop varieties are still little explored. We investigated whether the visitation of crop flowers is determined by variety-specific flower volatiles using strawberry varieties (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne) and how this affects the pollination services of the wild bee Osmia bicornis L. Flower volatile compounds of three strawberry varieties were measured via headspace collection. Gas chromatography showed that the three strawberry varieties produced the same volatile compounds but with quantitative differences of the total amount of volatiles and between distinct compounds. Electroantennographic recordings showed that inexperienced females of Osmia bicornis had higher antennal responses to all volatile compounds than to controls of air and paraffin oil, however responses differed between compounds. The variety Sonata was found to emit a total higher level of volatiles and also higher levels of most of the compounds that evoked antennal responses compared with the other varieties Honeoye and Darselect. Sonata also received more flower visits from Osmia bicornis females under field conditions, compared with Honeoye. Our results suggest that differences in the emission of flower volatile compounds among strawberry varieties mediate their attractiveness to females of Osmia bicornis. Since quality and quantity of marketable fruits depend on optimal pollination, a better understanding of the role of flower volatiles in crop production is required and should be considered more closely in crop-variety breeding. PMID:23977347

Klatt, Bjorn K.; Burmeister, Carina; Westphal, Catrin; Tscharntke, Teja; von Fragstein, Maximillian

2013-01-01

301

Pyrethrins protect pyrethrum leaves against attack by western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis.  

PubMed

Pyrethrins are active ingredients extracted from pyrethrum flowers (Tanacetum cinerariifolium), and are the most widely used botanical insecticide. However, several thrips species are commonly found on pyrethrum flowers in the field, and are the dominant insects found inside the flowers. Up to 80% of western flower thrips (WFT, Frankliniella occidentalis) adults died within 3 days of initiating feeding on leaves of pyrethrum, leading us to evaluate the role of pyrethrins in the defense of pyrethrum leaves against WFT. The effects of pyrethrins on WFT survival, feeding behavior, and reproduction were measured both in vitro and in planta (infiltrated leaves). The lethal concentration value (LC50) for pyrethrins against WFT adults was 12.9 mg/ml, and pyrethrins at 0.1% (w/v) and 1% (w/v) had significantly negative effects on feeding, embryo development, and oviposition. About 20-70% of WFT were killed within 2 days when they were fed chrysanthemum leaves containing 0.01-1% pyrethrins. Chrysanthemum leaves containing 0.1% or 1% pyrethrins were significantly deterrent to WFT. In a no-choice assay, the reproduction of WFT was reduced significantly when the insects were fed leaves containing 0.1% pyrethrins, and no eggs were found in leaves containing 1% pyrethrins. Our results suggest that the natural concentrations of pyrethrins in the leaves may be responsible for the observed high mortality of WFT on pyrethrum. PMID:22456949

Yang, Ting; Stoopen, Geert; Wiegers, Gerrie; Mao, Jing; Wang, Caiyun; Dicke, Marcel; Jongsma, Maarten A

2012-04-01

302

Effect of gibberellic acid on carnation flower senescence: evidence that the delay of carnation flower senescence by gibberellic acid depends on the stage of flower development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gibberellic acid at concentrations of 10-5 M and 10-4 M delayed the senescence of cut carnation flowers, when applied continuously via the stem, to flowers between the closed brush and fully open stages of development. Older flowers with reflexed petals were unresponsive. Treatment with paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis, prevented tight buds from opening fully, reduced the longevity of

Y. Saks; J. Van Staden; M. T. Smith

1992-01-01

303

How Happiness Affects Choice  

E-print Network

Consumers want to be happy, and marketers are increasingly trying to appeal to consumers pursuit of happiness. However, the results of six studies reveal that what happiness means varies, and consumers choices reflect ...

Mogilner, Cassie

304

Reflections on Public Choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

My 2002 presidential address to the PublicChoice Society consisted of three parts.The first had to do with the business ofthe Society's 2002 meeting and plans forthe Nashville meeting, and has beenomitted. This essay begins with the secondsection of that talk, in which I identifywhat I call the classic books ofPublic Choice, and then discuss what I viewas common misconceptions about

Bernard Grofman

2004-01-01

305

Countable choice and compactness  

Microsoft Academic Search

We work in set-theory without choice ZF. Denoting by AC(N) the countable axiom of choice, we show in ZF+AC(N) that the closed unit ball of a uniformly convex Banach space is compact in the convex topology (an alternative to the weak topology in ZF). We prove that this ball is (closely) convex-compact in the convex topology. Given a set I,

Marianne Morillon

2008-01-01

306

Show Your Colors!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this family or group activity, learners conduct a chromatography experiment to reveal the colors that leaves "hide" under their green pigments. Use this experiment to predict what colors the leaves will "turn" in the fall.

Park, Smithsonian N.

2011-08-20

307

Color realism redux  

E-print Network

Our reply is in three parts. The first part concerns some foundational issues in the debate about color realism. The second part addresses the many objections to the version of physicalism about color (productance ...

Byrne, Alex

308

The Trouble with Color.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses problems with color quality in Web sites. Topics include differences in monitor settings, including contrast; amount of video RAM; user preference settings; browser-safe colors; cross-platform readability; and gamma values. (LRW)

Merchant, David

1999-01-01

309

Light, Color, and Mirrors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an exercise in which students can use flashlights, mirrors, and colored paper to discover scientific principles regarding optics. Addresses the concepts of angles of incidence and reflection, colored vs. white light, and mirror images. (WRM)

Tiburzi, Brian; Tamborino, Laurie; Parker, Gordon A.

2000-01-01

310

Flowering time control in European winter wheat  

PubMed Central

Flowering time is an important trait in wheat breeding as it affects adaptation and yield potential. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic architecture of flowering time in European winter bread wheat cultivars. To this end a population of 410 winter wheat varieties was evaluated in multi-location field trials and genotyped by a genotyping-by-sequencing approach and candidate gene markers. Our analyses revealed that the photoperiod regulator Ppd-D1 is the major factor affecting flowering time in this germplasm set, explaining 58% of the genotypic variance. Copy number variation at the Ppd-B1 locus was present but explains only 3.2% and thus a comparably small proportion of genotypic variance. By contrast, the plant height loci Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 had no effect on flowering time. The genome-wide scan identified six QTL which each explain only a small proportion of genotypic variance and in addition we identified a number of epistatic QTL, also with small effects. Taken together, our results show that flowering time in European winter bread wheat cultivars is mainly controlled by Ppd-D1 while the fine tuning to local climatic conditions is achieved through Ppd-B1 copy number variation and a larger number of QTL with small effects.

Langer, Simon M.; Longin, C. Friedrich H.; Wurschum, Tobias

2014-01-01

311

Fruits and Vegetables: Color Your Plate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore healthy choices related to the foods they eat. The importance of a variety of fruits and vegetables to a healthy diet is the focus of the experience. Learners read a story book about fruits and vegetables, repeat a helpful riddle, and draw pictures of fruits/vegetables. These drawings are then cut out and taped to "color" a Healthy Choice bulletin board plate. Learners can also taste-test different fruits and vegetables at snack or lunch time. Learners are encouraged to try one new color each day. This activity is featured on pp. 12-13 of the "Health House: Food, Fitness, & Fun 24/7!" unit of study for K-2 learners.

Reitsma, Beverly A.; Indianapolis, The C.

2014-04-30

312

Preference for oddity: uniqueness heuristic or hierarchical choice process?  

PubMed

Traditional economic theories assume decision makers in multialternative choice tasks "assign" a value to each option and then express rational preferences. Here, I report an apparent violation of such rationality in gray jays (Perisoreus canadensis). I tested the jays' preference in a quaternary choice task where three options were the same color and the fourth option was a different color. All options offered an identical food reward and so the strictly rational expectation was that subjects would choose the odd-colored option in 25% of choices. In clear disagreement, every subject chose the odd option more frequently than expected. I speculate as to how this surprising preference for oddity might have been ecologically rational: by using a unique-choice heuristic, the jays might have been able to bypass a deliberative phase of the decision process and devote more attention to scanning for predators. Alternatively, it is conceivable that the jays did not prefer oddity per se. Instead, they might have used a hierarchical process, assigning options to color categories and then choosing between categories. If so, their behavior matches expectation after all (on average, subjects chose the odd option 50% of the time). It should be straightforward to test these competing hypotheses. The current results can be viewed as a new example of how simple mechanisms sometimes produce economically puzzling yet ecologically rational decision making. PMID:18528719

Waite, Thomas A

2008-10-01

313

Quantum Dots and Colors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the physical concept of the colors of rainbows as light energy in the form of waves with distinct wavelengths, but in a different manner than traditional kaleidoscopes. Looking at different quantum dot solutions, they make observations and measurements, and graph their data. They come to understand how nanoparticles interact with absorbing photons to produce colors. They learn the dependence of particle size and color wavelength and learn about real-world applications for using these colorful liquids.

National Science Foundation GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Programs,

314

Down to Earth: Colors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students identify the actual colors of objects bathed in monochromatic light and learn how three colors of light can be combined to produce colors ranging from black to white. Students see how space observatories make use of monochromatic filters to collect data on the color of objects in space. The activity is in unit four of the "Space-Based Astronomy" guide that contains background information, worksheets, assessment activities, extensions, and alignment to national education standards.

315

Color genes in the orchid Oncidium Gower Ramsey: identification, expression, and potential genetic instability in an interspecific cross  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orchids are one of the most unique and evolved of flowering plants, with many being valuable floricultural crops. Spatial\\u000a localization of pigments within the flower of the commercially important bi-color Oncidium Gower Ramsey demonstrated a mixture of carotenoids and anthocyanins concentrated in the adaxial epidermis. Chromatography\\u000a identified the predominant yellow pigment to be an equal mixture of all-trans and 9-cis

A. David Hieber; Rasika G. Mudalige-Jayawickrama; Adelheid R. Kuehnle

2006-01-01

316

Spinning Your (Color) Wheels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this optics activity, learners use everyday materials to make a color wheel. When learners spin the wheel like a top, they will be surprised to see all the colors mixing together to appear white. Use this activity to introduce learners to color and the visible spectrum.

America, Optical S.

2008-01-01

317

Color imaging for multimedia  

Microsoft Academic Search

To a significant degree, multimedia applications derive their effectiveness from the use of color graphics, images, and video. However, the requirements for accurate color reproduction and for the preservation of this information across display and print devices that have very different characteristics and may be geographically apart are often not clearly understood. This paper describes the basics of color science,

GAURAV SHARMA; MICHAEL J. VRHEL; H. JOEL TRUSSELL

1998-01-01

318

Strong Colorings of Hypergraphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strong vertex coloring of a hypergraph assigns distinct col- ors to vertices that are contained in a common hyperedge. This captures many previously studied graph coloring problems. We present nearly tight upper and lower bound on approximating general hypergraphs, both oine and online. We then consider various parameters that make coloring easier, and give a unied treatment. In particular,

Geir Agnarsson; Magns M. Halldrsson

2004-01-01

319

Color Discrimination Work Sample.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual contains a work sample intended to assess a handicapped student's ability to see likenesses or differences in colors or shades, identifying or matching certain colors, and selecting colors that go together. Section 1 describes the assessment and lists related occupations and DOT codes. Instructions to the evaluator are provided in the

Shawsheen Valley Regional Vocational-Technical High School, Billerica, MA.

320

Biology of Skin Color.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information from scientific journals on the biology of skin color is discussed. Major areas addressed include: (1) biology of melanin, melanocytes, and melanosomes; (2) melanosome and human diversity; (3) genetics of skin color; and (4) skin color, geography, and natural selection. (JN)

Corcos, Alain

1983-01-01

321

Reimagining the Color Wheel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Color wheels are a traditional project for many teachers. The author has used them in art appreciation classes for many years, but one problem she found when her pre-service art education students created colored wheels was that they were boring: simple circles, with pie-shaped pieces, which students either painted or colored in. This article

Snyder, Jennifer

2011-01-01

322

The genetic architecture of maize flowering time.  

PubMed

Flowering time is a complex trait that controls adaptation of plants to their local environment in the outcrossing species Zea mays (maize). We dissected variation for flowering time with a set of 5000 recombinant inbred lines (maize Nested Association Mapping population, NAM). Nearly a million plants were assayed in eight environments but showed no evidence for any single large-effect quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Instead, we identified evidence for numerous small-effect QTLs shared among families; however, allelic effects differ across founder lines. We identified no individual QTLs at which allelic effects are determined by geographic origin or large effects for epistasis or environmental interactions. Thus, a simple additive model accurately predicts flowering time for maize, in contrast to the genetic architecture observed in the selfing plant species rice and Arabidopsis. PMID:19661422

Buckler, Edward S; Holland, James B; Bradbury, Peter J; Acharya, Charlotte B; Brown, Patrick J; Browne, Chris; Ersoz, Elhan; Flint-Garcia, Sherry; Garcia, Arturo; Glaubitz, Jeffrey C; Goodman, Major M; Harjes, Carlos; Guill, Kate; Kroon, Dallas E; Larsson, Sara; Lepak, Nicholas K; Li, Huihui; Mitchell, Sharon E; Pressoir, Gael; Peiffer, Jason A; Rosas, Marco Oropeza; Rocheford, Torbert R; Romay, M Cinta; Romero, Susan; Salvo, Stella; Sanchez Villeda, Hector; da Silva, H Sofia; Sun, Qi; Tian, Feng; Upadyayula, Narasimham; Ware, Doreen; Yates, Heather; Yu, Jianming; Zhang, Zhiwu; Kresovich, Stephen; McMullen, Michael D

2009-08-01

323

Orchid flowers tolerance to gamma-radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cut flowers are fresh goods that may be treated with fumigants such as methyl bromide to meet the needs of the quarantine requirements of importing countries. Irradiation is a non-chemical alternative to substitute the methyl bromide treatment of fresh products. In this research, different cut orchids were irradiated to examine their tolerance to gamma-rays. A 200 Gy dose did inhibit the Dendrobium palenopsis buds from opening, but did not cause visible damage to opened flowers. Doses of 800 and 1000 Gy were damaging because they provoked the flowers to drop from the stem. Cattleya irradiated with 750 Gy did not show any damage, and were therefore eligible for the radiation treatment. Cymbidium tolerated up to 300 Gy and above this dose dropped prematurely. On the other hand, Oncydium did not tolerate doses above 150 Gy.

Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko

2000-03-01

324

Genetic engineering for cut-flower improvement.  

PubMed

The application of modern biotechnological approaches to cut flowers has clearly become instrumental and rewarding for the floriculture industry. In recent years, several gene-transfer procedures have been developed for some of the major commercial cut flowers. Using Agrobactrium or microprojectile bombardment, several basic protocols are now available. However, despite the great progress and interest in gene transfer to these crops, their transformation is routine in only a limited number of laboratories, and its application is still considered to be an "art form". This review summarizes the reported gene-transfer procedures for the main cut-flower crops, with an emphasis on the unique factors of each method and the recent progress in introducing new traits of horticultural interest into these species. PMID:14538154

Zuker, A; Tzfira, T; Vainstein, A

1998-01-01

325

Tropism in azalea and lily flowers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropic responses were examined in azalea Rhododendrom pulchrum and lily Lilium cv. 'Casablanca' flowers. Orientation of the flowers in these two species depicts several up/down characteristics, such as angle of the corolla opening, alignment or configuration of a specific petal at the top, plus direction in the curved tip of the pistil and stamen. Gravity was found to be the prime factor, with light as a secondary signal that determines gravitropism in the pistil of the azalea. Within the azalea, sedimented amyloplasts were observed throughout the cells along the inner layers below the epidermis. In lily flowers, no sedimented amyloplasts were found in style cells, and phototropic responses caused upward bending of the pistil. Responses of lily pistils to monochromatic light were consistent with the action spectrum for phototropism in the shoots of monocotyledonous plants. We discuss how these features may increase the fitness for pollination in these two species.

Shimizu, M.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Nakamura, T.; Yamashita, M.

326

Color associations for days and letters across different languages.  

PubMed

While colors are commonplace in everyday metaphors, relatively little is known about implicit color associations to linguistic or semantic concepts in a general population. In this study, we test color associations for ordered linguistic concepts (letters and days). The culture and language specificity of these effects was examined in a large group (457) of Dutch-speaking participants, 92 English-speaking participants, and 49 Hindi-speaking participants. Non-random distributions of color choices were revealed; consistencies were found across the three language groups in color preferences for both days and letters. Interestingly, while the Hindi-speaking participants were presented with letter stimuli matched on phonology, their pattern of letter-to-color preferences still showed similarities with Dutch- and English-speaking participants. Furthermore, we found that that the color preferences corresponded between participants indicating to have conscious color experiences with letters or days (putative synesthetes) and participants who do not (non-synesthetes). We also explored possible mechanisms underlying the color preferences. There were a few specific associations, including red for "A," red for "Monday," and white for "Sunday." We also explored more general mechanisms, such as overall color preferences as shown by Simner et al. (2005). While certainly not all variation can be explained or predicted, the results show that regularities are present in color-to-letter or color-to-day preferences in both putative synesthetes and non-synesthetes across languages. Both letter-to-color and day-to-color preferences were influenced by multiple factors. The findings support a notion of abstract concepts (such as days and letters) that are not represented in isolation, but are connected to perceptual representational systems. Interestingly, at least some of these connections to color representations are shared across different language/cultural groups. PMID:24904447

Rouw, Romke; Case, Laura; Gosavi, Radhika; Ramachandran, Vilayanur

2014-01-01

327

Bilabiate Flowers: The Ultimate Response to Bees?  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Bilabiate flowers have evolved in many lineages of the angiosperms, thus representing a convincing example of parallel evolution. Similar to keel blossoms, they have obviously evolved in order to protect pollen against pollen-collecting bees. Although many examples are known, a comprehensive survey on floral diversity and functional constraints of bilabiate flowers is lacking. Here, the concept is widened and described as a general pattern. Methods The present paper is a conceptional review including personal observations of the authors. To form a survey on the diversity of bilabiate blossoms, a search was made for examples across the angiosperms and these were combined with personal observations collected during the last 25 years, coupled with knowledge from the literature. New functional terms are introduced that are independent of morphological and taxonomic associations. Key Results Bilabiate constructions occur in at least 38 angiosperm families. They are characterized by dorsiventral organization and dorsal pollen transfer. They are most often realised on the level of a single flower, but may also be present in an inflorescence or as part of a so-called walk-around flower. Interestingly, in functional terms all nototribic blossoms represent bilabiate constructions. The great majority of specialized bee-flowers can thus be included under bilabiate and keel blossoms. The syndrome introduced here, however, also paves the way for the inclusion of larger animals such as birds and bats. The most important evolutionary trends appear to be in the saving of pollen and the precision of its transfer. With special reference to the Lamiales, selected examples of bilabiate flowers are presented and their functional significance is discussed. Conclusions Bilabiate blossoms protect their pollen against pollen-collecting bees and at the same time render their pollination more precisely. The huge diversity of realised forms indicate the high selection pressure towards the bilabiate syndrome. As bees are very inventive, however, bilabiate constructions will not represent the ultimate response to bees. PMID:17652341

Westerkamp, Christian; Classen-Bockhoff, Regine

2007-01-01

328

How to perform RT-qPCR accurately in plant species? A case study on flower colour gene expression in an azalea (Rhododendron simsii hybrids) mapping population  

PubMed Central

Background Flower colour variation is one of the most crucial selection criteria in the breeding of a flowering pot plant, as is also the case for azalea (Rhododendron simsii hybrids). Flavonoid biosynthesis was studied intensively in several species. In azalea, flower colour can be described by means of a 3-gene model. However, this model does not clarify pink-coloration. The last decade gene expression studies have been implemented widely for studying flower colour. However, the methods used were often only semi-quantitative or quantification was not done according to the MIQE-guidelines. We aimed to develop an accurate protocol for RT-qPCR and to validate the protocol to study flower colour in an azalea mapping population. Results An accurate RT-qPCR protocol had to be established. RNA quality was evaluated in a combined approach by means of different techniques e.g. SPUD-assay and Experion-analysis. We demonstrated the importance of testing noRT-samples for all genes under study to detect contaminating DNA. In spite of the limited sequence information available, we prepared a set of 11 reference genes which was validated in flower petals; a combination of three reference genes was most optimal. Finally we also used plasmids for the construction of standard curves. This allowed us to calculate gene-specific PCR efficiencies for every gene to assure an accurate quantification. The validity of the protocol was demonstrated by means of the study of six genes of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. No correlations were found between flower colour and the individual expression profiles. However, the combination of early pathway genes (CHS, F3H, F3'H and FLS) is clearly related to co-pigmentation with flavonols. The late pathway genes DFR and ANS are to a minor extent involved in differentiating between coloured and white flowers. Concerning pink coloration, we could demonstrate that the lower intensity in this type of flowers is correlated to the expression of F3'H. Conclusions Currently in plant research, validated and qualitative RT-qPCR protocols are still rare. The protocol in this study can be implemented on all plant species to assure accurate quantification of gene expression. We have been able to correlate flower colour to the combined regulation of structural genes, both in the early and late branch of the pathway. This allowed us to differentiate between flower colours in a broader genetic background as was done so far in flower colour studies. These data will now be used for eQTL mapping to comprehend even more the regulation of this pathway. PMID:23800303

2013-01-01

329

Specific color sensitivities of prey and predator explain camouflage in different visual systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situations of aggressive mimicry, predators adapt their color to that of the substrate on which they sit for hunting, a behavior that is presumed to hide them from prey as well as from their own predators. Females of few crab-spider species encounter such situations when lying on flowers to ambush pollinators. To evaluate the efficiency of spider camouflage on

Marc Thry; Martine Debut; Doris Gomez; Jrme Casas

2005-01-01

330

Flower and Spikelet Morphology in Sawgrass, Cladium jamaicense Crantz (Cyperaceae)  

PubMed Central

In recent systematic treatments of the Cyperaceae, spikelets of all but the most primitive tribes have been considered to be indeterminate, whereas historically the number of flowers, floral sex and distribution of sexes in spikelets have been important characters in suprageneric classifications. However, descriptions of these spikelet characteristics for sawgrass, Cladium jamaicense Crantz, vary among authors. Spikelet morphology was analysed using developmental and phenological studies of sawgrass populations in south Florida, USA. Sawgrass spikelets have two flowers that expand successively. Flowers are fundamentally hermaphroditic and protogynous. The first flower to expand (F1) terminates the spikelet axis, whereas the second flower (F2), ensheathed by an addorsed prophyll, develops in the axil of the last bract produced on the axis. In 86% of the spikelets examined from ramets of three populations, the gynoecium of the F1 flower aborted, so this flower was functionally male and the spikelet was protandrous. However, in 14% of spikelets from these individuals, the F1 flower was hermaphroditic and could set seed. The F2 flower was typically hermaphroditic and matured stigmas, then anthers. Thus, spikelets in C. jamaicense are determinate and have two flowers that are dichogamous both within flowers and between flowers in a spikelet; spikelet sex expression can vary among plants and populations, especially in the first flower. These data for sawgrass suggest that a re?examination of spikelet development and phenology in other genera is needed to clarify the expression of these characters in the family. PMID:12234148

RICHARDS, JENNIFER H.

2002-01-01

331

Molecular Expressions: Color Separation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This item is an interactive Java simulation for introductory physics students on the topic of color. It explores how individual subtractive primary colors can be separated from a full-color photograph and then be reassembled to create the original scene. The mouse cursor may be used to superimpose color separations over one another. As additional separations are added, the resulting image exhibits the realism of a color photograph. This item is part of a larger collection of materials on optics and microscopy developed by the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory and Florida State University.

Davidson, Michael; Parry-Hill, Matthew J.; Sutter, Robert

2008-08-21

332

Color quality inspection and compensation for color LED display modules  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents an automated color inspection and compensation solutions for color LED modules which are main components of a color LED display panel. Initially, a self-developed color optical sensing module and a colorimeter were used to measure the colors of LED pixels. After the color matching functions from the collected data was corrected by least-squares approximation method, the calibrated

Ming-Jong Tsai; Shu-Huai Chang; Chia-Liang Lee; Chia-Te Chou

2011-01-01

333

Color planner for designers based on color emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the color perception process, an associated feeling or emotion is induced in our brains, and this kind of emotion is termed as 'color emotion.' The researchers in the field of color emotions have put many efforts in quantifying color emotions with the standard color specifications and evaluating the influence of hue, lightness and chroma to the color emotions of

Ka-Man Cheng; John H. Xin; Gail Taylor

2002-01-01

334

Rainbow Coloring of Graphs Rainbow Coloring of Graphs  

E-print Network

Rainbow Coloring of Graphs Rainbow Coloring of Graphs L. Sunil Chandran Computer Science and Automation Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore Email: sunil@csa.iisc.ernet.in #12;Rainbow Coloring of Graphs What is Rainbow Coloring? Consider an edge coloring, not necessarily proper. #12;Rainbow Coloring

Narasayya, Vivek

335

Color Classification of Coordination Compounds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes that colored compounds be classified by reference to a standard color-order system incorporating a color dictionary. Argues that the colors of new compounds could be incorporated into the characterization process and into computer storage systems. (TW)

Poncini, Laurence; Wimmer, Franz L.

1987-01-01

336

Choice of initial therapy  

PubMed Central

Current international and national treatment guidelines such as EACS, BHIVA, DHHS or IAS update regularly recommendations on the choice of initial combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) regimens. Preferred cART regimens include a backbone with two nucleoside (nucleotide) reverse transcriptase inhibitors combined either with one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor or one ritonavir boosted protease inhibitor or more recently one integrase inhibitor. Response rates according to viral load measurements increased in recent years, in particular due to better tolerability. The choice of initial therapy is flexible and influenced by several factors such as height of viral load, genotypic resistance testing, CD4 cell count, co-morbidities, interactions, potential adverse events, (potential for) pregnancy, convenience, adherence, costs as well as physician's and patient's preferences. Diverse highly potent initial cART regimens exist. Following the many possibilities, the choice of a regimen is based on a mixture of evidence-informed data and individualized concepts, some of the latter only partly supported by strong evidence. For example, different perceptions and personal experiences exist about boosted protease inhibitors compared to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors or integrase inhibitors and vice versa which may influence the initial choice. This lecture will discuss choices of initial cART in view of international guidelines and the evidence for individualization of initial HIV therapy.

Battegay, Manuel

2014-01-01

337

My favourite flowering image: the role of cytokinin as a flowering signal.  

PubMed

My favourite flowering image shows a section in a shoot apical meristem of Sinapis alba undertaking the very first step of its transition to flowering. This step is the activation of the SaSOC1 gene, the Sinapis orthologue of Arabidopsis SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO1 (SOC1), in a few central cells of the meristem. Hidden behind this picture is my long quest of physiological signals controlling flowering. Milestones of this story are briefly recounted here and this gives me an opportunity to raise a number of questions about the nature and function of florigen. PMID:21586428

Bernier, Georges

2013-12-01

338

Color Use in Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, you will learn a little bit about color theory and how it can effect the colors that you choose for a design. This activity covers the Arizona State CTE Standard for demonstrating drawing and visualization skills required for graphic communications (Standard #13). Read each section below carefully and follow the links provided to find more information on the topics discussed. When you are finished with the lesson, complete the assignment at the bottom of the screen. Introduction There are certain colors that look good together in designs and there is a reason for it. Colors that look good together are based on their relationship to each other on a color wheel. In the following lesson, you are going explore the color wheel and the color relationships ...

Pope

2008-10-07

339

Causes and consequences of lexicographic choices in stated choice studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stated Choice (SC) methods, and other choice experiments, are now becoming increasingly popular for the valuation of environmental goods. This paper shows that lexicographic choices (LCs) in an SC task, or other types of choice experiments, do not imply that the respondent has lexicographic preferences. LCs may be a result of (i) study designs where differences between the alternatives are

Kjartan Saelensminde

2006-01-01

340

FoodFit: A Web Application to Illustrate Healthier Food and Physical Activity Choices  

E-print Network

FoodFit: A Web Application to Illustrate Healthier Food and Physical Activity Choices Meriyan Eren their lifestyles to include healthier food choices and more frequent physical activities. Lack of motivation your diet with physical activities - Familiar nutrition facts label, colorful bar plots and face

Toronto, University of

341

The Influence of Cultural Social Identity on Graduate Student Career Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines and enriches understanding of the career choice process for graduate students of color. Social identity theory (SIT) is used as a framework to expand our understanding of how and why graduate students choose (or do not choose) faculty careers. Graduate students' cultural social identities influenced their career choice

Haley, Karen J.; Jaeger, Audrey J.; Levin, John S.

2014-01-01

342

Choosing health, constrained choices.  

PubMed

In parallel with the neo-liberal retrenchment of the welfarist state, an increasing emphasis on the responsibility of individuals in managing their own affairs and their well-being has been evident. In the health arena for instance, this was a major theme permeating the UK government's White Paper Choosing Health: Making Healthy Choices Easier (2004), which appealed to an ethos of autonomy and self-actualization through activity and consumption which merited esteem. As a counterpoint to this growing trend of informed responsibilization, constrained choices (constrained agency) provides a useful framework for a judicious balance and sense of proportion between an individual behavioural focus and a focus on societal, systemic, and structural determinants of health and well-being. Constrained choices is also a conceptual bridge between responsibilization and population health which could be further developed within an integrative biosocial perspective one might refer to as the social ecology of health and disease. PMID:20028669

Chee Khoon Chan

2009-12-01

343

Mutation in TERMINAL FLOWER1 reverses the photoperiodic requirement for flowering in the wild strawberry Fragaria vesca.  

PubMed

Photoperiodic flowering has been extensively studied in the annual short-day and long-day plants rice (Oryza sativa) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), whereas less is known about the control of flowering in perennials. In the perennial wild strawberry, Fragaria vesca (Rosaceae), short-day and perpetual flowering long-day accessions occur. Genetic analyses showed that differences in their flowering responses are caused by a single gene, SEASONAL FLOWERING LOCUS, which may encode the F. vesca homolog of TERMINAL FLOWER1 (FvTFL1). We show through high-resolution mapping and transgenic approaches that FvTFL1 is the basis of this change in flowering behavior and demonstrate that FvTFL1 acts as a photoperiodically regulated repressor. In short-day F. vesca, long photoperiods activate FvTFL1 mRNA expression and short days suppress it, promoting flower induction. These seasonal cycles in FvTFL1 mRNA level confer seasonal cycling of vegetative and reproductive development. Mutations in FvTFL1 prevent long-day suppression of flowering, and the early flowering that then occurs under long days is dependent on the F. vesca homolog of FLOWERING LOCUS T. This photoperiodic response mechanism differs from those described in model annual plants. We suggest that this mechanism controls flowering within the perennial growth cycle in F. vesca and demonstrate that a change in a single gene reverses the photoperiodic requirements for flowering. PMID:22566495

Koskela, Elli A; Mouhu, Katriina; Albani, Maria C; Kurokura, Takeshi; Rantanen, Marja; Sargent, Daniel J; Battey, Nicholas H; Coupland, George; Elomaa, Paula; Hytnen, Timo

2012-07-01

344

Mutation in TERMINAL FLOWER1 Reverses the Photoperiodic Requirement for Flowering in the Wild Strawberry Fragaria vesca1[W  

PubMed Central

Photoperiodic flowering has been extensively studied in the annual short-day and long-day plants rice (Oryza sativa) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), whereas less is known about the control of flowering in perennials. In the perennial wild strawberry, Fragaria vesca (Rosaceae), short-day and perpetual flowering long-day accessions occur. Genetic analyses showed that differences in their flowering responses are caused by a single gene, SEASONAL FLOWERING LOCUS, which may encode the F. vesca homolog of TERMINAL FLOWER1 (FvTFL1). We show through high-resolution mapping and transgenic approaches that FvTFL1 is the basis of this change in flowering behavior and demonstrate that FvTFL1 acts as a photoperiodically regulated repressor. In short-day F. vesca, long photoperiods activate FvTFL1 mRNA expression and short days suppress it, promoting flower induction. These seasonal cycles in FvTFL1 mRNA level confer seasonal cycling of vegetative and reproductive development. Mutations in FvTFL1 prevent long-day suppression of flowering, and the early flowering that then occurs under long days is dependent on the F. vesca homolog of FLOWERING LOCUS T. This photoperiodic response mechanism differs from those described in model annual plants. We suggest that this mechanism controls flowering within the perennial growth cycle in F. vesca and demonstrate that a change in a single gene reverses the photoperiodic requirements for flowering. PMID:22566495

Koskela, Elli A.; Mouhu, Katriina; Albani, Maria C.; Kurokura, Takeshi; Rantanen, Marja; Sargent, Daniel J.; Battey, Nicholas H.; Coupland, George; Elomaa, Paula; Hytonen, Timo

2012-01-01

345

Color Reproduction with a Smartphone  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The world is full of colors. Most of the colors we see around us can be created on common digital displays simply by superposing light with three different wavelengths. However, no mixture of colors can produce a fully pure color identical to a spectral color. Using a smartphone, students can investigate the main features of primary color addition

Thoms, Lars-Jochen; Colicchia, Giuseppe; Girwidz, Raimund

2013-01-01

346

Colors Change Appearance Crayola Supplies  

E-print Network

wonder about how your eyes perceive color and shape? Form a question about your experience. Use books color looks different to your eye when surrounded by other colors. Adaptations Older students work students. Find out more about color. Are there colors the human eye does not see? What colors do different

Zanibbi, Richard

347

Field methods for sampling and storing nectar from flowers with low nectar volumes  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Although several methods of sampling and storing floral nectar are available, little information exists on sampling and storing nectar from flowers with low nectar volumes. Methods for sampling and storing nectar from the flowers of species with low floral nectar volumes (<1 L) were investigated using the flowers of Eucalyptus species. Methods Sampling with microcapillary tubes, blotting up with filter paper, washing and rinsing were compared to determine masses of sugars recovered and differences in sugar ratios. Storage methods included room temperature, refrigeration and freezing treatments; the addition of antimicrobial agents benzyl alcohol or methanol to some of these treatments was also evaluated. Nectar samples were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography and the masses of sucrose, glucose and fructose in each sample were determined. Key Results Masses of sugars varied significantly among sampling treatments, but the highest yielding methods, rinsing and washing, were not significantly different. A washing time of 1 min was as effective as one of 20 min. Storage trials showed that the sugar concentration measurements of nectar solutions changed rapidly, with the best results achieved for refrigeration with no additive (sucrose and fructose were stable for at least 2 weeks). Sugar ratios, however, remained relatively stable in most treatments and did not change significantly across 4 weeks for the methanol plus refrigerator and freezing treatments, and 2 weeks for the refrigeration treatment with no additive. Conclusions Washing is recommended for nectar collection from flowers with low nectar volumes in the field (with the understanding that one wash underestimates the amounts of sugars present in a flower), as is immediate analysis of sugar mass. In view of the great variation in results depending on nectar collection and storage methods, caution should be exercised in their choice, and their accuracy should be evaluated. The use of pulsed amperometric detection, more specific than refractive index detection, may improve the accuracy of nectar sugar analysis. PMID:19074446

Morrant, D. S.; Schumann, R.; Petit, S.

2009-01-01

348

Photosynthetic utilization of radiant energy by CAM Dendrobium flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

14CO2 fixation was observed in orchid Dendrobium flowers; its rate decreased with the flower development. Chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence in different developmental stages of flowers was compared to other green plant parts (leaf, inflorescence stalk, and fruit capsule). The photochemical efficiency of photosystem 2 (PS2) (Fv\\/Fm) of a leaf was 14-21 % higher than that of a mature flower perianth (sepal,

G. H. Khoo; J. He; C. S. Hew

1997-01-01

349

Reproductive assurance varies with flower size in Collinsia parviflora (Scrophulariaceae).  

PubMed

A central question in plant evolutionary ecology is how mixed mating systems are maintained in the face of selection against self-pollination. Recently, attention has focused on the potential reproductive assurance (RA) benefit of selfing: the ability to produce seeds via autonomous selfing when the potential for outcrossing is reduced or absent. To date, there is little experimental support for this benefit under natural pollination conditions. In addition, the RA hypothesis has not been tested experimentally in a species displaying morphological variation for traits expected to influence the mating system, such as flower size, which affects both attractiveness to pollinators and ability to self autonomously. Here, we document significant among-population variation in flower size in Collinsia parviflora and show that pollinators preferred large flowers over small flowers in experimental arrays. The pollinator community varied among three study sites, and two small-flowered populations had lower pollinator visitation rates than one large-flowered population. We compared seed production between intact flowers (can self) and experimentally emasculated flowers (require a pollinator) on large- and small-flowered plants. As predicted by the RA hypothesis, small-flowered plants show a greater RA benefit of selfing than large-flowered plants; emasculated, small flowers produced very few seeds, relative to intact, small flowers or either emasculated or intact, large flowers. We also show that the RA benefit is pollination-context dependent, differing between small- and large-flowered test sites, likely due to a combination of pollinator discrimination against small flowers and differences between test sites in the pollinator community. This paper is the first experimental evidence showing a trait-dependent RA benefit of selfing under natural pollination conditions. PMID:21659183

Elle, Elizabeth; Carney, Robert

2003-06-01

350

Modeling of display color parameters and algorithmic color selection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An algorithmic approach to color selection, which is based on psychophysical models of color processing, is described. The factors that affect color differentiation, such as wavelength separation, color stimulus size, and brightness adaptation level, are discussed. The use of the CIE system of colorimetry and the CIELUV color difference metric for display color modeling is examined. The computer program combines the selection algorithm with internally derived correction factors for color image field size, ambient lighting characteristics, and anomalous red-green color vision deficiencies of display operators. The performance of the program is evaluated and uniform chromaticity scale diagrams for six-color and seven-color selection problems are provided.

Silverstein, Louis D.; Lepkowski, James S.; Carter, Robert C.; Carter, Ellen C.

1986-01-01

351

Ultraviolet Patterns on Rear of Flowers: Basis of Disparity of Buds and Blossoms  

PubMed Central

Flowers of Jasminium primulinum and Hypericum spp. have ultraviolet patterns on the reverse surface of the corolla. Those areas of the surface that are exposed to the outside in the bud are ultraviolet absorbent, whereas the portions that come into view at maturity in the open blossom are ultraviolet reflectant. Buds and blossoms, as a result, appear different in color to insects sensitive to ultraviolet light. Experimental evidence indicates that the ultraviolet-absorbent quality of the outer surface of the bud is a consequence of exposure itself, attributable possibly to a sun tanning effect. Images PMID:16592074

Eisner, Thomas; Eisner, Maria; Aneshansley, D.

1973-01-01

352

Co-pigmentation and flavonoid glycosyltransferases in blue Veronica persica flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glycosylation is one of the key modification steps for plants to produce a broad spectrum of flavonoids with various structures and colors. A survey of flavonoids in the blue flowers of Veronica persica Poiret (Lamiales, Scrophulariaceae), which is native of Eurasia and now widespread worldwide, led to the identification of highly glycosylated flavonoids, namely delphinidin 3-O-(2-O-(6-O-p-coumaroyl-glucosyl)-6-O-p-coumaroyl-glucoside)-5-O-glucoside (1) and apigenin 7-O-(2-O-glucuronosyl)-glucuronide

Eiichiro Ono; Miho Ruike; Takashi Iwashita; Kyosuke Nomoto; Yuko Fukui

2010-01-01

353

Water relations of flowering of Agave deserti  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water budget during flowering for the leaves, inflorescence, and lateral floral branches of the monocarpic perennial Agave deserti Engelm. (Agavaceae) was investigated in the western Colorado desert. During the 159 days from the emergence of the inflorescence until the fruit could be removed from the plant without affecting seed viability, the approximately 68 leaves on a plant decreased 24.9

Park S. Nobel

1977-01-01

354

Pigment chemistry and colour of Pelargonium flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major factors responsible for colour variation in a range of Pelargonium species and cultivars were shown to be the types and relative levels of pigments present. Variations in pH and copigment levels were not found to contribute significantly. Flowers with colours ranging from cream and pink through to deep purple, including salmon, orange and red, were studied. While either

Kevin A. Mitchell; Kenneth R. Markham; Murray R. Boase

1998-01-01

355

Genes directing flower development in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed Central

We describe the effects of four recessive homeotic mutations that specifically disrupt the development of flowers in Arabidopsis thaliana. Each of the recessive mutations affects the outcome of organ development, but not the location of organ primordia. Homeotic transformations observed are as follows. In agamous-1, stamens to petals; in apetala2-1, sepals to leaves and petals to staminoid petals; in apetala3-1, petals to sepals and stamens to carpels; in pistillata-1, petals to sepals. In addition, two of these mutations (ap2-1 and pi-1) result in loss of organs, and ag-1 causes the cells that would ordinarily form the gynoecium to differentiate as a flower. Two of the mutations are temperature-sensitive. Temperature shift experiments indicate that the wild-type AP2 gene product acts at the time of primordium initiation; the AP3 product is active later. It seems that the wild-type alleles of these four genes allow cells to determine their place in the developing flower and thus to differentiate appropriately. We propose that these genes may be involved in setting up or responding to concentric, overlapping fields within the flower primordium. PMID:2535466

Bowman, J L; Smyth, D R; Meyerowitz, E M

1989-01-01

356

Flower development in Spirodela polyrrhiza ( Lemnaceae )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flowering under experimental conditions inSpirodela polyrrhiza, and the development of the spatha, stamina and pistil are described and illustrated by microphotographs. During the development of the microsporangia the existence of the middle layer between endothecium and tapetum has been documented for the first time inLemnaceae.

Boo Krajn?i?; Zvonimir Devid

1979-01-01

357

Unisexual cucumber flowers, sex and sex differentiation.  

PubMed

Sex is a universal phenomenon in the world of eukaryotes. Attempts have been made to understand regulatory mechanisms for plant sex determination by investigating unisexual flowers. The cucumber plant is one of the model systems for studying how sex determination is regulated by phytohormones. A systematic investigation of the development of unisexual cucumber flowers is summarized here, and it is suggested that the mechanism of the unisexual flower can help us to understand how the process leading to one type of gametogenesis is prevented. Based on these findings, we concluded that the unisexual cucumber flowers is not an issue of sex differentiation, but instead a mechanism for avoiding self-pollination. Sex differentiation is essentially the divergent point(s) leading to heterogametogenesis. On the basis of analyses of sex differentiation in unicellular organisms and animals as well as the core process of plant life cycle, a concept of "sexual reproduction cycle" is proposed for understanding the essential role of sex and a "progressive model" for future investigations of sex differentiation in plants. PMID:23809434

Bai, Shu-Nong; Xu, Zhi-Hong

2013-01-01

358

FPF1 promotes flowering in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed Central

We have characterized the gene flowering promoting factor1 (FPF1), which is expressed in apical meristems immediately after the photoperiodic induction of flowering in the long-day plants mustard and Arabidopsis. In early transition stages, expression is only detectable in the peripheral zone of apical meristems; however, later on, it can also be found in floral meristems and in axillary meristems that form secondary inflorescences. The FPF1 gene encodes a 12.6-kD protein that has no homology to any previously identified protein of known function. Constitutive expression of the gene in Arabidopsis under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter resulted in a dominant heritable trait of early flowering under both short- and long-day conditions. Treatments with gibberellin (GA) and paclobutrazol, a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, as well as crosses with GA-deficient mutants indicate that FPF1 is involved in a GA-dependent signaling pathway and modulates a GA response in apical meristems during the transition to flowering. PMID:9286110

Kania, T; Russenberger, D; Peng, S; Apel, K; Melzer, S

1997-01-01

359

Flower Drinking and Masculinity in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the role of the hostess club culture in the creation and maintenance of masculinity in Taiwan. The article focuses on flower drinking (the consumption of alcohol in bars, often integrated with prostitution), which is a common practice in Taiwan. Data were obtained from 58 in-depth interviews with men from a variety of occupations and social backgrounds (mean

Olwen Bedford; Shu-Ling Hwang

2010-01-01

360

CSULB ALUMNI ASSOCIATION Commencement Flowers Sale 2014  

E-print Network

p.m. 3:30 p.m. - 7:30 p.m. Name: Email: Address: City, State, ZIP: Phone: Cell Phone: CSULB AlumniCSULB ALUMNI ASSOCIATION Commencement Flowers Sale 2014 VOLUNTEER REPLY FORM Please check the days sales, it is critical that you arrive at the start time of your shift for training. If you need to work

Sorin, Eric J.

361

White-flowered Form of Syringa vulgaris  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

White-flowered form of Syringa vulgaris from the Arnold Arboretum of harvard University. Several hundred cultivars of lilacs were developed from 22 wild species through extensive hybridizatino and artificial selection. The parentage of several of these hybrids was confirmed using restriction site analysis of both chloroplast and nuclear ribosomal DNA.

Ki-Joong Kim (Yeungnam University;Department of Biology ADR;POSTAL)

2004-03-09

362

Flowers and Children: Unearthing Differences, Nurturing Growth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a useful tool to help teachers understand their students' differences and learning preferences. Describes the use of the MBTI at a Catholic elementary school and a related project to link the appreciation of differences to a field trip to a flower show. (MAB)

Nolan, Noreen; Eichmann, Mary Ellen

1996-01-01

363

Oxfordshire Flowers and the Plot Memorial Windows  

Microsoft Academic Search

In NATURE of May 28, 1927, p. 798, in the excellent account of the unveiling of the Wren-Ashmole-Plot Memorial Windows at Oxford, it is said that ``the surrounding wreath is of two Oxfordshire flowers which Plot was the first to recognise as new to the British flora''-Viola palustris and Geranium dissectum.

G. Claridge Druce

1928-01-01

364

FLOWER IMAGERY IN HAWTHORNE'S POSTHUMOUS NARRATIVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive use of botanical imagery gives dimension to the theme of the Deathless Man in the posthumous publications of Nathaniel Hawthorne. Both Doctor Grimshawe's Secret and Septimius Felton employ sustained flower imagery in their investigation of the mysteries of life and death and in their study of the conflict between man's need to live a productive life and his desire

MAX L. AUTREY

1975-01-01

365

The nature of colors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Color is a visible aspect of objects and lights, and as such is an objective characteristic of our phenomenal world. Correspondingly also objects and lights are objective, although their subjectivity cannot be disregarded since they belong to our phenomenal world. The distinction between perception and sensation deals with colors seen either in complex displays or in isolation. Reality of colors is apparently challenged by virtual reality, while virtual reality is a good example of what colors are. It seems difficult to combine that aspect of reality colors have in our experience and the concept that colors represent something in the external environment: the distinction between stimulation and perceived object is crucial for understanding the relationships between phenomenal world and physical reality. A modern concept of isomorphism seems useful in interpreting the role of colors. The relationship between the psychological structure of colors and the physical stimulation is enlightened by the analysis of pseudocolors. The perceptual, subjective characteristics of colors go along with the subjectivity of scientific concepts. Colors, emotions, and concepts are all in some people's mind: none of them is independent of the subject mind. Nevertheless they can be communicated from person to person by an appropriate scientific terminology.

da Pos, Osvaldo

2002-06-01

366

Special Issue Topic: School Choice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes "The Choice Movement" (Brogan); "Choice in American Education" (Witte); "Role of Parents in Education" (Mawdsley); "As Arrows in the Hand" (Coons); "Vouchers in Wisconsin" (Underwood); "Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP)" (Grover); "Civil Liberties and the MPCP" (Bolick); "Comments on School Choice" (Jauch); "Two Classes of

Brogan, Bernard R.; And Others

1991-01-01

367

Potent Induction of Arabidopsis thaliana Flowering by Elevated Growth Temperature  

E-print Network

induction, and that the closely related floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS M is a major-effect quantitative CONSTANS, acts upstream of the floral integrator FLOWERING LOCUS T, and depends on the hormone gibberellin, and the nuclear protein CONSTANS (CO) integrates its effects. Vernalization promotes flowering by enabling stable

Weigel, Detlef

368

Precocious flowering and seeding behaviour in tissue-cultured bamboos  

Microsoft Academic Search

BAMBOO flowers only once during its lifetime, dying at the end of its first fruiting season. This monocarpic flowering is intriguing not only in that it occurs after a lapse of 12 to 120 years, but because it is 'gregarious', local populations of bamboo flowering together and then dying. New bamboo plants are produced either by vegetative subdivision or from

R. S. Nadgauda; V. A. Parasharami; A. F. Mascarenhas

1990-01-01

369

An integrated device for saffron flowers detaching and harvesting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is concerned with a mechanical system designed to harvest Crocus Sativus (saffron) flowers. The system is conceived as a shoulder portable device with two main parts: the first one is specifically designed to detach the flower containing three stigmas, which are the costly final product; the second one is aimed to collect the detached flower through a vacuum

A. Manuello Bertetto; C. Falchi; R. Pinna; R. Ricciu

2010-01-01

370

Utilization of new attributes for evaluating a flower colour spectrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flower colour spectra were initially used in India to characterize the flora of urban localities (Nagrathna, 1968; Oommachan, 1973), but only on a presence-absence basis. In order to have a quantitative appraisal of the flower colour spectrum of the vegetation at a particular locality, the density of the species and the number of flowers on each plant should be taken

Rajani Varma; R. R. Das

1983-01-01

371

Effect of illuminating gas and ethylene upon flowering carnations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects and toxic limits of illuminating gas and ethylene were studied using only the buds and flowers of the carnation. To determine the relative sensitiveness of buds and flowers as well as the relative sensitiveness of buds and flowers of different ages, one series of experiments was carried on by exposing entire potted plants to an atmosphere containing small

William Crocker; Lee I. Knight

1908-01-01

372

FLOWERING LOCUS T duplication coordinates reproductive and vegetative growth in  

E-print Network

FLOWERING LOCUS T duplication coordinates reproductive and vegetative growth in perennial poplar International, Atlanta, GA 30341; and i Department of Bioenergy Science and Technology (World Class University paralogs FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (FT1) and FLOWERING LOCUS T2 (FT2), products of whole-genome duplication

dePamphilis, Claude

373

Life Cycle and Flowering Time Control Pierre Albert Pin  

E-print Network

Life Cycle and Flowering Time Control in Beet Pierre Albert Pin Faculty of Forest Science Umeå requirement. (Photo: P. Pin) #12;Life cycle and flowering time control in beet Abstract Flowering plants have developed different life cycles to ensure optimal reproductive success depending on their habitat

374

Rapid Changes in Flowering Time in British Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The average first flowering date of 385 British plant species has advanced by 4.5 days during the past decade compared with the previous four decades: 16% of species flowered significantly earlier in the 1990s than previously, with an average advancement of 15 days in a decade. Ten species (3%) flowered significantly later in the 1990s than previously. These data reveal

A. H. Fitter; R. S. R. Fitter

2002-01-01

375

Flower visitation patterns of some species of Lycaenidae (Lepidoptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents flower visitation patterns of 4 species of Lycaenidae, observed in meadows near the city of Pozna (western Poland) in 20012002. Polyommatus icarus (Rott.) and Plebeius argyrognomon (Bgstr.) used broad ranges of flowers as nectar sources: 19 and 14 plant species, respectively. These butterflies fed most frequently on flowers of Lotus corniculatus. The univoltine species Polyommatus semiargus (Rott.)

MACIEJ BORO

376

Mechanisms and function of flower and inflorescence reversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flower and inflorescence reversion involve a switch from floral development back to vegetative develop- ment, thus rendering flowering a phase in an ongoing growth pattern rather than a terminal act of the meri- stem. Although it can be considered an unusual event, reversion raises questions about the nature and func- tion of flowering. It is linked to environmental conditions and

Fiona Tooke; Matthew Ordidge; Tinashe Chiurugwi; Nick Battey

2005-01-01

377

Dark reactions in the flowering of Lemna perpusilla 6746  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This study concerns the effects of red and far-red light on flowering in the short day plantLemna perpusilla 6746. The critical day length for maximum flowering was found to be 10 hours. Exposure to red light near the middle of the dark period inhibited flowering, and the time of maximum sensitivity to red light occurred 9 hours after the

W. K. Purves; W. K. Pv

1961-01-01

378

ORIGINAL PAPER Variation in the phenology and abundance of flowering  

E-print Network

-removal experiment to explore the effects of an invasive exotic flowering plant, Linaria vulgaris, on community environmental change Á Invasive species Á Linaria vulgaris Á Phenology Introduction Flower production. vulgaris was associated with a shift in both the timing and abundance of community flowering. Invaded plant

Irwin, Rebecca E.

379

Foraging Ability of Rufous Hummingbirds on Hummingbird Flowers and Hawkmoth Flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the suitability of ornithophilous flowers and sphingophilous flowers in Ipompsis and Aquilegia for nectar foraging by the hummingbird Selasphorus rufus. In S. rufus, bill length averages 18.9 mm in females and 17.3 mm in males. Maximal tongue extension approximates bill length, suggesting that birds can feed from floral tubes up to 33.5 mm in length. However, their ability

Verne Grant; Ethan J. Temeles

1992-01-01

380

Flower colour and cytochromes P450  

PubMed Central

Cytochromes P450 play important roles in biosynthesis of flavonoids and their coloured class of compounds, anthocyanins, both of which are major floral pigments. The number of hydroxyl groups on the B-ring of anthocyanidins (the chromophores and precursors of anthocyanins) impact the anthocyanin colour, the more the bluer. The hydroxylation pattern is determined by two cytochromes P450, flavonoid 3?-hydroxylase (F3?H) and flavonoid 3?,5?-hydroxylase (F3?5?H) and thus they play a crucial role in the determination of flower colour. F3?H and F3?5?H mostly belong to CYP75B and CYP75A, respectively, except for the F3?5?Hs in Compositae that were derived from gene duplication of CYP75B and neofunctionalization. Roses and carnations lack blue/violet flower colours owing to the deficiency of F3?5?H and therefore lack the B-ring-trihydroxylated anthocyanins based upon delphinidin. Successful redirection of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway to delphinidin was achieved by expressing F3?5?H coding regions resulting in carnations and roses with novel blue hues that have been commercialized. Suppression of F3?5?H and F3?H in delphinidin-producing plants reduced the number of hydroxyl groups on the anthocyanidin B-ring resulting in the production of monohydroxylated anthocyanins based on pelargonidin with a shift in flower colour to orange/red. Pelargonidin biosynthesis is enhanced by additional expression of a dihydroflavonol 4-reductase that can use the monohydroxylated dihydrokaempferol (the pelargonidin precursor). Flavone synthase II (FNSII)-catalysing flavone biosynthesis from flavanones is also a P450 (CYP93B) and contributes to flower colour, because flavones act as co-pigments to anthocyanins and can cause blueing and darkening of colour. However, transgenic plants expression of a FNSII gene yielded paler flowers owing to a reduction of anthocyanins because flavanones are precursors of anthocyanins and flavones. PMID:23297355

Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Brugliera, Filippa

2013-01-01

381

Color night vision based on color transfer in YUV color space  

Microsoft Academic Search

To obtain a color night vision image, we proposed a color transfer algorithm in YUV color space based on the color transfer algorithm in lalphabeta color space which Reinhard proposed. After rendering the simple statistics (means and standard deviations) of the target image to the source image, the color appearance of the target image is transferred to the source image.

Shiming Shi; Lingxue Wang; Wei-qi Jin; Yuanmeng Zhao

2008-01-01

382

NBNews Editor's Choice Awards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An online newsletter, NBNews Editor's Choice Awards, an annotated listing of new Internet sites that is issued every ten days, has been added to the Internet Publications--Internet Webzines section of the Scout Toolkit. In addition, about one third of all the annotations in the Toolkit have been revised and updated in the last two weeks.

383

Reason-based choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the role of reasons and arguments in the making of decisions. It is proposed that, when faced with the need to choose, decision makers often seek and construct reasons in order to resolve the conflict and fustify their choice, to themselves and to others. Experiments that explore and manipulate the role of reasons are reviewed, and other

Eldar Shafir; Itamar Simonson; Amos Tversky

1993-01-01

384

Choices, frameworks and refinement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents a method for designing operating systems using object-oriented frameworks. A framework can be refined into subframeworks. Constraints specify the interactions between the subframeworks. The authors describe how they used object-oriented frameworks to design Choices, an object-oriented operating system

Roy H. Campbell; Nayeem Islam; Ralph Johnson; Panos Kougiouris; Peter Madany

1991-01-01

385

Choices, Frameworks and Refinement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper we present a method for designing operating systems using object-oriented frameworks. A framework can be refined into subframeworks. Constraints specify the interactions between the subframeworks. We describe how we used object-oriented frameworks to design Choices, an object-oriented operating system.

Campbell, Roy H.; Islam, Nayeem; Johnson, Ralph; Kougiouris, Panos; Madany, Peter

1991-01-01

386

RESEARCH BRIEF School Choice  

E-print Network

research on school choice in all its forms Since the first charter school opened in 1992, the number of charter schools has grown to more than 4,000 in 40 states. Given the priorities of the Obama administration and recent changes in state education policies, charter schools are expected to see further growth

Palmeri, Thomas

387

ARPProgram Choices OPERSfor Staff  

E-print Network

Ohio Public Employees Retirement System Enrollment Deadline: 120 Days #12;2 ·Retirement Program Choices Retirement Plan (ARP) · Ohio Public Employees Retirement System (OPERS) Ohio State employees do to Medicare. Instead, employees are required to participate in the Ohio state retirement system

388

ARPProgram Choices OPERSfor Staff  

E-print Network

Ohio Public Employees Retirement System Enrollment Deadline: 120 Days #12;Retirement Program Choices Alternative Retirement Plan (ARP) · Ohio Public Employees Retirement System (OPERS) Ohio State employees do to participate in the Ohio state retirement system. In recognition of the diverse retirement needs of employees

389

A Matter of Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the goal of helping the client make wise decisions is at the core of counseling, it is suggested that existentialism as a state of mind may give the contemporary counselor an outlook most conducive to achieving that goal. The entire role of choice must be dealt with by the counselor in light of the reality of current events. (Author)

Vriend, John

1973-01-01

390

Choice for America's Poor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that school choice should be provided to give low-income parents control of their lives and opportunities for their children's futures through access to superior educational resources. Describes the successes of two small private schools, the Sheenway School in Los Angeles and the Holy Angels School in South Chicago. (MAB)

Roggeveen, Dirk G.

1993-01-01

391

Multiple Choice Test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents a guide to developing and deploying effective multiple choice tests. The site also discusses the costs and benefits of this method, as well as the philosophy of this commonly used assessment method. Links to more detailed information are included as well.

Parkes, Jay; Guide, Field-Tested L.

392

Supporting Family Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Supporting family choice in the decision-making process is recommended practice in the field of early childhood and early childhood special education. These decisions may relate to the medical, educational, social, recreational, therapeutic/rehabilitative, and community aspects of the child's disability. Although this practice conveys the message

Murray, Mary M.; Christensen, Kimberly A.; Umbarger, Gardner T.; Rade, Karin C.; Aldridge, Kathryn; Niemeyer, Judith A.

2007-01-01

393

Green Lighting Choices  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief article looks at sustainable choices in home and commercial lighting. The author discusses the energy use of several different types of bulbs, and their appropriate uses. The suggestions the author includes in the article are intended to be both environmentally responsible and have an appearance similar to other lighting projects. This document may be downloaded in Microsoft Word Doc file format.

Benya, James R.

2011-11-29

394

School Choice Today.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the increasing demand for better schools, states and communities are providing more options to families. By doing so, they are not only improving educational opportunity for those children, but also having a dramatic impact on how schools operate in their communities. The most important options are full school-choice programs, charter

DeSchryver, Dave

395

Colored diffraction catastrophes.  

PubMed Central

On fine scales, caustics produced with white light show vividly colored diffraction fringes. For caustics described by the elementary catastrophes of singularity theory, the colors are characteristic of the type of singularity. We study the diffraction colors of the fold and cusp catastrophes. The colors can be simulated computationally as the superposition of monochromatic patterns for different wavelengths. Far from the caustic, where the luminosity contrast is negligible, the fringe colors persist; an asymptotic theory explains why. Experiments with caustics produced by refraction through irregular bathroom-window glass show good agreement with theory. Colored fringes near the cusp reveal fine lines that are not present in any of the monochromatic components; these lines are explained in terms of partial decoherence between rays with widely differing path differences. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:11607642

Berry, M V; Klein, S

1996-01-01

396

Significance of flower exploding pollination on the reproduction of the Scotch broom, Cytisus scoparius (Leguminosae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significance of single flower visits by pollinators on the reproductive success of the Scotch broom, Cytisus scoparius, with explosive flowers was investigated. Unexploded flowers (intact flowers) produced no fruit, implying that autonomous selfing and apomixis do not occur and that the explosion of flowers by insects is necessary for the fertilization of flowers. The fruit set in the natural

Nobuhiko Suzuki

2003-01-01

397

Neuro-economics in chicks: foraging choices based on amount, delay and cost.  

PubMed

Studies on the foraging choices are reviewed, with an emphasis on the neural representations of elementary factors of food (i.e., amount, delay and consumption time) in the avian brain. Domestic chicks serve as an ideal animal model in this respect, as they quickly associate cue colors with subsequently supplied food rewards, and their choices are quantitatively linked with the rewards. When a pair of such color cues was simultaneously presented, the trained chicks reliably made choices according to the profitability of food associated with each color. Two forebrain regions are involved in distinct aspects of choices; i.e., nucleus accumbens-medial striatum (Ac-MSt) and arcopallium intermedium (AI), an association area in the lateral forebrain. Localized lesions of Ac-MSt enhanced delay aversion, and the ablated chicks made impulsive choices of immediate reward more frequently than sham controls. On the other hand, lesions of AI enhanced consumption-time aversion, and the ablated chicks shifted their choices toward easily consumable reward with their impulsiveness unchanged; delay and consumption time are thus doubly dissociated. Furthermore, chicks showed distinct patterns of risk-sensitive choices depending on the factor that varied at trials. Risk aversion occurred when food amount varied, whereas consistent risk sensitivity was not found when the delay varied; amount and delay were not interchangeable. Choices are thus deviated from those predicted as optima. Instead, factors such as amount, delay and consumption time could be separately represented and processed to yield economically sub-optimal choices. PMID:18498937

Matsushima, Toshiya; Kawamori, Ai; Bem-Sojka, Tiaza

2008-06-15

398

Natural Variation in Petal Color in Lycoris longituba Revealed by Anthocyanin Components  

PubMed Central

Lycoris longituba is one of the species belonging to the Amaryllidaceae family. Despite its limited distribution, endemic to central eastern China, this species displays an exceptionally wide diversity of flower colors from purple, red, orange, to yellow, in nature. We study the natural variation of floral color in L. longituba by testing the components of water-soluble vacuolar pigments anthocyanins in its petals using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Four anthocyanins were identified, cyanidin-3-sophoroside (Cy3So), cyanidin-3-xylosylglucoside (Cy3XyGlc), cyanidin-3-sambubioside (Cy3Sa), and pelargonidin-3-xylosylglucoside (Pg3XyGlc), which occur at various amounts in L. longituba petals of different colors. A multivariate analysis was used to explore the relationship between pigments and flower color. Anthocyanins have been thought to play a major role in acting as a UV screen that protects the plant's DNA from sunlight damage and attracting insects for the purpose of pollination. Thus, knowledge about the content and type of anthocyanins determining the petal coloration of Lycoris longituba will help to study the adaptive evolution of flowers and provide useful information for the ornamental breeding of this species. PMID:21829604

He, Qiuling; Shen, Ye; Wang, Mingxiu; Huang, Minren; Yang, Ruizhen; Zhu, Shuijin; Wang, Liangsheng; Xu, Yanjun; Wu, Rongling

2011-01-01

399

Coloring Soybeans with Anthocyanins?  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The seed coats of black soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) accumulate all anthocyanins required for the red (cyanidin-), blue\\u000a (delphinidin-), purple (petunidin-), and orange (pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside) coloration of plant tissues. Metabolic engineering of anthocyanin biosynthesis in black soybean may potentially\\u000a be used to generate distinct colors for the visible identification of transgenic seeds. Presently the causal agents of black\\u000a coloration in

Nikola Kovinich; John T. Arnason; Vincenzo De Luca; Brian Miki

400

Restorer: Four Color Chart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Restorer is a visualization technique for indicating the location of missing data in a scientific visualization. Rather than filling missing data regions with interpolated data colored with the same scale as real data or simply leaving such regions empty, the restorer technique fills the regions with interpolated data colored with a color table with only luminance values. This technique allows missing data to be indicated clearly without distracting from the content of the real data.

Cavallo, John; Shiri, Shahram; Twiddy, Ray

1994-08-24

401

Primary Colors of Pigment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this laboratory activity, students create secondary colors by mixing primary colors. Food coloring, test tubes, and a test tube stand are used. The activity is composed of a student handout with directions and a data sheet. The resource is part of the teacher's guide accompanying the video, NASA Why Files: The Case of the Mysterious Red Light. Lesson objectives supported by the video, additional resources, teaching tips and an answer sheet are included in the teacher's guide.

402

NCI Color Palette  

Cancer.gov

NCI's official colors are red and gray. To create a strong, cohesive NCI presence and an intuitive website experience, the main NCI website was designed in light of this color scheme. NCI's official colors are used consistently throughout the main NCI website to help create a uniform look for the site and to reinforce the tie between the site's home page and its constituent pages.

403

COLORS FOR LEVEL PLOTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Friele-MacAdam-Chickering FMC-1 formula appears to provide a good auto- matic spectrum of equally spaced colors for use in color level plots. Other candidates include: the CIE Luv uniform color space, the Optical Society of America L j g space, the MacLeodBoynton space, and the Alvy Ray Smith hexcone model. To get a C routine generating the FMC rainbow, type

ERIC GROSSE

404

Holographic color schlieren.  

PubMed

A 20-in (51-cm) diam schlieren system was convereted to a genrualized holographic flow visualization system. The system has been used successfully in producing the following types of visualization from a single holographic plate: three-dimensional photography, variable focus shadowgraph, variable knife-edge position schlieren, color-schlieren, and interferometry. All of these except for holographic color schlieren have previously been reported with varying degrees of success. This paper presents a technique for producing color schlierent photographs from holograms formed in the above system and shows preliminary results of the application. The method possesses a number of advantages over conventional color schlieren photography. PMID:20072572

O'Hare, J E; Trolinger, J D

1969-10-01

405

Effect of Ethylene on Flower Abscission: a Survey  

PubMed Central

The effect of ethylene on flower abscission was investigated in monocotyledons and eudicotyledons, in about 300 species from 50 families. In all species studied except Cymbidium, flower abscission was highly sensitive to ethylene. Flower fall was not consistent among the species in any family studied. It also showed no relationship with petal senescence or abscission, nor with petal colour changes or flower closure. Results suggest that flower abscission is generally mediated by endogenous ethylene, but that some exceptional ethylene?insensitive abscission occurs in the Orchidaceae. PMID:12102524

VAN DOORN, WOUTER G.

2002-01-01

406

Color reproduction with a smartphone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world is full of colors. Most of the colors we see around us can be created on common digital displays simply by superposing light with three different wavelengths. However, no mixture of colors can produce a fully pure color identical to a spectral color. Using a smartphone, students can investigate the main features of primary color addition and understand how colors are made on digital displays.

Thoms, Lars-Jochen; Colicchia, Giuseppe; Girwidz, Raimund

2013-10-01

407

Interference of verbal labels in color categorical perception  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies demonstrated that color categorical perception (CP; better cross-category than within-category discrimination) was reduced by verbal interference, suggesting that CP is mediated by verbal labeling. Here, we examined chromatic generality and experience-dependency of verbal interference in CP using the Stroop effect. We employed a simultaneous two-alternative forced choice discrimination task. Congruent or incongruent words were presented prior to discrimination. In experiment 1, incongruent color names reduced CP regardless of color boundary pairs. Next, we used noncolor words that seemed to be associated with color through experience. The results showed that the tested noncolor words did not modify CP (experiment 2). However, combined presentation of color and shape produced Stroop interference (experiment 3). Our finding suggests that familiarity or mastery of categorized information through experience may be evaluated by verbal interference.

Yokoi, Kenji; Nishimori, Tomoaki; Saida, Shinya

2008-11-01

408

Specifying color differences in a linear color space (LEF)  

E-print Network

Specifying color differences in a linear color space (LEF) N. Rudaz, R. D. Hersch, V. Ostromoukhov way of generating color differenc- es for synthesizing artistically screened color images. A sin- gle and on a constant hue plane within the LEF color space (the orthogonal space formed by the RGB cube's black

Ostromoukhov, Victor

409

Color constancy and the complexity of color David Hilbert  

E-print Network

the eye (the color signal) from the various objects in the environment is the joint productColor constancy and the complexity of color David Hilbert Department of Philosophy Laboratory of color vision and color constancy We can start with a definition. "[C]olour constancy is the constancy

Hilber, David

410

Ants and ant scent reduce bumblebee pollination of artificial flowers.  

PubMed

Ants on flowers can disrupt pollination by consuming rewards or harassing pollinators, but it is difficult to disentangle the effects of these exploitative and interference forms of competition on pollinator behavior. Using highly rewarding and quickly replenishing artificial flowers that simulate male or female function, we allowed bumblebees (Bombus impatiens) to forage (1) on flowers with or without ants (Myrmica rubra) and (2) on flowers with or without ant scent cues. Bumblebees transferred significantly more pollen analogue both to and from ant-free flowers, demonstrating that interference competition with ants is sufficient to modify pollinator foraging behavior. Bees also removed significantly less pollen analogue from ant-scented flowers than from controls, making this the first study to show that bees can use ant scent to avoid harassment at flowers. Ant effects on pollinator behavior, possibly in addition to their effects on pollen viability, may contribute to the evolution of floral traits minimizing ant visitation. PMID:24334742

Cembrowski, Adam R; Tan, Marcus G; Thomson, James D; Frederickson, Megan E

2014-01-01

411

An H+ P-ATPase on the tonoplast determines vacuolar pH and flower colour.  

PubMed

The regulation of pH in cellular compartments is crucial for intracellular trafficking of vesicles and proteins and the transport of small molecules, including hormones. In endomembrane compartments, pH is regulated by vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase), which, in plants, act together with H(+)-pyrophosphatases (PPase), whereas distinct P-type H(+)-ATPases in the cell membrane control the pH in the cytoplasm and energize the plasma membrane. Flower colour mutants have proved useful in identifying genes controlling the pH of vacuoles where anthocyanin pigments accumulate. Here we show that PH5 of petunia encodes a P(3A)-ATPase proton pump that, unlike other P-type H(+)-ATPases, resides in the vacuolar membrane. Mutation of PH5 reduces vacuolar acidification in petals, resulting in a blue flower colour and abolishes the accumulation of proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins) in seeds. Expression of PH5 is directly activated by transcription regulators of the anthocyanin pathway, in conjunction with PH3 and PH4. Thus, flower coloration, a key-factor in plant reproduction, involves the coordinated activation of pigment synthesis and a specific pathway for vacuolar acidification. PMID:18997787

Verweij, Walter; Spelt, Cornelis; Di Sansebastiano, Gian-Pietro; Vermeer, Joop; Reale, Lara; Ferranti, Francesco; Koes, Ronald; Quattrocchio, Francesca

2008-12-01

412

Selection and fusion of color models for image feature detection.  

PubMed

The choice of a color model is of great importance for many computer vision algorithms (e.g., feature detection, object recognition, and tracking) as the chosen color model induces the equivalence classes to the actual algorithms. As there are many color models available, the inherent difficulty is how to automatically select a single color model or, alternatively, a weighted subset of color models producing the best result for a particular task. The subsequent hurdle is how to obtain a proper fusion scheme for the algorithms so that the results are combined in an optimal setting. To achieve proper color model selection and fusion of feature detection algorithms, in this paper, we propose a method that exploits nonperfect correlation between color models or feature detection algorithms derived from the principles of diversification. As a consequence, a proper balance is obtained between repeatability and distinctiveness. The result is a weighting scheme which yields maximal feature discrimination. The method is verified experimentally for three different image feature detectors. The experimental results show that the fusion method provides feature detection results having a higher discriminative power than the standard weighting scheme. Further, it is experimentally shown that the color model selection scheme provides a proper balance between color invariance (repeatability) and discriminative power (distinctiveness). PMID:17224609

Stokman, Harro; Gevers, Theo

2007-03-01

413

Color preference and familiarity in performance on brand logo recall.  

PubMed

Two experiments assessed effects of color preference and brand-logo familiarity on recall performance. Exp. 1 explored the color preferences, using a forced-choice technique, of 189 women and 63 men, Taiwanese college students ages 18 to 20 years (M = 19.4, SD = 1.5). The sequence of the three most preferred colors was white, light blue, and black and of the three least preferred colors was light orange, dark violet, and dark brown. Exp. 2 investigated the effects of color preference based on the results of Exp. 1 and brand-logo familiarity on recall. A total of 27 women and 21 men, Taiwanese college students ages 18 to 20 years (M = 19.2, SD = 1.2) participated. They memorized a list of 24 logos (four logos shown in six colors) and then performed sequential recall. Analyses showed color preference significantly affected recall accuracy. Accuracy for high color preference was significantly greater than that for low preferences. Results showed no significant effects of brand-logo familiarity or sex on accuracy. In addition, the interactive effect of color preference and brand-logo familiarity on accuracy was significant. These results have implications for the design of brand logos to create and sustain memory of brand images. PMID:19093619

Huang, Kuo-Chen; Lin, Chin-Chiuan; Chiang, Shu-Ying

2008-10-01

414

Supporting Family Choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supporting family choice in the decision-making process is recommended practice in the field of early childhood and early\\u000a childhood special education. These decisions may relate to the medical, educational, social, recreational, therapeutic\\/rehabilitative,\\u000a and community aspects of the child's disability. Although this practice conveys the message that families are the primary\\u000a decision-makers for their children, families are not always adequately supported

Mary M. Murray; Kimberly A. Christensen; Gardner T. Umbarger; Karin C. Rade; Kathryn Aldridge; Judith A. Niemeyer

2007-01-01

415

CropChoice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CropChoice is an alternative news and information source for American farmers and consumers about genetically modified crops, corporate agribusiness concentration, farm and trade policy, sustainable agriculture, wind farming and alternative energy, and rural economic and social issues. Users can explore the site's resources by topic, search past headlines and view press releases. Links are provided to sites that involve similar issues and information.

2007-04-16

416

Going native can be a smart choice for Michigan landscapes Joy Landis, MSU Integrated Pest Management Program  

E-print Network

. Getting smart around your home Home landscaping and flower gardens can be designed with native perennialGoing native can be a smart choice for Michigan landscapes Joy Landis, MSU Integrated Pest. They offer extensive information at their website, www.nwf.org. Smart shorelines According to the Michigan

417

Science Shorts: Seeing Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Colors can open the door to an invisible world of electromagnetism, even when children can barely imagine things they cannot see. This article looks at color as a powerful tool for engaging children of all ages. A corresponding activity is included.

Texley, Juliana

2005-09-01

418

OPPS: Light and Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide to a workshop for primary teachers provides an introduction to the concepts of color. It is designed to provide teachers with an inquiry-based learning experience for the basic concepts of light and color perception. It is part of the Operation Primary Physical Science materials.

Kirwin, Gayle

2005-06-23

419

Food colorants: Anthocyanins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in food colorants as shown by the number of patents has doubled in recent years with natural pigments outnumbering synthetics by five to one. The natural colorant area can be subdivided into anthocyanins, betalains, chlorophylls, carotenoids, flavonoids, polyphenols, Monascus, hemes, quinones, biliproteins, safflower, turmeric, and miscellaneous. All involve different groups of chemical compounds which may be used directly as

F. J. Francis; Pericles C. Markakis

1989-01-01

420

Color appearance in stereoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between color and lightness appearance and the perception of depth has been studied since a while in the field of perceptual psychology and psycho-physiology. It has been found that depth perception affects the final object color and lightness appearance. In the stereoscopy research field, many studies have been proposed on human physiological effects, considering e.g. geometry, motion sickness,

Davide Gadia; Alessandro Rizzi; Cristian Bonanomi; Daniele Marini; Alessandra Galmonte; Tiziano Agostini

2011-01-01

421

Color names, color categories, and color-cued visual search: Sometimes, color perception is not categorical  

PubMed Central

The relation between colors and their names is a classic case-study for investigating the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis that categorical perception is imposed on perception by language. Here, we investigate the Sapir-Whorf prediction that visual search for a green target presented among blue distractors (or vice versa) should be faster than search for a green target presented among distractors of a different color of green (or for a blue target among different blue distractors). Gilbert, Regier, Kay & Ivry (2006) reported that this Sapir-Whorf effect is restricted to the right visual field (RVF), because the major brain language centers are in the left cerebral hemisphere. We found no categorical effect at the Green|Blue color boundary, and no categorical effect restricted to the RVF. Scaling of perceived color differences by Maximum Likelihood Difference Scaling (MLDS) also showed no categorical effect, including no effect specific to the RVF. Two models fit the data: a color difference model based on MLDS and a standard opponent-colors model of color discrimination based on the spectral sensitivities of the cones. Neither of these models, nor any of our data, suggested categorical perception of colors at the Green|Blue boundary, in either visual field. PMID:21980188

Brown, Angela M; Lindsey, Delwin T; Guckes, Kevin M

2011-01-01

422

Color quality scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The color rendering index (CRI) has been shown to have deficiencies when applied to white light-emitting-diode-based sources. Furthermore, evidence suggests that the restricted scope of the CRI unnecessarily penalizes some light sources with desirable color qualities. To solve the problems of the CRI and include other dimensions of color quality, the color quality scale (CQS) has been developed. Although the CQS uses many of elements of the CRI, there are a number of fundamental differences. Like the CRI, the CQS is a test-samples method that compares the appearance of a set of reflective samples when illuminated by the test lamp to their appearance under a reference illuminant. The CQS uses a larger set of reflective samples, all of high chroma, and combines the color differences of the samples with a root mean square. Additionally, the CQS does not penalize light sources for causing increases in the chroma of object colors but does penalize sources with smaller rendered color gamut areas. The scale of the CQS is converted to span 0-100, and the uniform object color space and chromatic adaptation transform used in the calculations are updated. Supplementary scales have also been developed for expert users.

Davis, Wendy; Ohno, Yoshi

2010-03-01

423

Measurements of ocean color  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phytoplankton density is determined by ocean color measurements. Phytoplankton is detected by remote sensing systems, because they contain chlorophyll. Chlorophyll has two strong absorption bands in the visible spectrum. The algae Chlorella shows the strongest absorptions at 450 and 675 nm. The measured spectrum of ocean color at low and high altitudes is shown.

Hovis, W. A.

1972-01-01

424

Color Control in Shrimp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a detailed manual for instructing a laboratory exercise in invertebrate marine physiology. Students investigate the environmental and physiological causes of color change in shrimp. This exercise is suitable for introductory animal or invertebrate physiology courses, and could be adapted further to explore the ecological consquences of color change.

Mary-Jane O'Halloran (Dalhousie University;)

1990-01-01

425

Colors of Stars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners observe colors in the flame of a burning candle to explore connections between matter, light, color and temperature -- basic concepts of matter and energy. Then, learners elaborate on these basic concepts in a new context of astronomy by drawing scale models of stars. This activity involves an open flame; adult supervision is recommended.

Hemenway, Mary K.

2011-01-01

426

Color constancy using fractals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We combine fractal decompression and the Retinex algorithm do devise a new color constancy method. We show that by using this approach, we can achieve color constancy and image compression simultaneously. Experimental results are included that show that this approach is quite promising.

Rising, Hawley K., III; Baqai, Farhan A.

2005-03-01

427

Mass flowering of the tropical tree Shorea beccariana was preceded by expression changes in flowering and drought-responsive genes  

PubMed Central

Community-level mass flowering, known as general flowering, which occurs in South-East Asia at supra-annual irregular intervals, is considered a particularly spectacular phenomenon in tropical ecology. Recent studies have proposed several proximate factors inducing general flowering, such as drought and falls in minimum temperature. However, limited empirical data on the developmental and physiological processes have been available to test the significance of such factors. To overcome this limitation and test the hypotheses that general flowering is triggered by the proposed factors, we conducted an ecological transcriptome study of a mass flowering species, Shorea beccariana, comparing meteorological data with genome-wide expression patterns obtained using next-generation sequencing. Among the 98 flowering-related genes identified, the homologs of a floral pathway integrator, SbFT, and a floral repressor, SbSVP, showed dramatic transcriptional changes before flowering, and their flowering functions were confirmed using transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression in drought-responsive and sucrose-induced genes also changed before flowering. All these expression changes occurred when the flowering-inducing level of drought was reached, as estimated using data from the preceding 10 years. These genome-wide expression data support the hypothesis that drought is a trigger for general flowering. PMID:23651119

Kobayashi, Masaki J; Takeuchi, Yayoi; Kenta, Tanaka; Kume, Tomonori; Diway, Bibian; Shimizu, Kentaro K

2013-01-01

428

Plants and colour: Flowers and pollination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While there is a range of colours found in plants the predominant colour is green. Pigments in plants have several roles e.g. photosynthesis and signalling. If colour is to be used as a signal then it must stand out from green. However, one should be aware that there are also coloured compounds where we have not yet fully investigated the role of colour in their functionsthey may have roles in, for example, defence or heat exchange. In this paper, we will describe the basic chemistry of the major pigments found in plants and especially floral pigments. We will then discuss their locations in parts of the flower (such as sepals, petals, pollen and nectar), the cells in which they are found and their sub-cellular locations. Floral pigments have a large role to play in pollination of flowers by animals. They can and are modified in many ways during the development of flowers in nature, for example, at emergence and post-pollination. There are a range of biochemical mechanisms of colour change both within flowers and in isolated pigments. Some of the factors influencing colour are temperature, co-pigments, pH, metals, sugars, anthocyanin stacking and cell shape. There is a renewed interest in analysing floral pigments and how they are modified partly because of advances in recombinant DNA technologies, but also because of pollinators and their significance to biodiversity and for evolutionary studies. There is continued strong interest from the horticultural industry for the introduction of new colours e.g. the blue rose and for the exploitation of natural dyes. Funding in this area may impact future research in a potentially beneficial way but it must not deflect us from science-based conservation.

Miller, Renee; Owens, Simon J.; Rrslett, Bjrn

2011-03-01

429

Fibonacci, quasicrystals and the beauty of flowers.  

PubMed

The appearance of Fibonacci sequences and the golden ratio in plant structures is one of the great outstanding puzzles of biology. Here I suggest that quasicrystals, which naturally pack in the golden ratio, may be ubiquitous in biological systems and introduce the golden ratio into plant phyllotaxy. The appearance of golden ratio-based structures as beautiful indicates that the golden ratio may play a role in the development of consciousness and lead to the aesthetic natural selection of flowering plants. PMID:23072998

Gardiner, John

2012-12-01

430

Fibonacci, quasicrystals and the beauty of flowers  

PubMed Central

The appearance of Fibonacci sequences and the golden ratio in plant structures is one of the great outstanding puzzles of biology. Here I suggest that quasicrystals, which naturally pack in the golden ratio, may be ubiquitous in biological systems and introduce the golden ratio into plant phyllotaxy. The appearance of golden ratio-based structures as beautiful indicates that the golden ratio may play a role in the development of consciousness and lead to the aesthetic natural selection of flowering plants. PMID:23072998

Gardiner, John

2012-01-01

431

Hollow flower micelles from a diblock copolymer.  

PubMed

A poly(2-vinylpyridine)-block-poly(2-(4-vinylphenyl)pyridine) (P2VP106-b-PVPPy95) coil-coil diblock copolymer forms hollow flower micelles in a mixed solvent of methanol and water (95/5, v/v) in a one step process. The geometry and composition of the micelles allow formation of a Pt-Au bimetallic dendritic nanocatalyst with a Pt leaf at room temperature. PMID:23982427

Changez, Mohammad; Kang, Nam-Goo; Kim, Dong Woo; Lee, Jae-Suk

2013-12-01

432

FLOWERING LOCUS T regulates stomatal opening.  

PubMed

Stomatal pores surrounded by a pair of guard cells in the plant epidermis control gas exchange for photosynthesis in response to light, CO(2), and phytohormone abscisic acid. Phototropins (phot1 and phot2) are plant blue-light receptor kinases and mediate stomatal opening via activation of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase. However, the signaling mechanism from phototropins to the H(+)-ATPase has yet to be determined. Here, we show that FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) is expressed in guard cells and regulates stomatal opening. We isolated an scs (suppressor of closed-stomata phenotype in phot1 phot2) 1-1 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana and showed that scs1-1 carries a novel null early flowering 3 (elf3) allele in a phot1 phot2 background. scs1-1 (elf3 phot1 phot2 triple mutant) had an open-stomata phenotype with high H(+)-ATPase activity and showed increased levels of FT mRNA in guard cells. Transgenic plants overexpressing FT in guard cells showed open stomata, whereas a loss-of-function FT allele, ft-1, exhibited closed stomata and failed to activate the H(+)-ATPase in response to blue light. Our results define a new cell-autonomous role for FT and demonstrate that the flowering time genes ELF3 and FT are involved in the regulation of H(+)-ATPase by blue light in guard cells. PMID:21737277

Kinoshita, Toshinori; Ono, Natsuko; Hayashi, Yuki; Morimoto, Sayuri; Nakamura, Suguru; Soda, Midori; Kato, Yuma; Ohnishi, Masato; Nakano, Takeshi; Inoue, Shin-ichiro; Shimazaki, Ken-ichiro

2011-07-26

433

Is the flower fluorescence relevant in biocommunication?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flower fluorescence has been previously proposed as a potential visual signal to attract pollinators. In this work, this point was addressed by quantitatively measuring the fluorescence quantum yield ( ? f) for flowers of Bellis perennis (white, yellow, pink, and purple), Ornithogalum thyrsoides (petals and ovaries), Limonium sinuatum (white and yellow), Lampranthus productus (yellow), Petunia nyctaginiflora (white), Bougainvillea spectabilis (white and yellow), Antirrhinum majus (white and yellow), Eustoma grandiflorum (white and blue), Citrus aurantium (petals and stigma), and Portulaca grandiflora (yellow). The highest values were obtained for the ovaries of O. thyrsoides ( ? f = 0.030) and for Citrus aurantium petals ( ? f = 0.014) and stigma ( ? f = 0.013). Emitted photons as fluorescence were compared with reflected photons. It was concluded that the fluorescence emission is negligible compared to the reflected light, even for the most fluorescent samples, and it may not be considered as an optical signal in biocommunication. The work was complemented with the calculation of quantum catches for each studied flower species to describe the visual sensitization of eye photoreceptors.

Iriel, Anala; Lagorio, Mara Gabriela

2010-10-01

434

Is the flower fluorescence relevant in biocommunication?  

PubMed

Flower fluorescence has been previously proposed as a potential visual signal to attract pollinators. In this work, this point was addressed by quantitatively measuring the fluorescence quantum yield (?(f)) for flowers of Bellis perennis (white, yellow, pink, and purple), Ornithogalum thyrsoides (petals and ovaries), Limonium sinuatum (white and yellow), Lampranthus productus (yellow), Petunia nyctaginiflora (white), Bougainvillea spectabilis (white and yellow), Antirrhinum majus (white and yellow), Eustoma grandiflorum (white and blue), Citrus aurantium (petals and stigma), and Portulaca grandiflora (yellow). The highest values were obtained for the ovaries of O. thyrsoides (?(f)?=?0.030) and for Citrus aurantium petals (?(f)?=?0.014) and stigma (?(f)?=?0.013). Emitted photons as fluorescence were compared with reflected photons. It was concluded that the fluorescence emission is negligible compared to the reflected light, even for the most fluorescent samples, and it may not be considered as an optical signal in biocommunication. The work was complemented with the calculation of quantum catches for each studied flower species to describe the visual sensitization of eye photoreceptors. PMID:20811871

Iriel, Anala; Lagorio, Mara Gabriela

2010-10-01

435

Reliable detection of LSB steganography in color and grayscale images  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of commercial steganographic programs use the Least Significant Bit embedding (LSB) as the method of choice for message hiding in 24-bit, 8-bit color images, and grayscale images. It is commonly believed that changes to the LSBs of col- ors cannot be detected due to noise that is always present in digi- tal images. In this paper, we

Jessica J. Fridrich; Miroslav Goljan; Rui Du

2001-01-01

436

Test-Retest Reliability of Colored Filter Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The test-retest reliability of colored filter testing in relation to two symptom levels of dyslexia was evaluated using a forced-choice test procedure. Two tests, separated by two weeks, were conducted with 41 participants (ages 15 to 17). Results indicated poor test-retest reliability. (Author/DB)

Woerz, Marc; Maples, Willis C.

1997-01-01

437

Bamboo-Dominated Forests of the Southwest Amazon: Detection, Spatial Extent, Life Cycle Length and Flowering Waves  

PubMed Central

We map the extent, infer the life-cycle length and describe spatial and temporal patterns of flowering of sarmentose bamboos (Guadua spp) in upland forests of the southwest Amazon. We first examine the spectra and the spectral separation of forests with different bamboo life stages. False-color composites from orbital sensors going back to 1975 are capable of distinguishing life stages. These woody bamboos flower produce massive quantities of seeds and then die. Life stage is synchronized, forming a single cohort within each population. Bamboo dominates at least 161,500 km2 of forest, coincident with an area of recent or ongoing tectonic uplift, rapid mechanical erosion and poorly drained soils rich in exchangeable cations. Each bamboo population is confined to a single spatially continuous patch or to a core patch with small outliers. Using spatial congruence between pairs of mature-stage maps from different years, we estimate an average life cycle of 2728 y. It is now possible to predict exactly where and approximately when new bamboo mortality events will occur. We also map 74 bamboo populations that flowered between 2001 and 2008 over the entire domain of bamboo-dominated forest. Population size averaged 330 km2. Flowering events of these populations are temporally and/or spatially separated, restricting or preventing gene exchange. Nonetheless, adjacent populations flower closer in time than expected by chance, forming flowering waves. This may be a consequence of allochronic divergence from fewer ancestral populations and suggests a long history of widespread bamboo in the southwest Amazon. PMID:23359438

de Carvalho, Anelena L.; Nelson, Bruce W.; Bianchini, Milton C.; Plagnol, Daniela; Kuplich, Tatiana M.; Daly, Douglas C.

2013-01-01

438

A Genomic Approach to Study Anthocyanin Synthesis and Flower Pigmentation in Passionflowers  

PubMed Central

Most of the plant pigments ranging from red to purple colors belong to the anthocyanin group of flavonoids. The flowers of plants belonging to the genus Passiflora (passionflowers) show a wide range of floral adaptations to diverse pollinating agents, including variation in the pigmentation of floral parts ranging from white to red and purple colors. Exploring a database of expressed sequence tags obtained from flower buds of two divergent Passiflora species, we obtained assembled sequences potentially corresponding to 15 different genes of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway in these species. The obtained sequences code for putative enzymes are involved in the production of flavonoid precursors, as well as those involved in the formation of particular (decorated) anthocyanin molecules. We also obtained sequences encoding regulatory factors that control the expression of structural genes and regulate the spatial and temporal accumulation of pigments. The identification of some of the putative Passiflora anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway genes provides novel resources for research on secondary metabolism in passionflowers, especially on the elucidation of the processes involved in floral pigmentation, which will allow future studies on the role of pigmentation in pollinator preferences in a molecular level. PMID:21772993

Aizza, Lilian Cristina Baldon; Dornelas, Marcelo Carnier

2011-01-01

439

"The American Way": Resisting the Empire of Force and Color-Blind Racism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students of color (in particular, those who are first-generation Chicano/a as well as first-generation college students), form a discourse community with a tendency to rely on dominant color-blind ideology concerning freedom of choice and equal opportunity to explain their positions within the academy. In this article, the author analyzes the

Martinez, Aja Y.

2009-01-01

440

Routing problem with service choices  

E-print Network

This thesis finds solutions to the routing problem with service choices which is formulated as a capacitated minimum cost flow circulation problem with GUB constraints. The routing problem with service choices is solved ...

Lee, Boon Chai

1986-01-01

441

Mountain Health Choices Beneficiary Report  

E-print Network

Mountain Health Choices Beneficiary Report A Report to the West Virginia Bureau for Medical of Health and Human Resources, Bureau for Medical Services. #12; 1 Table of Contents I. EXECUTIVE .......................................................................................................................... 5 II. MOUNTAIN HEALTH CHOICES

Mohaghegh, Shahab

442

The effect of body coloration and group size on social partner preferences in female fighting fish (Betta splendens).  

PubMed

Females of the fighting fish Betta splendens have been shown to associate with other B. splendens females in a manner reminiscent of shoaling behavior. Since body coloration varies dramatically in this species, and since body coloration has been shown to affect shoalmate choice in other species of fish, we examined the influence of body coloration on association preferences in female B. splendens. In dichotomous choice tests, B. splendens females spent more time swimming near groups of females (regardless of coloration) than swimming near an empty chamber, and chose to swim near fish of similar coloration to their own when choosing between two distinctly colored groups of females. When examining the interplay between body coloration and group size, focal fish spent more time swimming near larger groups (N=5) of similarly colored fish than swimming near an individual female of similar coloration. However, focal fish showed no preference when presented with an individual female of similar coloration and a larger group of females of dissimilar coloration. These results suggest that association choices in B. splendens females are strongly affected by both body coloration and by group size. PMID:19059314

Blakeslee, C; McRobert, S P; Brown, A C; Clotfelter, E D

2009-02-01

443

Developing a method for customized induction of flowering  

PubMed Central

Background The ability to induce flowering on demand is of significant biotechnological interest. FT protein has been recently identified as an important component of the mobile flowering hormone, florigen, whose function is conserved across the plant kingdom. We therefore focused on manipulation of both endogenous and heterologous FT genes to develop a floral induction system where flowering would be inhibited until it was induced on demand. The concept was tested in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). Results Our starting point was plants with strongly delayed flowering due to silencing of FT with an artificial microRNA directed at FT (amiR-FT) [1]. First, we showed that constitutive expression of a heterologous FT gene (FTa1), from the model legume Medicago truncatula, (Medicago) was able to rescue the amiR-FT late-flowering phenotype. In order to induce flowering in a controlled way, the FTa1 gene was then expressed under the control of an alcohol-inducible promoter in the late flowering amiR-FT plants. Upon exposure to ethanol, FTa1 was rapidly up regulated and this resulted in the synchronous induction of flowering. Conclusions We have thus demonstrated a controlled-inducible flowering system using a novel combination of endogenous and heterologous FT genes. The universal florigenic nature of FT suggests that this type of system should be applicable to crops of economic value where flowering control is desirable. PMID:21481273

2011-01-01

444

An apple MYB transcription factor, MdMYB3, is involved in regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis and flower development  

PubMed Central

Background Red coloration of fruit is an important trait in apple, and it is mainly attributed to the accumulation of anthocyanins, a class of plant flavonoid metabolites. Anthocyanin biosynthesis is genetically determined by structural and regulatory genes. Plant tissue pigmentation patterns are mainly controlled by expression profiles of regulatory genes. Among these regulatory genes are MYB transcription factors (TFs), wherein the class of two-repeats (R2R3) is deemed the largest, and these are associated with the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway. Although three MdMYB genes, almost identical in nucleotide sequences, have been identified in apple, it is likely that there are other R2R3 MYB TFs that are present in the apple genome that are also involved in the regulation of coloration of red color pigmentation of the skin of apple fruits. Results In this study, a novel R2R3 MYB gene has been isolated and characterized in apple. This MYB gene is closely related to the Arabidopsis thaliana AtMYB3, and has been designated as MdMYB3. This TF belongs to the subgroup 4 R2R3 family of plant MYB transcription factors. This apple MdMYB3 gene is mapped onto linkage group 15 of the integrated apple genetic map. Transcripts of MdMYB3 are detected in all analyzed tissues including leaves, flowers, and fruits. However, transcripts of MdMYB3 are higher in excocarp of red-skinned apple cultivars than that in yellowish-green skinned apple cultivars. When this gene is ectopically expressed in Nicotiana tabacum cv. Petite Havana SR1, flowers of transgenic tobacco lines carrying MdMYB3 have exhibited increased pigmentation and accumulate higher levels of anthocyanins and flavonols than wild-type flowers. Overexpression of MdMYB3 has resulted in transcriptional activation of several flavonoid pathway genes, including CHS, CHI, UFGT, and FLS. Moreover, peduncles of flowers and styles of pistils of transgenic plants overexpressing MdMYB3 are longer than those of wild-type plants, thus suggesting that this TF is involved in regulation of flower development. Conclusions This study has identified a novel MYB transcription factor in the apple genome. This TF, designated as MdMYB3, is involved in transcriptional activation of several flavonoid pathway genes. Moreover, this TF not only regulates the accumulation of anthocyanin in the skin of apple fruits, but it is also involved in the regulation of flower development, particularly that of pistil development. PMID:24199943

2013-01-01

445

Seismic characteristics and identification of negative flower structures, positive flower structures, and positive structural inversion  

SciTech Connect

Negative and positive flower structures and positive inverted structures imply specific modes of formation, and their distinctive characteristics make them important criteria for the identification of certain structural styles. A negative flower structure from the Andaman Sea consists of a shallow synform bounded by upward-spreading strands of a wrench fault that have mostly normal separations. Paralleling monoclines and oblique, en echelon normal faults flank the divergent wrench fault. A positive flower structure from the Ardmore basin, Oklahoma, consists of a shallow antiform displaced by the upward diverging strands of a wrench fault that have mostly reverse separations. En echelon folds are present on either side of this convergent wrench fault. Positive structural inversion at the Rambutan oil field, South Sumatra basin, has formed a shallow anticlinorium and has partly uplifted the underlying graben. Deeper fault segments bounding the graben have retained their normal fault profiles, but at shallow levels some of these faults have reverse separations.

Harding, T.P.

1985-04-01

446

Flowering phenology and female reproductive success in Silene acutifolia Link ex Rohrb  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated flowering phenology and female reproductive success intwo populations of Silene acutifolia in northwest Spain,over one year (population A) or two consecutive years (population B). Floweringphenology was similar in the two populations and two years. However,significantinterannual and interindividual variation was detected in flowering start date,flowering finish date, flowering duration, relative flowering intensity,flowering synchrony index, and median flowering date (the

Mara Luisa Buide; Jos Antonio Daz-Peromingo; Javier Guitin

2002-01-01

447

BRIEF REPORT Predicting Affective Choice  

E-print Network

BRIEF REPORT Predicting Affective Choice Gaurav Suri Stanford University Gal Sheppes Tel Aviv quantified the role of two basic dimensions of affect--valence and arousal--in determining choice. We predicted choice and outperformed competing models drawn from well-established theoretical views. Finally

Gross, James J.

448

Empirical research on accounting choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review research from the 1990s that examines the determinants and consequences of accounting choice, structuring our analysis around the three types of market imperfections that influence managers choices: agency costs, information asymmetries, and externalities affecting non-contracting parties. We conclude that research in the 1990s made limited progress in expanding our understanding of accounting choice because of limitations in research

Thomas D Fields; Thomas Z Lys; Linda Vincent

2001-01-01

449

Language Choices at Naha Airport  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates regimented language choices at Naha Airport in Okinawa Prefecture in order to study how these language choices relate to language ideology on one hand and to creating a self-supporting language ecology of maximum diversity on the other. Issues of power and ideology underlie the language choice and the language ecology which evolve from them, as well as

Patrick Heinrich

2010-01-01

450

Constructing Food Choice Decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundFood choice decisions are frequent, multifaceted, situational, dynamic, and complex and lead to food behaviors where people\\u000a acquire, prepare, serve, give away, store, eat, and clean up. Many disciplines and fields examine decision making.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a PurposeSeveral classes of theories are applicable to food decision making, including social behavior, social facts, and social definition\\u000a perspectives. Each offers some insights but also makes

Jeffery Sobal; Carole A. Bisogni

2009-01-01

451

The Primary Colors of Light  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners work in groups of four to explore light. Learners create new colors from the primary colors of light from flashlights covered in theatrical gels or cellophane. Then, learners demonstrate their new knowledge of the primary colors of light by coloring a venn diagram. Learners will also distinguish between primary colors of light and primary colors of pigment (like paint or crayon). This lesson guide includes an explanation section as well as tips for teachers and educators.

To, Josephine; Butcher, Ginger

2007-01-01

452

Stork Color Proofing Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the past few years, Stork Colorproofing B.V. has been marketing an analog color proofing system in Europe based on electrophoto-graphic technology it pioneered for the purpose of high resolution, high fidelity color imaging in the field of the Graphic Arts. Based in part on this technology, it will make available on a commercial basis a digital color proofing system in 1989. Proofs from both machines will provide an exact reference for the user and will look, feel, and behave in a reproduction sense like the printed press sheet.

Ekman, C. Frederick

1989-04-01

453

Unconventional Color Superconductor  

E-print Network

Superfluidity or superconductivity with mismatched Fermi momenta appears in many systems such as charge neutral dense quark matter, asymmetric nuclear matter, and in imbalanced cold atomic gases. The mismatch plays the role of breaking the Cooper pairing, and the pair-breaking state cannot be properly described in the framework of standard BCS theory. I give a brief review on recent theoretical development in understanding unconventional color superconductivity, including gapless color superconductor, the chromomagnetic instabilities and the Higgs instability in the gapless phase. I also introduce a possible new framework for describing unconventional color superconductor.

Mei Huang

2007-01-31

454

Color universal design: analysis of color category dependency on color vision type (3)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the results of a study investigating the color perception characteristics of people with red-green color confusion. We believe that this is an important step towards achieving Color Universal Design. In Japan, approximately 5% of men and 0.2% of women have red-green confusion. The percentage for men is higher in Europe and the United States; up to 8% in some countries. Red-green confusion involves a perception of colors different from normal color vision. Colors are used as a means of disseminating clear information to people; however, it may be difficult to convey the correct information to people who have red-green confusion. Consequently, colors should be chosen that minimize accidents and that promote more effective communication. In a previous survey, we investigated color categories common to each color vision type, trichromat (C-type color vision), protan (P-type color vision) and deuteran (D-type color vision). In the present study, first, we conducted experiments in order to verify a previous survey of C-type color vision and P-type color vision. Next, we investigated color difference levels within "CIE 1976 L*a*b*" (the CIELAB uniform color space), where neither C-type nor P-type color vision causes accidents under certain conditions (rain maps/contour line levels and graph color legend levels). As a result, we propose a common chromaticity of colors that the two color vision types are able to categorize by means of color names common to C-type color vision. We also offer a proposal to explain perception characteristics of color differences with normal color vision and red-green confusion using the CIELAB uniform color space. This report is a follow-up to SPIE-IS & T / Vol. 7528 7528051-8 and SPIE-IS & T /vol. 7866 78660J-1-8.

Kojima, Natsuki; Ichihara, Yasuyo G.; Ikeda, Tomohiro; Kamachi, Miyuki G.; Ito, Kei

2012-01-01

455

Exterior colors of the traditional Northern Hungarian country houses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective to be achieved in my research work is to preserve the traditional coloring of the country-houses in the Northern Hungary, at least defined - measured the colors - and in photos. The coloring traditions of the country- houses are more than a hundred years old. These are based on people's impulsive color choice. The golden age of the vernacular ornamentation developed from the middle of the XIX.c. The places of the ornaments obviously first of all are on the streetfronts of the houses. Whitewashing the walls developed in a lot of villages because some settlements ordained it. Some signs shows that blue painting of the walls -- which was made first by blue mineral matters, later industrial paints - preceded or was in the same age as whitewashing. Still, we can say, that the tricom harmony of red, yellow and blue colors and the complimentary harmony of the yellow and blue colors are generally received on the original peasant-houses of the area. The lightness of these colors are average, but the saturation was intensive which was liked in the Middle Ages. You can find such houses nearly in every village. There are everywhere in the territory whitewashed houses with colored pedestal, too.

Karman, Zsuzsa

2002-06-01

456

Frontline: The Choice 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to the polls, many Americans have yet to make up their minds about who they will vote for next Tuesday in the Presidential race. This Website could help them decide. The companion site to a recent two-hour Frontline special on the backgrounds and character of Al Gore and George W. Bush, The Choice offers the entire broadcast in RealPlayer as well as significant additional materials. Among these are issue briefs from Frontline on the candidates's stands on issues such as abortion, health care, education, the environment, campaign finance reform, and others, as well as supplemental video interviews with friends and family of the candidates and a photo gallery of both candidates from birth to the present. A Tools for Choice feature invites visitors to take a 20-question quiz to find out which candidate, including Nader and Buchanan, better reflects their views and offers links to NPR and Newshour stories about the "Nader Factor," the candidates's economic plans, the decision process for undecideds in the battleground state of Ohio, and a review of the candidates's Websites, entitled WWW.Dull.

457

Of Colored Numbers and Numbered Colors: Interactive Processes in Grapheme-Color Synesthesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grapheme-color synesthetes experience a specific color when they see a grapheme but they do not report to perceive a grapheme when a color is presented. In this study, we investigate whether color can still evoke number-processes even when a vivid number experience is absent. We used color-number and number-color priming, both revealing faster responses in congruent compared to incongruent conditions.

Titia Gebuis; Tanja C. W. Nijboer; Maarten J. van der Smagt

2009-01-01

458

Color and Camouflage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video, Jonathan explores how animals in the ocean use color, not just for camouflage, but to stand out. Please see the accompanying lesson plan for educational objectives, discussion points and classroom activities.

Productions, Jonathan B.

2012-03-01

459

Colorful Convection Currents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students create artifical convection currents using hot and cold water, food coloring, and bottles. A materials list, instructions, and a brief explanation of the convection phenomenon are included.

460

Colors of the Sky.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the physical principles which result in various colors of the sky. Topics addressed include: blueness, mystical properties of water vapor, ozone, fluctuation theory of scattering, variation of purity and brightness, and red sunsets and sunrises. (DH)

Bohren, Craig F.; Fraser, Alistair B.

1985-01-01

461

Urine - abnormal color  

MedlinePLUS

... can be caused by: Beets, blackberries, or certain food colorings Hemolytic anemia Injury to the kidneys or urinary tract Medication Porphyria Urinary tract disorders that cause ... or drugs Bilirubin Medications, including methylene blue Urinary ...

462

Phoenix Color Targets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These images of three Phoenix color targets were taken on sols 1 and 2 by the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) on board the Phoenix lander. The bottom target was imaged in approximate color (SSI's red, green, and blue filters: 600, 530, and 480 nanometers), while the others were imaged with an infrared filter (750 nanometers). All of them will be imaged many times over the mission to monitor the color calibration of the camera. The two at the top show grains 2 to 3 millimeters in size that were likely lifted to the Phoenix deck during landing. Each of the large color chips on each target contains a strong magnet to protect the interior material from Mars' magnetic dust.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

463

Color Theory Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Color theory has been worked on by a number of individuals over the years, and those with an interest in the field include artists, scientists, and of course, interior designers. Janet Ford, a web designer in Minneapolis, has been interested in this field for over a decade, and her website explores some of the issues surrounding color theory in a way that is both accessible and interesting. On the site, visitors can learn about the basics of color, complementary colors, and concepts such as contrast, dominance, proportion, and intensity. The site is rounded out by a very good âResourcesâ area, which contains a bibliography of recommended works drawn from the past several decades.

Ford, Janet

464

THE COLOR GLASS CONDENSATE.  

SciTech Connect

The Color Glass Condensate is a state of high density gluonic matter which controls the high energy limit of hadronic interactions. Its properties are important for the initial conditions for matter produced at RHIC.

MCLERRAN,L.

2001-08-26

465

Hypergraph coloring complexes  

PubMed Central

The aim of this paper is to generalize the notion of the coloring complex of a graph to hypergraphs. We present three different interpretations of those complexesa purely combinatorial one and two geometric ones. It is shown, that most of the properties, which are known to be true for coloring complexes of graphs, break down in this more general setting, e.g.,CohenMacaulayness and partitionability. Nevertheless, we are able to provide bounds for the f- and h-vectors of those complexes which yield new bounds on chromatic polynomials of hypergraphs. Moreover, though it is proven that the coloring complex of a hypergraph has a wedge decomposition, we provide an example showing that in general this decomposition is not homotopy equivalent to a wedge of spheres. In addition, we can completely characterize those hypergraphs whose coloring complex is connected. PMID:23483700

Breuer, Felix; Dall, Aaron; Kubitzke, Martina

2012-01-01

466

Tooth - abnormal colors  

MedlinePLUS

... Questions may involve: When the abnormal coloration began Foods you have been eating Medications you are taking Personal and family health history Exposure to fluoride Oral care habits Other symptoms ...

467

The color of cheese  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If milk is white, what makes cheddar cheese orange? The cheese coloring comes from a pigment called bixin. Scientists are researching ways to produce bixin without having to harvest from the Bixa plant.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2003-06-27

468

Three Colors of Light  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have fun with additive mixing! Observe what happens when the three primary colors of light--red, green and blue--are mixed together, resulting in white light. This activity works best in a darkened room and requires adult supervision.

Museum Of Science And Industry, Chicago

2012-01-01

469

Effects of urbanization on plant flowering phenology: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of flowering and leafing phenology have dramatically increased during the last few decades because changes in plant\\u000a phenology can be indicative of possible effects of climate change at multiple scales. This article reviews the available literature\\u000a focusing on the effects of urbanization on flowering phenology. The literature of flowering phenology in urban environments\\u000a suggests that spring-blooming plants in a

Kaesha Neil; Jianguo Wu

2006-01-01

470

Transcriptomic analysis of flower development in wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox).  

PubMed

Wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox) is familiar as a garden plant and woody ornamental flower. On account of its unique flowering time and strong fragrance, it has a high ornamental and economic value. Despite a long history of human cultivation, our understanding of wintersweet genetics and molecular biology remains scant, reflecting a lack of basic genomic and transcriptomic data. In this study, we assembled three cDNA libraries, from three successive stages in flower development, designated as the flower bud with displayed petal, open flower and senescing flower stages. Using the Illumina RNA-Seq method, we obtained 21,412,928, 26,950,404, 24,912,954 qualified Illumina reads, respectively, for the three successive stages. The pooled reads from all three libraries were then assembled into 106,995 transcripts, 51,793 of which were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Of these annotated sequences, 32,649 and 21,893 transcripts were assigned to gene ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups, respectively. We could map 15,587 transcripts onto 312 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database. Based on these transcriptomic data, we obtained a large number of candidate genes that were differentially expressed at the open flower and senescing flower stages. An analysis of differentially expressed genes involved in plant hormone signal transduction pathways indicated that although flower opening and senescence may be independent of the ethylene signaling pathway in wintersweet, salicylic acid may be involved in the regulation of flower senescence. We also succeeded in isolating key genes of floral scent biosynthesis and proposed a biosynthetic pathway for monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in wintersweet flowers, based on the annotated sequences. This comprehensive transcriptomic analysis presents fundamental information on the genes and pathways which are involved in flower development in wintersweet. And our data provided a useful database for further research of wintersweet and other Calycanthaceae family plants. PMID:24489818

Liu, Daofeng; Sui, Shunzhao; Ma, Jing; Li, Zhineng; Guo, Yulong; Luo, Dengpan; Yang, Jianfeng; Li, Mingyang

2014-01-01

471

Transcriptomic Analysis of Flower Development in Wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox)  

PubMed Central

Wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox) is familiar as a garden plant and woody ornamental flower. On account of its unique flowering time and strong fragrance, it has a high ornamental and economic value. Despite a long history of human cultivation, our understanding of wintersweet genetics and molecular biology remains scant, reflecting a lack of basic genomic and transcriptomic data. In this study, we assembled three cDNA libraries, from three successive stages in flower development, designated as the flower bud with displayed petal, open flower and senescing flower stages. Using the Illumina RNA-Seq method, we obtained 21,412,928, 26,950,404, 24,912,954 qualified Illumina reads, respectively, for the three successive stages. The pooled reads from all three libraries were then assembled into 106,995 transcripts, 51,793 of which were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Of these annotated sequences, 32,649 and 21,893 transcripts were assigned to gene ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups, respectively. We could map 15,587 transcripts onto 312 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database. Based on these transcriptomic data, we obtained a large number of candidate genes that were differentially expressed at the open flower and senescing flower stages. An analysis of differentially expressed genes involved in plant hormone signal transduction pathways indicated that although flower opening and senescence may be independent of the ethylene signaling pathway in wintersweet, salicylic acid may be involved in the regulation of flower senescence. We also succeeded in isolating key genes of floral scent biosynthesis and proposed a biosynthetic pathway for monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in wintersweet flowers, based on the annotated sequences. This comprehensive transcriptomic analysis presents fundamental information on the genes and pathways which are involved in flower development in wintersweet. And our data provided a useful database for further research of wintersweet and other Calycanthaceae family plants. PMID:24489818

Liu, Daofeng; Sui, Shunzhao; Ma, Jing; Li, Zhineng; Guo, Yulong; Luo, Dengpan; Yang, Jianfeng; Li, Mingyang

2014-01-01

472

The Early Years: First Explorations in Flower Anatomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Help children explore the idea that there are many different flower shapes, all with the function of forming seeds, by allowing children to dissect flowers after drawing them, using their fingers or plastic picnic knives. As children take apart the flowers, they are involved in many parts of science investigations referred to in state and national standards, including counting, measuring, describing things and comparing with others' observations, and using tools such as magnifiers.

Ashbrook, Peggy

2008-04-01