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1

The Colors of Flowers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners perform an experiment to find out what determines a flower's color. Learners extract petal juice, use acid and base indicators, and observe chemical reactions to investigate how the amount of acid or base influences the color of a flower petal.

Science Friday

2010-01-01

2

Inheritance of pink flower color in Styrax japonicus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Most Styrax japonicus (Japanese snowbell) cultivars produce white flowers, but a few pink-flowered forms have been reported. ‘Pink Chimes’ is the most widely grown pink-flowered form and the only S. japonicus cultivar with deep pink flowers that hold their color even under hot growing conditions. ...

3

The Flavonoid Pathway Regulates the Petal Colors of Cotton Flower  

PubMed Central

Although biochemists and geneticists have studied the cotton flower for more than one century, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the dramatic color change that occurs during its short developmental life following blooming. Through the analysis of world cotton germplasms, we found that all of the flowers underwent color changes post-anthesis, but there is a diverse array of petal colors among cotton species, with cream, yellow and red colors dominating the color scheme. Genetic and biochemical analyses indicated that both the original cream and red colors and the color changes post-anthesis were related to flavonoid content. The anthocyanin content and the expression of biosynthesis genes were both increased from blooming to one day post-anthesis (DPA) when the flower was withering and undergoing abscission. Our results indicated that the color changes and flavonoid biosynthesis of cotton flowers were precisely controlled and genetically regulated. In addition, flavonol synthase (FLS) genes involved in flavonol biosynthesis showed specific expression at 11 am when the flowers were fully opened. The anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) genes, which are responsible for proanthocyanidins biosynthesis, showed the highest expression at 6 pm on 0 DPA, when the flowers were withered. Light showed primary, moderate and little effects on flavonol, anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthesis, respectively. Flavonol biosynthesis was in response to light exposure, while anthocyanin biosynthesis was involved in flower color changes. Further expression analysis of flavonoid genes in flowers of wild type and a flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) silenced line showed that the development of cotton flower color was controlled by a complex interaction between genes and light. These results present novel information regarding flavonoids metabolism and flower development. PMID:23951318

Tan, Jiafu; Wang, Maojun; Tu, Lili; Nie, Yichun; Lin, Yongjun; Zhang, Xianlong

2013-01-01

4

Aureusidin Synthase: A Polyphenol Oxidase Homolog Responsible for Flower Coloration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aurones are plant flavonoids that provide yellow color to the flowers of some popular ornamental plants, such as snapdragon and cosmos. In this study, we have identified an enzyme responsible for the synthesis of aurone from chalcones in the yellow snapdragon flower. The enzyme (aureusidin synthase) is a 39-kilodalton, copper-containing glycoprotein catalyzing the hydroxylation and\\/or oxidative cyclization of the precursor

T. Nakayama; K. Yonekura-Sakakibara; T. Sato; S. Kikuchi; Y. Fukui; M. Fukuchi-Mizutani; T. Ueda; M. Nakao; Y. Tanaka; T. Kusumi; T. Nishino

2000-01-01

5

Abstract It is usually assumed that the choice behavior of bees for floral colors is influenced by innate prefer-  

E-print Network

Abstract It is usually assumed that the choice behavior of bees for floral colors is influenced to rewarding flowers bees learn to as- sociate their colors with a reward. This learning process leads and over innate preferences. This work investigates how bumble bees (Bombus terrestris) chose among

Menzel, Randolf - Institut für Biologie

6

A study of extraction of petal region on flower picture using HSV color information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is one of useful and interesting applications to discriminate the kind of the flower or recognize the name of the flower, as example of retrieving flower database. As its contour line of the petal region of flower is useful for such problems, it is important to extract the precise region of the petal of a flower picture. In this paper, the method which extracts petal regions on a flower picture using HSV color information is proposed, such to discriminate the kind of the flower. The experiments show that the proposed method can extract petal regions at the success rate of about 90%, which is thought to be satisfied. In detail, the success rates of one-colored flower, plural-colored flower, and white flower are about 98%, 85%, and 83%, respectively.

Yanagihara, Yoshio; Nakayama, Ryo

2014-01-01

7

Priority of color over scent during flower visitation by adult Vanessa indica butterflies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most flower visitors innately prefer a particular color and scent, and use them as cues for flower recognition and selection. However, in most cases, since color and scent serve as a combined signal, not only does the preference for an individual cue, but also the preference hierarchy among different cues, influence their flower visitation. In the present study, we attempted

Hisashi Ômura; Keiichi Honda

2005-01-01

8

Pollinator-Mediated Selection on Flower Color, Flower Scent and Flower Morphology of Hemerocallis: Evidence from Genotyping Individual Pollen Grains On the Stigma  

PubMed Central

To trace the fate of individual pollen grains through pollination processes, we determined genotypes of single pollen grains deposited on Hemerocallis stigmas in an experimental mixed-species array. Hemerocallis fulva, pollinated by butterflies, has diurnal, reddish and unscented flowers, and H. citrina, pollinated by hawkmoths, has nocturnal, yellowish and sweet scent flowers. We observed pollinator visits to an experimental array of 24 H. fulva and 12 F2 hybrids between the two species (H. fulva and H. citrina) and collected stigmas after every trip bout of swallowtail butterflies or hawkmoths. We then measured selection by swallowtail butterflies or hawkmoths through male and female components of pollination success as determined by single pollen genotyping. As expected, swallowtail butterflies imposed selection on reddish color and weak scent: the number of outcross pollen grains acquired is a quadratic function of flower color with the maximum at reddish color, and the combined pollination success was maximal at weak scent (almost unrecognizable for human). This explains why H. fulva, with reddish flowers and no recognizable scent, is mainly pollinated by swallowtail butterflies. However, we found no evidence of hawkmoths-mediated selection on flower color or scent. Our findings do not support a hypothesis that yellow flower color and strong scent intensity, the distinctive floral characteristics of H. citrina, having evolved in adaptations to hawkmoths. We suggest that the key trait that triggers the evolution of nocturnal flowers is flowering time rather than flower color and scent. PMID:24376890

Hirota, Shun K.; Nitta, Kozue; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Kawakubo, Nobumitsu; Yasumoto, Akiko A.; Yahara, Tetsukazu

2013-01-01

9

Protocol for inducing flower color somaclonal variation in Torenia (Torenia fournieri Lind.).  

PubMed

White or light purple flower color Torenia (Torenia fournieri Lind.) varieties were successfully developed from the parental variety having violet flowers. This was accomplished by reducing Fe micronutrient in the culture media for the induction of in vitro flowering. The flower induction was highest in modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing ½ strength of macroelements, microelements, organic additives, and full Fe (M1) when compared to MS medium containing ½ strength of macronutrients, micronutrients, full Fe, and full organic additives (M2). The flower color was stable in two new Torenia varieties through three generations ex vitro. The results showed a wide range of somaclonal variation in flower colors; early flowering occurred in MS medium containing ½ strength of macroelements, microelements, Fe, and full strength of organic additives (M3). The selection of desirable somaclones and their micropropagation in subsequent generations led to the development of new and stable Torenia lines. PMID:23179719

Nhut, Duong Tan; Hai, Nguyen Thanh; Thu, Pham Thi Minh; Thi, Nguyen Ngoc; Hien, Truong Thi Dieu; Tuan, Tran Trong; Nam, Nguyen Ba; Huy, Nguyen Phuc; Chien, Hoang Xuan; Jain, Shri Mohan

2013-01-01

10

The effect of flower-like and non-flower-like visual properties on choice of unrewarding patterns by bumblebees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How do distinct visual stimuli help bumblebees discover flowers before they have experienced any reward outside of their nest? Two visual floral properties, type of a pattern (concentric vs radial) and its position on unrewarding artificial flowers (central vs peripheral on corolla), were manipulated in two experiments. Both visual properties showed significant effects on floral choice. When pitted against each other, pattern was more important than position. Experiment 1 shows a significant effect of concentric pattern position, and experiment 2 shows a significant preference towards radial patterns regardless of their position. These results show that the presence of markings at the center of a flower are not so important as the presence of markings that will direct bees there.

Orbán, Levente L.; Plowright, Catherine M. S.

2013-07-01

11

Usage patterns of blue flower color representation by Encyclopedia of Life content providers  

PubMed Central

Abstract Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) is a resource for community-driven biodiversity data, focusing on species information and images. Research into blue flowers to compare color ('blueness') at different elevations revealed that data content providers describe flowers as blue for any color hue in the range from blue to magenta. We propose methods for standardizing color values and color searching within EOL by means of an expanded color vocabulary and improved access to image metadata, in order to improve the research capacity of this valuable resource. PMID:25197234

Wright, Chantal-Marie

2014-01-01

12

The Genetic Basis of a Flower Color Polymorphism in the Common Morning Glory (Ipomoea purpurea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea) is highly polymorphic for flower color. Part of this phenotypic variation is due to allelic variation at the P locus. This locus determines whether flowers will be purple or pink, where purple is dominant to pink. We have determined that the anthocyanin biosynthetic gene flavonoid 39-hydroxylase (f39h) corresponds to the P locus. In the

R. A. Zufall; M. D. RAUSHER

2003-01-01

13

Bidirectional flower color and shape changes allow a second opportunity for pollination.  

PubMed

Flowers act as "sensory billboards" with multiple signals (color, morphology, odor) attracting and manipulating potential pollinators. Many use changing signals as indicators that visitation and/or pollination have occurred). Floral color change is commonly used to transmit this information (often correlated with reduced nectar reward) and can be specifically triggered by pollination or visitation. By retaining color-changed flowers, plants benefit from larger floral displays but also indicate at close range which flowers are still rewarding (and still unpollinated), so that visitors forage more efficiently. However, the legume Desmodium setigerum shows a unique ability, if inadequately pollinated, to reverse its flowers' color and shape changes. Single visits by bees mechanically depress the keel and expose stigma and anthers (termed "tripping"); visits also initiate a rapid color change from lilac to white and turquoise and a slower morphological change, the upper petal folding downwards over the reproductive parts. But flowers receiving insufficient pollen can partially reopen, re-exposing the stigma, with a further color change to deeper turquoise and/or lilac. Thus, most flowers achieve pollination from one bee visit, but those with inadequate pollen receipt can reverse their signals, earning a "second chance" by eliciting attention from other potential pollinators. PMID:19409788

Willmer, Pat; Stanley, Dara A; Steijven, Karin; Matthews, Iain M; Nuttman, Clive V

2009-06-01

14

Male mate choice selects for female coloration in a fish  

PubMed Central

Although sexual selection theory has proved successful in explaining a wide array of male ornaments, the function of ornaments occurring in females is largely unknown. Traditionally, female ornaments have been considered nonfunctional, being merely a genetically correlated response to selection for male ornamentation. However, this hypothesis is only relevant to species in which the ornament is basically the same in the two sexes. Alternatively, female ornaments may be influenced by selection acting directly on the females, either through female–female competition or male choice. We tested the latter hypothesis in mate-choice experiments with two-spotted gobies (Gobiusculus flavescens). In this small marine fish, females have bright yellow-orange bellies during the breeding season, a conspicuous trait that is not present in males. We conducted two aquarium experiments to test whether males preferred to mate with more colorful females. In the first experiment, males had a choice between two females that varied in natural coloration (and belly roundness). In the second experiment, we manipulated belly coloration and kept roundness constant. Males spent more time with colorful than with drab females in both experiments and also performed far more courtship displays toward colorful females. Our study provides experimental evidence that males prefer ornamented females in a fish that is not sex-role reversed, supporting the hypothesis that female ornamentation is sexually selected. PMID:11606720

Amundsen, Trond; Forsgren, Elisabet

2001-01-01

15

Comparing Distributions of Color Words: Pitfalls and Metric Choices  

PubMed Central

Computational methods have started playing a significant role in semantic analysis. One particularly accessible area for developing good computational methods for linguistic semantics is in color naming, where perceptual dissimilarity measures provide a geometric setting for the analyses. This setting has been studied first by Berlin & Kay in 1969, and then later on by a large data collection effort: the World Color Survey (WCS). From the WCS, a dataset on color naming by 2 616 speakers of 110 different languages is made available for further research. In the analysis of color naming from WCS, however, the choice of analysis method is an important factor of the analysis. We demonstrate concrete problems with the choice of metrics made in recent analyses of WCS data, and offer approaches for dealing with the problems we can identify. Picking a metric for the space of color naming distributions that ignores perceptual distances between colors assumes a decorrelated system, where strong spatial correlations in fact exist. We can demonstrate that the corresponding issues are significantly improved when using Earth Mover's Distance, or Quadratic -square Distance, and we can approximate these solutions with a kernel-based analysis method. PMID:24586580

Vejdemo-Johansson, Mikael; Vejdemo, Susanne; Ek, Carl-Henrik

2014-01-01

16

Comparing distributions of color words: pitfalls and metric choices.  

PubMed

Computational methods have started playing a significant role in semantic analysis. One particularly accessible area for developing good computational methods for linguistic semantics is in color naming, where perceptual dissimilarity measures provide a geometric setting for the analyses. This setting has been studied first by Berlin & Kay in 1969, and then later on by a large data collection effort: the World Color Survey (WCS). From the WCS, a dataset on color naming by 2 616 speakers of 110 different languages is made available for further research. In the analysis of color naming from WCS, however, the choice of analysis method is an important factor of the analysis. We demonstrate concrete problems with the choice of metrics made in recent analyses of WCS data, and offer approaches for dealing with the problems we can identify. Picking a metric for the space of color naming distributions that ignores perceptual distances between colors assumes a decorrelated system, where strong spatial correlations in fact exist. We can demonstrate that the corresponding issues are significantly improved when using Earth Mover's Distance, or Quadratic [Formula: see text]-square Distance, and we can approximate these solutions with a kernel-based analysis method. PMID:24586580

Vejdemo-Johansson, Mikael; Vejdemo, Susanne; Ek, Carl-Henrik

2014-01-01

17

Flower color as a model system for studies of plant evo-devo  

PubMed Central

Even though pigmentation traits have had substantial impacts on the field of animal evolutionary developmental biology, they have played only relatively minor roles in plant evo-devo. This is surprising given the often direct connection between flower color and fitness variation mediated through the effects of pollinators. At the same time, ecological and evolutionary genetic studies have utilized the molecular resources available for the anthocyanin pathway to generate several examples of the molecular basis of putatively adaptive transitions in flower color. Despite this opportunity to synthesize experimental approaches in ecology, evolution, and developmental biology, the investigation of many fundamental questions in evo-devo using this powerful model is only at its earliest stages. For example, a long-standing question is whether predictable genetic changes accompany the repeated evolution of a trait. Due to the conserved nature of the biochemical and regulatory control of anthocyanin biosynthesis, it has become possible to determine whether, and under what circumstances, different types of mutations responsible for flower color variation are preferentially targeted by natural selection. In addition, because plants use anthocyanin and related compounds in vegetative tissue for other important physiological functions, the identification of naturally occurring transitions from unpigmented to pigmented flowers provides the opportunity to examine the mechanisms by which regulatory networks are co-opted into new developmental domains. Here, we review what is known about the ecological and molecular basis of anthocyanic flower color transitions in natural systems, focusing on the evolutionary and developmental features involved. In doing so, we provide suggestions for future work on this trait and suggest that there is still much to be learned from the evolutionary development of flower color transitions in nature. PMID:23970892

Sobel, James M.; Streisfeld, Matthew A.

2013-01-01

18

Gene Loss and Parallel Evolution Contribute to Species Difference in Flower Color  

PubMed Central

Although the importance of regulatory and functional sequence evolution in generating species differences has been studied to some extent, much less is known about the role of other types of genomic changes, such as fluctuation in gene copy number. Here, we apply analyses of gene function and expression of anthocyanin pigment pathway genes, as well as cosegregation analyses in backcross populations, to examine the genetic changes involved in the shift from blue to red flowers in Andean Iochroma (Solanaceae). We demonstrate that deletion of a gene coding for an anthocyanin pathway enzyme was necessary for the transition to red floral pigmentation. The downregulation of a second pathway gene was also necessary for the novel flower color, and this regulatory pattern parallels the genetic change in the two other red-flowered species in the sister family Convolvulaceae in which flower color change has been examined genetically. Finally, we document a shift in enzymatic function at a third locus, but the importance of this change in the transition to red flowers depends on the exact order with which the three changes occurred. This study shows that gene inactivation or loss can be involved in the origin of phenotypic differences between species, thereby restricting the possibility of reversion to the ancestral state. It also demonstrates that parallel evolution of red flowers in three different species occurs via a common developmental/regulatory change but by mutations in different genes. PMID:21551271

Smith, Stacey D.; Rausher, Mark D.

2011-01-01

19

The cost of reinforcement: selection on flower color in allopatric populations of Phlox drummondii.  

PubMed

Reinforcement is the process by which increased reproductive isolation between incipient species evolves due to selection against maladaptive hybrids or costly hybrid mating. Reinforcement is predicted to create a pattern of greater prezygotic reproductive isolation in regions where the two species co-occur, sympatry, than in allopatry. Although most research on reinforcement focuses on understanding the evolutionary forces acting in sympatry, here we consider what prevents the alleles conferring greater reproductive isolation from spreading into allopatry. We investigate flower color divergence in the wildflower Phlox drummondii, which is caused by reinforcement in the regions sympatric with its congener Phlox cuspidata. Specifically, we performed common garden field experiments and pollinator observations to estimate selection acting on flower color variation in allopatry. We combine our estimates of maternal and paternal fitness using simulations and predict how flower color alleles migrating from sympatry will evolve in allopatry. Our results suggest that strong pollinator preference for the ancestral flower color in allopatry can maintain divergence between allopatric and sympatric populations. PMID:24739201

Hopkins, Robin; Rausher, Mark D

2014-05-01

20

Flower color variation: A model for the experimental study of evolution  

PubMed Central

We review the study of flower color polymorphisms in the morning glory as a model for the analysis of adaptation. The pathway involved in the determination of flower color phenotype is traced from the molecular and genetic levels to the phenotypic level. Many of the genes that determine the enzymatic components of flavonoid biosynthesis are redundant, but, despite this complexity, it is possible to associate discrete floral phenotypes with individual genes. An important finding is that almost all of the mutations that determine phenotypic differences are the result of transposon insertions. Thus, the flower color diversity seized on by early human domesticators of this plant is a consequence of the rich variety of mobile elements that reside in the morning glory genome. We then consider a long history of research aimed at uncovering the ecological fate of these various flower phenotypes in the southeastern U.S. A large body of work has shown that insect pollinators discriminate against white phenotypes when white flowers are rare in populations. Because the plant is self-compatible, pollinator bias causes an increase in self-fertilization in white maternal plants, which should lead to an increase in the frequency of white genes, according to modifier gene theory. Studies of geographical distributions indicate other, as yet undiscovered, disadvantages associated with the white phenotype. The ultimate goal of connecting ecology to molecular genetics through the medium of phenotype is yet to be attained, but this approach may represent a model for analyzing the translation between these two levels of biological organization. PMID:10860965

Clegg, Michael T.; Durbin, Mary L.

2000-01-01

21

Negative frequency-dependent selection maintains a dramatic flower color polymorphism in the rewardless orchid Dactylorhiza sambucina (L.) Soo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The orchid Dactylorhiza sambucina shows a stable and dramatic flower-color polymorphism, with both yellow- and purple-flow- ered individuals present in natural populations throughout the range of the species in Europe. The evolutionary significance of flower-color polymorphisms found in many rewardless orchid species has been discussed at length, but the mechanisms respon- sible for their maintenance remain unclear. Laboratory experi- ments

Luc D. B. Gigord; Mark R. Macnair; Ann Smithson

2001-01-01

22

Relationship between the Composition of Flavonoids and Flower Colors Variation in Tropical Water Lily (Nymphaea) Cultivars  

PubMed Central

Water lily, the member of the Nymphaeaceae family, is the symbol of Buddhism and Brahmanism in India. Despite its limited researches on flower color variations and formation mechanism, water lily has background of blue flowers and displays an exceptionally wide diversity of flower colors from purple, red, blue to yellow, in nature. In this study, 34 flavonoids were identified among 35 tropical cultivars by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode array detection (DAD) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Among them, four anthocyanins: delphinidin 3-O-rhamnosyl-5-O-galactoside (Dp3Rh5Ga), delphinidin 3-O-(2?-O-galloyl-6?-O-oxalyl-rhamnoside) (Dp3galloyl-oxalylRh), delphinidin 3-O-(6?-O-acetyl-?-glucopyranoside) (Dp3acetylG) and cyanidin 3- O-(2?-O-galloyl-galactopyranoside)-5-O-rhamnoside (Cy3galloylGa5Rh), one chalcone: chalcononaringenin 2?-O-galactoside (Chal2?Ga) and twelve flavonols: myricetin 7-O-rhamnosyl-(1?2)-rhamnoside (My7RhRh), quercetin 7-O-galactosyl-(1?2)-rhamnoside (Qu7GaRh), quercetin 7-O-galactoside (Qu7Ga), kaempferol 7-O-galactosyl-(1?2)-rhamnoside (Km7GaRh), myricetin 3-O-galactoside (My3Ga), kaempferol 7-O-galloylgalactosyl-(1?2)-rhamnoside (Km7galloylGaRh), myricetin 3-O-galloylrhamnoside (My3galloylRh), kaempferol 3-O-galactoside (Km3Ga), isorhamnetin 7-O-galactoside (Is7Ga), isorhamnetin 7-O-xyloside (Is7Xy), kaempferol 3-O-(3?-acetylrhamnoside) (Km3-3?acetylRh) and quercetin 3-O-acetylgalactoside (Qu3acetylGa) were identified in the petals of tropic water lily for the first time. Meanwhile a multivariate analysis was used to explore the relationship between pigments and flower color. By comparing, the cultivars which were detected delphinidin 3-galactoside (Dp3Ga) presented amaranth, and detected delphinidin 3?-galactoside (Dp3?Ga) presented blue. However, the derivatives of delphinidin and cyanidin were more complicated in red group. No anthocyanins were detected within white and yellow group. At the same time a possible flavonoid biosynthesis pathway of tropical water lily was presumed putatively. These studies will help to elucidate the evolution mechanism on the formation of flower colors and provide theoretical basis for outcross breeding and developing health care products from this plant. PMID:22485167

Zhu, Manlan; Zheng, Xuchen; Shu, Qingyan; Li, Hui; Zhong, Peixing; Zhang, Huijin; Xu, Yanjun; Wang, Lijin; Wang, Liangsheng

2012-01-01

23

Color Choice is Everything - Impacts Color makes to the Lighting Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When contracts are let out to design multiple systems in a vehicle, it is a challenge to maintain integration between system leads. Designers on niche systems, like lighting and control panel design, often get caught up in the challenge of designing the light source or visual interface and fail to include time in their schedule to work with system architects on how their lighting system will be integrated. Additionally, behavioral scientists, industrial designers, and materials engineers get caught up with the materials and look of the system, but often fail to consider how the selection of their materials could affect the certification or performance of electronic devices like lighting systems. Additionally, computer modeling of the system architecture often assumes a perfect environment without the clutter of actual human use (dirt, stowage, crowding). As a result, lighting systems, and backlit displays run the risk of being overdesigned or under designed. Engineers making the assumption that because they have no input or there is no requirement on work surface reflectance, make the assumption that they can t count on good material choices and thus may install more lighting than is necessary. While having more lights may seem better, for a vehicle that is trying to conserve power, more lights may not be a good option. On the other hand, designers who made the opposite assumption and designed a lighting system that only produced just enough light, often wind up with a system that did conserve power, but didn t produce enough light. These situations are exasperated when the system starts to be used and the models are not perfect anymore. The lack of coordination and iterative design not only can impact lighting levels within an environment, but also can affect color perception. This is because, if materials do not represent a gradation of white or black, the material unevenly absorbs and reflects light at different wavelengths of the visual spectrum. The lighting designer may have built a light that meets light spectra requirements, but the eventual light reaching the human user may not be the spectra of light architects intended, if materials near the light source change the spectrum just by how much color is absorbed or reflected. With the recent findings concerning Circadian rhythm, where the spectra of light is extremely important for addressing crew sleep and wake cycles, system architects should pay considerable attention on the impact material choices have in changing the light spectrum in an environment. This presentation will show examples of how material choices impact the resulting illuminance, color spectrum, and power usage of an illuminated space. Its goal is to encourage system designers and planners to use more care in development of requirements and the verification of systems intended for the human visual interface.

Clark, Toni A.

2012-01-01

24

Correlated changes in male plumage coloration and female mate choice in cardueline finches  

E-print Network

Correlated changes in male plumage coloration and female mate choice in cardueline finches GEOFFREY to male ornamental coloration in two species of cardueline finch (the American goldfinch, Carduelis elaborate, ancestral colour pattern. Previous research on another cardueline finch taxon (a subspecies

McGraw, Kevin J.

25

Mobility and Mode Choice of People of Color for Non-Work Travel  

Microsoft Academic Search

his paper takes a comprehensive look at mobility and mode choice behavior of people of color for their non-work travel. Travel by people of color is of strong policy interest because it is a growing and changing share of the total travel market and is expected to continue to grow much faster than overall travel well into the next century.

STEVEN E. POLZIN; XUEHAO CHU; JOEL R. REY

26

Altered trans-Regulatory Control of Gene Expression in Multiple Anthocyanin Genes Contributes to Adaptive Flower Color Evolution in Mimulus aurantiacus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fundamental goal in evolutionary biology is to identify the molecular changes responsible for adaptive evolution. In this study, we describe a genetic analysis to determine whether the molecular changes contributing to adaptive flower color divergence in Mimulus aurantiacus affect gene expression or enzymatic activity. High performance liquid chromatography analysis confirms that flower color differences are caused by the presence

Matthew A. Streisfeld; Mark D. Rausher

2009-01-01

27

Relative Role of Flower Color and Scent on Pollinator Attraction: Experimental Tests using F1 and F2 Hybrids of Daylily and Nightlily  

Microsoft Academic Search

The daylily (Hemerocallis fulva) and nightlily (H. citrina) are typical examples of a butterfly-pollination system and a hawkmoth-pollination system, respectively. H. fulva has diurnal, reddish or orange-colored flowers and is mainly pollinated by diurnal swallowtail butterflies. H. citrina has nocturnal, yellowish flowers with a sweet fragrance and is pollinated by nocturnal hawkmoths. We evaluated the relative roles of flower color

Shun K. Hirota; Kozue Nitta; Yuni Kim; Aya Kato; Nobumitsu Kawakubo; Akiko A. Yasumoto; Tetsukazu Yahara

2012-01-01

28

An experimental test of female choice relative to male structural coloration in eastern bluebirds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several experimental studies have shown that female birds use ornamental melanin and carotenoid plumage coloration as criteria\\u000a in mate choice. Whether females choose mates based on natural variation in structural coloration, however, has not been well\\u000a established. Male eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) display brilliant ultraviolet (UV)-blue plumage coloration on their head, back, wings, and tail, which is positively correlated\\u000a with

Mark Liu; Lynn Siefferman; Geoffrey E. Hill

2007-01-01

29

Relative Role of Flower Color and Scent on Pollinator Attraction: Experimental Tests using F1 and F2 Hybrids of Daylily and Nightlily  

PubMed Central

The daylily (Hemerocallis fulva) and nightlily (H. citrina) are typical examples of a butterfly-pollination system and a hawkmoth-pollination system, respectively. H. fulva has diurnal, reddish or orange-colored flowers and is mainly pollinated by diurnal swallowtail butterflies. H. citrina has nocturnal, yellowish flowers with a sweet fragrance and is pollinated by nocturnal hawkmoths. We evaluated the relative roles of flower color and scent on the evolutionary shift from a diurnally flowering ancestor to H. citrina. We conducted a series of experiments that mimic situations in which mutants differing in either flower color, floral scent or both appeared in a diurnally flowering population. An experimental array of 6×6 potted plants, mixed with 24 plants of H. fulva and 12 plants of either F1 or F2 hybrids, were placed in the field, and visitations of swallowtail butterflies and nocturnal hawkmoths were recorded with camcorders. Swallowtail butterflies preferentially visited reddish or orange-colored flowers and hawkmoths preferentially visited yellowish flowers. Neither swallowtail butterflies nor nocturnal hawkmoths showed significant preferences for overall scent emission. Our results suggest that mutations in flower color would be more relevant to the adaptive shift from a diurnally flowering ancestor to H. citrina than that in floral scent. PMID:22720016

Hirota, Shun K.; Nitta, Kozue; Kim, Yuni; Kato, Aya; Kawakubo, Nobumitsu; Yasumoto, Akiko A.; Yahara, Tetsukazu

2012-01-01

30

Rational choices for the wavelengths of a two color interferometer  

SciTech Connect

If in a two color interferometer for plasma density measurements, the two wavelengths are chosen to have a ratio that is a rational number, and if the signals from each of the wavelengths are multiplied in frequency by the appropriate integer of the rational number and then heterodyned together, the resultant signal will have all effects of component motion nulled out. A phase measurement of this signal will have only plasma density information in it. With CO{sub 2} lasers, it is possible to find suitable wavelength pairs which are close enough to rational numbers to produce an improvement of about 100 in density resolution, compared to standard two color interferometers.

Jobes, F.C.

1995-07-01

31

A Comparative Study on Visual Choice Reaction Time for Different Colors in Females  

PubMed Central

Reaction time is one of the important methods to study a person's central information processing speed and coordinated peripheral movement response. Visual choice reaction time is a type of reaction time and is very important for drivers, pilots, security guards, and so forth. Previous studies were mainly on simple reaction time and there are very few studies on visual choice reaction time. The aim of our study was to compare the visual choice reaction time for red, green, and yellow colors of 60 healthy undergraduate female volunteers. After giving adequate practice, visual choice reaction time was recorded for red, green, and yellow colors using reaction time machine (RTM 608, Medicaid, Chandigarh). Repeated measures of ANOVA and Bonferroni multiple comparison were used for analysis and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The results showed that both red and green had significantly less choice visual choice reaction (P values <0.0001 and 0.0002) when compared with yellow. This could be because individual color mental processing time for yellow color is more than red and green. PMID:25580294

Balakrishnan, Grrishma; Uppinakudru, Gurunandan; Girwar Singh, Gaur; Bangera, Shobith; Dutt Raghavendra, Aswini; Thangavel, Dinesh

2014-01-01

32

A comparative study on visual choice reaction time for different colors in females.  

PubMed

Reaction time is one of the important methods to study a person's central information processing speed and coordinated peripheral movement response. Visual choice reaction time is a type of reaction time and is very important for drivers, pilots, security guards, and so forth. Previous studies were mainly on simple reaction time and there are very few studies on visual choice reaction time. The aim of our study was to compare the visual choice reaction time for red, green, and yellow colors of 60 healthy undergraduate female volunteers. After giving adequate practice, visual choice reaction time was recorded for red, green, and yellow colors using reaction time machine (RTM 608, Medicaid, Chandigarh). Repeated measures of ANOVA and Bonferroni multiple comparison were used for analysis and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The results showed that both red and green had significantly less choice visual choice reaction (P values <0.0001 and 0.0002) when compared with yellow. This could be because individual color mental processing time for yellow color is more than red and green. PMID:25580294

Balakrishnan, Grrishma; Uppinakudru, Gurunandan; Girwar Singh, Gaur; Bangera, Shobith; Dutt Raghavendra, Aswini; Thangavel, Dinesh

2014-01-01

33

Flower Choice and Learning in Foraging Bumblebees: Effects of Variation in Nectar Volume and Concentration  

E-print Network

, measured as caloric value or `net energy gain,' and gen- erally develop preferences for more profitable is needed to assess the con- centration of a reward than its volume; and (iii) a smaller sample size may be needed for reliable estimation of profitability when flowers differ in concentration. Ethology 278

Thomson, James D.

34

Toothguide Training Box for dental color choice training.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of the Toothguide Training Box (TTB) for training dental students in color identification. The seventy-four volunteers who took part in the study attended a seminar on the Vita 3D Master Guide (MG) and the TTB system as well as a demonstration of the equipment before training began. At the end of the training they took the TTB final test. In addition, the participants were asked to recognize ten MG shade tabs in a blind manner before and after TTB training. The training times and percentages of correct answers were compared using the paired t-test. Variations in scores with training times and percentages of correct answers before and after training were compared using the ANOVA test. Training times between thirty-one and thirty-eight minutes provided a significantly higher mean score than training times of over thirty-eight minutes (p=0.036). The percentage of correct answers obtained with the MG before and after training shows a positive correlation. High TTB scores are associated with a greater number of correct answers in MG shade tab selection. PMID:21368260

Llena, Carmen; Forner, Leopoldo; Ferrari, Marco; Amengual, José; Llambes, Gonzalo; Lozano, Esther

2011-03-01

35

Vitamin C, flower color and ploidy variation of hybrids from a ploidy-unbalanced Actinidia interspecific cross and SSR characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seedlings derived from an Actinidia interspecific cross between the hexaploid Actinidia chinensis var. deliciosa ‘Jinkui’ and the diploid male A. eriantha × A. chinensis var. chinensis ‘Chaohong’ hybrid were analyzed using flow cytometry, SSR markers and phenotypic observations. The results show that the\\u000a leaf vitamin C content of this hybrid population has a mid-parent heterosis. Separation of flower color in the progeny

Lei Zhang; Zuozhou Li; Yanchang Wang; Zhengwang Jiang; Shengmei Wang; Hongwen Huang

2010-01-01

36

Race-Conscious Adoption Choices, Multiraciality, and Color-Blind Racial Ideology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of interview data illustrates how White adoptive parents rationalize choices regarding adoptee race. Parents who were willing to adopt children of color stressed unwillingness to adopt Black children. The preference for adopting multiracial children goes against the prevalent method of racial classification, hypodescent, by defining…

Sweeney, Kathryn A.

2013-01-01

37

Male mate choice based upon female nuptial coloration in the brook stickleback, Culaea inconstans (Kirtland)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female brook sticklebacks develop distinct nuptial coloration following ovulation. When given a choice between a gravid, uncoloured, inter-spawning interval female and a gravid, nuptially coloured female, male brook sticklebacks from two Ontario populations (1) approached the nuptially coloured female first, (2) directed their first courtship pummel towards her, and (3) spent significantly more time with her than with the inter-spawning

DEBORAH A. McLENNAN

1995-01-01

38

The evolution of wing color: male mate choice opposes adaptive wing color divergence in Colias butterflies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Correlated evolution of mate signals and mate preference may be constrained if selection pressures acting on mate preference differ from those acting on mate signals. In particular, opposing selection pressures may act on mate preference and signals when traits have sexual as well as nonsexual functions. In the butterfly Colias philodice eriphyle, divergent selection on wing color across an elevational

Jacintha Ellers; Carol L. Boggs

2003-01-01

39

Effect of salt stress in the regulation of anthocyanins and color of hibiscus flowers by digital image analysis.  

PubMed

The effect of salt stress (200 mM NaCl for 28 days) on physiological characteristics of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, such as abscisic acid (ABA) content, electrolyte leakage, and photochemical efficiency in leaves, and its influence on biomass production, anthocyanin composition, and color expression of flowers were evaluated. Salinity significantly increased electrolyte leakage and ABA content in leaves and reduced the flower fresh weight. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were lower in salt stress condition, compared to control. Moreover, salt stress negatively affected the content of anthocyanins (mainly cyanidin-3-sophoroside), which resulted in a visually perceptible loss of color. The detailed anthocyanin composition monitored by HPLC-DAD-MS and the color variations by digital image analysis due to salt stress showed that the effect was more noticeable at the basal portion of petals. A forward stepwise multiple regression was performed for predicting the content of anthocyanins from appearance characteristics obtained by image analysis, reaching R-square values up to 0.90. PMID:25005605

Trivellini, Alice; Gordillo, Belén; Rodríguez-Pulido, Francisco J; Borghesi, Eva; Ferrante, Antonio; Vernieri, Paolo; Quijada-Morín, Natalia; González-Miret, M Lourdes; Heredia, Francisco J

2014-07-23

40

The Genetic Basis of a Flower Color Polymorphism in the Common Morning  

E-print Network

to pink. We have determined that the anthocyanin biosynthetic gene flavonoid 39-hydroxylase (f39h of hydroxylation of the anthocyanidin core of the pigment: in purple-flowered genotypes, all anthocyanins anthocyanins are deriva- tives of

Rausher, Mark D.

41

The B gene of pea encodes a defective flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase, and confers pink flower color.  

PubMed

The inheritance of flower color in pea (Pisum sativum) has been studied for more than a century, but many of the genes corresponding to these classical loci remain unidentified. Anthocyanins are the main flower pigments in pea. These are generated via the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway, which has been studied in detail and is well conserved among higher plants. A previous proposal that the Clariroseus (B) gene of pea controls hydroxylation at the 5' position of the B ring of flavonoid precursors of the anthocyanins suggested to us that the gene encoding flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H), the enzyme that hydroxylates the 5' position of the B ring, was a good candidate for B. In order to test this hypothesis, we examined mutants generated by fast neutron bombardment. We found allelic pink-flowered b mutant lines that carried a variety of lesions in an F3'5'H gene, including complete gene deletions. The b mutants lacked glycosylated delphinidin and petunidin, the major pigments present in the progenitor purple-flowered wild-type pea. These results, combined with the finding that the F3'5'H gene cosegregates with b in a genetic mapping population, strongly support our hypothesis that the B gene of pea corresponds to a F3'5'H gene. The molecular characterization of genes involved in pigmentation in pea provides valuable anchor markers for comparative legume genomics and will help to identify differences in anthocyanin biosynthesis that lead to variation in pigmentation among legume species. PMID:22492867

Moreau, Carol; Ambrose, Mike J; Turner, Lynda; Hill, Lionel; Ellis, T H Noel; Hofer, Julie M I

2012-06-01

42

Does individual variation in fruit profitability override color differences in avian choice of red or white Ilex serrata fruits?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although avian color preferences have been studied and documented in controlled experiments, they have not been demonstrated\\u000a under natural conditions in most cases. We hypothesized that avian fruit choice reflects intraspecific variation in fruit\\u000a characteristics other than color, rather than fruit color differences. By planting one Ilex serrata Thunb. (red form) and one I. serrata forma leucocarpa Beissner (white form),

Kaori Tsujita; Shinjiro Sakai; Kihachiro Kikuzawa

2008-01-01

43

It is a delight to observe hummingbirds feeding from garden flowers. With striking colors,  

E-print Network

(Archilochus colubris). Notice the ruby-colored throat of the male (above). Hummingbirds in Your Backyard #12-throated Hummingbird (Archilochus colu- bris) that makes an occasional appearance. The Ruby-throated Hummingbird

Jawitz, James W.

44

The effect of male coloration on female mate choice in closely related Lake Victoria cichlids ( Haplochromis nyererei complex)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effect of male coloration on interspecific female mate choice in two closely related species of haplochromine\\u000a cichlids from Lake Victoria. The species differ primarily in male coloration. Males of one species are red, those of the other\\u000a are blue. We recorded the behavioral responses of females to males of both species in paired male trials under white

Ole Seehausen; Jacques J. M. van Alphen

1998-01-01

45

Anthocyanin components and mechanism for color development in blue Veronica flowers.  

PubMed

3-Di-p-coumaroylsophoroside-5-malonylglucoside and its demalonyl derivative were isolated from blue petals of Veronica persica Poiret. Blue, violet and purple cells coexist in the petal. These colors might be due to the varying pH of the vacuole between 5 and 7 unit. Only the demalonylated pigment was detected in the blue anthers. PMID:19809174

Mori, Mihoko; Kondo, Tadao; Yoshida, Kumi

2009-10-01

46

Do Flower Color and Floral Scent of Silene Species affect Host Preference of Hadena bicruris, a Seed-Eating Pollinator, under Field Conditions?  

PubMed Central

Specialization in plant–insect interactions is an important driver of evolutionary divergence; yet, plant traits mediating such interactions are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated how flower color and floral scent are related to seed predation by a seed-eating pollinator. We used field-transplanted recombinant F2 hybrids between Silene latifolia and S. dioica that are the preferred and alternative hosts of the moth Hadena bicruris and crosses within these species for comparison. We scored seed predation and flower color and analyzed floral scent. Pinker S. dioica-like flowers and emission of ?-pinene decreased the odds of seed predation while emission of benzyl acetate and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one increased the odds of seed predation. Emission of these compounds did not differ significantly between the two Silene species. Our results suggest that flower color plays an important role in the specific interaction of H. bicruris with its preferred host S. latifolia. The compounds ?-pinene, benzyl acetate and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one could represent non-specific deterrents and attractants to ovipositing moths. Alternatively, emission of these compounds could be related to herbivory or pathogen attack and act as a signal for host quality. This would weaken the predictability of the plant's costs and benefits of the interaction and act to maintain an imperfect degree of specialization. PMID:24905986

Page, Paul; Favre, Adrien; Schiestl, Florian P.; Karrenberg, Sophie

2014-01-01

47

Do flower color and floral scent of silene species affect host preference of Hadena bicruris, a seed-eating pollinator, under field conditions?  

PubMed

Specialization in plant-insect interactions is an important driver of evolutionary divergence; yet, plant traits mediating such interactions are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated how flower color and floral scent are related to seed predation by a seed-eating pollinator. We used field-transplanted recombinant F2 hybrids between Silene latifolia and S. dioica that are the preferred and alternative hosts of the moth Hadena bicruris and crosses within these species for comparison. We scored seed predation and flower color and analyzed floral scent. Pinker S. dioica-like flowers and emission of ?-pinene decreased the odds of seed predation while emission of benzyl acetate and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one increased the odds of seed predation. Emission of these compounds did not differ significantly between the two Silene species. Our results suggest that flower color plays an important role in the specific interaction of H. bicruris with its preferred host S. latifolia. The compounds ?-pinene, benzyl acetate and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one could represent non-specific deterrents and attractants to ovipositing moths. Alternatively, emission of these compounds could be related to herbivory or pathogen attack and act as a signal for host quality. This would weaken the predictability of the plant's costs and benefits of the interaction and act to maintain an imperfect degree of specialization. PMID:24905986

Page, Paul; Favre, Adrien; Schiestl, Florian P; Karrenberg, Sophie

2014-01-01

48

In the eyes of the beholders: Female choice and avian predation risk associated with an exaggerated male butterfly color.  

PubMed

Color ornaments are often viewed as products of countervailing sexual and natural selection, because more colorful, more attractive individuals may also be more conspicuous to predators. However, while evidence for such countervailing selection exists for vertebrate color ornaments (e.g., Trinidadian guppies), similar studies have yet to be reported in invertebrates. Indeed, evidence for female mate choice based on extant variation in male coloration is limited in invertebrates, and researchers have not explicitly asked whether more attractive males are also more conspicuous to predators. Here we provide evidence that more chromatic male cabbage white butterflies (Pieris rapae) are more attractive to females but should also be more conspicuous to predators. Female P. rapae preferentially mate with more chromatic males when choosing from populations of males with naturally occurring or commensurate, experimentally induced color variation. Mathematical models of female color vision confirm that females should be able to discriminate color differences between prospective mates. Further, chromatic and luminance contrast scores from female visual system models better predicted male mating success than did measures of male color derived more directly from color spectra. Last, models of avian color vision suggest that preferred males should be more conspicuous to known avian predators. PMID:20942644

Morehouse, Nathan I; Rutowski, Ronald L

2010-12-01

49

Sexual Dimorphism of Staminate- and Pistillate-Phase Flowers of Saponaria officinalis (Bouncing Bet) Affects Pollinator Behavior and Seed Set  

PubMed Central

The sequential separation of male and female function in flowers of dichogamous species allows for the evolution of differing morphologies that maximize fitness through seed siring and seed set. We examined staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of protandrous Saponaria officinalis for dimorphism in floral traits and their effects on pollinator attraction and seed set. Pistillate-phase flowers have larger petals, greater mass, and are pinker in color, but due to a shape change, pistillate-phase flowers have smaller corolla diameters than staminate-phase flowers. There was no difference in nectar volume or sugar content one day after anthesis, and minimal evidence for UV nectar guide patterns in staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers. When presented with choice arrays, pollinators discriminated against pistillate-phase flowers based on their pink color. Finally, in an experimental garden, in 2012 there was a negative correlation between seed set of an open-pollinated, emasculated flower and pinkness (as measured by reflectance spectrometry) of a pistillate-phase flower on the same plant in plots covered with shade cloth. In 2013, clones of genotypes chosen from the 2012 plants that produced pinker flowers had lower seed set than those from genotypes with paler flowers. Lower seed set of pink genotypes was found in open-pollinated and hand-pollinated flowers, indicating the lower seed set might be due to other differences between pink and pale genotypes in addition to pollinator discrimination against pink flowers. In conclusion, staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of S. officinalis are dimorphic in shape and color. Pollinators discriminate among flowers based on these differences, and individuals whose pistillate-phase flowers are most different in color from their staminate-phase flowers make fewer seeds. We suggest morphological studies of the two sex phases in dichogamous, hermaphroditic species can contribute to understanding the evolution of sexual dimorphism in plants without the confounding effects of genetic differences between separate male and female individuals. PMID:24690875

Davis, Sandra L.; Dudle, Dana A.; Nawrocki, Jenna R.; Freestone, Leah M.; Konieczny, Peter; Tobin, Michael B.; Britton, Michael M.

2014-01-01

50

Multisensory integration of colors and scents: insights from bees and flowers.  

PubMed

Karl von Frisch's studies of bees' color vision and chemical senses opened a window into the perceptual world of a species other than our own. A century of subsequent research on bees' visual and olfactory systems has developed along two productive but independent trajectories, leaving the questions of how and why bees use these two senses in concert largely unexplored. Given current interest in multimodal communication and recently discovered interplay between olfaction and vision in humans and Drosophila, understanding multisensory integration in bees is an opportunity to advance knowledge across fields. Using a classic ethological framework, we formulate proximate and ultimate perspectives on bees' use of multisensory stimuli. We discuss interactions between scent and color in the context of bee cognition and perception, focusing on mechanistic and functional approaches, and we highlight opportunities to further explore the development and evolution of multisensory integration. We argue that although the visual and olfactory worlds of bees are perhaps the best-studied of any non-human species, research focusing on the interactions between these two sensory modalities is vitally needed. PMID:24710696

Leonard, Anne S; Masek, Pavel

2014-06-01

51

Wide variety of flower-color and -shape mutants regenerated from leaf cultures irradiated with ion beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efficiency of ion-beam irradiation combined with tissue culture in obtaining floral mutants was investigated and compared with those of gamma rays and X-rays in carnation. Leaf segments of carnation plants in vitro were irradiated with the 220 MeV carbon ions, and cultured till the shoot regenerated. The carbon ion had the highest effect in reducing the regeneration frequency, and the RBE value with respect to gamma-rays was four. The higher mutation frequency and the wider mutation spectrum were obtained in plants irradiated with the carbon ions than low LET radiations. Three new carnation varieties developed by ion-beam irradiation were applied for the registration of the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. The results indicate that ion beam irradiation could induce wide variety of flower-color and -shape mutants, and that the combined method of ion-beam irradiation with tissue culture is useful to obtain the commercial varieties in a short time.

Okamura, M.; Yasuno, N.; Ohtsuka, M.; Tanaka, A.; Shikazono, N.; Hase, Y.

2003-05-01

52

Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using this project will expose you to concepts of color, color wheels, color combinations, and techniques of using color. Use the following links, follow the directions to define color terms, create color schemes and explore the use of color in creating designs. Color Scheme Generator 2 This site identifiesbasic terms related to color, using acolor wheeland making color schemes. Color Theory This site explains terminology of color. Color Theory Tutorial This site gives excellent examples and information about ...

Dent, Mrs.

2010-03-23

53

Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project will be used to teach the importance of color. Watch the following video about color Primary Colors Click on the link Exploration of Color. When you get into the website select the different colors to see what secondary colors are made from the primary colors. Review the following siteColor Theory and then design and paint a color wheel. ...

JoLene

2008-09-29

54

Reverted glutathione S-transferase-like genes that influence flower color intensity of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) originated from excision of a transposable element  

PubMed Central

A glutathione S-transferase-like gene, DcGSTF2, is responsible for carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower color intensity. Two defective genes, DcGSTF2mu with a nonsense mutation and DcGSTF2-dTac1 containing a transposable element dTac1, have been characterized in detail in this report. dTac1 is an active element that produces reverted functional genes by excision of the element. A pale-pink cultivar ‘Daisy’ carries both defective genes, whereas a spontaneous deep-colored mutant ‘Daisy-VPR’ lost the element from DcGSTF2-dTac1. This finding confirmed that dTac1 is active and that the resulting reverted gene, DcGSTF2rev1, missing the element is responsible for this color change. Crosses between the pale-colored cultivar ‘06-LA’ and a deep-colored cultivar ‘Spectrum’ produced segregating progeny. Only the deep-colored progeny had DcGSTF2rev2 derived from the ‘Spectrum’ parent, whereas progeny with pale-colored flowers had defective forms from both parents, DcGSTF2mu and DcGSTF2-dTac1. Thus, DcGSTF2rev2 had functional activity and likely originated from excision of dTac1 since there was a footprint sequence at the vacated site of the dTac1 insertion. Characterizing the DcGSTF2 genes in several cultivars revealed that the two functional genes, DcGSTF2rev1 and DcGSTF2rev2, have been used for some time in carnation breeding with the latter in use for more than half a century. PMID:24399917

Momose, Masaki; Itoh, Yoshio; Umemoto, Naoyuki; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

2013-01-01

55

Male-specific Iridescent Coloration in the Pipevine Swallowtail (Battus philenor) is Used in Mate Choice  

E-print Network

in butterflies have been experimentally evaluated using manipula- tions of male color for only seven species male coloration of a swallowtail butterfly, the Pipevine Swallowtail, Battus philenor. This speciesMale-specific Iridescent Coloration in the Pipevine Swallowtail (Battus philenor) is Used in Mate

Rutowski, Ronald L.

56

The Role of Coloration in Mate Choice and Sexual Interactions in Butterflies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major focus of behavioral ecology is to understand the evolutionary causes and consequences of sexual signaling. Great strides have been made, particularly in the realm of color-based signaling, using model organisms in target groups such as birds and fish. Such work has demonstrated how information regarding phenotypic and\\/or genetic quality may be encoded in various types of color ornaments,

Darrell J. Kemp; Ronald L. Rutowski

2011-01-01

57

FEMALE MATE CHOICE IN RELATION TO STRUCTURAL PLUMAGE COLORATION IN BLUE GROSBEAKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plumage blueness in Blue Grosbeaks (Passerina caerulea) is related to nutritional condition during molt, and bluer males hold larger territories with more food resources. We tested the hypothesis that females use male plumage brightness as a criterion in choosing mates. In a mate-choice aviary, we pre- sented females with a choice between males whose feathers were either brightened with blue

Barbara Ballentine; Geoffrey E. Hill

2003-01-01

58

Colored and White Sectors from Star-Patterned Petunia Flowers Display Differential Resistance to Corn Earworm and Cabbage Looper Larvae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Anthocyanins are likely a visual aid for attracting pollinators. However, there is also the possibility that anthocyanins are present in some flowers as defensive molecules protecting them from excess light, pathogens or herbivores. In this study, resistance due to anthocyanins from commercial pet...

59

Glowing Flowers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Student teams learn about engineering design of green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) and their use in medical research, including stem cell research. They simulate the use of GFPs by adding fluorescent dye to water and letting a flower or plant to transport the dye throughout its structure. Students apply their knowledge of GFPs to engineering applications in the medical, environmental and space exploration fields. Due to the fluorescing nature of the dye, plant life of any color, light or dark, can be used â unlike dyes that can only be seen in visible light.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

60

Color-Changing Carnations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners place cut flowers in colored water and observe how the flowers change. The flowers absorb the water through the stem and leaves. By watching the journey of harmless food coloring, learners can see all the places water goes in a plant.

Museum of Science and Industry, Chicago

2012-01-01

61

Hibiscus flower  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The flower is the reproductive structure of the angiosperms. Many angiosperms need insects to transfer pollen from one flower to the stigma of another. After fertilization, the ovules inside the flower develop into seeds. Enclosed seeds distinguish angiosperms from gymnosperms.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-13

62

COLORS!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project, students will learn about primary, secondary, and complementary colors. After exploring a few sites and participating in a few deep questions as a class, they will create an optical illusion using complimentary colors. Younger students who are learning this unit will need to do this activity with a parent or as a class with a teacher or aide. INTRODUCTION: Questions to discuss with the students: 1. What colors do you see in this room? 2. What are some jobs that use colors? An Artist? Decorator? ...

Sarah

2009-09-28

63

Quantitative Genetic Analyses of Male Color Pattern and Female Mate Choice in a Pair of Cichlid Fishes of Lake Malawi, East Africa  

PubMed Central

The traits involved in sexual selection, such as male secondary sexual characteristics and female mate choice, often co-evolve which can promote population differentiation. However, the genetic architecture of these phenotypes can influence their evolvability and thereby affect the divergence of species. The extraordinary diversity of East African cichlid fishes is often attributed to strong sexual selection and thus this system provides an excellent model to test predictions regarding the genetic architecture of sexually selected traits that contribute to reproductive isolation. In particular, theory predicts that rapid speciation is facilitated when male sexual traits and female mating preferences are controlled by a limited number of linked genes. However, few studies have examined the genetic basis of male secondary sexual traits and female mating preferences in cichlids and none have investigated the genetic architecture of both jointly. In this study, we artificially hybridized a pair of behaviorally isolated cichlid fishes from Lake Malawi and quantified both melanistic color pattern and female mate choice. We investigated the genetic architecture of both phenotypes using quantitative genetic analyses. Our results suggest that 1) many non-additively acting genetic factors influence melanistic color patterns, 2) female mate choice may be controlled by a minimum of 1–2 non-additive genetic factors, and 3) F2 female mate choice is not influenced by male courting effort. Furthermore, a joint analysis of color pattern and female mate choice indicates that the genes underlying these two traits are unlikely to be physically linked. These results suggest that reproductive isolation may evolve rapidly owing to the few genetic factors underlying female mate choice. Hence, female mate choice likely played an important role in the unparalleled speciation of East African cichlid fish. PMID:25494046

Ding, Baoqing; Daugherty, Daniel W.; Husemann, Martin; Chen, Ming; Howe, Aimee E.; Danley, Patrick D.

2014-01-01

64

Flower Powder  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity, learners use artificial bees and paper models of flowers to find out how bees transfer pollen from one flower to another. Background information discusses bees and other pollinators such as hummingbirds and butterflies, and describes the way bees move pollen around. Learners use pollen boards to pick up pollen from real flowers, make paper flowers to learn how real flowers are structured, use model flowers and artificial bees to act out bees visiting flowers for pollen, and use artificial bees to collect real pollen. Learners are asked to consider other kinds of pollination (wind, water or larger animals) and the impact on pollination when bees are killed with insect poison.

2012-06-26

65

Minority mating advantage of certain eye color mutants of Drosophila melanogaster . I. Multiple-choice and single-female tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alleles at the brown locus ofDrosophila melanogaster combined with homozygous scarlet provide a useful model to demonstrate minority advantage of males in mating. Heterozygotes with orange (O) eyes equal in numbers to homozygotes with red (R) eyes (10?10 in both sexes) displayed no bias favoring either eye color, but each eye color was favored when males occurred in a minority

Eliot B. Spiess; William A. Schwer

1978-01-01

66

Colorful Collage: Visions of Flowers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The technique of what people today call "collage" is not new. In Victorian times, elaborate art was created from bristly horsehair as a type of collage. The modern collage dates to the early 1900s when Picasso pasted newspaper on a drawing. In 1919 Karl Schwitters, a German artist, developed collage into an art form that was as important as…

Skophammer, Karen

2011-01-01

67

Flower Development  

PubMed Central

Flowers are the most complex structures of plants. Studies of Arabidopsis thaliana, which has typical eudicot flowers, have been fundamental in advancing the structural and molecular understanding of flower development. The main processes and stages of Arabidopsis flower development are summarized to provide a framework in which to interpret the detailed molecular genetic studies of genes assigned functions during flower development and is extended to recent genomics studies uncovering the key regulatory modules involved. Computational models have been used to study the concerted action and dynamics of the gene regulatory module that underlies patterning of the Arabidopsis inflorescence meristem and specification of the primordial cell types during early stages of flower development. This includes the gene combinations that specify sepal, petal, stamen and carpel identity, and genes that interact with them. As a dynamic gene regulatory network this module has been shown to converge to stable multigenic profiles that depend upon the overall network topology and are thus robust, which can explain the canalization of flower organ determination and the overall conservation of the basic flower plan among eudicots. Comparative and evolutionary approaches derived from Arabidopsis studies pave the way to studying the molecular basis of diverse floral morphologies. PMID:22303253

Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R.; Benítez, Mariana; Corvera-Poiré, Adriana; Chaos Cador, Álvaro; de Folter, Stefan; Gamboa de Buen, Alicia; Garay-Arroyo, Adriana; García-Ponce, Berenice; Jaimes-Miranda, Fabiola; Pérez-Ruiz, Rigoberto V.; Piñeyro-Nelson, Alma; Sánchez-Corrales, Yara E.

2010-01-01

68

College Major Choice for Students of Color: Toward a Model of Recruitment for the Agricultural Education Profession  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the reasons students, identifying as non-White, made the decision to pursue a career in agricultural education. This phenomenological study allowed the researchers to obtain the overall phenomenon of the thought processes that encompass decisions of students of color when selecting an…

Vincent, Stacy K.; Henry, Anna L.; Anderson, James C., II

2012-01-01

69

Flowers & Weeds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the topics and teaching strategies employed in an Issues in Biology course. Discusses flowers, plant breeding, potatoes and tomatoes, the chocolate tree, weeds, Arabidopis, gene transfers, and plant genes/human genes. Contains 22 references. (JRH)

Flannery, Maura C.

1996-01-01

70

The regulation of carotenoid pigmentation in flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carotenoids fulfill many processes that are essential for normal growth and development in plants, but they are also responsible for the breathtaking variety of red-to-yellow colors we see in flowers and fruits. Although such visual diversity helps to attract pollinators and encourages herbivores to distribute seeds, humans also benefit from the aesthetic properties of flowers and an entire floriculture industry

Changfu Zhu; Chao Bai; Georgina Sanahuja; Dawei Yuan; Gemma Farré; Shaista Naqvi; Lianxuan Shi; Teresa Capell; Paul Christou

2010-01-01

71

How colorful are fruits? Limited color diversity in fleshy fruits on local and global scales  

E-print Network

How colorful are fruits? Limited color diversity in fleshy fruits on local and global scales phylogeny, color gamut, color space, constraints, flower color, fruit color diversity, null model, seed disperser. Summary The colors of fleshy fruits are considered to be a signal to seed-dispersing animals

Schaefer, Martin

72

Colors, Colors?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity related to the famous "Stroop Effect," learners explore how words influence what we see and how the brain handles "mixed messages." Learners read colored words and are asked to say the color of the word, not what the word says. Learners use a data table to keep track of where they have trouble reading the colors. They analyze this data by answering questions and drawing conclusions. Learners can also take this test using the online version.

Susan Songstad

2009-01-01

73

[Literature study on species of honeysuckle flower].  

PubMed

Honeysuckle flower is a traditional herbal medicine in China Through systemically sorting and studying literature of Chinese medicine, this article pointed out that leech used by the traditional Chinese medicine in ancient time has the features of twist vine, slight purple stem with clothing hair; opposite growing leaves, ovule shape with clothing hair on both side; two flowers growing from one pedicel, labiate corolla with 3.2 cm longth, flower grows from white color to yellow color, each branch axil grows only one pedicel, the involucre is ovoid shape, and the flower season is from mid-March to mid-May. Among all species of caprifoliaceae, only Lonicera japonica Thunb. meets these botanic features. Therefore, L. japonica Thunb. should be used as the orthodox species of herbal honeysuckle flower. PMID:25244752

Zhang, Wei; Huang, Lu-Qi; Li, Chao-Xia; Li, Jian; Zhang, Rui-Xian

2014-06-01

74

Flowering and expression of flowering-related genes under long-day conditions with light-emitting diodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of light quality on flowering time were investigated in Gypsophila paniculata, which is a long-day cut flower, and with Arabidopsis under long-day conditions with light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Gypsophila paniculata plants were grown under natural daylight and flowering was controlled by long-day treatment with a weak LED light of a single\\u000a color in the night. Flowering was promoted not

Yoshimi Hori; Koji Nishidate; Manabu Nishiyama; Koki Kanahama; Yoshinori Kanayama

75

Flowers in Their Variety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the diversity of flowers with regard to the flower paintings of Pierre-Joseph Redoute, books about flowers, and research in genetic studies. Discusses gardening flowers and flowering strategies and criticizes the fact that biology education has moved steadily away from plants. (KHR)

Flannery, Maura C.

2002-01-01

76

Flower Face Face Face Face Flower Tree Tree Tree Tree  

E-print Network

Flower Flower Flower Flower Flower Face Face Face Face Flower Flower Tree Tree Tree Tree Flower Sign Face Face Face Face Sign Sign Building Sign Water Sky Tree Building Building Building Sign Book Building Building Building Sign Bird Bird Road Tree Grass Road Road Bird Sky #12;Bird Bird Water Bird Grass

Chen, Tsuhan

77

Infants' Recognition of Objects Using Canonical Color  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We explored infants' ability to recognize the canonical colors of daily objects, including two color-specific objects (human face and fruit) and a non-color-specific object (flower), by using a preferential looking technique. A total of 58 infants between 5 and 8 months of age were tested with a stimulus composed of two color pictures of an object…

Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Yang, Jiale; Otsuka, Yumiko; Dan, Ippeita; Masuda, Tomohiro; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.

2010-01-01

78

Discovering Flowers in a New Light  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children love observing seeds change as they germinate and grow into tall healthy plants, but how can teachers make investigating plants an exciting and immediate event? Microscopy might just be the answer. Although most students have seen flowers, not many have looked closely at their various structures or seen their colorful designs only…

McNall, Rebecca L.; Bell, Randy L.

2004-01-01

79

Color evaluation of selected Capsicums  

E-print Network

= aa + zb + aL This value does not describe the character of the color difference since it does not indicate the relative quantity and direction of lightness, hue, and saturation differences. When using the Gardner Color and Color Difference Meter.... ipipipipptplpipi This basic structure is what separates them from anthooyanins, another type of pigment which imparts red to blue coloring to fruits and flowers. Anthocyanins are glycosides which are formed by a reaction between a sugar and one of a group...

Nagle, Barbara Joyce

1977-01-01

80

Ancient Bisexual Flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossil flowers discovered in 94-million-year-old clays of the Dakota Formation in Nebraska are among the earliest known demonstrably bisexual flowers. The flowers are of medium size and have pentamerous whorls of clearly differentiated floral parts, petals alternate with the sepals, short stamens are borne opposite the petals, the carpels are fused, and a receptacular disk is present. The pollen is

James F. Basinger; David L. Dilcher

1984-01-01

81

Bee on flower  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bees visit flowering plants to collect nectar so they can store it as honey back at their hives. As a bee visits one flower after another, pollen collects on its entire body and especially on the legs. Bees help pollinate flowers while they collect nectar. This is a mutualistic behavior.

N/A N/A (None;)

2006-07-15

82

Flower Dissection Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, this site presents a simple Flower Dissection Lab using orchids and composite flowers. This pdf document contains the materials needed and instructions for the lab, as well as a worksheet for students to complete as they dissect their flower.

2007-12-27

83

Temperate flowering phenology.  

PubMed

Individuals, families, networks, and botanic gardens have made records of flowering times of a wide range of plant species over many years. These data can highlight year to year changes in seasonal events (phenology) and those datasets covering long periods draw interest for their perspective on plant responses to climate change. Temperate flowering phenology is complex, using environmental cues such as temperature and photoperiod to attune flowering to appropriate seasonal conditions. Here we give an overview of flowering phenological recording, outline different patterns of flowering, and look at the interpretation of datasets in relation to seasonal and climatic change. PMID:20576790

Tooke, Fiona; Battey, Nicholas H

2010-06-01

84

Scholarship Awards, College Choice, and Student Engagement in College Activities: A Study of High-Achieving Low-Income Students of Color  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using two-wave survey data on the 2001 cohort of the Gates Millennium Scholarship (GMS) recipients and comparison nonrecipients, this study examines the relationship between scholarship awards and student engagement in college activities. The results indicate that scholarship awards such as GMS directly affect student college choice decisions.…

Hu, Shouping

2010-01-01

85

Radio Frequency Identification and motion-sensitive video efficiently automate recording of unrewarded choice behavior by bumblebees.  

PubMed

We present two methods for observing bumblebee choice behavior in an enclosed testing space. The first method consists of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) readers built into artificial flowers that display various visual cues, and RFID tags (i.e., passive transponders) glued to the thorax of bumblebee workers. The novelty in our implementation is that RFID readers are built directly into artificial flowers that are capable of displaying several distinct visual properties such as color, pattern type, spatial frequency (i.e., "busyness" of the pattern), and symmetry (spatial frequency and symmetry were not manipulated in this experiment). Additionally, these visual displays in conjunction with the automated systems are capable of recording unrewarded and untrained choice behavior. The second method consists of recording choice behavior at artificial flowers using motion-sensitive high-definition camcorders. Bumblebees have number tags glued to their thoraces for unique identification. The advantage in this implementation over RFID is that in addition to observing landing behavior, alternate measures of preference such as hovering and antennation may also be observed. Both automation methods increase experimental control, and internal validity by allowing larger scale studies that take into account individual differences. External validity is also improved because bees can freely enter and exit the testing environment without constraints such as the availability of a research assistant on-site. Compared to human observation in real time, the automated methods are more cost-effective and possibly less error-prone. PMID:25489677

Orbán, Levente L; Plowright, Catherine M S

2014-01-01

86

Propagation and chimeral characterization of two reverse pinwheel flowering African violet clones  

E-print Network

Horticultural Society (Great Britain), 1986). There is a stable reversion of this flower color in which the light violet color (R. H. S. color 84C) This thesis follows the style and format of the Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science. A... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2002 Major Subject: Horticulture PROPAGATION AND CHIMERAL CHARACTERIZATION OF TWO REVERSE PINWHEEL FLOWERING AFRICAN VIOLET CLONES A Thesis by SHARON KATRINA SANDALL Submitted to Texas A&M University...

Sandall, Sharon Katrina

2012-06-07

87

Bee inside flower retrieving nectar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The bee obtains nectar from the flower to make into honey. During this process, the bee is covered in pollen that will be transferred to other flowers for reproduction. Both the bee and the flower benefit from this process.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2006-12-30

88

Identification of Mendel's White Flower Character  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe genetic regulation of flower color has been widely studied, notably as a character used by Mendel and his predecessors in the study of inheritance in pea.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe used the genome sequence of model legumes, together with their known synteny to the pea genome to identify candidate genes for the A and A2 loci in pea. We then used a

Roger P. Hellens; Carol Moreau; Kui Lin-Wang; Kathy E. Schwinn; Susan J. Thomson; Mark W. E. J. Fiers; Tonya J. Frew; Sarah R. Murray; Julie M. I. Hofer; Jeanne M. E. Jacobs; Kevin M. Davies; Andrew C. Allan; Abdelhafid Bendahmane; Clarice J. Coyne; Gail M. Timmerman-Vaughan; T. H. Noel Ellis

2010-01-01

89

Early Spring Flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

YOUR readers will doubtless have been observing how the mildness of the weather this winter, so far, has hastened on the spring flowers. I am inclined to think that some of the dates mentioned below have not often been paralleled. The dates in brackets, of the usual flowering times, have been taken from Babington's ``Manual of Botany'' and Johnson's ``Gardeners'

E. Armitage

1898-01-01

90

Flowering and expression of flowering-related genes under long-day conditions with light-emitting diodes.  

PubMed

The effects of light quality on flowering time were investigated in Gypsophila paniculata, which is a long-day cut flower, and with Arabidopsis under long-day conditions with light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Gypsophila paniculata plants were grown under natural daylight and flowering was controlled by long-day treatment with a weak LED light of a single color in the night. Flowering was promoted not by blue light, but by far-red light in G. paniculata, while flowering was promoted by both light colors in Arabidopsis. FT homologs of G. paniculata GpFT1 and GpFT2 were differentially expressed under long-day conditions with white light, suggesting that they play roles in flowering at different stages of reproductive development. GpFTs and FT gene expression was not induced by far-red light in G. paniculata or Arabidopsis. Instead, the expression of the SOC1 homolog of G. paniculata GpSOC1 and SOC1 was induced by far-red light in G. paniculata and Arabidopsis. Flowering was promoted by induction of FT and SOC1 expression with blue light in Arabidopsis, whereas GpFTs and GpSOC1 expression was low with blue light induction in G. paniculata. The relationship between flowering and the expression of FT and SOC1 in Arabidopsis was confirmed with ft and soc1 mutants. These results suggest that long-day conditions with far-red light promote flowering through SOC1 and its homologs, while the conditions with blue light do not promote flowering in G. paniculata, because of low expression of GpFTs and GpSOC1 in contrast to that in Arabidopsis. PMID:21431295

Hori, Yoshimi; Nishidate, Koji; Nishiyama, Manabu; Kanahama, Koki; Kanayama, Yoshinori

2011-08-01

91

Environmental factors affecting flowering of rice flower ( Ozothamnus diosmifolius, Vent.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice flower (Ozothamnus diosmifolius, Vent.), native to east Australia, is a spring flowering perennial shrub. It is a new cut flower plant, recently introduced into cultivation in Australia and in Israel. Its response to environmental conditions, which affect growth and flowering, are not yet known. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of growth temperature, photoperiod

Abraham H. Halevy; Eitan Shlomo; Michal Shvartz

2001-01-01

92

Color Theory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project will be used to teach the importance of color. Watch the following video about color Primary Colors Click on the link Exploration of Color. When you get into the website select the different colors to see what secondary colors are made from the primary colors. Review the following siteColor Theory and then design and paint a color wheel. ...

Mr. Sturgell

2009-12-02

93

Molecular characterization of mutations in white-flowered torenia plants  

PubMed Central

Background Torenia (Torenia fournieri Lind.) is a model plant increasingly exploited in studies in various disciplines, including plant engineering, biochemistry, physiology, and ecology. Additionally, cultivars with different flower colors have been bred and made commercially available. Flower color in torenia is mainly attributed to the accumulation of anthocyanins, but the molecular mechanisms inducing flower color mutations in torenia have not been well elucidated. In this study, we therefore attempted to identify the cause of white coloration in torenia by comparing the white-flowered cultivar Crown White (CrW) with Crown Violet (CrV), a violet-flowered variety. Results In an expression analysis, no flavanone 3-hydroxylase (TfF3H) transcript accumulation was detected in CrW petals. Sequence analyses revealed that a novel long terminal repeat (LTR)-type retrotransposable element, designated as TORE1 (Torenia retrotransposon 1), is inserted into the 5?-upstream region of the TfF3H gene in CrW. A transient expression assay using torenia F3H promoters with or without TORE1 insertion showed that the TORE1 insertion substantially suppressed F3H promoter activity, suggesting that this insertion is responsible for the absence of F3H transcripts in white petals. Furthermore, a transformation experiment demonstrated that the introduction of a foreign gentian F3H cDNA, GtF3H, into CrW was able to recover pink-flower pigmentation, indicating that F3H deficiency is indeed the cause of the colorless flower phenotype in CrW. Detailed sequence analysis also identified deletion mutations in flavonoid 3?-hydroxylase (TfF3?H) and flavonoid 3?,5?- hydroxylase (TfF3?5?H) genes, but these were not directly responsible for white coloration in this cultivar. Conclusions Taken together, a novel retrotransposable element, TORE1, inserted into the F3H 5?-upstream region is the cause of deficient F3H transcripts in white-flowered torenia, thereby leading to reduced petal anthocyanin levels. This is the first report of a retrotransposable element involved in flower color mutation in the genus Torenia. PMID:24694353

2014-01-01

94

Say it with flowers  

PubMed Central

The timing of reproduction is a critical determinant of fitness, especially in organisms inhabiting seasonal environments. Increasing evidence suggests that inter-plant communication plays important roles in plant functioning. Here, we tested the hypothesis that flowering coordination can involve communication between neighboring plants. We show that soil leachates from Brassica rapa plants growing under long-day conditions accelerated flowering and decreased allocation to vegetative organs in target plants growing under non-inductive short-day conditions. The results suggest that besides endogenous signaling and external abiotic cues, flowering timing may involve inter-plant communication, mediated by root exudates. The study of flowering communication is expected to illuminate neglected aspects of plant reproductive interactions and to provide novel opportunities for controlling the timing of plant reproduction in agricultural settings. PMID:24598343

Falik, Omer; Hoffmann, Ishay; Novoplansky, Ariel

2014-01-01

95

Stars and Flowers, Flowers and Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The author, a graduated from the Bucharest University (1964), actually living and working in Israel, concerns his book to variable stars and flowers, two domains of his interest. The analogies includes double stars, eclipsing double stars, eclipses, Big Bang. The book contains 34 chapters, each of which concerns various relations between astronomy and other sciences and pseudosciences such as Psychology, Religion, Geology, Computers and Astrology (to which the author is not an adherent). A special part of the book is dedicated to archeoastronomy and ethnoastronomy, as well as to history of astronomy. Between the main points of interest of these parts: ancient sanctuaries in Sarmizegetusa (Dacia), Stone Henge(UK) and other. The last chapter of the book is dedicated to flowers. The book is richly illustrated. It is designed for a wide circle of readers.

Minti, Hari

2012-12-01

96

Variation among highbush blueberry cultivars for frost tolerance of open flowers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Injury of open flowers often occurs in fruit crops by late winter or early spring frosts and can result in significant reduction in yield. In this study, freezing tolerance of open flowers of five highbush blueberry cultivars, ‘Bluecrop’, ‘Elliott’, ‘Hannah’s Choice’, ‘Murphy’, and ‘Weymouth’, was d...

97

Insects on flowers  

PubMed Central

Insect biodiversity peaks in tropical rainforest environments where a large but as yet unknown proportion of species are found in the canopy. While there has been a proliferation of insect biodiversity research undertaken in the rainforest canopy, most studies focus solely on insects that inhabit the foliage. In a recent paper, we examined the distribution of canopy insects across five microhabitats (mature leaves, new leaves, flowers, fruit and suspended dead wood) in an Australian tropical rainforest, showing that the density (per dry weight gram of microhabitat) of insects on flowers were ten to ten thousand times higher than on the leaves. Flowers also supported a much higher number of species than expected based on their contribution to total forest biomass. Elsewhere we show that most of these beetle species were specialized to flowers with little overlap in species composition between different canopy microhabitats. Here we expand our discussion of the implications of our results with respect to specialization and the generation of insect biodiversity in the rainforest canopy. Lastly, we identify future directions for research into the biodiversity and specialization of flower-visitors in complex tropical rainforests. PMID:23802039

Wardhaugh, Carl W.; Stork, Nigel E.; Edwards, Will; Grimbacher, Peter S.

2013-01-01

98

Etendue conserved color mixing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colored variable lighting is being used in more and more locations to enhance the "beauty" and "atmosphere" of interiors and exteriors. Lamps based on different colored LED are an obvious choice for such systems. The light from the differently colored LEDS needs to be mixed together very well because otherwise objects in the beam could create colored shadows. The difficulty is that we often want a lighting system where the light is collimated, where we can set the color of the beam, and where the lamp is as small as possible with an as small as possible exit diameter. This means that ideally we would like to mix colors etendue preserving. In this paper we discuss a new method of color mixing with dichroic color filters, which aims to achieve this. It is based on a special arrangement of the color filters, whereby the filters act as collimators. We have build prototypes and have done raytracing simulations. These show that we can indeed mix light of different wavelengths and make relatively small, color-variable, collimated, high brightness, light-sources. The advantages are an increase in brightness, a reduction/elimination of the colored shadows, and a small volume. This new method can, e.g., be used in spotlights, mini-beamers and logo projectors.

van Gorkom, R. P.; van As, M. A.; Verbeek, G. M.; Hoelen, C. G. A.; Alferink, R. G.; Mutsaers, C. A.; Cooijmans, H.

2007-09-01

99

8.G Flower Vases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: My sister’s birthday is in a few weeks and I would like to buy her a new vase to keep fresh flowers in her house. She often forgets to water her flower...

2012-05-01

100

Developmental Cell Flower Morphogenesis: Timing Is Key  

E-print Network

of the class E flower organ identity gene SEPALLATA3 (SEP3) during flower ontogeny. Preco- cious SEP3, including flowers. Flower ontogeny begins with specification of an incipient primordium at the flanks- entiation. What is known about the regula- tory events during flower ontogeny? Flower initiation starts

Plotkin, Joshua B.

101

Morning glory flower  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The stamens consist of pollen producing anthers (brown balls) attached to filaments (white stalks). Pollen is the equivalent of sperm. The carpels consist of stigmas (white tip) attached to styles (white stalks) at the center of the flower. The style leads to the ovary at the base of the carpel (which makes eggs).

Katie Hale (CSUF; Biological Sciences)

2007-06-19

102

Flowers of Wisteria floribunda  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Flowers of Wisteria floribunda, a well-known ornamental plant from East Asia. Wisteria has been placed in the predominantly tropical tribe Millettieae by its morphological similarities. However, molecular evidence suggests that Wisteria and a tropical genus Callerya are closer to many temperate herbaceous legumes but not to other Millettieae members.

Jer-Ming Hu (University of California; Section of Evolution and Ecology ADR; POSTAL)

2004-03-09

103

Color Blindness  

MedlinePLUS

... three color cone cells to determine our color perception. Color blindness can occur when one or more ... Anyone who experiences a significant change in color perception should see an ophthalmologist (Eye M.D.). Next ...

104

Vincent's Choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Official publication to accompany the important exhibition Vincent's Choice, Van Gogh's 'musee imaginaire' at the Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam marking the 150th anniversary of the artist's birth. The exhibition runs from 14th February to 15th June 2003.Thanks to van Gogh's correspondence, it has been possible to identify the works he knew and admired. The exhibition will assemble as many as

Chris Stolwijk

2003-01-01

105

Integrated Signaling in Flower Senescence  

PubMed Central

Flower senescence is the terminal phase of developmental processes that lead to the death of flower, which include, flower wilting, shedding of flower parts and fading of blossoms. Since it is a rapid process as compared to the senescence of other parts of the plant it therefore provides excellent model system for the study of senescence. During flower senescence, developmental and environmental stimuli enhance the upregulation of catabolic processes causing breakdown and remobilization of cellular constituents. Ethylene is well known to play regulatory role in ethylene-sensitive flowers while in ethylene-insensitive flowers abscisic acid (ABA) is thought to be primary regulator. Subsequent to perception of flower senescence signal, death of petals is accompanied by the loss of membrane permeability, increase in oxidative and decreased level of protective enzymes. The last stages of senescence involve the loss of of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), proteins and organelles, which is achieved by activation of several nucleases, proteases and wall modifiers. Environmental stimuli such as pollination, drought and other stresses also affect senescence by hormonal imbalance. In this article we have covered the following: perception mechanism and specificity of flower senescence, flower senescence-associated events, like degradation of cell membranes, proteins and nucleic acids, environmental/external factors affecting senescence, like pollination and abiotic stress, hormonal and non-hormonal regulation of flower/petal senescence and finally the senescence associated genes (SAGs) have also been described. PMID:19517004

Tripathi, Siddharth Kaushal

2007-01-01

106

Flower drinking and masculinity in Taiwan.  

PubMed

This study explores the role of the hostess club culture in the creation and maintenance of masculinity in Taiwan. The article focuses on flower drinking (the consumption of alcohol in bars, often integrated with prostitution), which is a common practice in Taiwan. Data were obtained from 58 in-depth interviews with men from a variety of occupations and social backgrounds (mean age = 38.50, SD = 11.00) and 73 questionnaires administered to soldiers (mean age = 21.00, SD = 1.10). Findings indicated that demonstration of skill at flower drinking and facility with the related social etiquette are important channels for male bonding that were central to the mid- to upper-class participants' professional development. Flower drinking also provided a method of discriminating men from other men through their choices of why and where to go and how to behave while there. Specific ways that Taiwanese masculinity differs from Western and from Japanese masculinity, and support for the continuing relevance of the traditional Confucian ideal of masculinity, wen-wu, are discussed. PMID:19763998

Bedford, Olwen; Hwang, Shu-Ling

2011-01-01

107

Flowering and Pollination  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This pdf includes background information and an activity for engaging students in the processes that occur during pollination, fertilization and seed development in Fast Plants. Pollination is explained and illustrated and an activity for students to pollinate Fast Plants and observe reproductive development is described.In participating in this activity students will:? understand flowering as the sexually mature stage of plant development;? understand where and how ovules and pollen originate (male and female gamete formation);? explore the parts of the flower and the role that each part plays in reproduction;? observe the reproductive tissues of plants, including pollen and stigma, under magnification;? understand the interdependent coevolutionary relationship of bees and brassicas; and? begin the process of reproduction in their Fast Plants by performing a pollination using a beestick,? setting the stage for future developmental events.

The Wisconsin Fast Plants Program

108

Colored Shadows  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this optics activity, learners discover that not all shadows are black. Learners explore human color perception by using colored lights to make additive color mixtures. With three colored lights, learners can make shadows of seven different colors. They can also explore how to make shadows of individual colors, including black. Use this activity demonstrate how receptors in the retina of the eye work to see color.

Exploratorium, The

2011-10-31

109

Conservatory of Flowers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

San Francisco's Conservatory of Flowers at Golden Gate Park has recently reopened to the public after a year of renovation to repair damage from a devastating windstorm in 1995. The Conservatory's attractive Web site offers a virtual tour, highlighting the Conservatory's "dramatic new exhibits and horticultural displays." Visitors can also learn more about featured plants (palms, at the moment), check out an online photo gallery, and learn all about the restoration of Conservatory buildings and displays.

110

Flowering in time: genes controlling photoperiodic flowering in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed Central

Successful sexual reproduction in plants relies upon the strict coordination of flowering time with favourable seasons of the year. One of the most important seasonal cues for the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) is day length. Genes influencing flowering time in Arabidopsis have been isolated, some of which are involved in the perception and signalling of day length. This review discusses recent progress that has been made in understanding how Arabidopsis integrates environmental and internal signals to ensure a sharp transition to flowering and new insights on the role of the circadian clock in controlling the expression of genes that promote flowering in response to day length. PMID:11710983

Putterill, J

2001-01-01

111

Color Thieves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This story poses a challenge to its readers to solve the mystery of light, color, and how we see color. It also asks the question, "What is color?" After investigating the phenomena of color and color filters, students should realize that light is made up

Richard Konicek-Moran

2009-04-01

112

Carpet choices for healthcare facilities.  

PubMed

Carpet as a floorcovering choice in healthcare facilities is increasing in popularity. Technological advances have made carpet an appropriate choice not only for common areas and offices, but also for patient rooms. Color options are diverse, and can serve patient care concerns, such as orientation for patients with Alzheimer's disease. Carpet performance is related to its density, construction and fiber/yarn type. Many carpet types have antimicrobial treatments to aid in reducing the propagation and spread of microorganisms. Carpet is also tested for emissions of volatile organic compounds based on industry criteria. Proper maintenance is essential to maintaining carpet appearance and useful life. PMID:10134936

Wise, K O

1994-07-01

113

The influence of pigmentation patterning on bumblebee foraging from flowers of Antirrhinum majus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Patterns of pigmentation overlying the petal vasculature are common in flowering plants and have been postulated to play a role in pollinator attraction. Previous studies report that such venation patterning is significantly more attractive to bee foragers in the field than ivory or white flowers without veins. To dissect the ways in which venation patterning of pigment can influence bumblebee behaviour, we investigated the response of flower-naïve individuals of Bombus terrestris to veined, ivory and red near-isogenic lines of Antirrhinum majus. We find that red venation shifts flower colour slightly, although the ivory background is the dominant colour. Bees were readily able to discriminate between ivory and veined flowers under differential conditioning but showed no innate preference when presented with a free choice of rewarding ivory and veined flowers. In contrast, both ivory and veined flowers were selected significantly more often than were red flowers. We conclude that advantages conferred by venation patterning might stem from bees learning of their use as nectar guides, rather than from any innate preference for striped flowers.

Whitney, Heather M.; Milne, Georgina; Rands, Sean A.; Vignolini, Silvia; Martin, Cathie; Glover, Beverley J.

2013-03-01

114

Insect odour perception: recognition of odour components by flower foraging moths  

PubMed Central

Odours emitted by flowers are complex blends of volatile compounds. These odours are learnt by flower-visiting insect species, improving their recognition of rewarding flowers and thus foraging efficiency. We investigated the flexibility of floral odour learning by testing whether adult moths recognize single compounds common to flowers on which they forage. Dual choice preference tests on Helicoverpa armigera moths allowed free flying moths to forage on one of three flower species; Argyranthemum frutescens (federation daisy), Cajanus cajan (pigeonpea) or Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). Results showed that, (i) a benzenoid (phenylacetaldehyde) and a monoterpene (linalool) were subsequently recognized after visits to flowers that emitted these volatile constituents, (ii) in a preference test, other monoterpenes in the flowers' odour did not affect the moths' ability to recognize the monoterpene linalool and (iii) relative preferences for two volatiles changed after foraging experience on a single flower species that emitted both volatiles. The importance of using free flying insects and real flowers to understand the mechanisms involved in floral odour learning in nature are discussed in the context of our findings. PMID:16846910

Cunningham, John Paul; Moore, Chris J; Zalucki, Myron P; Cribb, Bronwen W

2006-01-01

115

Color realism and color science  

E-print Network

The target article is an attempt to make some progress on the problem of color realism. Are objects colored? And what is the nature of the color properties? We defend the view that physical objects (for instance, tomatoes, ...

Byrne, Alex

116

Stop and Paint the Flowers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an art lesson where students used watercolors to paint a flower bouquet arranged in a vase. Explains that the students viewed examples of flower bouquets by artists such as Vincent van Gogh and Odilon Redon. Discusses, in detail, the process of creating the artworks. (CMK)

Phillips, Shelley

2002-01-01

117

Flowers: More Than Just Pretty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Children love to look at flowers but few are inclined to become familiar with the structure and function of the flower. This story is aimed at providing some motivation for children to learn about one of the most important evolutionary developments in the

Richard Konicek-Moran

2009-04-01

118

Early Flower Development in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early development of the flower of Arabidopsis thaliana is described from initiation until the opening of the bud. The morphogenesis, growth rate, and surface structure of floral organs were recorded in detail using scanning electron microscopy. Flower development has been divided into 12 stages using a series of landmark events. Stage 1 begins with the initiation of a floral

David R. Smyth; John L. Bowman; Elliot M. Meyerowitz

1990-01-01

119

Color Addition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is inquiry in that students do not know how colors are combined. They likely think that the primary colors are red, yellow, and blue. In fact, there are two sets of primary colors: red, green, and blue for additive colors of light, and cyan,

Horton, Michael

2009-05-30

120

Color Blindness  

MedlinePLUS

... looking at a lush green lawn or a red rose in full bloom. If you have a color vision defect, you may see these colors differently than most people. There are three main kinds of color vision defects. Red-green color vision defects are the most common. ...

121

Color Mixing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an online activity where learners can virtually mix different colors of light or paint (you can switch between them) and see how the colors combine. It demonstrates how millions of colors are created on computer monitors and TVs, and in art and printing. Learners can try to match a given target color ("Mix to Match"), or simply play around with mixtures ("Mix for Fun"). Background information explains how light is additive (more colors tends towards white), whereas paint absorbs color and is subtractive (more colors tends towards black). There's also information about how the human eye works.

Industry, Oregon M.

2002-01-01

122

Color distance derived from a receptor model of color vision in the honeybee  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model calculation is presented for investigating the domain between the two well-examined fields of color vision in the bee, i.e. choice behavior with respect to color stimuli, and photoreceptor physiology. Based on the properties of the receptors, the model explains quantitatively the results obtained in color discrimination experiments. The model predicts curved lines which connect the loci of most

W. Backhaus; R. Menzel

1987-01-01

123

Identification of Mendel's White Flower Character  

PubMed Central

Background The genetic regulation of flower color has been widely studied, notably as a character used by Mendel and his predecessors in the study of inheritance in pea. Methodology/Principal Findings We used the genome sequence of model legumes, together with their known synteny to the pea genome to identify candidate genes for the A and A2 loci in pea. We then used a combination of genetic mapping, fast neutron mutant analysis, allelic diversity, transcript quantification and transient expression complementation studies to confirm the identity of the candidates. Conclusions/Significance We have identified the pea genes A and A2. A is the factor determining anthocyanin pigmentation in pea that was used by Gregor Mendel 150 years ago in his study of inheritance. The A gene encodes a bHLH transcription factor. The white flowered mutant allele most likely used by Mendel is a simple G to A transition in a splice donor site that leads to a mis-spliced mRNA with a premature stop codon, and we have identified a second rare mutant allele. The A2 gene encodes a WD40 protein that is part of an evolutionarily conserved regulatory complex. PMID:20949001

Hellens, Roger P.; Moreau, Carol; Lin-Wang, Kui; Schwinn, Kathy E.; Thomson, Susan J.; Fiers, Mark W. E. J.; Frew, Tonya J.; Murray, Sarah R.; Hofer, Julie M. I.; Jacobs, Jeanne M. E.; Davies, Kevin M.; Allan, Andrew C.; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Coyne, Clarice J.; Timmerman-Vaughan, Gail M.; Ellis, T. H. Noel

2010-01-01

124

Epigenetic regulation of photoperiodic flowering  

PubMed Central

The cytidine analogue 5-azacytidine, which causes DNA demethylation, induced flowering in the non-vernalization-requiring plants Perilla frutescens var. crispa, Silene armeria and Pharbitis nil (synonym Ipomoea nil) under non-inductive photoperiodic conditions, suggesting that the expression of photoperiodic flowering-related genes is regulated epigenetically by DNA methylation. The flowering state induced by DNA demethylation was not heritable. Changes in the genome-wide methylation state were examined by methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis. This analysis indicated that the DNA methylation state was altered by the photoperiodic condition. DNA demethylation also induced dwarfism, and the induced dwarfism of P. frutescens was heritable. PMID:20448475

2010-01-01

125

Down the tube: pollinators, predators, and the evolution of flower shape in the alpine skypilot, Polemonium viscosum.  

PubMed

We address how a conflict between pollinator attraction and avoidance of flower predation influences the evolution of flower shape in Polemonium viscosum. Flower shape in P. viscosum is the product of an isometric relationship between genetically correlated (rA = 0.70) corolla flare and length. Bumblebee pollinators preferentially visit flowers that are more flared and have longer tubes, selecting for a funnel-shaped corolla. However, flower shape also influences nectar-foraging ants that sever the style at its point of attachment to the ovary. Surveys of ant damage show that plants having flowers with flared, short corollas are most vulnerable to ant predation. Consistent with this result, the ratio of corolla length to flare is significantly greater in a krummholz (high predation risk) population than in a tundra (low predation risk) population. To explicitly test whether the evolution of a better defended flower would exact a cost in pollination, we created tubular flowers by constricting the corolla during development. Performance of tubular flowers and natural controls was compared for defensive and attractive functions. In choice trials, ants entered control flowers significantly more often than tubular ones, confirming that the evolution of tubular flowers would reduce the risk of predation. However, in a bumblebee-pollinated population, tubular flowers received significantly less pollen and set fewer seeds than controls. A fitness model incorporating these data predicts that in the absence of the genetic correlation between corolla length and flare, intermittent selection for defense could allow tubular flowers to spread in the krummholz population. However, in the tundra, where bumblebees account for nearly all pollination, the model predicts that tubular flowers should always confer a fitness disadvantage. PMID:11761057

Galen, C; Cuba, J

2001-10-01

126

Quark flowers and quark condensation  

E-print Network

The mass formation of basic vector mesons up to energy 3.8 GeV was studied. The investigation was done with using of jet mechanism, the harmonic quarks and neutral colorless groups. The stage of a whole string with a zero interquark momentum was considered as a separate stage of hadronization. The quark group with rest mass equal to experimental mass of hadron was named as flower. The quark flowers were found for $\\rho$, $\\omega$, $\\varphi$, $\\psi/J$, $\\psi$(2S) and $\\psi$(3770). The flower mass of $\\psi$(2S) was defined as 3686.09 MeV. The structure of quark flowers is symmetrical and consists from an aura and central part. The formation of quark shells, the condensation of quarks on the quark leaders, the floral schemes of kaon formation and complicated hadronization are discussed.

Oleg A. Teplov

2009-06-09

127

Farming and Gardening: Flower Garden  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will Explore the relationships between fractions and percents while creating a grid of different flowers in a garden. Then the students will combine this grid with others to apply the concepts to a larger set.

PBS TeacherSource - Math

2010-01-01

128

Seeing Color  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colors are powerful tools for engaging children, from the youngest years onward. We hang brightly patterned mobiles above their cribs and help them learn the names of colors as they begin to record their own ideas in pictures and words. Colors can also open the door to an invisible world of electromagnetism, even when children can barely imagine…

Texley, Juliana

2005-01-01

129

Color Terms and Color Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In their lead articles, both Kowalski and Zimiles (2006) and O'Hanlon and Roberson (2006) declare a general relation between color term knowledge and the ability to conceptually represent color. Kowalski and Zimiles, in particular, argue for a priority for the conceptual representation in color term acquisition. The complexities of the interaction…

Davidoff, Jules

2006-01-01

130

Color Categories and Color Appearance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…

Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

2012-01-01

131

????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????? Effects of sucrose pulsing on petal color stability and vase life of 'King of Siam' water lily (Nymphaea spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water lily (Nympaea spp.) distribute a wild range of colorful flowers although having problems of floral color changes and shorten vase life. Additions of exogenous sucrose into 'King of Siam' water lily flower by pulsing in different sucrose concentrations for 4 hours prior to dipping in distilled water and storage under 25±2ºC were studied on the physiological changes, petal color

M. Sriyong; M. Buanong; S. Photchanachai; A. Uthairatanakij; N. N. Chansilpa; C. Wongs-Aree

132

The Role of Mate Choice in Biocomputation: Sexual Selection as a Process of Search, Optimization and Diversification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most successful, complex, and numerous species on earth are composed of sexually- reproducing animals and flowering plants. Both groups typically undergo a form of sexual selection through mate choice: animals are selected by conspecifics and flowering plants are selected by heterospecific pollinators. This suggests that the evolution of phenotypic complexity and diversity may be driven not simply by natural-selective

Geoffrey F. Miller; Peter M. Todd

1995-01-01

133

Are Fruit Colors Adapted to Consumer Vision and Birds Equally Efficient in Detecting Colorful Signals?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproduction in plants often requires animal vectors. Fruit and flower colors are traditionally viewed as an adaptation to facilitate detection for pollinators and seed dispersers. This long- standing hypothesis predicts that fruits are easier to detect against their own leaves compared with those of different species. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing the chromatic contrasts between 130 bird-dispersed fruits and

H. Martin Schaefer; Veronika Schaefer; Misha Vorobyev

2007-01-01

134

Color Image Segmentation Approach to Monitor Flowering in Lesquerella  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lesquerella (Lesquerella fendleri) seed soil has been proposed as a petroleum alternative in the production of many industrial products, but several crop management and breeding challenges must be addressed before the crop will be grown commercially. Lesquerella canopies characteristically exhibit ...

135

Color image segmentation approach to monitor flowering in lesquerella  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lesquerella (Lesquerella fendleri) seed soil has been proposed as a petroleum alternative in the production of many industrial products, but several crop management and breeding challenges must be addressed before the crop will be grown commercially. Lesquerella canopies characteristically exhibit ...

136

Synchronous Pulsed Flowering: Analysis of the Flowering Phenology in Juncus (Juncaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The timing of flowering within and among individuals is of fundamental biological importance because of its influence on total seed production and, ultimately, fitness. Traditional descriptive parameters of flowering phenology focus on onset and duration of flowering and on synchrony among individuals. These parameters do not adequately account for variability in flowering across the flowering duration at individual and population level. This study aims to analyse the flowering phenology of wind-pollinated Juncus species that has been described as temporally highly variable (‘pulsed flowering’). Additionally, an attempt is made to identify proximate environmental factors that may cue the flowering, and ultimate causes for the flowering patterns are discussed. Methods Flowering phenology was examined in populations of nine Juncus species by estimating flowering synchrony and by using the coefficient of variation (CV) to describe the temporal variation in flowering on individual and population levels. Phenologies were compared with null models to test which patterns deviate from random flowering. All parameters assessed were compared with each other and the performance of the parameters in response to randomization and varying synchrony was evaluated using a model population. Flowering patterns were correlated with temperature and humidity. Key Results Most flowering patterns of Juncus were best described as synchronous pulsed flowering, characterized as population-wide concerted flowering events separated by days with no or few open flowers. Flowering synchrony and variability differed from a random pattern in most cases. CV values in combination with a measure of synchrony differentiated among flowering patterns found. Synchrony varied among species and was independent from variability in flowering. Neither temperature nor humidity could be determined as potential cues for the flowering pulses. Conclusions The results indicate that selection may act independently on synchrony and variability. We propose that synchronous pulsed flowering in Juncus is an evolved strategy that provides selective benefits by increasing outcrossing and by spreading the risk of reproductive failure. PMID:17881343

Michalski, Stefan G.; Durka, Walter

2007-01-01

137

Preference for oddity: uniqueness heuristic or hierarchical choice process?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional economic theories assume decision makers in multialternative choice tasks “assign” a value to each option and\\u000a then express rational preferences. Here, I report an apparent violation of such rationality in gray jays (Perisoreus canadensis). I tested the jays’ preference in a quaternary choice task where three options were the same color and the fourth option\\u000a was a different color.

Thomas A. Waite

2008-01-01

138

Wild bees preferentially visit Rudbeckia flower heads with exaggerated ultraviolet absorbing floral guides.  

PubMed

Here, we report on the results of an experimental study that assessed the visitation frequency of wild bees to conspecific flowers with different sized floral guides. UV absorbent floral guides are ubiquitous in Angiosperms, yet surprisingly little is known about conspecific variation in these guides and very few studies have evaluated pollinator response to UV guide manipulation. This is true despite our rich understanding about learning and color preferences in bees. Historical dogma indicates that flower color serves as an important long-range visual signal allowing pollinators to detect the flowers, while floral guides function as close-range signals that direct pollinators to a reward. We initiated the work presented here by first assessing the population level variation in UV absorbent floral guides for conspecific flowers. We assessed two species, Rudbeckia hirta and R. fulgida. We then used several petal cut-and-paste experiments to test whether UV floral guides can also function to attract visitors. We manipulated floral guide size and evaluated visitation frequency. In all experiments, pollinator visitation rates were clearly associated with floral guide size. Diminished floral guides recruited relatively few insect visitors. Exaggerated floral guides recruited more visitors than smaller or average sized guides. Thus, UV floral guides play an important role in pollinator recruitment and in determining the relative attractiveness of conspecific flower heads. Consideration of floral guides is therefore important when evaluating the overall conspicuousness of flower heads relative to background coloration. This work raises the issue of whether floral guides serve as honest indicators of reward, since guide size varies in nature for conspecific flowers at the same developmental stage and since preferences for larger guides were found. To our knowledge, these are the first cut-and-paste experiments conducted to examine whether UV absorbent floral guides affect visitation rates and pollinator preference. PMID:24585774

Horth, Lisa; Campbell, Laura; Bray, Rebecca

2014-01-01

139

Wild bees preferentially visit Rudbeckia flower heads with exaggerated ultraviolet absorbing floral guides  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Here, we report on the results of an experimental study that assessed the visitation frequency of wild bees to conspecific flowers with different sized floral guides. UV absorbent floral guides are ubiquitous in Angiosperms, yet surprisingly little is known about conspecific variation in these guides and very few studies have evaluated pollinator response to UV guide manipulation. This is true despite our rich understanding about learning and color preferences in bees. Historical dogma indicates that flower color serves as an important long-range visual signal allowing pollinators to detect the flowers, while floral guides function as close-range signals that direct pollinators to a reward. We initiated the work presented here by first assessing the population level variation in UV absorbent floral guides for conspecific flowers. We assessed two species, Rudbeckia hirta and R. fulgida. We then used several petal cut-and-paste experiments to test whether UV floral guides can also function to attract visitors. We manipulated floral guide size and evaluated visitation frequency. In all experiments, pollinator visitation rates were clearly associated with floral guide size. Diminished floral guides recruited relatively few insect visitors. Exaggerated floral guides recruited more visitors than smaller or average sized guides. Thus, UV floral guides play an important role in pollinator recruitment and in determining the relative attractiveness of conspecific flower heads. Consideration of floral guides is therefore important when evaluating the overall conspicuousness of flower heads relative to background coloration. This work raises the issue of whether floral guides serve as honest indicators of reward, since guide size varies in nature for conspecific flowers at the same developmental stage and since preferences for larger guides were found. To our knowledge, these are the first cut-and-paste experiments conducted to examine whether UV absorbent floral guides affect visitation rates and pollinator preference. PMID:24585774

Horth, Lisa; Campbell, Laura; Bray, Rebecca

2014-01-01

140

The Preference for Symmetry in Flower-Naive and Not-so-Naive Bumblebees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Truly flower-naive bumblebees, with no prior rewarded experience for visits on any visual patterns outside the colony, were tested for their choice of bilaterally symmetric over asymmetric patterns in a radial-arm maze. No preference for symmetry was found. Prior training with rewarded black and white disks did, however, lead to a significant…

Plowright, C. M. S.; Evans, S. A.; Leung, J. Chew; Collin, C. A.

2011-01-01

141

How Bumblebees First Find Flowers: Habituation of Visual Pattern Preferences, Spontaneous Recovery, and Dishabituation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments examined the exploratory behaviour of flower-naive bumblebees. Bees were tested four times in a 12-arm radial arm maze in which they never received reward. Patterned and unpatterned stimuli were presented at the end of each corridor and the choices of the bees were recorded. We examined the effects of two variables, time and the…

Plowright, C. M. S.; Simonds, V. M.; Butler, M. A.

2006-01-01

142

Oriental hybrid lily Sorbonne homologue of LhMYB12 regulates anthocyanin biosyntheses in flower tepals and tepal spots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthocyanins are the predominant visible pigments in flowers of the Oriental hybrid lily (Lilium spp.). To understand the regulatory mechanisms of flower coloration in this hybrid lily, full-length cDNA of the R2R3-MYB gene, LhSorMYB12, was isolated from anthocyanin-accumulating tepals of the cultivar Sorbonne. The deduced amino acid sequence of LhSorMYB12 showed 85% (209\\/246) identity, including a gap of seven amino

Masumi Yamagishi

143

Inflorescence and flower development in the Hedychieae (Zingiberaceae): Hedychium  

E-print Network

Inflorescence and flower development in the Hedychieae (Zingiberaceae): Hedychium Bruce K. Kirchoff flower. Key words: flower development, flower structure, inflorescence, stamen, Zingiberaceae, structure de la fleur, inflorescence, Ctamine, Zingiberaceae, Hedychium. [Traduit par la ridaction

Kirchoff, Bruce K.

144

Bee getting nectar from a lavender flower  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The bee obtains nectar to take to the beehive where it is used to make honey and provide food for the bees. The bee grabs pollen and transfers it to other flowers. This is called pollination and helps flowers reproduce.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

2006-12-30

145

Biology, Ecology and Management of Flowering Rush  

E-print Network

Biology, Ecology and Management of Flowering Rush (Butomus umbellatus) Hilary Parkinson, Research-50 flowers grow in a round cluster that resembles an umbrella, hence the species name umbellatus (cover

Maxwell, Bruce D.

146

6, 1105111066, 2006 Sea ice, frost flowers  

E-print Network

ACPD 6, 11051­11066, 2006 Sea ice, frost flowers and halogen activation W. R. Simpson et al. Title than potential frost flower contact W. R. Simpson 1 , D. Carlson 1 , G. Hoenninger 1,2, , T. A. Douglas. Simpson (ffwrs@uaf.edu) 11051 #12;ACPD 6, 11051­11066, 2006 Sea ice, frost flowers and halogen activation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

147

Spring Flowers: Harvest of a Sensitive Eye  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defining and describing a number of spring flowers, this article includes illustrations and explanations that demonstrate "art and science are born of the same parents". The flowers discussed are skunk cabbage, bellwort, spring beauty, jack-in-the-pulpit, Solomon's seal, wild geranium, showy orchids, moccasin flower, bluets, apple, and Indian…

Clark, Eloise; Levin, Ted

1978-01-01

148

Rufous hummingbirds' memory for flower location  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used an open-field analogue of the eight-arm radial maze to investigate the role of memory during foraging by rufous hummingbirds, Selasphorus rufus. In experiment 1 we attempted to determine whether birds were able to differentiate between flowers of the same type that they had emptied, flowers they had seen but not visited and new flowers. They were tested with

Jonathan Henderson; T. Andrew Hurly; Susan D. Healy

2001-01-01

149

Pyrethrum flowers and pyrethroid insecticides.  

PubMed Central

The natural pyrethrins from the daisy-like flower, Tanacetum or Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium, are nonpersistent insecticides of low toxicity to mammals. Synthetic analogs or pyrethroids, evolved from the natural compounds by successive isosteric modifications, are more potent and stable and are the newest important class of crop protection chemicals. They retain many of the favorable properties of the pyrethrins. PMID:6993201

Casida, J E

1980-01-01

150

Choosing Choice: School Choice in International Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chapters in this book originated as papers for a conference, School Choice and Educational Change, held in March 2000 at Michigan State University. An introductory chapter provides a comparative analysis of the lessons learned from international experience with school-choice policies, based on a review of case studies in several countries. The…

Plank, David N., Ed.; Sykes, Gary, Ed.

151

Color appearance in stereoscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between color and lightness appearance and the perception of depth has been studied since a while in the field of perceptual psychology and psycho-physiology. It has been found that depth perception affects the final object color and lightness appearance. In the stereoscopy research field, many studies have been proposed on human physiological effects, considering e.g. geometry, motion sickness, etc., but few has been done considering lightness and color information. Goal of this paper is to realize some preliminar experiments in Virtual Reality in order to determine the effects of depth perception on object color and lightness appearance. We have created a virtual test scene with a simple 3D simultaneous contrast configuration. We have created three different versions of this scene, each with different choices of relative positions and apparent size of the objects. We have collected the perceptual responses of several users after the observation of the test scene in the Virtual Theater of the University of Milan, a VR immersive installation characterized by a semi-cylindrical screen that covers 120° of horizontal field of view from an observation distance of 3.5 m. We present a description of the experiments setup and procedure, and we discuss the obtained results.

Gadia, Davide; Rizzi, Alessandro; Bonanomi, Cristian; Marini, Daniele; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

2011-03-01

152

Changing Colors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this challenge, learners have to figure out in what order to combine five solutions to change the color from clear, to yellow, to blue, and back to clear. The five chemicals are potassium iodide, sodium thiosulfate, sodium hypochlorite (Clorox bleach), soluble starch (Niagara spray starch), and water. The color changes indicate chemical reactions, and the lesson includes some background information about the reactions that create different colors. Suggestions are given for guiding learners through systematic approaches to making the different combinations and observing the results, and for explaining to different age groups what happens when the solutions are combined.

Sciencenter

2014-08-27

153

Color Sudoku  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The popular sudoku puzzles use numbers, but the game could played with any set of 9 different objects! In this activity (on pages 56-75 of PDF), learners use objects of different colors (marbles, paper squares, candies) to solve sudoku puzzles. Learners use logic to determine where all the colored objects go, given the different colors already present on the puzzles. The activity includes suggestions for how to approach the game, 10 puzzles of varying size and difficulty, and links to websites with many more puzzles.

Omsi

2008-01-01

154

Color Theory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site, developed by the Exploratories Project at Brown University, provides a series of applets to help users understand the various concepts in Color Theory. In the combined Color Mixing applet, undergraduate and high school students can discover how lights, paints, and filters interact. Users can learn about the properties of incoming light, frequency, and reflectance. The site also provides activities for metamers, Triple Cell Response, and much more. Anyone seeking help with color concepts will benefit from this educational, interactive Web site.

155

Preferred color spaces for white balancing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When rendering photographs, it is important to preserve the gray tones despite variations in the ambient illumination. When the illuminant is known, white balancing that preserves gray tones can be performed in many different color spaces; the choice of color space influences the renderings of other colors. In this behavioral study, we ask whether users have a preference for the color space where white balancing is performed. Subjects compared images using a white balancing transformation that preserved gray tones, but the transformation was applied in one of the four different color spaces: XYZ, Bradford, a camera sensor RGB and the sharpened RGB color space. We used six scenes types (four portraits, fruit, and toys) acquired under three calibrated illumination environments (fluorescent, tungsten, and flash). For all subjects, transformations applied in XYZ and sharpened RGB were preferred to those applied in Bradford and device color space.

Xiao, Feng; Farrell, Joyce E.; DiCarlo, Jeffrey M.; Wandell, Brian A.

2003-05-01

156

Effects of shade on plant growth and flower quality in the herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.).  

PubMed

Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) is an important ornamental plant used in urban green spaces, but little is known about whether it can grow in a shaded environment or understory. In this study, effects of shade on plant growth and flower quality in the herbaceous peony were investigated. The results showed that P. lactiflora morphology parameters, including plant height, leaf number, stem diameter, branch number, node number and plant crown width, were higher in plants grown with sun exposure compared to those grown in shade; however, opposite trends were observed for the top and middle leaf areas of the plant. Compared with sun exposure, shade decreased P. lactiflora photosynthetic capacity, light saturation point (LSP) and light compensation point (LCP) and increased the apparent quantum yield (AQY), mainly due to declined stomatal conduction (Gs). These decreases caused the soluble sugar, soluble protein and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents to decline, which led to delayed initial flowering date, prolonged flowering time, reduced flower fresh weight, increased flower diameter and faded flower color. Through cloning and expression analysis of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, we determined that the fading of flower color was the result of reduced anthocyanin content, which was caused by the combined activity of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes and, in particular, of the upstream phenylalanine ammonialyase gene (PlPAL) and chalcone synthase gene (PlCHS). These results could provide us with a theoretical basis for further application of P. lactiflora in the greening of urban spaces and an understanding of the mechanisms behind the changes induced by shade. PMID:23141672

Zhao, Daqiu; Hao, Zhaojun; Tao, Jun

2012-12-01

157

Catching ants with honey: an experimental test of distraction and satiation as alternative modes of escape from flower-damaging ants.  

PubMed

According to the distraction hypothesis, extrafloral nectaries (EFN) evolved under selection to entice ants away from floral nectaries, reducing ant-mediated damage to flowers and/or interference with pollinators. Predator-satiation, through production of nectar in either surplus flowers or EFN, provides an alternative mechanism for reducing the impact of ants as flower visitors. I tested these two hypotheses by experimentally adding EFN to flowering plants of the alpine wildflower, Polemonium viscosum, and by surveying the relationship between ant visitation and nectary number in nature. Plants of P. viscosum lack EFN and experience flower damage by ants of Formica neorufibarbus gelida. Ant behavior was compared on plants with five flowers and three experimental EFN and on controls with equal floral display, but no EFN. Addition of EFN increased flower visitation by ants. The effect of EFN on flower visitation did not depend on proximity of EFN to flowers or attractiveness of EFN to ants. Findings suggest that ants perceived patch quality on a whole plant basis, rather than responding to EFN and flowers as distinct nectar patches. Ant visitation did not keep pace with nectary number in nature. The relationship between ant visitation and nectary number per plant was weak and shallow as predicted under satiation. Ant foraging choices on experimental inflorescences showed that ants bypass flowers avoided by earlier ants, enhancing probability of escape via satiation. Results do not support the idea that EFN evolve to reduce flower visitation by ants, but show instead that nectar in surplus flowers can satiate ants and reduce their negative impacts on flower function and integrity. PMID:15800742

Galen, Candace

2005-06-01

158

Spontaneous prosocial choice by chimpanzees  

PubMed Central

The study of human and primate altruism faces an evolutionary anomaly: There is ample evidence for altruistic preferences in our own species and growing evidence in monkeys, but one of our closest relatives, the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), is viewed as a reluctant altruist, acting only in response to pressure and solicitation. Although chimpanzee prosocial behavior has been reported both in observational captive studies and in the wild, thus far Prosocial Choice Tests have failed to produce evidence. However, methodologies of previous Prosocial Choice Tests may have handicapped the apes unintentionally. Here we present findings of a paradigm in which chimpanzees chose between two differently colored tokens: one “selfish” token resulting in a reward for the actor only (1/0), and the other “prosocial” token rewarding both the actor and a partner (1/1). Seven female chimpanzees, each tested with three different partners, showed a significant bias for the prosocial option. Prosocial choices occurred both in response to solicitation by the partner and spontaneously without solicitation. However, directed requests and pressure by the partner reduced the actor's prosocial tendency. These results draw into question previous conclusions indicating that chimpanzees have a limited sensitivity to the needs of others and behave prosocially only in response to significant prompting. PMID:21825175

Horner, Victoria; Carter, J. Devyn; Suchak, Malini; de Waal, Frans B. M.

2011-01-01

159

Flower scent composition in night-flowering Silene species (Caryophyllaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Floral scent of 13 night-flowering Silene species (Caryophyllaceae) was collected by headspace adsorption and analysed via gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Benzenoids together with isoprenoids dominated the scent in all species. Among the benzenoids, benzaldehyde (Silene subconica 35.5%, Silene succulenta 23.1%, Silene sericea 15.6%, Silene vulgaris 12.2%, and Silene nutans 9.9%), methylbenzoate (Silene saxifraga 96.1%, S. succulenta 15.2%), benzyl acetate

A. Jürgens; T. Witt; G. Gottsberger

2002-01-01

160

Your Genes, Your Choices  

MedlinePLUS

Your Genes, Your Choices describes the Human Genome Project, the science behind it, and the ethical, legal, and social ... Nothing could be further from the truth. Your Genes, Your Choices points out how the progress of ...

161

Uniform color illumination for scrolling color LCoS projection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Projection based on the scrolling color single panel reflective liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) architecture developed within Philips is set to become a competitive technology for high definition rear projection television. The colorimetry of the scrolling color illumination light engine is examined in this paper including the design issues considered in specifying dichroic color filters for uniform color illumination. The scrolling action can be achieved with rotating glass prisms (one for each primary color), which combined with the requirement for compact illumination optics can lead to beamsteering at some of the dichroic filters in the light path. This beamsteering can cause unacceptable color changes of the illuminating stripes as they are scrolled from the top to the bottom of the LCoS panel unless special attention is made to the choice of filter cut-off wavelengths and their sensitivity to angle of incidence variations. One solution involves the design of new dichroic filters that are relatively insensitive to these beamsteering effects. Filters have been designed and fabricated with edge sensitivities < 0.9 nm/deg compared with typical sensitivities of ~ 1.4nm/deg from standard filters; the filter specifications and their system performance will be described. Further system solutions are given that utilize conventional angle-sensitive dichroic filters. The effect of color balancing upon the optical efficiency of the system will also be described.

Anderson, Duncan J.

2002-04-01

162

Colorful Electrophoresis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners follow step-by-step instructions to build a gel electrophoresis chamber using inexpensive materials from local hardware and electronic stores. Then, learners follow instructions to simulate DNA electrophoresis using food colors from the kitchen pantry.

Utah, University O.

2012-01-01

163

Myths of Educational Choice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents concerns and raises questions about the choice programs being proposed and implemented around the United States. It argues that poorly conceived, hastily enacted choice programs may do more harm than good. The demand for educational choice may result in lost opportunities for students (some groups more than others), weakened…

Pearson, Judith

164

Privatization and Educational Choice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book describes how and why educational choice movements will affect public education. It uses a public-choice approach to argue that both the supporters and opponents of private and school choice have failed to address several critical issues. Following an introductory chapter, chapter 2 is devoted to the rationale for contracting out…

Lieberman, Myron

165

Harmonious colors: from alchemy to science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a very long tradition in designing color palettes for various applications, going back to at least the Upanishad. Although color palettes have been influenced by the available colorants, starting with the advent of aniline dyes in the late 1850s there have been few physical limits on the choice of individual colors. This abundance of choices exacerbates the problem of limiting the number of colors in a palette, i.e., in keeping them into a manageable quantity. For example, it is not practical for a car company to offer each model in hundreds of colors. Instead, for each model year a small number of color palettes is offered, each containing the colors for the body, trim, interior, etc. Another example is the fashion industry, where in addition to solid colors there are also patterns, leading to a huge variety of combinations that would be impossible to stock. The traditional solution is that of "color forecasting." Color consultants assess the sentiment or affective state of a target customer class and compare it with new colorants offered by the industry. They assemble a limited color palette, name the colors according to the sentiment, and publish their result. Textile manufacturers will produce fabrics in these colors and fashion designers will design clothes, accessories, and furniture based on these fabrics. Eventually, the media will communicate these forecasts to the consumers, who will be admired by their cohorts when they choose colors from the forecast palette, which by then is widely diffused. The color forecasting business is very labor intensive and difficult, thus for years computer engineers have tried to come up with algorithms to design harmonious color palettes, alas with little commercial success. For example, Johannes Itten's color theory has been implemented many times, but despite Itten's success in the Bauhaus artifacts, the computer tools have been of little utility. Indeed, contrary to the auditory sense, there is no known physiological mechanism sustaining harmony and the term "harmonious" just has the informal meaning of "going well together." We argue that the intellectual flaw resides in the belief that a masterful individual can devise a "perfect methodology" that the engineer can then reduce to practice in a computer program. We suggest that the correct approach is to consider color forecasting as an act of distillation, where a palette is digested from the sentiment of a very large number of people. We describe how this approach can be reduced to an algorithm by replacing the subjective process with a data analytic process.

Beretta, Giordano B.; Moroney, Nathan M.

2012-01-01

166

Flower colour adaptation in a mimetic orchid  

PubMed Central

Although the tremendous variability in floral colour among angiosperms is often attributed to divergent selection by pollinators, it is usually difficult to preclude the possibility that floral colour shifts were driven by non-pollinator processes. Here, we examine the adaptive significance of flower colour in Disa ferruginea, a non-rewarding orchid that is thought to attract its butterfly pollinator by mimicking the flowers of sympatric nectar-producing species. Disa ferruginea has red flowers in the western part of its range and orange flowers in the eastern part—a colour shift that we hypothesized to be the outcome of selection for resemblance to different local nectar-producing plants. Using reciprocal translocations of red and orange phenotypes as well as arrays of artificial flowers, we found that the butterfly Aeropetes tulbaghia, the only pollinator of the orchid, preferred both the red phenotype and red artificial flowers in the west where its main nectar plant also has red flowers, and both the orange phenotype and orange artificial flowers in the east, where its main nectar plant has orange flowers. This phenotype by environment interaction demonstrates that the flower colour shift in D. ferruginea is adaptive and driven by local colour preference in its pollinator. PMID:22298842

Newman, Ethan; Anderson, Bruce; Johnson, Steven D.

2012-01-01

167

Cross-cultural color-odor associations.  

PubMed

Colors and odors are associated; for instance, people typically match the smell of strawberries to the color pink or red. These associations are forms of crossmodal correspondences. Recently, there has been discussion about the extent to which these correspondences arise for structural reasons (i.e., an inherent mapping between color and odor), statistical reasons (i.e., covariance in experience), and/or semantically-mediated reasons (i.e., stemming from language). The present study probed this question by testing color-odor correspondences in 6 different cultural groups (Dutch, Netherlands-residing-Chinese, German, Malay, Malaysian-Chinese, and US residents), using the same set of 14 odors and asking participants to make congruent and incongruent color choices for each odor. We found consistent patterns in color choices for each odor within each culture, showing that participants were making non-random color-odor matches. We used representational dissimilarity analysis to probe for variations in the patterns of color-odor associations across cultures; we found that US and German participants had the most similar patterns of associations, followed by German and Malay participants. The largest group differences were between Malay and Netherlands-resident Chinese participants and between Dutch and Malaysian-Chinese participants. We conclude that culture plays a role in color-odor crossmodal associations, which likely arise, at least in part, through experience. PMID:25007343

Levitan, Carmel A; Ren, Jiana; Woods, Andy T; Boesveldt, Sanne; Chan, Jason S; McKenzie, Kirsten J; Dodson, Michael; Levin, Jai A; Leong, Christine X R; van den Bosch, Jasper J F

2014-01-01

168

Ornamental plumage coloration and condition are dependent on age in eastern bluebirds Sialia sialis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male eastern bluebirds Sialia sialis have striking ultraviolet (UV)-blue coloration on their heads, backs, rumps, wings, and tails and bold chestnut coloration on their breasts. These colored areas are ornaments that correlate with pairing date and reproductive effort, and thus probably influence the choice of mates by females. Such ornaments are expected to increase in color with age and body

Lynn Siefferman; Geoffrey E. Hill; F. Stephen Dobson

2005-01-01

169

EARLY FLOWERING3 Regulates Flowering in Spring Barley by Mediating Gibberellin Production and FLOWERING LOCUS T Expression.  

PubMed

EARLY FLOWERING3 (ELF3) is a circadian clock gene that contributes to photoperiod-dependent flowering in plants, with loss-of-function mutants in barley (Hordeum vulgare), legumes, and Arabidopsis thaliana flowering early under noninductive short-day (SD) photoperiods. The barley elf3 mutant displays increased expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (FT1); however, it remains unclear whether this is the only factor responsible for the early flowering phenotype. We show that the early flowering and vegetative growth phenotypes of the barley elf3 mutant are strongly dependent on gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis. Expression of the central GA biosynthesis gene, GA20oxidase2, and production of the bioactive GA, GA1, were significantly increased in elf3 leaves under SDs, relative to the wild type. Inhibition of GA biosynthesis suppressed the early flowering of elf3 under SDs independently of FT1 and was associated with altered expression of floral identity genes at the developing apex. GA is also required for normal flowering of spring barley under inductive photoperiods, with chemical and genetic attenuation of the GA biosynthesis and signaling pathways suppressing inflorescence development under long-day conditions. These findings illustrate that GA is an important floral promoting signal in barley and that ELF3 suppresses flowering under noninductive photoperiods by blocking GA production and FT1 expression. PMID:24781117

Boden, Scott A; Weiss, David; Ross, John J; Davies, Noel W; Trevaskis, Ben; Chandler, Peter M; Swain, Steve M

2014-04-29

170

Egg Yolk Color as Affected by Saponification of Different Natural Pigmenting Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Two experiments were conducted to study the influence of saponification of various yellow, red, or yellow and red xanthophylls from marigold flower and paprika fruit included at graded levels on egg yolk coloration in table and breaking eggs. Pigmentation was measured visually by the Roche yolk color fan, a subjective method, and by reflectance colorimetry, using a HunterLab MiniScan

J. Galobart; R. Sal; X. Rincon-Carruyo; E. G. Manzanilla; B. Vil; J. Gas

171

Natural Variation in Petal Color in Lycoris longituba Revealed by Anthocyanin Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lycoris longituba is one of the species belonging to the Amaryllidaceae family. Despite its limited distribution, endemic to central eastern China, this species displays an exceptionally wide diversity of flower colors from purple, red, orange, to yellow, in nature. We study the natural variation of floral color in L. longituba by testing the components of water-soluble vacuolar pigments – anthocyanins

Qiuling He; Ye Shen; Mingxiu Wang; Minren Huang; Ruizhen Yang; Shuijin Zhu; Liangsheng Wang; Yanjun Xu; Rongling Wu

2011-01-01

172

Colorful Waves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You're probably really upset that all you have so far is a simple little ray model of light. When do we get to the good stuff, you say? How about now? As a bonus, you get to look at lots of pretty colors. This chapter addresses how light can be modeled as a series of waves. These waves consist of changing electric and magnetic fields that can travel through empty space, as well as through other mediums. Different frequencies of light waves correspond to different colors of light. White light is composed of all the colors of visible light. Visible light is just a small portion of the entire spectrum of electromagnetic waves.

William C. Robertson, Ph.D.

2003-01-01

173

Colorful Mathematics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Funded by Industry Canada's SchoolNet initiative with the cooperation of the Canadian Mathematical Society, Colorful Mathematics takes a game-oriented approach to teaching K-12 mathematics. The project has developed five coloring games that teach children about problem solving, and pattern identification, which "are all at the very heart of mathematics." The coloring approach makes difficult graph concepts "that are still the subject of active research by mathematicians, computer scientists and industry researchers" more accessible to children. The software program, which is available for free from this website, is set up to check for mistakes and challenge students to improve on their results. A Teacher's Corner section gives an overview of the games, "some sample questions for discussion with the curious student," and an overview of terminology used in the software program. The website is also available in French.

174

Kool Colors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners investigate how temperature affects the rate of chemical reactions by observing how steel wool reacts with various types of Kool-Aid solutions at different temperatures. The reaction is monitored as the color fades in the Kool-Aid solutions. Background information includes how the dyes change color from an oxidation-reduction reaction. Extensions include investigating how surface area and concentration affect reaction rate. Part of the "No Hassle Messy Science with a Wow" activity guide by OMSI, where all activities use only household materials.

2013-07-30

175

Fluorescence detection of tyrosinase activity on dopamine-betaxanthin purified from Portulaca oleracea (common purslane) flowers.  

PubMed

Tyrosinase or polyphenol oxidase (EC 1.14.18.1) is one of the key enzymes for the biosynthesis of natural pigment betalains. These are an important class of water-soluble pigments, characteristic of plants belonging to the order Caryophyllales. In this work, dopamine-betaxanthin (also known as miraxanthin V) is reported as the pigment responsible for the bright coloration in yellow flowers of Portulaca oleracea (common purslane). The natural pigment is purified, and used as a substrate for the catecholase (diphenolase) activity of the enzyme tyrosinase. A new, continuous method to follow the activity is developed based on the fluorescent properties of the betaxanthin. Fluorescence of the enzyme activity derived products is reported for the first time. Relevance of the fluorescent phenomenon is discussed based on fluorescence images and the description of a physiological inner filter effect present in flowers of P. oleracea. The first description of the betalain content in flower pistils is also provided. PMID:19227976

Gandía-Herrero, Fernando; Jiménez-Atiénzar, Mercedes; Cabanes, Juana; Escribano, Josefa; García-Carmona, Francisco

2009-03-25

176

Examining Colors, Color Perception, and Sight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students of all ages are fascinated by color and how we perceive it. For the main activity in this chapter, your class explores colors and visual perception by mixing colors in several ways. Students learn more about colors, light, vision, and color compo

Eichinger, John

2009-05-15

177

Color Sense  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports a study conducted by members of the WellU Academic Integration Subcommittee of The College of St. Scholastica's College's Healthy Campus Initiative plan whose purpose was to determine whether changing color in the classroom could have a measurable effect on students. One simple improvement a school can make in a classroom is…

Johnson, Heidi S. S.; Maki, Jennifer A.

2009-01-01

178

Color transparency  

SciTech Connect

The anomously large transmission of nucleons through a nucleus following a hard collision is explored. This effect, known as color transparency, is believed to be a prediction of QCD. The necessary conditions for its occurrence and the effects that must be included a realistic calculation are discussed.

Jennings, B.K. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Miller, G.A. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Physics

1993-11-01

179

LETTER Natural soil microbes alter flowering phenology and the intensity of selection on flowering time in a wild Arabidopsis  

E-print Network

LETTER Natural soil microbes alter flowering phenology and the intensity of selection on flowering fitness of Boechera stricta, a wild relative of Arabidopsis. Flowering time was sensitive to both microbes on flowering time. Thus, soil microbes potentially contribute to phenotypic plasticity of flowering time

Dangl, Jeff

180

Context-dependent reproductive isolation mediated by floral scent and color.  

PubMed

Reproductive isolation due to pollinator behavior is considered a key mode of speciation in flowering plants. Although floral scent is thought to mediate pollinator behavior, little is known about its effects on pollinator attraction and floral visitation in the wild. We used field experiments with wild hawkmoths and laboratory experiments with naïve hawkmoths to investigate attraction to and probing of flowers in response to indole, a volatile emitted by Ipomopsis tenuituba but not its close relative I. aggregata, both alone and in combination with floral color differences. We demonstrated that indole attracts wild hawkmoths to flowers, but has little effect on the rate at which those attracted moths probe flowers. In contrast, white flower color did not influence hawkmoth attraction in the field, but caused more attracted moths to probe flowers. Thus, the moths require both scent and high visual contrast, in that order, to feed at flowers at dusk. Their preference for indole-scented flowers is innate, but species-specific preference is mitigated by previous experience and plant spatial patterning. This context-dependent behavior helps explain why these Ipomopsis species show geographical variation in the extent of hybridization and may potentially explain formation of hybrid bridges in other systems of hawkmoth-pollinated plants. PMID:25354994

Bischoff, Mascha; Raguso, Robert A; Jürgens, Andreas; Campbell, Diane R

2015-01-01

181

Spectral Sensitivities and Color Signals in a Polymorphic Damselfly  

PubMed Central

Animal communication relies on conspicuous signals and compatible signal perception abilities. Good signal perception abilities are particularly important for polymorphic animals where mate choice can be a challenge. Behavioral studies suggest that polymorphic damselflies use their varying body colorations and/or color patterns as communication signal for mate choice and to control mating frequencies. However, solid evidence for this hypothesis combining physiological with spectral and behavioral data is scarce. We investigated this question in the Australian common blue tail damselfly, Ischnura heterosticta, which has pronounced female-limited polymorphism: andromorphs have a male-like blue coloration and gynomorphs display green/grey colors. We measured body color reflectance and investigated the visual capacities of each morph, showing that I. heterosticta have at least three types of photoreceptors sensitive to UV, blue, and green wavelength, and that this visual perception ability enables them to detect the spectral properties of the color signals emitted from the various color morphs in both males and females. We further demonstrate that different color morphs can be discriminated against each other and the vegetation based on color contrast. Finally, these findings were supported by field observations of natural mating pairs showing that mating partners are indeed chosen based on their body coloration. Our study provides the first comprehensive evidence for the function of body coloration on mate choice in polymorphic damselflies. PMID:24498233

Huang, Shao-chang; Chiou, Tsyr-huei; Marshall, Justin; Reinhard, Judith

2014-01-01

182

Moth using proboscis to get food from flower  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Not only bees pollinate flowers. Moths have a specialized mouth structure called a proboscis that is used to extract nectar and pollinate the flower. The moth benefits by getting food and the flower benefits by being pollinated.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

2006-12-30

183

Delayed flowering and global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within general trends toward earlier spring, observed cases of species and ecosystems that have not advanced their phenology, or have even delayed it, appear paradoxical, especially when made in temperate regions experiencing significant warming. The typical interpretation of this pattern has been that non-responders are insensitive to relatively small levels of warming over the past 40 years, while species showing delays are often viewed as statistical noise or evidence for unknown confounding factors at play. However, plant physiology studies suggest that when winter chilling (vernalization) is required to initiate spring development, winter warming may retard spring events, masking expected advances caused by spring warming. Here, we analyzed long-term data on phenology and seasonal temperatures from 490 species on two continents and demonstrate that 1) apparent non-responders are indeed responding to warming, but their responses to winter and spring warming are opposite in sign, 2) observed trends in first flowering date depend strongly on the magnitude of a given species' response to autumn/winter versus spring warming, and 3) inclusion of these effects strongly improves hindcast predictions of long-term flowering trends. With a few notable exceptions, climate change research has focused on the overall mean trend towards phenological advance, minimizing discussion of apparently non-responding species. Our results illuminate an under-studied source of complexity in wild species responses and support the need for models incorporating diverse environmental cues in order to improve predictability of species responses to anthropogenic climate change.

Cook, B. I.; Wolkovich, E. M.; Parmesan, C.

2011-12-01

184

Attention in risky choice.  

PubMed

Previous research on the processes involved in risky decisions has rarely linked process data to choice directly. We used a simple measure based on the relative amount of attentional deployment to different components (gains/losses and their probabilities) of a risky gamble during the choice process, and we related this measure to the actual choice. In an experiment we recorded the decisions, decision times, and eye movements of 80 participants who made decisions on 11 choice problems. We used the number of eye fixations and fixation transitions to trace the deployment of attention during the choice process and obtained the following main results. First, different components of a gamble attracted different amounts of attention depending on participants' actual choice. This was reflected in both the number of fixations and the fixation transitions. Second, the last-fixated gamble but not the last-fixated reason predicted participants' choices. Third, a comparison of data obtained with eye tracking and data obtained with verbal protocols from a previous study showed a large degree of convergence regarding the process of risky choice. Together these findings tend to support dimensional decision strategies such as the priority heuristic. PMID:25226548

Brandstätter, Eduard; Körner, Christof

2014-10-01

185

Making School Choice Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School choice is increasingly the new normal in urban education. But in cities with multiple public school options, how can civic leaders create a choice system that works for all families, whether they choose a charter or district public school? To answer this question, the Center on Reinventing Public Education (CRPE) researchers surveyed 4,000…

DeArmond, Michael; Jochim, Ashley; Lake, Robin

2014-01-01

186

School Choice Marches forward  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One year ago, the "Wall Street Journal" dubbed 2011 "the year of school choice," opining that "this year is shaping up as the best for reformers in a very long time." School-choice laws took great strides in 2011, both in the number of programs that succeeded across states and also in the size and scope of the adopted programs. Yet education…

Butcher, Jonathan

2013-01-01

187

THE AXIOM OF CHOICE  

E-print Network

A choice function on a family S of sets is a function f with domain S such that, for each nonempty set X in S, f(X) is an element of X: figuratively put, f "chooses " an element of each member of S. If S is finite, the existence of a choice function on S is a straightforward consequence of the basic principles of set formation and the rules of classical logic. When S is infinite, however, these principles no longer suffice and so the existence of a choice function on S must be postulated. The assertion that on any family of nonempty sets — even if it be infinite —there exists at least one choice function is called the axiom of choice. This principle was first explicitly stated (in a different, but equivalent form) by Zermelo in 1904 and employed in his proof that any set can be well ordered — his famous well-ordering theorem. Its highly nonconstructive character provoked considerable initial criticism: while it asserts the possibility of making arbitrarily many arbitrary "choices " —or at least of crystallizing such an imagined procedure into a genuine function —it provides no indication whatsoever of how these "choices" are to be made, or how the resulting function is to be defined. For example, the scepticism of the French mathematician Emile Borel concerning such a possibility was sufficient to move him to declare that "any argument where one supposes an arbitrary choice a non-denumerably infinite

unknown authors

188

More Choice, Less Crime  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research debates whether public school choice improves students' academic outcomes, but there is little examination of its effects on their nonacademic outcomes. We use data from a nationally representative sample of high school students, a previously developed Tiebout choice measure, and metropolitan-level data on teenage arrest rates to…

Dills, Angela K.; Hernandez-Julian, Rey

2011-01-01

189

Children's Choices for 2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each year 12,500 school children from different regions of the United States read and vote on the newly published children's and young adults' trade books that they like best. The Children's Choices for 2008 list is the 34th in a series that first appeared as "Classroom Choices" in the November 1975 issue of "The Reading Teacher" (RT), a…

Reading Teacher, 2008

2008-01-01

190

Haptic choice blindness.  

PubMed

Choice blindness is the failure to notice a mismatch between intention and outcome when making decisions. It is unknown whether choice blindness occurs when participants have extended interaction with real objects. Here, we examined the case when objects could be touched but not seen. Participants examined pairs of common, everyday objects inside a specially constructed box where a silent turntable was used to switch objects between initial choice and later justification. For similar pairs of objects, we found detection rates of around 22%, consistent with previous studies of choice blindness. For pairs consisting of more distinctive exemplars, the detection rate rose to 70%. Our results indicate that choice blindness does occur after haptic interaction with real objects, but is strongly modulated by similarity. PMID:23799197

Steenfeldt-Kristensen, Catherine; Thornton, Ian M

2013-01-01

191

Nonhomeotic Meristic Flower Mutants in Phacelia dubia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two plants with mutant flowers were recovered from the selfed progeny of a field collected seed of Phacelia dubla (L.) Trel. A meristic mutant caused the develop- ment of an additional component in each of the first three flower whorls (calyx, corolla, and androecium). The effects of a second mutant were restricted to the gynoecium. The normal bicarpellate, two-styled pistil

F. Levy

192

Flowers that destroy high-latitude ozone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Satellite estimates of worldwide bromine levels and sea ice coverage were analyzed. Results indicate a correlation between frost flowers and ozone depletion. Researchers suggest that trace gases produced by frost flowers may explain the huge amounts of aerosols seen in the polar troposphere and the thinning of the ozone layer during the polar sunrise.

Al., Kaleschke E.; Agu

193

Associating Polymers: From ``Flowers'' to Transient Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a novel telechelic associating polymers that self-assemble in solution into starlike flowers in the dilute regime and develop a fully connected network of flowers above some threshold concentration phi*. Small-angle neutron scattering has been used to investigate the form and structure factors of the starlike aggregates, whereas linear rheology was performed to identify the viscoelastic features of

Y. Séréro; R. Aznar; G. Porte; J.-F. Berret; D. Calvet; A. Collet; M. Viguier

1998-01-01

194

Family found for giant, stinking flower  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

First discovered nearly 200 years ago in the Sumatran rain forest, an unusual flowering plant with the largest single flower -- typically a full meter across and weighs up to 15 pounds -- has finally found its home in the botanical tree of life.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2007-01-11

195

Flower Evolution: The Origin and Subsequent Diversification  

E-print Network

Flower Evolution: The Origin and Subsequent Diversification of the Angiosperm Flower Chelsea D-592X/09/1201-0217$20.00 Key Words ancestral angiosperm, Caytonia, developmental evolution, floral innovations occurring within gymnosperms or along the stem lineage leading to angiosperms, elu- cidating

196

Identification and characterization of flowering genes in kiwifruit: sequence conservation and role in kiwifruit flower development  

PubMed Central

Background Flower development in kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.) is initiated in the first growing season, when undifferentiated primordia are established in latent shoot buds. These primordia can differentiate into flowers in the second growing season, after the winter dormancy period and upon accumulation of adequate winter chilling. Kiwifruit is an important horticultural crop, yet little is known about the molecular regulation of flower development. Results To study kiwifruit flower development, nine MADS-box genes were identified and functionally characterized. Protein sequence alignment, phenotypes obtained upon overexpression in Arabidopsis and expression patterns suggest that the identified genes are required for floral meristem and floral organ specification. Their role during budbreak and flower development was studied. A spontaneous kiwifruit mutant was utilized to correlate the extended expression domains of these flowering genes with abnormal floral development. Conclusions This study provides a description of flower development in kiwifruit at the molecular level. It has identified markers for flower development, and candidates for manipulation of kiwifruit growth, phase change and time of flowering. The expression in normal and aberrant flowers provided a model for kiwifruit flower development. PMID:21521532

2011-01-01

197

Chemical Compositionand Anti-acetyl cholinesterase Activity of Flower Essential Oils of Artemisiaannuaat Different Flowering Stage.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of the essential oils of flower at the pre-flowering, full-flowering and post-flowering stage of A. annua was analyzed by GC and GC/MS and sixty-two components were identified. The main compounds in the pre-flowering oil were ?-myrcene (37.71%), 1, 8-cineole (16.11%) and camphor (14.97%). The full-flowering oil contained predominantly caryophyllene (19.4%), germacrene D (18.1%), camphor (15.84%), 1, 8-cineole (10.6%) and (Z)-?-farnesene (9.43%). The major constituents identified in the post-flowering oil were camphor (16.62%), caryophyllene (16.27%), ?-caryophyllene oxide (15.84%), ?-farnesene (9.05%) and (-)-spathulenol (7.21%). The variety of anti-AChE activity of flower oil of A. annua at three flowering stage might be a result of the variety of the content and interaction of those terpenoids with anti-AChE activity. The greatest acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.13 ± 0.02 mg mL(-1)) was exhibited by the essential oil of flower of A. annua at post-flowering stage. PMID:24250353

Yu, Zhengwen; Wang, Bochu; Yang, Fumei; Sun, Qianyun; Yang, Zhannan; Zhu, Liancai

2011-01-01

198

On the purposes of color for living beings: toward a theory of color organization.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic and paleontological evidence indicates that in the animal kingdom the ability to perceive colors evolved independently several times over the course of millennia. This implies a high evolutionary neural investment and suggests that color vision provides some fundamental biological benefits. What are these benefits? Why are some animals so colorful? What are the adaptive and perceptual meanings of polychromatism? We suggest that in addition to the discrimination of light and surface chromaticity, sensitivity to color contributes to the whole, the parts and the fragments of perceptual organization. New versions of neon color spreading and the watercolor illusion indicate that the visual purpose of color in humans is threefold: to inter-relate each chromatic component of an object, thus favoring the emergence of the whole; to support a part-whole organization in which components reciprocally enhance each other by amodal completion; and, paradoxically, to reveal fragments and hide the whole-that is, there is a chromatic parceling-out process of separation, division, and fragmentation of the whole. The evolution of these contributions of color to organization needs to be established, but traces of it can be found in Harlequin camouflage by animals and in the coloration of flowers. PMID:24374380

Pinna, Baingio; Reeves, Adam

2015-01-01

199

Flowers help bees cope with uncertainty: signal detection and the function of floral complexity.  

PubMed

Plants often attract pollinators with floral displays composed of visual, olfactory, tactile and gustatory stimuli. Since pollinators' responses to each of these stimuli are usually studied independently, the question of why plants produce multi-component floral displays remains relatively unexplored. Here we used signal detection theory to test the hypothesis that complex displays reduce a pollinator's uncertainty about the floral signal. Specifically, we asked whether one component of the floral display, scent, improved a bee's certainty about the value of another component, color hue. We first trained two groups of bumble bees (Bombus impatiens Cresson) to discriminate between rewarding and unrewarding artificial flowers of slightly different hues in the presence vs absence of scent. In a test phase, we presented these bees with a gradient of floral hues and assessed their ability to identify the hue rewarded during training. We interpreted the extent to which bees' preferences were biased away from the unrewarding hue ('peak shift') as an indicator of uncertainty in color discrimination. Our data show that the presence of an olfactory signal reduces uncertainty regarding color: not only was color learning facilitated on scented flowers but also bees showed a lower amount of peak shift in the presence of scent. We explore potential mechanisms by which scent might reduce uncertainty about color, and discuss the broader significance of our results for our understanding of signal evolution. PMID:21147975

Leonard, Anne S; Dornhaus, Anna; Papaj, Daniel R

2011-01-01

200

Anthocyanins as Functional Food Colors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthocyanins, a proanthocyanidin-type of flavonoid, contain an abundance of functional phytochemicals and occur in fruits such as cranberry, blueberry, orange, apple and in vegetables such as tomato, sweet pepper, spinach, and radishes. Functional and essential diets have been ingested in daily life since the primitive era of history. When anthocyanins are coupled with some water-soluble sugar molecules, their color becomes red, yellow, violet, or blue. It is very intriguing that anthocyanins provide the colorful variety of pigments for pansies, petunias, plums, and other diverse flowers. Chlorophyll in various fruits and vegetables is the main green phyto-component, while anthocyanins are probably the most important visible plant pigments in the natural kingdom having specific colors. Anthocyanins have been clinically used in many folklore medicines worldwide. Anthocyanins could provide health benefits for age-related diseases as well as other diseases. Anthocyanins have higher antioxidant capacity against oxidative stress induced by excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide, and thus the human body might be protected from oxidative injury by anthocyanins. On the basis of these facts, we review the synthesis of plant flavonoids and their ability to scavenge oxidants, inhibit or activate enzymes, and the safety of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanidins present in common foods.

Motohashi, Noboru; Sakagami, Hiroshi

201

[Carpel development in male flowers of cucumber (Cucumis sativus. L)].  

PubMed

Carpel development in cucumber male flowers was studied by morphological, histochemical and isoenzyme electrophoretic analyses. The results showed that: (1) cell number of the carpel in male flowers increased continuously during the development of male flowers, and the carpel in male flowers was abundant in RNA content; (2) the carpel in male flowers at latter developmental stage was differentiated, and a placenta-like structure was formed in the carpel of male flowers during anthesis, while the ovule did not appear as that of mature female flowers; (3) The POD and esterase isoenzyme electrophoretic profiles of carpel varied from the development of male flowers, which further indicated that the carpel in mature male flowers was no longer at the stage of primordium. It could be deduced from the results that carpel of cucumber male flowers develops continuously in a distinct pattern with that of female flowers during sex expression process. PMID:15133901

Yuan, Gao Feng; Wang, Qiao Mei

2004-02-01

202

The Families of Flowering Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Australian authors L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz have updated this magnificent resource of detailed character descriptions, taxonomic information, references, and line illustrations of "all the Angiosperm families" from Acanthaceae to Zygophyllaceae. Users will find extensive data on plant and flower morphology, "seedling germination type, embryology, anther ontogeny, pollen cytology and morphology, stigma type, sieve-tube plastids, leaf, stem, nodal and wood anatomy, and phytochemistry (phenolics, alkaloids, cyanogenesis, etc.)." Watson and Dallwitz also include detailed taxonomic information on family synonyms, "numbers of species and genera in each family, and complete lists or (in the case of the largest families only) examples of the genera in each." A character list and an 'implicit attributes' section accompany the resource; information for downloading is available at the site. For teachers and graduate students alike, this online resource will be hard to beat.

203

Color Burst  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson will help students gain experience in asking questions and conducting inquiry by exploring the separation of colors in water and other solvents; and to communicate and share findings of student investigations. The lesson uses a technique called paper chromatography, which is demonstrated using water, ink, and a coffee filter. Scientists use chromatography frequently to separate and identify the component parts of a mixture. This lesson will help young students gain experience in conducting simple investigations of their own while working in small groups.

204

Flower opening and closure: an update.  

PubMed

This review is an update of a 2003 review (Journal of Experimental Botany 54,1801-1812) by the same corresponding author. Many examples of flower opening have been recorded using time-lapse photography, showing its velocity and the required elongation growth. Ethylene regulates flower opening, together with at least gibberellins and auxin. Ethylene and gibberellic acid often promote and inhibit, respectively, the expression of DELLA genes and the stability of DELLA proteins. DELLA results in growth inhibition. Both hormones also inhibited and promoted, respectively, the expression of aquaporin genes required for cell elongation. Arabidopsis miRNA319a mutants exhibited narrow and short petals, whereby miRNA319a indirectly regulates auxin effects. Flower opening in roses was controlled by a NAC transcription factor, acting through miRNA164. The regulatory role of light and temperature, in interaction with the circadian clock, has been further elucidated. The end of the life span in many flowers is determined by floral closure. In some species pollination resulted in earlier closure of turgid flowers, compared with unpollinated flowers. It is hypothesized that this pollination-induced effect is only found in flowers in which closure is regulated by ethylene. PMID:25135521

van Doorn, Wouter G; Kamdee, Chanattika

2014-11-01

205

Photoperiodic flowering regulation in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Photoperiod, or the duration of light in a given day, is a critical cue that flowering plants utilize to effectively assess seasonal information and coordinate their reproductive development in synchrony with the external environment. The use of the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, has greatly improved our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that determine how plants process and utilize photoperiodic information to coordinate a flowering response. This mechanism is typified by the transcriptional activation of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene by the transcription factor CONSTANS (CO) under inductive long-day conditions in Arabidopsis. FT protein then moves from the leaves to the shoot apex, where floral meristem development can be initiated. As a point of integration from a variety of environmental factors in the context of a larger system of regulatory pathways that affect flowering, the importance of photoreceptors and the circadian clock in CO regulation throughout the day has been a key feature of the photoperiodic flowering pathway. In addition to these established mechanisms, the recent discovery of a photosynthate derivative trehalose-6-phosphate as an activator of FT in leaves has interesting implications for the involvement of photosynthesis in the photoperiodic flowering response that were suggested from previous physiological experiments in flowering induction.

Golembeski, Greg S.; Kinmonth-Schultz, Hannah A.; Song, Young Hun; Imaizumi, Takato

2015-01-01

206

Music–color associations are mediated by emotion  

PubMed Central

Experimental evidence demonstrates robust cross-modal matches between music and colors that are mediated by emotional associations. US and Mexican participants chose colors that were most/least consistent with 18 selections of classical orchestral music by Bach, Mozart, and Brahms. In both cultures, faster music in the major mode produced color choices that were more saturated, lighter, and yellower whereas slower, minor music produced the opposite pattern (choices that were desaturated, darker, and bluer). There were strong correlations (0.89 < r < 0.99) between the emotional associations of the music and those of the colors chosen to go with the music, supporting an emotional mediation hypothesis in both cultures. Additional experiments showed similarly robust cross-modal matches from emotionally expressive faces to colors and from music to emotionally expressive faces. These results provide further support that music-to-color associations are mediated by common emotional associations. PMID:23671106

Palmer, Stephen E.; Schloss, Karen B.; Xu, Zoe; Prado-León, Lilia R.

2013-01-01

207

Relationship between Color and Emotion: A Study of College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ninety-eight college students were asked to indicate their emotional responses to five principle hues (i.e., red, yellow, green, blue, purple), five intermediate hues (i.e., yellow-red, green-yellow, blue-green, purple-blue, and red-purple), and three achromatic colors (white, gray, and black) and the reasons for their choices. The color stimuli…

Kaya, Naz; Epps, Helen H.

2004-01-01

208

Display Device Color Management and Visual Surveillance of Vehicles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Digital imaging has seen an enormous growth in the last decade. Today users have numerous choices in creating, accessing, and viewing digital image/video content. Color management is important to ensure consistent visual experience across imaging systems. This is typically achieved using color profiles. In this thesis we identify the limitations…

Srivastava, Satyam

2011-01-01

209

Intertemporal choice in lemurs.  

PubMed

Different species vary in their ability to wait for delayed rewards in intertemporal choice tasks. Models of rate maximization account for part of this variation, but other factors such as social structure and feeding ecology seem to underly some species differences. Though studies have evaluated intertemporal choice in several primate species, including Old World monkeys, New World monkeys, and apes, prosimians have not been tested. This study investigated intertemporal choices in three species of lemur (black-and-white ruffed lemurs, Varecia variegata, red ruffed lemurs, Varecia rubra, and black lemurs, Eulemur macaco) to assess how they compare to other primate species and whether their choices are consistent with rate maximization. We offered lemurs a choice between two food items available immediately and six food items available after a delay. We found that by adjusting the delay to the larger reward, the lemurs were indifferent between the two options at a mean delay of 17 s, ranging from 9 to 25 s. These data are comparable to data collected from common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). The lemur data were not consistent with models of rate maximization. The addition of lemurs to the list of species tested in these tasks will help uncover the role of life history and socio-ecological factors influencing intertemporal choices. PMID:22024661

Stevens, Jeffrey R; Mühlhoff, Nelly

2012-02-01

210

A chalcone isomerase-like protein enhances flavonoid production and flower pigmentation.  

PubMed

Flavonoids are major pigments in plants, and their biosynthetic pathway is one of the best-studied metabolic pathways. Here we have identified three mutations within a gene that result in pale-colored flowers in the Japanese morning glory (Ipomoea nil). As the mutations lead to a reduction of the colorless flavonoid compound flavonol as well as of anthocyanins in the flower petal, the identified gene was designated enhancer of flavonoid production (EFP). EFP encodes a chalcone isomerase (CHI)-related protein classified as a type IV CHI protein. CHI is the second committed enzyme of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway, but type IV CHI proteins are thought to lack CHI enzymatic activity, and their functions remain unknown. The spatio-temporal expression of EFP and structural genes encoding enzymes that produce flavonoids is very similar. Expression of both EFP and the structural genes is coordinately promoted by genes encoding R2R3-MYB and WD40 family proteins. The EFP gene is widely distributed in land plants, and RNAi knockdown mutants of the EFP homologs in petunia (Petunia hybrida) and torenia (Torenia hybrida) had pale-colored flowers and low amounts of anthocyanins. The flavonol and flavone contents in the knockdown petunia and torenia flowers, respectively, were also significantly decreased, suggesting that the EFP protein contributes in early step(s) of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway to ensure production of flavonoid compounds. From these results, we conclude that EFP is an enhancer of flavonoid production and flower pigmentation, and its function is conserved among diverse land plant species. PMID:24517863

Morita, Yasumasa; Takagi, Kyoko; Fukuchi-Mizutani, Masako; Ishiguro, Kanako; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Nitasaka, Eiji; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Saito, Norio; Kagami, Takashi; Hoshino, Atsushi; Iida, Shigeru

2014-04-01

211

Color Theory for Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson will introduce students to color theory with a focus on the use of color in digital design. Students will discover the color wheel, and color harmonies. Color is a very powerful tool in design. It can, enhance a message, give an object visual weight and emphasis, and add richness and depth to a design. We can use color to signify data, to draw attention to a particular object, or to set a mood. Color ...

Jensen, Mr.

2009-10-04

212

Learning About Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project, students will learn about primary, secondary, and complementary colors. Students will also learn about warm & cool colors, along with tints & shades. Lastly, they will create an optical illusion using complimentary colors. INTRODUCTION: Welcome students! Begin by watching this fun video about colors. LEARNING ABOUT COLOR: Now, that you've had an introduction to colors, lets play a little game! Click on the link below. Carmine s Introduction to Color Awesome! Click on the links below ...

Whitni Erickson

2009-04-18

213

Color constrasts in advertising: facade colors of food and drink consumption venues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The building facade has a visually defined impact and there are numerous forces driving the choice of colors used. Commercial premises such as pubs, restaurants and bars are normally but not always clearly marked as such. Although we human beings can have the option of free choice in the colors we use around the home there are numerous positive driving forces dictating those we use in business life. Many of these factors have been identified. They depend on the type of population these venues serve, their geography and their traditions.

Hutchings, John

2002-06-01

214

Original article Nectar and flower production in Vicia faba L  

E-print Network

implications for pollination in entomophilous plants. Floral nectar standing crop, flower production characters of a plant? Flower initiation (production) and maintenance (flower longevity and reward productionOriginal article Nectar and flower production in Vicia faba L (field bean) at ambient and elevated

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

215

Discovery of gynoecium color polymorphism in an aquatic plant.  

PubMed

Flower color polymorphism exhibited by natural populations provides an opportunity for understanding the evolutionary mechanisms contributing to the diversity of floral morphology. However, little is known about the color polymorphism of female organs in flowering plants. Here we report gynoecium color polymorphism in Butomus umbellatus (Butomaceae), an emergent, aquatic monocot. Populations from Mishan, northeastern China comprised two morphs; gynoecia are either pink, as observed in other areas, or white. We measured floral traits and female fecundity in the two gynoecium color morphs in the field. There was no significant difference in plant height, pedicel length, and flower size including petal, sepal and gynoecium between the two morphs, but plants with pink gynoecia had wider inflorescence stalks, larger inner whorl anthers and produced more pollen and ovules than those with white gynoecia. Correspondingly, we found that seed production was significantly higher in the pink than in the white morph. This new finding suggested selection against white gynoecia in part because of low fecundity, consistent with the rarity of the white gynoecium morph in this species. PMID:18924283

Huang, Shuang-Quan; Tang, Xiao-Xin

2008-09-01

216

Preference for oddity: uniqueness heuristic or hierarchical choice process?  

PubMed

Traditional economic theories assume decision makers in multialternative choice tasks "assign" a value to each option and then express rational preferences. Here, I report an apparent violation of such rationality in gray jays (Perisoreus canadensis). I tested the jays' preference in a quaternary choice task where three options were the same color and the fourth option was a different color. All options offered an identical food reward and so the strictly rational expectation was that subjects would choose the odd-colored option in 25% of choices. In clear disagreement, every subject chose the odd option more frequently than expected. I speculate as to how this surprising preference for oddity might have been ecologically rational: by using a unique-choice heuristic, the jays might have been able to bypass a deliberative phase of the decision process and devote more attention to scanning for predators. Alternatively, it is conceivable that the jays did not prefer oddity per se. Instead, they might have used a hierarchical process, assigning options to color categories and then choosing between categories. If so, their behavior matches expectation after all (on average, subjects chose the odd option 50% of the time). It should be straightforward to test these competing hypotheses. The current results can be viewed as a new example of how simple mechanisms sometimes produce economically puzzling yet ecologically rational decision making. PMID:18528719

Waite, Thomas A

2008-10-01

217

Why Is a Flower Five-Petaled?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines why many flowers are five-petaled through the use of a five-petaled model that draws insights from the location of cell clusters at a shoot apex, rather than by way of the Fibonacci sequence or the golden ratio as in the past. The conclusion drawn is that flowers are most likely to be five-petaled, followed by six-petaled;…

Nishiyama, Yutaka

2004-01-01

218

Antigenotoxic spinasterol from Cucurbita maxima flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antigenotoxic constituent of squash flowers was isolated by solvent partitioning and repeated vacuum liquid chromatography. The micronucleus test, an in vivo method, was used to monitor the antigenotoxicity of the various fractions during the isolation process. Isolate SQFwB2D from the chloroform extract of squash flowers is the most antigenotoxic isolate. It decreased the mutagenicity of tetracycline by 64.7% at

Irene M. Villaseñor; Pauline Lemon; Allan Palileo; John B. Bremner

1996-01-01

219

PLANT SCIENCES: Deciding When to Flower  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Plants must carefully time the switch from vegetative growth to floral production in order to take advantage of optimal environmental conditions. In their Perspective, Bastow and Dean discuss new work (He et al.) that reveals an elegant mechanism, involving chromatin remodeling of a genetic locus encoding a flowering repressor, which enables plants to regulate flowering time.

Ruth Bastow (John Innes Centre; Department of Cell and Developmental Biology)

2003-12-05

220

Synchrony in the phenology of a culturally iconic spring flower.  

PubMed

We examine the flowering phenology of the cultural iconic Spring Snowflake Leucojum vernum, a considerable tourist attraction, recorded from two sites in western Poland. Flowering dates at the two sites were closely correlated but about 6 days later at the more natural area. The end of flowering was associated with the start of canopy leafing. Early flowering was related to a longer flowering season which may benefit ecotourism under future climate warming. PMID:21547445

Sparks, Tim H; Mizera, Tadeusz; Wójtowicz, Wanda; Tryjanowski, Piotr

2012-03-01

221

Synchrony in the phenology of a culturally iconic spring flower  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the flowering phenology of the cultural iconic Spring Snowflake Leucojum vernum, a considerable tourist attraction, recorded from two sites in western Poland. Flowering dates at the two sites were closely correlated but about 6 days later at the more natural area. The end of flowering was associated with the start of canopy leafing. Early flowering was related to a longer flowering season which may benefit ecotourism under future climate warming.

Sparks, Tim H.; Mizera, Tadeusz; Wójtowicz, Wanda; Tryjanowski, Piotr

2012-03-01

222

Lattice-preserving Flower Constellations under perturbations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

2D Lattice Flower Constellations (2D-LFCs) are stable in the Keplerian model. This means that a flower constellation maintains its structure (the lattice) at any instant of time. However, this is not necessarily true when the harmonic is included in the gravitational potential of the Earth. This paper deals with the new theory of Lattice-preserving Flower Constellations, which shows how 2D-LFC can be designed in such a way that the relative displacement of the orbital parameters of its satellites is invariant even under the presence of the effect. This is achieved following two different procedures: the first consists of the modification of the semi-major axis of all the satellites in a 2D-LFC slightly to control their orbital period, and the second consists of the modification of the values for the eccentricity and inclination, so that the perturbations result in motion that still preserves the lattice of the flower constellation. The proposed theory of Lattice-preserving Flower Constellations validates the theory of 3D Lattice Flower Constellations and has a wide range of potential applications.

Casanova, Daniel; Avendaño, Martín; Tresaco, Eva

2015-01-01

223

Ring Beholds a Delicate Flower  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope finds a delicate flower in the Ring Nebula, as shown in this image. The outer shell of this planetary nebula looks surprisingly similar to the delicate petals of a camellia blossom. A planetary nebula is a shell of material ejected from a dying star. Located about 2,000 light years from Earth in the constellation Lyra, the Ring Nebula is also known as Messier Object 57 and NGC 6720. It is one of the best examples of a planetary nebula and a favorite target of amateur astronomers.

The 'ring' is a thick cylinder of glowing gas and dust around the doomed star. As the star begins to run out of fuel, its core becomes smaller and hotter, boiling off its outer layers. The telescope's infrared array camera detected this material expelled from the withering star. Previous images of the Ring Nebula taken by visible-light telescopes usually showed just the inner glowing loop of gas around the star. The outer regions are especially prominent in this new image because Spitzer sees the infrared light from hydrogen molecules. The molecules emit infrared light because they have absorbed ultraviolet radiation from the star or have been heated by the wind from the star.

Download the QuickTime movie for the animated version of this Ring Nebula image.

2005-01-01

224

Phytochrome, plant growth and flowering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attempts to use artificially lit cabinets to grow plants identical to those growing in sunlight have provided compelling evidence of the importance of light quality for plant growth. Changing the balance of red (R) to far-red (FR) radiation, but with a fixed photosynthetic input can shift the phytochrome photoequilibrium in a plant and generate large differences in plant growth. With FR enrichment the plants elongate, and may produce more leaf area and dry matter. Similar morphogenic responses are also obtained when light quality is altered only briefly (15-30 min) at the end-of-the-day. Conversely, for plants grown in natural conditions the response of plant form to selective spectral filtering has again shown that red and far-red wavebands are important as found by Kasperbauer and coworkers. Also, where photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) of sunlight have been held constant, the removal of far-red alone alters plant growth. With FR depletion plants grown in sunlight are small, more branched and darker green. Here we examine the implications for plant growth and flowering when the far-red composition of incident radiation in plant growth chambers is manipulated.

King, R. W.; Bagnall, D. J.

1994-01-01

225

Female American goldfinches use carotenoid-based bill coloration to signal status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in female ornamentation has burgeoned recently, and evidence suggests that carotenoid-based female coloration may function as a mate-choice signal. However, the possibility that females may signal status with coloration has been all but ignored. Bill coloration of female American goldfinches (Spinus tristis) changes seasonally, from dull gray in winter to bright orange in the breeding season. We conducted a

Troy G. Murphy; Malcolm F. Rosenthal; Robert Montgomerie; Keith A. Tarvinc

2009-01-01

226

Conical epidermal cells allow bees to grip flowers and increase foraging efficiency.  

PubMed

The plant surface is by default flat, and development away from this default is thought to have some function of evolutionary advantage. Although the functions of many plant epidermal cells have been described, the function of conical epidermal cells, a defining feature of petals in the majority of insect-pollinated flowers, has not. The location and frequency of conical cells have led to speculation that they play a role in attracting animal pollinators. Snapdragon (Antirrhinum) mutants lacking conical cells have been shown to be discriminated against by foraging bumblebees. Here we investigated the extent to which a difference in petal surface structure influences pollinator behavior through touch-based discrimination. To isolate touch-based responses, we used both biomimetic replicas of petal surfaces and isogenic Antirrhinum lines differing only in petal epidermal cell shape. We show that foraging bumblebees are able to discriminate between different surfaces via tactile cues alone. We find that bumblebees use color cues to discriminate against flowers that lack conical cells--but only when flower surfaces are presented at steep angles, making them difficult to manipulate. This facilitation of physical handling is a likely explanation for the prevalence of conical epidermal petal cells in most flowering plants. PMID:19446458

Whitney, Heather M; Chittka, Lars; Bruce, Toby J A; Glover, Beverley J

2009-06-01

227

Color Perception Optical Illusions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from eChalk contains optical illusions offering proof that our color perception is strongly influenced by surrounding colors. The site also includes educational games related to optical illusions and color.

2011-06-24

228

Color Blindness Simulations  

MedlinePLUS

Color blindness Simulations Normal Color Vision Deuteranopia Color blindness marked by confusion of purplish red and green Tritanopia A dichromatism in ... and green and reduced sensitivity to monochromatic lights. Simulations created using Image J 1.22d, National Institutes ...

229

Special Issue Topic: School Choice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes "The Choice Movement" (Brogan); "Choice in American Education" (Witte); "Role of Parents in Education" (Mawdsley); "As Arrows in the Hand" (Coons); "Vouchers in Wisconsin" (Underwood); "Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP)" (Grover); "Civil Liberties and the MPCP" (Bolick); "Comments on School Choice" (Jauch); "Two Classes of…

Brogan, Bernard R.; And Others

1991-01-01

230

Allelic relationships of genes controlling number of flowers per axis in chickpea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variation for number of flowers per axis in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) includes single-flower, double-flower, triple-flower and multi-flower traits. A double-flowered (DF) line ICC 4929, a triple-flowered (TF) line IPC 99-18 and a multi-flowered (MF) line JGM 7 were intercrossed in all possible combinations and flowering behavior of parents, F1s and F2s was studied to establish allelic relationships, penetrance

S. Srinivasan; P. M. Gaur; S. K. Chaturvedi; B. V. Rao

2006-01-01

231

Colored Shadows Investigation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (located on page 3 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into mixing colors with light. Groups of learners will set up colored lights in a darkened room and record the color of shadows cast by each color. They will continue to collect data as they experiment with combinations of multiple colored lights and produce a data table to organize their findings. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Light and Color.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

232

First flowering dates and flowering periods of prairie plants at Woodworth, North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We recorded flowering events for 97 species of prairie plants for 2-6 years near Woodworth, ND. Earliest and latest flower initiation dates varied by year. Temperature seemed much more important than precipitation in influencing phenology of species that bloom from late March through May, but no strong climatic effect was evident for plants that bloom later in the growing season.

Callow, J.M.; Kantrud, H.A.; Higgins, K.F.

1992-01-01

233

THE EFFECT OF 6BENZYLADENINE ON Astilbe ? arendsii ARENDS 'AMETHYST' FLOWERING CULTIVATED FOR CUT FLOWERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of benzyladenine on Astilbe ? arendsii Arends flowering was deter- mined. The cultivation of Astilbe ? arendsii in an unheated plastic tunnel reduces the in- florescence yield in the first and second year of flowering as compared to the field, but in- creases the fresh weight and lenght of inflorescence stems.

Elbieta Pogroszewska; Patrycja Sadkowska

234

Cotton Flowers: Investigating the Inheritance of Pollen Humidity Sensitivities and Flower Shape  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study investigated the inheritance of flower shape (open versus cupped petals) and abiotic stress tolerance of mature cotton [Gossypium hirsutum (L.)] pollen. Inheritance of flower shape was evaluated in the F1 plants from bi-directional crosses of Stoneville 474 (STV474) by Phytogen 72 (PHY7...

235

Flower scent composition in diurnal Silene species (Caryophyllaceae): phylogenetic constraints or adaption to flower visitors?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative analysis of the flower volatiles of 10 day-flowering Silene species native to Central Europe was made to improve the understanding of the pollination biology and evolution of floral odours in the genus. Floral scent was collected by dynamic headspace adsorption and analysed via gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. In total, 60 compounds could be identified by their mass spectra as

Andreas Jürgens

2004-01-01

236

Modelling television programming choices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper extends Waterman's application of Salop's monopolistically competitive model of circular product space to television programming, by introducing considerations of a program's breadth of appeal and consumer intensity of demand in the analysis of programming choices. The effects of external cultural benefits associated with domestic programming are also examined. Consistent with the findings of previous researchers, the model illustrates

Franco Papandrea

1997-01-01

237

Learning from School Choice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume contains revised versions of 16 essays presented at a conference, "Rethinking School Governance," hosted by Harvard's Program on Education Policy and Governance in June 1997. Part 1, "Introduction," contains two chapters: (1) "School Choice: A Report Card" (Paul E. Peterson); and (2) "The Case for Charter Schools" (Bryan C. Hassel).…

Peterson, Paul E., Ed.; Hassel, Bryan C., Ed.

238

Deterministic Walks with Choice  

SciTech Connect

This paper studies deterministic movement over toroidal grids, integrating local information, bounded memory and choice at individual nodes. The research is motivated by recent work on deterministic random walks, and applications in multi-agent systems. Several results regarding passing tokens through toroidal grids are discussed, as well as some open questions.

Beeler, Katy E.; Berenhaut, Kenneth S.; Cooper, Joshua N.; Hunter, Meagan N.; Barr, Peter S.

2014-01-10

239

Moody choice Paola Manzini  

E-print Network

-22-3474 is gratefully acknowl- edged. 1 #12;1 Introduction Mood affects choice. This relationship has been analysed and exercise habits (Thayer [58], [59]), and recently it has been discovered that the experience of stress is associated with a preference among men for heavier female bodies (Swami and Tovee [57]). Positive or negative

Sheldon, Nathan D.

240

Choices 2010 Participation Overview  

E-print Network

the personal and financial health of you and your family. Just look for the "Back 2 Basics" logo for tips time again--time to think about your family, your health and your benefits needs for 2010. How to Use choices. For most JHU faculty and staff, there will be no significant changes to your 2010 health

Niebur, Ernst

241

Choices and Challenges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The president of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) examines the definition of basic mathematics skills. One basic skill is understanding formulas that are used in real life. Recommends that educators use the message of NCTM's standards to make choices that will reinvent mathematics education. Challenges teachers to teach…

Burrill, Gail

1997-01-01

242

Too Few Choices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author, who is a scientist, a wife and a mother of two preschool children talks about how these two roles exerted a disproportionate impact on her career choices. She is also an X-Gal, one of a group of nine female biologists who have banded together to offer one another advice and support as they seek careers in academic…

Murray, Meg

2007-01-01

243

School Choice as a Civil Right: District Responses to Competition and Equal Educational Opportunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using geographic representations to examine choice policies and patterns in a major urban area, this analysis considers how districts in a metropolitan area are responding to competitive incentives in arranging options for African American students. The findings demonstrate that the distribution of districts' school choice policies exclude poorer students of color from the more preferred school options. The decision of

Christopher Lubienski

2005-01-01

244

The Influence of Cultural Social Identity on Graduate Student Career Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines and enriches understanding of the career choice process for graduate students of color. Social identity theory (SIT) is used as a framework to expand our understanding of how and why graduate students choose (or do not choose) faculty careers. Graduate students' cultural social identities influenced their career choice

Haley, Karen J.; Jaeger, Audrey J.; Levin, John S.

2014-01-01

245

Flower Volatiles, Crop Varieties and Bee Responses  

PubMed Central

Pollination contributes to an estimated one third of global food production, through both the improvement of the yield and the quality of crops. Volatile compounds emitted by crop flowers mediate plant-pollinator interactions, but differences between crop varieties are still little explored. We investigated whether the visitation of crop flowers is determined by variety-specific flower volatiles using strawberry varieties (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne) and how this affects the pollination services of the wild bee Osmia bicornis L. Flower volatile compounds of three strawberry varieties were measured via headspace collection. Gas chromatography showed that the three strawberry varieties produced the same volatile compounds but with quantitative differences of the total amount of volatiles and between distinct compounds. Electroantennographic recordings showed that inexperienced females of Osmia bicornis had higher antennal responses to all volatile compounds than to controls of air and paraffin oil, however responses differed between compounds. The variety Sonata was found to emit a total higher level of volatiles and also higher levels of most of the compounds that evoked antennal responses compared with the other varieties Honeoye and Darselect. Sonata also received more flower visits from Osmia bicornis females under field conditions, compared with Honeoye. Our results suggest that differences in the emission of flower volatile compounds among strawberry varieties mediate their attractiveness to females of Osmia bicornis. Since quality and quantity of marketable fruits depend on optimal pollination, a better understanding of the role of flower volatiles in crop production is required and should be considered more closely in crop-variety breeding. PMID:23977347

Klatt, Björn K.; Burmeister, Carina; Westphal, Catrin; Tscharntke, Teja; von Fragstein, Maximillian

2013-01-01

246

Divergence of flowering genes in soybean.  

PubMed

Soybean genome sequences were blasted with Arabidopsis thaliana regulatory genes involved in photoperioddependent flowering. This approach enabled the identification of 118 genes involved in the flowering pathway. Two genome sequences of cultivated (Williams 82) and wild (IT182932) soybeans were employed to survey functional DNA variations in the flowering-related homologs. Forty genes exhibiting nonsynonymous substitutions between G. max and G. soja were catalogued. In addition, 22 genes were found to co-localize with QTLs for six traits including flowering time, first flower, pod maturity, beginning of pod, reproductive period, and seed filling period. Among the genes overlapping the QTL regions, two LHY/CCA1 genes, GI and SFR6 contained amino acid changes. The recently duplicated sequence regions of the soybean genome were used as additional criteria for the speculation of the putative function of the homologs. Two duplicated regions showed redundancy of both flowering-related genes and QTLs. ID 12398025, which contains the homeologous regions between chr 7 and chr 16, was redundant for the LHY/CCA1 and SPA1 homologs and the QTLs. Retaining of the CRY1 gene and the pod maturity QTLs were observed in the duplicated region of ID 23546507 on chr 4 and chr 6. Functional DNA variation of the LHY/CCA1 gene (Glyma07g05410) was present in a counterpart of the duplicated region on chr 7, while the gene (Glyma16g01980) present in the other portion of the duplicated region on chr 16 did not show a functional sequence change. The gene list catalogued in this study provides primary insight for understanding the regulation of flowering time and maturity in soybean. PMID:23107921

Kim, Moon Young; Shin, Jin Hee; Kang, Yang Jae; Shim, Sang Rea; Lee, Suk-Ha

2012-11-01

247

Study on Image Color Stealing in Log-Polar Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper proposes a cluster-to-cluster image color transform algorithm. Suntory Flowers announced the development of world’s\\u000a first blue rose “APPLAUSE”. Since roses lack the blue pigment, it was long believed to be impossible. The key to success lies\\u000a in the introduction of blue gene from pansy into rose. In the previous paper, PCA matching model was successfully applied\\u000a to a

Hiroaki Kotera

2010-01-01

248

Flowering time control in European winter wheat  

PubMed Central

Flowering time is an important trait in wheat breeding as it affects adaptation and yield potential. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic architecture of flowering time in European winter bread wheat cultivars. To this end a population of 410 winter wheat varieties was evaluated in multi-location field trials and genotyped by a genotyping-by-sequencing approach and candidate gene markers. Our analyses revealed that the photoperiod regulator Ppd-D1 is the major factor affecting flowering time in this germplasm set, explaining 58% of the genotypic variance. Copy number variation at the Ppd-B1 locus was present but explains only 3.2% and thus a comparably small proportion of genotypic variance. By contrast, the plant height loci Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 had no effect on flowering time. The genome-wide scan identified six QTL which each explain only a small proportion of genotypic variance and in addition we identified a number of epistatic QTL, also with small effects. Taken together, our results show that flowering time in European winter bread wheat cultivars is mainly controlled by Ppd-D1 while the fine tuning to local climatic conditions is achieved through Ppd-B1 copy number variation and a larger number of QTL with small effects. PMID:25346745

Langer, Simon M.; Longin, C. Friedrich H.; Würschum, Tobias

2014-01-01

249

Reversion of flowering in Glycine Max (Fabaceae).  

PubMed

Photoperiodic changes, if occurring before a commitment to flowering is established, can alter the morphological pattern of plant development. In this study, Glycine max (L.) Merrill cv. Ransom plants were initially grown under an inductive short-day (SD) photoperiod to promote flower evocation and then transferred to a long-day (LD) photoperiod to delay flower development by reestablishing vegetative growth (SD-LD plants). Some plants were transferred back to SD after 4-LD exposures to repromote flowering (SD-LD-SD plants). Alterations in organ initiation patterns, from floral to vegetative and back to floral, are characteristic of a reversion phenomenon. Morphological features that occurred at the shoot apical meristem in SD, LD, SD-LD, and SD-LD-SD plants were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Reverted plants initiated floral bracts and resumed initiation of trifoliolate leaves in the two-fifths floral phyllotaxy prior to terminal inflorescence development. When these plants matured, leaf-bract intermediates were positioned on the main stem instead of trifoliolate leaves. Plants transferred back to a SD photoperiod flowered earlier than those left in LD conditions. Results indicated that in plants transferred between SDs and LDs, photoperiod can influence organ initiation in florally evoked, but not committed, G. max plants. PMID:11034918

Washburn, C F; Thomas, J F

2000-10-01

250

THE EXPRESSION OF THE GENE FOR LYCOPENE ¿-CYCLASE IS ELEVATED IN LEAVES AND FLOWERS AND DOWN-REGULATED IN BOTH YELLOW- AND RED- FLESHED PAPAYA FRUITS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carotene pigments in flowers and fruits are distinct features related to fitness advantages such as attracting insects for pollination and birds for seeds disposal. In papaya, the flesh color of fruit is considered a quality trait that varies in nutritional values and is linked to shelf life of the ...

251

A 2-Phase Labeling and Choice Architecture Intervention to Improve Healthy Food and Beverage Choices  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We assessed whether a 2-phase labeling and choice architecture intervention would increase sales of healthy food and beverages in a large hospital cafeteria. Methods. Phase 1 was a 3-month color-coded labeling intervention (red?=?unhealthy, yellow?=?less healthy, green?=?healthy). Phase 2 added a 3-month choice architecture intervention that increased the visibility and convenience of some green items. We compared relative changes in 3-month sales from baseline to phase 1 and from phase 1 to phase 2. Results. At baseline (977?793 items, including 199?513 beverages), 24.9% of sales were red and 42.2% were green. Sales of red items decreased in both phases (P?color-coded labeling intervention improved sales of healthy items and was enhanced by a choice architecture intervention. PMID:22390518

Sonnenberg, Lillian; Riis, Jason; Barraclough, Susan; Levy, Douglas E.

2012-01-01

252

CropChoice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CropChoice is an alternative news and information source for American farmers and consumers about genetically modified crops, corporate agribusiness concentration, farm and trade policy, sustainable agriculture, wind farming and alternative energy, and rural economic and social issues. Users can explore the site's resources by topic, search past headlines and view press releases. Links are provided to sites that involve similar issues and information.

2007-04-16

253

Standard RGB Color Spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the specifications and usage of standard RGB color spaces promoted today by standard bodies and\\/or the imaging industry. As in the past, most of the new standard RGB color spaces were developed for specific imaging workflow and applications. They are used as interchange spaces to communicate color and\\/or as working spaces in imaging applications. Standard color spaces

Sabine Süsstrunk; Robert Buckley; Steve Swen

1999-01-01

254

Color: An Unsuspected Influence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the appropriate use of colors in school libraries. Highlights include how colors affect students' learning and behavior; influences on users' moods; users' ages; the use of colors to bring out the best physical attributes; and the use of color for floor coverings, window treatments, furnishings, and accessories. (LRW)

Scargall, Hollie

1999-01-01

255

Bilabiate Flowers: The Ultimate Response to Bees?  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Bilabiate flowers have evolved in many lineages of the angiosperms, thus representing a convincing example of parallel evolution. Similar to keel blossoms, they have obviously evolved in order to protect pollen against pollen-collecting bees. Although many examples are known, a comprehensive survey on floral diversity and functional constraints of bilabiate flowers is lacking. Here, the concept is widened and described as a general pattern. Methods The present paper is a conceptional review including personal observations of the authors. To form a survey on the diversity of bilabiate blossoms, a search was made for examples across the angiosperms and these were combined with personal observations collected during the last 25 years, coupled with knowledge from the literature. New functional terms are introduced that are independent of morphological and taxonomic associations. Key Results Bilabiate constructions occur in at least 38 angiosperm families. They are characterized by dorsiventral organization and dorsal pollen transfer. They are most often realised on the level of a single flower, but may also be present in an inflorescence or as part of a so-called ‘walk-around flower’. Interestingly, in functional terms all nototribic blossoms represent bilabiate constructions. The great majority of specialized bee-flowers can thus be included under bilabiate and keel blossoms. The syndrome introduced here, however, also paves the way for the inclusion of larger animals such as birds and bats. The most important evolutionary trends appear to be in the saving of pollen and the precision of its transfer. With special reference to the Lamiales, selected examples of bilabiate flowers are presented and their functional significance is discussed. Conclusions Bilabiate blossoms protect their pollen against pollen-collecting bees and at the same time render their pollination more precisely. The huge diversity of realised forms indicate the high selection pressure towards the bilabiate syndrome. As bees are very inventive, however, bilabiate constructions will not represent the ultimate response to bees. PMID:17652341

Westerkamp, Christian; Claßen-Bockhoff, Regine

2007-01-01

256

RGB Additive Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Color is all around us. RGB is the color system that is used when mixing light. The RGB system is what we use in computers, televisions, stage lighting, displays and more. It is also called the additive color system because the colors are combined or added to each other to make the colors that we see. What wavelength goes with a color? Remember that a a nanometer is a unit of length in the metric system equal to one billionth of a meter. NASA What is a wave? NASA Color Why is the sky blue? What is RGB and how and where is it used? RGB World 21st Century Color Theory RGB colors are identified on computers by a color value that ranges for R, G, and B, ...

Engelman, Mr.

2010-12-05

257

Why are fruits colorful? The relative importance of achromatic and chromatic contrasts for detection by birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The colors of fruits and flowers are traditionally viewed as an adaptation to increase the detectability of plant organs to\\u000a animal vectors. The detectability of visual signals increases with increasing contrasts between target and background. Contrasts\\u000a consist of a chromatic aspect (color) and an achromatic aspect (light intensity), which are perceived separately by animals.\\u000a To evaluate the relative importance of

Eliana Cazetta; Hinrich Martin Schaefer; Mauro Galetti

2009-01-01

258

Synesthesia: When colors count  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tacitly held assumption in synesthesia research is the unidirectionality of digit–color associations. This notion is based on synesthetes' report that digits evoke a color percept, but colors do not elicit any numerical impression. In a random color generation task, we found evidence for an implicit co-activation of digits by colors, a finding that constrains neurological theories concerning cross-modal associations

Daria Knoch; Lorena R. R. Gianotti; Christine Mohr; Peter Brugger

2005-01-01

259

Mutation in TERMINAL FLOWER1 Reverses the Photoperiodic Requirement for Flowering in the Wild Strawberry Fragaria vesca1[W  

PubMed Central

Photoperiodic flowering has been extensively studied in the annual short-day and long-day plants rice (Oryza sativa) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), whereas less is known about the control of flowering in perennials. In the perennial wild strawberry, Fragaria vesca (Rosaceae), short-day and perpetual flowering long-day accessions occur. Genetic analyses showed that differences in their flowering responses are caused by a single gene, SEASONAL FLOWERING LOCUS, which may encode the F. vesca homolog of TERMINAL FLOWER1 (FvTFL1). We show through high-resolution mapping and transgenic approaches that FvTFL1 is the basis of this change in flowering behavior and demonstrate that FvTFL1 acts as a photoperiodically regulated repressor. In short-day F. vesca, long photoperiods activate FvTFL1 mRNA expression and short days suppress it, promoting flower induction. These seasonal cycles in FvTFL1 mRNA level confer seasonal cycling of vegetative and reproductive development. Mutations in FvTFL1 prevent long-day suppression of flowering, and the early flowering that then occurs under long days is dependent on the F. vesca homolog of FLOWERING LOCUS T. This photoperiodic response mechanism differs from those described in model annual plants. We suggest that this mechanism controls flowering within the perennial growth cycle in F. vesca and demonstrate that a change in a single gene reverses the photoperiodic requirements for flowering. PMID:22566495

Koskela, Elli A.; Mouhu, Katriina; Albani, Maria C.; Kurokura, Takeshi; Rantanen, Marja; Sargent, Daniel J.; Battey, Nicholas H.; Coupland, George; Elomaa, Paula; Hytönen, Timo

2012-01-01

260

Routing problem with service choices  

E-print Network

This thesis finds solutions to the routing problem with service choices which is formulated as a capacitated minimum cost flow circulation problem with GUB constraints. The routing problem with service choices is solved ...

Lee, Boon Chai

1986-01-01

261

Photosynthetic utilization of radiant energy by CAM Dendrobium flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

14CO2 fixation was observed in orchid Dendrobium flowers; its rate decreased with the flower development. Chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence in different developmental stages of flowers was compared to other green plant parts (leaf, inflorescence stalk, and fruit capsule). The photochemical efficiency of photosystem 2 (PS2) (Fv\\/Fm) of a leaf was 14-21 % higher than that of a mature flower perianth (sepal,

G. H. Khoo; J. He; C. S. Hew

1997-01-01

262

Honeybees mark with scent and reject recently visited flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental evidence is reported for flower-marking by honeybees (Apis mellifera ligustica) while they were foraging on an artificial patch of flowers yielding a continuous and equal flow of sucrose solution. Honeybees marked with scent and rejected all recently visited and nectar-depleted flowers. The short fade-out time of this scent allowed discrimination of flowers that temporarily provided no food. The repellent

Martin Giurfa; Josué A. Núñez

1992-01-01

263

Reproductive assurance varies with flower size in Collinsia parviflora (Scrophulariaceae).  

PubMed

A central question in plant evolutionary ecology is how mixed mating systems are maintained in the face of selection against self-pollination. Recently, attention has focused on the potential reproductive assurance (RA) benefit of selfing: the ability to produce seeds via autonomous selfing when the potential for outcrossing is reduced or absent. To date, there is little experimental support for this benefit under natural pollination conditions. In addition, the RA hypothesis has not been tested experimentally in a species displaying morphological variation for traits expected to influence the mating system, such as flower size, which affects both attractiveness to pollinators and ability to self autonomously. Here, we document significant among-population variation in flower size in Collinsia parviflora and show that pollinators preferred large flowers over small flowers in experimental arrays. The pollinator community varied among three study sites, and two small-flowered populations had lower pollinator visitation rates than one large-flowered population. We compared seed production between intact flowers (can self) and experimentally emasculated flowers (require a pollinator) on large- and small-flowered plants. As predicted by the RA hypothesis, small-flowered plants show a greater RA benefit of selfing than large-flowered plants; emasculated, small flowers produced very few seeds, relative to intact, small flowers or either emasculated or intact, large flowers. We also show that the RA benefit is pollination-context dependent, differing between small- and large-flowered test sites, likely due to a combination of pollinator discrimination against small flowers and differences between test sites in the pollinator community. This paper is the first experimental evidence showing a trait-dependent RA benefit of selfing under natural pollination conditions. PMID:21659183

Elle, Elizabeth; Carney, Robert

2003-06-01

264

Automatic favorite-color control for reference color  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The color control of reproduced images has been a critical problem in TV system. The viewer can adjust the color control at the receiver for optimal color reproduction, but frequent color adjustment is the most common problem experienced by the viewer. In this paper, we propose an automatic favorite color control system which represents the favorite color to the viewer on demand. The system consists of phase detector to detect the favorite colors at real time from the color burst signal and color signal, comparators to discriminate the types of favorite color. The proposed system reproduces flesh tone, blue color, and green color. In the proposed algorithm, the variation range of phase detector output voltage was minimized for the favorite color saturation changes and also the color signal phase is readjusted from the color burst signal. Thus, the favorite color was easily detected from the other colors without overlapping of correction range and it provides reference color to viewer.

Lee, Eung-Joo; Hyun, Ki-Ho; Ha, Yeong-Ho

1998-01-01

265

BRIEF REPORT Predicting Affective Choice  

E-print Network

BRIEF REPORT Predicting Affective Choice Gaurav Suri Stanford University Gal Sheppes Tel Aviv quantified the role of two basic dimensions of affect--valence and arousal--in determining choice. We predicted choice and outperformed competing models drawn from well-established theoretical views. Finally

Gross, James J.

266

After Busing: Education and Choice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that mandatory busing, while resulting in cases of "White flight," has had positive consequences in the re-emergence of "choice" programs and magnet schools. Contends that choice programs can be expanded on intradistrict, metropolitan, and statewide levels. Suggests that Federal funding and private education should be included in choice

Armor, David J.

1989-01-01

267

Fruits and Vegetables: Color Your Plate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore healthy choices related to the foods they eat. The importance of a variety of fruits and vegetables to a healthy diet is the focus of the experience. Learners read a story book about fruits and vegetables, repeat a helpful riddle, and draw pictures of fruits/vegetables. These drawings are then cut out and taped to "color" a Healthy Choice bulletin board plate. Learners can also taste-test different fruits and vegetables at snack or lunch time. Learners are encouraged to try one new color each day. This activity is featured on pp. 12-13 of the "Health House: Food, Fitness, & Fun 24/7!" unit of study for K-2 learners.

Reitsma, Beverly A.; Indianapolis, The C.

2014-04-30

268

Specific color sensitivities of prey and predator explain camouflage in different visual systems  

E-print Network

Specific color sensitivities of prey and predator explain camouflage in different visual systems pollinators. To evaluate the efficiency of spider camouflage on flowers, we measured by spectroradiometry and predator are involved in camouflage. The analysis suggests more research on bird predation and vision

Giron, David - Institut de Recherche sur la Biologie de l'Insecte, Université François Rabelais

269

Specific color sensitivities of prey and predator explain camouflage in different visual systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situations of aggressive mimicry, predators adapt their color to that of the substrate on which they sit for hunting, a behavior that is presumed to hide them from prey as well as from their own predators. Females of few crab-spider species encounter such situations when lying on flowers to ambush pollinators. To evaluate the efficiency of spider camouflage on

Marc Théry; Martine Debut; Doris Gomez; Jérôme Casas

2005-01-01

270

Ultraviolet Patterns on Rear of Flowers: Basis of Disparity of Buds and Blossoms  

PubMed Central

Flowers of Jasminium primulinum and Hypericum spp. have ultraviolet patterns on the reverse surface of the corolla. Those areas of the surface that are exposed to the outside in the bud are ultraviolet absorbent, whereas the portions that come into view at maturity in the open blossom are ultraviolet reflectant. Buds and blossoms, as a result, appear different in color to insects sensitive to ultraviolet light. Experimental evidence indicates that the ultraviolet-absorbent quality of the outer surface of the bud is a consequence of exposure itself, attributable possibly to a “sun tanning” effect. Images PMID:16592074

Eisner, Thomas; Eisner, Maria; Aneshansley, D.

1973-01-01

271

Co-pigmentation and flavonoid glycosyltransferases in blue Veronica persica flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glycosylation is one of the key modification steps for plants to produce a broad spectrum of flavonoids with various structures and colors. A survey of flavonoids in the blue flowers of Veronica persica Poiret (Lamiales, Scrophulariaceae), which is native of Eurasia and now widespread worldwide, led to the identification of highly glycosylated flavonoids, namely delphinidin 3-O-(2-O-(6-O-p-coumaroyl-glucosyl)-6-O-p-coumaroyl-glucoside)-5-O-glucoside (1) and apigenin 7-O-(2-O-glucuronosyl)-glucuronide

Eiichiro Ono; Miho Ruike; Takashi Iwashita; Kyosuke Nomoto; Yuko Fukui

2010-01-01

272

Life Cycle and Flowering Time Control Pierre Albert Pin  

E-print Network

Life Cycle and Flowering Time Control in Beet Pierre Albert Pin Faculty of Forest Science Umeå requirement. (Photo: P. Pin) #12;Life cycle and flowering time control in beet Abstract Flowering plants have developed different life cycles to ensure optimal reproductive success depending on their habitat

273

Feasibility of Seed Production from Non-flowering Orchardgrass  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Non-flowering or sparse flowering orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) would greatly simplify management of intensive rotational grazing systems. Our objective was to quantify seed production on non-flowering orchardgrass clones selected in cold-winter climates, but grown for seed in mild-winter cl...

274

Up and down asymmetrical world for flower blooming.  

PubMed

Form of plant body shows vertical polarity. Photosynthetic organs deploy upwards to seek light. Root system extends downward for water. In addition to this major polarity, flowers has similar features, because they bloom in the world where up and down asymmetry dominates. Many flowering plants co-evolved with pollinator animals. Success of their reproduction is linked to the shape of flower organs in many ways. Orientation of inflorescence and each individual flowers, arrangement and shape of flower organs exhibit various up and down asymmetry. Some flowers mimic female of its pollinator animal. In such case, posture of the target animal is copied to the flower. Since animal posture and shape have vertical polarity, flower happens to equip same kind of polarity. Tropic response of pistils is another up and down feature that improves fitness of flowering plants. Certain lily flowers show phototropism to bend pistil upward. Azalea flower depends on gravity as the major environmental cue, and light as the secondary signal for up. Molecular machinery for those tropic responses seems to be shared with other tropism expressed in shoot and root. However, certain differences are found in distribution of sediment amyloplast, or spatial allocation of photo-sensing and bending site. Tropic responses result in adaptation of those flowers against behavior of pollinator animals and terrestrial environment, where gravity affects living organisms and interaction among them. PMID:15858338

Yamashita, Masamichi; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Nakamura, Teruko

2004-11-01

275

Morphological and flowering variation of Trifolium dubium Sibth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphology, flowering, survival to maturity, and re-establishment of 28 New Zealand and overseas lines of suckling clover (Trifolium dubium Sibth) were examined. Significant differences between lines were shown for leaf size, plant spread, leaf density, time of flowering, and survival at peak flowering in the first year. In the second year, there were no significant differences between lines for

J. R. Caradus; A. C. Mackay

1989-01-01

276

Flower biology and biologically-based integrated fire blight management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fire blight infection is generally initiated in flowers, and thus, research has been directed to the biology and microbial ecology of flowers as related to this disease. In addition to investigations involving apple and pear flowers, Manchurian crab apple (Malus manchurica), closely related to appl...

277

Using a Mousy, Little Flower to Understand the Flamboyant Ones.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses major leaps in knowledge about the production of flowers that have come from studying genes that regulate the flowers of mouse ear cress (Arabidopsis thaliana). Examines the ABC model of flower morphogenesis, commonality of genes, evolution of angiosperms, and agricultural and horticultural potential. (LZ)

Gillis, Anna Maria

1995-01-01

278

Do consecutive flower visits within a crown diminish fruit set in mass-flowering Hancornia speciosa (Apocynaceae)?  

PubMed

Hancornia speciosa is a self-incompatible, mass-flowering, sphingophilous fruit crop (mangaba) of northeast and central Brazil. The flowers have a precise pollination apparatus, which optimizes pollen transfer between flower and pollinator. While the pollination mechanism avoids self-pollination, mass-flowering promotes geitonogamy. During a flower visit, almost half of the exogenous pollen grains adhering to the proboscis are deposited on the stigma surface. A pollination experiment with a nylon thread simulating six consecutive flower visits within a crown revealed that only the first two flowers visited (positions 1 and 2) are highly likely to set fruit. Super-production of flowers, and consequently obligate low fruit set, seem to be part of the reproductive strategy of the obligate outcrossing plant, Hancornia speciosa. PMID:18426489

Pinto, C E; Oliveira, R; Schlindwein, C

2008-05-01

279

What color is it?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Color management allows the deterministic handling of color data from input to output. This, of course, assumes that the first digital representation of our data is the "correct" color. It assumes that we did not make any errors in the input definitions, did not use wrong color input profiles, captured the user's intent, or fell prey to a host of other potential problems. After we have made those assumptions, we now can deterministically transfer the color from one place to another. Note that there is a big difference between "reproducing" one color at a different location and "deterministically transferring one set of color data to another location". The deterministic transfer is limited to the small set of physical metrics we decided to call "color". All other components of color are ignored.

Eschbach, Reiner; Sharma, Gaurav; Unal, Gozde B.

2005-01-01

280

What color is it?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Color management allows the deterministic handling of color data from input to output. This, of course, assumes that the first digital representation of our data is the "correct" color. It assumes that we did not make any errors in the input definitions, did not use wrong color input profiles, captured the user's intent, or fell prey to a host of other potential problems. After we have made those assumptions, we now can deterministically transfer the color from one place to another. Note that there is a big difference between "reproducing" one color at a different location and "deterministically transferring one set of color data to another location". The deterministic transfer is limited to the small set of physical metrics we decided to call "color". All other components of color are ignored.

Eschbach, Reiner; Sharma, Gaurav; Unal, Gozde B.

2004-12-01

281

Searching through synaesthetic colors.  

PubMed

Synaesthesia can be characterized by illusory colors being elicited automatically when one reads an alphanumeric symbol. These colors can affect attention; synaesthetes can show advantages in visual search of achromatic symbols that normally cause slow searches. However, some studies have failed to find these advantages, challenging the conclusion that synaesthetic colors influence attention in a manner similar to the influence of perceptual colors. In the present study, we investigated 2 synaesthetes who reported colors localized in space over alphanumeric symbols' shapes. The Euclidian distance in CIE xyY color space between two synaesthetic colors was computed for each specific visual search, so that the relationship between color distance (CD) and efficiency of search could be explored with simple regression analyses. Target-to-distractors color salience systematically predicted the speed of search, but the CD between a target or distractors and the physically presented achromatic color did not. When the synaesthetic colors of a target and distractors were nearly complementary, searches resembled popout performance with real colors. Control participants who performed searches for the same symbols (which were colored according to the synaesthetic colors) showed search functions very similar to those shown by the synaesthetes for the physically achromatic symbols. PMID:19801606

Laeng, Bruno

2009-10-01

282

Colour preferences of flower-naive honeybees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flower-naive honeybees Apis mellifera L. flying in an enclosure were tested for their colour preferences. Bees were rewarded once on an achromatic (grey, aluminium or hardboard), or on a chromatic (ultraviolet) disk. Since naive bees never alighted on colour stimuli alone, a scent was given in combination with colour. Their landings on twelve colour stimuli were recorded. Results after one

M. Giurfa; J. Núñez; L. Chittka; R. Menzel

1995-01-01

283

Plant physiology Acclimatization and flower induction  

E-print Network

Plant physiology Acclimatization and flower induction of tissue culture derived cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium Schott) plants OU Onokpise1 JT Tambong2 L Nyochembeng2 JG Wutoh3 Florida A & M University, 1 for production of tissue culture plants, from cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) plants growing in agroecological

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

284

Jasmonates in flower and seed development.  

PubMed

Jasmonates are ubiquitously occurring lipid-derived signaling compounds active in plant development and plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Upon environmental stimuli jasmonates are formed and accumulate transiently. During flower and seed development, jasmonic acid (JA) and a remarkable number of different metabolites accumulate organ- and tissue specifically. The accumulation is accompanied with expression of jasmonate-inducible genes. Among these genes there are defense genes and developmentally regulated genes. The profile of jasmonate compounds in flowers and seeds covers active signaling molecules such as JA, its precursor 12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA) and amino acid conjugates such as JA-Ile, but also inactive signaling molecules occur such as 12-hydroxy-JA and its sulfated derivative. These latter compounds can occur at several orders of magnitude higher level than JA. Metabolic conversion of JA and JA-Ile to hydroxylated compounds seems to inactivate JA signaling, but also specific functions of jasmonates in flower and seed development were detected. In tomato OPDA is involved in embryo development. Occurrence of jasmonates, expression of JA-inducible genes and JA-dependent processes in flower and seed development will be discussed. PMID:22705387

Wasternack, Claus; Forner, Susanne; Strnad, Miroslav; Hause, Bettina

2013-01-01

285

Membrane Deterioration in Senescing Carnation Flowers 1  

PubMed Central

The lipid fluidity of microsomal membranes from the petals of cut carnation flowers decreases as the flowers senesce. A comparable change in fluidity was induced by in vitro aging of microsomal membranes from young flowers under conditions in which membranous lipoxygenase-like activity was active. There was no change in fluidity when the membranes were aged in the presence of inhibitors of lipoxygenase or were heat-denatured prior to aging. Membranes from naturally senesced flowers and membranes that had been aged in vitro both sustained an increase in saturated:unsaturated fatty acid ratio that accounted for the decrease in lipid fluidity, and in both instances there was evidence for depletion of the unsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid, which are substrates for lipoxygenase. Loss of lipid phosphate reflecting breakdown of membrane phospholipids preceded the depletion of unsaturated fatty acids attributable to the lipoxygenase-like activity. The data have been interpreted as indicating that fatty acid substrates for membrane-associated lipoxygenase-like activity are made available by the initiation of phospholipid degradation, and that the utilization of these substrates results in a selective depletion of unsaturated fatty acids from the membrane and an ensuing decrease in bulk lipid fluidity. PMID:16665659

Fobel, Maribeth; Lynch, Daniel V.; Thompson, John E.

1987-01-01

286

FPF1 promotes flowering in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed Central

We have characterized the gene flowering promoting factor1 (FPF1), which is expressed in apical meristems immediately after the photoperiodic induction of flowering in the long-day plants mustard and Arabidopsis. In early transition stages, expression is only detectable in the peripheral zone of apical meristems; however, later on, it can also be found in floral meristems and in axillary meristems that form secondary inflorescences. The FPF1 gene encodes a 12.6-kD protein that has no homology to any previously identified protein of known function. Constitutive expression of the gene in Arabidopsis under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter resulted in a dominant heritable trait of early flowering under both short- and long-day conditions. Treatments with gibberellin (GA) and paclobutrazol, a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, as well as crosses with GA-deficient mutants indicate that FPF1 is involved in a GA-dependent signaling pathway and modulates a GA response in apical meristems during the transition to flowering. PMID:9286110

Kania, T; Russenberger, D; Peng, S; Apel, K; Melzer, S

1997-01-01

287

Where Have All the Flowers Gone?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an activity for secondary mathematics students using digital imaging on The Geometer's Sketchpad to model polar functions of flowers. The activity presented in the appendix engages students in learning and exploring the polar coordinate system while helping them analyze a real-world situation. By completing this activity,…

Walker, Janet M.

2007-01-01

288

The Genetic Architecture of Maize Flowering Time  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Flowering time is the key trait controlling adaptation of plants to their local environment, and, in an outcrossing species like maize, it is a complex trait. Variation for this complex trait was dissected in maize using a novel set of 5000 recombinant inbred lines (maize Nested Association Mapping...

289

Grammar Schools: Brief Flowering of Social Mobility?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grammar schools are increasingly remembered, especially by right-wing ideologues, as the agents of a "brief flowering" of post-war social mobility. This article presents statistical, documentary and interview evidence of secondary education in the eleven plus era, and finds nothing to justify the claim that selective schools produced a general…

Barker, Bernard

2012-01-01

290

Pigment chemistry and colour of Pelargonium flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major factors responsible for colour variation in a range of Pelargonium species and cultivars were shown to be the types and relative levels of pigments present. Variations in pH and copigment levels were not found to contribute significantly. Flowers with colours ranging from cream and pink through to deep purple, including salmon, orange and red, were studied. While either

Kevin A. Mitchell; Kenneth R. Markham; Murray R. Boase

1998-01-01

291

Headspace Volatiles of Scutellaria Baicalensis Georgi Flowers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Volatile constituents of Baikal skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi) flowers were isolated by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. A total of 64 constituents was identified (constituting 57.1 – 89.9% of the total area), 13 of which were tentatively identified. beta...

292

Flowers and Children: Unearthing Differences, Nurturing Growth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a useful tool to help teachers understand their students' differences and learning preferences. Describes the use of the MBTI at a Catholic elementary school and a related project to link the appreciation of differences to a field trip to a flower show. (MAB)

Nolan, Noreen; Eichmann, Mary Ellen

1996-01-01

293

Origin choice and petal loss in the flower garden of spiral wave tip trajectories  

PubMed Central

Rotating spiral waves have been observed in numerous biological and physical systems. These spiral waves can be stationary, meander, or even degenerate into multiple unstable rotating waves. The spatiotemporal behavior of spiral waves has been extensively quantified by tracking spiral wave tip trajectories. However, the precise methodology of identifying the spiral wave tip and its influence on the specific patterns of behavior remains a largely unexplored topic of research. Here we use a two-state variable FitzHugh–Nagumo model to simulate stationary and meandering spiral waves and examine the spatiotemporal representation of the system’s state variables in both the real (i.e., physical) and state spaces. We show that mapping between these two spaces provides a method to demarcate the spiral wave tip as the center of rotation of the solution to the underlying nonlinear partial differential equations. This approach leads to the simplest tip trajectories by eliminating portions resulting from the rotational component of the spiral wave. PMID:19791998

Gray, Richard A.; Wikswo, John P.; Otani, Niels F.

2009-01-01

294

Origin choice and petal loss in the flower garden of spiral wave tip trajectories  

E-print Network

astronomy eliminated the epicyclic descriptions of planetary orbits of the Ptolemaic system,14 so our model systems. These spiral waves can be stationary, meander, or even degenerate into multiple unstable rotating and examine the spatiotemporal representation of the system's state variables in both the real i.e., physical

Wikswo, John

295

Foraging Ability of Rufous Hummingbirds on Hummingbird Flowers and Hawkmoth Flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the suitability of ornithophilous flowers and sphingophilous flowers in Ipompsis and Aquilegia for nectar foraging by the hummingbird Selasphorus rufus. In S. rufus, bill length averages 18.9 mm in females and 17.3 mm in males. Maximal tongue extension approximates bill length, suggesting that birds can feed from floral tubes up to 33.5 mm in length. However, their ability

Verne Grant; Ethan J. Temeles

1992-01-01

296

Radiation coloration resistant glass  

DOEpatents

A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10.sup.7 rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency.

Tomozawa, Minoru (Troy, NY); Watson, E. Bruce (Troy, NY); Acocella, John (Troy, NY)

1986-01-01

297

Radiation coloration resistant glass  

DOEpatents

A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10[sup 7] rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency. 3 figs.

Tomozawa, M.; Watson, E.B.; Acocella, J.

1986-11-04

298

Conditioned reinforcement and choice  

PubMed Central

In a series of three experiments, rats were exposed to successive schedule components arranged on two levers, in which lever pressing produced a light, and nose-key pressing produced water in 50% of the light periods. When one auditory signal was presented only during those light periods correlated with water on one lever, and a different signal was presented only during those light periods correlated with nonreinforcement on the other lever, the former lever was preferred in choice trials, and higher rates of responding were maintained on the former lever in nonchoice (forced) trials. Thus, the rats preferred a schedule component that included a conditioned reinforcer over one that did not, with the schedules of primary reinforcement and the information value of the signals equated. Preferences were maintained when one or the other of the auditory signals was deleted, but were not established in naive subjects when training began with either the positive or negative signal only. Discriminative control of nose-key pressing by the auditory signals was highly variable across subjects and was not correlated with choice. PMID:16812034

Nevin, J. A.; Mandell, C.

1978-01-01

299

Frontline: The Choice 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to the polls, many Americans have yet to make up their minds about who they will vote for next Tuesday in the Presidential race. This Website could help them decide. The companion site to a recent two-hour Frontline special on the backgrounds and character of Al Gore and George W. Bush, The Choice offers the entire broadcast in RealPlayer as well as significant additional materials. Among these are issue briefs from Frontline on the candidates's stands on issues such as abortion, health care, education, the environment, campaign finance reform, and others, as well as supplemental video interviews with friends and family of the candidates and a photo gallery of both candidates from birth to the present. A Tools for Choice feature invites visitors to take a 20-question quiz to find out which candidate, including Nader and Buchanan, better reflects their views and offers links to NPR and Newshour stories about the "Nader Factor," the candidates's economic plans, the decision process for undecideds in the battleground state of Ohio, and a review of the candidates's Websites, entitled WWW.Dull.

300

Flower colour and cytochromes P450.  

PubMed

Cytochromes P450 play important roles in biosynthesis of flavonoids and their coloured class of compounds, anthocyanins, both of which are major floral pigments. The number of hydroxyl groups on the B-ring of anthocyanidins (the chromophores and precursors of anthocyanins) impact the anthocyanin colour, the more the bluer. The hydroxylation pattern is determined by two cytochromes P450, flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) and thus they play a crucial role in the determination of flower colour. F3'H and F3'5'H mostly belong to CYP75B and CYP75A, respectively, except for the F3'5'Hs in Compositae that were derived from gene duplication of CYP75B and neofunctionalization. Roses and carnations lack blue/violet flower colours owing to the deficiency of F3'5'H and therefore lack the B-ring-trihydroxylated anthocyanins based upon delphinidin. Successful redirection of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway to delphinidin was achieved by expressing F3'5'H coding regions resulting in carnations and roses with novel blue hues that have been commercialized. Suppression of F3'5'H and F3'H in delphinidin-producing plants reduced the number of hydroxyl groups on the anthocyanidin B-ring resulting in the production of monohydroxylated anthocyanins based on pelargonidin with a shift in flower colour to orange/red. Pelargonidin biosynthesis is enhanced by additional expression of a dihydroflavonol 4-reductase that can use the monohydroxylated dihydrokaempferol (the pelargonidin precursor). Flavone synthase II (FNSII)-catalysing flavone biosynthesis from flavanones is also a P450 (CYP93B) and contributes to flower colour, because flavones act as co-pigments to anthocyanins and can cause blueing and darkening of colour. However, transgenic plants expression of a FNSII gene yielded paler flowers owing to a reduction of anthocyanins because flavanones are precursors of anthocyanins and flavones. PMID:23297355

Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Brugliera, Filippa

2013-02-19

301

Flower colour and cytochromes P450†  

PubMed Central

Cytochromes P450 play important roles in biosynthesis of flavonoids and their coloured class of compounds, anthocyanins, both of which are major floral pigments. The number of hydroxyl groups on the B-ring of anthocyanidins (the chromophores and precursors of anthocyanins) impact the anthocyanin colour, the more the bluer. The hydroxylation pattern is determined by two cytochromes P450, flavonoid 3?-hydroxylase (F3?H) and flavonoid 3?,5?-hydroxylase (F3?5?H) and thus they play a crucial role in the determination of flower colour. F3?H and F3?5?H mostly belong to CYP75B and CYP75A, respectively, except for the F3?5?Hs in Compositae that were derived from gene duplication of CYP75B and neofunctionalization. Roses and carnations lack blue/violet flower colours owing to the deficiency of F3?5?H and therefore lack the B-ring-trihydroxylated anthocyanins based upon delphinidin. Successful redirection of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway to delphinidin was achieved by expressing F3?5?H coding regions resulting in carnations and roses with novel blue hues that have been commercialized. Suppression of F3?5?H and F3?H in delphinidin-producing plants reduced the number of hydroxyl groups on the anthocyanidin B-ring resulting in the production of monohydroxylated anthocyanins based on pelargonidin with a shift in flower colour to orange/red. Pelargonidin biosynthesis is enhanced by additional expression of a dihydroflavonol 4-reductase that can use the monohydroxylated dihydrokaempferol (the pelargonidin precursor). Flavone synthase II (FNSII)-catalysing flavone biosynthesis from flavanones is also a P450 (CYP93B) and contributes to flower colour, because flavones act as co-pigments to anthocyanins and can cause blueing and darkening of colour. However, transgenic plants expression of a FNSII gene yielded paler flowers owing to a reduction of anthocyanins because flavanones are precursors of anthocyanins and flavones. PMID:23297355

Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Brugliera, Filippa

2013-01-01

302

Possible contributions of TERMINAL FLOWER 1 to the evolution of rosette flowering in Leavenworthia (Brassicaceae)  

PubMed Central

Summary Leavenworthia crassa is a rosette flowering species that differs from inflorescence flowering species, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, in having elongated pedicels and shortened interfloral internodes on the main axis. Based on previous experiments, we hypothesized that changes to the L. crassa TFL1 ortholog, LcrTFL1, were important in the evolution of rosette flowering.We isolated LcrTFL1 and introduced a genomic construct into tfl1 mutant A. thaliana plants. We also generated and analyzed EGFP-LcrTFL1 reporter-fusion lines, and LcrTFL1/LcrLFY doubly transgenic lines.The transgene rescued the mutant defects, but manifested gain-of-function phenotypes. However, LcrTFL1 lines differed from 35S:TFL1 lines in several regards. Defects in floral meristem identity establishment were observed, as was the production of flowers with extra petals. We also noted features that resemble rosette flowering: LcrTFL1 lines produced significantly shorter interfloral internodes and significantly longer pedicels than either wild-type or 35S:TFL1 plants.Our data show that there are substantive differences in the regulation and/or function of TFL1 orthologs between A. thaliana and L. crassa. These may reflect changes that occurred during the evolution of rosette flowering in Leavenworthia, but, if so, our results show that additional, as-yet-unidentified genes were involved in this instance of architectural evolution. PMID:21054410

Liu, Ning; Sliwinski, Marek K.; Correa, Raul; Baum, David A.

2011-01-01

303

Color associations for days and letters across different languages  

PubMed Central

While colors are commonplace in everyday metaphors, relatively little is known about implicit color associations to linguistic or semantic concepts in a general population. In this study, we test color associations for ordered linguistic concepts (letters and days). The culture and language specificity of these effects was examined in a large group (457) of Dutch-speaking participants, 92 English-speaking participants, and 49 Hindi-speaking participants. Non-random distributions of color choices were revealed; consistencies were found across the three language groups in color preferences for both days and letters. Interestingly, while the Hindi-speaking participants were presented with letter stimuli matched on phonology, their pattern of letter-to-color preferences still showed similarities with Dutch- and English-speaking participants. Furthermore, we found that that the color preferences corresponded between participants indicating to have conscious color experiences with letters or days (putative synesthetes) and participants who do not (non-synesthetes). We also explored possible mechanisms underlying the color preferences. There were a few specific associations, including red for “A,” red for “Monday,” and white for “Sunday.” We also explored more general mechanisms, such as overall color preferences as shown by Simner et al. (2005). While certainly not all variation can be explained or predicted, the results show that regularities are present in color-to-letter or color-to-day preferences in both putative synesthetes and non-synesthetes across languages. Both letter-to-color and day-to-color preferences were influenced by multiple factors. The findings support a notion of abstract concepts (such as days and letters) that are not represented in isolation, but are connected to perceptual representational systems. Interestingly, at least some of these connections to color representations are shared across different language/cultural groups. PMID:24904447

Rouw, Romke; Case, Laura; Gosavi, Radhika; Ramachandran, Vilayanur

2014-01-01

304

Color associations for days and letters across different languages.  

PubMed

While colors are commonplace in everyday metaphors, relatively little is known about implicit color associations to linguistic or semantic concepts in a general population. In this study, we test color associations for ordered linguistic concepts (letters and days). The culture and language specificity of these effects was examined in a large group (457) of Dutch-speaking participants, 92 English-speaking participants, and 49 Hindi-speaking participants. Non-random distributions of color choices were revealed; consistencies were found across the three language groups in color preferences for both days and letters. Interestingly, while the Hindi-speaking participants were presented with letter stimuli matched on phonology, their pattern of letter-to-color preferences still showed similarities with Dutch- and English-speaking participants. Furthermore, we found that that the color preferences corresponded between participants indicating to have conscious color experiences with letters or days (putative synesthetes) and participants who do not (non-synesthetes). We also explored possible mechanisms underlying the color preferences. There were a few specific associations, including red for "A," red for "Monday," and white for "Sunday." We also explored more general mechanisms, such as overall color preferences as shown by Simner et al. (2005). While certainly not all variation can be explained or predicted, the results show that regularities are present in color-to-letter or color-to-day preferences in both putative synesthetes and non-synesthetes across languages. Both letter-to-color and day-to-color preferences were influenced by multiple factors. The findings support a notion of abstract concepts (such as days and letters) that are not represented in isolation, but are connected to perceptual representational systems. Interestingly, at least some of these connections to color representations are shared across different language/cultural groups. PMID:24904447

Rouw, Romke; Case, Laura; Gosavi, Radhika; Ramachandran, Vilayanur

2014-01-01

305

Optical Colors of Plutinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We continue to measure BVR optical colors of faint outer solar system objects using the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope (VATT), a 1.8-m telescope located on Mt. Graham, Arizona. We report colors for 27 objects observed in one of five observing runs between November 2003 and October 2005. These objects bring the total number of outer solar system objects with BVR colors in our survey to about 120. A table of these colors can be found at www.physics.nau.edu/ tegler/research/home.htm. We have combined our colors with those of other large surveys to yield the largest possible samples of colors of objects of various dynamical groups. In this talk, we will concentrate on the colors of Plutinos, as we now have colors for over 40 Plutinos. We thank the NASA Planetary Astronomy program for funding this work.

Romanishin, William; Tegler, S. C.; Consolmagno, G.

2006-09-01

306

Show Your Colors!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this family or group activity, learners conduct a chromatography experiment to reveal the colors that leaves "hide" under their green pigments. Use this experiment to predict what colors the leaves will "turn" in the fall.

2011-08-20

307

Color realism redux  

E-print Network

Our reply is in three parts. The first part concerns some foundational issues in the debate about color realism. The second part addresses the many objections to the version of physicalism about color (“productance ...

Byrne, Alex

308

Ants and ant scent reduce bumblebee pollination of artificial flowers.  

PubMed

Ants on flowers can disrupt pollination by consuming rewards or harassing pollinators, but it is difficult to disentangle the effects of these exploitative and interference forms of competition on pollinator behavior. Using highly rewarding and quickly replenishing artificial flowers that simulate male or female function, we allowed bumblebees (Bombus impatiens) to forage (1) on flowers with or without ants (Myrmica rubra) and (2) on flowers with or without ant scent cues. Bumblebees transferred significantly more pollen analogue both to and from ant-free flowers, demonstrating that interference competition with ants is sufficient to modify pollinator foraging behavior. Bees also removed significantly less pollen analogue from ant-scented flowers than from controls, making this the first study to show that bees can use ant scent to avoid harassment at flowers. Ant effects on pollinator behavior, possibly in addition to their effects on pollen viability, may contribute to the evolution of floral traits minimizing ant visitation. PMID:24334742

Cembrowski, Adam R; Tan, Marcus G; Thomson, James D; Frederickson, Megan E

2014-01-01

309

Quantum Dots and Colors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the physical concept of the colors of rainbows as light energy in the form of waves with distinct wavelengths, but in a different manner than traditional kaleidoscopes. Looking at different quantum dot solutions, they make observations and measurements, and graph their data. They come to understand how nanoparticles interact with absorbing photons to produce colors. They learn the dependence of particle size and color wavelength and learn about real-world applications for using these colorful liquids.

2014-09-18

310

Feature Article Interactive Color  

E-print Network

similar to this one? I Can I find a color like brown by searching for it by name? I HowcanIarrangemyswatchessothatalltheredsare near each other or all the dark colors are together? We believe that image-makers, from occasionalIPTs,we conducted a Web-based survey of individuals who work with color (see the Color Task Analysis Survey at http://www.cs.brown

Meier, Barbara J.

311

Categorical color perception of color normal and deficient observers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Color changes as a continuous variable. We can discriminate millions of colors, but at the same time we categorize colors into discrete color names. Dichromat (color deficient) observers also categorize colors in manners very similar to that of color normal (trichromat) observers despite the fact that color deficient observers confuse many colors. In this study, we investigated characteristics of categorical color perception of trichromat and dichromat under various chromatic illuminations. Observers named 424 OSA uniform color samples using only the Berlin and Kay's eleven basic color terms. Categorical color perception of normal trichromat was found to be robuster under strong chromatic illuminants than dichromats. Dichromats could utilize a lightness cue to name indistinguishable colors. It is unlikely that dichromats have the same categorical color mechanism as normal trichromat has. The present results support that there is the physiological substrate for categorical color perception specific to trichromat or dichromats.

Uchikawa, Keiji

2014-11-01

312

Four Color Theorem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Suppose we have a map in which no single territory is made up of disconnected regions. How many colors are needed to color the territories of this map, if all the territories that share a border segment must be of different colors?

313

A Semester of Color  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every Thursday evening, ten high school students meet at the Riverdale Art Project, a New York City-based art program that the author co-founded ten years ago. Students are participating in a semester-long color workshop where they learn about color theory in a structured and engaging way. Focusing on five essential characteristics of color

Rabinovitch, Andrea

2006-01-01

314

Color Image Segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a new approach to fully automatic color image segmentation, called JSEG, is presented. First, col- ors in the image are quantized to several representing classes that can be used to differentiate regions in the image. Then, image pixel colors are replaced by their cor- responding color class labels, thus forming a class-map of the image. A criterion

Yining Deng; B. S. Manjunath; Hyundoo Shin

1999-01-01

315

Natural Variation of the RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T 1 Contributes to Flowering Time Divergence in Rice  

PubMed Central

In rice (Oryza sativa L.), there is a diversity in flowering time that is strictly genetically regulated. Some indica cultivars show extremely late flowering under long-day conditions, but little is known about the gene(s) involved. Here, we demonstrate that functional defects in the florigen gene RFT1 are the main cause of late flowering in an indica cultivar, Nona Bokra. Mapping and complementation studies revealed that sequence polymorphisms in the RFT1 regulatory and coding regions are likely to cause late flowering under long-day conditions. We detected polymorphisms in the promoter region that lead to reduced expression levels of RFT1. We also identified an amino acid substitution (E105K) that leads to a functional defect in Nona Bokra RFT1. Sequencing of the RFT1 region in rice accessions from a global collection showed that the E105K mutation is found only in indica, and indicated a strong association between the RFT1 haplotype and extremely late flowering in a functional Hd1 background. Furthermore, SNPs in the regulatory region of RFT1 and the E105K substitution in 1,397 accessions show strong linkage disequilibrium with a flowering time–associated SNP. Although the defective E105K allele of RFT1 (but not of another florigen gene, Hd3a) is found in many cultivars, relative rate tests revealed no evidence for differential rate of evolution of these genes. The ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions suggest that the E105K mutation resulting in the defect in RFT1 occurred relatively recently. These findings indicate that natural mutations in RFT1 provide flowering time divergence under long-day conditions. PMID:24098411

Ogiso-Tanaka, Eri; Matsubara, Kazuki; Yamamoto, Shin-ichi; Nonoue, Yasunori; Wu, Jianzhong; Fujisawa, Hiroko; Ishikubo, Harumi; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Ando, Tsuyu; Matsumoto, Takashi; Yano, Masahiro

2013-01-01

316

Natural Variation in Petal Color in Lycoris longituba Revealed by Anthocyanin Components  

PubMed Central

Lycoris longituba is one of the species belonging to the Amaryllidaceae family. Despite its limited distribution, endemic to central eastern China, this species displays an exceptionally wide diversity of flower colors from purple, red, orange, to yellow, in nature. We study the natural variation of floral color in L. longituba by testing the components of water-soluble vacuolar pigments – anthocyanins – in its petals using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Four anthocyanins were identified, cyanidin-3-sophoroside (Cy3So), cyanidin-3-xylosylglucoside (Cy3XyGlc), cyanidin-3-sambubioside (Cy3Sa), and pelargonidin-3-xylosylglucoside (Pg3XyGlc), which occur at various amounts in L. longituba petals of different colors. A multivariate analysis was used to explore the relationship between pigments and flower color. Anthocyanins have been thought to play a major role in acting as a UV screen that protects the plant's DNA from sunlight damage and attracting insects for the purpose of pollination. Thus, knowledge about the content and type of anthocyanins determining the petal coloration of Lycoris longituba will help to study the adaptive evolution of flowers and provide useful information for the ornamental breeding of this species. PMID:21829604

He, Qiuling; Shen, Ye; Wang, Mingxiu; Huang, Minren; Yang, Ruizhen; Zhu, Shuijin; Wang, Liangsheng; Xu, Yanjun; Wu, Rongling

2011-01-01

317

Bamboo-Dominated Forests of the Southwest Amazon: Detection, Spatial Extent, Life Cycle Length and Flowering Waves  

PubMed Central

We map the extent, infer the life-cycle length and describe spatial and temporal patterns of flowering of sarmentose bamboos (Guadua spp) in upland forests of the southwest Amazon. We first examine the spectra and the spectral separation of forests with different bamboo life stages. False-color composites from orbital sensors going back to 1975 are capable of distinguishing life stages. These woody bamboos flower produce massive quantities of seeds and then die. Life stage is synchronized, forming a single cohort within each population. Bamboo dominates at least 161,500 km2 of forest, coincident with an area of recent or ongoing tectonic uplift, rapid mechanical erosion and poorly drained soils rich in exchangeable cations. Each bamboo population is confined to a single spatially continuous patch or to a core patch with small outliers. Using spatial congruence between pairs of mature-stage maps from different years, we estimate an average life cycle of 27–28 y. It is now possible to predict exactly where and approximately when new bamboo mortality events will occur. We also map 74 bamboo populations that flowered between 2001 and 2008 over the entire domain of bamboo-dominated forest. Population size averaged 330 km2. Flowering events of these populations are temporally and/or spatially separated, restricting or preventing gene exchange. Nonetheless, adjacent populations flower closer in time than expected by chance, forming flowering waves. This may be a consequence of allochronic divergence from fewer ancestral populations and suggests a long history of widespread bamboo in the southwest Amazon. PMID:23359438

de Carvalho, Anelena L.; Nelson, Bruce W.; Bianchini, Milton C.; Plagnol, Daniela; Kuplich, Tatiana M.; Daly, Douglas C.

2013-01-01

318

Rainbow Coloring of Graphs Rainbow Coloring of Graphs  

E-print Network

Rainbow Coloring of Graphs Rainbow Coloring of Graphs L. Sunil Chandran Computer Science and Automation Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore Email: sunil@csa.iisc.ernet.in #12;Rainbow Coloring of Graphs What is Rainbow Coloring? Consider an edge coloring, not necessarily proper. #12;Rainbow Coloring

Narasayya, Vivek

319

The Inherent Reward of Choice  

PubMed Central

Research suggests that the exercise of control is desirable and adaptive, but the precise mechanisms underlying the value of control are not well understood. The current study characterizes the affective experience of personal control by examining the neural substrates recruited when anticipating the opportunity for choice, the means by which individuals exercise control. Using an experimental paradigm that probed the value of choice, participants reported liking cues that predicted future choice opportunity more than cues predicting no-choice. Anticipation of choice itself was associated with increased activity in corticostriatal regions involved in affective and motivational processes, particularly the ventral striatum. This study provides the first direct examination of the affective value of having the opportunity to choose. These findings have important implications for understanding the role of perception of control, and choice itself, in self-regulatory processes. PMID:21931157

Leotti, Lauren A.; Delgado, Mauricio R.

2012-01-01

320

Epigenetic regulation of rice flowering and reproduction  

PubMed Central

Current understanding of the epigenetic regulator roles in plant growth and development has largely derived from studies in the dicotyledonous model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the most important food crops in the world and has more recently becoming a monocotyledonous model plant in functional genomics research. During the past few years, an increasing number of studies have reported the impact of DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs and histone modifications on transcription regulation, flowering time control, and reproduction in rice. Here, we review these studies to provide an updated complete view about chromatin modifiers characterized in rice and in particular on their roles in epigenetic regulation of flowering time, reproduction, and seed development. PMID:25674094

Shi, Jinlei; Dong, Aiwu; Shen, Wen-Hui

2015-01-01

321

Sugars, the clock and transition to flowering  

PubMed Central

Sugars do not only act as source of energy, but they also act as signals in plants. This mini review summarizes the emerging links between sucrose-mediated signaling and the cellular networks involved in flowering time control and defense. Cross-talks with gibberellin and jasmonate signaling pathways are highlighted. The circadian clock fulfills a crucial role at the heart of cellular networks and the bilateral relation between sugar signaling and the clock is discussed. It is proposed that important factors controlling plant growth (DELLAs, PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORS, invertases, and trehalose-6-phosphate) might fulfill central roles in the transition to flowering as well. The emerging concept of “sweet immunity,” modulated by the clock, might at least partly rely on a sucrose-specific signaling pathway that needs further exploration. PMID:23420760

Moghaddam, Mohammad R. Bolouri; den Ende, Wim Van

2013-01-01

322

Introduction to Color Superconductivity  

E-print Network

At high nuclear density and small temperature, due to the asymptotic freedom property of Quantum ChromoDynamics and to the existence of an attractive channel in the color interaction, diquark condensates might be formed. Since these condensates break the color gauge symmetry, this phenomenon has the name of color superconductivity. In the last few years this has become a very active field of research. While a direct experimental test is still missing, color superconductivity might have implications in astrophysics because for some compact stars, e.g. pulsars, the baryon densities necessary for color superconductivity can probably be reached.

G. Nardulli

2006-10-23

323

Molecular Expressions: Color Separation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This item is an interactive Java simulation for introductory physics students on the topic of color. It explores how individual subtractive primary colors can be separated from a full-color photograph and then be reassembled to create the original scene. The mouse cursor may be used to superimpose color separations over one another. As additional separations are added, the resulting image exhibits the realism of a color photograph. This item is part of a larger collection of materials on optics and microscopy developed by the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory and Florida State University.

Davidson, Michael; Parry-Hill, Matthew J.; Sutter, Robert

2008-08-21

324

Resistor Color-Code  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Resistor manufactures implement the standard EIA color-code using three, four and five color bands to identify nominal resistor values. It is imperative that engineers and technicians know how to interpret the color markings on resistors in order to perform analysis and repairs on electronic products." On this page, visitors will find a key to the code for three, four, and five band resistors and exercises to check for understanding. A Resistor Color-Code chart can also be downloaded and printed from this site, as well as a Resistor Color-Code Converter.

2011-07-19

325

Modeling Galaxy Clustering by Color  

E-print Network

We extend the mass-halo formalism for analytically generating power spectra to allow for the different clustering behavior observed in galaxy sub-populations. Although applicable to other separations, we concentrate our methods on a simple separation by rest-frame color into ``red'' and ``blue'' sub-populations through modifications to the relations and halo distribution functions for each of the sub-populations. This sort of separation is within the capabilities of the current generations of simulations as well as galaxy surveys, suggesting a potentially powerful observational constraint for current and future simulations. In anticipation of this, we demonstrate the sensitivity of the resulting power spectra to the choice of model parameters.

Ryan Scranton

2001-12-14

326

Fibonacci, quasicrystals and the beauty of flowers  

PubMed Central

The appearance of Fibonacci sequences and the golden ratio in plant structures is one of the great outstanding puzzles of biology. Here I suggest that quasicrystals, which naturally pack in the golden ratio, may be ubiquitous in biological systems and introduce the golden ratio into plant phyllotaxy. The appearance of golden ratio-based structures as beautiful indicates that the golden ratio may play a role in the development of consciousness and lead to the aesthetic natural selection of flowering plants. PMID:23072998

Gardiner, John

2012-01-01

327

Fibonacci, quasicrystals and the beauty of flowers.  

PubMed

The appearance of Fibonacci sequences and the golden ratio in plant structures is one of the great outstanding puzzles of biology. Here I suggest that quasicrystals, which naturally pack in the golden ratio, may be ubiquitous in biological systems and introduce the golden ratio into plant phyllotaxy. The appearance of golden ratio-based structures as beautiful indicates that the golden ratio may play a role in the development of consciousness and lead to the aesthetic natural selection of flowering plants. PMID:23072998

Gardiner, John

2012-12-01

328

How genes paint flowers and seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutant analyses have given insight into the various parameters that contribute to flower colour and pattern, which is so important for pollination. One important factor is the accumulation of orange, red and purple anthocyanin pigments in the cell vacuole—patterns arise by cell-specific expression of combinations of regulatory proteins. The overall colour perceived is also influenced by vacuolar pH, co-pigmentation and

Joseph Mol; Erich Grotewold; Ronald Koes

1998-01-01

329

A Genomic Approach to Study Anthocyanin Synthesis and Flower Pigmentation in Passionflowers  

PubMed Central

Most of the plant pigments ranging from red to purple colors belong to the anthocyanin group of flavonoids. The flowers of plants belonging to the genus Passiflora (passionflowers) show a wide range of floral adaptations to diverse pollinating agents, including variation in the pigmentation of floral parts ranging from white to red and purple colors. Exploring a database of expressed sequence tags obtained from flower buds of two divergent Passiflora species, we obtained assembled sequences potentially corresponding to 15 different genes of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway in these species. The obtained sequences code for putative enzymes are involved in the production of flavonoid precursors, as well as those involved in the formation of particular (“decorated”) anthocyanin molecules. We also obtained sequences encoding regulatory factors that control the expression of structural genes and regulate the spatial and temporal accumulation of pigments. The identification of some of the putative Passiflora anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway genes provides novel resources for research on secondary metabolism in passionflowers, especially on the elucidation of the processes involved in floral pigmentation, which will allow future studies on the role of pigmentation in pollinator preferences in a molecular level. PMID:21772993

Aizza, Lilian Cristina Baldon; Dornelas, Marcelo Carnier

2011-01-01

330

School Choice 2000 Annual Report  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online version of the Heritage Foundation's annual report on school choice provides a substantive, if somewhat biased, state-by-state report on political, judicial, communal, and education developments linked to the issues of school choice. Each state's profile gives a status report on the numbers of charter schools and publicly funded private school choices as well as data on enrollment, expenditures, and results on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP, see the October 1, 1999 Scout Report). A background report, complete with developments in 1999 and 2000, is also posted for each state. The report's introduction was written by Florida governor and school choice advocate Jeb Bush.

2000-01-01

331

Career choices of lesbian women.  

PubMed

I focus on lesbian women's career choices and analyse how they explain their choices in relation to their sexuality. In addition to personal accounts and experiences, I use survey data that shows that several factors influence lesbian women's occupational circumstances. The Sexual Minority Survey included 726 respondents, of which 415 are women. The survey was conducted as part of the project Sexual and Gender Minorities at Work. Although many lesbian women claim that their sexuality did not influence their career choices, their career choice processes seem to be linked in many ways with sexuality, gender, and heteronormativity in society. PMID:19042296

Lehtonen, Jukka

2008-01-01

332

Sucrose accelerates flower opening and delays senescence through a hormonal effect in cut lily flowers.  

PubMed

Sugars are generally used to extend the vase life of cut flowers. Such beneficial effects have been associated with an improvement of water relations and an increase in available energy for respiration by floral tissues. In this study we aimed at evaluating to what extent (i) endogenous levels of sugars in outer and inner tepals, androecium and gynoecium are altered during opening and senescence of lily flowers; (ii) sugar levels increase in various floral tissues after sucrose addition to the vase solution; and (iii) sucrose addition alters the hormonal balance of floral tissues. Results showed that endogenous glucose levels increased during flower opening and decreased during senescence in all floral organs, while sucrose levels increased in outer and inner tepals and the androecium during senescence. Sucrose treatment accelerated flower opening, and delayed senescence, but did not affect tepal abscission. Such effects appeared to be exerted through a specific increase in the endogenous levels of sucrose in the gynoecium and of glucose in all floral tissues. The hormonal balance was altered in the gynoecium as well as in other floral tissues. Aside from cytokinin and auxin increases in the gynoecium; cytokinins, gibberellins, abscisic acid and salicylic acid levels increased in the androecium, while abscisic acid decreased in outer tepals. It is concluded that sucrose addition to the vase solution exerts an effect on flower opening and senescence by, among other factors, altering the hormonal balance of several floral tissues. PMID:22525243

Arrom, Laia; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

2012-06-01

333

DETERMINATE and LATE FLOWERING are two TERMINAL FLOWER1/CENTRORADIALIS homologs that control two distinct phases of flowering initiation and development in pea.  

PubMed

Genes in the TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1)/CENTRORADIALIS family are important key regulatory genes involved in the control of flowering time and floral architecture in several different plant species. To understand the functions of TFL1 homologs in pea, we isolated three TFL1 homologs, which we have designated PsTFL1a, PsTFL1b, and PsTFL1c. By genetic mapping and sequencing of mutant alleles, we demonstrate that PsTFL1a corresponds to the DETERMINATE (DET) gene and PsTFL1c corresponds to the LATE FLOWERING (LF) gene. DET acts to maintain the indeterminacy of the apical meristem during flowering, and consistent with this role, DET expression is limited to the shoot apex after floral initiation. LF delays the induction of flowering by lengthening the vegetative phase, and allelic variation at the LF locus is an important component of natural variation for flowering time in pea. The most severe class of alleles flowers early and carries either a deletion of the entire PsTFL1c gene or an amino acid substitution. Other natural and induced alleles for LF, with an intermediate flowering time phenotype, present no changes in the PsTFL1c amino acid sequence but affect LF transcript level in the shoot apex: low LF transcript levels are correlated with early flowering, and high LF transcript levels are correlated with late flowering. Thus, different TFL1 homologs control two distinct aspects of plant development in pea, whereas a single gene, TFL1, performs both functions in Arabidopsis. These results show that different species have evolved different strategies to control key developmental transitions and also that the genetic basis for natural variation in flowering time may differ among plant species. PMID:14563931

Foucher, Fabrice; Morin, Julie; Courtiade, Juliette; Cadioux, Sandrine; Ellis, Noel; Banfield, Mark J; Rameau, Catherine

2003-11-01

334

Color Use in Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, you will learn a little bit about color theory and how it can effect the colors that you choose for a design. This activity covers the Arizona State CTE Standard for demonstrating drawing and visualization skills required for graphic communications (Standard #13). Read each section below carefully and follow the links provided to find more information on the topics discussed. When you are finished with the lesson, complete the assignment at the bottom of the screen. Introduction There are certain colors that look good together in designs and there is a reason for it. Colors that look good together are based on their relationship to each other on a color wheel. In the following lesson, you are going explore the color wheel and the color relationships ...

Pope

2008-10-07

335

Consumer Choice of Modularized Products: A Conjoint Choice Experiment Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent increases in flexibility and automation in the production of goods and services allow a growing number of suppliers to offer their products in flexible sets of modules from which consumers can create their own individualized packages. This paper addresses the question how consumer choices of such modularized products can be modeled and measured by applying conjoint choice experiments. We

B. G. C. Dellaert; A. W. J. Borgers; J. J. Louviere; H. J. P. Timmermans

1998-01-01

336

Child Care Choices, Food Choices, and Children's Obesity Status  

E-print Network

Child Care Choices, Food Choices, and Children's Obesity Status: A Comparison of Two-parent and One December 10, 2012 B.Mandal and Lisa M. Powell Childhood Obesity December, 2012 1 / 36 #12;Motivation Public-19 years were obese Childhood obesity remains a costly public health issue as it has both immediate

Illinois at Chicago, University of

337

Editor's Choice Editor's Choice: Crop Genome Plasticity and Its Relevance  

E-print Network

. The term GE is preferred over the term "genetically modified" (commonly referred to as GMEditor's Choice Editor's Choice: Crop Genome Plasticity and Its Relevance to Food and Feed Safety of Genetically Engineered Breeding Stacks1 Genetically engineered (GE) stacks, combinations of two or more single

Parrott, Wayne

338

An apple MYB transcription factor, MdMYB3, is involved in regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis and flower development  

PubMed Central

Background Red coloration of fruit is an important trait in apple, and it is mainly attributed to the accumulation of anthocyanins, a class of plant flavonoid metabolites. Anthocyanin biosynthesis is genetically determined by structural and regulatory genes. Plant tissue pigmentation patterns are mainly controlled by expression profiles of regulatory genes. Among these regulatory genes are MYB transcription factors (TFs), wherein the class of two-repeats (R2R3) is deemed the largest, and these are associated with the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway. Although three MdMYB genes, almost identical in nucleotide sequences, have been identified in apple, it is likely that there are other R2R3 MYB TFs that are present in the apple genome that are also involved in the regulation of coloration of red color pigmentation of the skin of apple fruits. Results In this study, a novel R2R3 MYB gene has been isolated and characterized in apple. This MYB gene is closely related to the Arabidopsis thaliana AtMYB3, and has been designated as MdMYB3. This TF belongs to the subgroup 4 R2R3 family of plant MYB transcription factors. This apple MdMYB3 gene is mapped onto linkage group 15 of the integrated apple genetic map. Transcripts of MdMYB3 are detected in all analyzed tissues including leaves, flowers, and fruits. However, transcripts of MdMYB3 are higher in excocarp of red-skinned apple cultivars than that in yellowish-green skinned apple cultivars. When this gene is ectopically expressed in Nicotiana tabacum cv. Petite Havana SR1, flowers of transgenic tobacco lines carrying MdMYB3 have exhibited increased pigmentation and accumulate higher levels of anthocyanins and flavonols than wild-type flowers. Overexpression of MdMYB3 has resulted in transcriptional activation of several flavonoid pathway genes, including CHS, CHI, UFGT, and FLS. Moreover, peduncles of flowers and styles of pistils of transgenic plants overexpressing MdMYB3 are longer than those of wild-type plants, thus suggesting that this TF is involved in regulation of flower development. Conclusions This study has identified a novel MYB transcription factor in the apple genome. This TF, designated as MdMYB3, is involved in transcriptional activation of several flavonoid pathway genes. Moreover, this TF not only regulates the accumulation of anthocyanin in the skin of apple fruits, but it is also involved in the regulation of flower development, particularly that of pistil development. PMID:24199943

2013-01-01

339

Developing a method for customized induction of flowering  

PubMed Central

Background The ability to induce flowering on demand is of significant biotechnological interest. FT protein has been recently identified as an important component of the mobile flowering hormone, florigen, whose function is conserved across the plant kingdom. We therefore focused on manipulation of both endogenous and heterologous FT genes to develop a floral induction system where flowering would be inhibited until it was induced on demand. The concept was tested in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). Results Our starting point was plants with strongly delayed flowering due to silencing of FT with an artificial microRNA directed at FT (amiR-FT) [1]. First, we showed that constitutive expression of a heterologous FT gene (FTa1), from the model legume Medicago truncatula, (Medicago) was able to rescue the amiR-FT late-flowering phenotype. In order to induce flowering in a controlled way, the FTa1 gene was then expressed under the control of an alcohol-inducible promoter in the late flowering amiR-FT plants. Upon exposure to ethanol, FTa1 was rapidly up regulated and this resulted in the synchronous induction of flowering. Conclusions We have thus demonstrated a controlled-inducible flowering system using a novel combination of endogenous and heterologous FT genes. The universal florigenic nature of FT suggests that this type of system should be applicable to crops of economic value where flowering control is desirable. PMID:21481273

2011-01-01

340

Effect of paper color on students' physics exam performances  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Prior work has established the existence of a color-performance relationship in achievement contexts and has demonstrated its presence in some undergraduate course examinations. This study examines the manifestation of such a relationship in an introductory, 430-student, calculus-based electricity and magnetism course during which the paper color used in examinations was varied. In this report, we analyze three separate exams and differentiate between studentsâ multiple choice, written response, conceptual, and computational performances. Also considered are factors such as the time students require to complete exams and their confidence levels prior to and immediately following assessment. Performance in all categories appears to be independent of paper color.

Schmidt, David R.; Ruskell, Todd G.; Kohl, Patrick B.

2013-07-09

341

Evidence based contraceptive choices.  

PubMed

People who attend for contraceptive advice have usually formulated an idea of the type of contraceptive that will suit them best. They may wish to use a method that is long, short or medium acting. These are defined as follows: Long-acting method requires renewal no more frequently than every 3 months (e.g. injectable or intrauterine). Short-acting method used daily or with every act of intercourse (e.g. pills, condoms) Medium-acting method requires renewal weekly or monthly (e.g. ring, patch). For men the choice is limited to condoms or vasectomy. Some women do not wish to use hormonal preparations or have an intrauterine device (IUD) or implant inserted. There may also be cultural influences making certain methods of contraception unacceptable. Each of these factors influences the final decision of which method of contraception is decided upon. In addition to taking a full medical and sexual history to identify any risks to the individual's health, which might be increased by a particular contraceptive, time must be spent discussing the options available. It is important to ensure that there is a full understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of each method. The most successful contraceptive method is likely to be the one that the woman (or man) chooses, rather than the one the clinician chooses for them. Access for women to contraception can be improved by having convenient clinic times and service developments such as nurse prescribing and Patient Group Directions. PMID:16707277

Scott, Alison; Glasier, Anna

2006-10-01

342

Colorful reconstructions from a thin multi-plane phase hologram.  

PubMed

A new technique of design and reconstruction of a color hologram is presented. The design is based on an iterative multi-plane optimization algorithm. It allows to encode three different images for a reconstruction at various distances measured from the hologram plane. The distances are calculated in order to obtain a fine color compound image when the hologram is illuminated by three laser beams of RGB colors. A single light phase modulator is used instead of three. The reconstructed red, green and blue component images remain in an exact match in size and position. The 2-D color image is reconstructed at a pre-assumed distance and its color pattern can be easily controlled by the choice of the three input component images. PMID:18648483

Makowski, Michal; Sypek, Maciej; Kolodziejczyk, Andrzej

2008-07-21

343

School Choice: Examining the Evidence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents a summary of school-choice issues, and is organized around a 1992 seminar entitled "Choice: What Role in American Education?" Each part presents a set of conference papers, followed by discussants' remarks and excerpts from audience discussion. The introduction summarizes the papers' positions and conclusions. Participants…

Rasell, Edith, Ed.; Rothstein, Richard, Ed.

344

The Globalisation of School Choice?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Which school should I choose for my child?" For many parents, this question is one of the most important of their lives. "School choice" is a slogan being voiced around the globe, conjuring images of a marketplace with an abundance of educational options. Those promoting educational choice also promise equality, social advantage, autonomy, and…

Forsey, Martin, Ed.; Davies, Scott, Ed.; Walford, Geoffrey, Ed.

2008-01-01

345

School Choice: To What End?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Debunks two fantasies: the feasibility of a free-market educational system and the idea that greater choice automatically means better schools. Public education is too labor-intensive and undercapitalized to be profitable. Communities need "skunk works" schools of choice to do research and development and smaller, collaboratively managed schools…

Wagner, Tony

1996-01-01

346

Contextual Explanations of School Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participation in school-choice programs has been increasing across the country since the early 1990s. While some have examined the role that families play in the school-choice process, research has largely ignored the role of social contexts in determining where a student attends school. This article improves on previous research by modeling the…

Lauen, Douglas Lee

2007-01-01

347

On School and School Choice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares the ideas and conclusions presented in "School Choice and Culture Wars in the Classroom: What Different Parents Seek from Education" (SO 532 108) to "Liberal Equity on Education: A Comparison of Choice Options." (SO 532 109) Argues that these authors want to achieve the authentic common good and simultaneously respect those people with…

Coons, John

1998-01-01

348

Discrete Choice Methods with Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book describes the new generation of discrete choice methods, focusing on the many advances that are made possible by simulation. Researchers use these statistical methods to examine the choices that consumers, households, firms, and other agents make. Each of the major models is covered: logit, generalized extreme value, or GEV (including nested and cross-nested logits), probit, and mixed logit,

Kenneth E. Train

2003-01-01

349

Rapid Changes in Flowering Time in British Plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The average first flowering date of 385 British plant species has advanced by 4.5 days during the past decade compared with the previous four decades: 16% of species flowered significantly earlier in the 1990s than previously, with an average advancement of 15 days in a decade. Ten species (3%) flowered significantly later in the 1990s than previously. These data reveal the strongest biological signal yet of climatic change. Flowering is especially sensitive to the temperature in the previous month, and spring-flowering species are most responsive. However, large interspecific differences in this response will affect both the structure of plant communities and gene flow between species as climate warms. Annuals are more likely to flower early than congeneric perennials, and insect-pollinated species more than wind-pollinated ones.

Fitter, A. H.; Fitter, R. S. R.

2002-05-01

350

The evolution of bill coloration and plumage dimorphism supports the transference hypothesis in dabbling ducks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bright coloration in male birds is typically thought to be driven by sexual selection (female choice or male-male competition). Bird species often vary in the intensity of bright coloration, but few studies have addressed this cross-species variation. Potentially this variation could result from either variation in female preferences or in the relative costs of male traits. Species of dabbling ducks

Kevin P. Johnson

1999-01-01

351

COLOR AND R.O.I. WITH JPEG2000 FOR WIRELESS VIDEOSURVEILLANCE Franck Luthon, Brice Beaumesnil  

E-print Network

COLOR AND R.O.I. WITH JPEG2000 FOR WIRELESS VIDEOSURVEILLANCE Franck Luthon, Brice Beaumesnil with a static camera, we investi- gate two features within JPEG2000, namely the choice of a nonlinear color extraction of regions of interest (ROI) by motion detection. 1. INTRODUCTION JPEG2000 is much more than a new

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

352

UV-blue structural coloration and competition for nestboxes in male eastern bluebirds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies suggest that structural plumage coloration can indicate male quality and is used in female mate choice decisions. Whether or not structural coloration functions as a signal in male-male competitive interactions, however, has not been studied. Male eastern bluebirds, Sialia sialis, have brilliant ultraviolet-blue plumage on the head, back, wings and tail that is correlated with both reproductive effort

Lynn Siefferman; Geoffrey E. Hill

2005-01-01

353

Color preference and familiarity in performance on brand logo recall.  

PubMed

Two experiments assessed effects of color preference and brand-logo familiarity on recall performance. Exp. 1 explored the color preferences, using a forced-choice technique, of 189 women and 63 men, Taiwanese college students ages 18 to 20 years (M = 19.4, SD = 1.5). The sequence of the three most preferred colors was white, light blue, and black and of the three least preferred colors was light orange, dark violet, and dark brown. Exp. 2 investigated the effects of color preference based on the results of Exp. 1 and brand-logo familiarity on recall. A total of 27 women and 21 men, Taiwanese college students ages 18 to 20 years (M = 19.2, SD = 1.2) participated. They memorized a list of 24 logos (four logos shown in six colors) and then performed sequential recall. Analyses showed color preference significantly affected recall accuracy. Accuracy for high color preference was significantly greater than that for low preferences. Results showed no significant effects of brand-logo familiarity or sex on accuracy. In addition, the interactive effect of color preference and brand-logo familiarity on accuracy was significant. These results have implications for the design of brand logos to create and sustain memory of brand images. PMID:19093619

Huang, Kuo-Chen; Lin, Chin-Chiuan; Chiang, Shu-Ying

2008-10-01

354

Effect of heat-treated noradrenaline on flowering in Lemna.  

PubMed

In a previous study, heat-treated noradrenaline induced flowering of the short-day plant Lemna paucicostata Hegelmaier 151. In the present study, we found that heat-treated noradrenaline also had flower-inducing activity in short-day L. paucicostata strains 441 and 6746 and in long-day L. gibba strain G3. The flower-inducing activity in these plants was enhanced by water homogenates of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). PMID:23832342

Miyawaki, Tatsuya; Matsumoto, Shiomi; Takahashi, Wataru; Tanaka, Osamu

2013-01-01

355

Flower Development of the Chinese Gooseberry (Actinidia chinensis Planch.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flower development of the Chinese gooseberry (Actinidia chinensis Planch.) was followed for the 1971–72 growing season for the pistillate cultivar ‘Hayward’ and the staminate clone ‘Alpha’.Flower initiation takes place late in the seasonal cycle, occurring just before the resumption of shoot growth in the spring (mid-late September). Development of pistillate and staminate flower buds is similar up to inception of

D. J. Brundell

1975-01-01

356

Factors Influencing Flower Initiation in Caraway (Carum carvi L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecological and biological factors which may influence flowering of caraway were investigated. Temperature and the length of the induction had a role in flower initiation. Among the examined variations, seven weeks of cold temperatures (8°C day and 5°C night) proved to be the optimal for flowering (100%). Shorter periods of cold temperatures (1–2 weeks) or higher temperature regimes (15°C

Éva Németh; Jenö Bernáth; Zsuzsanna Pluhár

1998-01-01

357

Anthocyanin synthesis in a white flowering mutant of Petunia hybrida  

Microsoft Academic Search

In flower buds of the white flowering mutant W19 of Petunia hybrida four biologically active dihydroflavonol intermediates-dihydroquercetin-7-glucoside, dihydroquercetin-4'-glucoside, dihydroquercetin, and dihydrokaempferol-7-glucoside-are accumulated. When dihydroquercetin was supplied to in vitro cultured corollas of the white flowering mutant W18, a mixture of cyanidin and delphinidin glycosides was produced, cyanidin-3-glucoside being the major pigment. The quantity of dihydroquercetin accumulated in W19 is very

K. F. F. Kho; A. C. Bolsman-Louwen; J. C. Vuik; G. J. H. Bennink

1977-01-01

358

Transcriptomic Analysis of Flower Development in Wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox)  

PubMed Central

Wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox) is familiar as a garden plant and woody ornamental flower. On account of its unique flowering time and strong fragrance, it has a high ornamental and economic value. Despite a long history of human cultivation, our understanding of wintersweet genetics and molecular biology remains scant, reflecting a lack of basic genomic and transcriptomic data. In this study, we assembled three cDNA libraries, from three successive stages in flower development, designated as the flower bud with displayed petal, open flower and senescing flower stages. Using the Illumina RNA-Seq method, we obtained 21,412,928, 26,950,404, 24,912,954 qualified Illumina reads, respectively, for the three successive stages. The pooled reads from all three libraries were then assembled into 106,995 transcripts, 51,793 of which were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Of these annotated sequences, 32,649 and 21,893 transcripts were assigned to gene ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups, respectively. We could map 15,587 transcripts onto 312 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database. Based on these transcriptomic data, we obtained a large number of candidate genes that were differentially expressed at the open flower and senescing flower stages. An analysis of differentially expressed genes involved in plant hormone signal transduction pathways indicated that although flower opening and senescence may be independent of the ethylene signaling pathway in wintersweet, salicylic acid may be involved in the regulation of flower senescence. We also succeeded in isolating key genes of floral scent biosynthesis and proposed a biosynthetic pathway for monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in wintersweet flowers, based on the annotated sequences. This comprehensive transcriptomic analysis presents fundamental information on the genes and pathways which are involved in flower development in wintersweet. And our data provided a useful database for further research of wintersweet and other Calycanthaceae family plants. PMID:24489818

Liu, Daofeng; Sui, Shunzhao; Ma, Jing; Li, Zhineng; Guo, Yulong; Luo, Dengpan; Yang, Jianfeng; Li, Mingyang

2014-01-01

359

Correlation and Path Coefficient Analyses for Flower Yield in Rosa damascena Mill  

Microsoft Academic Search

The correlation and path coefficients for flower yield were determined for 20 genotypes of pink damask rose, Rosa damascene Mill., growing in sodic soil. Flower yield per plant was positively and directly associated with flowers per plant and branches per plant. In addition, a direct path for flower yield due to flowers per raceme was positive, although had a negative

S. P. Singh; R. S. Kayiyar

2001-01-01

360

An e-commerce site for gift flower arrangements that fit kansei and social manners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Gift flowers should be chosen to depict a message with the sender's kansei and are bound by nature of flowers and social manners, to maintain social relationship between the sender and the recipient. Few buyers, but most florists, have expert knowledge of the flowering time, scent, price, and nature of each flower, and are experts in arranging flowers

Keiko Ishihara; Ryo Nakagawa; Shigekazu Ishihara; Mitsuo Nagamachi

2008-01-01

361

Digital color representation  

DOEpatents

An image population having a large number of attributes is processed to form a display population with a predetermined smaller number of attributes which represent the larger number of attributes. In a particular application, the color values in an image are compressed for storage in a discrete lookup table (LUT) where an 8-bit data signal is enabled to form a display of 24-bit color values. The LUT is formed in a sampling and averaging process from the image color values with no requirement to define discrete Voronoi regions for color compression. Image color values are assigned 8-bit pointers to their closest LUT value whereby data processing requires only the 8-bit pointer value to provide 24-bit color values from the LUT.

White, James M. (Los Alamos, NM); Faber, Vance (Los Alamos, NM); Saltzman, Jeffrey S. (Los Alamos, NM)

1992-01-01

362

The effect of body coloration and group size on social partner preferences in female fighting fish (Betta splendens).  

PubMed

Females of the fighting fish Betta splendens have been shown to associate with other B. splendens females in a manner reminiscent of shoaling behavior. Since body coloration varies dramatically in this species, and since body coloration has been shown to affect shoalmate choice in other species of fish, we examined the influence of body coloration on association preferences in female B. splendens. In dichotomous choice tests, B. splendens females spent more time swimming near groups of females (regardless of coloration) than swimming near an empty chamber, and chose to swim near fish of similar coloration to their own when choosing between two distinctly colored groups of females. When examining the interplay between body coloration and group size, focal fish spent more time swimming near larger groups (N=5) of similarly colored fish than swimming near an individual female of similar coloration. However, focal fish showed no preference when presented with an individual female of similar coloration and a larger group of females of dissimilar coloration. These results suggest that association choices in B. splendens females are strongly affected by both body coloration and by group size. PMID:19059314

Blakeslee, C; McRobert, S P; Brown, A C; Clotfelter, E D

2009-02-01

363

Pollinator effectiveness varies with experimental shifts in flowering time.  

PubMed

The earlier flowering times exhibited by many plant species are a conspicuous sign of climate change. Altered phenologies have caused concern that species could suffer population declines if they flower at times when effective pollinators are unavailable. For two perennial wildflowers, Tradescantia ohiensis and Asclepias incarnata, we used an experimental approach to explore how changing phenology affects the taxonomic composition of the pollinator assemblage and the effectiveness of individual pollinator taxa. After finding in the previous year that fruit set varied with flowering time, we manipulated flowering onset in greenhouses, placed plants in the field over the span of five weeks, and measured pollinator effectiveness as the number of seeds produced after a single visit to a flower. The average effectiveness of pollinators and the expected rates of pollination success were lower for plants of both species flowering earlier than for plants flowering at historical times, suggesting there could be reproductive costs to earlier flowering. Whereas for A. incarnata, differences in average seed set among weeks were due primarily to changes in the composition of the pollinator assemblage, the differences for T. ohiensis were driven by the combined effects of compositional changes and increases over time in the effectiveness of some pollinator taxa. Both species face the possibility of temporal mismatch between the availability of the most effective pollinators and the onset of flowering, and changes in the effectiveness of individual pollinator taxa through time may add an unexpected element to the reproductive consequences of such mismatches. PMID:22690631

Rafferty, Nicole E; Ives, Anthony R

2012-04-01

364

Pollinator effectiveness varies with experimental shifts in flowering time  

PubMed Central

The earlier flowering times exhibited by many plant species are a conspicuous sign of climate change. Altered phenologies have caused concern that species could suffer population declines if they flower at times when effective pollinators are unavailable. For two perennial wildflowers, Tradescantia ohiensis and Asclepias incarnata, we used an experimental approach to explore how changing phenology affects the taxonomic composition of the pollinator assemblage and the effectiveness of individual pollinator taxa. After finding in the previous year that fruit set varied with flowering time, we manipulated flowering onset in greenhouses, placed plants in the field over the span of five weeks, and measured pollinator effectiveness as the number of seeds produced after a single visit to a flower. The average effectiveness of pollinators and the expected rates of pollination success were lower for plants of both species flowering earlier than for plants flowering at historical times, suggesting there could be reproductive costs to earlier flowering. Whereas for A. incarnata, differences in average seed set among weeks were due primarily to changes in the composition of the pollinator assemblage, the differences for T. ohiensis were driven by the combined effects of compositional changes and increases over time in the effectiveness of some pollinator taxa. Both species face the possibility of temporal mismatch between the availability of the most effective pollinators and the onset of flowering, and changes in the effectiveness of individual pollinator taxa through time may add an unexpected element to the reproductive consequences of such mismatches. PMID:22690631

Rafferty, Nicole E.; Ives, Anthony R.

2013-01-01

365

The Role of Ethylene in Interorgan Signaling during Flower Senescence.  

PubMed Central

The roles of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and ethylene in interorgan signaling during senescence in orchid (Cymbidium) flowers were investigated. Following application of radiolabeled ACC to the stigma or the rostellum (modified lobe of the stigma), radiolabeled ethylene is produced by all flower parts. In intact flowers as well as in excised central columns, stigma- or rostellum-applied ACC or [alpha]-aminoisobutyric acid were largely immobile. Local treatment of the central column of previously aminoethoxyvinylglycine-treated flowers with either ethylene or 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (ethephon) rapidly induced emission of ethylene from the petals, showing that ethylene is readily translocated within the flower. Creation of alternative outlets (incisions) in the labellum or the central column significantly delayed the occurrence of senescence symptoms in ACC-treated flowers. The results do not confirm the presumed role of ACC as a signal in interorgan communication during flower senescence. In these flowers, ethylene produced in the stigmatic region following pollination or emasculation serves as a mobile factor responsible for senescence symptoms observed in other flower parts. PMID:12228663

Woltering, E. J.; Somhorst, D.; Van Der Veer, P.

1995-01-01

366

Record-breaking early flowering in the eastern United States.  

PubMed

Flowering times are well-documented indicators of the ecological effects of climate change and are linked to numerous ecosystem processes and trophic interactions. Dozens of studies have shown that flowering times for many spring-flowering plants have become earlier as a result of recent climate change, but it is uncertain if flowering times will continue to advance as temperatures rise. Here, we used long-term flowering records initiated by Henry David Thoreau in 1852 and Aldo Leopold in 1935 to investigate this question. Our analyses demonstrate that record-breaking spring temperatures in 2010 and 2012 in Massachusetts, USA, and 2012 in Wisconsin, USA, resulted in the earliest flowering times in recorded history for dozens of spring-flowering plants of the eastern United States. These dramatic advances in spring flowering were successfully predicted by historical relationships between flowering and spring temperature spanning up to 161 years of ecological change. These results demonstrate that numerous temperate plant species have yet to show obvious signs of physiological constraints on phenological advancement in the face of climate change. PMID:23342001

Ellwood, Elizabeth R; Temple, Stanley A; Primack, Richard B; Bradley, Nina L; Davis, Charles C

2013-01-01

367

Record-Breaking Early Flowering in the Eastern United States  

PubMed Central

Flowering times are well-documented indicators of the ecological effects of climate change and are linked to numerous ecosystem processes and trophic interactions. Dozens of studies have shown that flowering times for many spring-flowering plants have become earlier as a result of recent climate change, but it is uncertain if flowering times will continue to advance as temperatures rise. Here, we used long-term flowering records initiated by Henry David Thoreau in 1852 and Aldo Leopold in 1935 to investigate this question. Our analyses demonstrate that record-breaking spring temperatures in 2010 and 2012 in Massachusetts, USA, and 2012 in Wisconsin, USA, resulted in the earliest flowering times in recorded history for dozens of spring-flowering plants of the eastern United States. These dramatic advances in spring flowering were successfully predicted by historical relationships between flowering and spring temperature spanning up to 161 years of ecological change. These results demonstrate that numerous temperate plant species have yet to show obvious signs of physiological constraints on phenological advancement in the face of climate change. PMID:23342001

Ellwood, Elizabeth R.; Temple, Stanley A.; Primack, Richard B.; Davis, Charles C.

2013-01-01

368

NCI Color Palette  

Cancer.gov

NCI's official colors are red and gray. To create a strong, cohesive NCI presence and an intuitive website experience, the main NCI website was designed in light of this color scheme. NCI's official colors are used consistently throughout the main NCI website to help create a uniform look for the site and to reinforce the tie between the site's home page and its constituent pages.

369

Primary Colors of Pigment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this laboratory activity, students create secondary colors by mixing primary colors. Food coloring, test tubes, and a test tube stand are used. The activity is composed of a student handout with directions and a data sheet. The resource is part of the teacher's guide accompanying the video, NASA Why Files: The Case of the Mysterious Red Light. Lesson objectives supported by the video, additional resources, teaching tips and an answer sheet are included in the teacher's guide.

370

Color gamut transform pairs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital control of color television monitors—in particular, via frame buffers—has added precise control of a large subset of human colorspace to the capabilities of computer graphics. This subset is the gamut of colors spanned by the red, green, and blue (RGB) electron guns exciting their respective phosphors. It is called the RGB monitor gamut. Full-blown color theory is a quite

Alvy Ray Smith

1978-01-01

371

Restorer: Four Color Chart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Restorer is a visualization technique for indicating the location of missing data in a scientific visualization. Rather than filling missing data regions with interpolated data colored with the same scale as real data or simply leaving such regions empty, the restorer technique fills the regions with interpolated data colored with a color table with only luminance values. This technique allows missing data to be indicated clearly without distracting from the content of the real data.

John Cavallo

1994-08-24

372

Resolution and Color Depth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This computer interactive lets you explore the effect of changing the number of colors and resolution of a picture. You can see the picture in high quality (72 dots per inch), low quality (10 dpi), or in-between (30 dpi). You also can change the color depth from two colors to millions. Background information and extensions are provided, including connections to paintings by artists George Seurat and Roy Lichtenstein.

2012-07-23

373

Color Control in Shrimp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sand shrimp, Crangon septemspinosus, are capable of varying their color or shading in response to several environmental changes (background color, light intensity, light wavelength, and temperature). The degree of color change can be determined quantitatively by examining the chromatophores under a dissecting microscope and staging the amount of pigment dispersion, (b) the location or type of receptors involved, and (c) the type of communication between receptors and effectors.

Mary-Jane O'Halloran (Dalhousie University; )

1989-06-06

374

Colors Collide or Combine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners place multiple M&M's in a plate of water to watch what happens as the candies dissolve. Often learners expect the colors from each M&M to blend when they come together, but instead the colors remain separate along a defined border. Learners will explore how the areas of color change shape as M&Mâs are placed in different positions in the plate.

Kessler, James H.; Galvan, Patricia M.

2007-01-01

375

Colored nectar as an honest signal in plant-animal interactions  

PubMed Central

Many flowering plants obtain the services of pollinators by using their floral traits as signals to advertise the rewards they offer to visitors—such as nectar, pollen and other food resources. Some plants use colorful pigments to draw pollinators’ attention to their nectar, instead of relying on the appeal of nectar taste. Although this rare floral trait of colored nectar was first recorded by the Greek poet Homer in the Odyssey, it has only recently received the attention of modern science. This mini-review focuses on recent findings about some of the species that use colored nectar; topics include its function as an honest signal for pollinators, as well as the pigments responsible for the nectar coloration. Such research of the ecology and physiology of colored nectar expands our understanding of the role and evolution of pollinator signaling in plants. PMID:22751296

Zhang, Feng-Ping; Larson-Rabin, Zachary; Li, De-Zhu; Wang, Hong

2012-01-01

376

Polarization encoded color camera.  

PubMed

Digital cameras would be colorblind if they did not have pixelated color filters integrated into their image sensors. Integration of conventional fixed filters, however, comes at the expense of an inability to modify the camera's spectral properties. Instead, we demonstrate a micropolarizer-based camera that can reconfigure its spectral response. Color is encoded into a linear polarization state by a chiral dispersive element and then read out in a single exposure. The polarization encoded color camera is capable of capturing three-color images at wavelengths spanning the visible to the near infrared. PMID:24690806

Schonbrun, Ethan; Möller, Guðfríður; Di Caprio, Giuseppe

2014-03-15

377

2012 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University HORT-16 Virginia Cooperative Extension programs and employment are open to all, regardless of race, color, national origin, sex, religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, or  

E-print Network

/early fall) that are relatively showy. Fruit are edible when they become soft. Fall color varies from tree programs and employment are open to all, regardless of race, color, national origin, sex, religion, age by the foliage. The true flowers develop into spherical red-pink fruit (about 1 inch diameter; late summer

Liskiewicz, Maciej

378

Anatomy of a systemic choice  

SciTech Connect

Systemic grammar is one of the major varieties of syntactic theory in modern linguistics. It was originally defined by Michael A. K. Halliday around 1960 and has since been developed extensively by him and others. Unlike transformational grammar, systemic grammar is oriented to the ways that language functions for its users. Systemic grammars have been used in several well-known language-processing programs and have been found to be very advantageous for computer generation of text. This report presents a framework for expressing how choices are made in systemic grammars. Formalizing the description of choice processes enriches descriptions of the syntax and semantics of languages, and it contributes to constructive models of language use. There are applications in education and computation. The framework represents the grammar as a combination of systemic syntatic description and explicit choice processes, called 'choice experts'. Choice experts communicate across the boundary of the grammar to its environment, exploring an external intention to communicate. The environment's answers lead to choices and thereby to creation of sentences and other units, tending to satisfy the intention to communicate. The experts' communicative framework includes an extension to the systemic notion of a function, in the direction of a more explicit semantics. Choice expert processes are presented in two notations, one informal and the other formal. The informal notation yields a grammar-guided conversation in English between the grammar and its environment, while the formal notation yields complete accounts of what the grammar produces given a particular circumstance and intent.

Mann, W.C.

1982-09-01

379

Color naming and sunlight Color naming and sunlight  

E-print Network

Color naming and sunlight Color naming and sunlight: Commentary on Lindsey and Brown (2002) Terry@uchicago.edu #12;Color naming and sunlight Lindsey and Brown (2002) (L&B) propose an intriguing explanation. Others may include blue in a color term that also encompasses dark colors such as black, yielding a black

Kay, Paul

380

SINGLE FLOWER TRUSS regulates the transition and maintenance of flowering in tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characterisation of the single flower truss ( sft) mutant phenotype of tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), as well as its genetic interactions with other mutations affecting FALSIFLORA ( FA) and SELF PRUNING ( SP) genes, has revealed that SFT is a key gene in the control of floral transition and floral meristem identity. The single sft mutation produces a

Nuria Molinero-Rosales; Antonio Latorre; Manuel Jamilena; Rafael Lozano

2004-01-01

381

Binomial sampling of western flower thrips infesting flowering greenhouse crops using incidence-mean models  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Accurate assessments of thrips density are important for effective thrips management programs. Complicating the development of sampling plans for western flower thrips (WFT) in greenhouse crops are the facts that these insects are small and difficult to detect and they attack a great variety of crop...

382

Assessing the suitability of flowering herbs as parasitoid food sources: flower attractiveness and nectar accessibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven insect-pollinated plant species were investigated with respect to their olfactory attractiveness and nectar accessibility for the parasitoid species Cotesia glomerata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Heterospilus prosopidis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), and Pimpla turionellae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Flowers differed considerably with respect to both their attractiveness and nectar accessibility. The results obtained from the three parasitoid species, on the other hand, showed a high level

F. L. Wäckers

2004-01-01

383

Medicinal flowers. XXX. Eight new glycosides, everlastosides F-M, from the flowers of Helichrysum arenarium.  

PubMed

Eight new glycosides, everlastosides F (1), G (2), H (3), I (4), J (5), K (6), L (7), and M (8), were isolated from the methanolic extract of the flowers of Helichrysum arenarium. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. PMID:19652412

Morikawa, Toshio; Wang, Li-Bo; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Nakamura, Seikou; Matsuda, Hisashi; Muraoka, Osamu; Wu, Li-Jun; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

2009-08-01

384

Benjamin P. Flower (1962-2012)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Benjamin P. Flower, a gifted paleoceanographer and marine geologist, supportive colleague, and dedicated educator at the University of South Florida (USF) College of Marine Science (CMS) passed away on 1 July 2012 from complications related to a rare genetic immune dysfunction, Common Variable Immunodeficiency. He was 49 years old. During his brief illness, Ben's love of life and boundless high spirits were an inspiration to his family, friends, and colleagues. He exhibited remarkable courage and kept his sense of humor in face of adversity. Ben's intellectualism and enduring love of science remained intact, even in his last hours.

Hastings, David W.; Shevenell, Amelia E.; Kennett, James P.

2012-10-01

385

Contextual processing of brightness and color in Mongolian gerbils.  

PubMed

Brightness and color cues are essential for visually guided behavior. However, for rodents, little is known about how well they do use these cues. We used a virtual reality setup that offers a controlled environment for sensory testing to quantitatively investigate visually guided behavior for achromatic and chromatic stimuli in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). In two-alternative forced choice tasks, animals had to select target stimuli based on relative intensity or color with respect to a contextual reference. Behavioral performance was characterized using psychometric analysis and probabilistic choice modeling. The analyses revealed that the gerbils learned to make decisions that required judging stimuli in relation to their visual context. Stimuli were successfully recognized down to Weber contrasts as low as 0.1. These results suggest that Mongolian gerbils have the perceptual capacity for brightness and color constancy. PMID:25589297

Garbers, Christian; Henke, Josephine; Leibold, Christian; Wachtler, Thomas; Thurley, Kay

2015-01-01

386

Mate choice and mate competition by a tropical hummingbird at a floral resource  

PubMed Central

The influence of male territorial and foraging behaviours on female choice has received little attention in studies of resource-defence mating systems even though such male behaviours are thought to affect variation in their territory quality and mating success. Here we show that female purple-throated carib hummingbirds Eulampis jugularis preferred to mate with males that had high standing crops of nectar on their flower territories. A male's ability to maintain high nectar standing crops on his territory not only depended on the number of flowers in his territory, but also on his ability to enhance his territory through the prevention of nectar losses to intruders. We observed that males defended nectar supplies that were two to five times greater than their daily energy needs and consistently partitioned their territories in order to provide some resources to attract intruding females as potential mates. Such territorial behaviour resulted in males defending some flowers for their own food and other flowers as food for intruding females. Collectively, our results suggest that variation in mating success among males is driven primarily by variation in territory quality, which ultimately depends on a male's fighting ability and size. PMID:20129990

Temeles, Ethan J.; Kress, W. John

2010-01-01

387

Lesson 26a: Colors [rangi  

E-print Network

)] rangi ya manjano / njano [yellow (color of turmeric)] rangi ya zambarau [purple (tropical fruit)] rangiLesson 26a: Colors Colors [rangi] A). Colors eupe [white] eusi [black] ekundu [red] samawati; samawi / bluu [sky blue] rangi ya kibichi/manjani (kijani) [green (color of leaves)] rangi ya machungwa

388

Connecting cognition and consumer choice.  

PubMed

We describe what can be gained from connecting cognition and consumer choice by discussing two contexts ripe for interaction between the two fields. The first-context effects on choice-has already been addressed by cognitive science yielding insights about cognitive process but there is promise for more interaction. The second is learning and representation in choice where relevant theories in cognitive science could be informed by consumer choice, and in return, could pose and answer new questions. We conclude by discussing how these two fields of research stand to benefit from more interaction, citing examples of how interfaces of cognitive science with other fields have been illuminating for theories of cognition. PMID:25527275

Bartels, Daniel M; Johnson, Eric J

2015-02-01

389

Network knowledge and route choice  

E-print Network

Models of urban traveler route choice are reviewed in the context of Intelligent Transportation Systems, particularly Advanced Traveler Information S ystems. Existing models suffer from assumptions of perfect information ...

Ramming, Michael Scott

2002-01-01

390

PRIVATIZED PENSIONS: An Irrational Choice?  

E-print Network

PRIVATIZED PENSIONS: An Irrational Choice? ETHICS AFTER ENRON: Restoring Accountability and Trust Timothy Akin Director of Marketing and Communications CONTRIBUTING EDITORS Shannon Tanguay Alumni First-Ever Student Fellowships . . . . . . . . . . 11 Distinguished Speaker Ethics After Enron

California at Davis, University of

391

Autotuning programs with algorithmic choice  

E-print Network

The process of optimizing programs and libraries, both for performance and quality of service, can be viewed as a search problem over the space of implementation choices. This search is traditionally manually conducted by ...

Ansel, Jason (Jason Andrew)

2014-01-01

392

Household savings and portfolio choice  

E-print Network

This thesis consists of three essays that examine household savings and portfolio choice behavior. Chapter One analyses the effects of employer matching contributions and tax incentives on participation and contribution ...

Klein, Sean Patrick

2010-01-01

393

Science Shorts: Seeing Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Colors can open the door to an invisible world of electromagnetism, even when children can barely imagine things they cannot see. This article looks at color as a powerful tool for engaging children of all ages. A corresponding activity is included.

Texley, Juliana

2005-09-01

394

Colors of Stars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners observe colors in the flame of a burning candle to explore connections between matter, light, color and temperature -- basic concepts of matter and energy. Then, learners elaborate on these basic concepts in a new context of astronomy by drawing scale models of stars. This activity involves an open flame; adult supervision is recommended.

Hemenway, Mary K.

2011-01-01

395

Children's Conceptions of Color.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses children's ideas about colored objects and colored shadows, with special attention to the organization of these ideas into mental models. The clarification of these models provides instructional tools that serve to assess and confront students' naive conceptions. Subjects were visitors to a science museum who engaged in interactive…

Feher, Elsa; Meyer, Karen Rice

1992-01-01

396

3-D Color Wheels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The blending of information from an academic class with projects from art class can do nothing but strengthen the learning power of the student. Creating three-dimensional color wheels provides the perfect opportunity to combine basic geometry knowledge with color theory. In this article, the author describes how her seventh-grade painting…

DuBois, Ann

2010-01-01

397

Segmentation of Color Textures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an approach to perceptual segmentation of color image textures. A multiscale representation of the texture image, generated by a multiband smoothing algorithm based on human psychophysical measurements of color appearance is used as the input. Initial segmentation is achieved by applying a clustering algorithm to the image at the coarsest level of smoothing. The segmented clusters are

Majid Mirmehdi; Maria Petrou

2000-01-01

398

Language and Color Symbolism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests discussion and a writing assignment on the ways color terms have changed from Old English and Indo-European roots; urges a study of Black-White polarity that goes beyond racial connotations of those terms. Provides informative materials on many specific color terms. (TJ)

Anderson, Earl R.

1977-01-01

399

Identification of Genes Associated with Chlorophyll Accumulation in Flower Petals  

PubMed Central

Plants have an ability to prevent chlorophyll accumulation, which would mask the bright flower color, in their petals. In contrast, leaves contain substantial amounts of chlorophyll, as it is essential for photosynthesis. The mechanisms of organ-specific chlorophyll accumulation are unknown. To identify factors that determine the chlorophyll content in petals, we compared the expression of genes related to chlorophyll metabolism in different stages of non-green (red and white) petals (very low chlorophyll content), pale-green petals (low chlorophyll content), and leaves (high chlorophyll content) of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). The expression of many genes encoding chlorophyll biosynthesis enzymes, in particular Mg-chelatase, was lower in non-green petals than in leaves. Non-green petals also showed higher expression of genes involved in chlorophyll degradation, including STAY-GREEN gene and pheophytinase. These data suggest that the absence of chlorophylls in carnation petals may be caused by the low rate of chlorophyll biosynthesis and high rate of degradation. Similar results were obtained by the analysis of Arabidopsis microarray data. In carnation, most genes related to chlorophyll biosynthesis were expressed at similar levels in pale-green petals and leaves, whereas the expression of chlorophyll catabolic genes was higher in pale-green petals than in leaves. Therefore, we hypothesize that the difference in chlorophyll content between non-green and pale-green petals is due to different levels of chlorophyll biosynthesis. Our study provides a basis for future molecular and genetic studies on organ-specific chlorophyll accumulation. PMID:25470367

Ohmiya, Akemi; Hirashima, Masumi; Yagi, Masafumi; Tanase, Koji; Yamamizo, Chihiro

2014-01-01

400

Focal Conic Flower Textures at Curved Interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Focal conic domains (FCDs) in smectic-A liquid crystals have drawn much attention both for their exquisitely structured internal form and for their ability to direct the assembly of micro- and nanomaterials in a variety of patterns. A key to directing FCD assembly is control over the eccentricity of the domain. Here, we demonstrate a new paradigm for creating spatially varying FCD eccentricity by confining a hybrid-aligned smectic with curved interfaces. In particular, we manipulate interface behavior with colloidal particles in order to experimentally produce two examples of what has recently been dubbed the flower texture, where the focal hyperbolae diverge radially outward from the center of the texture, rather than inward as in the canonical eventail or fan texture. We explain how this unconventional assembly can arise from appropriately curved interfaces. Finally, we present a model for this system that applies the law of corresponding cones, showing how FCDs may be embedded smoothly within a "background texture" of large FCDs and concentric spherical layers, in a manner consistent with the qualitative features of the smectic flower. Such understanding could potentially lead to disruptive liquid crystal technologies beyond displays, including patterning, smart surfaces, microlens arrays, sensors and nanomanufacturing.

Beller, Daniel A.; Gharbi, Mohamed A.; Honglawan, Apiradee; Stebe, Kathleen J.; Yang, Shu; Kamien, Randall D.

2013-12-01

401

Regulation of photoperiodic flowering by Arabidopsis photoreceptors  

PubMed Central

Photoperiodism is a day-length-dependent seasonal change of physiological or developmental activities that is widely found in plants and animals. Photoperiodic flowering in plants is regulated by photosensory receptors including the red/far-red light-receptor phytochromes and the blue/UV-A light-receptor cryptochromes. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the specific roles of individual photoreceptors have remained poorly understood. Here, we report a study of the day-length-dependent response of cryptochrome 2 (cry2) and phytochrome A (phyA) and their role as day-length sensors in Arabidopsis. The protein abundance of cry2 and phyA showed a diurnal rhythm in plants grown in short-day but not in plants grown in long-day. The short-day-specific diurnal rhythm of cry2 is determined primarily by blue light-dependent cry2 turnover. Consistent with a proposition that cry2 and phyA are the major day-length sensors in Arabidopsis, we show that phyA mediates far-red light promotion of flowering with modes of action similar to that of cry2. Based on these results and a finding that the photoperiodic responsiveness of plants depends on light quality, a model is proposed to explain how individual phytochromes and cryptochromes work together to confer photoperiodic responsiveness in Arabidopsis. PMID:12578985

Mockler, Todd; Yang, Hongyun; Yu, XuHong; Parikh, Dhavan; Cheng, Ying-chia; Dolan, Sarah; Lin, Chentao

2003-01-01

402

Focal Conic Flower Textures at Curved Interfaces  

E-print Network

Focal conic domains (FCDs) in smectic-A liquid crystals have drawn much attention both for their exquisitely structured internal form and for their ability to direct the assembly of micro- and nanomaterials in a variety of patterns. A key to directing FCD assembly is control over the eccentricity of the domain. Here, we demonstrate a new paradigm for creating spatially varying FCD eccentricity by confining a hybrid-aligned smectic with curved interfaces. In particular, we manipulate interface behavior with colloidal particles in order to experimentally produce two examples of what has recently been dubbed the flower texture, where the focal hyperbolae diverge radially outward from the center of the texture, rather than inward as in the canonical eventail or fan texture. We explain how this unconventional assembly can arise from appropriately curved interfaces. Finally, we present a model for this system that applies the law of corresponding cones, showing how FCDs may be embedded smoothly within a "background texture" of large FCDs and concentric spherical layers, in a manner consistent with the qualitative features of the smectic flower. Such understanding could potentially lead to disruptive liquid crystal technologies beyond displays, including patterning, smart surfaces, microlens arrays, sensors and nanomanufacturing.

Daniel A. Beller; Mohamed A. Gharbi; Apiradee Honglawan; Kathleen J. Stebe; Shu Yang; Randall D. Kamien

2013-10-25

403

Antimutagenicity of some flowers grown in Thailand.  

PubMed

The mutagenicity of dichloromethane, methanol and water extracts of Antigonon leptopus Hook. & Arn., Curcuma sessilis Gage, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn., Ixora coccinea Linn., Millingtonia hortensis Linn., Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn., Plumeria obtusa Linn., Punica granatum Linn., Rhinacanthus nasutus ((Linn.) Kurz.) and Syzygium malaccense ((Linn.) Merr.& Perry) before and after nitrite treatment was firstly investigated in the Ames test. Their antimutagenicity against the product of the reaction mixture of 1-aminopyrene nitrite model in the absence of metabolic activation on Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100 was evaluated. The results showed that none of the samples was mutagenic. Most nitrite-treated samples but dichloromethane extracts of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Plumeria obtusa, Syzygium malaccense, methanol extract of Syzygium malaccense and water extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis were mutagenic. The nitrite treated methanol extract of Nelumbo nucifera exhibited the highest mutagenicity on both strains. All dichloromethane extracts of flowers decreased the mutagenicity induced by the product of 1-aminopyrene nitrite model on both tester strains. Methanol extract of Curcuma sessilis and Punica granatum (15 mg/plate) showed the highest antimutagenic activity in TA 98 and TA 100, respectively. The protective effects of these flower extracts might be due to the presence of antimutagenic components that were supposed to be flavonoids. PMID:20100534

Wongwattanasathien, O; Kangsadalampai, K; Tongyonk, L

2010-04-01

404

Radiation Hydrodynamics with FLOW-ER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of radiative transport are an important aspect of many astrophysical fluid problems, such as binary star accretion discs and common envelope evolution. Unfortunately, the full radiative transport problem is seven dimensional and outside the realm of current computational capabilities. The gray field flux limited diffusion (FLD) approximation has been shown to provide a feasible four dimensional approximation to the full radiative transport problems in many cases. The flux is approximated through an algebraic expression which interpolates between the two extremes of diffusive and free streaming radiation. FLD allows for the exchange of energy and momentum between the fluid and radiation field. We are implementing this into our current Newtonian astrophysical fluid simulation code named FLOW-ER. Unlike other FLD codes, FLOW-ER handles shocks without the use of artificial viscosity. At this point, the code runs in 1D and 2D on a single processor. The ultimate goal is a fully 3D parallel code running on an adaptive mesh. Presented are results for test cases in 1D and 2D, compared to analytic results where available, and to ZeusMP2 when not. This research has been supported, in part, by NSF grants AST-0407070 and AST-0708551.

Marcello, Dominic; Tohline, J. E.; Motl, P. M.

2008-03-01

405

Evoked Emotions Predict Food Choice  

PubMed Central

In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Therefore, the focus within recent studies shifted towards using emotion-profiling methods that successfully can discriminate between products that are equally liked. However, it is unclear how well scores from emotion-profiling methods predict actual food choice and/or consumption. To test this, we proposed to decompose emotion scores into valence and arousal scores using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and apply Multinomial Logit Models (MLM) to estimate food choice using liking, valence, and arousal as possible predictors. For this analysis, we used an existing data set comprised of liking and food-evoked emotions scores from 123 participants, who rated 7 unlabeled breakfast drinks. Liking scores were measured using a 100-mm visual analogue scale, while food-evoked emotions were measured using 2 existing emotion-profiling methods: a verbal and a non-verbal method (EsSense Profile and PrEmo, respectively). After 7 days, participants were asked to choose 1 breakfast drink from the experiment to consume during breakfast in a simulated restaurant environment. Cross validation showed that we were able to correctly predict individualized food choice (1 out of 7 products) for over 50% of the participants. This number increased to nearly 80% when looking at the top 2 candidates. Model comparisons showed that evoked emotions better predict food choice than perceived liking alone. However, the strongest predictive strength was achieved by the combination of evoked emotions and liking. Furthermore we showed that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores more accurately predict food choice than verbal food-evoked emotions scores. PMID:25521352

Dalenberg, Jelle R.; Gutjar, Swetlana; ter Horst, Gert J.; de Graaf, Kees; Renken, Remco J.; Jager, Gerry

2014-01-01

406

Comparison of decorative and non-decorative flowers in Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb.) Ser  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison was made between decorative and non-decorative flowers in Hydrangea macrophylla. The external appearance of petals, stamens, and pistils were similar in both types of flowers. The locules and placentas of the decorative flower were smaller than those of the non-decorative flower. On the other hand, the decorative flower’s receptacle was much more developed than that of the non-decorative

Tatsuya Uemachi; Yoshie Kato; Toshihiko Nishio

2004-01-01

407

Flowering plant density and pollinator visitation in Senecio  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has commonly been assumed that pollinator energy intake increases with flowering plant density, and visitation to flowers should therefore be higher in denser stands. I therefore investigated the relationship between flight distance and flight time for bumblebees and butterflies foraging on Senecio integerrimus and S. crassulus in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. I also compared patterns of pollinator visitation and

Johanna Schmitt

1983-01-01

408

Optimization of lychee and longan flowering and fruiting in Hawaii.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A new management method was developed for consistent flowering and fruiting of ‘Kaimana’ lychee at the Inconsistent or lack of flower and fruit production in germplasm accessions is a major obstacle in the evaluation, characterization and documentation of germplasm accessions and limits the genetic...

409

Spring Flowers--The Harvest of a Sensitive Eye  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twelve flowers are described in the order of their appearance in the spring. Drawings compliment the text. Flowers are the Hepatica, Bloodroot, Red Trillium, Wild Ginger, Marsh Marigold, Juneberry, Shadbush, Wild Iris, Clintonia, Starflower, Labrador Tea, Bunchberry, and Partridge Berry. (NQ)

Levin, Ted

1977-01-01

410

BIOLOGY IN PICTURES FLOWER PIGMENTATION Colouring the snapdragon  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY IN PICTURES FLOWER PIGMENTATION Colouring the snapdragon Pigmentation pattern, one '· ·. . : Whereas the flower buds of wild-type Antirrhinum majus show a pattern of anthocyanin pigmentation that is stongest at the base of the petal tube and in the lobes (a), there is no pigment in the petal tube

Jackson, David

411

On selection for flowering time plasticity in response to density.  

PubMed

Different genotypes often exhibit opposite plastic responses in the timing of the onset of flowering with increasing plant density. In experimental studies, selection for accelerated flowering is generally found. By contrast, game theoretical studies predict that there should be selection for delayed flowering when competition increases. Combining different optimality criteria, the conditions under which accelerated or delayed flowering in response to density would be selected for are analysed with a logistic growth simulation model. To maximize seed production at the whole-stand level (simple optimization), selection should lead to accelerated flowering at high plant density, unless very short growing seasons select for similar onset of flowering at all densities. By contrast, selection of relative individual fitness will lead to delayed flowering when season length is long and/or growth rates are high. These different results give a potential explanation for the observed differences in direction of the plastic responses within and between species, including homeostasis, as a result of the effect of the variation in season length on the benefits of delayed flowering. This suggests that limited plasticity can evolve without the costs and limits that are currently thought to constrain the evolution of plasticity. PMID:25124368

Vermeulen, Peter J

2015-01-01

412

Seasonal flowering and evolution: the heritage from Charles Darwin  

Microsoft Academic Search

To survive, plants optimise their seasonal flowering time and set seed to avoid extremes of the environment including frost, heat and drought. Additionally, pollination may need to betightly regulated in time so that it coincides with flowering of other individuals and\\/or with the presence of bird or insect pollinators. It is now clear that plants use seasonal changes in natural

413

Pedicel breakstrength and cellulase gene expression during tomato flower abscission.  

PubMed Central

Six cellulase genes were isolated from total RNA of the ethylene-treated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) flower abscission zone by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction using degenerate primers to conserved amino acid sequences from known plant cellulases. Four of the gene fragments are homologous to fruit pericarp cellulases. The other two are novel cellulase genes, referred to as Cel5 and Cel6. Breakstrength and cellulase gene expression were then analyzed in naturally abscising flowers and flower explants. In both naturally abscising flowers and flower explants induced to abscise in air or ethylene, both new cellulase mRNAs were correlated with flower shedding. Whereas the Cel5 mRNA increased in later stages of abscission, the Cel6 mRNA was present in nonabscising flowers and then decreased in the final stage of abscission. A third cellulase, Cel1, increased during the final stage of abscission in flower explants and yet did not increase during shedding in planta, although it was detectable at low levels in all abscission stages. Cel1 and Cel5 mRNA decreased 99% when indole-3-acetic acid was added during ethylene treatment, consistent with low levels of abscission (3%). In contrast, Cel6 mRNA increased slightly when indole-3-acetic acid was added. These results suggest that abscission is a multistep process involving both activated and repressed cellulase genes and that the relative importance of each cellulase in the process depends on the physiological conditions under which abscission takes place. PMID:8754682

del Campillo, E; Bennett, A B

1996-01-01

414

Modeling Macronutrient Absorption of Hydroponically-Grown Cut Flower Roses  

E-print Network

129 Modeling Macronutrient Absorption of Hydroponically-Grown Cut Flower Roses Neil S. Mattson Keywords: hydroponics, nitrogen, calcium, potassium, magnesium, Rosa Ã? hybrida Abstract Regulations of the nutrient supply necessary for crop production. Cut flower rose production typically uses hydroponics where

Lieth, J. Heinrich

415

Tachinidae (Diptera) associated with flowering plants: estimating foral attractiveness  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Flowering plants in agricultural landscapes can provide ecological services, such as nectar-food for adult parasitic flies such as Tachinidae. Various cultivated, introduced/established and native potted plants-in-flower were used to bait interception traps along the wooded margins of fields planted...

416

Grass Meristems II: Inflorescence Architecture, Flower Development and Meristem Fate  

E-print Network

Grass Meristems II: Inflorescence Architecture, Flower Development and Meristem Fate Wakana Tanaka1. Grass species produce com- plex inflorescences and unique flowers. The grass inflores- cence is composed is relatively simple. In contrast, in grasses, dif- ferent types of meristem, such as the IM, the branch

Jackson, David

417

Shifts in flowering phenology reshape a subalpine plant community.  

PubMed

Phenology--the timing of biological events--is highly sensitive to climate change. However, our general understanding of how phenology responds to climate change is based almost solely on incomplete assessments of phenology (such as first date of flowering) rather than on entire phenological distributions. Using a uniquely comprehensive 39-y flowering phenology dataset from the Colorado Rocky Mountains that contains more than 2 million flower counts, we reveal a diversity of species-level phenological shifts that bring into question the accuracy of previous estimates of long-term phenological change. For 60 species, we show that first, peak, and last flowering rarely shift uniformly and instead usually shift independently of one another, resulting in a diversity of phenological changes through time. Shifts in the timing of first flowering on average overestimate the magnitude of shifts in the timing of peak flowering, fail to predict shifts in the timing of last flowering, and underrepresent the number of species changing phenology in this plant community. Ultimately, this diversity of species-level phenological shifts contributes to altered coflowering patterns within the community, a redistribution of floral abundance across the season, and an expansion of the flowering season by more than I mo during the course of our study period. These results demonstrate the substantial reshaping of ecological communities that can be attributed to shifts in phenology. PMID:24639544

CaraDonna, Paul J; Iler, Amy M; Inouye, David W

2014-04-01

418

Translocation and Absorption of Glyphosate in Flowering Sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sicklepod is a competitive and prolific weed that emerges throughout the crop season. Glyphosate applications at sicklepod flowering have been shown to greatly reduce seed production, although there is limited information on glyphosate translocation in flowering weeds. Therefore, a laboratory stud...

419

1999 Macmillan Magazines Ltd The flowers of Ophrys orchids mimic  

E-print Network

© 1999 Macmillan Magazines Ltd The flowers of Ophrys orchids mimic receptive females of usually and orchid flowers for their attractiveness to male bees (Fig. 1). Of all bee-odour samples tested, cuticle to a dummy (Fig. 1). Our understanding of the mechanisms of chemical mimicry in Ophrys orchids has been

Paulus, Hannes F.

420

Actinidia arguta: volatile compounds in fruit and flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 240 compounds were detected when the volatile components of the flowers and the fruit from several Actinidia arguta genotypes were investigated. Around 60–70 different compounds were extracted from individual tissues of each genotype. Two different methods of volatile sampling (headspace and solvent) favoured different classes of compounds, dependent upon their volatilities and solubilities in the flower or fruit

Adam J Matich; Harry Young; John M Allen; Mindy Y Wang; Simon Fielder; Mark A McNeilage; Elspeth A MacRae

2003-01-01

421

Partitioning of Pollinators during Flowering in an African Acacia Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competition for pollination is an important factor structuring flowering in many plant communities. We examined mechanisms reducing interspecific pollen flow in a community of 10 Acacia species in a highly seasonal savannah habitat in Tanzania. Partitioning is achieved, in part, through separation of flowering in space and seasonal time, and through interspecific differences in pollinator guilds. Nevertheless, coflowering Acacia species

Graham N. Stone; Pat Willmer; J. Alexandra Rowe

1998-01-01

422

Spatiotemporal analysis of olive flowering using geostatistical techniques.  

PubMed

Analysis of flowering patterns in the olive (Olea europaea L.) are of considerable agricultural and ecological interest, and also provide valuable information for allergy-sufferers, enabling identification of the major sources of airborne pollen at any given moment by interpreting the aerobiological data recorded in pollen traps. The present spatiotemporal analysis of olive flowering in central Spain combined geostatistical techniques with the application of a Geographic Information Systems, and compared results for flowering intensity with airborne pollen records. The results were used to obtain continuous phenological maps which determined the pattern of the succession of the olive flowering. The results show also that, although the highest airborne olive-pollen counts were recorded during the greatest flowering intensity of the groves closest to the pollen trap, the counts recorded at the start of the pollen season were not linked to local olive groves, which had not yet begin to flower. To detect the remote sources of olive pollen several episodes of pollen recorded before the local flowering season were analysed using a HYSPLIT trajectory model and the findings showed that western, southern and southwestern winds transported pollen grains into the study area from earlier-flowering groves located outside the territory. PMID:25461089

Rojo, Jesús; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

2015-02-01

423

A new dimension to hummingbird-flower relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

The close correspondence between the bills of hummingbirds and the lengths of the flowers they feed from has been interpreted as an example of coadaptation. Observations of birds feeding at flowers longer and shorter than their bills, however, and the lack of experimental evidence for any feeding advantage to short bills, seem to contradict this interpretation. I address this problem

Ethan J. Temeles

1996-01-01

424

Conserving natural enemies with flowering plants: Estimating attractiveness  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Flower morphology and volatile chemistry are related to the number and type of parasitoids captured in Malaise traps baited with various flowers, including native plants. Such information could guide attempts to conserve natural enemies through modifications of agricultural landscapes such as interc...

425

Management of flowering and fruiting of 'Kaimana' lychee in Hawaii.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Most lychee varieties from China do not flower under the mild Hawaii winter climate. 'Kaimana' is a variety selected by University of Hawaii scientists for its relatively low chill requirement for flowering and fruit production. The combined practices of pruning 20 to 30 cm of branches with fruit ...

426

Flowering plant phenology and weather in Alberta, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant phenology can be used for biomonitoring climate change. The flowering of certain temperate zone plant species occurs in response to accumulated heat. Networks of observers presently provide data on the timing of the growth of native and crop plants to Agro-meteorological Departments in Europe and the United States. In Alberta, a phenological survey which began in 1987 records flowering

Elisabeth G. Beaubien; Dan L. Johnson

1994-01-01

427

An evolutionary scenario for the origin of flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mostly Male theory is the first to use evidence from gene phylogenies, genetics, modern plant morphology and fossils to explain the evolutionary origin of flowers. It proposes that flower organization derives more from the male structures of ancestral gymnosperms than from female structures. The theory arose from a hypothesis-based study. Such studies are the most likely to generate testable

Michael W. Frohlich

2003-01-01

428

SHORT COMMUNICATION Carotenoid-dependent coloration of male American kestrels  

E-print Network

Abstract The signaling function of sexually selected traits, such as carotenoid-dependent avian plumage coloration, has received a great deal of recent attention especially with respect to parasitism and immunocompetence. We argue that parasite-mediated models of sexual selection may have an implicit temporal component that many researchers have ignored. For example, previous studies have demonstrated that carotenoid-dependent traits can signal past parasite exposure, current levels of parasitism, or the ability of individuals to manage parasitic infections in the future. We examined repeated measures of carotenoid-dependent skin color and blood parasitism in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) to distinguish whether coloration might signal current parasitism or the potential to deal with infections in the future. We found no evidence that coloration was related to current levels of parasitism in either sex. However, coloration of males significantly predicted their response to parasitism; males with bright orange coloration during prelaying, when mate choice is occurring, were more likely than dull yellow males to reduce their levels of infection by the time incubation began. Coloration during prelaying may advertise a male’s health later in the breeding season. For kestrels, the ability to predict future health would be highly beneficial given the male’s role in providing food to his mate and offspring. Coloration of

Russell D. Dawson; Gary R. Bortolotti; R. D. Dawson; G. R. Bortolotti

429

Color-detection thresholds in rhesus macaque monkeys and humans.  

PubMed

Macaque monkeys are a model of human color vision. To facilitate linking physiology in monkeys with psychophysics in humans, we directly compared color-detection thresholds in humans and rhesus monkeys. Colors were defined by an equiluminant plane of cone-opponent color space. All subjects were tested on an identical apparatus with a four-alternative forced-choice task. Targets were 2° square, centered 2° from fixation, embedded in luminance noise. Across all subjects, the change in detection thresholds from initial testing to plateau performance (“learning”) was similar for +L ? M (red) colors and +M ? L (bluish-green) colors. But the extent of learning was higher for +S (lavender) than for ?S (yellow-lime); moreover, at plateau performance, the cone contrast at the detection threshold was higher for +S than for ?S. These asymmetries may reflect differences in retinal circuitry for S-ON and S-OFF. At plateau performance, the two species also had similar detection thresholds for all colors, although monkeys had shorter reaction times than humans and slightly lower thresholds for colors that modulated L/M cones. We discuss whether these observations, together with previous work showing that monkeys have lower spatial acuity than humans, could be accounted for by selective pressures driving higher chromatic sensitivity at the cost of spatial acuity amongst monkeys, specifically for the more recently evolved L ? M mechanism. PMID:25027164

Gagin, Galina; Bohon, Kaitlin S; Butensky, Adam; Gates, Monica A; Hu, Jiun-Yiing; Lafer-Sousa, Rosa; Pulumo, Reitumetse L; Qu, Jane; Stoughton, Cleo M; Swanbeck, Sonja N; Conway, Bevil R

2014-01-01

430

Nonparametric choice modeling : applications to operations management  

E-print Network

With the recent explosion of choices available to us in every walk of our life, capturing the choice behavior exhibited by individuals has become increasingly important to many businesses. At the core, capturing choice ...

Jagabathula, Srikanth

2011-01-01

431

Division of labour within flowers: heteranthery, a floral strategy to reconcile contrasting pollen fates  

E-print Network

; nectarless flowers; Solanum rostratum; stamen functions. Abstract In many nectarless flowering plants, pollen studies of Solanum rostratum (Solanaceae) and theoretical models to investigate this `division of labour

Barrett, C.H.

432

Cranberry flowering times and climate change in southern Massachusetts.  

PubMed

Plants in wild and agricultural settings are being affected by the warmer temperatures associated with climate change. Here we examine the degree to which the iconic New England cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, is exhibiting signs of altered flowering phenology. Using contemporary records from commercial cranberry bogs in southeastern Massachusetts in the United States, we found that cranberry plants are responsive to temperature. Flowering is approximately 2 days earlier for each 1 °C increase in May temperature. We also investigated the relationship between cranberry flowering and flight dates of the bog copper, Lycaena epixanthe-a butterfly dependent upon cranberry plants in its larval stage. Cranberry flowering and bog copper emergence were found to be changing disproportionately over time, suggesting a potential ecological mismatch. The pattern of advanced cranberry flowering over time coupled with increased temperature has implications not only for the relationship between cranberry plants and their insect associates but also for agricultural crops in general and for the commercial cranberry industry. PMID:24018848

Ellwood, Elizabeth R; Playfair, Susan R; Polgar, Caroline A; Primack, Richard B

2014-09-01

433

Color processing in digital cameras  

Microsoft Academic Search

In seconds, a digital camera performs full-color rendering that includes color filter array interpolation, color calibration, anti-aliasing, infrared rejection, and white-point correction. This article describes the design decisions that make this processing possible

J. Adams; K. Parulski; K. Spaulding

1998-01-01

434

Flower Size Variation in Rosmarinus officinalis: Individuals, Populations and Habitats  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Flowers are relatively invariant organs within species, but quantitative variation often exists among conspecifics. These variations represent the raw material that natural selection can magnify, eventually resulting in morphological divergence and diversification. This paper investigates floral variability in Rosmarinus officinalis, a Mediterranean shrub. • Methods Nine populations were selected in three major southern Spanish habitats (coast, lowland and mountains) along an elevation gradient. Flower samples from randomly chosen plants were collected from each population, and a total of 641 flowers from 237 shrubs were weighed while still fresh to the nearest 0·1 mg. Leaves from the same plants were also measured. Variations among habitats, sites and plants were explored with general linear model ANOVA. Leaf–flower covariation was also investigated. • Key Results Most (58 %) mass in flowers was accounted for by the corolla, whose linear dimensions correlated directly with flower mass. Averaged over plants, the mass of a flower varied between 12 mg and 38 mg. Habitat, site (within habitat) and shrub identity had significant effects on mass variance. Flowers from the coast were the smallest (17 mg) and those from the mountains the largest (25 mg on average). A pattern of continuously increasing flower size with elevation emerged which was largely uncoupled from the geographical pattern of leaf size variation. • Conclusions As regards flower size, a great potential to local differentiation exists in Rosmarinus. Observed divergences accord with a regime of large-bodied pollinator selection in the mountains, but also with resource–cost hypotheses on floral evolution that postulate that reduced corollas are advantageous under prevailingly stressful conditions. PMID:15585545

HERRERA, JAVIER

2004-01-01

435

Theoretical aspects of color vision  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The three color receptors of Young-Helmholtz and the opponent colors type of information processing postulated by Hering are both present in the human visual system. This mixture accounts for both the phenomena of color matching or hue discrimination and such perceptual qualities of color as the division of the spectrum into color bands. The functioning of the cells in the visual system, especially within the retina, and the relation of this function to color perception are discussed.

Wolbarsht, M. L.

1972-01-01

436

Regulation of Flowering in the Long-Day Grass Lolium temulentum by Gibberellins and the FLOWERING LOCUS T Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal control of flowering often involves leaf sensing of daylength coupled to time measurement and generation and transport of florigenic signals to the shoot apex. We show that transmitted signals in the grass Lolium temulentum may include gibberellins (GAs) and the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene. Within 2 h of starting a florally inductive long day (LD), expression of a

Rod W. King; Thomas Moritz; Lloyd T. Evans; Jerome Martin; Claus H. Andersen; Cheryl Blundell; Igor Kardailsky; Peter M. Chandler

2006-01-01

437

Children's color trails.  

PubMed

Color Trails for Children was developed in response to the need for instruments which minimize cultural bias in neuropsychological testing. The test, similar in format to Trail Making, was designed to provide an evaluation of speeded visuomotor tracking while minimizing the influence of language. The present research involves two exploratory studies which examine the relationship between Color Trails for Children and Trail Making, factors that may affect performance times, and discriminant validity. Results indicate that the tests appear to measure the same neuropsychological domains, and administration of Trail Making did not significantly alter performance times on Color Trails. Increasing age and IQ were related to quicker completion time for both tests. Females were found to complete Color Trails 2 and Trail Making Part B more quickly than males in this sample. Comparison between children diagnosed with learning disabilities, attention deficits, or mild neurological conditions and a preliminary standardization sample supported the discriminant validity of Color Traits to distinguish between normal controls and children with altered neuropsychological functioning. Comparison between clinical conditions indicated that Color Trails 2 was particularly sensitive in discriminating among the groups. Although further research is needed, results suggest that Color Trails has the potential to be an effective research and clinical tool in child neuropsychological assessment. PMID:14588688

Williams, J; Rickert, V; Hogan, J; Zolten, A J; Satz, P; D'Elia, L F; Asarnow, R F; Zaucha, K; Light, R

1995-05-01

438

Flower vs. Leaf Feeding by Pieris brassicae: Glucosinolate-Rich Flower Tissues are Preferred and Sustain Higher Growth Rate  

PubMed Central

Interactions between butterflies and caterpillars in the genus Pieris and plants in the family Brassicaceae are among the best explored in the field of insect–plant biology. However, we report here for the first time that Pieris brassicae, commonly assumed to be a typical folivore, actually prefers to feed on flowers of three Brassica nigra genotypes rather than on their leaves. First- and second-instar caterpillars were observed to feed primarily on leaves, whereas late second and early third instars migrated via the small leaves of the flower branches to the flower buds and flowers. Once flower feeding began, no further leaf feeding was observed. We investigated growth rates of caterpillars having access exclusively to either leaves of flowering plants or flowers. In addition, we analyzed glucosinolate concentrations in leaves and flowers. Late-second- and early-third-instar P. brassicae caterpillars moved upward into the inflorescences of B. nigra and fed on buds and flowers until the end of the final (fifth) instar, after which they entered into the wandering stage, leaving the plant in search of a pupation site. Flower feeding sustained a significantly higher growth rate than leaf feeding. Flowers contained levels of glucosinolates up to five times higher than those of leaves. Five glucosinolates were identified: the aliphatic sinigrin, the aromatic phenyethylglucosinolate, and three indole glucosinolates: glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, and 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin. Tissue type and genotype were the most important factors affecting levels of identified glucosinolates. Sinigrin was by far the most abundant compound in all three genotypes. Sinigrin, 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin, and phenylethylglucosinolate were present at significantly higher levels in flowers than in leaves. In response to caterpillar feeding, sinigrin levels in both leaves and flowers were significantly higher than in undamaged plants, whereas 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin leaf levels were lower. Our results show that feeding on flower tissues, containing higher concentrations of glucosinolates, provides P. brassicae with a nutritional benefit in terms of higher growth rate. This preference appears to be in contrast to published negative effects of volatile glucosinolate breakdown products on the closely related Pieris rapae. PMID:17828429

Smallegange, R. C.; Blatt, S. E.; Harvey, J. A.; Agerbirk, N.; Dicke, M.

2007-01-01

439

The effect of flower position on variation and covariation in floral traits in a wild hermaphrodite plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Floral traits within plants can vary with flower position or flowering time. Within an inflorescence, sexual allocation of early produced basal flowers is often female-biased while later produced distal flowers are male-biased. Such temporal adjustment of floral resource has been considered one of the potential advantages of modularity (regarding a flower as a module) in hermaphrodites. However, flowers are

Zhi-Gang Zhao; Guo-Zhen Du; Shuang-Quan Huang

2010-01-01

440

Color structures and permutations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Color structures for tree level scattering amplitudes in gauge theory are studied in order to determine the symmetry properties of the color-ordered sub-amplitudes. We mathematically formulate the space of color structures together with the action of permuting external legs. The character generating functions are presented from the mathematical literature and we determine the decomposition into irreducible representations. Mathematically, free Lie algebras and the Lie operad are central. A study of the implications for sub-amplitudes is initiated and we prove directly that both the Parke-Taylor amplitudes and Cachazo-He-Yuan amplitudes satisfy the Kleiss-Kuijf relations.

Kol, Barak; Shir, Ruth

2014-11-01

441

Stork Color Proofing Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the past few years, Stork Colorproofing B.V. has been marketing an analog color proofing system in Europe based on electrophoto-graphic technology it pioneered for the purpose of high resolution, high fidelity color imaging in the field of the Graphic Arts. Based in part on this technology, it will make available on a commercial basis a digital color proofing system in 1989. Proofs from both machines will provide an exact reference for the user and will look, feel, and behave in a reproduction sense like the printed press sheet.

Ekman, C. Frederick

1989-04-01

442

Colors on Jupiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The colors present in the clouds of Jupiter at the time of the Voyager encounters are described as they appear in high resolution images. It is shown that latitude, altitude and dwelltime are all critical factors in determining which colors appear where, although the identities of the responsible chromophores remain unestablished. Simultaneous ground-based 5 micron observations are used to determine the relative altitudes of the cloud systems which are characterized as white clouds, tawny clouds, dark brown cloud belts, and blue-grey hot spots in equatorial regions. Correlations between cloud color and certain latitudes have been maintained for decades, which suggests the importance of the internal energy source.

Owen, T.; Terrile, R. J.

1981-01-01

443

Parafoveal color discrimination: a chromaticity locus of enhanced discrimination.  

PubMed

Are boundaries between color categories associated with enhanced discrimination? In the present experiments, chromatic thresholds were obtained for discriminations along lines orthogonal to the yellow-blue axis of color space. The targets were parafoveal and thresholds were measured with a spatial two-alternative forced choice. In interleaved experimental runs, we also obtained empirical estimates of the subjective yellow-blue line by asking observers to categorize colors as reddish or greenish. Both types of measurement were made in the presence of a steady background that was metameric to equal-energy white. In a limited region from desaturated yellow to desaturated blue, an enhanced discrimination is found near the subjective transition between reddish and greenish hues. This line of optimal discrimination is not aligned with either of the cardinal axes of color space: In a MacLeod-Boynton chromaticity diagram, it runs obliquely with negative slope. PMID:20143897

Danilova, Marina V; Mollon, J D

2010-01-01

444

Direct mate choice maintains diversity among sympatric cichlids in Lake Victoria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mate choice may play an important role in animal speciation. The haplochromine cichlids of Lake Victoria are suitable to test this hypothesis. Diversity in ecology, coloration and anatomy evolved in these fish faster than postzygotic barriers to gene flow, and little is known about how this diversity is maintained. It was tested whether recognizable forms are selection-maintained morphs or reproductively

O. Seehausen; F. Witte; J. J. M. van Alphen; N. Bouton

1998-01-01

445

Colored and white sectors of petunia flowers display differential resistance to insect herbivores  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insect herbivory of crops increases the probability of fungal infection in damaged tissues. Mycotoxins produced by some fungi are harmful to livestock and humans. Increasing plant resistance lowers the levels of fungal infection and mycotoxin levels. The Bt toxin successfully kills only a fractio...

446

Ecdysteroids from the flowers of Aerva javanica.  

PubMed

Four new ecdysteroids (1-4), along with three known steroids, ?-ecdysone (5), 5-?-2-deoxyintegristerone A (6) and 24-epi-makisterone A (7) (Fig. 1), were isolated from the methanolic extract of the flowers of Aerva javanica by using normal and reverse phase chromatography. The structures of the new compounds (1-4) were determined due to 1D ((1)H and (13)C), 2D NMR (HSQC, HMBC, COSY, NOESY) techniques and high resolution mass spectrometry (HREIMS). The known compounds (5-7) were characterized based on the 1D NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry and by comparison with the literature values. All isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory activities against enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and lipoxygenase (LOX). PMID:23933119

Saleem, Muhammad; Musaddiq, Sara; Riaz, Naheed; Zubair, Momina; Ashraf, Muhammad; Nasar, Rumana; Jabbar, Abdul

2013-11-01

447

Flowering retardation by high temperature in chrysanthemums: involvement of FLOWERING LOCUS T-like 3 gene repression.  

PubMed

Flowering time of the short-day plant Chrysanthemum morifolium is largely dependent upon daylength, but it is also distinctly influenced by other environmental factors. Flowering is delayed by summer heat. Here, the underlying basis for this phenomenon was investigated. Heat-induced flowering retardation occurred similarly in C. morifolium and C. seticuspe, a wild-type diploid chrysanthemum. In both plants, this flowering retardation occurred mainly because of inhibition of capitulum development. Concurrently, expression of flowering-related genes in the shoot tip was delayed under high temperature conditions. In chrysanthemums, FLOWERING LOCUS T-like 3 (FTL3) has been identified as a floral inducer produced in the leaves after short-day stimuli and transported to the shoot tip. In C. seticuspe, heat-induced flowering retardation was accompanied by a reduction in FTL3 expression in the leaves. Two C. morifolium cultivars with flowering times that are differently affected by growth temperature were also examined. High temperature-induced FTL3 repression was observed in the leaves of both cultivars, although the degree of repression was greater in the heat-sensitive cultivar than in the heat-tolerant cultivar. When a scion of the heat-sensitive cultivar was grafted onto the stock of the heat-tolerant cultivar, flowering in the shoot tip was less sensitive to heat. Conversely, a scion of the heat-tolerant cultivar grafted onto the heat-sensitive cultivar showed increased heat sensitivity. Thus, several lines of evidence suggest that the reduction of FTL3 signalling from the leaves to the shoot tip at high temperatures is involved in flowering retardation in chrysanthemums. PMID:23314814

Nakano, Yoshihiro; Higuchi, Yohei; Sumitomo, Katsuhiko; Hisamatsu, Tamotsu

2013-02-01

448

Single color and single flavor color superconductivity  

E-print Network

We survey the non-locked color-flavor-spin channels for quark-quark (color superconducting) condensates in QCD, using an NJL model. We also study isotropic quark-antiquark (mesonic) condensates. We make mean-field estimates of the strength and sign of the self-interaction of each condensate, using four-fermion interaction vertices based on known QCD interactions. For the attractive quark pairing channels, we solve the mean-field gap equations to obtain the size of the gap as a function of quark density. We also calculate the dispersion relations for the quasiquarks, in order to see how fully gapped the spectrum of fermionic excitations will be. We use our results to specify the likely pairing patterns in neutral quark matter, and comment on possible phenomenological consequences.

Mark G. Alford; Jeffrey A. Bowers; Jack M. Cheyne; Greig A. Cowan

2002-10-07

449

Of Colored Numbers and Numbered Colors: Interactive Processes in Grapheme-Color Synesthesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grapheme-color synesthetes experience a specific color when they see a grapheme but they do not report to perceive a grapheme when a color is presented. In this study, we investigate whether color can still evoke number-processes even when a vivid number experience is absent. We used color-number and number-color priming, both revealing faster responses in congruent compared to incongruent conditions.

Titia Gebuis; Tanja C. W. Nijboer; Maarten J. van der Smagt

2009-01-01

450

Flowering phenology, fruiting success and progressive deterioration of pollination in an early-flowering geophyte  

PubMed Central

Spatio-temporal patterns of snowmelt and flowering times affect fruiting success in Erythronium grandiflorum Pursh (Liliaceae) in subalpine western Colorado, USA. From 1990 to 1995, I measured the consistency across years of snowmelt patterns and flowering times along a permanent transect. In most years since 1993, I have monitored fruit set in temporal cohorts (early- to late-flowering groups of plants) at one site. To assess ‘pollination limitation’, I have also conducted supplemental hand-pollination experiments at various times through the blooming season. The onset of blooming is determined by snowmelt, with the earliest years starting a month before the latest years owing to variation in winter snowpack accumulation. Fruit set is diminished or prevented entirely by killing frosts in some years, most frequently but not exclusively for the earlier cohorts. When frosts do not limit fruit set, pollination limitation is frequent, especially in the earlier cohorts. Pollination limitation is strongest for middle cohorts: it tends to be negated by frost in early cohorts and ameliorated by continuing emergence of bumble-bee queens in later cohorts. This lily appears to be poorly synchronized with its pollinators. Across the years of the study, pollination limitation appears to be increasing, perhaps because the synchronization is getting worse. PMID:20819812

Thomson, James D.

2010-01-01

451

Flowering phenology, fruiting success and progressive deterioration of pollination in an early-flowering geophyte.  

PubMed

Spatio-temporal patterns of snowmelt and flowering times affect fruiting success in Erythronium grandiflorum Pursh (Liliaceae) in subalpine western Colorado, USA. From 1990 to 1995, I measured the consistency across years of snowmelt patterns and flowering times along a permanent transect. In most years since 1993, I have monitored fruit set in temporal cohorts (early- to late-flowering groups of plants) at one site. To assess 'pollination limitation', I have also conducted supplemental hand-pollination experiments at various times through the blooming season. The onset of blooming is determined by snowmelt, with the earliest years starting a month before the latest years owing to variation in winter snowpack accumulation. Fruit set is diminished or prevented entirely by killing frosts in some years, most frequently but not exclusively for the earlier cohorts. When frosts do not limit fruit set, pollination limitation is frequent, especially in the earlier cohorts. Pollination limitation is strongest for middle cohorts: it tends to be negated by frost in early cohorts and ameliorated by continuing emergence of bumble-bee queens in later cohorts. This lily appears to be poorly synchronized with its pollinators. Across the years of the study, pollination limitation appears to be increasing, perhaps because the synchronization is getting worse. PMID:20819812

Thomson, James D

2010-10-12

452

Foraging ability of rufous hummingbirds on hummingbird flowers and hawkmoth flowers.  

PubMed

We examine the suitability of ornithophilous flowers and sphingophilous flowers in Ipompsis and Aquilegia for nectar foraging by the hummingbird Selasphorus rufus. In S. rufus, bill length averages 18.9 mm in females and 17.3 mm in males. Maximal tongue extension approximates bill length, suggesting that birds can feed from floral tubes up to 33.5 mm in length. However, their ability to do so is limited by two factors. First, the maximal depth at which S. rufus can extract nectar decreases with the width of the floral tube. Second, feeding time is shortest in short floral tubes and progressively increases as the tubes lengthen because of increased time required for tongue extension and retraction. Hence, nectar foraging occurs with optimal efficiency in moderately broad floral tubes with lengths that do not exceed or only slightly exceed the bill length plus flower-visiting habits of S. rufus and other hummingbirds in nature are generally congruent with these conclusions and support the case for coadaptation between these plants and pollinators. PMID:11607331

Grant, V; Temeles, E J

1992-10-15

453

Foraging ability of rufous hummingbirds on hummingbird flowers and hawkmoth flowers.  

PubMed Central

We examine the suitability of ornithophilous flowers and sphingophilous flowers in Ipompsis and Aquilegia for nectar foraging by the hummingbird Selasphorus rufus. In S. rufus, bill length averages 18.9 mm in females and 17.3 mm in males. Maximal tongue extension approximates bill length, suggesting that birds can feed from floral tubes up to 33.5 mm in length. However, their ability to do so is limited by two factors. First, the maximal depth at which S. rufus can extract nectar decreases with the width of the floral tube. Second, feeding time is shortest in short floral tubes and progressively increases as the tubes lengthen because of increased time required for tongue extension and retraction. Hence, nectar foraging occurs with optimal efficiency in moderately broad floral tubes with lengths that do not exceed or only slightly exceed the bill length plus flower-visiting habits of S. rufus and other hummingbirds in nature are generally congruent with these conclusions and support the case for coadaptation between these plants and pollinators. PMID:11607331

Grant, V; Temeles, E J

1992-01-01

454

[The flower and blossom morphology of Asteraceae correlates with composition of their pollinators].  

PubMed

The correlation between flower morphology and share of different insect groups visiting them was studied for 15 Asteraceae species. We measured length and width of corolla tube of 100 flowers of each plant species and determined proportions of main groups of anthophilous insects during all blooming period. According to corolla length species under study ranged more or less uniformly from 2.16 mm (Tripleurospermum inodorum) up to 21.06 mm (Cirsium heterophyllum). The correlation between share of long-tongued bees (mainly bumblebees) among all visitors of inflorescens and corolla length was positive (r = 0.737, P < 0.01) while for short-tongued flies (Syrphidae, Muscidae, Calliphoridae) it was negative (r = -0.869, P < 0.01). It is interesting, that the point of crossing of regression lines (12 mm) approximately coincides with change in inflorescences coloration. Plants with corolla length less than 10 mm have yellow or white inflorescences that are visited primarily by flies, while the plants with longer corolla have violet or dark blue inflorescences, by bumblebees. The dependence of proportion of short-tongued solitary bees (Andrenidae, Halictidae) on a corolla length was non-linear. It increased with increase in corolla length in an interval of 2.16-6.26 mm (r = 0.930, P < 0.1), but decreased for longer corollas (r = -0.680, P < 0.05). The correlation between corolla length and proportions of beetles and butterflies were insignificant. PMID:15609481

Dlusski?, G M; Glazunova, K P; Lavrova, N V

2004-01-01

455

The color of cheese  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If milk is white, what makes cheddar cheese orange? The cheese coloring comes from a pigment called bixin. Scientists are researching ways to produce bixin without having to harvest from the Bixa plant.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2003-06-27

456

Chemistry, Color, and Art.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes pigments and artists' colors from a chronological perspective. Explains how chemical analysis can be used to distinguish the differences between artists' palettes, identify the evolution of art, and lead to restoration of an art work. (Contains 13 references.) (YDS)

Orna, Mary Virginia

2001-01-01

457

Color and Camouflage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video, Jonathan explores how animals in the ocean use color, not just for camouflage, but to stand out. Please see the accompanying lesson plan for educational objectives, discussion points and classroom activities.

Jonathan Bird Productions

2012-03-01

458

Crystalline color superconductors  

E-print Network

Inhomogeneous superconductors and inhomogeneous superfluids appear in a variety of contexts including quark matter at extreme densities, fermionic systems of cold atoms, type-II cuprates, and organic superconductors. In the present review the focus is on properties of quark matter at high baryonic density, which may exist in the interior of compact stars. The conditions realized in these stellar objects tend to disfavor standard symmetric BCS pairing and may favor an inhomogeneous color superconducting phase. The properties of inhomogeneous color superconductors are discussed in detail and in particular of crystalline color superconductors. The possible astrophysical signatures associated with the presence of crystalline color superconducting phases within the core of compact stars are also reviewed.

Roberto Anglani; Roberto Casalbuoni; Marco Ciminale; Raoul Gatto; Nicola Ippolito; Massimo Mannarelli; Marco Ruggieri

2014-04-12

459

The Four Color Theorem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Neil Robertson, Daniel P. Sanders, Paul Seymour, and Robin Thomas created this page to provide a short description of their new proof of the four color theorem and a four-coloring algorithm. The four color theorem began as the concept that a map can be shaded so that no connected areas have the same color. On this page the creators of this new proof provide a history of the proof, the need for a new proof, and a brief overview of the proof itself. The full text paper is available as a downloadable postscript file or online at the Electronic Research Announcements of the American Mathematical Society (link provided in reference 8 at the site). Programs and data used in the proof are also available under the section Pointers.

Robertson, Neil.; Sanders, Daniel P.; Seymour, Paul.; Thomas, Robin.

1997-01-01

460

Fingers that change color  

MedlinePLUS

... inflammation of small blood vessels Cryoglobulinemia Frostbite Necrotizing vasculitis Peripheral artery disease Raynaud's phenomenon - sudden change in the finger color ranges from pale to red to blue Scleroderma Systemic lupus erythematosus

461

Three Colors of Light  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have fun with additive mixing! Observe what happens when the three primary colors of light--red, green and blue--are mixed together, resulting in white light. This activity works best in a darkened room and requires adult supervision.

Museum of Science and Industry, Chicago

2012-01-01

462

Colors of the Sky.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the physical principles which result in various colors of the sky. Topics addressed include: blueness, mystical properties of water vapor, ozone, fluctuation theory of scattering, variation of purity and brightness, and red sunsets and sunrises. (DH)

Bohren, Craig F.; Fraser, Alistair B.

1985-01-01

463

Skin of Color  

MedlinePLUS

... of color Stress and skin Sunscreens Tattoos and body piercings Teenage skin Tropical travel Vitamin D Cosmetic treatments ... is the key to alleviating scarring problems. Avoid body piercing and unnecessary surgeries. If a wound does occur, ...

464

THE COLOR GLASS CONDENSATE.  

SciTech Connect

The Color Glass Condensate is a state of high density gluonic matter which controls the high energy limit of hadronic interactions. Its properties are important for the initial conditions for matter produced at RHIC.

MCLERRAN,L.

2001-08-26

465

Color Associations of Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Free color associations were collected from a total of 337 children in the fourth through sixth grades to 12 concepts: hope, anger, sadness, honesty, fear, happiness, pain, love, death, strength, school, and life. (Author/RH)

Byrnes, Deborah A.

1983-01-01

466

Color Theory Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Color theory has been worked on by a number of individuals over the years, and those with an interest in the field include artists, scientists, and of course, interior designers. Janet Ford, a web designer in Minneapolis, has been interested in this field for over a decade, and her website explores some of the issues surrounding color theory in a way that is both accessible and interesting. On the site, visitors can learn about the basics of color, complementary colors, and concepts such as contrast, dominance, proportion, and intensity. The site is rounded out by a very good âÂÂResourcesâ area, which contains a bibliography of recommended works drawn from the past several decades.

Ford, Janet

467

Barrow's color shadows.  

PubMed

Color shadows refer to the hues of specific segments of a multi-hued display which differ from the hues usually reported with those visible spectra. Isaac Barrow (1630-1677) was the first to report this phenomenon. PMID:10445642

Barris, M C

1999-07-01

468

Tooth - abnormal colors  

MedlinePLUS

... age when teeth are forming Poor oral care Porphyria Severe neonatal jaundice Too much fluoride from environmental ... abnormal coloration began Foods you have been eating Medications you are taking Personal and family health history ...

469

Color planner for designers based on color emotions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the color perception process, an associated feeling or emotion is induced in our brains, and this kind of emotion is termed as 'color emotion.' The researchers in the field of color emotions have put many efforts in quantifying color emotions with the standard color specifications and evaluating the influence of hue, lightness and chroma to the color emotions of human beings. In this study, a color planner was derived according to these findings so that the correlation of color emotions and standard color specifications was clearly indicated. Since people of different nationalities usually have different color emotions as different cultural and traditional backgrounds, the subjects in this study were all native Hong Kong Chinese and the color emotion words were all written in Chinese language in the visual assessments. Through the color planner, the designers from different areas, no matter fashion, graphic, interior or web site etc., can select suitable colors for inducing target color emotions to the customers or product-users since different colors convey different meanings to them. In addition, the designers can enhance the functionality and increase the attractiveness of their designed products by selecting suitable colors.

Cheng, Ka-Man; Xin, John H.; Taylor, Gail

2002-06-01

470

Color (Mixing color or paint: R/G/B)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This java simulation demonstrates the mixing of three different colors. It illustrates the results of mixing different color lights using Red, Green, and Blue primary colors, and the mixing of different pigments, using Cyan, Magneta, and Yellow pigments. The shade and intensity of the colors can be set using a typical 0 - 255 Red/Green/Blue scale.

Hwang, Fu-Kwun

2004-12-18

471

Colorings of Pythagorean triples within colorings of the positive integers  

E-print Network

] such that every Pythagorean triple with elements n is 3-colored. Theorem 2. Let (x) be an arbitrary positive] such that the proportion of Pythagorean triples with elements n which are not 3-colored is max{2-(n) , 1/ log n}. TheoremColorings of Pythagorean triples within colorings of the positive integers Joshua Cooper , Michael

Cooper, Joshua N.

472

Physiological temperature regulation by flowers of the sacred lotus  

PubMed Central

Flowers of the sacred lotus, Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (Nelumbonaceae) are thermogenic and physiologically thermoregulatory. The 42 g flowers remain between 30-36°C during a 2 to 4-day period despite fluctuations in environmental temperatures between about 10-45°C. As the ambient temperature drops, the flowers increase heat production in proportion. Temperature regulation apparently occurs at a cellular level, by a steep, reversible thermal inhibition of respiration at flower temperatures above 30°C. There was a marked time lag between change in flower temperature and compensatory response, suggesting regulation through a biochemical feedback mechanism rather than structural changes in enzymes or membranes. By oxidizing carbohydrate, the flowers produce up to 1 W, with about half of the heat coming from the 8.5 g carpellary receptacle. The period of temperature regulation begins before petal opening and continues through the period of stigma receptivity. Temperature regulation may reward insect pollinators with a warm, equable environment, or it possibly enhances and coordinates flower development.

Seymour, R. S.

1998-01-01

473

Colour cues facilitate learning flower refill schedules in wild hummingbirds.  

PubMed

Free-living hummingbirds can learn the refill schedules of individual experimental flowers but little is known about what information they use to do this. Colour cues, in particular, may be important to hummingbirds when learning about rewarded flower properties. We investigated, therefore, whether colour cues facilitated the learning of flower refill schedules in wild, free-living rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus). In the Cued condition, we presented birds with an array of six flowers, three of one colour, each of which were refilled 10min after being emptied by the bird and three of a different colour, which were refilled 20min after being emptied. In the Uncued condition we presented birds with six flowers of the same colour, three of which were refilled after 10min and three of which were refilled after 20min as for the birds in the Cued condition. In the second part of the experiment, we moved the array 2m and changed the shape of the array. Across both phases, birds in the Cued condition learned to discriminate between 10 and 20-min flowers more quickly than did the birds in the Uncued condition. The Cued birds were also better at discriminating between the two distinct refill intervals. Colour cues can, therefore, facilitate learning the refill schedules of experimental flowers in these birds. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cognition in the wild. PMID:25234604

Samuels, Michael; Hurly, T Andrew; Healy, Susan D

2014-11-01

474

Oligogalacturonides induce flowers in tobacco thin cell layers  

SciTech Connect

An optimized tobacco thin-cell-layer (TCL) bioassay was used to study the induction of flowers by plant oligosaccharins. Endopolygalacturonase (EPG)-released fragments of suspension-cultured sycamore cell walls induced flowers on TCLs grown on a medium containing 1.5 {mu}M IBA and 0.9 {mu}M kinetin. The EPG-released fragments were primarily composed of the polysaccharides rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I), rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II), and {alpha}-1,4-linked oligogalacturonides. The {alpha}-1,4-linked oligogalacturonides, subsequently purified from the EPG-released sycamore cell wall fragment mixture, induced flowers on TCLs. Purified RG-I and RG-II did not induce flowers. Oligosaccharide fragments, generated by partial acid hydrolysis of citrus pectin, were also capable of inducing flowers on the TCLs. The active components in the pectin fragment mixture were {alpha}-1,4-linked oligogalacturonides. Oligogalacturonides with a degree of polymerization (DP) of 8-16, at concentrations of {approx} 0.1 {mu}M, induced flowers, while oligogalacturonides with a DP 2-7, even at higher concentrations, did not. Oligogalacturonides have previously been shown to induce the synthesis of phytoalexins, protease inhibitors, lignin, and ethylene in other plant systems. Thus, the ability of {alpha}-1,4-linked oligogalacturonides to induce flower formation in the tobacco TCLs represents a new biological activity of these oligosaccharins.

Marfa-Riera, V.; Gollin, D.; Mohnen, D.; Darvill, A.; Albersheim, P. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (USA))

1989-04-01

475

Choice Grants: Foundations and the School Choice Movement. Edited Transcript  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A National Committee for Responsive Philanthropy (NCRP) report addresses the questions "What have conservative foundations done with their grant dollars to promote concepts of privatizing public education through "school choice," primarily linked to school vouchers? What were their strategies in providing resources to an array of conservative…

Shaffer, Krista, Ed.

2007-01-01

476

Nectar minerals as regulators of flower visitation in stingless bees and nectar hoarding wasps.  

PubMed

Various nectar components have a repellent effect on flower visitors, and their adaptive advantages for the plant are not well understood. Persea americana (avocado) is an example of a plant that secretes nectar with repellent components. It was demonstrated that the mineral constituents of this nectar, mainly potassium and phosphate, are concentrated enough to repel honey bees, Apis mellifera, a pollinator often used for commercial avocado pollination. Honey bees, however, are not the natural pollinator of P. americana, a plant native to Central America. In order to understand the role of nectar minerals in plant-pollinator relationships, it is important to focus on the plant's interactions with its natural pollinators. Two species of stingless bees and one species of social wasp, all native to the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, part of the natural range of P. americana, were tested for their sensitivity to sugar solutions enriched with potassium and phosphate, and compared with the sensitivity of honey bees. In choice tests between control and mineral-enriched solutions, all three native species were indifferent for mineral concentrations lower than those naturally occurring in P. americana nectar. Repellence was expressed at concentrations near or exceeding natural concentrations. The threshold point at which native pollinators showed repellence to increasing levels of minerals was higher than that detected for honey bees. The results do not support the hypothesis that high mineral content is attractive for native Hymenopteran pollinators; nevertheless, nectar mineral composition may still have a role in regulating flower visitors through different levels of repellency. PMID:24888745

Afik, Ohad; Delaplane, Keith S; Shafir, Sharoni; Moo-Valle, Humberto; Quezada-Euán, J Javier G

2014-05-01

477

Auroral Colors and Spectra  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, co-produced by the NCAR High Altitude Observatory and the COMET Program, provides an explanation of how auroral colors are produced. The emission of specific colors of light is discussed in relation to oxygen and nitrogen emission spectra. Numerous images, graphs, and a video of an aurora are included. The site is part of "Physics of the Aurora: Earth Systems," an interactive learning module about the aurora.

2007-01-26

478

The Colors of Light  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about the electromagnetic spectrum and how light is split into its component frequencies or colors. Using a diffraction grating, learners will observe four different light sources and sketch their spectra. This activity requires access to a sodium vapor or mercury vapor light and two neon signs of differing color, as well as diffraction grating material. This is Astronomy Activity 2 in the Space Update collection of activities.

479

Robust Color Video Denoising  

Microsoft Academic Search

A newly reported robust estimation approach for gray-scale image filtering is extended to address the more complex problem of denoising color television signals that have been degraded by weak-signal noise. This new technique differs from previous filtering methods in that it is geared towards the type of color degradations typical of weak-signal television reception, and thus takes into account the

Tamer F. Rabie

2006-01-01

480

[Genesis of cells of apical meristems and realization of gametophytic apomixis in flowering plants].  

PubMed

Based on our own and literature data on peculiarities of caryotypical variability, we concluded that gametophytic apomixis is naturally accompanied with phenomena of poly-, aneu-, and mixoploidy and that apomicts have genome instability manifesting at the level of meristematic somatic cells. In this connection, a hypothesis is substantiated that realization of this mode of seed reproduction in flowering plants is caused by modification of systems of cell cycle control, following after acts of hybridogenesis and/or polyploidization. It is concluded that instability of the seed reproduction system by gametophytic apomixis manifests not only at the stage of choice of a seed reproduction pathway (apomeiosis-euspory; apozygosis-zygosis) but also in all the cycles of reproduction of the cells of a germ line in plant ontogenesis. PMID:22650078

Kashin, A S

2012-01-01

481

Folivory versus florivory—adaptiveness of flower feeding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution of resources and defence is heterogeneous within plants. Specialist insects may prefer tissue with high concentrations of the plant’s characteristic defence compounds. Most herbivorous butterfly or sawfly larvae are considered to be folivores, so also the turnip sawfly Athalia rosae (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae), a specialist herbivore on Brassicaceae. We investigated which tissue larvae choose to feed upon and how they perform on flowers, young or old leaves of Sinapis alba. Furthermore, constitutive and inducible levels of glucosinolates and myrosinases were investigated and nutrients analysed. Larvae moved from leaves to flowers for feeding from the third larval instar on. Flowers were not actively chosen, but larvae moved upwards on the plant, regardless of how plants were orientated (upright or inverted). Flower-feeding larvae were heavier and developed faster than larvae feeding on young leaves, and adults laid more eggs. Old leaves as food source resulted in the lowest growth rates. Flowers contained three and ten times higher myrosinase activities than young and old leaves, respectively, whereas glucosinolate concentrations and nitrogen levels of flowers and young leaves were comparable. Glucosinolate concentrations of old leaves were very low. Changes in tissue chemistry caused by larval feeding were tissue specific. Defence levels did not change in flowers and old leaves after A. rosae feeding in contrast to young leaves. The high insect performance on flowers cannot be explained by differences in chemical defence. Instead, the lack of mechanical defence (trichomes) is probably responsible. Movement to the flowers and folivory is overall highly adaptive for this sawfly species.

Bandeili, Babak; Müller, Caroline

2010-01-01

482

The impact of plant and flower age on mating patterns  

PubMed Central

Background Over a season, plant condition, amount of ongoing reproduction and biotic and abiotic environmental factors vary. As flowers age, flower condition and amount of pollen donated and received also vary. These internal and external changes are significant for fitness if they result in changes in reproduction and mating. Scope Literature from several fields was reviewed to provide a picture of the changes that occur in plants and flowers that can affect mating over a season. As flowers age, both the entire flower and individual floral whorls show changes in appearance and function. Over a season, changes in mating often appear as alteration in seed production vs. pollen donation. In several species, older, unpollinated flowers are more likely to self. If flowers are receiving pollen, staying open longer may increase the number of mates. In wild radish, for which there is considerable information on seed paternity, older flowers produce fewer seeds and appear to discriminate less among pollen donors. Pollen donor performance can also be linked to maternal plant age. Different pollinators and mates are available across the season. Also in wild radish, maternal plants appear to exert the most control over paternity when they are of intermediate age. Conclusions Although much is known about the characters of plants and flowers that can change over a season, there is less information on the effects of age on mating. Several studies document changes in self-pollination over time, but very few, other than those on wild radish, consider more subtle aspects of differential success of pollen donors over time. PMID:19875519

Marshall, Diane L.; Avritt, Joy J.; Maliakal-Witt, Satya; Medeiros, Juliana S.; Shaner, Marieken G. M.

2010-01-01

483

Co-pigmentation and flavonoid glycosyltransferases in blue Veronica persica flowers.  

PubMed

Glycosylation is one of the key modification steps for plants to produce a broad spectrum of flavonoids with various structures and colors. A survey of flavonoids in the blue flowers of Veronica persica Poiret (Lamiales, Scrophulariaceae), which is native of Eurasia and now widespread worldwide, led to the identification of highly glycosylated flavonoids, namely delphinidin 3-O-(2-O-(6-O-p-coumaroyl-glucosyl)-6-O-p-coumaroyl-glucoside)-5-O-glucoside (1) and apigenin 7-O-(2-O-glucuronosyl)-glucuronide (2), as two of its main flavonoids. Interestingly, the latter flavone glucuronide (2) caused a bathochromic shift on the anthocyanin (1) toward a blue hue in a dose-dependent manner, showing an intermolecular co-pigment effect. In order to understand the molecular basis for the biosynthesis of this glucuronide, we isolated a cDNA encoding a UDP-dependent glycosyltransferase (UGT88D8), based on the structural similarity to flavonoid 7-O-glucuronosyltransferases (F7GAT) from Lamiales plants. Enzyme assays showed that the recombinant UGT88D8 protein catalyzes the 7-O-glucuronosylation of apigenin and its related flavonoids with preference to UDP-glucuronic acid as a sugar donor. Furthermore, we identified and functionally characterized a cDNA encoding another UGT, UGT94F1, as the anthocyanin 3-O-glucoside-2''-O-glucosyltransferase (A3Glc2''GlcT), according to the structural similarity to sugar-sugar glycosyltransferases classified to the cluster IV of flavonoid UGTs. Preferential expression of UGT88D8 and UGT94F1 genes in the petals supports the idea that these UGTs play an important role in the biosynthesis of key flavonoids responsible for the development of the blue color of V. persica flowers. PMID:20223486

Ono, Eiichiro; Ruike, Miho; Iwashita, Takashi; Nomoto, Kyosuke; Fukui, Yuko

2010-05-01

484

The human factors of color in environmental design: A critical review  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The literature on environmental color to enhance habitability in the design of Space Station interiors is reviewed. Some 200 studies were examined to determine the relative contributions of the three dimensions of color (hue, saturation, and brightness or lightness) to responses to environmental colorations. Implications of the study for color usage in novel settings and locales include: (1) There are no hard-wired linkages between environmental colors and particular judgmental or emotional states; (2) Perceptual impressions of color applications can, however, affect experiences and performances in settings; (3) Color behavior studies cannot yet specify an optimal color scheme, but instead must consider differing objectives, the relative importance of each, and design features such as the coordination of geometry, color, texture, etc.; (4) Some color-behavior effects are governed by low-level retinal and limbal mechanisms as well as by cognitive processes; and (5) Colors should first be specified in terms of what they are to do instead of what they are. Some exercise of choice is therefore needed to establish a sense of personal competence in the setting, since color must be ultimately be accepted by the people who are to live with it.

Wise, Barbara K.; Wise, James A.

1988-01-01

485

Red-green color vision in three catarrhine primates  

PubMed Central

The evolution of the red-green visual subsystem in trichromatic primates has been linked to foraging advantages, specifically the detection of either ripe fruits or young leaves amid mature foliage, and to the intraspecific socio-sexual communication, namely the signal of the male rank, the mate choice and the reproductive strategies in females. New data should be added to the debate regarding the evolution of trichromatic color vision. Three catarrhine primates were observed to achieve this goal. The research was performed on captive groups of vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops), pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) housed at Parco Natura Viva - Garda Zoological Park (Italy). Using pairs of red-green bags containing the same hidden reward in comparable outdoor enclosures, we recorded the choices by observed individuals (n = 25) to investigate the role of color cues in choosing an object. The results indicate that chimpanzees used red color as cue to choose an object that contains food by showing a preference toward red objects; in contrast, vervet monkeys and pig-tailed macaques do not demonstrate a clear choice based on the color of the object. Our findings highlight the importance of the foraging hypothesis but not rule out the potential role of the intraspecific socio-sexual communication and may serve to add useful information to the debate regarding the adaptive value of the evolution of color vision in order to fill a phylogenetic gap from Old World monkeys to humans. Future studies should address the role of socio-sexual communication, such as the selection of the reproductive partner of both high genetic quality and with compatible genes, to determine how this influenced the evolution of color vision in non-human primates. PMID:23336029

Fornalé, Francesca; Vaglio, Stefano; Spiezio, Caterina; Previde, Emanuela Prato

2012-01-01

486

Choice processes in multialternative decision making  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study how the mechanisms of choice influence preferences when animals face more than 2 alternatives simultaneously. Choice mechanisms can be hierarchical (if alternatives are assigned to categories by their similarity and choice is between categories) or simultaneous (if options enter the choice process individually, each with its own value). The latter, although simpler, can lead to counterintuitive outcomes because

Cynthia Schuck-Paim; Alex Kacelnik

2007-01-01

487

More Choice Isn't Always Better  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Choice is important to everyone, for one's identity as well as one's material satisfaction. Everyone has choices, but even the head of state's choices are constrained. In recent years choice has risen up the political agenda in the UK. It has become a key component of the drive to reform public services such as health and education. The…

Schuller, Tom

2012-01-01

488

The Additive Effects of Choice and Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In separate research studies, students who were given a choice of learning materials or who had control over aversive noise, demonstrated higher motivation and better task performance. To investigate the additive effects of choice and control on perception of control, 80 male and female college students participated in a 2 (choice vs. no-choice) X…

Karbowski, Joseph; And Others