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1

The combined effect of color and odor on flower choice behavior of bumble bees in flower mimicry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food-deceptive flowers are pollinated by animals that expect a reward but are cheated. Such plants profit from their similarity to rewarding plants and should develop signals that hinder discrimination. We use artificial rewarding model flowers and nonrewarding mimicking flowers that present similar visual cues. We test how additional scent cues change flower choice of the mimic by bumble bees (Bombus

Jan Kunze; Andreas Gumbert

2001-01-01

2

Foraging Response of Turkish Honey Bee Subspecies to Flower Color Choices and Reward Consistency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foraging behavior of Apis mellifera caucasica, A.m. carnica and A.m. syriaca in Turkey was studied for intrinsic subspecies-based differences. Models of forager flower-color fidelity, risk sensitive\\u000a behavior and maximizing net gain were tested. Foragers were presented artificial flower patches containing blue, white and\\u000a yellow flowers. Some bees of each subspecies showed high fidelity to yellow flowers, while others favored blue

Ibrahim Cakmak; Daniel S. Song; T. Andrew Mixson; Eduardo Serrano; Meredith L. Clement; Amy Savitski; Ge’Andra Johnson; Tugrul Giray; Charles I. Abramson; John F. Barthell; Harrington Wells

2010-01-01

3

Flower choice copying in bumblebees.  

PubMed

We tested a hypothesis originating with Darwin that bees outside the nest exhibit social learning in flower choices. Naive bumblebees, Bombus impatiens, were allowed to observe trained bees or artificial bees forage from orange or green flowers. Subsequently, observers of bees on green flowers landed more often on green flowers than non-observing controls or observers of models on orange flowers. These results demonstrate that bumblebees can change flower choice by observations of non-nest mates, a novel form of social learning in insects that could provide unique benefits to the colony. PMID:17148244

Worden, Bradley D; Papaj, Daniel R

2005-12-22

4

Flower choice copying in bumblebees  

PubMed Central

We tested a hypothesis originating with Darwin that bees outside the nest exhibit social learning in flower choices. Naive bumblebees, Bombus impatiens, were allowed to observe trained bees or artificial bees forage from orange or green flowers. Subsequently, observers of bees on green flowers landed more often on green flowers than non-observing controls or observers of models on orange flowers. These results demonstrate that bumblebees can change flower choice by observations of non-nest mates, a novel form of social learning in insects that could provide unique benefits to the colony.

Worden, Bradley D; Papaj, Daniel R

2005-01-01

5

Inheritance of flower color in chickpea.  

PubMed

Flower color is a useful morphological marker in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Inheritance of this trait was studied using two white-flowered chickpea genotypes, P 9623 and RS 11, and one blue-flowered genotype, T 39-1. The genetic constitutions of the white flower colors of P 9623 and RS 11 were different, for in an earlier study their F1 produced pink flowers. The two F1s of the crosses P 9623 x T 39-1 and RS 11 x T 39-1 also produced pink flowers. Each of the two F2 populations segregated in 9 pink:3 blue:4 white-flowered plants. These results can be explained by a three-gene model. These three independently segregating genes are probably the same as C, B, and P reported in the literature earlier. Allelic tests could not be undertaken, as the genetic stocks used in the earlier studies are not available. The genetic constitutions of the three parents and their F1s are proposed. These accessions should be useful for conducting allelic tests for determining flower color loci in chickpea and for comparative studies with field pea. The seeds of these genetic stocks are maintained at the Genetic Resources and Enhancement Program at ICRISAT and are available for research purposes on request. PMID:10994714

Kumar, J; Vijayalakshmi, N V; Rao, T N

6

BIOCHEMISTRY AND GENETICS OF FLAVONOID-BASED FLOWER COLOR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two different classes of pigments (flavonoids and carotenoids) are responsible for the color of most flowers. This paper reviews flavonoid research as related to flower color. The flavonoids are responsible for blue to red flower colors. They can be artificially subdivided into two groups, the antho...

7

Why sexually deceptive orchids have colored flowers.  

PubMed

Sexually deceptive orchids provide no reward to their pollinators. Instead, they mimic the sex pheromone of receptive insect females to attract males which pollinate the flowers in mating attempts. Nearly all species of the Mediterranean orchid genus Ophrys are sexually deceptive and pollinated by solitary bees and wasps. Due to the use of a highly specific olfactory communication channel most Ophrys species have, in contrast to food deceptive or rewarding orchids, an inconspicuous greenish perianth and a dark brownish labellum. However, some species possess a bright pink or white perianth, and the functional significant of such color signals in the orchid-pollinator communication system is unknown. We recently showed that the pink perianth of Ophrys heldreichii increases the performance of its bee pollinator, males of the long-horned bee Eucera (Tetralonia) berlandi, to detect the flower at short-range. At great distances (>30 cm) from the flower, male search behavior was found to be olfactory guided and unaffected by the spectral property of the perianth, i.e., chromatic and green receptor-specific contrast. However, in the near vicinity of the flower (<30 cm), where spatial vision is sufficient to detect the flower, search time only correlated with the green receptor-specific contrast between the perianth and the background. PMID:20585505

Spaethe, Johannes; Streinzer, Martin; Paulus, Hannes F

2010-03-01

8

Color versus bioactivity in the flowers of Bougainvillea spectabilis (Nyctaginaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methanolic extracts of Bougainvillea spectabilis (Nyctaginaceae) flowers (five different colors) were screened biologically by performing four bioassays: antibacterial, antifungal, brine shrimp lethality and phytotoxicity. It was observed that the methanolic extract of white flowers was the most biologically active among all tested extracts. The extracts of white, orange and shocking pink flowers inhibit, while the extracts of red and

Muhammad Shaiq Ali; Syed Amir Ibrahim; Farman Ahmed; Muhammad Kashif Pervez

2005-01-01

9

Flower color change accelerated by bee pollination in Tibouchina (Melastomataceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Floral color changes are common among Melastomataceae and have been interpreted as a warning mechanism for bees to avoid old flowers, albeit increasing long-distance flower display. Here the reproductive systems of Tibouchina pulchra and T. sellowiana were investigated by controlled pollinations. Their pollinators were identified, and experiments on floral color and fragrance changes were conduced to verify if those changes

Adriana Couto Pereira; Juliana Bertolino da Silva; Renato Goldenberg; Gabriel A. R. Melo; Isabela Galarda Varassin

2011-01-01

10

The flavonoid pathway regulates the petal colors of cotton flower.  

PubMed

Although biochemists and geneticists have studied the cotton flower for more than one century, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the dramatic color change that occurs during its short developmental life following blooming. Through the analysis of world cotton germplasms, we found that all of the flowers underwent color changes post-anthesis, but there is a diverse array of petal colors among cotton species, with cream, yellow and red colors dominating the color scheme. Genetic and biochemical analyses indicated that both the original cream and red colors and the color changes post-anthesis were related to flavonoid content. The anthocyanin content and the expression of biosynthesis genes were both increased from blooming to one day post-anthesis (DPA) when the flower was withering and undergoing abscission. Our results indicated that the color changes and flavonoid biosynthesis of cotton flowers were precisely controlled and genetically regulated. In addition, flavonol synthase (FLS) genes involved in flavonol biosynthesis showed specific expression at 11 am when the flowers were fully opened. The anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) genes, which are responsible for proanthocyanidins biosynthesis, showed the highest expression at 6 pm on 0 DPA, when the flowers were withered. Light showed primary, moderate and little effects on flavonol, anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthesis, respectively. Flavonol biosynthesis was in response to light exposure, while anthocyanin biosynthesis was involved in flower color changes. Further expression analysis of flavonoid genes in flowers of wild type and a flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) silenced line showed that the development of cotton flower color was controlled by a complex interaction between genes and light. These results present novel information regarding flavonoids metabolism and flower development. PMID:23951318

Tan, Jiafu; Wang, Maojun; Tu, Lili; Nie, Yichun; Lin, Yongjun; Zhang, Xianlong

2013-08-12

11

Color choices by bumble bees ( Bombus terrestris ): innate preferences and generalization after learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is usually assumed that the choice behavior of bees for floral colors is influenced by innate preferences only for the\\u000a first flower visits prior to any experience. After visits to rewarding flowers bees learn to associate their colors with a\\u000a reward. This learning process leads to an acquired preference for the trained colors that has been believed to dominate

Andreas Gumbert

2000-01-01

12

Vertical Orientation and Color Contrast and Choices by Bumblebees (Bombus terrestris L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vertical inflorescences of several plant species are terminated by colorful bracts, which attract insect pollinators. The bracts contrast in color with the leaves below them, and are oriented perpendicular to the flowers on the inflorescence. We conducted laboratory experiments to determine the effects of color contrast and perpendicular orientation on the feeding choices of bumblebees. We first trained bees

Rachel Arnon; Tamar Keasar; Dan Cohen; Avi Shmida

2006-01-01

13

Color as a factor in food choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

From birth, nature teaches us to make judgements on our environment based in large measure on color. As such, it plays a key role in food choice by influencing taste thresholds, sweetness perception, food preference, pleasantness, and acceptability. Its role is elusive and difficult to quantify, however, which at times has placed color in a secondary role to the other

Fergus M. Clydesdale

1993-01-01

14

Inheritance of Flower Color and Spininess in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) flowers are used for coloring and flavoring food and also as fresh-cut and dried flowers. The most important characteristics which contribute to the ornamental value of safflower are flower color and spinelessness. The objective of this study was to determine the inheritance mode and the number of genes controlling spininess and flower color in some Iranian

M. H. Pahlavani; A. F. MIRLOHI; G. SAEIDI

2004-01-01

15

A Quantitative Theory of Human Color Choices  

PubMed Central

The system for colorimetry adopted by the Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) in 1931, along with its subsequent improvements, represents a family of light mixture models that has served well for many decades for stimulus specification and reproduction when highly controlled color standards are important. Still, with regard to color appearance many perceptual and cognitive factors are known to contribute to color similarity, and, in general, to all cognitive judgments of color. Using experimentally obtained odd-one-out triad similarity judgments from 52 observers, we demonstrate that CIE-based models can explain a good portion (but not all) of the color similarity data. Color difference quantified by CIELAB ?E explained behavior at levels of 81% (across all colors), 79% (across red colors), and 66% (across blue colors). We show that the unexplained variation cannot be ascribed to inter- or intra-individual variations among the observers, and points to the presence of additional factors shared by the majority of responders. Based on this, we create a quantitative model of a lexicographic semiorder type, which shows how different perceptual and cognitive influences can trade-off when making color similarity judgments. We show that by incorporating additional influences related to categorical and lightness and saturation factors, the model explains more of the triad similarity behavior, namely, 91% (all colors), 90% (reds), and 87% (blues). We conclude that distance in a CIE model is but the first of several layers in a hierarchy of higher-order cognitive influences that shape color triad choices. We further discuss additional mitigating influences outside the scope of CIE modeling, which can be incorporated in this framework, including well-known influences from language, stimulus set effects, and color preference bias. We also discuss universal and cultural aspects of the model as well as non-uniformity of the color space with respect to different cultural biases.

Komarova, Natalia L.; Jameson, Kimberly A.

2013-01-01

16

A quantitative theory of human color choices.  

PubMed

The system for colorimetry adopted by the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) in 1931, along with its subsequent improvements, represents a family of light mixture models that has served well for many decades for stimulus specification and reproduction when highly controlled color standards are important. Still, with regard to color appearance many perceptual and cognitive factors are known to contribute to color similarity, and, in general, to all cognitive judgments of color. Using experimentally obtained odd-one-out triad similarity judgments from 52 observers, we demonstrate that CIE-based models can explain a good portion (but not all) of the color similarity data. Color difference quantified by CIELAB ?E explained behavior at levels of 81% (across all colors), 79% (across red colors), and 66% (across blue colors). We show that the unexplained variation cannot be ascribed to inter- or intra-individual variations among the observers, and points to the presence of additional factors shared by the majority of responders. Based on this, we create a quantitative model of a lexicographic semiorder type, which shows how different perceptual and cognitive influences can trade-off when making color similarity judgments. We show that by incorporating additional influences related to categorical and lightness and saturation factors, the model explains more of the triad similarity behavior, namely, 91% (all colors), 90% (reds), and 87% (blues). We conclude that distance in a CIE model is but the first of several layers in a hierarchy of higher-order cognitive influences that shape color triad choices. We further discuss additional mitigating influences outside the scope of CIE modeling, which can be incorporated in this framework, including well-known influences from language, stimulus set effects, and color preference bias. We also discuss universal and cultural aspects of the model as well as non-uniformity of the color space with respect to different cultural biases. PMID:23409103

Komarova, Natalia L; Jameson, Kimberly A

2013-02-11

17

A MYB transcription factor controls flower color in soybean.  

PubMed

Purple-blue flower of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) is controlled by the W2 locus. Previous studies revealed that a MYB transcription factor gene GmMYB-G20-1 was located at a position similar to the W2 gene and that a base substitution generated a stop codon in the MYB domains of 2 soybean lines with purple-blue flowers. This study was conducted to confirm the relationship between GmMYB-G20-1 and the W2 gene. Cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence analysis to detect the base substitution suggested that a similar mutation occurred in 2 other soybean lines having purple-blue flowers, 037-E-8, and Yogetsu 1-blue. Thus, all genotypes having purple-blue flowers had identical base substitutions. To verify the function of GmMYB-G20-1, apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vectors were constructed to perform virus-induced gene silencing of GmMYB-G20-1. A cultivar Harosoy with purple flowers (W2W2) was infected by the empty ALSV vector (wtALSV) or the GmMYB-G20-1-ALSV vector containing a fragment (nucleotide position 685-885) of GmMYB-G20-1. Plants infected by empty vectors had only purple flowers. In contrast, most flowers of plants infected with GmMYB-G20-1-ALSV had irregular gray/blue sectors in flower petals and some of the flowers had almost gray/blue petals. These results strongly suggest that silencing of GmMYB-G20-1 can alter flower color and that it may correspond to the W2 gene. PMID:23048163

Takahashi, Ryoji; Yamagishi, Noriko; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

2012-10-09

18

Color as a factor in food choice.  

PubMed

From birth, nature teaches us to make judgements on our environment based in large measure on color. As such, it plays a key role in food choice by influencing taste thresholds, sweetness perception, food preference, pleasantness, and acceptability. Its role is elusive and difficult to quantify, however, which at times has placed color in a secondary role to the other sensory characteristics, a position not entirely consistent with the facts. Color, in a quantitative sense, has been shown to be able to replace sugar and still maintain sweetness perception in flavored foods. It interferes with judgments of flavor intensity and identification and in so doing has been shown to dramatically influence the pleasantness and acceptability of foods. Studies in the literature have used cross-sectional population panels to study these effects, but a recent investigation of color-sensory interactions in beverages has compared the response of a college age group with the response of a panel consisting of a more mature population. Interestingly, the older group showed significant differences from the college age group in their response to the effects of color on several sensory parameters as well as showing a direct correlation between beverage consumption and color. Color is often taken for granted, but this position must be reevaluated in view of such studies and the need to create more appealing foods for different segments of our society. PMID:8424857

Clydesdale, F M

1993-01-01

19

Antisense flavonol synthase alters copigmentation and flower color in lisianthus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to generate new flower colors in lisianthus, a flavonolsynthase (FLS) coding sequence was isolated from lisianthus (Eustomagrandiflorum Grise.) using a petunia homologue (pCGP481) as a probe.The endogenous FLS mRNA transcript occurs early in petal development,concomitant with accumulation of flavonols in bud tissue, and ceases at onsetofanthocyanin pigment production. Southern DNA analysis indicated FLS as a memberof a multigene

Karen Nielsen; Simon C. Deroles; Kenneth R. Markham; Marie J. Bradley; Ellen Podivinsky; David Manson

2002-01-01

20

Flower Choice and Learning in Foraging Bumblebees: Effects of Variation in Nectar Volume and Concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bees collect food from flowers that differ in morphology, color, and scent. Nectar-seeking foragers can rapidly associate a flower's cues with its profitability, measured as caloric value or 'net energy gain,' and gen- erally develop preferences for more profitable species. If two flower types are equally easy to discover and feed from, differences in profitab- ility will arise from differences

Jonathan Cnaani; James D. Thomson; Daniel R. Papaj

2006-01-01

21

Inheritance of flower color and spininess in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.).  

PubMed

Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) flowers are used for coloring and flavoring food and also as fresh-cut and dried flowers. The most important characteristics which contribute to the ornamental value of safflower are flower color and spinelessness. The objective of this study was to determine the inheritance mode and the number of genes controlling spininess and flower color in some Iranian genotypes of safflower. The results indicated that the existence of spines on the leaves and bracts of safflower is controlled by a single dominant gene in which the spiny phenotype was completely dominant to spineless. In some crosses, flower color was controlled by two epistatic loci each with two alleles, resulting in a ratio of 13:3 in the segregating F2 population for plants with orange and yellow flowers. Also, other mechanisms of genetic control, such as duplicate dominance and duplicate recessive types of epistasis, were observed for flower color in other crosses that led to ratios of 7:9 and 15:1 for plants with orange and yellow flowers, respectively. The results suggest that for ornamental use or in the food dying industry, genotypes with orange or yellow flowers and without spines on the leaves and bracts can be produced. PMID:15220395

Pahlavani, M H; Mirlohi, A F; Saeidi, G

22

Flower Color Microevolution in Wild Radish: Evolutionary Response to Pollinator?Mediated Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolutionary ecologists are fundamentally interested in how species interactions affect evolutionary change. We tested the degree to which plant-pollinator interactions affect the frequency of flower color morphs of Raphanus sativus. Petal color in R. sativus is determined by two independently assorting loci, producing four petal colors (yellow, white, pink, and bronze). We assessed the impact of pollinator discrimination on changes

2005-01-01

23

Flower color affects tri-trophic-level biocontrol interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adults of many parasitoid species require nectar for optimal fitness, but very little is known of flower recognition. Flight cage experiments showed that the adults of an egg parasitoid (Trichogramma carverae Oatman and Pinto) benefited from alyssum (Lobularia maritima L.) bearing white flowers to a greater extent than was the case for light pink, dark pink or purple flowered

Mahmuda Begum; Geoff M. Gurr; Steve D. Wratten; Helen I. Nicola

2004-01-01

24

Choice Reaction Time and Color, an Annotated Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This bibliography includes abstracts of 59 studies and review articles which are related to the effect of color coding on choice reaction time. As color displays become more widely used for information gathering and decision-making tasks, the effect of co...

S. Kelly

1984-01-01

25

Visual constraints in foraging bumblebees: Flower size and color affect search time and flight behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

In optimal foraging theory, search time is a key variable defining the value of a prey type. But the sensory-perceptual processes that constrain the search for food have rarely been considered. Here we evaluate the flight behavior of bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) searching for artificial flowers of various sizes and colors. When flowers were large, search times correlated well with the

J. Spaethe; J. Tautz; L. Chittka

2001-01-01

26

Bidirectional flower color and shape changes allow a second opportunity for pollination.  

PubMed

Flowers act as "sensory billboards" with multiple signals (color, morphology, odor) attracting and manipulating potential pollinators. Many use changing signals as indicators that visitation and/or pollination have occurred). Floral color change is commonly used to transmit this information (often correlated with reduced nectar reward) and can be specifically triggered by pollination or visitation. By retaining color-changed flowers, plants benefit from larger floral displays but also indicate at close range which flowers are still rewarding (and still unpollinated), so that visitors forage more efficiently. However, the legume Desmodium setigerum shows a unique ability, if inadequately pollinated, to reverse its flowers' color and shape changes. Single visits by bees mechanically depress the keel and expose stigma and anthers (termed "tripping"); visits also initiate a rapid color change from lilac to white and turquoise and a slower morphological change, the upper petal folding downwards over the reproductive parts. But flowers receiving insufficient pollen can partially reopen, re-exposing the stigma, with a further color change to deeper turquoise and/or lilac. Thus, most flowers achieve pollination from one bee visit, but those with inadequate pollen receipt can reverse their signals, earning a "second chance" by eliciting attention from other potential pollinators. PMID:19409788

Willmer, Pat; Stanley, Dara A; Steijven, Karin; Matthews, Iain M; Nuttman, Clive V

2009-04-30

27

Genes encoding the vacuolar Na+/H+ exchanger and flower coloration.  

PubMed

Vacuolar pH plays an important role in flower coloration: an increase in the vacuolar pH causes blueing of flower color. In the Japanese morning glory (Ipomoea nil or Pharbitis nil), a shift from reddish-purple buds to blue open flowers correlates with an increase in the vacuolar pH. We describe details of the characterization of a mutant that carries a recessive mutation in the Purple (Pr) gene encoding a vacuolar Na+/H+ exchanger termed InNHX1. The genome of I. nil carries one copy of the Pr (or InNHX1) gene and its pseudogene, and it showed functional complementation to the yeast nhx1 mutation. The mutant of I. nil, called purple (pr), showed a partial increase in the vacuolar pH during flower-opening and its reddish-purple buds change into purple open flowers. The vacuolar pH in the purple open flowers of the mutant was significantly lower than that in the blue open flowers. The InNHX1 gene is most abundantly expressed in the petals at around 12 h before flower-opening, accompanying the increase in the vacuolar pH for the blue flower coloration. No such massive expression was observed in the petunia flowers. Since the NHX1 genes that promote the transport of Na+ into the vacuoles have been regarded to be involved in salt tolerance by accumulating Na+ in the vacuoles, we can add a new biological role for blue flower coloration in the Japanese morning glory by the vacuolar alkalization. PMID:11382810

Yamaguchi, T; Fukada-Tanaka, S; Inagaki, Y; Saito, N; Yonekura-Sakakibara, K; Tanaka, Y; Kusumi, T; Iida, S

2001-05-01

28

Mapping of one of the two genes controlling lemon ray flower color in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In an F2 population of 120 plants derived from a cross between two breeding lines with yellow ray flowers, we observed 111 plants with yellow- and nine plants with lemon-colored ray flowers. The segregation pattern fit a 15:1 (x2(15:1)=0.32, p>0.5) ratio, suggesting that the lemon ray flower color i...

29

The effect of flower-like and non-flower-like visual properties on choice of unrewarding patterns by bumblebees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How do distinct visual stimuli help bumblebees discover flowers before they have experienced any reward outside of their nest? Two visual floral properties, type of a pattern (concentric vs radial) and its position on unrewarding artificial flowers (central vs peripheral on corolla), were manipulated in two experiments. Both visual properties showed significant effects on floral choice. When pitted against each other, pattern was more important than position. Experiment 1 shows a significant effect of concentric pattern position, and experiment 2 shows a significant preference towards radial patterns regardless of their position. These results show that the presence of markings at the center of a flower are not so important as the presence of markings that will direct bees there.

Orbán, Levente L.; Plowright, Catherine M. S.

2013-07-01

30

Molecular signatures of selection on reproductive character displacement of flower color in Phlox drummondii.  

PubMed

Character displacement, which arises when species diverge in sympatry to decrease competition for resources or reproductive interference, has been observed in a wide variety of plants and animals. A classic example of reproductive character displacement, presumed to be caused by reinforcing selection, is flower-color variation in the native Texas wildflower Phlox drummondii. Here, we use population genetic analyses to investigate molecular signatures of selection on flower-color variation in this species. First, we quantify patterns of neutral genetic variation across the range of P. drummondii?to demonstrate that restricted gene flow and genetic drift cannot explain the pattern of flower-color divergence in this species. There is evidence of extensive gene flow across populations with different flower colors, suggesting selection caused flower-color divergence. Second, analysis of sequence variation in the genes underlying this divergence reveals a signature of a selective sweep in one of the two genes, further indicating selection is responsible for divergence in sympatry. The lack of a signature of selection at the second locus does not necessarily indicate a lack of selection on this locus but instead brings attention to the uncertainty in depending on molecular signatures to identify selection. PMID:22276542

Hopkins, Robin; Levin, Donald A; Rausher, Mark D

2011-10-05

31

Visual constraints in foraging bumblebees: Flower size and color affect search time and flight behavior  

PubMed Central

In optimal foraging theory, search time is a key variable defining the value of a prey type. But the sensory-perceptual processes that constrain the search for food have rarely been considered. Here we evaluate the flight behavior of bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) searching for artificial flowers of various sizes and colors. When flowers were large, search times correlated well with the color contrast of the targets with their green foliage-type background, as predicted by a model of color opponent coding using inputs from the bees' UV, blue, and green receptors. Targets that made poor color contrast with their backdrop, such as white, UV-reflecting ones, or red flowers, took longest to detect, even though brightness contrast with the background was pronounced. When searching for small targets, bees changed their strategy in several ways. They flew significantly slower and closer to the ground, so increasing the minimum detectable area subtended by an object on the ground. In addition, they used a different neuronal channel for flower detection. Instead of color contrast, they used only the green receptor signal for detection. We relate these findings to temporal and spatial limitations of different neuronal channels involved in stimulus detection and recognition. Thus, foraging speed may not be limited only by factors such as prey density, flight energetics, and scramble competition. Our results show that understanding the behavioral ecology of foraging can substantially gain from knowledge about mechanisms of visual information processing.

Spaethe, J.; Tautz, J.; Chittka, L.

2001-01-01

32

Does flower color variation matter in deception pollinated Psychilis monensis (Orchidaceae)?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Negative frequency dependent selection (FDS) had been proposed as a mechanism for the maintenance of the high levels of variability in floral traits of rewardless plants. Thus far the evidence has been equivocal for discontinuous traits. We experimentally tested the FDS hypothesis for continuous variation in flower color of Psychilis monensis, a rewardless, epiphytic orchid of Mona Island, Puerto Rico.

Susan Aragón; James D. Ackerman

2004-01-01

33

Arctic Mustard Flower Color Polymorphism Controlled by Petal-Specific Downregulation at the Threshold of the Anthocyanin Biosynthetic Pathway  

PubMed Central

Intra- and interspecific variation in flower color is a hallmark of angiosperm diversity. The evolutionary forces underlying the variety of flower colors can be nearly as diverse as the colors themselves. In addition to pollinator preferences, non-pollinator agents of selection can have a major influence on the evolution of flower color polymorphisms, especially when the pigments in question are also expressed in vegetative tissues. In such cases, identifying the target(s) of selection starts with determining the biochemical and molecular basis for the flower color variation and examining any pleiotropic effects manifested in vegetative tissues. Herein, we describe a widespread purple-white flower color polymorphism in the mustard Parrya nudicaulis spanning Alaska. The frequency of white-flowered individuals increases with increasing growing-season temperature, consistent with the role of anthocyanin pigments in stress tolerance. White petals fail to produce the stress responsive flavonoid intermediates in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway (ABP), suggesting an early pathway blockage. Petal cDNA sequences did not reveal blockages in any of the eight enzyme-coding genes in white-flowered individuals, nor any color differentiating SNPs. A qRT-PCR analysis of white petals identified a 24-fold reduction in chalcone synthase (CHS) at the threshold of the ABP, but no change in CHS expression in leaves and sepals. This arctic species has avoided the deleterious effects associated with the loss of flavonoid intermediates in vegetative tissues by decoupling CHS expression in petals and leaves, yet the correlation of flower color and climate suggests that the loss of flavonoids in the petals alone may affect the tolerance of white-flowered individuals to colder environments.

Dick, Cynthia A.; Buenrostro, Jason; Butler, Timothy; Carlson, Matthew L.; Kliebenstein, Daniel J.; Whittall, Justen B.

2011-01-01

34

Relationship between the composition of flavonoids and flower colors variation in tropical water lily (Nymphaea) cultivars.  

PubMed

Water lily, the member of the Nymphaeaceae family, is the symbol of Buddhism and Brahmanism in India. Despite its limited researches on flower color variations and formation mechanism, water lily has background of blue flowers and displays an exceptionally wide diversity of flower colors from purple, red, blue to yellow, in nature. In this study, 34 flavonoids were identified among 35 tropical cultivars by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode array detection (DAD) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Among them, four anthocyanins: delphinidin 3-O-rhamnosyl-5-O-galactoside (Dp3Rh5Ga), delphinidin 3-O-(2"-O-galloyl-6"-O-oxalyl-rhamnoside) (Dp3galloyl-oxalylRh), delphinidin 3-O-(6"-O-acetyl-?-glucopyranoside) (Dp3acetylG) and cyanidin 3- O-(2"-O-galloyl-galactopyranoside)-5-O-rhamnoside (Cy3galloylGa5Rh), one chalcone: chalcononaringenin 2'-O-galactoside (Chal2'Ga) and twelve flavonols: myricetin 7-O-rhamnosyl-(1 ? 2)-rhamnoside (My7RhRh), quercetin 7-O-galactosyl-(1 ? 2)-rhamnoside (Qu7GaRh), quercetin 7-O-galactoside (Qu7Ga), kaempferol 7-O-galactosyl-(1 ? 2)-rhamnoside (Km7GaRh), myricetin 3-O-galactoside (My3Ga), kaempferol 7-O-galloylgalactosyl-(1 ? 2)-rhamnoside (Km7galloylGaRh), myricetin 3-O-galloylrhamnoside (My3galloylRh), kaempferol 3-O-galactoside (Km3Ga), isorhamnetin 7-O-galactoside (Is7Ga), isorhamnetin 7-O-xyloside (Is7Xy), kaempferol 3-O-(3"-acetylrhamnoside) (Km3-3"acetylRh) and quercetin 3-O-acetylgalactoside (Qu3acetylGa) were identified in the petals of tropic water lily for the first time. Meanwhile a multivariate analysis was used to explore the relationship between pigments and flower color. By comparing, the cultivars which were detected delphinidin 3-galactoside (Dp3Ga) presented amaranth, and detected delphinidin 3'-galactoside (Dp3'Ga) presented blue. However, the derivatives of delphinidin and cyanidin were more complicated in red group. No anthocyanins were detected within white and yellow group. At the same time a possible flavonoid biosynthesis pathway of tropical water lily was presumed putatively. These studies will help to elucidate the evolution mechanism on the formation of flower colors and provide theoretical basis for outcross breeding and developing health care products from this plant. PMID:22485167

Zhu, Manlan; Zheng, Xuchen; Shu, Qingyan; Li, Hui; Zhong, Peixing; Zhang, Huijin; Xu, Yanjun; Wang, Lijin; Wang, Liangsheng

2012-04-02

35

Negative frequency-dependent selection maintains a dramatic flower color polymorphism in the rewardless orchid Dactylorhiza sambucina (L.) So?  

PubMed Central

The orchid Dactylorhiza sambucina shows a stable and dramatic flower-color polymorphism, with both yellow- and purple-flowered individuals present in natural populations throughout the range of the species in Europe. The evolutionary significance of flower-color polymorphisms found in many rewardless orchid species has been discussed at length, but the mechanisms responsible for their maintenance remain unclear. Laboratory experiments have suggested that behavioral responses by pollinators to lack of reward availability might result in a reproductive advantage for rare-color morphs. Consequently, we performed an experiment varying the relative frequency of the two color morphs of D. sambucina to test whether rare morph advantage acted in the natural habitat of the species. We show here clear evidence from this manipulative experiment that rare-color morphs have reproductive advantage through male and female components. This is the first demonstration, to our knowledge, that negative frequency-dependent selection through pollinator preference for rare morphs can cause the maintenance of a flower-color polymorphism.

Gigord, Luc D. B.; Macnair, Mark R.; Smithson, Ann

2001-01-01

36

Evaluating the spectral discrimination capabilities of different pollinators and their effect on the evolution of flower colors  

PubMed Central

Important plant pollinators like bees and birds have very different color visual systems. Previous work has attempted to relate flower syndromes to the respective visual capabilities of the most important pollinators, but has often been limited by the lack of robust means to make between-species comparisons of how flower color signals are processed. In a recent study we solved this dilemma by comparing the raw spectral signals, quantifiable by major inflection points on a wavelength scale, from different flowers whose pollinators were known from direct observation. Here we elaborate on how this method allows robust cross species comparisons that are independent of the requirement to know the complex and often inaccessible physiological data about color processing in different animals. The use of this method should thus allow for the testing of pollinator syndrome hypotheses for different animal pollinators from different regions of the world.

Shrestha, Mani; Dyer, Adrian G.; Burd, Martin

2013-01-01

37

Differences in flower color and pigment composition among white carnation ( Dianthus caryophyllus L.) cultivars 1 See also \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of flower colors with a color analyzer showed significant differences among 13 white carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) cultivars. Petals of three cultivars, `White Mind', `Kaly' and `White Barbara', were nearly pure white, compared with the other 10 cultivars. Analysis of pigment composition by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography classified 13 white cultivars into three types. The nearly pure-white cultivar, `White Mind'

Takashi Onozaki; Masami Mato; Michio Shibata; Hiroshi Ikeda

1999-01-01

38

Relative Role of Flower Color and Scent on Pollinator Attraction: Experimental Tests using F1 and F2 Hybrids of Daylily and Nightlily  

PubMed Central

The daylily (Hemerocallis fulva) and nightlily (H. citrina) are typical examples of a butterfly-pollination system and a hawkmoth-pollination system, respectively. H. fulva has diurnal, reddish or orange-colored flowers and is mainly pollinated by diurnal swallowtail butterflies. H. citrina has nocturnal, yellowish flowers with a sweet fragrance and is pollinated by nocturnal hawkmoths. We evaluated the relative roles of flower color and scent on the evolutionary shift from a diurnally flowering ancestor to H. citrina. We conducted a series of experiments that mimic situations in which mutants differing in either flower color, floral scent or both appeared in a diurnally flowering population. An experimental array of 6×6 potted plants, mixed with 24 plants of H. fulva and 12 plants of either F1 or F2 hybrids, were placed in the field, and visitations of swallowtail butterflies and nocturnal hawkmoths were recorded with camcorders. Swallowtail butterflies preferentially visited reddish or orange-colored flowers and hawkmoths preferentially visited yellowish flowers. Neither swallowtail butterflies nor nocturnal hawkmoths showed significant preferences for overall scent emission. Our results suggest that mutations in flower color would be more relevant to the adaptive shift from a diurnally flowering ancestor to H. citrina than that in floral scent.

Hirota, Shun K.; Nitta, Kozue; Kim, Yuni; Kato, Aya; Kawakubo, Nobumitsu; Yasumoto, Akiko A.; Yahara, Tetsukazu

2012-01-01

39

A study of the inheritance of morphological characters in sunflower. 1. Genetic control of coloration of pseudo-ligulate flowers, branchiness, and restoration of pollen fertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inheritance of coloration in pseudo-ligulate flowers in sunflower in the collection of the Yur’ev Institute of Plant Growing\\u000a is studied. Only the yellow color, which is the most widespread of all the different types of flower coloring, is found in\\u000a the first generation. Segregation into phenotypic classes in the ratios 3 : 1 and 9 : 3 : 4

Ya. Yu. Sharypina; V. N. Popov; T. A. Dolgova; V. V. Kirichenko

2008-01-01

40

An experimental test of female choice relative to male structural coloration in eastern bluebirds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several experimental studies have shown that female birds use ornamental melanin and carotenoid plumage coloration as criteria\\u000a in mate choice. Whether females choose mates based on natural variation in structural coloration, however, has not been well\\u000a established. Male eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) display brilliant ultraviolet (UV)-blue plumage coloration on their head, back, wings, and tail, which is positively correlated\\u000a with

Mark Liu; Lynn Siefferman; Geoffrey E. Hill

2007-01-01

41

Female choice of multiple male criteria in guppies: interacting effects of dominance, coloration and courtship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary I experimentally examined the relative importance of social dominance, color patterns, and courtship behavior in male mating and reproductive success in the guppy Poecilia reticulata. Female choice of males is based on a complex set of behavioral and morphological traits. The results of 59 paired-male one-female visual choice and mating trials showed that male mating success was positively correlated

Astrid Kodrie-Brown

1993-01-01

42

Rational choices for the wavelengths of a two color interferometer  

SciTech Connect

If in a two color interferometer for plasma density measurements, the two wavelengths are chosen to have a ratio that is a rational number, and if the signals from each of the wavelengths are multiplied in frequency by the appropriate integer of the rational number and then heterodyned together, the resultant signal will have all effects of component motion nulled out. A phase measurement of this signal will have only plasma density information in it. With CO{sub 2} lasers, it is possible to find suitable wavelength pairs which are close enough to rational numbers to produce an improvement of about 100 in density resolution, compared to standard two color interferometers.

Jobes, F.C.

1995-07-01

43

Toothguide Training Box for dental color choice training.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of the Toothguide Training Box (TTB) for training dental students in color identification. The seventy-four volunteers who took part in the study attended a seminar on the Vita 3D Master Guide (MG) and the TTB system as well as a demonstration of the equipment before training began. At the end of the training they took the TTB final test. In addition, the participants were asked to recognize ten MG shade tabs in a blind manner before and after TTB training. The training times and percentages of correct answers were compared using the paired t-test. Variations in scores with training times and percentages of correct answers before and after training were compared using the ANOVA test. Training times between thirty-one and thirty-eight minutes provided a significantly higher mean score than training times of over thirty-eight minutes (p=0.036). The percentage of correct answers obtained with the MG before and after training shows a positive correlation. High TTB scores are associated with a greater number of correct answers in MG shade tab selection. PMID:21368260

Llena, Carmen; Forner, Leopoldo; Ferrari, Marco; Amengual, José; Llambes, Gonzalo; Lozano, Esther

2011-03-01

44

Female choice in the guppy ( Poecilia reticulata ): the interaction between male color and display  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of two components of male courtship, color and display behavior, on female choice of mates was investigated in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Computer-modified videos were constructed to determine the relative importance of a static trait, the presence or absence of carotenoid pigment (C and NC), and a dynamic trait, high and low display rate (HD and LD), on

Astrid Kodric-Brown; Paul F. Nicoletto

2001-01-01

45

Evidence from rhesus macaques suggests that male coloration plays a role in female primate mate choice.  

PubMed Central

Male animals of many species use conspicuous coloration to attract mates. Among mammals, primates possess the most brilliant secondary sexual coloration. However, whether colour plays a part in primate female mate choice remains unknown. Adult male rhesus macaques undergo a hormonally regulated increased reddening of facial and anogenital skin during their mating season. We experimentally investigated whether red male facial coloration is preferred by simultaneously presenting female rhesus macaques (n = 6) with computer-manipulated pale and red versions of 24 different male faces. The duration and direction of gaze were measured to discern visual preferences. Females exhibited preferences for the red versions of male faces. It is proposed that male coloration might provide a cue to male quality.

Waitt, Corri; Little, Anthony C; Wolfensohn, Sarah; Honess, Paul; Brown, Anthony P; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M; Perrett, David I

2003-01-01

46

Top-down contingent capture by color: evidence from RT distribution analyses in a manual choice reaction task  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the contingent capture hypothesis, observers can specify their control settings in advance of the target’s presentation to quickly attend to relevant target colors. Two predictions were derived from this hypothesis and tested in a manual choice response task. First, contingent capture by color was expected: capture of spatial attention by a better-matching color stimulus should be stronger than

Ulrich Ansorge; Gernot Horstmann; Elena Carbone

2005-01-01

47

Molecular Analysis of Anthocyanin Biosynthetic Genes and Control of Flower Coloration by Flavonoid 3?,5?Hydroxylase (F3?5?H) in Dendrobium moniliforme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dendrobium moniliforme is a native species of Korea. The flower of this species is composed of a reproductive column and white perianths including\\u000a petals, sepals and lip, but the base of the column bears reddish purple pigment spots. Anthocyanins are major pigments that\\u000a contribute flower color in Dendrobium. Three key anthocyanin biosynthetic genes encoding dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), chalcone synthase (CHS),

Sung Soo Whang; Wan Sook Um; In-Ja Song; Pyung Ok Lim; Kyung Choi; Kwang-Woo Park; Kyung-Won Kang; Mi Sun Choi; Ja Choon Koo

2011-01-01

48

The Manchester Color Wheel: development of a novel way of identifying color choice and its validation in healthy, anxious and depressed individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: For the purposes of our research programme we needed a simple, reliable and validated method for allowing choice of a color in response to a series of questions. On reviewing the literature no such instrument was available and this study aimed to rectify this situation. This was achieved by developing a simple method of presenting a series of colors

Helen R Carruthers; Julie Morris; Nicholas Tarrier; Peter J Whorwell

2010-01-01

49

Female sticklebacks use male coloration in mate choice and hence avoid parasitized males  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AN important problem in evolutionary biology since the time of Darwin has been to understand why females preferentially mate with males handicapped by secondary sexual ornaments1-3. One hypothesis of sexual selection theory is that these ornaments reliably reveal the male's condition4-6, which can be affected for example by parasites4,7-13. Here we show that in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) the intensity of male red breeding coloration positively correlates with physical condition. Gravid females base their active mate choice on the intensity of the male's red coloration. Choice experiments under green light prevent the use of red colour cues by females, and males that were previously preferred are now chosen no more than randomly, although the courtship behaviour of the males remains unchanged. Parasitieation causes a deterioration in the males' condition and a decrease in the intensity of their red coloration. Tests under both lighting conditions reveal that the females recognize the formerly parasitized males by the lower intensity of their breeding coloration. Female sticklebacks possibly select a male with a good capacity for paternal care14 but if there is additive genetic variation for parasite resistance, then they might also select for resistance genes, as proposed by Hamilton and Zuk4.

Milinski, Manfred; Bakker, Theo C. M.

1990-03-01

50

A cytochrome b5 is required for full activity of flavonoid 3?,5?-hydroxylase, a cytochrome P450 involved in the formation of blue flower colors  

PubMed Central

The substitution pattern of anthocyanin pigments is a main determinant of flower color. Flavonoid 3?,5?-hydroxylase (F3?5?H) is a cytochrome P450 enzyme (Cyt P450) that catalyzes the 3?,5?-hydroxylation of dihydroflavonols, the precursors of purple anthocyanins. Species such as rose and carnation lack F3?5?H activity and are, therefore, unable to generate purple or blue flowers. Petunia, on the other hand, contains two loci, termed hf1 and hf2, that encode a Cyt P450 with F3?5?H activity. Here we report the identification of an additional petunia gene that is required for 3?,5? substitution of anthocyanins and purple flower colors. It encodes a cytochrome b5 and is expressed exclusively in the flower. Inactivation of the gene by targeted transposon mutagenesis reduced F3?5?H enzyme activity and the accumulation of 5?-substituted anthocyanins, resulting in an altered flower color. However, no phenotypic effect on the activity of other Cyt P450s, involved in the synthesis of hormones or general phenylpropanoids, was observed. These data provide in vivo evidence for the regulation of the activity of specific Cyt P450s by a cytochrome b5.

de Vetten, Nick; ter Horst, Jeroen; van Schaik, Henk-Peter; de Boer, Albertus; Mol, Joseph; Koes, Ronald

1999-01-01

51

Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using this project will expose you to concepts of color, color wheels, color combinations, and techniques of using color. Use the following links, follow the directions to define color terms, create color schemes and explore the use of color in creating designs. Color Scheme Generator 2 This site identifiesbasic terms related to color, using acolor wheeland making color schemes. Color Theory This site explains terminology of color. Color Theory Tutorial This site gives excellent examples and information about ...

Dent, Mrs.

2010-03-23

52

Apis cerana japonica discriminates between floral color phases of the oriental orchid, Cymbidium floribundum.  

PubMed

Foragers of the Japanese honeybee (Apis cerana japonica) were attracted by flowers of an oriental orchid (Cymbidium floribundum) and were observed to carry the pollinia on their scutella. After the removal of pollinia from the flowers, their labial color changed from white to reddish brown. Both artificial removal of pollinia and ethrel treatment of the flowers also induced this labial color change. Labia in color-changed flowers showed a decreased reflectance of wavelengths less than 670 nm compared to control intact flower. Both reflectance irradiance spectra and ultraviolet photographs showed that only the nectar guide in white (unchanged) flowers reflected ultraviolet light, and that this reflectance decreased with labial color change. Dual choice experiments showed that the honeybee foragers preferentially visited flowers having white labia rather than reddish brown. We suggest that Japanese honeybees discriminate between the floral phases of C. floribundum using color vision. PMID:21110714

Sugahara, Michio; Minamoto, Toshifumi; Fuchikawa, Taro; Michinomae, Masanao; Shimizu, Isamu

2010-12-01

53

Does individual variation in fruit profitability override color differences in avian choice of red or white Ilex serrata fruits?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although avian color preferences have been studied and documented in controlled experiments, they have not been demonstrated\\u000a under natural conditions in most cases. We hypothesized that avian fruit choice reflects intraspecific variation in fruit\\u000a characteristics other than color, rather than fruit color differences. By planting one Ilex serrata Thunb. (red form) and one I. serrata forma leucocarpa Beissner (white form),

Kaori Tsujita; Shinjiro Sakai; Kihachiro Kikuzawa

2008-01-01

54

Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project will be used to teach the importance of color. Watch the following video about color Primary Colors Click on the link Exploration of Color. When you get into the website select the different colors to see what secondary colors are made from the primary colors. Review the following siteColor Theory and then design and paint a color wheel. ...

Jolene

2008-09-29

55

Innate movement rules in foraging bees: flight distances are affected by recent rewards and are correlated with choice of flower type  

Microsoft Academic Search

The non-random movement patterns of foraging bees are believed to increase their search efficiency. These patterns may be\\u000a innate, or they may be learned through the bees’ early foraging experience. To identify the innate components of foraging\\u000a rules, we characterized the flight of naive bumblebees, foraging on a non-patchy “field” of randomly scattered artificial\\u000a flowers with three color displays. The

Tamar Keasar; Avi Shmida; Uzi Motro

1996-01-01

56

Two different transposable elements inserted in flavonoid 3?,5?-hydroxylase gene contribute to pink flower coloration in Gentiana scabra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pink-flowered gentian plants (Gentiana scabra) have been bred from spontaneous mutations of blue-flowered gentian plants, but the formation mechanism(s) is unknown so\\u000a far. To investigate the process, two independent pink-flowered gentian plant lines were analyzed by a molecular biological\\u000a approach. HPLC analysis showed that petals of the blue-flowered cultivar contained a small amount of cyanidin derivatives\\u000a and major delphinidin derivatives,

Takashi Nakatsuka; Masahiro Nishihara; Keiichiro Mishiba; Hiroshi Hirano; Saburo Yamamura

2006-01-01

57

The effect of male coloration on female mate choice in closely related Lake Victoria cichlids ( Haplochromis nyererei complex)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effect of male coloration on interspecific female mate choice in two closely related species of haplochromine\\u000a cichlids from Lake Victoria. The species differ primarily in male coloration. Males of one species are red, those of the other\\u000a are blue. We recorded the behavioral responses of females to males of both species in paired male trials under white

Ole Seehausen; Jacques J. M. van Alphen

1998-01-01

58

Local adaptation and matching habitat choice in female barn owls with respect to melanic coloration.  

PubMed

Local adaptation is a major mechanism underlying the maintenance of phenotypic variation in spatially heterogeneous environments. In the barn owl (Tyto alba), dark and pale reddish-pheomelanic individuals are adapted to conditions prevailing in northern and southern Europe, respectively. Using a long-term dataset from Central Europe, we report results consistent with the hypothesis that the different pheomelanic phenotypes are adapted to specific local conditions in females, but not in males. Compared to whitish females, reddish females bred in sites surrounded by more arable fields and less forests. Colour-dependent habitat choice was apparently beneficial. First, whitish females produced more fledglings when breeding in wooded areas, whereas reddish females when breeding in sites with more arable fields. Second, cross-fostering experiments showed that female nestlings grew wings more rapidly when both their foster and biological mothers were of similar colour. The latter result suggests that mothers should particularly produce daughters in environments that best match their own coloration. Accordingly, whiter females produced fewer daughters in territories with more arable fields. In conclusion, females displaying alternative melanic phenotypes bred in habitats providing them with the highest fitness benefits. Although small in magnitude, matching habitat selection and local adaptation may help maintain variation in pheomelanin coloration in the barn owl. PMID:22070193

Dreiss, A N; Antoniazza, S; Burri, R; Fumagalli, L; Sonnay, C; Frey, C; Goudet, J; Roulin, Alexandre

2011-11-09

59

The Role of Flower Inclination, Depth, and Height in the Preferences of a Pollinating Beetle (Coleoptera: Glaphyridae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amphicoma (Glaphyridae) beetles are important pollinators of red bowl-shaped flowers in the Mediterranean. The role of color and shape in flower choice is well studied but the roles of inclination, depth, and height have seldom been investigated. Under field conditions, models were used to experimentally manipulate these three characters and visitation rates of beetles were recorded. Models with red horizontal

Amots Dafni; Simon G. Potts

2004-01-01

60

Synchrony between flower opening and petal-color change from red to blue in morning glory, Ipomoea tricolor cv. Heavenly Blue.  

PubMed

Petal color change in morning glory Ipomoea tricolor cv. Heavenly Blue, from red to blue, during the flower-opening period is due to an unusual increase in vacuolar pH (pHv) from 6.6 to 7.7 in colored epidermal cells. We clarified that this pHv increase is involved in tonoplast-localized Na+/H+ exchanger (NHX). However, the mechanism of pHv increase and the physiological role of NHX1 in petal cells have remained obscure. In this study, synchrony of petal-color change from red to blue, pHv increase, K+ accumulation, and cell expansion growth during flower-opening period were examined with special reference to ItNHX1. We concluded that ItNHX1 exchanges K+, but not Na+, with H+ to accumulate an ionic osmoticum in the vacuole, which is then followed by cell expansion growth. This function may lead to full opening of petals with a characteristic blue color. PMID:19521056

Yoshida, Kumi; Miki, Naoko; Momonoi, Kazumi; Kawachi, Miki; Katou, Kiyoshi; Okazaki, Yoshiji; Uozumi, Nobuyuki; Maeshima, Masayoshi; Kondo, Tadao

2009-01-01

61

Choice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the crucial importance of choice in a democracy, choice has not recently been an overriding concept in public education. If parents, especially poor parents, could choose among educational options for their children, schools would be more accountable and responsive to the public and more learning would take place. (GC)

Seeley, David S.

1984-01-01

62

Memory-Context Effects of Screen Color in Multiple-Choice and Fill-In Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this experimental study, 44 undergraduates completed five computer-based instructional lessons and either two multiplechoice tests or two fill-in-the-blank tests. Color-coded borders were displayed during the lesson, adjacent to the screen text and illustrations. In the experimental condition, corresponding border colors were shown at posttest.…

Prestera, Gustavo E.; Clariana, Roy; Peck, Andrew

2005-01-01

63

The Role of Coloration in Mate Choice and Sexual Interactions in Butterflies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major focus of behavioral ecology is to understand the evolutionary causes and consequences of sexual signaling. Great strides have been made, particularly in the realm of color-based signaling, using model organisms in target groups such as birds and fish. Such work has demonstrated how information regarding phenotypic and\\/or genetic quality may be encoded in various types of color ornaments,

Darrell J. Kemp; Ronald L. Rutowski

2011-01-01

64

The involvement of tonoplast proton pumps and Na+(K+)/H+ exchangers in the change of petal color during flower opening of Morning Glory, Ipomoea tricolor cv. Heavenly Blue.  

PubMed

The petal color of morning glory, Ipomoea tricolor cv. Heavenly Blue, changes from purplish red to blue during flower opening. This color change is caused by an unusual increase in vacuolar pH from 6.6 to 7.7 in the colored adaxial and abaxial cells. To clarify the mechanism underlying the alkalization of epidermal vacuoles in the open petals, we focused on vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase), H+-pyrophosphatase (V-PPase) and an isoform of Na+/H+ exchanger (NHX1). We isolated red and blue protoplasts from the petals in bud and fully open flower, respectively, and purified vacuolar membranes. The membranes contained V-ATPase, V-PPase and NHX1, which were immunochemically detected, with relatively high transport activity. NHX1 could be detected only in the vacuolar membranes prepared from flower petals and its protein level was the highest in the colored petal epidermis of the open flower. These results suggest that the increase of vacuolar pH in the petals during flower opening is due to active transport of Na+ and/or K+ from the cytosol into vacuoles through a sodium- or potassium-driven Na+(K+)/H+ exchanger NXH1 and that V-PPase and V-ATPase may prevent the over-alkalization. This systematic ion transport maintains the weakly alkaline vacuolar pH, producing the sky-blue petals. PMID:15695444

Yoshida, Kumi; Kawachi, Miki; Mori, Mihoko; Maeshima, Masayoshi; Kondo, Maki; Nishimura, Mikio; Kondo, Tadao

2005-02-02

65

Flowers, Beautiful Flowers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the lesson described, the middle school students had been studying the artist Georgia O'Keeffe and the history of her work. Students enhanced their flower portraits by adding a matching border and connecting the lesson to other subject areas. Students dissected a flower and drew a small diagram of the flower and labeled the parts. This is an…

School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2005

2005-01-01

66

Seeing the light: Illumination as a contextual cue to color choice behavior in bumblebees  

PubMed Central

The principal challenge faced by any color vision system is to contend with the inherent ambiguity of stimulus information, which represents the interaction between multiple attributes of the world (e.g., object reflectance and illumination). How natural systems deal with this problem is not known, although traditional hypotheses are predicated on the idea that vision represents object reflectance accurately by discounting early in processing the conflating effects of illumination. Here, we test the merits of this general supposition by confronting bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) with a color discrimination task that can be solved only if information about the illuminant is not discounted but maintained in processing and thus available to higher-order learned behavior. We show that bees correctly use the intensity and chromaticity of illumination as a contextual cue to guide them to different target colors. In fact, we trained bees to choose opposite, rather than most similar, target colors after an illumination change. This performance cannot be explained with a simple color-constancy mechanism that discounts illumination. Further tests show that bees do not use a simple assessment of the overhead illumination, but that they assess the spectral relationships between a floral target and its background. These results demonstrate that bees can be color-constant without discounting the illuminant; that, in fact, they can use information about the illuminant itself as a salient source of information.

Lotto, R. Beau; Chittka, Lars

2005-01-01

67

Glowing Flowers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Student teams learn about engineering design of green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) and their use in medical research, including stem cell research. They simulate the use of GFPs by adding fluorescent dye to water and letting a flower or plant to transport the dye throughout its structure. Students apply their knowledge of GFPs to engineering applications in the medical, environmental and space exploration fields. Due to the fluorescing nature of the dye, plant life of any color, light or dark, can be used â unlike dyes that can only be seen in visible light.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

68

Flower Parts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents ideas for spring flower displays. Has students constructing their own interactive flower displays as extra-credit assignments to reinforce vocabulary and scientific concepts, and modeling flowers with household items. (JRH)

Steinheimer, Margaret

1997-01-01

69

Conspicuous flowers rarely visited by insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the role of factors that attract insects to conspicuous flowers. Colors and odors attract the attention of insects, however, the absence of either will not necessarily cause a flower to be neglected if it contains an ample supply of pollen and nectar. The absence of either may result in the flower being discovered much later by insects. Experiments do

John H. Lovell

1914-01-01

70

Color and gender based differences in the sources of influence attributed to the choice of college major  

Microsoft Academic Search

People of color are not attending US colleges and universities in numbers that are representative of their share of the population. Although state sanctioned privileges of White males, relative to people of color and women, are now prohibited, equal access to education and career opportunities is yet to be realized. White men are paid higher salaries than people of color

Bonita A. Daly

2005-01-01

71

Colorful Collage: Visions of Flowers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The technique of what people today call "collage" is not new. In Victorian times, elaborate art was created from bristly horsehair as a type of collage. The modern collage dates to the early 1900s when Picasso pasted newspaper on a drawing. In 1919 Karl Schwitters, a German artist, developed collage into an art form that was as important as…

Skophammer, Karen

2011-01-01

72

Blob Flowers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an art project called blob flowers in which fifth-grade students created pictures of flowers using watercolor and markers. Explains that the lesson incorporates ideas from art and science. Discusses in detail how the students created their flowers. (CMK)

Canfield, Elaine

2003-01-01

73

Colors, Colors?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity related to the famous "Stroop Effect," learners explore how words influence what we see and how the brain handles "mixed messages." Learners read colored words and are asked to say the color of the word, not what the word says. Learners use a data table to keep track of where they have trouble reading the colors. They analyze this data by answering questions and drawing conclusions. Learners can also take this test using the online version.

Songstad, Susan

2009-01-01

74

Laboratory analysis of flower constancy in foraging bumblebees: Bombus ternarius and B. terricola  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.We established apparently normal foraging behavior in captive bumblebees utilizing artificial flowers. Syrup rewards of flowers visited were experimentally manipulated to correspond to nectar volumes found in flowers utilized in the field.2.Bees became >90% flower-constant to either of two flower types (distinguished by color) when rewarded with 1.0 µl 50% sucrose at each visit to flowers of one color, while

Bernd Heinrich; Patricia R. Mudge; Pamela G. Deringis

1977-01-01

75

Composite Flowers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, part of Jim Conrad's Backyard Nature Plant web page, discusses this very large family of plants, which includes the sunflower, dandelion, and chrysanthemum. Here you will find information about the composite family's flower structure and the three kinds of composite flowers: ray only, disk only, and ray and disk. There is also a section on how to analyze disk and ray flower structures.

Conrad, Jim

2007-12-17

76

Flower Fisting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay asks about the fate of flowers in an age of colony collapse disorder and market-driven industrial agriculture. From human hand-pollination to the genetic selection of self-pollinating crops, contemporary responses to CCD bring to ironic conclusion certain tropes of flowers as figures of deceit, mortality, transience, and appearance without substance. Taking \\

Anne-Lise François

2011-01-01

77

Flowers & Weeds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the topics and teaching strategies employed in an Issues in Biology course. Discusses flowers, plant breeding, potatoes and tomatoes, the chocolate tree, weeds, Arabidopis, gene transfers, and plant genes/human genes. Contains 22 references. (JRH)|

Flannery, Maura C.

1996-01-01

78

How colorful are fruits? Limited color diversity in fleshy fruits on local and global scales.  

PubMed

The colors of fleshy fruits are considered to be a signal to seed-dispersing animals, but their diversity remains poorly understood. Using an avian color space to derive a sensory morphospace for fruit color, we tested four hypotheses of fruit color diversity: fruit colors occupy a limited area of the color space; they are less diverse than flower colors; fruit colors within localities are similar to each other; and fruit color diversity reflects phylogeny. The global fruit color diversity of 948 primarily bird-dispersed plant species and the color diversity of localities were compared with null models of random, unconstrained evolution of fruit color. Fruit color diversity was further compared with the diversity of 1300 flower colors. Tests of phylogenetic effects on fruit color were used to assess the degree of correspondence with phylogeny. Global and local fruit color diversity was limited compared with null models and fruits have achieved only half the color diversity of flowers. Interestingly, we found little indication of phylogenetic conservatism. Constraints resulting from the chemical properties of pigments probably limit global fruit and flower color diversity. Different types of selection on fruits and flowers may further explain the smaller color diversity of fruits. PMID:23374020

Stournaras, Kalliope E; Lo, Eugenia; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Cazetta, Eliana; Dehling, D Matthias; Schleuning, Matthias; Stoddard, Mary Caswell; Donoghue, Michael J; Prum, Richard O; Schaefer, H Martin

2013-02-04

79

77 FR 12103 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Colorful Realm: Japanese...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Determinations: ``Colorful Realm: Japanese Bird-and-Flower Paintings by It[omacr] Jakuch[umacr] (1716-1800...in the exhibition ``Colorful Realm: Japanese Bird-and-Flower Paintings by It[omacr] Jakuch[umacr]...

2012-02-28

80

Infants' Recognition of Objects Using Canonical Color  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We explored infants' ability to recognize the canonical colors of daily objects, including two color-specific objects (human face and fruit) and a non-color-specific object (flower), by using a preferential looking technique. A total of 58 infants between 5 and 8 months of age were tested with a stimulus composed of two color pictures of an…

Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Yang, Jiale; Otsuka, Yumiko; Dan, Ippeita; Masuda, Tomohiro; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.

2010-01-01

81

Regulation of skin color in apples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature of the regulation of color in apple skin is reviewed and compared with current knowledge of the regulation of flower color.Color in apple skin is a blend of various amounts of chlorophyll, carotenoids, and anthocyanins\\/flavonols. A variety of red colors are produced by cyanidin glycosides copigmented with flavonols and other compounds. The concentration and identification of flavonols, proanthocyanidins,

J. E. Lancaster; Donald K. Dougall

1992-01-01

82

Flowers in Their Variety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the diversity of flowers with regard to the flower paintings of Pierre-Joseph Redoute, books about flowers, and research in genetic studies. Discusses gardening flowers and flowering strategies and criticizes the fact that biology education has moved steadily away from plants. (KHR)|

Flannery, Maura C.

2002-01-01

83

Seeing Color in School Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research across states has consistently shown that African American parents tend to send their children to charter schools with higher concentrations of African American students as compared to the concentrations of the district-assigned schools their children would otherwise attend. However, little research has addressed why these parents choose…

Lewis, Wayne D.; Danzig, Arnold

2010-01-01

84

Seeing Color in School Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research across states has consistently shown that African American parents tend to send their children to charter schools with higher concentrations of African American students as compared to the concentrations of the district-assigned schools their children would otherwise attend. However, little research has addressed why these parents choose…

Lewis, Wayne D.; Danzig, Arnold

2010-01-01

85

Bird-pollinated flowers in an evolutionary and molecular context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolutionary shifts to bird pollination (ornithophily) have occurred independently in many lineages of flowering plants. This shift affects many floral features, particularly those responsible for the attraction of birds, deterrence of illegitimate flower visitors (particularly bees), pro- tection from vigorous foraging by birds, and accurate placement of pollen on bird's bodies. Red coloration appears to play a major role in

Quentin Cronk; Isidro Ojeda

2010-01-01

86

Simulation of the Coevolution of Insects and Flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flowers need insects for their pollination and insects rely on the nectar and the pollen as a food resource. But instead of visiting all flowers, the insects limit their visits to a small number. This paper presents a simulation of the behavior of the insects which results in a specialized perception of blossom colors and fragrances by the insects. A

Alexander Bisler

87

4-ketocarotenoids in flower petals  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The formation of a carotenoid compound containing a 4-keto-.beta.-ionene ring such as astaxanthin or canthaxanthin in flowers, and particularly in the corolla and reproductive parts of a flower of a higher plant whose flowers produce a carotenoid compound containing a .beta.-ionene ring such as .beta.-carotene or zeaxanthin, but otherwise do not produce astaxanthin or canthaxanthin is disclosed. One or more genes controlled by a promoter are inserted (transformed) into a higher plant. The inserted gene encodes a chimeric enzyme including (a) a carotenoid-forming enzyme that is at least a ketolase. That gene is operatively linked to (b) a plastid-directed transit peptide. Some higher plants to be transformed produce at least zeaxanthin or .beta.-carotene in their flowers prior to transformation, whereas other plants produce little if any colored carotenoid pigments prior to transformation and are transformed with a cassette of carotenoids-forming genes. Methods of transformation and use of the transformed plants are described.

Hauptmann; Randal (Oswego, IL); Eisenreich; Robert (North Aurora, IL); Eschenfeldt; William (St. Charles, IL); Khambatta; Zubin (Orland Park, IL)

2007-05-29

88

Discovering Flowers in a New Light  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children love observing seeds change as they germinate and grow into tall healthy plants, but how can teachers make investigating plants an exciting and immediate event? Microscopy might just be the answer. Although most students have seen flowers, not many have looked closely at their various structures or seen their colorful designs only…

McNall, Rebecca L.; Bell, Randy L.

2004-01-01

89

Discovering Flowers in a New Light  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children love observing seeds change as they germinate and grow into tall healthy plants, but how can teachers make investigating plants an exciting and immediate event? Microscopy might just be the answer. Although most students have seen flowers, not many have looked closely at their various structures or seen their colorful designs only…

McNall, Rebecca L.; Bell, Randy L.

2004-01-01

90

Color Theory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project will be used to teach the importance of color. Watch the following video about color Primary Colors Click on the link Exploration of Color. When you get into the website select the different colors to see what secondary colors are made from the primary colors. Review the following siteColor Theory and then design and paint a color wheel. ...

Sturgell, Mr.

2009-12-02

91

Sepal phenolic profile during Helleborus niger flower development.  

PubMed

Morphological changes and phenolic patterns of developing hellebore sepals and the effects of pistil removal on these parameters were studied by comparing six flower stages of Helleborus niger. Color changes were evaluated colorimetrically, chlorophyll content was measured spectrophotometrically, and anthocyanins and flavonols were identified and quantified with HPLC-MS. Pistil removal not only altered the morphological development of hellebore flower resulting in smaller flower and significant color changes but also lead to several biochemical modifications. Five cyanidin glycosides have been identified from the group of anthocyanins in hellebore. Individual and total anthocyanin content increased from bud to subsequent developmental stages. Moreover, significantly higher content levels of individual and total anthocyanins have been measured in non-pollinated flower sepals compared to sepals of pollinated flowers. From the group of flavonols eight quercetin and kaempferol compounds have been quantified in hellebore sepals. Flavonol content significantly decreased during flower development with lowest levels recorded in sepals of non-pollinated and senescent pollinated hellebore flowers. Sepals of pollinated flowers contained highest levels of chlorophyll and significantly lower amounts of chlorophyll were measured in non-pollinated flowers and in sepals of senescent stage. PMID:23796521

Schmitzer, Valentina; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Stampar, Franci

2013-06-21

92

Chemical control of flowering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of flower-forming substances has a reasonably firm foundation, although none of the substances responsible have yet been isolated. The studies which have been performed on the alteration of flowering behaviour by the application of various chemical substances have helped to elucidate the internal mechanism of control of flowering to a marked degree. The purpose of this review is

S. Kolli

1969-01-01

93

Design a Hummingbird Flower.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity that engages students in designing and making an artificial flower adapted for pollination by hummingbirds. Students work in teams to design flowers that maximize the benefit from attracting hummingbirds. Examines characteristics of real flowers adapted to pollination by hummingbirds. (DLH)

Bailey, Kim

2002-01-01

94

Flower Dissection Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, this site presents a simple Flower Dissection Lab using orchids and composite flowers. This pdf document contains the materials needed and instructions for the lab, as well as a worksheet for students to complete as they dissect their flower.

2007-12-27

95

Methods for Optimal Color Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The color characterization of digital cameras often re- quires the use of standard charts containing a fixed number of color samples. The exact choice of such characterization charts—how many (and which) known samples to include—is known to affect characterization performance. This study describes methods to se- lect optimum color samples from a set of 1269 Munsell surface col- ors. The

Vien Cheung; Stephen Westland

2006-01-01

96

Infants’ recognition of objects using canonical color  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explored infants’ ability to recognize the canonical colors of daily objects, including two color-specific objects (human face and fruit) and a non-color-specific object (flower), by using a preferential looking technique. A total of 58 infants between 5 and 8months of age were tested with a stimulus composed of two color pictures of an object placed side by side: a

Atsushi Kimura; Yuji Wada; Jiale Yang; Yumiko Otsuka; Ippeita Dan; Tomohiro Masuda; So Kanazawa; Masami K. Yamaguchi

2010-01-01

97

Scholarship Awards, College Choice, and Student Engagement in College Activities: A Study of High-Achieving Low-Income Students of Color  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using two-wave survey data on the 2001 cohort of the Gates Millennium Scholarship (GMS) recipients and comparison nonrecipients, this study examines the relationship between scholarship awards and student engagement in college activities. The results indicate that scholarship awards such as GMS directly affect student college choice decisions.…

Hu, Shouping

2010-01-01

98

A Note on Adults' Color–Emotion Associations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The color–emotion associations of undergraduate students were analyzed. Twenty men and 20 women were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire in which they listed their favorite color, the major color they were wearing, their emotional responses to colors, and the reasons for their choices. Responses showed that bright colors elicited mainly positive emotional associations, and dark colors elicited mainly negative

Michael Hemphill

1996-01-01

99

Etendue conserved color mixing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colored variable lighting is being used in more and more locations to enhance the "beauty" and "atmosphere" of interiors and exteriors. Lamps based on different colored LED are an obvious choice for such systems. The light from the differently colored LEDS needs to be mixed together very well because otherwise objects in the beam could create colored shadows. The difficulty is that we often want a lighting system where the light is collimated, where we can set the color of the beam, and where the lamp is as small as possible with an as small as possible exit diameter. This means that ideally we would like to mix colors etendue preserving. In this paper we discuss a new method of color mixing with dichroic color filters, which aims to achieve this. It is based on a special arrangement of the color filters, whereby the filters act as collimators. We have build prototypes and have done raytracing simulations. These show that we can indeed mix light of different wavelengths and make relatively small, color-variable, collimated, high brightness, light-sources. The advantages are an increase in brightness, a reduction/elimination of the colored shadows, and a small volume. This new method can, e.g., be used in spotlights, mini-beamers and logo projectors.

van Gorkom, R. P.; van As, M. A.; Verbeek, G. M.; Hoelen, C. G. A.; Alferink, R. G.; Mutsaers, C. A.; Cooijmans, H.

2007-09-01

100

Colorants and colorant modifiers  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention relates to a substrate having therein or thereon a composition containing, at least one molecular includant. In one embodiment, the molecular includant comprises a cyclodextrin. The present invention also relates to the substrate further comprising at least one ultraviolet radiation transorber and also to the substrate further comprising a colorant. Additionally, the present invention relates to a method of making the substrate in which a composition comprising a molecular includant is incorporated into or onto the substrate. In one embodiment of this invention, the substrate has thereon or therein a colored composition comprising a colorant and a molecular includant. In another embodiment, the colorant is a mutable colorant which, upon irradiation in the present of an ultraviolet radiation transorber, can be mutated.

MacDonald; John Gavin (Decatur, GA); Nohr; Ronald Sinclair (Alpharetta, GA)

2002-01-29

101

Color vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among basic vision research, which aim to reveal higher levels of the human visual function, I review recent advances in color vision, focusing on color memory and categorical color perception research. It is known that color varies continuously in color space. At the same time, however, we recognize colors as categories: such as, red, green, yellow, and blue although there

Keiji Uchikawa

1999-01-01

102

Homology modeling and dynamics study of aureusidin synthase—An important enzyme in aurone biosynthesis of snapdragon flower  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aurones, a class of plant flavonoids, provide bright yellow color on some important ornamental flowers, such as cosmos, coreopsis, and snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus). Recently, it has been elucidated that aureusidin synthase (AUS), a homolog of plant polyphenol oxidase (PPO), plays a key role in the yellow coloration of snapdragon flowers. In addition, it has been shown that AUS is a

Pavadai Elumalai; Hsuan-Liang Liu

2011-01-01

103

The breath of a flower  

PubMed Central

In this article I comment on our findings that floral carbon dioxide (CO2) can be used by Manduca sexta hawkmoths in a scale- and context-dependent fashion. We firstly found, in wind tunnel assays, that diffusing floral CO2 is used as long-distance cue (e.g., meters). Moths track CO2 plumes up-wind in the same manner they track floral odors. Nevertheless, CO2 did not appear to function as a local stimulus for flower probing, evidencing a scale-dependent role in nectar foraging. These results were further enriched by a second finding. In dual choice assays, where moths were offered two scented artificial flowers of which only one emitted above-ambient CO2-levels, female Manduca sexta chose to feed on the CO2 emitting flower only when host-plant volatiles were added to the background. We discuss this apparent measurement of oviposition obligations during foraging in the context of the life histories of both insect and plant species. These findings seem to pinpoint the usually artificial nature of compartmentalizing herbivory and pollination as different, isolated aspects of insect-plant interactions. Insects do not seem to have a defined response to a certain stimulus; instead, motor programs appear to be in response to composite arrangements of external stimuli and inner states. If animal-plant interactions have evolved under these premises, I believe it may prove beneficial to include a non-linear, integrative view of plant multi-signaling and life history aspects into the study of pollination biology.

2008-01-01

104

Color Thieves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This story poses a challenge to its readers to solve the mystery of light, color, and how we see color. It also asks the question, "What is color?" After investigating the phenomena of color and color filters, students should realize that light is made up

Konicek-Moran, Richard

2009-04-01

105

Flower Constancy, Insect Psychology, and Plant Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Individuals of some species of pollinating insects tend to restrict their visits to only a few of the available plant species, in the process bypassing valuable food sources. The question of why this flower constancy exists is a rich and important one with implications for the organization of natural communities of plants, floral evolution, and our understanding of the learning processes involved in finding food. Some scientists have assumed that flower constancy is adaptive per se. Others argued that constancy occurs because memory capacity for floral features in insects is limited, but attempts to identify the limitations often remained rather simplistic. We elucidate now different sensory and motor memories from natural foraging tasks are stored and retrieved, using concepts from modern learning science and visual search, and conclude that flower constancy is likely to have multiple causes. Possible constraints favoring constancy are interference sensitivity of short-term memory, and temporal limitations on retrieving information from long-term memory as rapidly as from short-term memory, but further empirical evidence is needed to substantiate these possibilities. In addition, retrieving memories may be slower and more prone to errors when there are several options than when an insect copes with only a single task. In addition to memory limitations, we also point out alternative explanations for flower constancy. We then consider the way in which floral parameters, such as interplant distances, nectar rewards, flower morphology, and floral color (as seen through bees' eyes) affect constancy. Finally, we discuss the implications of pollinator constancy for plant evolution. To date there is no evidence that flowers have diverged to favor constancy, although the appropriate tests may not have yet been conducted. However, there is good evidence against the notion that pollinator constancy is involved in speciation or maintenance of plant species integrity.

Chittka, Lars; Thomson, James D.; Waser, Nickolas M.

106

Color realism and color science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The target article is an attempt to make some progress on the problem of color realism. Are objects colored? And what is the nature of the color properties? We defend the view that physical objects (for instance, tomatoes, radishes, and rubies) are colored, and that colors are physical properties, specifically, types of reflectance. This is probably a minority opinion, at

Alex Byrne; David R. Hilbert

2003-01-01

107

Pollination by flower chafer beetles in Eulophia ensata and Eulophia welwitschii (Orchidaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the pollination biology of the large (c. 230 species) African orchid genus, Eulophia. Here we report the discovery of pollination by flower chafer beetles (Cetoniinae; Scarabaeidae) in two color forms of E. ensata and in E. welwitschii. Both species have congested, capitate inflorescences, traits that are generally associated with pollination by flower chafer beetles in Eulophia

C. I. Peter; S. D. Johnson

2009-01-01

108

Notice—Bogor botanical garden flower transparencies available  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a service to American plant taxonomists who use color transparencies in their teaching, I am pleased to announce the availability of Kodachrome and Ektachrome 2 Ť 2 transparencies of tropical plants and their flowers or fruits made at the world famous Bogor Botanical Gardens in Indonesia. These photographs are mostly from the Garden itself, taken by members of the

Richard M. Straw

1969-01-01

109

Color Addition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is inquiry in that students do not know how colors are combined. They likely think that the primary colors are red, yellow, and blue. In fact, there are two sets of primary colors: red, green, and blue for additive colors of light, and cyan,

Horton, Michael

2009-05-30

110

Refuges, flower strips, biodiversity and agronomic interest.  

PubMed

Several arthropods are natural predators of pests, and they are able to reduce and control their population development. FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais (Federation Regionate de Defense contre les Organismes Nuisibles = Regional Federation for Pest Control) has begun for a long time to form farmers to the recognition of beneficial arthropods and to show them their usefulness. These beneficial insects or arachnids are present everywhere, in orchards and even in fields which are areas relatively poor in biodiversity. Adults feed in the flower strips instead larvae and some adults feed on preys such as aphids or caterpillars. Most of the time, beneficial insects can regulate pest but sometimes, in agricultural area, they can't make it early enough and efficiently. Their action begin too late and there biodiversity and number are too low. It's possible to enhance their action by manipulating the ecological infrastructures, like sewing flower strips or installing refuges. Flower strips increase the density of natural enemies and make them be present earlier in the field in order to control pests. Refuges permit beneficial's to spend winter on the spot. So they're able to be active and to grow in number earlier. From 2004 to 2007, on the one hand, FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais has developed a research program. Its purpose was to inventory practices and also tools and means available and to judge the advisability of using such or such beneficial refuge in orchards. On the second hand, it studied the impact in orchard of refuges on population of beneficial's and the difference there were between manufactured refuges and homemade refuges. Interesting prospects were obtained with some of them. Otherwise, since 2003, FREDON has studied flower strips influence on beneficial population and their impact on pest control. In cabbage fields, results of trials have shown that flower strips lead to a reduction of aphid number under acceptable economic level, up to 50 meters from flower strips. Results showed that in France it was mainly syrphids that control aphid populations. The choice of flowers Families to include in flower strip is important. You have to avoid choosing the same plant family as the one of the crop you want to protect because you would risk to attract pests and diseases in the field. In fact, it's important to choose the optimal diversity of plant Family and not the greatest diversity. PMID:19226774

Roy, Grégory; Wateau, Karine; Legrand, Mickaël; Oste, Sandrine

2008-01-01

111

Variation among highbush blueberry cultivars for frost tolerance of open flowers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Injury of open flowers often occurs in fruit crops by late winter or early spring frosts and can result in significant reduction in yield. In this study, freezing tolerance of open flowers of five highbush blueberry cultivars, ‘Bluecrop’, ‘Elliott’, ‘Hannah’s Choice’, ‘Murphy’, and ‘Weymouth’, was d...

112

Flowering in Xanthium strumarium  

PubMed Central

Vegetative plants of Xanthium strumarium L. grown in long days were induced to flower by exposure to one or several 16-hour dark periods. The distribution of male and female inflorescences on the flowering shoot was described, and a scoring system was designed to assess the development of the female inflorescences. The time of movement of the floral stimulus out of the induced leaf and the timing of action of high temperature were shown to be similar for both the apical male and lateral female inflorescences. Strong photoperiodic induction of the plants favored female sex expression, while maleness was enhanced by exogenous gibberellic acid. The problem of the control of sex expression in Xanthium is discussed in relation to the distribution pattern of male and female inflorescences on the flowering shoot and to the state of the meristem at the time of the arrival of the floral stimulus. Images

Leonard, Maggy; Kinet, Jean-Marie; Bodson, Monique; Havelange, Andree; Jacqmard, Annie; Bernier, Georges

1981-01-01

113

Consumer preferences for color combinations: An empirical analysis of similarity-based color relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we examine aesthetic color combinations in a realistic product self-design task using the NIKEiD online configurator. We develop a similarity-based model of color relationships and empirically model the choice likelihoods of color pairs as a function of the distances between colors in the CIELAB color space. Our empirical analysis reveals three key findings. First, people de-emphasize lightness

Xiaoyan Deng; Sam K. Hui; J. Wesley Hutchinson

2010-01-01

114

8.G Flower Vases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: My sister�s birthday is in a few weeks and I would like to buy her a new vase to keep fresh flowers in her house. She often forgets to water her flower...

115

Production of red-flowered plants by genetic engineering of multiple flavonoid biosynthetic genes.  

PubMed

Orange- to red-colored flowers are difficult to produce by conventional breeding techniques in some floricultural plants. This is due to the deficiency in the formation of pelargonidin, which confers orange to red colors, in their flowers. Previous researchers have reported that brick-red colored flowers can be produced by introducing a foreign dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) with different substrate specificity in Petunia hybrida, which does not accumulate pelargonidin pigments naturally. However, because these experiments used dihydrokaempferol (DHK)-accumulated mutants as transformation hosts, this strategy cannot be applied directly to other floricultural plants. Thus in this study, we attempted to produce red-flowered plants by suppressing two endogenous genes and expressing one foreign gene using tobacco as a model plant. We used a chimeric RNAi construct for suppression of two genes (flavonol synthase [FLS] and flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase [F3'H]) and expression of the gerbera DFR gene in order to accumulate pelargonidin pigments in tobacco flowers. We successfully produced red-flowered tobacco plants containing high amounts of additional pelargonidin as confirmed by HPLC analysis. The flavonol content was reduced in the transgenic plants as expected, although complete inhibition was not achieved. Expression analysis also showed that reduction of the two-targeted genes and expression of the foreign gene occurred simultaneously. These results demonstrate that flower color modification can be achieved by multiple gene regulation without use of mutants if the vector constructs are designed resourcefully. PMID:17639403

Nakatsuka, Takashi; Abe, Yoshiko; Kakizaki, Yuko; Yamamura, Saburo; Nishihara, Masahiro

2007-07-17

116

Introducing Fractions Slideshow- Flowering Fractions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online resource is a story of a girl and her father planting flowers that your children and you interact with. Help them fill in the fractions as they practice dividing the garden up for their flowers!

Center, Beacon L.

2011-10-24

117

Bees and Flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

As there is a prevailing idea that bees prefer red and blue to other colours, the following observations on their habits may be of interest:-The common hive bees were very busy among the flowers in the garden this morning. Those most frequented were yellow crocus, snowdrop, and Christmas rose. Next in order, winter aconite, yellow jessamine, and blue scilla. On

G. W. Bulman

1885-01-01

118

Flowering Behaviour of Vanilla  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE vines of Vanilla planifolia Andrews will climb to heights of 60 ft. or more, if provided with a sufficiently tall support plant. The vine must therefore be trained to a height convenient for pollination and harvesting in the commercial production of vanilla. The prevention of the natural tendency to climb is thought to enhance the production of flowers1. It

James E. Irvine; Norman E. Delfel

1961-01-01

119

Flowers of Wisteria floribunda  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Flowers of Wisteria floribunda, a well-known ornamental plant from East Asia. Wisteria has been placed in the predominantly tropical tribe Millettieae by its morphological similarities. However, molecular evidence suggests that Wisteria and a tropical genus Callerya are closer to many temperate herbaceous legumes but not to other Millettieae members.

Jer-Ming Hu (University of California;Section of Evolution and Ecology ADR;POSTAL)

2004-03-09

120

Color realism and color science.  

PubMed

The target article is an attempt to make some progress on the problem of color realism. Are objects colored? And what is the nature of the color properties? We defend the view that physical objects (for instance, tomatoes, radishes, and rubies) are colored, and that colors are physical properties, specifically, types of reflectance. This is probably a minority opinion, at least among color scientists. Textbooks frequently claim that physical objects are not colored, and that the colors are "subjective" or "in the mind." The article has two other purposes: First, to introduce an interdisciplinary audience to some distinctively philosophical tools that are useful in tackling the problem of color realism and, second, to clarify the various positions and central arguments in the debate. The first part explains the problem of color realism and makes some useful distinctions. These distinctions are then used to expose various confusions that often prevent people from seeing that the issues are genuine and difficult, and that the problem of color realism ought to be of interest to anyone working in the field of color science. The second part explains the various leading answers to the problem of color realism, and (briefly) argues that all views other than our own have serious difficulties or are unmotivated. The third part explains and motivates our own view, that colors are types of reflectances and defends it against objections made in the recent literature that are often taken as fatal. PMID:14598439

Byrne, Alex; Hilbert, David R

2003-02-01

121

The effect of experience on mate choice in the Trinidad guppy, Poecilia reticulata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis  Two experients were conducted to determine the effect of male color phenotype present during development on the mate choice\\u000a of adult female guppies. Females were raised with either a colorful male, non-colorful male, or no male, and then measured\\u000a for choice of a colorful or non-colorful male in a two-stimulus visual choice test. In the first experiment, adult females\\u000a were

Felix Breden; Doug Novinger; Alex Schubert

1995-01-01

122

The Color of Children’s Gender Stereotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the impact of gender and gender-related color stereotypes, 98 Israeli preschoolers and 3rd graders chose between\\u000a booklets mismatched in the stereotypicality of color (pink vs. blue) versus illustration (Batman vs. Bratz) and subsequently\\u000a colored gender-stereotyped versus gender-neutral illustrations with male and female-stereotyped color crayons. Color was ignored\\u000a in booklet choice. More colors were used for figures stereotypically associated

Rachel Karniol

2011-01-01

123

Choice Probabilities and Choice Functions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although there are sizable literatures on the connections between choice probabilities and preference relations, and between preference relations and choice functions, little has been done--apart from their common ties to preference relations--to connect ...

P. C. Fishburn

1978-01-01

124

Estimation and comparison of flowering curves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Many researchers have simply recorded first flowering dates, while others have recorded the full extent of flowering. Such flowering curves show the rate of increase and decrease in flowering, as well as the day on which flowering is a maximum.Aim: To develop objective statistical methods for the estimation and comparison of flowering curves, with particular emphasis on the date

Robert M. Clark; Roy Thompson

2011-01-01

125

Seeing Color  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Colors are powerful tools for engaging children, from the youngest years onward. We hang brightly patterned mobiles above their cribs and help them learn the names of colors as they begin to record their own ideas in pictures and words. Colors can also open the door to an invisible world of electromagnetism, even when children can barely imagine…

Texley, Juliana

2005-01-01

126

Seeing Color  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colors are powerful tools for engaging children, from the youngest years onward. We hang brightly patterned mobiles above their cribs and help them learn the names of colors as they begin to record their own ideas in pictures and words. Colors can also open the door to an invisible world of electromagnetism, even when children can barely imagine…

Texley, Juliana

2005-01-01

127

Perfect Colorings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A problem that arises when the segmentation of a file in a network is considered without redundancy is studied. This problem translates to a graph coloring problem: k colorability. Several basic results for perfectly k colorable graphs are proved. It is s...

E. M. Bakker J. Vanleeuwen R. B. Tan

1990-01-01

128

Effective Coloration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are concerned here with recursive function theory analogs of certain problems in chromatic graph theory. The motivating question for our work is: Does there exist a recursive (countably infinite) planar graph with no recursive 4-coloring? We obtain the following results: There is a 3-colorable, recursive planar graph which, for all $k$, has no recursive $k$-coloring; every decidable graph of

Dwight R. Bean

1976-01-01

129

Inflorescence with Flowers of Purple Loosestrife, Lythrum salicaria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Inflorescence with flowers of purple loosestrife, Lythrum salicaria (left panel). Depending on the relative length of styles with respect to stamens within flowers, individuals are categorized into three floral morphs. The three floral morphs also differ in size and shape of stigmas (right panel). Stigmas (top–long morph, middle–mid morph, and bottom–short morph, in the right panel; bar = 200 µm) are digitally false-colored computer-enhanced images from scanning electron micrographs. Photo credit: M. Biernacki, T. K. Mal, R. J. Williams, and The Camera Shop, Broomall, Pennsylvania.

2004-03-09

130

Color distance derived from a receptor model of color vision in the honeybee  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model calculation is presented for investigating the domain between the two well-examined fields of color vision in the bee, i.e. choice behavior with respect to color stimuli, and photoreceptor physiology. Based on the properties of the receptors, the model explains quantitatively the results obtained in color discrimination experiments. The model predicts curved lines which connect the loci of most

W. Backhaus; R. Menzel

1987-01-01

131

Color Quiz  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Please take this Quiz. It is not that hard. Remember If you understand color, you will be able to use color in your artwork more effectively. For your Quiz please answer the 18 questions below. Here are some sites you have already seen that will help you answer the questions. Color Theory Color Vocabulary Wikipedia color theory You may write your answers down on a piece of paper or you can type the answers up. Make sure name, period, and date are on assignment ...

Freeman, Ms.

2006-02-14

132

Color Quiz  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Please take this Quiz. It is not that hard. Remember If you understand color, you will be able to use color in your artwork more effectively. For your Quiz please answer the 18 questions below. Here are some sites you have already seen that will help you answer the questions. Color Theory Color Vocabulary Wikipedia color theory You may write your answers down on a piece of paper or you can type the answers up. Make sure name, period, and date are on assignment ...

Jolene

2008-09-29

133

Location and Color Learning in Bumblebees in a Two-Phase Conditioning Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bees use spatial and visual cues that characterize flowers to make dietary choices. If two such cues always appear together nonambiguously, they provide identical information. In such cases, do bees base dietary choices on one cue and ignore the other, or do they consider both cues? We allowed bumblebees to forage on two patches of artificial flowers that differed in

Muriel Ney-Nifle; Tamar Keasar; Avi Shmida

2001-01-01

134

Color Terms and Color Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In their lead articles, both Kowalski and Zimiles (2006) and O'Hanlon and Roberson (2006) declare a general relation between color term knowledge and the ability to conceptually represent color. Kowalski and Zimiles, in particular, argue for a priority for the conceptual representation in color term acquisition. The complexities of the interaction…

Davidoff, Jules

2006-01-01

135

Color terms and color concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In their lead articles, both Kowalski and Zimiles (2006) and O’Hanlon and Roberson (2006) declare a general relation between color term knowledge and the ability to conceptually represent color. Kowalski and Zimiles, in particular, argue for a priority for the conceptual representation in color term acquisition. The complexities of the interaction are taken up in the current commentary, especially with

Jules Davidoff

2006-01-01

136

Color Categories and Color Appearance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…

Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

2012-01-01

137

Flowering in Bougainvillea  

PubMed Central

Reproductive development, whether expressed as first node to flower or numbers of inflorescences developing, is promoted in direct relationship to leaf area and in inverse relationship to the numbers of axillary branches developing. Per cent soluble solids in the reproductive shoots vary with reproductive development. Cytokinin treatments promote inflorescence development and per cent soluble solids, further supporting a nutritional hypothesis in the control of flowering in Bougainvillea “San Diego Red.” Gibberellin treatments inhibit reproductive development completely without significant lowering of per cent soluble solids, which is counter to expectations for a nutritional hypothesis. A closer examination of the reproductive axes, the tissues in which morphogenetic change occurs, must be made for the gibberellin-treated tissues.

Ramina, Angelo; Hackett, Wesley P.; Sachs, Roy M.

1979-01-01

138

How flowers catch raindrops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several species of plants have raindrop-sized flowers that catch raindrops opportunistically in order to spread their 0.3-mm seeds distances of over 1 m. In the following fluid dynamics video, we show examples of these plants and some of the high speed videography used to visualize the splash dynamics responsible for raindrop-driven seed dispersal. Experiments were conducted on shape mimics of

Guillermo Amador; Yasukuni Yamada; David Hu

2011-01-01

139

Analysis of the flower pigments of some Delphinium species and their interspecific hybrids produced via ovule culture 1 See also \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anthocyanin composition in flowers of the interspecific hybrid plants, Delphinium cardinale Hook. × D. grandiflorum L. and D. grandiflorum × D. nudicaule Torr. and A. Gray, which have almost intermediate flower colors of both parents, were examined. Analysis of the anthocyanidin by thin layer chromatography (TLC) revealed that the component of anthocyanidin of these hybrids was only delphinidin, with

Kazushige Honda; Kiyoshi Tsutsui; Keizo Hosokawa

1999-01-01

140

Uninformed choice.  

PubMed

The United Kingdom recently reformed its health service to promote consumer choice of a provider. The authors investigate the evaluative strategies patients use for their present primary care provider as a precursor to determining future choice criteria. However, this information has only limited value since health care providers still cannot market their services. The policy changes have introduced structural reforms but are not addressing some of the practical constraints to choice in this market. PMID:10138733

Gabbott, M; Hogg, G

1994-01-01

141

Processing of Color Words Activates Color Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether color representations are routinely activated when color words are processed. Congruency effects of colors and color words were observed in both directions. Lexical decisions on color words were faster when preceding colors matched the color named by the word. Color-discrimination responses…

Richter, Tobias; Zwaan, Rolf A.

2009-01-01

142

Processing of Color Words Activates Color Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether color representations are routinely activated when color words are processed. Congruency effects of colors and color words were observed in both directions. Lexical decisions on color words were faster when preceding colors matched the color named by the word. Color-discrimination responses…

Richter, Tobias; Zwaan, Rolf A.

2009-01-01

143

Color categories and color appearance  

PubMed Central

We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue–green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary were perceptually exaggerated. This task did not require overt judgments of the perceived colors, and the tendency to group showed only a weak and inconsistent categorical bias. In a second case, we analyzed results from two prior studies of hue scaling of chromatic stimuli (De Valois, De Valois, Switkes, & Mahon, 1997; Malkoc, Kay, & Webster, 2005), to test whether color appearance changed more rapidly around the blue–green boundary. In this task observers directly judge the perceived color of the stimuli and these judgments tended to show much stronger categorical effects. The differences between these tasks could arise either because different signals mediate color grouping and color appearance, or because linguistic categories might differentially intrude on the response to color and/or on the perception of color. Our results suggest that the interaction between language and color processing may be highly dependent on the specific task and cognitive demands and strategies of the observer, and also highlight pronounced individual differences in the tendency to exhibit categorical responses.

Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

2011-01-01

144

Modeling human color categorization: color discrimination and color memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color matching in Content-Based Image Retrieval is done using a color space and measuring distances between colors. Such an approach yields non-intuitive results for the user. We introduce color categories (or focal colors), determine that they are valid, and use them in two experiments. The experiments conducted prove the difference between color categorization by the cognitive processes color discrimination and

E. L. van den Broek; E. M. van Rikxoort; M. J. H. Puts; L. G. Vuurpijl; T. Heskes; P. Lucas; W. Wiegerinck

2003-01-01

145

Evidence for an evolutionarily conserved interaction between cell wall biosynthesis and flowering in maize and sorghum  

PubMed Central

Background Factors that affect flowering vary among different plant species, and in the grasses in particular the exact mechanism behind this transition is not fully understood. The brown midrib (bm) mutants of maize (Zea mays L.), which have altered cell wall composition, have different flowering dynamics compared to their wild-type counterparts. This is indicative of a link between cell wall biogenesis and flowering. In order to test whether this relationship also exists in other grasses, the flowering dynamics in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) were investigated. Sorghum is evolutionarily closely related to maize, and a set of brown midrib (bmr) mutants similar to the maize bm mutants is available, making sorghum a suitable choice for study in this context. Results We compared the flowering time (time to half-bloom) of several different bmr sorghum lines and their wild-type counterparts. This revealed that the relationship between cell wall composition and flowering was conserved in sorghum. Specifically, the mutant bmr7 flowered significantly earlier than the corresponding wild-type control, whereas the mutants bmr2, bmr4, bmr6, bmr12, and bmr19 flowered later than their wild-type controls. Conclusion The change in flowering dynamics in several of the brown midrib sorghum lines provides evidence for an evolutionarily conserved mechanism that links cell wall biosynthesis to flowering dynamics. The availability of the sorghum bmr mutants expands the germplasm available to investigate this relationship in further detail.

Vermerris, Wilfred; Thompson, Karen J; McIntyre, Lauren M; Axtell, John D

2002-01-01

146

Coloring Remainders in Pascal's Triangle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet activity allows students to visually identify more number patterns in Pascal's Triangle by coloring numbers that have the same remainder when divided by the number rolled, thereby practicing division and remainders. A learner rolls a random number, which can be from 1 to the number of rows of the triangle, or enters his/her own choice. There is an auto-color button that will automatically color the correct entries and the number of rows of Pascal's triangle can be increased or decreased. Separate tabs to access information for the learner, the instructor and to seek help are provided.

2004-01-01

147

Color Lines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching about color and value scales emphasizes a systematic approach to the effects of color and may reinforce assumptions rooted in racism. Describes how an 8th grade art class challenged the symbolism of black as evil and white as good. By showing that this is a culturally constructed meaning, art teachers model that such meaning can also be…

Gude, Olivia

2001-01-01

148

Color management.  

PubMed

In summary, color psychology is one of the most important, but most often neglected, forces in enhancing the image and profitability of the hospital gift shop. While many hospital gift shops may be updated and beautified with the purchase of costly equipment and the hiring of expensive design consultants, the effective use of color may be all that is necessary to change the shop atmosphere. In addition, color is extremely inexpensive and flexible; it can be changed easily, in lieu of moving heavy displays and fixtures, rewiring, or remodeling. Finally, color is powerful. In an age of intense competition and rapidly expanding technology, color is one design tool that can make a difference. PMID:10284566

Caudill, D W

1987-11-01

149

It's time to flower: the genetic control of flowering time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In plants, successful sexual reproduction and the ensu- ing development of seeds and fruits depend on flowering at the right time. This involves coordinating flowering with the appropriate season and with the developmental historyoftheplant.Geneticandmolecular analysisinthe small cruciform weed, Arabidopsis, has revealed distinct butlinkedpathwaysthatareresponsiblefordetectingthe major seasonal cues of day length and cold temperature, as well as other local environmental and

Jo Putterill; Rebecca Laurie; Richard Macknight

2004-01-01

150

Early Flower Development in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early development of the flower of Arabidopsis thaliana is described from initiation until the opening of the bud. The morphogenesis, growth rate, and surface structure of floral organs were recorded in detail using scanning electron microscopy. Flower development has been divided into 12 stages using a series of landmark events. Stage 1 begins with the initiation of a floral

David R. Smyth; John L. Bowman; Elliot M. Meyerowitz

1990-01-01

151

On the Function of Flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most flowers are bisexual in function, but counting secondary allocation to attractive structures such as the corolla as equally male and female leads to the paradoxical conclusion that plants bearing perfect flowers invariably allocate much more to female than to male function. A method of calculating the gender of secondary floral allocation is described, and it is speculated that this

G. Bell

1985-01-01

152

Stop and Paint the Flowers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an art lesson where students used watercolors to paint a flower bouquet arranged in a vase. Explains that the students viewed examples of flower bouquets by artists such as Vincent van Gogh and Odilon Redon. Discusses, in detail, the process of creating the artworks. (CMK)

Phillips, Shelley

2002-01-01

153

Color Sudoku  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The popular sudoku puzzles use numbers, but the game could played with any set of 9 different objects! In this activity (on pages 56-75 of PDF), learners use objects of different colors (marbles, paper squares, candies) to solve sudoku puzzles. Learners use logic to determine where all the colored objects go, given the different colors already present on the puzzles. The activity includes suggestions for how to approach the game, 10 puzzles of varying size and difficulty, and links to websites with many more puzzles.

Omsi

2008-01-01

154

Color Theory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site, developed by the Exploratories Project at Brown University, provides a series of applets to help users understand the various concepts in Color Theory. In the combined Color Mixing applet, undergraduate and high school students can discover how lights, paints, and filters interact. Users can learn about the properties of incoming light, frequency, and reflectance. The site also provides activities for metamers, Triple Cell Response, and much more. Anyone seeking help with color concepts will benefit from this educational, interactive Web site.

155

Changing Colors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this challenge, learners have to figure out in what order to combine five solutions to change the color from clear, to yellow, to blue, and back to clear. The five chemicals are potassium iodide, sodium thiosulfate, sodium hypochlorite (Clorox bleach), soluble starch (Niagara spray starch), and water. The color changes indicate chemical reactions, and the lesson includes some background information about the reactions that create different colors. Suggestions are given for guiding learners through systematic approaches to making the different combinations and observing the results, and for explaining to different age groups what happens when the solutions are combined.

Sciencenter

2012-06-26

156

Insect odour perception: recognition of odour components by flower foraging moths  

PubMed Central

Odours emitted by flowers are complex blends of volatile compounds. These odours are learnt by flower-visiting insect species, improving their recognition of rewarding flowers and thus foraging efficiency. We investigated the flexibility of floral odour learning by testing whether adult moths recognize single compounds common to flowers on which they forage. Dual choice preference tests on Helicoverpa armigera moths allowed free flying moths to forage on one of three flower species; Argyranthemum frutescens (federation daisy), Cajanus cajan (pigeonpea) or Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). Results showed that, (i) a benzenoid (phenylacetaldehyde) and a monoterpene (linalool) were subsequently recognized after visits to flowers that emitted these volatile constituents, (ii) in a preference test, other monoterpenes in the flowers' odour did not affect the moths' ability to recognize the monoterpene linalool and (iii) relative preferences for two volatiles changed after foraging experience on a single flower species that emitted both volatiles. The importance of using free flying insects and real flowers to understand the mechanisms involved in floral odour learning in nature are discussed in the context of our findings.

Cunningham, John Paul; Moore, Chris J; Zalucki, Myron P; Cribb, Bronwen W

2006-01-01

157

SPL Color  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Color Keyword Names in the Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) 1.1 Specification recommended by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) on ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess/formssubmissionrequirements

158

Color appearance in stereoscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between color and lightness appearance and the perception of depth has been studied since a while in the field of perceptual psychology and psycho-physiology. It has been found that depth perception affects the final object color and lightness appearance. In the stereoscopy research field, many studies have been proposed on human physiological effects, considering e.g. geometry, motion sickness, etc., but few has been done considering lightness and color information. Goal of this paper is to realize some preliminar experiments in Virtual Reality in order to determine the effects of depth perception on object color and lightness appearance. We have created a virtual test scene with a simple 3D simultaneous contrast configuration. We have created three different versions of this scene, each with different choices of relative positions and apparent size of the objects. We have collected the perceptual responses of several users after the observation of the test scene in the Virtual Theater of the University of Milan, a VR immersive installation characterized by a semi-cylindrical screen that covers 120° of horizontal field of view from an observation distance of 3.5 m. We present a description of the experiments setup and procedure, and we discuss the obtained results.

Gadia, Davide; Rizzi, Alessandro; Bonanomi, Cristian; Marini, Daniele; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

2011-02-01

159

Colored Coalescent Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a colored coalescent process which recovers random colored genealogical trees. Here a colored genealogical tree has its vertices colored black or white. Moving backward along the colored genealogical tree, the color of vertices may change only when two vertice coalesce. The rule that governs the change of color involves a parameter $x$. When $x=1\\/2$, the colored coalescent process

Jianjun Tian; Xiao-Song Lin

2004-01-01

160

Interorgan Translocation of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid and Ethylene Coordinates Senescence in Emasculated Cymbidium Flowers  

PubMed Central

In Cymbidium flowers, emasculation by removal of the pollinia and the anther cap leads within 24 hours to red coloration of the labellum (lip). Lip coloration, being the first sign of senescence in these flowers, has been ascribed to the action of ethylene in the lip. When a small incision in the base of the lip is made prior to emasculation, or when the lip is excised and placed in water within 10 to 15 hours after emasculation, coloration is considerably delayed. This indicates that a coloration-associated factor is moving in or out of the lip. Measurements of ethylene production of excised flower parts, isolated at different times after emasculation, showed an increase only in the central column; the other flower parts, including the lip, did not show a measurable change. In contrast, in situ measurements of the ethylene production of the central column and the remaining portion of the flower revealed a simultaneous increase in all the flower parts following emasculation. Similarly, application of radiolabeled 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) to the top of the central column in situ leads to the production of radiolabeled ethylene by all the flower parts. In addition, the ethylene production of isolated lips, measured immediately after excision, was initially high but ceased within 10 to 15 minutes. Treatment of the central column in situ with ethylene or ethephon did not stimulate ACC production but did stimulate lip coloration and this was accompanied by an increased internal ethylene concentration in the lip. The data indicate that endogenously produced as well as applied ACC is rapidly translocated from the site of production or application to all the other flower parts where it is immediately converted into ethylene. By excision of a flower organ, the influx of ACC is prevented, causing a rapid decrease in ethylene production. In addition, it was found that ethylene may also be translocated in physiologically significant amounts within the flower. The roles of ACC and ethylene as mobile senescence or wilting factors in emasculation- and pollination-induced senescence is discussed.

Woltering, Ernst J.

1990-01-01

161

Housing Affordability for Households of Color in Massachusetts  

Microsoft Academic Search

While housing is deeply significant for all of us, in our society it tends to pose particular challenges to many, if not most, people of color. For one thing, households of color continue to have considerably lower incomes, on average, than White-headed households. This means that households of color can, on average, afford less and therefore have fewer housing choices

Michael E. Stone

2006-01-01

162

Choice Matters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how the author allows the children to make choices about their art and writing, enabling them to make connections between their own lives and work. Suggests that educators need to provide doorways to the things that give students ideas: books, music, objects, pictures, smells, sounds, and textures. (SG)

Hicks, Darcy

2001-01-01

163

Uniform color illumination for scrolling color LCoS projection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Projection based on the scrolling color single panel reflective liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) architecture developed within Philips is set to become a competitive technology for high definition rear projection television. The colorimetry of the scrolling color illumination light engine is examined in this paper including the design issues considered in specifying dichroic color filters for uniform color illumination. The scrolling action can be achieved with rotating glass prisms (one for each primary color), which combined with the requirement for compact illumination optics can lead to beamsteering at some of the dichroic filters in the light path. This beamsteering can cause unacceptable color changes of the illuminating stripes as they are scrolled from the top to the bottom of the LCoS panel unless special attention is made to the choice of filter cut-off wavelengths and their sensitivity to angle of incidence variations. One solution involves the design of new dichroic filters that are relatively insensitive to these beamsteering effects. Filters have been designed and fabricated with edge sensitivities < 0.9 nm/deg compared with typical sensitivities of ~ 1.4nm/deg from standard filters; the filter specifications and their system performance will be described. Further system solutions are given that utilize conventional angle-sensitive dichroic filters. The effect of color balancing upon the optical efficiency of the system will also be described.

Anderson, Duncan J.

2002-04-01

164

Effects of ball size, ball color, and preferred color on catching by young children.  

PubMed

45 males and 45 females between 7 and 8 years of age were acquired to catch rubber playground balls which varied in both size and color. Prior to the administration of the criterion catch test, subjects indicated their choice for a preferred color ball. Analysis indicated that the 6-in. balls (diameter) were caught significantly better than were 10-in. balls. Although the main effect of ball color was nonsignificant, the children caught balls of preferred color significantly better than those of non-preferred colors. Males scored significantly higher than the females on the catching task. PMID:7443379

Isaacs, L D

1980-10-01

165

Colorful Mathematics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Funded by Industry Canada's SchoolNet initiative with the cooperation of the Canadian Mathematical Society, Colorful Mathematics takes a game-oriented approach to teaching K-12 mathematics. The project has developed five coloring games that teach children about problem solving, and pattern identification, which "are all at the very heart of mathematics." The coloring approach makes difficult graph concepts "that are still the subject of active research by mathematicians, computer scientists and industry researchers" more accessible to children. The software program, which is available for free from this website, is set up to check for mistakes and challenge students to improve on their results. A Teacher's Corner section gives an overview of the games, "some sample questions for discussion with the curious student," and an overview of terminology used in the software program. The website is also available in French.

166

How long should flowers live?  

Microsoft Academic Search

FLORAL longevity, the length of time a flower remains open and functional, varies among plant species. Flowers of some species live less than one day (morning glory), whereas others live for several weeks (orchids)1-3. By viewing floral longevity as a resource allocation strategy2,4, we now incorporate the study of its evolution into the well developed theoretical framework provided by evolu-tionarily

Tia-Lynn Ashman; Daniel J. Schoen

1994-01-01

167

Harmonious colors: from alchemy to science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a very long tradition in designing color palettes for various applications, going back to at least the Upanishad. Although color palettes have been influenced by the available colorants, starting with the advent of aniline dyes in the late 1850s there have been few physical limits on the choice of individual colors. This abundance of choices exacerbates the problem of limiting the number of colors in a palette, i.e., in keeping them into a manageable quantity. For example, it is not practical for a car company to offer each model in hundreds of colors. Instead, for each model year a small number of color palettes is offered, each containing the colors for the body, trim, interior, etc. Another example is the fashion industry, where in addition to solid colors there are also patterns, leading to a huge variety of combinations that would be impossible to stock. The traditional solution is that of "color forecasting." Color consultants assess the sentiment or affective state of a target customer class and compare it with new colorants offered by the industry. They assemble a limited color palette, name the colors according to the sentiment, and publish their result. Textile manufacturers will produce fabrics in these colors and fashion designers will design clothes, accessories, and furniture based on these fabrics. Eventually, the media will communicate these forecasts to the consumers, who will be admired by their cohorts when they choose colors from the forecast palette, which by then is widely diffused. The color forecasting business is very labor intensive and difficult, thus for years computer engineers have tried to come up with algorithms to design harmonious color palettes, alas with little commercial success. For example, Johannes Itten's color theory has been implemented many times, but despite Itten's success in the Bauhaus artifacts, the computer tools have been of little utility. Indeed, contrary to the auditory sense, there is no known physiological mechanism sustaining harmony and the term "harmonious" just has the informal meaning of "going well together." We argue that the intellectual flaw resides in the belief that a masterful individual can devise a "perfect methodology" that the engineer can then reduce to practice in a computer program. We suggest that the correct approach is to consider color forecasting as an act of distillation, where a palette is digested from the sentiment of a very large number of people. We describe how this approach can be reduced to an algorithm by replacing the subjective process with a data analytic process.

Beretta, Giordano B.; Moroney, Nathan M.

2012-01-01

168

Color Sense  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reports a study conducted by members of the WellU Academic Integration Subcommittee of The College of St. Scholastica's College's Healthy Campus Initiative plan whose purpose was to determine whether changing color in the classroom could have a measurable effect on students. One simple improvement a school can make in a classroom is…

Johnson, Heidi S. S.; Maki, Jennifer A.

2009-01-01

169

Feather Coloration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners make observations, formulate a hypothesis and draw conclusions based on a simple experiment about feather coloration. For this test, learners will compare a peacock feather and a pheasant feather. Background information contains explanation of pigment feathers and structural feathers. This lesson plan includes questions to ask learners and online resources.

Houston, Children'S M.

2013-05-15

170

Color Sense  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports a study conducted by members of the WellU Academic Integration Subcommittee of The College of St. Scholastica's College's Healthy Campus Initiative plan whose purpose was to determine whether changing color in the classroom could have a measurable effect on students. One simple improvement a school can make in a classroom is…

Johnson, Heidi S. S.; Maki, Jennifer A.

2009-01-01

171

Colorful television  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What are the challenges and rewards for American men and women of color who chose to become scientists? The Public Broadcasting Service intends to show us through an upcoming 6-hour documentary series entitled “Breakthrough: The Changing Face of Science in America.”

Carlowicz, Michael

172

Colorful Accounting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As instructors of accounting, we should take an abstract topic (at least to most students) and connect it to content known by students to help increase the effectiveness of our instruction. In a recent semester, ordinary items such as colors, a basketball, and baseball were used to relate the subject of accounting. The accounting topics of…

Warrick, C. Shane

2006-01-01

173

Examining Colors, Color Perception, and Sight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students of all ages are fascinated by color and how we perceive it. For the main activity in this chapter, your class explores colors and visual perception by mixing colors in several ways. Students learn more about colors, light, vision, and color compo

Eichinger, John

2009-05-15

174

POLYGALA MYRTIFOLIA 'CHAPMAN FIELD', AN EVER-BLOOMING SUBTROPICAL FLOWERING SHRUB  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Polygala myrtifolia, Cape milkwort, is a showy evergreen shrub that ranges throughout South Africa in both winter and summer rainfall areas, occurring in diverse vegetation types and on many different soils. Flower color, mostly shades of purple, can also range from pink to white. It reaches a heigh...

175

Color magnetic flux tubes in dense QCD  

SciTech Connect

QCD is expected to be in the color-flavor locking phase in high baryon density, which exhibits color superconductivity. The most fundamental topological objects in the color superconductor are non-Abelian vortices which are topologically stable color magnetic flux tubes. We present numerical solutions of the color magnetic flux tube for diverse choices of the coupling constants based on the Ginzburg-Landau Lagrangian. We also analytically study its asymptotic profiles and find that they are different from the case of usual superconductors. We propose the width of color magnetic fluxes and find that it is larger than naive expectation of the Compton wavelength of the massive gluon when the gluon mass is larger than the scalar mass.

Eto, Minoru [Theoretical Physics Laboratory, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Nitta, Muneto [Department of Physics, and Research and Education Center for Natural Sciences, Keio University, 4-1-1 Hiyoshi, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8521 (Japan)

2009-12-15

176

Anatomical and biochemical studies of bicolored flower development in Muscari latifolium.  

PubMed

The inflorescence of the broad-leafed grape hyacinth, Muscari latifolium, shows an interesting, two-tone appearance with the upper flowers being pale blue and the lower ones purple. To elucidate the mechanism of the differential color development, anatomical research was carried out and a cytological study of the colored protoplasts in which the shapes of the cells accumulating anthocyanin were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Next, vacuolar pH was recorded using a pH meter with a micro combination pH electrode, and the sap's metal-ion content was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The anthocyanin and co-pigment composition was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Chemical analyses reveal that the difference in metal-ion content of the two parts was not great. The vacuolar pHs of the upper and lower flowers were 5.91 and 5.84, respectively, with the difference being nonsignificant. HPLC results indicate that the dihydroflavonol and flavonol contents are also very similar in the two sorts of flower. However, the upper flowers contained only delphinidin, whereas the lower flowers also contained cyanidin. The total anthocyanin content in the lower flowers was 4.36 mg g(-1), which is approximately seven times higher than in the upper flowers, while the delphinidin content is four times higher. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis established that the two-tone flower was a result of different expressions of the F3'5'H, F3'H and DFR genes, and these lead to different amounts of anthocyanin. PMID:23677687

Qi, Yinyan; Lou, Qian; Li, Huibo; Yue, Juan; Liu, Yali; Wang, Yuejin

2013-05-16

177

Synchronous Pulsed Flowering: Analysis of the Flowering Phenology in Juncus (Juncaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The timing of flowering within and among individuals is of fundamental biological importance because of its influence on total seed production and, ultimately, fitness. Traditional descriptive parameters of flowering phenology focus on onset and duration of flowering and on synchrony among individuals. These parameters do not adequately account for variability in flowering across the flowering duration at individual and population level. This study aims to analyse the flowering phenology of wind-pollinated Juncus species that has been described as temporally highly variable (‘pulsed flowering’). Additionally, an attempt is made to identify proximate environmental factors that may cue the flowering, and ultimate causes for the flowering patterns are discussed. Methods Flowering phenology was examined in populations of nine Juncus species by estimating flowering synchrony and by using the coefficient of variation (CV) to describe the temporal variation in flowering on individual and population levels. Phenologies were compared with null models to test which patterns deviate from random flowering. All parameters assessed were compared with each other and the performance of the parameters in response to randomization and varying synchrony was evaluated using a model population. Flowering patterns were correlated with temperature and humidity. Key Results Most flowering patterns of Juncus were best described as synchronous pulsed flowering, characterized as population-wide concerted flowering events separated by days with no or few open flowers. Flowering synchrony and variability differed from a random pattern in most cases. CV values in combination with a measure of synchrony differentiated among flowering patterns found. Synchrony varied among species and was independent from variability in flowering. Neither temperature nor humidity could be determined as potential cues for the flowering pulses. Conclusions The results indicate that selection may act independently on synchrony and variability. We propose that synchronous pulsed flowering in Juncus is an evolved strategy that provides selective benefits by increasing outcrossing and by spreading the risk of reproductive failure.

Michalski, Stefan G.; Durka, Walter

2007-01-01

178

Color Television and Colorimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high lights of the history of color measurement and of color photography are reviewed. Following this introduction, the principles of modern 3-color colorimetry are developed from a hypothetical experiment in color matching. The conventional theory of \\

W. T. Wintringham

1951-01-01

179

Color space conversion for linear color grading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Color grading is an important process for various industries such as food processing, fruit and vegetable grading, etc. Quality and price are often determined by the color of product. For example, darker red color for apples means higher price. In color machine vision applications, image is acquired with a color CCD camera that outputs color information in three channels, red, gree, and blue. When grading color, these three primary colors must be processed to determine the color level for separation. A very popular color space conversion technique for color image processing is RGB-to-HSI, where HSI represents hue, saturation, and intensity, respectively. However, the conversion result is still 3D information that makes determining color grades very difficult. A new color space conversion technique that can be implemented for high-speed real-time processing for color grading is introduced in this paper. Depending on the application, different color space conversion equations must be used. The result of this technique is a simple one-dimensional array that represents different color levels. This linear array makes linear color grading adjustment possible.

Lee, Dah Jye

2000-10-01

180

Symmetry is in the eye of the `beeholder': innate preference for bilateral symmetry in flower-naďve bumblebees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bilateral symmetry has been considered as an indicator of phenotypic and genotypic quality supporting innate preferences for highly symmetric partners. Insect pollinators preferentially visit flowers of a particular symmetry type, thus leading to the suggestion that they have innate preferences for symmetrical flowers or flower models. Here we show that flower-naďve bumblebees (Bombus terrestris), with no experience of symmetric or asymmetric patterns and whose visual experience was accurately controlled, have innate preferences for bilateral symmetry. The presence of color cues did not influence the bees' original preference. Our results thus show that bilateral symmetry is innately preferred in the context of food search, a fact that supports the selection of symmetry in flower displays. Furthermore, such innate preferences indicate that the nervous system of naďve animals may be primed to respond to relevant sensory cues in the environment.

Rodríguez, Ivana; Gumbert, Andreas; Hempel de Ibarra, Natalie; Kunze, Jan; Giurfa, Martin

181

Shape Vision in Bees: Innate Preference for Flower-Like Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bees' spontaneous preferences toward various black-and-white patterns were studied using a multiple-choice test procedure. The patterns are presented on vertical planes, and the bees' choices at a fixed distance from the patterns are recorded. To exclude a possible influence of the bees' previous experience with natural flowers, the bees are trained to randomized checkerboard patterns prior to testing them

M. Lehrer; G. A. Horridge; S. W. Zhang; R. Gadagkar

1995-01-01

182

Best Food Choices  

MedlinePLUS

Weight Loss Food Choices The Best Food Choices Plan Your Meals Portion Distortion How Many Calories Do I Need? Tips ... Enroll today. Home > Food and Fitness > Fitness > Weight Loss > Food Choices > The Best Food Choices The Best Food ...

183

Tensor discriminant color space for face recognition.  

PubMed

Recent research efforts reveal that color may provide useful information for face recognition. For different visual tasks, the choice of a color space is generally different. How can a color space be sought for the specific face recognition problem? To address this problem, this paper represents a color image as a third-order tensor and presents the tensor discriminant color space (TDCS) model. The model can keep the underlying spatial structure of color images. With the definition of n-mode between-class scatter matrices and within-class scatter matrices, TDCS constructs an iterative procedure to obtain one color space transformation matrix and two discriminant projection matrices by maximizing the ratio of these two scatter matrices. The experiments are conducted on two color face databases, AR and Georgia Tech face databases, and the results show that both the performance and the efficiency of the proposed method are better than those of the state-of-the-art color image discriminant model, which involve one color space transformation matrix and one discriminant projection matrix, specifically in a complicated face database with various pose variations. PMID:21356616

Wang, Su-Jing; Yang, Jian; Zhang, Na; Zhou, Chun-Guang

2011-02-28

184

Color Burst  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson will help students gain experience in asking questions and conducting inquiry by exploring the separation of colors in water and other solvents; and to communicate and share findings of student investigations. The lesson uses a technique called paper chromatography, which is demonstrated using water, ink, and a coffee filter. Scientists use chromatography frequently to separate and identify the component parts of a mixture. This lesson will help young students gain experience in conducting simple investigations of their own while working in small groups.

185

The Preference for Symmetry in Flower-Naive and Not-so-Naive Bumblebees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Truly flower-naive bumblebees, with no prior rewarded experience for visits on any visual patterns outside the colony, were tested for their choice of bilaterally symmetric over asymmetric patterns in a radial-arm maze. No preference for symmetry was found. Prior training with rewarded black and white disks did, however, lead to a significant…

Plowright, C. M. S.; Evans, S. A.; Leung, J. Chew; Collin, C. A.

2011-01-01

186

Problem-Solving and Reflective Thinking: John Dewey, Linda Flower, Richard Young.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the affinities between L. Flower's problem-solving method, B. Young's tagmemic invention, and Dewey's reflective thinking, each strategy equally focusing on choices to be made allowing the thinker/writer to make order out of incongruity and dissonance. Applies Dewey's five phases of reflective thought to writing. (JG)

Rosen, Joan G.

1987-01-01

187

How Bumblebees First Find Flowers: Habituation of Visual Pattern Preferences, Spontaneous Recovery, and Dishabituation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two experiments examined the exploratory behaviour of flower-naive bumblebees. Bees were tested four times in a 12-arm radial arm maze in which they never received reward. Patterned and unpatterned stimuli were presented at the end of each corridor and the choices of the bees were recorded. We examined the effects of two variables, time and the…

Plowright, C. M. S.; Simonds, V. M.; Butler, M. A.

2006-01-01

188

How Bumblebees First Find Flowers: Habituation of Visual Pattern Preferences, Spontaneous Recovery, and Dishabituation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments examined the exploratory behaviour of flower-naive bumblebees. Bees were tested four times in a 12-arm radial arm maze in which they never received reward. Patterned and unpatterned stimuli were presented at the end of each corridor and the choices of the bees were recorded. We examined the effects of two variables, time and the…

Plowright, C. M. S.; Simonds, V. M.; Butler, M. A.

2006-01-01

189

A Flower of Tibouchina semidecandra,  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A flower of Tibouchina semidecandra, a well-known ornamental from southeastern Brazil. Tibouchinais a member of the large tropical family Melastomataceae and together with other Melastomeae has been regarded as representing a relatively basal element of the family. Molecular evidence suggests that Tibouchina, Melastoma, Osbeckia, and other Melastomeae represent a derived clade of Melastomataceae that only recently reached Africa and tropical Asia.

Susanne Renner (University of Missouri-St. Louis;Department of Biology ADR;POSTAL)

2004-03-09

190

Robust patterning in Arabidopsis flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 Abstract In the plant Arabidopsis Thaliana, the flowers consist of four types of organs, that grow in four concentric whorls on the florescence meristem. In each whorl, the cells attain a dif- ferent identity, that is determined by the concentrations of five types of proteins. We propose an ODE model that describes the gene expres- sion dynamics of a

S. van Mourik; G. H. Immink; R. H Merks; J. Molenaar

2009-01-01

191

Postfire Flowering Patterns in Blandfordia nobilis (Liliaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blandfordia nobilis Smith (Liliaceae) is a small herbaceous monocotyledon that resprouts from a rhizomatous corm after fire. The complex pattern of flowering shown in the five years following a fire in January 1987 was investigated for five populations near Sydney. This pattern was then related to concurrent changes in soil chemistry. Most (60%) plants flowered in the first post-fire flowering

Kristina A. Johnson; David A. Morrison; Gael Goldsack

1994-01-01

192

Postharvest physiology of Curcuma alismatifolia flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flowering stems of Curcuma alismatifolia (Zingiberaceae) cv. Chiang Mai Pink contain small flower buds and open flowers, surrounded by large pink bracts. Vase life is limited by browning at the bract tips. This browning may relate to ethylene production as it was hastened by treatment with exogenous ethylene. Browning was apparently not due to lack of carbohydrates, as sugar treatment

Kanok Bunya-atichart; Saichol Ketsa; Wouter G. van Doorn

2004-01-01

193

Vestigial Corolla in Flowers of Birdsfoot Trefoil  

Microsoft Academic Search

flower buds are round, whereas those of normal flowers are boat shaped. The leaves and stems of the mutants A naturally occurring floral mutant is infrequently observed in are phenotypically normal. some populations of birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.). The petals of mutant flowers are folded inward and do not extend fully, Induced mutants similar to vc have been reported

P. R. Beuselinck; R. L. McGraw

2000-01-01

194

Spring Flowers: Harvest of a Sensitive Eye  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Defining and describing a number of spring flowers, this article includes illustrations and explanations that demonstrate "art and science are born of the same parents". The flowers discussed are skunk cabbage, bellwort, spring beauty, jack-in-the-pulpit, Solomon's seal, wild geranium, showy orchids, moccasin flower, bluets, apple, and Indian…

Clark, Eloise; Levin, Ted

1978-01-01

195

Color Theory for Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson will introduce students to color theory with a focus on the use of color in digital design. Students will discover the color wheel, and color harmonies. Color is a very powerful tool in design. It can, enhance a message, give an object visual weight and emphasis, and add richness and depth to a design. We can use color to signify data, to draw attention to a particular object, or to set a mood. Color ...

Jensen, Mr.

2009-10-04

196

ODORANT1 Regulates Fragrance Biosynthesis in Petunia FlowersW?  

PubMed Central

Floral scent is important to plant reproduction because it attracts pollinators to the sexual organs. Therefore, volatile emission is usually tuned to the foraging activity of the pollinators. In Petunia hybrida, volatile benzenoids determine the floral aroma. Although the pathways for benzenoid biosynthesis have been characterized, the enzymes involved are less well understood. How production and emission are regulated is unknown. By targeted transcriptome analyses, we identified ODORANT1 (ODO1), a member of the R2R3-type MYB family, as a candidate for the regulation of volatile benzenoids in Petunia hybrida cv W115 (Mitchell) flowers. These flowers are only fragrant in the evening and at night. Transcript levels of ODO1 increased before the onset of volatile emission and decreased when volatile emission declined. Downregulation of ODO1 in transgenic P. hybrida Mitchell plants strongly reduced volatile benzenoid levels through decreased synthesis of precursors from the shikimate pathway. The transcript levels of several genes in this pathway were reduced by suppression of ODO1 expression. Moreover, ODO1 could activate the promoter of the 5-enol-pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene. Flower pigmentation, which is furnished from the same shikimate precursors, was not influenced because color and scent biosynthesis occur at different developmental stages. Our studies identify ODO1 as a key regulator of floral scent biosynthesis.

Verdonk, Julian C.; Haring, Michel A.; van Tunen, Arjen J.; Schuurink, Robert C.

2005-01-01

197

Color Color Relations and NGC 6791  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Johnson-Cousins UBVRIJHK color sequences in old, metal rich open cluster NGC 6791 are assembled and analyzed. Multiple color-color sequences favor a reddening that is on the mild end of recent estimates, around E(B-V) = 0.12 mag when compared to metal-sensitive color-color calibration sequences. Distance and age estimates show much larger scatter and depend strongly on isochrone author. This cluster is a Space Interferometry Mission target, and this work is a spinoff of SIM preparatory science. The color-color calibration work is interesting in itself and shows several as yet unexploited methods for estimating the reddening, especially of sequences of KM dwarfs. Attachment of color-temperature relations yields an almost completely empirical color calibration suitable for attachment to isochrone sets at all metallicities.

Worthey, Guy

2010-01-01

198

Floral affinity and benefits of dietary mixing with flowers for a polyphagous scarab, Popillia japonica Newman.  

PubMed

Many generalist herbivores, especially adult beetles, are facultative florivores, feeding on leaves but readily accepting floral tissues when available. We speculated that day-flying beetles with high energetic requirements would benefit from dietary mixing with nutrient-rich flower tissues and favor them during foraging. We tested that "Floral Affinity Hypothesis" with Popillia japonica, a day-active ruteline scarab that feeds intermittently throughout its adult life on multiple plant species. In field tests with six species of flowering hosts, far more landings occurred on flowers than on foliage for all plants except Hibiscus syriacus which bears flowers along the main stem rather than terminally. Trials with elevated plants showed that height of the floral display contributes to beetles' landing on flowers. Flower petals generally were preferred over leaves in laboratory choice tests. Nitrogen and water content were comparable or higher in foliage than in petals, but plant sugars were much higher in petals. Longevity and fecundity of beetles provided single-plant diets of Hibiscus, Rosa x hybrida, or Trifolium flowers for 3 weeks were as high, or higher, than for beetles fed foliage of Tilia cordata, a highly suitable resource. As expected, rotating flowers or Tilia foliage with marginally suitable Quercus palustris foliage enhanced those parameters relative to a diet of Quercus alone, but beetles provided high-quality Tilia foliage also benefitted from dietary mixing with flowers. Nearly all past dietary mixing studies concerned immature insects, for which growth rate is paramount. Opportunistic florivory by adult beetles represents a type of dietary mixing wherein the premium may be calorie-rich food for fueling flight muscles, with ensuing reproductive benefits. PMID:15146324

Held, David W; Potter, Daniel A

2004-05-14

199

Offspring quality and female choice in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the offspring viability prediction of the condition-dependent and Fisherian models of female choice in the guppy. Families of full-sibling females were bred with the male they preferred or did not prefer in a choice experiment. The physical condition, sexual behaviour and coloration of the offspring were evaluated. There were no significant differences between offspring attributable to the

PAUL F. NICOLETTO

1995-01-01

200

Antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activities of methanol extracts from Magnolia denudata and Magnolia denudata var. purpurascens flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanolic extracts of white colored (Magnolia denudata, WME) and violet colored (M. denudata var. purpurascens, VME) flowers were prepared, and their antioxidant activities were evaluated by total phenolic contents (TPC), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (RSA), 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) RSA, and reducing power (RP). TPC of WME and VME were 85.80 and 80.96mg\\/g gallic acid equivalents, respectively. DPPH RSA and

Young-Hong Jo; Go-Un Seo; Hyun-Gyun Yuk; Seung-Cheol Lee

201

Color Perception Optical Illusions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from eChalk contains optical illusions offering proof that our color perception is strongly influenced by surrounding colors. The site also includes educational games related to optical illusions and color.

2011-06-24

202

Advantage of dichromats over trichromats in discrimination of color-camouflaged stimuli in humans.  

PubMed

This study investigated whether 12 participants with color-vision deficiency had superior visual discrimination of color-camouflaged stimuli shown on a computer screen compared with 12 participants with normal trichromatic vision. Participants were asked to distinguish a circular pattern from other patterns in which textural elements differed from the background in orientation and thickness. In one condition, stimuli were single-colored, green or red; in the other condition, stimuli were color camouflaged with a green and red mosaic overlaid onto the pattern. Color-vision deficient participants selected the correct stimuli in the color-camouflaged condition as quickly as they did in the single-colored condition. However, normal color-vision participants took longer to select the correct choice in the color-camouflaged condition than in the single-colored condition. These results suggest that participants with color-vision deficiency may have a superior visual ability to discriminate the color-camouflaged stimuli. PMID:16671590

Saito, Atsuko; Mikami, Akichika; Hosokawa, Takayuki; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

2006-02-01

203

Display Device Color Management and Visual Surveillance of Vehicles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Digital imaging has seen an enormous growth in the last decade. Today users have numerous choices in creating, accessing, and viewing digital image/video content. Color management is important to ensure consistent visual experience across imaging systems. This is typically achieved using color profiles. In this thesis we identify the limitations…

Srivastava, Satyam

2011-01-01

204

Display Device Color Management and Visual Surveillance of Vehicles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Digital imaging has seen an enormous growth in the last decade. Today users have numerous choices in creating, accessing, and viewing digital image/video content. Color management is important to ensure consistent visual experience across imaging systems. This is typically achieved using color profiles. In this thesis we identify the limitations…

Srivastava, Satyam

2011-01-01

205

Color matching from memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-term color memory of two groups of university students, 20 with prior color coursework, and 20 with no color-related training, was evaluated in four hue categories: yellow, yellow-red, green, and purple. Munsell dimensions of hue, value, and chroma were used to select four target colors and nine distractor colors for each of the targets. Four of the distractor colors differed

Helen H. EPPS; Naz KAYA

206

Perception of attractiveness by obesity and hair color.  

PubMed

In a study of 318 Caucasian college students, obese persons and redheaded men were seen as unattractive compared to the nonobese and other hair colors. The obesity stereotype and the hair-color stereotype appear to be evaluated separately with little interaction. The results imply that a stereotypic characteristic like obesity, which is perceived as being under a person's control, may be evaluated differently than a stereotypic characteristic independent of personal choice such as hair color. PMID:2928047

Clayson, D E; Klassen, M L

1989-02-01

207

Relation Between Consumers’ Perceptions of Color and Texture of Dairy Desserts and Instrumental Measurements Using a Generalized Procrustes Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumers' perceptions of the color and texture of 8 commercial vanilla dairy desserts were studied and related to color and rheological measurements. First, the 8 desserts were evaluated by a group of consumers by means of the Free Choice Profile. For both color and texture, a 2-dimensional solution was chosen, with dimension 1 highly related to yellow color intensity in

L. González-Tomás; E. Costell

2006-01-01

208

Color constrasts in advertising: facade colors of food and drink consumption venues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The building facade has a visually defined impact and there are numerous forces driving the choice of colors used. Commercial premises such as pubs, restaurants and bars are normally but not always clearly marked as such. Although we human beings can have the option of free choice in the colors we use around the home there are numerous positive driving forces dictating those we use in business life. Many of these factors have been identified. They depend on the type of population these venues serve, their geography and their traditions.

Hutchings, John

2002-06-01

209

Male flowers are better fathers than hermaphroditic flowers in andromonoecious Passiflora incarnata.  

PubMed

• The diversity of plant breeding systems provides the opportunity to study a range of potential reproductive adaptations. Many mechanisms remain poorly understood, among them the evolution and maintenance of male flowers in andromonoecy. Here, we studied the role of morphologically male flowers ('male morph') in andromonoecious Passiflora incarnata. • We measured morphological differences between hermaphroditic and male morph flowers in P. incarnata and explored the fruiting and siring ability of both flower types. • Male morph flowers in P. incarnata were of similar size to hermaphroditic flowers, and there was little evidence of different resource allocation to the two flower types. Male morph flowers were less capable of producing fruit, even under ample pollen and resource conditions. By contrast, male morph flowers were more successful in siring seeds. On average, male morph flowers sired twice as many seeds as hermaphroditic flowers. This difference in male fitness was driven by higher pollen export from male morph flowers as a result of greater pollen production and less self-pollen deposition. • The production of male morph flowers in P. incarnata appears to be a flexible adaptive mechanism to enhance male fitness, which might be especially beneficial when plants face temporary resource shortages for nurturing additional fruits. PMID:22122433

Dai, Can; Galloway, Laura F

2011-11-28

210

The Color Tag Design and Color Model Study in Mirosot  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper gives a new color pattern based on contrasting the advantages and disadvantages of several kinds of color tag schemes. It adopts HSI color space and improves the transition from RGB color model to HSI color model by analyzing the particular characteristic of RGB color model, YUV color model and HSI color model. The test results and the site

Ma Gang; Liu Tian-shi; Han Jia-xin; Wang Xiao-xiao

2010-01-01

211

Characterization of a heavy-ion induced white flower mutant of allotetraploid Nicotiana tabacum.  

PubMed

KEY MESSAGE : We characterized a white flower mutant of allotetraploid N. tabacum as a DFR-deficient mutant; one copy of DFR has a cultivar-specific frameshift, while the other was deleted by heavy-ion irradiation. In most plants, white-flowered mutants have some kind of deficiency or defect in their anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. Nicotiana tabacum normally has pink petals, in which cyanidin is the main colored anthocyanidin. When a relevant gene in the cyanidin biosynthetic pathway is mutated, the petals show a white color. Previously, we generated white-flowered mutants of N. tabacum by heavy-ion irradiation, which is accepted as an effective mutagen. In this study, we determined which gene was responsible for the white-flowered phenotype of one of these mutants, cv. Xanthi white flower 1 (xwf1). Southern blot analysis using a DNA fragment of the dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) gene as a probe showed that the xwf1 mutant lacked signals that were present in wild-type genomic DNAs. Sequence analysis demonstrated that one copy of the DFR gene (NtDFR2) was absent from the genome of the xwf1 mutant. The other copy of the DFR gene (NtDFR1) contained a single-base deletion resulting in a frameshift mutation, which is a spontaneous mutation in cv. Xanthi. Introduction of NtDFR2 cDNA into the petal limbs of xwf1 by particle bombardment resulted in production of the pink-colored cells, whereas introduction of NtDFR1 cDNA did not. These results indicate that xwf1 is a DFR-deficient mutant. One copy of NtDFR1 harbors a spontaneous frameshift mutation, while the other copy of NtDFR2 was deleted by heavy-ion beam irradiation. PMID:22930364

Kazama, Yusuke; Fujiwara, Makoto T; Takehisa, Hinako; Ohbu, Sumie; Saito, Hiroyuki; Ichida, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Yoriko; Abe, Tomoko

2012-08-29

212

Volatile Components of Lawsonia inermis L. Flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volatile constituents of yellow and red Lawsonia inermis L. (henna) flowers were analyzed by capillary GC and GC\\/MS following isolation by solvent extraction. The total yield of volatiles isolated was higher from the yellow flowers which also differed markedly from the red flowers in volatile composition, the former giving greater proportions of ?-ionone (48.6% vs 2.5%) and its derivatives,

K. C. Wong; Y. E. Teng

1995-01-01

213

SOME FACTORS AFFECTING FLOWERING IN SUGARCANE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our main varietv, NCo 376, flowers substantially less Flower counts made in field experiments over six years led to the following conclusions : of the commer- cial varieties, N 52-219 and NCo 310 were the heaviest arrowers, NCo 376 and CP 29-1 16 were intermediate, and Co 462, M 31-45 and Co 1001 were shy arrowers. Flowering behaviour was assessed

J. M. GOSNELL

214

In vitro flowering of Fortunella hindsii (Champ.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Branch internodes of mature plants and stem internodes of seedlings of Fortunella hindsii flowered in vitro on half-strength MT (Murashige and Tucker 1969) basal medium supplemented with benzyladenine, adenine, 6-?-?-dimethylallylaminopurine and kinetin. The highest percentage of flowering was achieved with explants originating from branch internodes of flowering plants close to the apex on half-strength MT basal medium containing 5% sucrose

Hasan Basri Jumin; Nobumasa Nito

1996-01-01

215

My favourite flowering image: Maryland Mammoth tobacco.  

PubMed

Almost 100 years ago, the study of Maryland Mammoth tobacco by Garner and Allard was one in a long series of studies that have led to a better understanding of how plants "decide" when to flower. deciphering how plants "decide" when to flower. The extreme phenotype of Maryland Mammoth tobacco, in which a single recessive mutation changes a day-neutral to a strictly photoperiod-requiring plant, impressively illustrates the action of the photoperiodic pathway of flowering. PMID:23633243

Amasino, Richard M

2013-04-30

216

Standard RGB Color Spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the specifications and usage of standard RGB color spaces promoted today by standard bodies and\\/or the imaging industry. As in the past, most of the new standard RGB color spaces were developed for specific imaging workflow and applications. They are used as interchange spaces to communicate color and\\/or as working spaces in imaging applications. Standard color spaces

Sabine Süsstrunk; Robert Buckley; Steve Swen

1999-01-01

217

Color: A Functionalist Proposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I propose and defend an account of color that I call color functionalism. I argue that functionalism is a non-traditional species of primary quality theory, and that it accommodates our intuitions about color and the facts of color science better than more widely discussed alternatives.

Jonathan Cohen

2003-01-01

218

Organizing color in dentistry.  

PubMed

Although esthetic dentistry techniques have grown more sophisticated, the fabrication and control of color in dentistry can be improved. An organized and precise system is necessary to combine artistic and scientific approaches. For this, a color order system, based on Munsell's notations and spectrophotometric research on the color space of natural teeth, would provide restorations of excellent color. PMID:2447140

Miller, L

1987-12-01

219

Flowers help bees cope with uncertainty: signal detection and the function of floral complexity.  

PubMed

Plants often attract pollinators with floral displays composed of visual, olfactory, tactile and gustatory stimuli. Since pollinators' responses to each of these stimuli are usually studied independently, the question of why plants produce multi-component floral displays remains relatively unexplored. Here we used signal detection theory to test the hypothesis that complex displays reduce a pollinator's uncertainty about the floral signal. Specifically, we asked whether one component of the floral display, scent, improved a bee's certainty about the value of another component, color hue. We first trained two groups of bumble bees (Bombus impatiens Cresson) to discriminate between rewarding and unrewarding artificial flowers of slightly different hues in the presence vs absence of scent. In a test phase, we presented these bees with a gradient of floral hues and assessed their ability to identify the hue rewarded during training. We interpreted the extent to which bees' preferences were biased away from the unrewarding hue ('peak shift') as an indicator of uncertainty in color discrimination. Our data show that the presence of an olfactory signal reduces uncertainty regarding color: not only was color learning facilitated on scented flowers but also bees showed a lower amount of peak shift in the presence of scent. We explore potential mechanisms by which scent might reduce uncertainty about color, and discuss the broader significance of our results for our understanding of signal evolution. PMID:21147975

Leonard, Anne S; Dornhaus, Anna; Papaj, Daniel R

2011-01-01

220

Experimental analysis of choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental choice analysis continues to attract academic and applied attention. We review what is known about the design, conduct, analysis, and use of data from choice experiments, and indicate gaps in current knowledge that should be addressed in future research. Design strategies consistent with probabilistic models of choice process and the parallels between choice experiments and real markets are considered.

Richard T. Carson; Jordan J. Louviere; Donald A. Anderson; Phipps Arabie; David S. Bunch; David A. Hensher; Richard M. Johnson; Warren F. Kuhfeld; Dan Steinberg; Joffre Swait; Harry Timmermans; James B. Wiley

1994-01-01

221

Delayed flowering and global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within general trends toward earlier spring, observed cases of species and ecosystems that have not advanced their phenology, or have even delayed it, appear paradoxical, especially when made in temperate regions experiencing significant warming. The typical interpretation of this pattern has been that non-responders are insensitive to relatively small levels of warming over the past 40 years, while species showing delays are often viewed as statistical noise or evidence for unknown confounding factors at play. However, plant physiology studies suggest that when winter chilling (vernalization) is required to initiate spring development, winter warming may retard spring events, masking expected advances caused by spring warming. Here, we analyzed long-term data on phenology and seasonal temperatures from 490 species on two continents and demonstrate that 1) apparent non-responders are indeed responding to warming, but their responses to winter and spring warming are opposite in sign, 2) observed trends in first flowering date depend strongly on the magnitude of a given species' response to autumn/winter versus spring warming, and 3) inclusion of these effects strongly improves hindcast predictions of long-term flowering trends. With a few notable exceptions, climate change research has focused on the overall mean trend towards phenological advance, minimizing discussion of apparently non-responding species. Our results illuminate an under-studied source of complexity in wild species responses and support the need for models incorporating diverse environmental cues in order to improve predictability of species responses to anthropogenic climate change.

Cook, B. I.; Wolkovich, E. M.; Parmesan, C.

2011-12-01

222

Comparative genomic analysis of soybean flowering genes.  

PubMed

Flowering is an important agronomic trait that determines crop yield. Soybean is a major oilseed legume crop used for human and animal feed. Legumes have unique vegetative and floral complexities. Our understanding of the molecular basis of flower initiation and development in legumes is limited. Here, we address this by using a computational approach to examine flowering regulatory genes in the soybean genome in comparison to the most studied model plant, Arabidopsis. For this comparison, a genome-wide analysis of orthologue groups was performed, followed by an in silico gene expression analysis of the identified soybean flowering genes. Phylogenetic analyses of the gene families highlighted the evolutionary relationships among these candidates. Our study identified key flowering genes in soybean and indicates that the vernalisation and the ambient-temperature pathways seem to be the most variant in soybean. A comparison of the orthologue groups containing flowering genes indicated that, on average, each Arabidopsis flowering gene has 2-3 orthologous copies in soybean. Our analysis highlighted that the CDF3, VRN1, SVP, AP3 and PIF3 genes are paralogue-rich genes in soybean. Furthermore, the genome mapping of the soybean flowering genes showed that these genes are scattered randomly across the genome. A paralogue comparison indicated that the soybean genes comprising the largest orthologue group are clustered in a 1.4 Mb region on chromosome 16 of soybean. Furthermore, a comparison with the undomesticated soybean (Glycine soja) revealed that there are hundreds of SNPs that are associated with putative soybean flowering genes and that there are structural variants that may affect the genes of the light-signalling and ambient-temperature pathways in soybean. Our study provides a framework for the soybean flowering pathway and insights into the relationship and evolution of flowering genes between a short-day soybean and the long-day plant, Arabidopsis. PMID:22679494

Jung, Chol-Hee; Wong, Chui E; Singh, Mohan B; Bhalla, Prem L

2012-06-05

223

Color Repeatability of Spot Color Printing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology that quantifies variation as well as deviation of spot color printing is developed. Two types of color variations, i.e., spatial (side-to-side) and temporal (begin-to-end), are described. The use of the cumulative relative frequency (CRF) of ?E, from colorimetric data collected across the width of the signature, was used to describe spatial variation or uniformity of spot color printing.

Robert Chung

224

Memory for color reactivates color processing region  

Microsoft Academic Search

and gray abstract shapes. During retrieval, old and new shapes,were,presented,in gray and participants responded ‘old-colored’, ‘old-gray’, or ‘new’. Within color perception regions, color memory related activity was observed in the left fusiform gyrus, adjacent to the collateral sulcus. A retinotopic mapping,analysis,indicated,this activity occurred,within color processing,region,V8. The present,feature specific evidence,provides,compelling support,for a constructive,view of memory.,NeuroReport 00:000–000 ,,2009 Wolters Kluwer Health |

Scott D. Slotnick

225

Moth using proboscis to get food from flower  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Not only bees pollinate flowers. Moths have a specialized mouth structure called a proboscis that is used to extract nectar and pollinate the flower. The moth benefits by getting food and the flower benefits by being pollinated.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2006-12-30

226

Spontaneous prosocial choice by chimpanzees  

PubMed Central

The study of human and primate altruism faces an evolutionary anomaly: There is ample evidence for altruistic preferences in our own species and growing evidence in monkeys, but one of our closest relatives, the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), is viewed as a reluctant altruist, acting only in response to pressure and solicitation. Although chimpanzee prosocial behavior has been reported both in observational captive studies and in the wild, thus far Prosocial Choice Tests have failed to produce evidence. However, methodologies of previous Prosocial Choice Tests may have handicapped the apes unintentionally. Here we present findings of a paradigm in which chimpanzees chose between two differently colored tokens: one “selfish” token resulting in a reward for the actor only (1/0), and the other “prosocial” token rewarding both the actor and a partner (1/1). Seven female chimpanzees, each tested with three different partners, showed a significant bias for the prosocial option. Prosocial choices occurred both in response to solicitation by the partner and spontaneously without solicitation. However, directed requests and pressure by the partner reduced the actor's prosocial tendency. These results draw into question previous conclusions indicating that chimpanzees have a limited sensitivity to the needs of others and behave prosocially only in response to significant prompting.

Horner, Victoria; Carter, J. Devyn; Suchak, Malini; de Waal, Frans B. M.

2011-01-01

227

Postharvest: Cut flowers and potted plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the past fifty years, the cut flower market has changed dramatically, from a local market with growers located on city outskirts, to a global one; flowers and cut foliage sourced from throughout the world are sold as bunches or combined into arrangements and bouquets in the major target markets. ...

228

'DREAM CATCHER' AND 'FIRST LADY' FLOWERING CHERRY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ornamental flowering cherry trees (Prunus L. species) are popular landscape plants, made famous in the U.S. by the historic Tidal Basin cherries planted in Washington, D.C. Although planted primarily for their spring bloom, flowering cherries are also used as street or shade trees, and are valued fo...

229

Digital Image Classification for Malaysian Blooming Flower  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital image processing is a rapidly growing area of computer science since it was introduced and developed in the 1960's. In the case of flower classification, image processing is a crucial step for computer-aided plant species identification. Colour of the flower plays very important role in image classification since it gives additional information in terms of segmentation and recognition. On

Fadzilah Siraj; Muhammad Ashraq Salahuddin; S. A. M. Yusof

2010-01-01

230

Early Cretaceous lineages of monocot flowering plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phylogeny of flowering plants is now rapidly being disclosed by analysis of DNA sequence data, and currently, many Cretaceous fossils of flowering plants are being described. Combining molecular phylogenies with reference fossils of known minimum age makes it possible to date the nodes of the phylogenetic tree. The dating may be done by counting inferred changes in sequenced genes

Kĺre Bremer

2000-01-01

231

Family found for giant, stinking flower  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

First discovered nearly 200 years ago in the Sumatran rain forest, an unusual flowering plant with the largest single flower -- typically a full meter across and weighs up to 15 pounds -- has finally found its home in the botanical tree of life.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2007-01-11

232

Flowers that destroy high-latitude ozone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Satellite estimates of worldwide bromine levels and sea ice coverage were analyzed. Results indicate a correlation between frost flowers and ozone depletion. Researchers suggest that trace gases produced by frost flowers may explain the huge amounts of aerosols seen in the polar troposphere and the thinning of the ozone layer during the polar sunrise.

Al., Kaleschke E.; Agu

233

A color compensation vision system for color-blind people  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a color compensation vision system for color-blind people. About 8% of males and less than 1% of females have faulty color perception from birth. The degree to which a person may possess abnormal color vision ranges from slight difficulty in recognizing shades of color to total loss of color vision. Most types of defective color

T. Ohkubo; K. Kobayashi

2008-01-01

234

Aesthetics of color combinations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The previous literature on the aesthetics of color combinations has produced confusing and conflicting claims. For example, some researchers suggest that color harmony increases with increasing hue similarity whereas others say it increases with hue contrast. We argue that this confusion is best resolved by considering three distinct judgments about color pairs: (a) preference for the pair as a whole, (b) perceived harmony of the two colors, and (c) preference for the figural color when viewed against the background color. Empirical support for this distinction shows that pair preference and harmony ratings both increase as hue similarity increases, but preference correlates more strongly with component color preferences and lightness contrast than does harmony. Although ratings of both pair preference and harmony decrease as hue contrast increases, ratings of figural color preference increase as hue contrast with the background increases. Our results refine and clarify well-known and often contradictory claims of artistic color theory.

Schloss, Karen B.; Palmer, Stephen E.

2010-02-01

235

Presence of two types of flowers with respect to nectar sugar in two gregariously flowering species.  

PubMed

Many species of animal-pollinated flowers are known to vary widely in the nectar content of flowers. Some proportion of flowers in many species is apparently nectarless,and such flowers are believed to be 'cheaters'. Cheating may explain a part of the variability in nectar content.If cheating exists as a qualitatively different strategy then we expect bimodality in the distribution of nectar content of flowers. It has been shown in a multispecies study that gregarious species have a higher proportion of cheater flowers. We studied the frequency distribution of total nectar sugar in two gregariously flowering species Lantana camara and Utricularia purpurascens, which differed in other floral and ecological characters. At the population level, both the species showed significant bimodality in the total sugar content of flowers. The obvious sources of heterogeneity in the data did not explain bimodality. In Lantana camara, bimodality was observed within flowers of some of the individual plants sampled. In Utricularia purpurascens the proportion of nectarless flowers was more in high-density patches, suggesting that the gregariousness hypothesis may work within a species as well. The results support the hypothesis of cheating as a distinct strategy since two distinct types of flowers were observed in both the species. The effect of density in Utricularia purpurascens also supports the gregariousness hypothesis. PMID:17762150

Anand, Chaitali; Umranikar, Chaitrali; Shintre, Pooja; Damle, Anuja; Kale, Janhavi; Joshi, Jahnavi; Watve, Milind

2007-06-01

236

Resolution for color photography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although it is well known that luminance resolution is most important, the ability to accurately render colored details, color textures, and colored fabrics cannot be overlooked. This includes the ability to accurately render single-pixel color details as well as avoiding color aliasing. All consumer digital cameras on the market today record in color and the scenes people are photographing are usually color. Yet almost all resolution measurements made on color cameras are done using a black and white target. In this paper we present several methods for measuring and quantifying color resolution. The first method, detailed in a previous publication, uses a slanted-edge target of two colored surfaces in place of the standard black and white edge pattern. The second method employs the standard black and white targets recommended in the ISO standard, but records these onto the camera through colored filters thus giving modulation between black and one particular color component; red, green, and blue color separation filters are used in this study. The third method, conducted at Stiftung Warentest, an independent consumer organization of Germany, uses a whitelight interferometer to generate fringe pattern targets of varying color and spatial frequency.

Hubel, Paul M.; Bautsch, Markus

2006-02-01

237

Choosing Choice: School Choice in International Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The chapters in this book originated as papers for a conference, School Choice and Educational Change, held in March 2000 at Michigan State University. An introductory chapter provides a comparative analysis of the lessons learned from international experience with school-choice policies, based on a review of case studies in several countries.…

Plank, David N., Ed.; Sykes, Gary, Ed.

238

Choosing Choice: School Choice in International Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chapters in this book originated as papers for a conference, School Choice and Educational Change, held in March 2000 at Michigan State University. An introductory chapter provides a comparative analysis of the lessons learned from international experience with school-choice policies, based on a review of case studies in several countries. The…

Plank, David N., Ed.; Sykes, Gary, Ed.

239

Flowering time regulation produces much fruit  

PubMed Central

Summary of recent advances Many of the molecular details regarding the promotion of flowering in response to prolonged exposure to cold temperatures (vernalization) and daylength have recently been elucidated in Arabidopsis. The daylength and vernalization pathway converge in the regulation of floral promoters referred to as floral integrators. In the meristem, vernalization promotes flowering through the epigenetic repression of the floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C. This allows for the induction of floral integrators by CONSTANS under inductive long days. In the vasculature of leaves, CONSTANS protein is produced only in long days where it acts to promote the expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). FT protein is then translocated to the meristem where it acts to promote floral induction. Thus a detailed molecular framework for the regulation of flowering time has now been established in Arabidopsis.

Michaels, Scott D.

2009-01-01

240

In vitro flowering ofDendrobium candidum.  

PubMed

Dendrobium candidum, a wild orchid species from China, normally requires three to four years of cultivation before it can produce flowers. The effects of plant hormones and polyamines on flower initiation of this species in tissue culture were investigated. The addition of spermidine, or BA, or the combination of NAA and BA to the culture medium can induce protocorms or shoots to flower within three to six months with a frequency of 31.6%-45.8%. The flowering frequency can be further increased to 82.8 % on the average by pre-treatment of protocorms in an ABA-containing medium followed by transfer onto MS medium with BA. The induction of precocious flowering depends on the developmental stage of the experimental materials (protocorms, shoots and plantlets) used, and usually occurs only when mt formation is inhibited. PMID:18726297

Wang, G; Xu, Z; Chia, T F; Chua, N H

1997-02-01

241

Radiation coloration resistant glass  

DOEpatents

A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10[sup 7] rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency. 3 figs.

Tomozawa, M.; Watson, E.B.; Acocella, J.

1986-11-04

242

Why do Manduca sexta feed from white flowers? Innate and learnt colour preferences in a hawkmoth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flower colour is an important signal used by flowering plants to attract pollinators. Many anthophilous insects have an innate colour preference that is displayed during their first foraging bouts and which could help them locate their first nectar reward. Nevertheless, learning capabilities allow insects to switch their colour preferences with experience and thus, to track variation in floral nectar availability. Manduca sexta, a crepuscular hawkmoth widely studied as a model system for sensory physiology and behaviour, visits mostly white, night-blooming flowers lacking UV reflectance throughout its range in the Americas. Nevertheless, the spectral sensitivity of the feeding behaviour of naďve moths shows a narrow peak around 450 nm wavelengths, suggesting an innate preference for the colour blue. Under more natural conditions (i.e. broader wavelength reflectance) than in previous studies, we used dual choice experiments with blue- and white-coloured feeders to investigate the innate preference of naďve moths and trained different groups to each colour to evaluate their learning capabilities. We confirmed the innate preference of M. sexta for blue and found that these moths were able to switch colour preferences after training experience. These results unequivocally demonstrate that M. sexta moths innately prefer blue when presented against white flower models and offer novel experimental evidence supporting the hypothesis that learning capabilities could be involved in their foraging preferences, including their widely observed attraction to white flowers in nature.

Goyret, Joaquín; Pfaff, Michael; Raguso, Robert A.; Kelber, Almut

2008-06-01

243

Tinkering with the C-Function: A Molecular Frame for the Selection of Double Flowers in Cultivated Roses  

PubMed Central

Background Roses have been cultivated for centuries and a number of varieties have been selected based on flower traits such as petal form, color, and number. Wild-type roses have five petals (simple flowers), whereas high numbers of petals (double flowers) are typical attributes of most of the cultivated roses. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms that could have been selected to control petal number in roses. Methodology/Principal Findings We have analyzed the expression of several candidate genes known to be involved in floral organ identity determination in roses from similar genetic backgrounds but exhibiting contrasting petal numbers per flower. We show that the rose ortholog of AGAMOUS (RhAG) is differentially expressed in double flowers as compared to simple flowers. In situ hybridization experiments confirm the differential expression of RhAG and demonstrate that in the double-flower roses, the expression domain of RhAG is restricted toward the center of the flower. Conversely, in simple-flower roses, RhAG expression domain is wider. We further show that the border of RhAG expression domain is labile, which allows the selection of rose flowers with increased petal number. Double-flower roses were selected independently in the two major regions for domestication, China and the peri-Mediterranean areas. Comparison of RhAG expression in the wild-type ancestors of cultivated roses and their descendants both in the European and Chinese lineages corroborates the correlation between the degree of restriction of RhAG expression domain and the number of petals. Our data suggests that a restriction of RhAG expression domain is the basis for selection of double flowers in both the Chinese and peri-Mediterranean centers of domestication. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that a shift in RhAG expression domain boundary occurred in rose hybrids, causing double-flower phenotype. This molecular event was selected independently during rose domestication in Europe/Middle East and in China.

Dubois, Annick; Raymond, Olivier; Maene, Marion; Baudino, Sylvie; Langlade, Nicolas B.; Boltz, Veronique; Vergne, Philippe; Bendahmane, Mohammed

2010-01-01

244

Focus on Color Photography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Photographs and text describe techniques by which color negative film can be developed and printed. An equipment list, by which black and white printing facilities can be converted to make color prints, is provided. (CP)

Galindez, Peter

1978-01-01

245

Color vision: retinal blues.  

PubMed

Two complementary studies have resolved the circuitry underlying green-blue color discrimination in the retina. A blue-sensitive interneuron provides the inhibitory signal required for computing green-blue color opponency. PMID:22917511

Johnston, Jamie; Esposti, Federico; Lagnado, Leon

2012-08-21

246

Colored Stochastic Petri Nets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Colored stochastic Petri nets are presented as an extension of the stochastic Petri nets model in which the tokens, the transitions, and the corresponding probability measurement are colored. The development leads to a simplification of the basic model an...

A. Zenie

1986-01-01

247

Light, Color, and Mirrors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an exercise in which students can use flashlights, mirrors, and colored paper to discover scientific principles regarding optics. Addresses the concepts of angles of incidence and reflection, colored vs. white light, and mirror images. (WRM)

Tiburzi, Brian; Tamborino, Laurie; Parker, Gordon A.

2000-01-01

248

Skin color enhancement based on favorite skin color in HSV color space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin color enhancement based on favorite skin color is proposed to make skin color displayed on large screen flat panel TVs agree with human favorite skin color. A robust skin detection method in different intensity is obtained after analyzing the distribution of skin color in HSV color space. The favorite skin color region is found via a psychological experiment too.

Xiao-Ning Zhang; Jue Jiang; Zhi-Hu Liang; Chun-Liang Liu

2010-01-01

249

Shifting human color memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persons who witnessed an automobile accident involving a green car were exposed to information that the car was blue. On a\\u000a subsequent color recognition test, most subjects shifted their color selection in the direction of the misleading information\\u000a and away from the actual perceived color. Shifting was greater for subjects who did not initially commit themselves to a color\\u000a selection.

Elizabeth F. Loftus

1977-01-01

250

Texture affects color emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have recorded color emotions in subjects viewing uniform color (UC) samples. We conduct an experiment to measure and model how these color emotions change when texture is added to the color samples. Using a computer monitor, our subjects arrange samples along four scales: warm–cool, masculine–feminine, hard–soft, and heavy–light. Three sample types of increasing visual complexity are used: UC,

M. P. Lucassen; T. Gevers; A. Gijsenij

2011-01-01

251

Trichromatic opponent color classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stimuli varying in intensity and chromaticity, presented on numerous backgrounds, were classified into red\\/green, blue\\/yellow and white\\/black opponent color categories. These measurements revealed the shapes of the boundaries that separate opponent colors in three-dimensional color space. Opponent color classification boundaries were generally not planar, but their shapes could be summarized by a piecewise linear model in which increment and decrement

E. J. Chichilnisky; Brian A. Wandell

1999-01-01

252

Public Choice III  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book represents a considerable revision and expansion of Public Choice II (1989). Six new chapters have been added, and several chapters from the previous edition have been extensively revised. The discussion of empirical work in public choice has been greatly expanded. As in the previous editions, all of the major topics of public choice are covered. These include: why

Dennis C. Mueller

2003-01-01

253

Reimagining the Color Wheel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Color wheels are a traditional project for many teachers. The author has used them in art appreciation classes for many years, but one problem she found when her pre-service art education students created colored wheels was that they were boring: simple circles, with pie-shaped pieces, which students either painted or colored in. This article…

Snyder, Jennifer

2011-01-01

254

Color and Psychological  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color is a ubiquitous perceptual experience, yet little scientific information about the influence of color on affect, cognition, and behavior is available. Accord- ingly, we have developed a general model of color and psychologicalfunctioning,whichwepresentinthisarticle. We also describe a hypothesis derived from this model re- garding the influence of red in achievement contexts. In addition, we report a series of experiments

Andrew J. Elliot; Markus A. Maier

255

Color and Psychological Functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color is a ubiquitous perceptual experience, yet little scientific information about the influence of color on affect, cognition, and behavior is available. Accordingly, we have developed a general model of color and psychological functioning, which we present in this article. We also describe a hypothesis derived from this model regarding the influence of red in achievement contexts. In addition, we

Andrew J. Elliot; Markus A. Maier

2007-01-01

256

Color: Implications in dentistry  

PubMed Central

The success of restorative dentistry is determined on the basis of functional and esthetic results. To achieve esthetics, four basic determinants are required in sequence; viz., position, contour, texture and color. The knowledge of the concept of color is essential for achieving good esthetics. This review compiles the various aspects of color, its measurements and shade matching in dentistry.

Sikri, Vimal K

2010-01-01

257

A Semester of Color  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every Thursday evening, ten high school students meet at the Riverdale Art Project, a New York City-based art program that the author co-founded ten years ago. Students are participating in a semester-long color workshop where they learn about color theory in a structured and engaging way. Focusing on five essential characteristics of color

Rabinovitch, Andrea

2006-01-01

258

Four Color Theorem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Suppose we have a map in which no single territory is made up of disconnected regions. How many colors are needed to color the territories of this map, if all the territories that share a border segment must be of different colors?

259

The nature of colors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color is a visible aspect of objects and lights, and as such is an objective characteristic of our phenomenal world. Correspondingly also objects and lights are objective, although their subjectivity cannot be disregarded since they belong to our phenomenal world. The distinction between perception and sensation deals with colors seen either in complex displays or in isolation. Reality of colors

Osvaldo da Pos

2002-01-01

260

Digital color imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys current technology and research in the area of digital color imaging. In order to establish the background and lay down terminology, fundamental concepts of color perception and measurement are first presented us- ing vector-space notation and terminology. Present-day color recording and reproduction systems are reviewed along with the common mathematical models used for representing these devices. Algorithms

Gaurav Sharma; H. Joel Trussell

1997-01-01

261

Color in Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Why do minerals have color? When is that color diagnostic, and when is it likely to fool you? Why is color important, and what can it tell us about the chemistry of minerals? This exercise will try to answer some of these questions, and to introduce students to the fascinating world of mineral spectroscopy, where chemistry meets mineralogy.

Dyar, Darby

262

Why are fruits colorful? The relative importance of achromatic and chromatic contrasts for detection by birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The colors of fruits and flowers are traditionally viewed as an adaptation to increase the detectability of plant organs to\\u000a animal vectors. The detectability of visual signals increases with increasing contrasts between target and background. Contrasts\\u000a consist of a chromatic aspect (color) and an achromatic aspect (light intensity), which are perceived separately by animals.\\u000a To evaluate the relative importance of

Eliana Cazetta; Hinrich Martin Schaefer; Mauro Galetti

2009-01-01

263

Fruits and Vegetables: Color Your Plate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore healthy choices related to the foods they eat. The importance of a variety of fruits and vegetables to a healthy diet is the focus of the experience. Learners read a story book about fruits and vegetables, repeat a helpful riddle, and draw pictures of fruits/vegetables. These drawings are then cut out and taped to "color" a Healthy Choice bulletin board plate. Learners can also taste-test different fruits and vegetables at snack or lunch time. Learners are encouraged to try one new color each day. This activity is featured on pp. 12-13 of the "Health House: Food, Fitness, & Fun 24/7!" unit of study for K-2 learners.

Reitsma, Beverly A.; Indianapolis, The C.

2012-06-26

264

Quantitative color analysis for capillaroscopy image segmentation.  

PubMed

This communication introduces a novel approach for quantitatively evaluating the role of color space decomposition in digital nailfold capillaroscopy analysis. It is clinically recognized that any alterations of the capillary pattern, at the periungual skin region, are directly related to dermatologic and rheumatic diseases. The proposed algorithm for the segmentation of digital capillaroscopy images is optimized with respect to the choice of the color space and the contrast variation. Since the color space is a critical factor for segmenting low-contrast images, an exhaustive comparison between different color channels is conducted and a novel color channel combination is presented. Results from images of 15 healthy subjects are compared with annotated data, i.e. selected images approved by clinicians. By comparison, a set of figures of merit, which highlights the algorithm capability to correctly segment capillaries, their shape and their number, is extracted. Experimental tests depict that the optimized procedure for capillaries segmentation, based on a novel color channel combination, presents values of average accuracy higher than 0.8, and extracts capillaries whose shape and granularity are acceptable. The obtained results are particularly encouraging for future developments on the classification of capillary patterns with respect to dermatologic and rheumatic diseases. PMID:22532162

Goffredo, Michela; Schmid, Maurizio; Conforto, Silvia; Amorosi, Beatrice; D'Alessio, Tommaso; Palma, Claudio

2012-04-25

265

Effects of Stimulus Duration and Choice Delay on Visual Categorization in Pigeons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We [Lazareva, O. F., Freiburger, K. L., & Wasserman, E. A. (2004). "Pigeons concurrently categorize photographs at both basic and superordinate levels." "Psychonomic Bulletin and Review," 11, 1111-1117] previously trained four pigeons to classify color photographs into their basic-level categories (cars, chairs, flowers, or people) or into their…

Lazareva, Olga F.; Wasserman, Edward A.

2009-01-01

266

Choices Reading Lists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Reading Association has crafted these Choices Reading Lists for librarians, teachers, students, and anyone else with a passion for reading. There are three sets: ChildrenâÂÂs Choices, Young Adults' Choices, and Teachers' Choices. Each list is fully annotated with additional information such as fact sheets, information on the texts selected, and some information about the criteria used to select the texts. The Young Adults' Choices brings together works selected by young people each year; recent selections include "Awaken," "Between," and "What Happened to Goodbye." The site is rounded out by a collection of downloadable bookmarks that can be used between the pages of these fine selections.

2012-01-01

267

Measurement of Color Constancy by Color Memory Matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degree of color constancy was measured when color memory was involved in color comparison judgment. We used the Optical Society of America (OSA) Uniform Color Scales as stimulus color samples, and chose 20 color samples as test stimuli. Four illuminants of 1700, 3000, 6500, and 30, 000 K were tested. The observer, completely adapted to a test illuminant, saw a

Keiji Uchikawa; Ichiro Kuriki; Yuzuru Tone

1998-01-01

268

Theorems on list-coloring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graph coloring is a well-known and wellstudied area of graph theory with many applications. In this paper, we will consider two generalizations of graph coloring. In particular, list-coloring and sum-list-coloring.

Vedavathi, N.; Gurram, Dharmaiah

2013-03-01

269

Comparative Analysis of Flowering in Annual and Perennial Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In plants the switch from vegetative growth to flowering involves a major transition in the development of the shoot apex. This transition can occur once, in annual species, or repeatedly, in perennial plants. In annuals, flowering is associated with senescence and death of the whole plant, whereas perennials flower in consecutive years and maintain vegetative development after flowering. The perennial

Maria C. Albani; George Coupland

2010-01-01

270

Color display for dichromats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have proposed colormaps to replace a widely used 216 colors palette in order to allow a designer with normal color vision to simulate the colors seen by dichromats. As dichromats lack one class of cone photo pigment, they confuse colors that differ only in the excitation of the missing class of photo pigment. The method is based on the LMS colorimetric system, which specifies colors in terms of the relative excitations of the cones. We have constructed a rule to reduce any set of confused colors to a single three- component specification. We have introduced a modification, assuming that the video display primaries and nominal white are representative of recent standards for Cathode Ray Tube monitors and that its video-transfer function is a power function with an exponent of 2.2. For everyday practice, replacing a normal palette by a reduced palette provides an immediate warning of possible losses of readability of a display by color-deficients.

Vienot, Francoise; Brettel, Hans

2000-12-01

271

Color Use in Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, you will learn a little bit about color theory and how it can effect the colors that you choose for a design. This activity covers the Arizona State CTE Standard for demonstrating drawing and visualization skills required for graphic communications (Standard #13). Read each section below carefully and follow the links provided to find more information on the topics discussed. When you are finished with the lesson, complete the assignment at the bottom of the screen. Introduction There are certain colors that look good together in designs and there is a reason for it. Colors that look good together are based on their relationship to each other on a color wheel. In the following lesson, you are going explore the color wheel and the color relationships ...

Pope

2008-10-07

272

The evolutionary root of flowering plants.  

PubMed

Correct rooting of the angiosperm radiation is both challenging and necessary for understanding the origins and evolution of physiological and phenotypic traits in flowering plants. The problem is known to be difficult due to the large genetic distance separating flowering plants from other seed plants and the sparse taxon sampling among basal angiosperms. Here, we provide further evidence for concern over substitution model misspecification in analyses of chloroplast DNA sequences. We show that support for Amborella as the sole representative of the most basal angiosperm lineage is founded on sequence site patterns poorly described by time-reversible substitution models. Improving the fit between sequence data and substitution model identifies Trithuria, Nymphaeaceae, and Amborella as surviving relatives of the most basal lineage of flowering plants. This finding indicates that aquatic and herbaceous species dominate the earliest extant lineage of flowering plants. [; ; ; ; ; .]. PMID:22851550

Goremykin, Vadim V; Nikiforova, Svetlana V; Biggs, Patrick J; Zhong, Bojian; Delange, Peter; Martin, William; Woetzel, Stefan; Atherton, Robin A; McLenachan, Patricia A; Lockhart, Peter J

2012-07-31

273

Flower Garden Banks Condition Report 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This 'condition report' provides a summary of marine resources in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary, pressures on those resources, current condition and trends, and management responses to ...

2008-01-01

274

Vase Life Extender for Cut Flowers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention relates to a method and substances for delaying senescence and extending the vase life of cut flowers and, more particularly, to a method and substance for delaying senescence and extending the vase life of carnations.

C. Y. Wang J. E. Baker

1981-01-01

275

Recent Advances of Flowering Locus T Gene in Higher Plants  

PubMed Central

Flowering Locus T (FT) can promote flowering in the plant photoperiod pathway and also facilitates vernalization flowering pathways and other ways to promote flowering. The expression of products of the FT gene is recognized as important parts of the flowering hormone and can induce flowering by long-distance transportation. In the present study, many FT-like genes were isolated, and the transgenic results show that FT gene can promote flowering in plants. This paper reviews the progress of the FT gene and its expression products to provide meaningful information for further studies of the functions of FT genes.

Xu, Feng; Rong, Xiaofeng; Huang, Xiaohua; Cheng, Shuiyuan

2012-01-01

276

Single color and single flavor color superconductivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We survey the nonlocked color-flavor-spin channels for quark-quark (color superconducting) condensates in QCD, using a Nambu Jona-Lasinio model. We also study isotropic quark-antiquark (mesonic) condensates. We make mean-field estimates of the strength and sign of the self-interaction of each condensate, using four-fermion interaction vertices based on known QCD interactions. For the attractive quark pairing channels, we solve the mean-field gap

Mark G. Alford; Jeffrey A. Bowers; Jack M. Cheyne; Greig A. Cowan

2003-01-01

277

Flower colour and cytochromes P450  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flavonoids are major constituents of flower colour. Plants accumulate specific flavonoids and thus every species often exhibits a limited flower colour range. Three cytochromes P450 play critical roles in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. Flavonoid 3?-hydroxylase (F3?H, CYP75B) and flavonoid 3?,5?-hydroxylase (F3?5?H, CYP75A) catalyze the hydroxylation of the B-ring of flavonoids and are necessary to biosynthesize cyanidin-(red to magenta) and delphinidin-(violet

Yoshikazu Tanaka

2006-01-01

278

Why Is a Flower Five-Petaled?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines why many flowers are five-petaled through the use of a five-petaled model that draws insights from the location of cell clusters at a shoot apex, rather than by way of the Fibonacci sequence or the golden ratio as in the past. The conclusion drawn is that flowers are most likely to be five-petaled, followed by six-petaled;…

Nishiyama, Yutaka

2004-01-01

279

In vitro flowering of Dendrobium candidum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dendrobium candidum, a wild orchid species from China, normally requires three to four years of cultivation before it can produce flowers. The\\u000a effects of plant hormones and polyamines on flower initiation of this species in tissue culture were investigated. The addition\\u000a of spermidine, or BA, or the combination of NAA and BA to the culture medium can induce protocorms or

Guangyuan Wang; Zhihong Xu; Tet-Fatt Chia; Nam-Hai Chua

1997-01-01

280

Antioxidant activity of Cassia auriculata flowers.  

PubMed

The ethanol and methanol extracts of Cassia auriculata flowers were screened for antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity was determined by an improved assay based on the decolorization of the radical monocation of 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method. The ethanol and methanol extracts of C. auriculata flowers showed antioxidant activity in both assays. PMID:17071015

Kumaran, A; Karunakaran, R Joel

2006-09-26

281

Human preference for individual colors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color preference is an important aspect of human behavior, but little is known about why people like some colors more than others. Recent results from the Berkeley Color Project (BCP) provide detailed measurements of preferences among 32 chromatic colors as well as other relevant aspects of color perception. We describe the fit of several color preference models, including ones based

Stephen E. Palmer; Karen B. Schloss

2010-01-01

282

Color Television-Part I  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief history of color television and the reasons leading up to the Columbia Broadcasting System color television system have been presented. A general theory for color television, including color, flicker, and electrical characteristics, is also given. Equipment for color-television transmission and reception has been designed and constructed based on these principles. I. INTRODUCTION Much of the significance of color

P. C. Goldmark; J. N. Dyer; E. R. Piore; J. M. Hollywood

1999-01-01

283

The blue anthocyanin pigments from the blue flowers of Heliophila coronopifolia L. (Brassicaceae).  

PubMed

Six acylated delphinidin glycosides (pigments 1-6) and one acylated kaempferol glycoside (pigment 9) were isolated from the blue flowers of cape stock (Heliophila coronopifolia) in Brassicaceae along with two known acylated cyanidin glycosides (pigments 7 and 8). Pigments 1-8, based on 3-sambubioside-5-glucosides of delphinidin and cyanidin, were acylated with hydroxycinnamic acids at 3-glycosyl residues of anthocyanidins. Using spectroscopic and chemical methods, the structures of pigments 1, 2, 5, and 6 were determined to be: delphinidin 3-O-[2-O-(?-xylopyranosyl)-6-O-(acyl)-?-glucopyranoside]-5-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-?-glucopyranoside], in which acyl moieties were, respectively, cis-p-coumaric acid for pigment 1, trans-caffeic acid for pigment 2, trans-p-coumaric acid for pigment 5 (a main pigment) and trans-ferulic acid for pigment 6, respectively. Moreover, the structure of pigments 3 and 4 were elucidated, respectively, as a demalonyl pigment 5 and a demalonyl pigment 6. Two known anthocyanins (pigments 7 and 8) were identified to be cyanidin 3-(6-p-coumaroyl-sambubioside)-5-(6-malonyl-glucoside) for pigment 7 and cyanidin 3-(6-feruloyl-sambubioside)-5-(6-malonyl-glucoside) for pigment 8 as minor anthocyanin pigments. A flavonol pigment (pigment 9) was isolated from its flowers and determined to be kaempferol 3-O-[6-O-(trans-feruloyl)-?-glucopyranoside]-7-O-cellobioside-4'-O-glucopyranoside as the main flavonol pigment. On the visible absorption spectral curve of the fresh blue petals of this plant and its petal pressed juice in the pH 5.0 buffer solution, three characteristic absorption maxima were observed at 546, 583 and 635 nm. However, the absorption curve of pigment 5 (a main anthocyanin in its flower) exhibited only one maximum at 569 nm in the pH 5.0 buffer solution, and violet color. The color of pigment 5 was observed to be very unstable in the pH 5.0 solution and soon decayed. In the pH 5.0 solution, the violet color of pigment 5 was restored as pure blue color by addition of pigment 9 (a main flavonol in this flower) like its fresh flower, and its blue solution exhibited the same three maxima at 546, 583 and 635 nm. On the other hand, the violet color of pigment 5 in the pH 5.0 buffer solution was not restored as pure blue color by addition of deacyl pigment 9 or rutin (a typical flower copigment). It is particularly interesting that, a blue anthocyanin-flavonol complex was extracted from the blue flowers of this plant with H(2)O or 5% HOAc solution as a dark blue powder. This complex exhibited the same absorption maxima at 546, 583 and 635 nm in the pH 5.0 buffer solution. Analysis of FAB mass measurement established that this blue anthocyanin-flavonol complex was composed of one molecule each of pigment 5 and pigment 9, exhibiting a molecular ion [M+1] (+) at 2102 m/z (C(93)H(105)O(55) calc. 2101.542). However, this blue complex is extremely unstable in acid solution. It really dissociates into pigment 5 and pigment 9. PMID:21903230

Saito, Norio; Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Toki, Kenjiro; Shinoda, Koichi; Shigihara, Atsushi; Honda, Toshio

2011-09-06

284

Relative visual saliency differences induce sizable bias in consumer choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumers often need to make very rapid choices among multiple brands (e.g., at a supermarket shelf) that differ both in their reward value (e.g., taste) and in their visual properties (e.g., color and brightness of the packaging). Since the visual properties of stimuli are known to influence visual attention, and attention is known to influence choices, this gives rise to

Milica Milosavljevic; Vidhya Navalpakkam; Christof Koch; Antonio Rangel

285

Attenuation of FLOWERING LOCUS C activity as a mechanism for the evolution of summer-annual flowering behavior in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant species have evolved a wide variety of flowering habits, each adapted to maximize reproductive success in their local environment. Even within a species, accessions from different environments can exhibit markedly different flowering behavior. In Arabidopsis, some accessions are rapid-cycling summer annuals, whereas others accessions are late flowering and vernalization responsive and thus behave as winter annuals. Two genes, FLOWERING

Scott D. Michaels; Yuehui He; Katia C. Scortecci; Richard M. Amasino

2003-01-01

286

Size constraints and flower abundance determine the number of interactions in a plant-flower visitor web  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of interactions with flower visitor species differs considerably among insect pollinated plants. Knowing the causes for this variation is central to the conservation of single species as well as whole plant ? \\/flower visitor communities. Species specific constraints on flower visitor numbers are seldom investigated at the community level. In this study we tested whether flower size parameters

Martina Stang; Peter G. L. Klinkhamer; Eddy van der Meijden

2006-01-01

287

The detection of various color combinations under different chromatic ambient illuminations.  

PubMed

Our purpose was to reveal the effects of ambient illumination color and various foreground/background color pairings on a choice reaction time task performed on a color CRT. Six men and two women with normal color vision served as observers in a four-alternative forced choice procedure. A small (18' visual angle) colored circle appeared in the center of one of the unmarked quadrants of the screen. The observer's task was to respond as quickly as possible to this target by pressing one of four buttons corresponding to its location. We found that target colors that were opponent to the background colors were most quickly detected. Detection was enhanced by maximizing both brightness and chromatic contrast, but brightness contrast was much more effective. Chromatic ambient lighting which was a log unit dimmer than the target luminance had no effect on performance. PMID:3718380

Neri, D F; Luria, S M; Kobus, D A

1986-06-01

288

Synchrony in the phenology of a culturally iconic spring flower  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the flowering phenology of the cultural iconic Spring Snowflake Leucojum vernum, a considerable tourist attraction, recorded from two sites in western Poland. Flowering dates at the two sites were closely correlated but about 6 days later at the more natural area. The end of flowering was associated with the start of canopy leafing. Early flowering was related to a longer flowering season which may benefit ecotourism under future climate warming.

Sparks, Tim H.; Mizera, Tadeusz; Wójtowicz, Wanda; Tryjanowski, Piotr

2012-03-01

289

Synchrony in the phenology of a culturally iconic spring flower.  

PubMed

We examine the flowering phenology of the cultural iconic Spring Snowflake Leucojum vernum, a considerable tourist attraction, recorded from two sites in western Poland. Flowering dates at the two sites were closely correlated but about 6 days later at the more natural area. The end of flowering was associated with the start of canopy leafing. Early flowering was related to a longer flowering season which may benefit ecotourism under future climate warming. PMID:21547445

Sparks, Tim H; Mizera, Tadeusz; Wójtowicz, Wanda; Tryjanowski, Piotr

2011-05-06

290

The Impact of Choice Inconsistencies in Stated Choice Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new test procedure revealing mutuallyinconsistent choices has been developed andapplied to Stated Choice data. Our analysisshows that inconsistent choices commonly occurin several Stated Choice tasks. An applicationof the test to the Norwegian Value of Timestudy data shows that failing to excludeinconsistent choices resulted in asubstantially higher Value of time. Theinconsistent choices were made by less educatedparticipants. As the tasks

Kjartan Sćlensminde

2002-01-01

291

The nature of colors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Color is a visible aspect of objects and lights, and as such is an objective characteristic of our phenomenal world. Correspondingly also objects and lights are objective, although their subjectivity cannot be disregarded since they belong to our phenomenal world. The distinction between perception and sensation deals with colors seen either in complex displays or in isolation. Reality of colors is apparently challenged by virtual reality, while virtual reality is a good example of what colors are. It seems difficult to combine that aspect of reality colors have in our experience and the concept that colors represent something in the external environment: the distinction between stimulation and perceived object is crucial for understanding the relationships between phenomenal world and physical reality. A modern concept of isomorphism seems useful in interpreting the role of colors. The relationship between the psychological structure of colors and the physical stimulation is enlightened by the analysis of pseudocolors. The perceptual, subjective characteristics of colors go along with the subjectivity of scientific concepts. Colors, emotions, and concepts are all in some people's mind: none of them is independent of the subject mind. Nevertheless they can be communicated from person to person by an appropriate scientific terminology.

da Pos, Osvaldo

2002-06-01

292

California Policy Choices. Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

California Policy Choices is an annual, edited volume seeking to improve public policy choices made in California political systems. It does so not by advocating particular policy choices, but by analyzing the consequences of choices already made, by incr...

J. J. Kirlin D. R. Winkler

1984-01-01

293

White-point independent RGB Primaries for Color Image Encoding  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method to calculate sets of RGB primariesthat are white-point independent and have suitable gamutproperties when evaluated with regards to surface colors.These primaries can be used as a basis for defining anoutput-referred color encoding intended for printapplications. The resulting RGB sensors are sharp, i.e. decorrelated,emphasizing again that for imagingapplications, the choice of a chromatic adaptationtransform based on sharp

Sabine Süsstrunk; Clement Fredembach; Jack Holm; Graham D. Finlayson

294

Effect of Dietary Carotenoid Supplementation on Food Intake and Immune Function in a Songbird with no Carotenoid Coloration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of ornamental carotenoid coloration suggest that animals may have evolved specialized mechanisms for maximizing color expression and advertising their potential worth as a mate. For example, when given a choice of foods, many carotenoid-pigmented fishes and birds select the more colorful, presumably carotenoid-rich foods, and then accumulate these pigments at high levels in both the integument and systemically, in

Kevin J. McGraw; Ondi L. Crino; William Medina-Jerez; Paul M. Nolan

2006-01-01

295

The Color of Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by WebExhibits.org, the Why is Water Blue? (1) Web site starts off this Topic in Depth. Visitors will learn the factors that affect the colors we see, what color water actually is, and the basic physics and chemistry behind the phenomenon. This site is hard to beat for its clear explanations as well as its interesting photographs and illustrations. The second site, entitled the Common Water Quality Complaints Color Guide (2), gives possible sources of nineteen color variations in water. For example, if water is reddish-orange, it most likely contains high iron concentrations. This unique and useful site is brought to the Web by the University of Colorado Boulder department of Geography. Next, from the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, comes the What is Hydrologic Optics? (3) Web site. Explanations of water optics including scatter, attenuation, and absorption are given along with waters inherent and apparent optical properties. The fourth site, Water Color (4), is provided by Annis Water Resources Institute of Grand Valley State University. The page describes the Forel-Ule color scale, which provides a standard method for determining water color and tells why a waters color is significant. Next, from NASA's Visible Earth Web site, the Ocean Color (5) page gives a unique look at the color of oceans from around the world. The seven impressive satellite images, which include the Mississippi Delta and the Black Sea, include explanations of what is most likely causing the color differences. Anyone who has ever visited Yellowstone National Park knows that the brilliant colors of the many mineral springs are breathtaking. The sixth site, from the National Park Service, highlights one of these called Emerald Spring (6). The page describes how sulfur combines with reflected blue light, which makes the hot spring appear a magnificent emerald green. Next, the Laboratory Services (7) page of the Michigan Water Research Center Web site explores several physical measurements of water including color. The page contains a description, along with various links, regarding what substances cause the color of water to change and what is meant by true and apparent color. The last Web site, Secondary Drinking Water Regulations: Guidance for Nuisance Chemicals (8), is provided by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The site describes what secondary regulations are, why color is one, and what the standards are for color.

Brieske, Joel A.

2002-01-01

296

Color scene analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a color scene analysis method for the object surfaces appearing in the noisy and imperfect images of natural scenes. It is developed based on the spatial and spectral grouping property of the human visual system. The uniformly colored surfaces are recognized by their monomodal 3-D color distributions and extracted in the spatial domain using the lightness and chromaticity network of the Munsell system. The textured image regions are identified by their irregular histogram distributions and isolated in the image plane using the Julesz connectivity detection rules. The method is applied to various color images corrupted by noise and degraded heavily by under-sampling and low color-contrast imperfections. The method was able to detect all the uniformly colored and heavily textured object areas in these images.

Celenk, Mehmet

1994-05-01

297

Constitutional biases in early perceptual learning: I. Preferences between colors, patterns, and composite stimuli of colors and patterns in genetically manipulated and imprinted quail chicks (C. coturnix japonica)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bidirectional genetic selection of quail for early color preferences, for 18 generations, resulted in nearly perfect choices of blue over red in one and red over blue in the other selected line. It also enhanced the preference of a grated over a dotted black-and-white pattern. Color and pattern preferences in hybrids of selected and control lines fell back to about

Joseph K. Kovach

1983-01-01

298

Seismic characteristics and identification of negative flower structures, positive flower structures, and positive structural inversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Negative and positive flower structures and positive inverted structures imply specific modes of formation, and their distinctive characteristics make them important criteria for the identification of certain structural styles. A negative flower structure from the Andaman Sea consists of a shallow synform bounded by upward-spreading strands of a wrench fault that have mostly normal separations. Paralleling monoclines and oblique, en

1985-01-01

299

First flowering dates and flowering periods of prairie plants at Woodworth, North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We recorded flowering events for 97 species of prairie plants for 2-6 years near Woodworth, ND. Earliest and latest flower initiation dates varied by year. Temperature seemed much more important than precipitation in influencing phenology of species that bloom from late March through May, but no strong climatic effect was evident for plants that bloom later in the growing season.

Callow, J. M.; Kantrud, H. A.; Higgins, K. F.

1992-01-01

300

Adult butterfly feeding–nectar flower associations: constraints of taxonomic affiliation, butterfly, and nectar flower morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Butterfly–flower morphological interrelationships were investigated for 108 butterfly species and 20 plants at Nagpur, India. Distinct clusters of higher taxa (families) are disclosed for butterfly morphology and significant morphological and taxonomic associations occur in nectar exploitation. Flower corolla depth generally restricts exploitation by butterflies in relation to proboscis length and butterflies with high wing load indices bias their feeding to

Ashish D. Tiple; Arun M. Khurad; Roger L. H. Dennis

2009-01-01

301

THE EXPRESSION OF THE GENE FOR LYCOPENE ż-CYCLASE IS ELEVATED IN LEAVES AND FLOWERS AND DOWN-REGULATED IN BOTH YELLOW- AND RED- FLESHED PAPAYA FRUITS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carotene pigments in flowers and fruits are distinct features related to fitness advantages such as attracting insects for pollination and birds for seeds disposal. In papaya, the flesh color of fruit is considered a quality trait that varies in nutritional values and is linked to shelf life of the ...

302

Flower volatiles, crop varieties and bee responses.  

PubMed

Pollination contributes to an estimated one third of global food production, through both the improvement of the yield and the quality of crops. Volatile compounds emitted by crop flowers mediate plant-pollinator interactions, but differences between crop varieties are still little explored. We investigated whether the visitation of crop flowers is determined by variety-specific flower volatiles using strawberry varieties (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne) and how this affects the pollination services of the wild bee Osmia bicornis L. Flower volatile compounds of three strawberry varieties were measured via headspace collection. Gas chromatography showed that the three strawberry varieties produced the same volatile compounds but with quantitative differences of the total amount of volatiles and between distinct compounds. Electroantennographic recordings showed that inexperienced females of Osmia bicornis had higher antennal responses to all volatile compounds than to controls of air and paraffin oil, however responses differed between compounds. The variety Sonata was found to emit a total higher level of volatiles and also higher levels of most of the compounds that evoked antennal responses compared with the other varieties Honeoye and Darselect. Sonata also received more flower visits from Osmia bicornis females under field conditions, compared with Honeoye. Our results suggest that differences in the emission of flower volatile compounds among strawberry varieties mediate their attractiveness to females of Osmia bicornis. Since quality and quantity of marketable fruits depend on optimal pollination, a better understanding of the role of flower volatiles in crop production is required and should be considered more closely in crop-variety breeding. PMID:23977347

Klatt, Björn K; Burmeister, Carina; Westphal, Catrin; Tscharntke, Teja; von Fragstein, Maximillian

2013-08-20

303

MonoColor CMOS sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new breed of CMOS color sensor called MonoColor sensor is developed for a barcode reading application in AIDC industry. The RGBW color filter array (CFA) in a MonoColor sensor is arranged in a 8 x 8 pixels CFA with only 4 pixels of them are color (RGB) pixels and the rest of 60 pixels are transparent or monochrome. Since the majority of pixels are monochrome, MonoColor sensor maintains 98% barcode decode performance compared with a pure monochrome CMOS sensor. With the help of monochrome and color pixel fusion technique, the resulting color pictures have similar color quality in terms of Color Semantic Error (CSE) compared with a Bayer pattern (RGB) CMOS color camera. Since monochrome pixels are more sensitive than color pixels, a MonoColor sensor produces in general about 2X brighter color picture and higher luminance pixel resolution.

Wang, Ynjiun P.

2009-02-01

304

Restorer: Four Color Chart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Restorer is a visualization technique for indicating the location of missing data in a scientific visualization. Rather than filling missing data regions with interpolated data colored with the same scale as real data or simply leaving such regions empty, the restorer technique fills the regions with interpolated data colored with a color table with only luminance values. This technique allows missing data to be indicated clearly without distracting from the content of the real data.

Cavallo, John; Shiri, Shahram; Twiddy, Ray

1994-08-24

305

Color Sines Classroom Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson from Math Machines, the class will use an RGB Color Mixer and a graphing calculator to control the color of a single pixel. In addition to learning about color, the students will gain experience using and programming calculators. A participant handout (including worksheet) and facilitator notes are made available for download in DOC file format. A link to a required calculator program is also included.

Thomas, Fred

2011-11-04

306

Colors Collide or Combine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners place multiple M&M's in a plate of water to watch what happens as the candies dissolve. Often learners expect the colors from each M&M to blend when they come together, but instead the colors remain separate along a defined border. Learners will explore how the areas of color change shape as M&Mâs are placed in different positions in the plate.

Kessler, James H.; Galvan, Patricia M.

2007-01-01

307

Effect of flower structure and flower colour on intrafloral warming and pollen germination and pollen-tube growth in winter flowering Crocus L. (Iridaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The internal temperature of the flowers of three colour variants of winter floweringCrocus chrysanthusand ofC. tommasinianuswere compared with ambient in the dark, and when subject to artificial horizontal illumination with daylight spectra. Illuminated flowers warmed up to 3°C above ambient. In the dark, flowers also showed slight warming. In all varieties, pollen germinated more freely at 15°C compared to 6°C,

JUNO MCKEE; A. J. RICHARDS

1998-01-01

308

Food & Color Additive Petitions  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Resources related to food and color additive petitions, including petitions currently held in abeyance. Quick ... Food. Print; ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/foodadditivesingredients

309

Matching Background Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chapter introduces an especially important subject in the concealment of animals--countershading. One observes many animals with colors that match the general color of their usual backgrounds. Many leaf-eating insects appear green, for example, making them relatively inconspicuous against their normal background of leaves. The manner of coloration that will provide such a color match is not as obvious as one might imagine. It depends significantly on the nature of the lighting. The inquiry-based activities included in this section effectively illustrate this concept.

Ipsen, David; Gillfillan, Gretchen L.; Judy Diamond (Revised New Edition); Judy Scotchmoor (Revised New Edition); Stebbins, Robert

2008-04-01

310

Color and scent: how single genes influence pollinator attraction.  

PubMed

A major function of angiosperm flowers is the recruitment of animal pollinators that serve to transfer pollen among conspecific plants. Distinct sets of floral characteristics, called pollination syndromes, are correlated with visitation by specific groups of pollinators. Switches among pollination syndromes have occurred in many plant families. Such switches must have involved coordinated changes in multiple traits and multiple genes. Two well-studied floral traits affecting pollinator attraction are petal color and scent production. We review current knowledge about the biosynthetic pathways for floral color and scent production and their interaction at the genetic and biochemical levels. A key question in the field concerns the genes that underlie natural variation in color and scent and how such genes affect pollinator preference, reproductive isolation, and ultimately speciation. PMID:23467550

Sheehan, H; Hermann, K; Kuhlemeier, C

2013-03-06

311

Next Choices: Career Choices Beyond University.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Do the 40,000 who enter higher education each year value their experience, and do they make the right choice about where and what to study. The applicants of 1998, the first cohort to pay tuition fees, certainly have a positive perspective, but more could...

E. Pollard R. Pearson R. Willison

2004-01-01

312

Water heaters and energy conservation - choices, choices!  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews how to best find an energy efficient water heating system. Most people already know they should look for energy efficiency from the heater itself but additional savings can be found in water distribution, equipment sizing and selection and maintenance. Topic areas in the article include the following: is a new water heater needed; new heater choices; heater

L. Weingarten; S. Weingarten

1996-01-01

313

Color reproduction with a smartphone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world is full of colors. Most of the colors we see around us can be created on common digital displays simply by superposing light with three different wavelengths. However, no mixture of colors can produce a fully pure color identical to a spectral color. Using a smartphone, students can investigate the main features of primary color addition and understand how colors are made on digital displays.

Thoms, Lars-Jochen; Colicchia, Giuseppe; Girwidz, Raimund

2013-10-01

314

Color categories affect pre-attentive color perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Categorical perception (CP) of color is the faster and\\/or more accurate discrimination of colors from different categories than equivalently spaced colors from the same category. Here, we investigate whether color CP at early stages of chromatic processing is independent of top–down modulation from attention. A visual oddball task was employed where frequent and infrequent colored stimuli were either same- or

Alexandra Clifford; Amanda Holmes; Ian R. L. Davies; Anna Franklin

2010-01-01

315

Psychology of Color: Similarities Between Abstract and Clothing Color Preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies, one of university students and one of non-students, of the similarities between color preferences as an abstract concept and color preferences for clothing are reported. Using Munsell color standards in a controlled viewing setting, subjects ranked preferences for 10 hues, the color of a favorite garment, and dominant colors in their wardrobe. Chi Square, Kendall Coefficient of Concordance

Charlene Lind

1993-01-01

316

Color image segmentation considering human sensitivity for color pattern variations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color image segmentation plays an important role in the computer vision and image processing area. In this paper, we propose a novel color image segmentation algorithm in consideration of human visual sensitivity for color pattern variations by generalizing K-means clustering. Human visual system has different color perception sensitivity according to the spatial color pattern variation. To reflect this effect, we

Kuk-Jin Yoon; In-So Kweon

2001-01-01

317

An evolutionary fuzzy color emotion model for coloring support systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we improved the coloring support system that was proposed in our previous research. The previous system could advise color combinations for clothing. The user enters some emotional keywords, such as ldquocasualrdquo and ldquopretty,rdquo which are impressions put forth by colors, and the system retrieves color combinations that seem to suit the keyword from a color database. The

M. Tokumaru; N. Muranaka

2008-01-01

318

Color transformation for color blind compensation on augmented reality system  

Microsoft Academic Search

People with color blindness often have difficulty in distinguishing certain colors. People with total color blindness can only see things in black, white, and gray. Deficiency of color perception is causing many problems for people with color blindness, from daily activities to educational issue. One solution to help this problem is to build an aid system using image processing techniques

Bayu Sri Ananto; Riri Fitri Sari; Ruki Harwahyu

2011-01-01

319

Experience-dependent choices ensure species-specific fragrance accumulation in male orchid bees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male neotropical orchid bees (Euglossini) collect volatile chemicals from orchid flowers and other sources and store them in hind leg cavities. The accumulated fragrance bouquets are later emitted at mating sites. Although most other insects synthesize pheromone blends de novo, specific euglossine perfumes are derived from active choices in a changing fragrance market. Male bees of three species of Euglossa

Thomas Eltz; David W. Roubik; Klaus Lunau

2005-01-01

320

Resource choice of social wasps: influence of presence, size and species of resident wasps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: The role of visual cues provided by resident wasps on resource choice by yellowjacket and paper wasp foragers was investigated. Large spring queen yellowjackets and small early season yellowjacket foragers (Vespula germanica, Vespula maculifrons, and Vespula vidua) were extracted in hexane to remove odors and posed as though feeding at petri dish feeders bearing daisy-like flower models, equipped with

M. Raveret Richter; V. L. Tisch

1999-01-01

321

Tiger cubs and little flowers.  

PubMed

Short vignettes are related to show the conditions for girls and women in Morocco. Descriptions are given for child labor, literacy, the government's education campaign, youth group efforts to enhance family planning (FP) knowledge, the impact of FP outreach in rural areas, and unmarried mothers. In Morocco's cities, young boys can be seen hawking cigarettes and working in market stalls; in the countryside, boys herd goats or do other farm work. In rural areas girls are hidden by having them perform work around the house or on the farm primarily indoors. Women are supervised by women. 54% work as maids and 39% are apprentices in carpet factories. Parents prefer to have their daughters working and consider it protection from mischief as well as needed income. Only 60% of girls are enrolled in primary school vs. 80% of the boys. In rural areas, only 44% of girls are enrolled, and 20% stay to complete their primary education, while 76% of boys enroll and 63% complete primary school. Literacy of women has an effect on the ability to accurately take birth control pills. All ages of women gather at schools in the evening for lessons in reading and writing in a program supported by the King. Women are pleased with their success in just learning how to write their own names. Television advertisements promote sending children to school, as another part of the Ministry of Education's campaign to increase girl's educational status. There are still not enough schools; many schools are double shift, and communities are building their own schools. Youth clubs, which refer to boys as "tiger cubs" and girls as "little flowers," try to familiarize young people with some basic information about contraception. A traditional midwife relates some problems with girl's education: costs for clothing and supplies, worry about male teachers, and poor role models. In some remote areas, farm families do not send their children to school, because of the distance to schools and the need for farm workers. Husbands divorce wives for not producing children, and turn away FP workers who knock on their doors. Unmarried mothers aged 14-19 are usually illiterate and poor and cannot afford abortion. Orphanages are full. FP is practiced only by the married, after having proven their fertility. PMID:12318178

1993-01-01

322

Single color and single flavor color superconductivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We survey the non-locked color-flavor-spin channels for quark-quark (color\\u000asuperconducting) condensates in QCD, using an NJL model. We also study\\u000aisotropic quark-antiquark (mesonic) condensates. We make mean-field estimates\\u000aof the strength and sign of the self-interaction of each condensate, using\\u000afour-fermion interaction vertices based on known QCD interactions. For the\\u000aattractive quark pairing channels, we solve the mean-field gap equations

Mark G. Alford; Jeffrey A. Bowers; Jack M. Cheyne; Greig A. Cowan

2003-01-01

323

Passengers' Airport Choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modelling airport choice of passengers has been a subject of interest for air transport scientists and airport managers already for a while. Wilken, Berster and Gelhausen have reported of a market segment specific model approach to airport choice in Germany in a paper entitled \\

Marc Christopher Gelhausen

2007-01-01

324

A Question of Choice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses the issue of whether the child must be presented with a lesson before choosing it, or should be allowed to choose any work desired. Presents arguments for each philosophy, and the pros and cons of each choice. Asserts that the free choice option is most consistent with Montessori philosophy. (SD)

Kirby, Karen

2003-01-01

325

School Choice Marches forward  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One year ago, the "Wall Street Journal" dubbed 2011 "the year of school choice," opining that "this year is shaping up as the best for reformers in a very long time." School-choice laws took great strides in 2011, both in the number of programs that succeeded across states and also in the size and scope of the adopted programs. Yet education…

Butcher, Jonathan

2013-01-01

326

Counselling women about choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patient choice—informed consent and informed refusal—is an important ethical and legal principle in medicine. In pregnancy this issue is not straightforward: should a pregnant woman's autonomous choice be respected when she may cause fetal harm by declining recommended caesarean section? Should a pregnant women be free to choose elective caesarean section as an alternative to labour and vaginal delivery? This

L. H. Harris

2001-01-01

327

The Illusion of Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both New Labour and the Conservatives are keen to emphasise choice and diversity in crucial areas of public provision--and particularly with regard to education and health. In this article, "FORUM" co-Editor Clyde Chitty concentrates on recent proposals by the two main parties for promoting greater choice in secondary schooling in England. This…

Chitty, Clyde

2004-01-01

328

Interference of verbal labels in color categorical perception  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies demonstrated that color categorical perception (CP; better cross-category than within-category discrimination) was reduced by verbal interference, suggesting that CP is mediated by verbal labeling. Here, we examined chromatic generality and experience-dependency of verbal interference in CP using the Stroop effect. We employed a simultaneous two-alternative forced choice discrimination task. Congruent or incongruent words were presented prior to discrimination. In experiment 1, incongruent color names reduced CP regardless of color boundary pairs. Next, we used noncolor words that seemed to be associated with color through experience. The results showed that the tested noncolor words did not modify CP (experiment 2). However, combined presentation of color and shape produced Stroop interference (experiment 3). Our finding suggests that familiarity or mastery of categorized information through experience may be evaluated by verbal interference.

Yokoi, Kenji; Nishimori, Tomoaki; Saida, Shinya

2008-11-01

329

Natural Variation in Petal Color in Lycoris longituba Revealed by Anthocyanin Components  

PubMed Central

Lycoris longituba is one of the species belonging to the Amaryllidaceae family. Despite its limited distribution, endemic to central eastern China, this species displays an exceptionally wide diversity of flower colors from purple, red, orange, to yellow, in nature. We study the natural variation of floral color in L. longituba by testing the components of water-soluble vacuolar pigments – anthocyanins – in its petals using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Four anthocyanins were identified, cyanidin-3-sophoroside (Cy3So), cyanidin-3-xylosylglucoside (Cy3XyGlc), cyanidin-3-sambubioside (Cy3Sa), and pelargonidin-3-xylosylglucoside (Pg3XyGlc), which occur at various amounts in L. longituba petals of different colors. A multivariate analysis was used to explore the relationship between pigments and flower color. Anthocyanins have been thought to play a major role in acting as a UV screen that protects the plant's DNA from sunlight damage and attracting insects for the purpose of pollination. Thus, knowledge about the content and type of anthocyanins determining the petal coloration of Lycoris longituba will help to study the adaptive evolution of flowers and provide useful information for the ornamental breeding of this species.

He, Qiuling; Shen, Ye; Wang, Mingxiu; Huang, Minren; Yang, Ruizhen; Zhu, Shuijin; Wang, Liangsheng; Xu, Yanjun; Wu, Rongling

2011-01-01

330

Haptic choice blindness  

PubMed Central

Choice blindness is the failure to notice a mismatch between intention and outcome when making decisions. It is unknown whether choice blindness occurs when participants have extended interaction with real objects. Here, we examined the case when objects could be touched but not seen. Participants examined pairs of common, everyday objects inside a specially constructed box where a silent turntable was used to switch objects between initial choice and later justification. For similar pairs of objects, we found detection rates of around 22%, consistent with previous studies of choice blindness. For pairs consisting of more distinctive exemplars, the detection rate rose to 70%. Our results indicate that choice blindness does occur after haptic interaction with real objects, but is strongly modulated by similarity.

Steenfeldt-Kristensen, Catherine; Thornton, Ian M.

2013-01-01

331

Choice and reinforcement delay  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies of choice between two delayed reinforcers have indicated that the relative immediacy of the reinforcer is a major determinant of the relative frequency of responding. Parallel studies of choice between two interresponse times have found exceptions to this generality. The present study looked at the choice by pigeons between two delays, one of which was always four times longer than the other, but whose absolute durations were varied across conditions. The results indicated that choice is not uniquely determined by the relative immediacy of reinforcement, but that absolute delays are also involved. Models for concurrent chained schedules appear to be more applicable to the present data than the matching relation; however, these too failed to predict choice for long delays.

Gentry, G.D.; Marr, M.J.

1980-01-01

332

Changes in time of sowing, flowering and maturity of cereals in Europe under climate change.  

PubMed

The phenological development of cereal crops from emergence through flowering to maturity is largely controlled by temperature, but also affected by day length and potential physiological stresses. Responses may vary between species and varieties. Climate change will affect the timing of cereal crop development, but exact changes will also depend on changes in varieties as affected by plant breeding and variety choices. This study aimed to assess changes in timing of major phenological stages of cereal crops in Northern and Central Europe under climate change. Records on dates of sowing, flowering, and maturity of wheat, oats and maize were collected from field experiments conducted during the period 1985-2009. Data for spring wheat and spring oats covered latitudes from 46 to 64°N, winter wheat from 46 to 61°N, and maize from 47 to 58°N. The number of observations (site-year-variety combinations) varied with phenological phase, but exceeded 2190, 227, 2076 and 1506 for winter wheat, spring wheat, spring oats and maize, respectively. The data were used to fit simple crop development models, assuming that the duration of the period until flowering depends on temperature and day length for wheat and oats, and on temperature for maize, and that the duration of the period from flowering to maturity in all species depends on temperature only. Species-specific base temperatures were used. Sowing date of spring cereals was estimated using a threshold temperature for the mean air temperature during 10 days prior to sowing. The mean estimated temperature thresholds for sowing were 6.1, 7.1 and 10.1°C for oats, wheat and maize, respectively. For spring oats and wheat the temperature threshold increased with latitude. The effective temperature sums required for both flowering and maturity increased with increasing mean annual temperature of the location, indicating that varieties are well adapted to given conditions. The responses of wheat and oats were largest for the period from flowering to maturity. Changes in timing of cereal phenology by 2040 were assessed for two climate model projections according to the observed dependencies on temperature and day length. The results showed advancements of sowing date of spring cereals by 1-3 weeks depending on climate model and region within Europe. The changes were largest in Northern Europe. Timing of flowering and maturity were projected to advance by 1-3 weeks. The changes were largest for grain maize and smallest for winter wheat, and they were generally largest in the western and northern part of the domain. There were considerable differences in predicted timing of sowing, flowering and maturity between the two climate model projections applied. PMID:22934894

Olesen, J E; Břrgesen, C D; Elsgaard, L; Palosuo, T; Rötter, R P; Skjelvĺg, A O; Peltonen-Sainio, P; Börjesson, T; Trnka, M; Ewert, F; Siebert, S; Brisson, N; Eitzinger, J; van Asselt, E D; Oberforster, M; van der Fels-Klerx, H J

2012-08-30

333

Novel sensor for color control in solid state lighting applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LED wavelength and luminosity shifts due to temperature, dimming, aging, and binning uncertainty can cause large color errors in open-loop light-mixing illuminators. Multispectral color light sensors combined with feedback circuits can compensate for these LED shifts. Typical color light sensor design variables include the choice of light-sensing material, filter configuration, and read-out circuitry. Cypress Semiconductor has designed and prototyped a color sensor chip that consists of photodiode arrays connected to a I/F (Current to Frequency) converter. This architecture has been chosen to achieve high dynamic range (~100dB) and provide flexibility for tailoring sensor response. Several different optical filter configurations were evaluated in this prototype. The color-sensor chip was incorporated into an RGB light color mixing system with closed-loop optical feedback. Color mixing accuracy was determined by calculating the difference between (u',v') set point values and CIE coordinates measured with a reference colorimeter. A typical color precision ?u'v' less than 0.0055 has been demonstrated over a wide range of colors, a temperature range of 50C, and light dimming up to 80%.

Gourevitch, Alex; Thurston, Thomas; Singh, Rajiv; Banachowicz, Bartosz; Korobov, Vladimir; Drowley, Cliff

2010-02-01

334

MonoColor CMOS sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new breed of CMOS color sensor called MonoColor sensor is developed for a barcode reading application in AIDC industry. The RGBW color filter array (CFA) in a MonoColor sensor is arranged in a 8 x 8 pixels CFA with only 4 pixels of them are color (RGB) pixels and the rest of 60 pixels are transparent or monochrome. Since

Ynjiun P. Wang

2009-01-01

335

Equivalent Colorings with "Maple"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many counting problems can be modeled as "colorings" and solved by considering symmetries and Polya's cycle index polynomial. This paper presents a "Maple 7" program link http://users.tamuk.edu/kfdrc00/ that, given Polya's cycle index polynomial, determines all possible associated colorings and their partitioning into equivalence classes. These…

Cecil, David R.; Wang, Rongdong

2005-01-01

336

Science Shorts: Seeing Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Colors can open the door to an invisible world of electromagnetism, even when children can barely imagine things they cannot see. This article looks at color as a powerful tool for engaging children of all ages. A corresponding activity is included.

Texley, Juliana

2005-09-01

337

3-D Color Wheels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The blending of information from an academic class with projects from art class can do nothing but strengthen the learning power of the student. Creating three-dimensional color wheels provides the perfect opportunity to combine basic geometry knowledge with color theory. In this article, the author describes how her seventh-grade painting…

DuBois, Ann

2010-01-01

338

Physics of structural colors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, structural colors have attracted great attention in a wide variety of research fields. This is because they are originated from complex interaction between light and sophisticated nanostructures generated in the natural world. In addition, their inherent regular structures are one of the most conspicuous examples of non-equilibrium order formation. Structural colors are deeply connected with recent rapidly

S. Kinoshita; S. Yoshioka; J. Miyazaki

2008-01-01

339

Tropism in azalea and lily flowers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropic responses were examined in azalea Rhododendrom pulchrum and lily Lilium cv. ‘Casablanca’ flowers. Orientation of the flowers in these two species depicts several up/down characteristics, such as angle of the corolla opening, alignment or configuration of a specific petal at the top, plus direction in the curved tip of the pistil and stamen. Gravity was found to be the prime factor, with light as a secondary signal that determines gravitropism in the pistil of the azalea. Within the azalea, sedimented amyloplasts were observed throughout the cells along the inner layers below the epidermis. In lily flowers, no sedimented amyloplasts were found in style cells, and phototropic responses caused upward bending of the pistil. Responses of lily pistils to monochromatic light were consistent with the action spectrum for phototropism in the shoots of monocotyledonous plants. We discuss how these features may increase the fitness for pollination in these two species.

Shimizu, M.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Nakamura, T.; Yamashita, M.

340

Bilabiate Flowers: The Ultimate Response to Bees?  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Bilabiate flowers have evolved in many lineages of the angiosperms, thus representing a convincing example of parallel evolution. Similar to keel blossoms, they have obviously evolved in order to protect pollen against pollen-collecting bees. Although many examples are known, a comprehensive survey on floral diversity and functional constraints of bilabiate flowers is lacking. Here, the concept is widened and described as a general pattern. Methods The present paper is a conceptional review including personal observations of the authors. To form a survey on the diversity of bilabiate blossoms, a search was made for examples across the angiosperms and these were combined with personal observations collected during the last 25 years, coupled with knowledge from the literature. New functional terms are introduced that are independent of morphological and taxonomic associations. Key Results Bilabiate constructions occur in at least 38 angiosperm families. They are characterized by dorsiventral organization and dorsal pollen transfer. They are most often realised on the level of a single flower, but may also be present in an inflorescence or as part of a so-called ‘walk-around flower’. Interestingly, in functional terms all nototribic blossoms represent bilabiate constructions. The great majority of specialized bee-flowers can thus be included under bilabiate and keel blossoms. The syndrome introduced here, however, also paves the way for the inclusion of larger animals such as birds and bats. The most important evolutionary trends appear to be in the saving of pollen and the precision of its transfer. With special reference to the Lamiales, selected examples of bilabiate flowers are presented and their functional significance is discussed. Conclusions Bilabiate blossoms protect their pollen against pollen-collecting bees and at the same time render their pollination more precisely. The huge diversity of realised forms indicate the high selection pressure towards the bilabiate syndrome. As bees are very inventive, however, bilabiate constructions will not represent the ultimate response to bees.

Westerkamp, Christian; Classen-Bockhoff, Regine

2007-01-01

341

Self-incompatibility in flowering plants.  

PubMed

Fertilization in flowering plants begins with a pollen grain bearing the male gametes landing on the female stigma. Several mechanisms enable the stigma to discriminate between the different types of pollen that it may receive, of which the best studied is self-incompatibility. The molecules that regulate self-incompatibility are well characterized in two plant families, the Solanaceae and Brassicaceae. This list has recently been extended to include candidates for self-incompatibility molecules from the Rosaceae, Papaveraceae and Poaceae. The information provided by the sequences of these molecules gives insight into the mechanisms and evolution of self-incompatibility in the different families of flowering plants. PMID:8664552

Golz, J F; Clarke, A E; Newbigin, E

1995-10-01

342

Difference in flowering time as an isolating barrier.  

PubMed

Although many theoretical studies have reported strong effects of different flowering times on reproductive isolation, such studies have all focused on the different flowering time within a season, and the subsequently developed models are difficult to apply to the cases of diurnal- and nocturnal-flowering species pairs. The different flowering times within a day differ from those within a season because of the simultaneous opening and closing of the flowers for each species and the carry-over of the pollen from early to later times. In this study, we consider pollinator-mediated, diurnal- and nocturnal-flowering plants and build a new model to study the effects of the different flowering times within a day on reproductive isolation. We assume two loci, each with two alleles, which determine the opening and closing times of flowers, respectively. We numerically calculate the changes in the frequencies of the gametes in a model incorporating the reductions in hybrid viability, flowering costs, recombination rate and degree of dominance at each locus. We found that the early-opening flowers had a much higher fitness than the late-opening flowers and that the maintenance of the two species was difficult even if their flowering times were not overlapping. Therefore, some other mechanisms, such as pollinator preference, may be required to explain the coexistence of closely related diurnal and nocturnal flowers. PMID:23063781

Matsumoto, Tomotaka; Yasumoto, Akiko A; Nitta, Kozue; Yahara, Tetsukazu; Tachida, Hidenori

2012-10-11

343

Ultraviolet Patterns on Rear of Flowers: Basis of Disparity of Buds and Blossoms  

PubMed Central

Flowers of Jasminium primulinum and Hypericum spp. have ultraviolet patterns on the reverse surface of the corolla. Those areas of the surface that are exposed to the outside in the bud are ultraviolet absorbent, whereas the portions that come into view at maturity in the open blossom are ultraviolet reflectant. Buds and blossoms, as a result, appear different in color to insects sensitive to ultraviolet light. Experimental evidence indicates that the ultraviolet-absorbent quality of the outer surface of the bud is a consequence of exposure itself, attributable possibly to a “sun tanning” effect. Images

Eisner, Thomas; Eisner, Maria; Aneshansley, D.

1973-01-01

344

My favourite flowering image: the role of cytokinin as a flowering signal.  

PubMed

My favourite flowering image shows a section in a shoot apical meristem of Sinapis alba undertaking the very first step of its transition to flowering. This step is the activation of the SaSOC1 gene, the Sinapis orthologue of Arabidopsis SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO1 (SOC1), in a few central cells of the meristem. Hidden behind this picture is my long quest of physiological signals controlling flowering. Milestones of this story are briefly recounted here and this gives me an opportunity to raise a number of questions about the nature and function of florigen. PMID:21586428

Bernier, Georges

2011-05-26

345

Colorado's clean energy choices  

SciTech Connect

The daily choices made as consumers affect the environment and the economy. Based on the state of today's technology and economics, Colorado consumers can include energy efficiency and renewable energy into many aspects of their lives. These choices include where they obtain electricity, how they use energy at home, and how they transport themselves from one place to another. In addition to outlining how they can use clean energy, Colorado's Clean Energy Choices gives consumers contacts and links to Web sites for where to get more information.

Strawn, N.; Jones, J.

2000-04-15

346

Interference Colors in Thin Films.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains interference colors in thin films as being due to the removal, or considerable reduction, of a certain color by destructive inteference that results in the complementary color being seen. (GA)|

Armstrong, H. L.

1979-01-01

347

Interference Colors in Thin Films.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains interference colors in thin films as being due to the removal, or considerable reduction, of a certain color by destructive inteference that results in the complementary color being seen. (GA)

Armstrong, H. L.

1979-01-01

348

The evolution of bill coloration and plumage dimorphism supports the transference hypothesis in dabbling ducks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bright coloration in male birds is typically thought to be driven by sexual selection (female choice or male-male competition). Bird species often vary in the intensity of bright coloration, but few studies have addressed this cross-species variation. Potentially this variation could result from either variation in female preferences or in the relative costs of male traits. Species of dabbling ducks

Kevin P. Johnson

1999-01-01

349

Correlated Evolution of Female Mating Preferences and Male Color Patterns in the Guppy Poecilia reticulata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual selection may explain why secondary sexual traits of males are so strongly developed in some species that they seem maladaptive. Female mate choice appears to favor the evolution of conspicuous color patterns in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) from Trinidad, but color patterns vary strikingly among populations. According to most theory, correlated evolution of female mating preferences and preferred male

Anne E. Houde; John A. Endler

1990-01-01

350

The Instructional Effects of Matching or Mismatching Lesson and Posttest Screen Color  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This investigation considers the instructional effects of color as an over-arching context variable when learning from computer displays. The purpose of this investigation is to examine the posttest retrieval effects of color as a local, extra-item non-verbal lesson context variable for constructed-response versus multiple-choice posttest…

Clariana, Roy B.

2004-01-01

351

"The American Way": Resisting the Empire of Force and Color-Blind Racism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students of color (in particular, those who are first-generation Chicano/a as well as first-generation college students), form a discourse community with a tendency to rely on dominant color-blind ideology concerning freedom of choice and equal opportunity to explain their positions within the academy. In this article, the author analyzes the…

Martinez, Aja Y.

2009-01-01

352

Female mating preferences and male coloration covary with water transparency in a Lake Victoria cichlid fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid speciation in Lake Victoria cichlid fish of the genus Pundamilia may be facilitated by sexual selection: female mate choice exerts sexual selection on male nuptial coloration within species and maintains reproductive isolation between species. However, declining water transparency coincides with increasingly dull coloration and increasing hybridization. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism underlying this pattern in Pundamilia

MARTINE E. MAAN; OLE SEEHAUSEN; JACQUES J. M. VAN ALPHEN

2010-01-01

353

60 Co IRRADIATION EFFECT ON COLOR IN MINIMALLY PROCESSED CAULIFLOWER (Brassica spp)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irradiation is a well-established process with clearly documented safety and efficacy. Consumers require a quality product that is convenient and has fresh-like characteristics and take product appearance, like color, into consideration as a primary criterion; it is considered a key role in food choice, food preference and acceptability. The objective of the present work was to investigate color degradation of

Thaise C. F. Nunes; Vladimir D. Rogovschi; Amanda G. Santillo; Robert Michels; Ronaldo N. M. Pitombo; Anna L. C. H. Villavicencio

354

Michigan Monkey-Flower ('Mimulus glabratus var. michiganensis') Recovery Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mirnulus glabratus var. michiganensis (Pennell) Fassett, (Michigan monkey-flower), a member of the Scrophulariaceae (snapdragon family), is an endemic variety of a widespread and diverse complex of yellow monkey-flowers. The taxon is known from only 15 ex...

M. R. Penskar

1997-01-01

355

Interface between culturally based preferences and genetic preferences: female mate choice in Poecilia reticulata.  

PubMed

The relative contribution of genetic and socio-cultural factors in the shaping of behavior is of fundamental importance to biologists and social scientists, yet it has proven to be extremely difficult to study in a controlled, experimental fashion. Here I describe experiments that examined the strength of genetic and cultural (imitative) factors in determining female mate choice in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata. Female guppies from the Paria River in Trinidad have a genetic, heritable preference for the amount of orange body color possessed by males. Female guppies will, however, also copy (imitate) the mate choice of other females in that when two males are matched for orange color, an "observer" female will copy the mate choice of another ("model") female. Three treatments were undertaken in which males differed by an average of 12%, 24%, or 40% of the total orange body color. In all cases, observer females viewed a model female prefer the less colorful male. When males differed by 12% or 24%, observer females preferred the less colorful male and thus copied the mate choice of others, despite a strong heritable preference for orange body color in males. When males differed by 40% orange body color, however, observer females preferred the more colorful male and did not copy the mate choice of the other female. In this system, then, imitation can "override" genetic preferences when the difference between orange body color in males is small or moderate, but genetic factors block out imitation effects when the difference in orange body color in males is large. This experiment provides the first attempt to experimentally examine the relative strength of cultural and genetic preferences for a particular trait and suggests that these two factors moderate one another in shaping social behavior. PMID:11607646

Dugatkin, L A

1996-04-01

356

Is color appearance matching necessary?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of why people are willing to spend more money to buy color systems versus monochrome systems shows that the colorimetric methods used in today's color management systems are insufficient. To fulfill the user's requirements, it is necessary to preserve the appearance of color when an electronic image is reproduced. After proposing formal definitions for color perception and for color appearance, I will present two problems requiring an appearance model to solve: the color selection problem, and gamut mapping.

Beretta, Giordano B.

1994-05-01

357

Improved color image calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technique for calibrating color imagery which has been employed by the Tank-Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) includes measurement of red, green, and blue color panels using a colorimeter during the approximate time that the calibration image is captured. This method has the advantage that the luminance and chromaticity coordinates of the color panels are recorded in real time. However, the disadvantage is the amount of time it takes to measure each individual panel. Outside of a laboratory, the environment cannot be controlled, so the light level and correlated color temperature from the source may shift during the calibration period. A new technique using a spectroradiometer has been developed whereby the spectral reflectance of the color panels are measured beforehand and only the light level and spectral content from the source is monitored during the calibration period. This drastically reduces the time required for calibration, thus rendering insignificant any temporal changes in the light level or correlated color temperature of the panels. The actual luminance and chromaticity of the color panels can be calculated subsequently.

Rogers, Glenn A.; Thomas, David J.

1995-06-01

358

Mutation in TERMINAL FLOWER1 reverses the photoperiodic requirement for flowering in the wild strawberry Fragaria vesca.  

PubMed

Photoperiodic flowering has been extensively studied in the annual short-day and long-day plants rice (Oryza sativa) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), whereas less is known about the control of flowering in perennials. In the perennial wild strawberry, Fragaria vesca (Rosaceae), short-day and perpetual flowering long-day accessions occur. Genetic analyses showed that differences in their flowering responses are caused by a single gene, SEASONAL FLOWERING LOCUS, which may encode the F. vesca homolog of TERMINAL FLOWER1 (FvTFL1). We show through high-resolution mapping and transgenic approaches that FvTFL1 is the basis of this change in flowering behavior and demonstrate that FvTFL1 acts as a photoperiodically regulated repressor. In short-day F. vesca, long photoperiods activate FvTFL1 mRNA expression and short days suppress it, promoting flower induction. These seasonal cycles in FvTFL1 mRNA level confer seasonal cycling of vegetative and reproductive development. Mutations in FvTFL1 prevent long-day suppression of flowering, and the early flowering that then occurs under long days is dependent on the F. vesca homolog of FLOWERING LOCUS T. This photoperiodic response mechanism differs from those described in model annual plants. We suggest that this mechanism controls flowering within the perennial growth cycle in F. vesca and demonstrate that a change in a single gene reverses the photoperiodic requirements for flowering. PMID:22566495

Koskela, Elli A; Mouhu, Katriina; Albani, Maria C; Kurokura, Takeshi; Rantanen, Marja; Sargent, Daniel J; Battey, Nicholas H; Coupland, George; Elomaa, Paula; Hytönen, Timo

2012-05-07

359

The effect of body coloration and group size on social partner preferences in female fighting fish (Betta splendens).  

PubMed

Females of the fighting fish Betta splendens have been shown to associate with other B. splendens females in a manner reminiscent of shoaling behavior. Since body coloration varies dramatically in this species, and since body coloration has been shown to affect shoalmate choice in other species of fish, we examined the influence of body coloration on association preferences in female B. splendens. In dichotomous choice tests, B. splendens females spent more time swimming near groups of females (regardless of coloration) than swimming near an empty chamber, and chose to swim near fish of similar coloration to their own when choosing between two distinctly colored groups of females. When examining the interplay between body coloration and group size, focal fish spent more time swimming near larger groups (N=5) of similarly colored fish than swimming near an individual female of similar coloration. However, focal fish showed no preference when presented with an individual female of similar coloration and a larger group of females of dissimilar coloration. These results suggest that association choices in B. splendens females are strongly affected by both body coloration and by group size. PMID:19059314

Blakeslee, C; McRobert, S P; Brown, A C; Clotfelter, E D

2008-11-19

360

Guided Vocational Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many visually handicapped people never have the opportunity to make an effective vocational choice either because their handicap is, or is thought to be, too limiting, or because they simply cannot picture themselves performing in different types of jobs. (Author)

Bauman, Mary K.

1975-01-01

361

Your Medicare Coverage Choices  

MedlinePLUS

... Check your enrollment Find doctors, hospitals, & facilities Your Medicare coverage choices There are 2 main ways to ... coverage: Step 1: Decide if you want Original Medicare or a Medicare Advantage Plan expand icon You ...

362

NJL-model description of Goldstone boson condensation in the color–flavor locked phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

A schematic NJL-type model is employed to investigate kaon and pion condensation in deconfined quark matter in the color–flavor locked (CFL) phase, explicitly referring to quark degrees of freedom. To that end we allow for non-vanishing pseudoscalar diquark condensates in addition to the scalar ones which constitute the CFL phase. Color neutrality is ensured by the appropriate choice of color

Michael Buballa

2005-01-01

363

Honeybees mark with scent and reject recently visited flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental evidence is reported for flower-marking by honeybees (Apis mellifera ligustica) while they were foraging on an artificial patch of flowers yielding a continuous and equal flow of sucrose solution. Honeybees marked with scent and rejected all recently visited and nectar-depleted flowers. The short fade-out time of this scent allowed discrimination of flowers that temporarily provided no food. The repellent

Martin Giurfa; Josué A. Núńez

1992-01-01

364

Horticultural techniques to improve Celosia plumosa growth for cut flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Celosia plumosa is a quantitative short-day plant in which a long photoperiod of 16 h markedly delayed flowering. Increasing the temperature regime from 17\\/12 °C to 27\\/22 °C (day\\/night) enhanced plant growth and flower stem and inflorescence length, and shortened the time to flower appearance. Pinching the seedlings increased the number of flower stems per plant, but under continuous short-day

Ron Porat; Eitan Shlomo; Abraham H. Halevy

1995-01-01

365

Happiness and public choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measuring individual welfare using data on reported subjective well-being has made great progress. It offers a new way of\\u000a confronting public choice hypotheses with field data, e.g., with respect to partisan preferences or rents in the public bureaucracy.\\u000a Insights from public choice also help to assess the role of happiness measures in public policy. We emphasize that maximizing\\u000a aggregate happiness

Bruno S. Frey; Alois Stutzer

2010-01-01

366

Headspace Volatiles of Scutellaria Baicalensis Georgi Flowers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Volatile constituents of Baikal skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi) flowers were isolated by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. A total of 64 constituents was identified (constituting 57.1 – 89.9% of the total area), 13 of which were tentatively identified. beta...

367

Grammar Schools: Brief Flowering of Social Mobility?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grammar schools are increasingly remembered, especially by right-wing ideologues, as the agents of a "brief flowering" of post-war social mobility. This article presents statistical, documentary and interview evidence of secondary education in the eleven plus era, and finds nothing to justify the claim that selective schools produced a general…

Barker, Bernard

2012-01-01

368

Colour preferences of flower-naive honeybees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flower-naive honeybees Apis mellifera L. flying in an enclosure were tested for their colour preferences. Bees were rewarded once on an achromatic (grey, aluminium or hardboard), or on a chromatic (ultraviolet) disk. Since naive bees never alighted on colour stimuli alone, a scent was given in combination with colour. Their landings on twelve colour stimuli were recorded. Results after one

M. Giurfa; J. Núńez; L. Chittka; R. Menzel

1995-01-01

369

Pigments of the flowers of Hibiscus sabdariffa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The flower petals ofHibiscus sabdariffa contain hibiscitrin as the main component. Gossypitrin is present to a smaller extent. Besides these two, a small amount\\u000a of a new compound named sabdaritrin has also been isolated. On boiling with dilute sulphuric acid it yields a new hydroxyflavone\\u000a called sabdaretin.

P. Suryaprakasa Rao; T. R. Seshadri

1942-01-01

370

Antidiabetic activity of flowers of Hibiscus rosasinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethanol extract of flowers of Hibiscus rosasinensis at doses of 250 mg\\/kg and 500 mg\\/kg significantly reduced the blood glucose level in both acute (1, 3, 5 h) and sub acute (1, 3, 5, 7 days) treatments.

S. Venkatesh; J. Thilagavathi; D. Shyam sundar

2008-01-01

371

Genes directing flower development in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed Central

We describe the effects of four recessive homeotic mutations that specifically disrupt the development of flowers in Arabidopsis thaliana. Each of the recessive mutations affects the outcome of organ development, but not the location of organ primordia. Homeotic transformations observed are as follows. In agamous-1, stamens to petals; in apetala2-1, sepals to leaves and petals to staminoid petals; in apetala3-1, petals to sepals and stamens to carpels; in pistillata-1, petals to sepals. In addition, two of these mutations (ap2-1 and pi-1) result in loss of organs, and ag-1 causes the cells that would ordinarily form the gynoecium to differentiate as a flower. Two of the mutations are temperature-sensitive. Temperature shift experiments indicate that the wild-type AP2 gene product acts at the time of primordium initiation; the AP3 product is active later. It seems that the wild-type alleles of these four genes allow cells to determine their place in the developing flower and thus to differentiate appropriately. We propose that these genes may be involved in setting up or responding to concentric, overlapping fields within the flower primordium.

Bowman, J L; Smyth, D R; Meyerowitz, E M

1989-01-01

372

The Coronal Rays of Passion-flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE filaments, or rays, forming the corona of Passion-flowers are structures of much interest. In 1790, Sowerby described them in Passiflora coerulea as a ``double row of horizontal, thread-like, radiated nectaries.'' His subsequent remarks, however, do not assure us that he regarded them as glandular, or as nectaries as we now define them. In Dr. Masters' ``Contributions to the Natural

John H. Wilson

1895-01-01

373

Flowers and Children: Unearthing Differences, Nurturing Growth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Argues that the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a useful tool to help teachers understand their students' differences and learning preferences. Describes the use of the MBTI at a Catholic elementary school and a related project to link the appreciation of differences to a field trip to a flower show. (MAB)|

Nolan, Noreen; Eichmann, Mary Ellen

1996-01-01

374

Where Have All the Flowers Gone?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an activity for secondary mathematics students using digital imaging on The Geometer's Sketchpad to model polar functions of flowers. The activity presented in the appendix engages students in learning and exploring the polar coordinate system while helping them analyze a real-world situation. By completing this activity,…

Walker, Janet M.

2007-01-01

375

Flowering and apical meristem growth dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shoot apical meristem generates stem, leaves, and lateral shoot meristems during the entire shoot ontog- eny. Vegetative leaves are generated by the meristem in the vegetative developmental phase, while in the re- productive phase either bracts subtending lateral flower primordia (or paraclades), or perianth and strictly re- productive organs are formed. Meristem growth is fully characterized by the principal

Dorota Kwiatkowska

2010-01-01

376

The Genetic Architecture of Maize Flowering Time  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Flowering time is the key trait controlling adaptation of plants to their local environment, and, in an outcrossing species like maize, it is a complex trait. Variation for this complex trait was dissected in maize using a novel set of 5000 recombinant inbred lines (maize Nested Association Mapping...

377

Flower Constancy, Insect Psychology, and Plant Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals of some species of pollinating insects tend to restrict their visits to only a few of the available plant species, in the process bypassing valuable food sources. The question of why this flower constancy exists is a rich and important one with implications for the organization of natural communities of plants, floral evolution, and our understanding of the learning

Lars Chittka; James D. Thomson; Nickolas M. Waser

1999-01-01

378

California Policy Choices. Volume 6.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

California Policy Choices seeks to improve the process of public policy making by increasing citizens' and policy makers' understanding of the choices to be made. Contributors assess and describe the impacts of past choices on options currently available ...

J. J. Kirlin D. R. Winkler

1990-01-01

379

Using a Mousy, Little Flower to Understand the Flamboyant Ones.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses major leaps in knowledge about the production of flowers that have come from studying genes that regulate the flowers of mouse ear cress (Arabidopsis thaliana). Examines the ABC model of flower morphogenesis, commonality of genes, evolution of angiosperms, and agricultural and horticultural potential. (LZ)|

Gillis, Anna Maria

1995-01-01

380

Developmental morphology of branching flowers in Nymphaea prolifera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nymphaea and Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae) share an extra-axillary mode of floral inception in the shoot apical meristem (SAM). Some leaf sites along the ontogenetic spiral are occupied by floral primordia lacking a subtending bract. This pattern of flower initiation in leaf sites is repeated inside branching flowers of Nymphaea prolifera (Central and South America). Instead of fertile flowers this species usually

Valentin Grob; Philip Moline; Evelin Pfeifer; Alejandro R. Novelo; Rolf Rutishauser

2006-01-01

381

A developmental switch sufficient for flower initiation in diverse plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have generated transgenic plants in which the flower-meristem-identity gene LEAFY of Arabidopsis is constitutively expressed. LEAFY is sufficient to determine floral fate in lateral shoot meristems of both Arabidopsis and the heterologous species aspen, with the consequence that flower development is induced precociously. Our results also suggest a new level of regulation during flower development, as indicated by the

Detlef Weigel; Ove Nilsson

1995-01-01

382

Flowering and Seed Production in Seven Hardwood Species.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Flowering and seed production of selected trees in northwestern Pennsylvania and southwestern New York were rated visually for several years. The seed crops of white ash and sugar maple were closely related to the amount of flowering, and flowering can be...

T. J. Grisez

1975-01-01

383

In vitro flowering of Kniphofia leucocephala : influence of cytokinins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of cytokinins in the promotion of flowering in the endangered species Kniphofia leucocephala Baijnath. was investigated using shoots maintained in culture for 3 years. The highest percentage flowering (65%) was obtained on media containing 20 ?M benzyladenine (BA). The inclusion of isopentenyladenine and zeatin in the media also resulted in flowering, but these treatments were less effective than BA

N. J. Taylor; M. E. Light; J. Van Staden

2005-01-01

384

RELATION OF POMACEOUS FLOWER AGE TO INFECTION BY ERWINIA AMYLOVORA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potential infection of flowers by Erwinia amylovora in relation to flower age has not been established, but is relevant to fire blight risk assessment. This was investigated in conjunction with studies on stigma age and bacterial colonization. Crab apple flowers were collected daily from greenhouse...

385

Rapid Changes in Flowering Time in British Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The average first flowering date of 385 British plant species has advanced by 4.5 days during the past decade compared with the previous four decades: 16% of species flowered significantly earlier in the 1990s than previously, with an average advancement of 15 days in a decade. Ten species (3%) flowered significantly later in the 1990s than previously. These data reveal

A. H. Fitter; R. S. R. Fitter

2002-01-01

386

The war of the whorls: genetic interactions controlling flower development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of mutations affecting flower structure has led to the identification of some of the genes that direct flower development. Cloning of these genes has allowed the formulation of molecular models of how floral meristem and organ identity may be specified, and has shown that the distantly related flowering plants Arabidopsis thaliana and Antirrhinum majus use homologous mechanisms in

Enrico S. Coen

1991-01-01

387

Molecular mechanisms of flower development: an armchair guide  

Microsoft Academic Search

An afternoon stroll through an English garden reveals the breathtaking beauty and enormous diversity of flowering plants. The extreme variation of flower morphologies, combined with the relative simplicity of floral structures and the wealth of floral mutants available, has made the flower an excellent model for studying developmental cell-fate specification, morphogenesis and tissue patterning. Recent molecular genetic studies have begun

Beth A. Krizek; Jennifer C. Fletcher

2005-01-01

388

The Bezold-Brücke effect in the color vision system of the honeybee.  

PubMed

Evidence is presented that intensity dependent color shifts (Bezold-Brücke effect) occur in the color vision system of the honeybee. The evidence comes from a fit between the choices of monochromatic lights in training experiments (Menzel, R., 1981; Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 141, 389-393) and the choice percentages derived now from recently presented quantitative predictions from the color opponent coding (COC) model for the bee (Backhaus, W., 1991; Vision Research, 31, 1381-1397) for the Bezold-Brücke effect. The only open parameter in the simulations of the training experiments is an experiment type dependent factor describing the weighting of color differences (judgement values) in the choice behavior. The results show (1) that the Bezold-Brücke effect exists in the bee. The results (2) confirm the color opponent coding (COC) model which was developed to describe the physiological components of the color vision system in the bee, (3) the general psychophysical assumptions about the structure of the color space, (4) the color difference formula, and (5) the general psychophysical assumptions about the (triadic) structure of judgements as tested in color similarity experiments. PMID:1455716

Backhaus, W

1992-08-01

389

High color-vision sensitivity in macaque and humans.  

PubMed

Psychophysical (behavioral) detection thresholds and color-discrimination thresholds were determined in a macaque using a two-alternative forced-choice procedure. On a white background, detection thresholds were determined for a white increment and three spectral increments: 618, 516, and 456 nm. Intermixed with detection threshold determinations, color-discrimination thresholds were determined by presenting the white increment, and one of the spectral increments, at 1.0 log units above their respective detection thresholds and dimming both until discrimination performance fell to threshold. The monkey could discriminate the color of the increments at detection threshold because the average color-discrimination threshold was 0.98+/-0.14 log attenuation. Because the monkey was much more sensitive to the spectral increments than the white increment, we performed an unconventional experiment. We determined the monkey's detection threshold for the white increment alone, and with broadband color filters in the white light path without adjusting the light's intensity. Insertion of several color filters in the light path lowered detection thresholds of both the macaque and six human trichromats. We believe that this improvement in detection thresholds produced by simply inserting color filters in a white light path is a threshold manifestation of the Helmholtz-Kohlrausch effect and suggests that one of color vision's important evolutionary advantages may be improved detection sensitivity. PMID:10750833

Loop, M S; Crossman, D K

390

Color contrast radiographic device  

SciTech Connect

An x-ray image converter for converting x-rays to visible light after passage through a photographed object in order to produce improved colored radiographs on an associated color photographic film attributable to localized color shift in the photographic film medium. The desired color shift produced by the x-ray image converter is achieved with use of a phosphor material which exhibits differential absorption of the x-radiation in the 35-50 kev region due to K alpha edge effects. In the conversion of xrays to visible light in the desired manner, the new phosphor combination is useful in x-ray image intensifier tubes, in fluoroscopic screens, in radiographic intensifier screens, and other x-ray image converter devices.

Rabatin, J.G.

1980-03-25

391

Three Colors of Light  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have fun with additive mixing! Observe what happens when the three primary colors of light--red, green and blue--are mixed together, resulting in white light. This activity works best in a darkened room and requires adult supervision.

Museum Of Science And Industry, Chicago

2012-01-01

392

Color harmonization for images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Color harmonization is an artistic technique to adjust a set of colors in order to enhance their visual harmony so that they are aesthetically pleasing in terms of human visual perception. We present a new color harmonization method that treats the harmonization as a function optimization. For a given image, we derive a cost function based on the observation that pixels in a small window that have similar unharmonic hues should be harmonized with similar harmonic hues. By minimizing the cost function, we get a harmonized image in which the spatial coherence is preserved. A new matching function is proposed to select the best matching harmonic schemes, and a new component-based preharmonization strategy is proposed to preserve the hue distribution of the harmonized images. Our approach overcomes several shortcomings of the existing color harmonization methods. We test our algorithm with a variety of images to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

Tang, Zhen; Miao, Zhenjiang; Wan, Yanli; Wang, Zhifei

2011-04-01

393

Color Theory Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Color theory has been worked on by a number of individuals over the years, and those with an interest in the field include artists, scientists, and of course, interior designers. Janet Ford, a web designer in Minneapolis, has been interested in this field for over a decade, and her website explores some of the issues surrounding color theory in a way that is both accessible and interesting. On the site, visitors can learn about the basics of color, complementary colors, and concepts such as contrast, dominance, proportion, and intensity. The site is rounded out by a very good ÂResources area, which contains a bibliography of recommended works drawn from the past several decades.

Ford, Janet

394

Colorful Convection Currents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students create artifical convection currents using hot and cold water, food coloring, and bottles. A materials list, instructions, and a brief explanation of the convection phenomenon are included.

395

Hypergraph coloring complexes  

PubMed Central

The aim of this paper is to generalize the notion of the coloring complex of a graph to hypergraphs. We present three different interpretations of those complexes–a purely combinatorial one and two geometric ones. It is shown, that most of the properties, which are known to be true for coloring complexes of graphs, break down in this more general setting, e.g., Cohen–Macaulayness and partitionability. Nevertheless, we are able to provide bounds for the f- and h-vectors of those complexes which yield new bounds on chromatic polynomials of hypergraphs. Moreover, though it is proven that the coloring complex of a hypergraph has a wedge decomposition, we provide an example showing that in general this decomposition is not homotopy equivalent to a wedge of spheres. In addition, we can completely characterize those hypergraphs whose coloring complex is connected.

Breuer, Felix; Dall, Aaron; Kubitzke, Martina

2012-01-01

396

Skin of Color  

MedlinePLUS

... skin care Mom and baby skin care Nails Pregnancy and breastfeeding Sensitive skin Skin of color Stress and skin Sunscreens Tattoos and body piercings Teenage skin Tropical travel Vitamin D Cosmetic treatments Gold ...

397

Possible contributions of TERMINAL FLOWER 1 to the evolution of rosette flowering in Leavenworthia (Brassicaceae)  

PubMed Central

Summary Leavenworthia crassa is a rosette flowering species that differs from inflorescence flowering species, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, in having elongated pedicels and shortened interfloral internodes on the main axis. Based on previous experiments, we hypothesized that changes to the L. crassa TFL1 ortholog, LcrTFL1, were important in the evolution of rosette flowering.We isolated LcrTFL1 and introduced a genomic construct into tfl1 mutant A. thaliana plants. We also generated and analyzed EGFP-LcrTFL1 reporter-fusion lines, and LcrTFL1/LcrLFY doubly transgenic lines.The transgene rescued the mutant defects, but manifested gain-of-function phenotypes. However, LcrTFL1 lines differed from 35S:TFL1 lines in several regards. Defects in floral meristem identity establishment were observed, as was the production of flowers with extra petals. We also noted features that resemble rosette flowering: LcrTFL1 lines produced significantly shorter interfloral internodes and significantly longer pedicels than either wild-type or 35S:TFL1 plants.Our data show that there are substantive differences in the regulation and/or function of TFL1 orthologs between A. thaliana and L. crassa. These may reflect changes that occurred during the evolution of rosette flowering in Leavenworthia, but, if so, our results show that additional, as-yet-unidentified genes were involved in this instance of architectural evolution.

Liu, Ning; Sliwinski, Marek K.; Correa, Raul; Baum, David A.

2011-01-01

398

Optimization of Color Reproduction on CRT-Color Monitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present experimental study, we quantify the influence of the brightness and contrast levels of a CRT- color monitor in the color reproduction of 60 Munsell chips distributed throughout the chromatic diagram. The images were captured by two CCD cameras, and the color differ- ences were evaluated after reproducing the chips on a color monitor (the experiment was performed

J. R. Jimenez; J. F. Reche; J. A. Diaz

1999-01-01

399

Color Lens: Adaptive Color Scale Optimization for Visual Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visualization applications routinely map quantitative attributes to color using color scales. Although color is an effective visualization channel, it is limited by both display hardware and the human visual system. We propose a new interaction technique that overcomes these limitations by dynamically optimizing color scales based on a set of sampling lenses. The technique inspects the lens contents in data

Niklas Elmqvist; Pierre Dragicevic; Jean-Daniel Fekete

2011-01-01

400

Color Matching Algorithm Based on Computational 'Color Constancy' Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new color appearance matching method based on color constancy theory. In order to achieve good color appearance matching between different color devices such as a CRT-monitor and a printer, whose whites are quite different, the method recovers the hypothetical surface reflectances of objects and the hypothetical spectral power distribution of the illumination in a scene. The

Masato Tsukada; Johji Tajima

1999-01-01

401

The effect of background color on asymmetries in color search  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many previous studies have shown that background color affects the discriminability and appearance of color stimuli. However, research on visual search has not typically considered the role that the background may play. Rosenholtz (2001a) has suggested that color search asymmetries result from the relationship between the stimuli and the back- ground. Here we test the hypothesis that background color should

Ruth Rosenholtz; Allen L. Nagy; Nicole R. Bell

2004-01-01

402

Uniform color illumination for scrolling color LCoS projection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Projection based on the scrolling color single panel reflective liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) architecture developed within Philips is set to become a competitive technology for high definition rear projection television. The colorimetry of the scrolling color illumination light engine is examined in this paper including the design issues considered in specifying dichroic color filters for uniform color illumination. The

Duncan J. Anderson

2002-01-01

403

Color in Multimedia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color plays an important role in the human perception and interpretation of the visual world. It is therefore not surprising\\u000a that in many application areas manufacturers and consumers have been losing interest in conventional grayscale imaging and\\u000a have been turning instead to its information-richer, color-driven counterpart. An explosive growth in the diversity of image\\u000a and video processing solutions developed in

Rastislav Lukac

404

Color mixing models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In black-and-white printing the page image can be represented within a computer as an array of binary values indicating whether or not pixels should be inked. The Boolean operators of AND, OR, and EXCLUSIVE-OR are often used when adding new objects to the image array. For color printing the page may be represented as an array of continuous tone color

Steven J. Harrington

1992-01-01

405

Automatic Skin Color Beautification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose an automatic skin beautification framework based on color-temperature-insensitive skin-color detection. To polish selected skin region, we apply bilateral filter to smooth the facial flaw. Last, we use Poisson image cloning to integrate the beautified parts into the original input. Experimental results show that the proposed method can be applied in varied light source environment. In addition, this method can naturally beautify the portrait skin.

Chen, Chih-Wei; Huang, Da-Yuan; Fuh, Chiou-Shann

406

Physics of structural colors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, structural colors have attracted great attention in a wide variety of research fields. This is because they are originated from complex interaction between light and sophisticated nanostructures generated in the natural world. In addition, their inherent regular structures are one of the most conspicuous examples of non-equilibrium order formation. Structural colors are deeply connected with recent rapidly growing fields of photonics and have been extensively studied to clarify their peculiar optical phenomena. Their mechanisms are, in principle, of a purely physical origin, which differs considerably from the ordinary coloration mechanisms such as in pigments, dyes and metals, where the colors are produced by virtue of the energy consumption of light. It is generally recognized that structural colors are mainly based on several elementary optical processes including thin-layer interference, diffraction grating, light scattering, photonic crystals and so on. However, in nature, these processes are somehow mixed together to produce complex optical phenomena. In many cases, they are combined with the irregularity of the structure to produce the diffusive nature of the reflected light, while in some cases they are accompanied by large-scale structures to generate the macroscopic effect on the coloration. Further, it is well known that structural colors cooperate with pigmentary colors to enhance or to reduce the brilliancy and to produce special effects. Thus, structure-based optical phenomena in nature appear to be quite multi-functional, the variety of which is far beyond our understanding. In this article, we overview these phenomena appearing particularly in the diversity of the animal world, to shed light on this rapidly developing research field.

Kinoshita, S.; Yoshioka, S.; Miyazaki, J.

2008-07-01

407

Individual flowering phenology, plant size, and reproductive success in Linanthus androsaceus , a California annual  

Microsoft Academic Search

For natural selection to shape population flowering phenologies, individual phenological variation must be correlated with variation in reproductive success. I therefore marked and followed individual plants of Linanthus androsaceus (a California grassland annual) throughout the flowering season, recording individual flowering phenology, flower number, mortality, and seed production. Although date of first flowering was unrelated to number of flowers, plants first

Lohanna Schmitt

1983-01-01

408

DEVELOPMENT OF FLOWER ORGANS IN COMMON LILAC (SYRINGA VULGARIS L.) CV. MME FLORENT STEPMAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on the development of common lilac cv. Mme Florent Stepman inflorescence buds and flowers were carried out in 2001-2002 in order to observe the development of flower organs before and after winter dormancy during the following phenological phases: inflorescence bud swelling, inflorescence elongation, flower bud whitening, flower bud swelling and flowering anthesis. The hypogynous, actinomorphic and perfect flower conforms

AGATA JE ţDRZEJUK

2005-01-01

409

[Color perception in twins].  

PubMed

The classical twin method was used to examine the genotype--phenotype relationship in color vision. Suprathreshold color differences were assessed by 5 pairs of monozygotic (MZ) and 3 pairs of dizygotic (DZ) twins. The control group included 3 unrelated normal trichromats, a non-twin sibling pair, and a previously diagnosed deuteranomal. Concordance rates were calculated by Spearman's correlation coefficients (rs) and Procrustean distances (gl) between the reconstructed color spaces for each related pair of observers. For 4 pairs of the MZ twins, the rs values were comparable to intraindividual variability in the control normal trichromat; they were significantly higher (0.94-0.97) than those for the DZ twins and siblings (0.72-0.82). The gl values for the MZ twins (0.008-0.029) were lower than for the DZ twins (0.073-0.079) and siblings (0.053). The high concordance between each pair of the MZ twins suggests that their shared photopigment genome constrains a contribution of possible individual variations in nongenetic factors to variability of their color spaces. Lower concordance rates in the DZ twins and siblings can be attributed to differences in the inherited arrays of photopigment genes. Contributions to intrapair variation in color spaces of twins from cognitive factors such as perceptual-cognitive color categorization and decision-process variability are discussed. PMID:11084998

Paramei, G V; Bimler, D L; Mislavskaia, N O

410

Choice and conditioned reinforcement.  

PubMed Central

A potential weakness of one formulation of delay-reduction theory is its failure to include a term for rate of conditioned reinforcement, that is, the rate at which the terminal-link stimuli occur in concurrent-chains schedules. The present studies assessed whether or not rate of conditioned reinforcement has an independent effect upon choice. Pigeons responded on either modified concurrent-chains schedules or on comparable concurrent-tandem schedules. The initial link was shortened on only one of two concurrent-chains schedules and on only one of two corresponding concurrent-tandem schedules. This manipulation increased rate of conditioned reinforcement sharply in the chain but not in the tandem schedule. According to a formulation of delay-reduction theory, when the outcomes chosen (the terminal links) are equal, as in Experiment 1, choice should depend only on rate of primary reinforcement; thus, choice should be equivalent for the tandem and chain schedules despite a large difference in rate of conditioned reinforcement. When the outcomes chosen are unequal, however, as in Experiment 2, choice should depend upon both rate of primary reinforcement and relative signaled delay reduction; thus, larger preferences should occur in the chain than in the tandem schedules. These predictions were confirmed, suggesting that increasing the rate of conditioned reinforcement on concurrent-chains schedules may have no independent effect on choice.

Fantino, E; Freed, D; Preston, R A; Williams, W A

1991-01-01

411

The Color Preferences of Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The object of the investigation was to determine (1) whether certain colors are per se and generally pleasing, (2) whether color preference varies with increase in age and intellectual development, (3) whether the colors preferred during the adolescent period differ from those preferred during the pre-adolescent period, (4) whether social status is a determining factor in the preference for colors,

S. E. Katz; F. S. Breed

1922-01-01

412

European hair and eye color  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human hair and eye color is unusually diverse in northern and eastern Europe. The many alleles involved (at least seven for hair color) and their independent origin over a short span of evolutionary time indicate some kind of selection. Sexual selection is particularly indicated because it is known to favor color traits and color polymorphisms. In addition, hair and eye

Peter Frost

2006-01-01

413

Image intensification with color capability  

SciTech Connect

Image intensifiers applied to low light level phenomena provide outputs restricted to the color of the output phosphor. In many applications the ability to provide an image in color, or even color information, is desirable. A design of an intensifier system that can present images in color is described. A feasibility demonstration is presented, utilizing an intensified grating spectroscope.

Reynolds, G.T. (Princeton University, Physics Department, Princeton, New Jersey 08544-0708 (USA))

1991-04-10

414

Vascular basis of mucosal color  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Besides the color of the teeth the color of the alveolar gingiva plays a crucial role in esthetic rehabilitation in dento-alveolar treatment. Whereas nowadays the color of the teeth can be determined exactly and individually, the specific influence of the red color of the gingiva on treatment has not been assessed yet. The aim of this study was to

Johannes Kleinheinz; André Büchter; Thomas Fillies; Ulrich Joos

2005-01-01

415

Food Classification using Color Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color based food classification is widely used in food industry. In this paper we first propose an efficient and inexpensive technique of color image segmentation and then propose an efficient analysis system for food samples. The proposed method uses a modified watershed segmentation algorithm to breakdown color images of food samples into groups of similar color characteristics. Prior to the

Liyanage C De Silva; Anton Pereira; Amal Punchihewa

416

Lighting system for color images  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lighting system is proposed for acquiring color images under a variety of illuminations. This system is constructed with halogen lamps, color filters, white diffusion filters, dimmers, and a personal computer as a controller. Colored light with continuous spectral power distribution is generated based on the additive color mixture of RGB primary lights. First, we describe a method for generating

Shoji Tominaga

1999-01-01

417

Tropism in azalea and lily flowers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flowers have coevolved with pollinator animals. Some flowers have the up-down directional features in their form and orientation, which results the higher success of pollination under the influence of gravity. Azalea, Rhododendron pulchrum, flower responds against gravity, and orients the specific petal at its top. This petal with honey mark guides pollinator animals to nectary of the flower. Pistil and stamen bend upward by sensing gravity, and increase probability of their contact with pollinator. There was large sediment amyloplast found in sectioned tissue of style. In addition to this action of gravity, phototropic response was also observed at lesser degree, while the gravitational cue was removed by the 3D-clinorotation of the plant. In contrast to azalea, pistil of lily flower senses light in order to determine the direction of bending. Lily, Lilium cv. 'Casablanca', tepals open horizontally or slightly inclined downward. After its anthesis, pistil and stamen start to bend upward by light. Gravity induced no tropic response at all, evidenced by the experiment conducted under dark. Sediment amyloplast was not found in lily style. Phototropic response of pistil and stamen in lily was activated by blue light even at lower energy density. On the other hand, red light was not effective to induce the tropic response even with substantial energy density. This action spectrum of light agreed with those for the phototropism shown in coleoptile of monocotyledonous plants. Because the tropism of style was not hindered at removal of stigma, reception site for incident light is neither restricted to stigma nor its close vicinity, but distributes through style. The process of lily pistil elongation was analyzed in details to identify the site of its initiation and propagation of bending movement through the anthesis period. Elongation started at basal part of pistil and propagated towards its top after opening of perianth. Steep bending occurred at the basal zone of pistil as long as differential incidence of light was given at its part. Elongation and bending of filament of stamen in lily differed from those of style in several points. After perianth opened, filaments deployed and spread out from the central axis of flower. Distinctive elongation of filament developed at a zone close to anther. It will be discussed how such regulation made by either gravity or light improves the degree of adaptation for those plants during entomophilous pollination.

Shimizu, M.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Nakamura, T.; Yamashita, M.

418

The functional effects of color perception and color imagery.  

PubMed

Functional imaging research and studies of brain-damaged patients suggest the mechanisms of color perception and color imagery have some degree of overlap. Previous research into color imagery has focused on compound images consisting of both color and form, e.g., whole objects. Little is known regarding the characteristics of pure color imagery-color without form structure. Binocular rivalry has proven to be a successful method for assessing mental imagery indirectly, quantitatively, and reliably. Here, we utilized this technique to access pure color imagery. Experiment 1 consisted of three conditions, in which participants were instructed to either imagine pure colors according to a letter cue, imagine pure colors in the presence of background luminance, or passively view weak perceptual color patches. Subsequently, a brief rivalry display was presented. Results indicated that perceptual dominance during rivalry was significantly biased by the participants' prior color imagery and perception. However, for imagery, the addition of background luminance attenuated this priming effect. In Experiment 2, we tested whether color imagery was location-specific in retinotopic space. Color imagery was only found to prime subsequent rivalry when the imagery and rivalry stimuli occurred at the same retinotopic location. These results demonstrate that imagery of pure colors without form structure can influence subsequent color perception and can be localized in retinotopic space. These results are consistent with previous studies examining mental imagery of compound visual stimuli and demonstrate the potential of investigations into mental imagery of individual visual features. PMID:23922446

Chang, Shuai; Lewis, David E; Pearson, Joel

2013-08-06

419

Large and abundant flowers increase indirect costs of corollas: a study of coflowering sympatric Mediterranean species of contrasting flower size.  

PubMed

Large floral displays receive more pollinator visits but involve higher production and maintenance costs. This can result in indirect costs which may negatively affect functions like reproductive output. In this study, we explored the relationship between floral display and indirect costs in two pairs of coflowering sympatric Mediterranean Cistus of contrasting flower size. We hypothesized that: (1) corolla production entails direct costs in dry mass, N and P, (2) corollas entail significant indirect costs in terms of fruit set and seed production, (3) indirect costs increase with floral display, (4) indirect costs are greater in larger-flowered sympatric species, and (5) local climatic conditions influence indirect costs. We compared fruit set and seed production of petal-removed flowers and unmanipulated control flowers and evaluated the influence of mean flower number and mean flower size on relative fruit and seed gain of petal-removed and control flowers. Fruit set and seed production were significantly higher in petal-removed flowers in all the studied species. A positive relationship was found between relative fruit gain and mean individual flower size within species. In one pair of species, fruit gain was higher in the large-flowered species, as was the correlation between fruit gain and mean number of open flowers. In the other pair, the correlation between fruit gain and mean flower size was also higher in the large-flowered species. These results reveal that Mediterranean environments impose significant constraints on floral display, counteracting advantages of large flowers from the pollination point of view with increased indirect costs of such flowers. PMID:23404071

Teixido, Alberto L; Valladares, Fernando

2013-02-13

420

Photosynthate partitioning during flowering in relation to senescence of spinach  

SciTech Connect

Male spinach plants are frequently cited as a counter-example to the nutrient drain hypothesis. Photosynthate partitioning in both male and female plants was examined. Leaves just below the inflorescences in plants at various stages of flowering were labelled with {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and the photosynthate allowed to partition for three hours. The leaves, flowers and stems of the inflorescence, and the other above ground vegetative tissue were harvested. These parts were combusted in a sample oxidizer for the collection of the {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. Allocation to the male and female flowers at very early stages are similar. As the flowers develop further, male flowers receive more photosynthate than do female flowers in early fruit production. Thus it is possible that nutrient drain to the flowers in male spinach plants is sufficient to account for senescence.

Sklensky, D.; Davies, P.J. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

1990-05-01

421

Color in Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vocabulary of astronomy is riddled with color terms. Stars are referred to as red or blue - even brown -- though rarely green. Astronomers say light from a star can be "blueshifted" or that it can be "reddened". Color, however, is not a simple one-dimensional physical parameter equal to wavelength or frequency. It is a complex, psychophysical phenomenon involving at least three degrees of freedom - hue, saturation and brightness -- as well as observational context. Nonetheless, many astronomers treat hue alone or hue plus saturation as the same thing as color. A recent report on "the color of the universe" is a case in point (Baldry and Glazebrook, Bull. Am. As. Soc., 34, No. 1, 571, 2002). Even discounting the authors' initial and (possibly) subsequent errors in arriving at a "color" associated with the composite spectrum derived from the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (first reported as "pale turquoise", then "beige"), the method of viewing the light was left vague, and context is important. For example, consider the question "What color is the Moon?" When viewed from Earth, the Moon appears white against the black sky. Place a piece of "average" lunar material in a lighted room, and it will appear dark gray. To most human observers, the 2000 or so naked eye stars observable from the northern hemisphere all appear white, with the few exceptions which look reddish/orange such as Betelgeuse, Arcturus, Aldeberan, Antares and Pollux. Yet the dimmer double star companion to Alberio can appear bluish when viewed beside its much brighter yellowish/orange neighbor if both are viewed by eye through a small aperture, slightly defocused telescope. This presentation will explore several visual phenomena that can help clarify the concept of color in astronomy. Supported in part by NSF grant # DUE-9950551 for "Project LITE: Light Inquiry Through Experiments".

Brecher, K.

2002-05-01

422

Natural Variation of the RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T 1 Contributes to Flowering Time Divergence in Rice.  

PubMed

In rice (Oryza sativa L.), there is a diversity in flowering time that is strictly genetically regulated. Some indica cultivars show extremely late flowering under long-day conditions, but little is known about the gene(s) involved. Here, we demonstrate that functional defects in the florigen gene RFT1 are the main cause of late flowering in an indica cultivar, Nona Bokra. Mapping and complementation studies revealed that sequence polymorphisms in the RFT1 regulatory and coding regions are likely to cause late flowering under long-day conditions. We detected polymorphisms in the promoter region that lead to reduced expression levels of RFT1. We also identified an amino acid substitution (E105K) that leads to a functional defect in Nona Bokra RFT1. Sequencing of the RFT1 region in rice accessions from a global collection showed that the E105K mutation is found only in indica, and indicated a strong association between the RFT1 haplotype and extremely late flowering in a functional Hd1 background. Furthermore, SNPs in the regulatory region of RFT1 and the E105K substitution in 1,397 accessions show strong linkage disequilibrium with a flowering time-associated SNP. Although the defective E105K allele of RFT1 (but not of another florigen gene, Hd3a) is found in many cultivars, relative rate tests revealed no evidence for differential rate of evolution of these genes. The ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions suggest that the E105K mutation resulting in the defect in RFT1 occurred relatively recently. These findings indicate that natural mutations in RFT1 provide flowering time divergence under long-day conditions. PMID:24098411

Ogiso-Tanaka, Eri; Matsubara, Kazuki; Yamamoto, Shin-Ichi; Nonoue, Yasunori; Wu, Jianzhong; Fujisawa, Hiroko; Ishikubo, Harumi; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Ando, Tsuyu; Matsumoto, Takashi; Yano, Masahiro

2013-10-01

423

Natural Variation of the RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T 1 Contributes to Flowering Time Divergence in Rice  

PubMed Central

In rice (Oryza sativa L.), there is a diversity in flowering time that is strictly genetically regulated. Some indica cultivars show extremely late flowering under long-day conditions, but little is known about the gene(s) involved. Here, we demonstrate that functional defects in the florigen gene RFT1 are the main cause of late flowering in an indica cultivar, Nona Bokra. Mapping and complementation studies revealed that sequence polymorphisms in the RFT1 regulatory and coding regions are likely to cause late flowering under long-day conditions. We detected polymorphisms in the promoter region that lead to reduced expression levels of RFT1. We also identified an amino acid substitution (E105K) that leads to a functional defect in Nona Bokra RFT1. Sequencing of the RFT1 region in rice accessions from a global collection showed that the E105K mutation is found only in indica, and indicated a strong association between the RFT1 haplotype and extremely late flowering in a functional Hd1 background. Furthermore, SNPs in the regulatory region of RFT1 and the E105K substitution in 1,397 accessions show strong linkage disequilibrium with a flowering time–associated SNP. Although the defective E105K allele of RFT1 (but not of another florigen gene, Hd3a) is found in many cultivars, relative rate tests revealed no evidence for differential rate of evolution of these genes. The ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions suggest that the E105K mutation resulting in the defect in RFT1 occurred relatively recently. These findings indicate that natural mutations in RFT1 provide flowering time divergence under long-day conditions.

Ogiso-Tanaka, Eri; Matsubara, Kazuki; Yamamoto, Shin-ichi; Nonoue, Yasunori; Wu, Jianzhong; Fujisawa, Hiroko; Ishikubo, Harumi; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Ando, Tsuyu; Matsumoto, Takashi; Yano, Masahiro

2013-01-01

424

Factors influencing physician choice.  

PubMed

This study investigates the importance individuals place on each of 19 criteria in their choice of a physician. Through personal interviews 205 adults in Eastern Kentucky were asked to rate the importance of choice criteria on a scale from very important to very unimportant and to rank the five most and least important of these. Comparisons of mean ratings for men and women show that women have a tendency to rate criteria as more important than men, particularly those variables related to the physician's interpersonal manner. PMID:10114491

Hill, C J; Garner, S J

1991-01-01

425

Color Categories Are Not Arbitrary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent, well-controlled studies in cross-language color naming and cross-language tests of color memory and learning have made important contributions to our understanding of which aspects of cross-language color naming and nonverbal response to colors may and may not be attributed to pan-human properties of color appearance. Valuable as these results are, some studies have led to more relativistic conclusions than

Paul Kay

2005-01-01

426

The Early Years: Color Investigations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The topic of color can be a springboard to diverse topics including colors in nature, how vision works, the function of color vision in animals, and the properties of light. Learning about color addresses part of the National Science Education Content Standards A (Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry and Understanding about scientific inquiry) and B (Properties of objects and materials, and Light, heat, electricity, and magnetism). Plus, color is a fun topic to explore.

Ashbrook, Peggy

2008-10-01

427

Children's Emotional Associations with Colors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study children's emotional associations with colors were investigated. Sixty children (30 girls, 30 boys), equally divided into groups of 5-year-olds and 6 1\\/2-year-olds, were asked their favorite color and were then shown nine different colors, one at a time and in a random order. For each color, children were asked, “How does (the color) make you feel?” All

Chris J. Boyatzis; Reenu Varghese

1994-01-01

428

Structural colors, cosmetics, and fabrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural colors are non-pigment colors that originate from the scattering of light from ordered microstructures, thin films, and even irregular arrays of scatterers. Examples include the flashing sparks of colors in opals and the brilliant hues of some butterflies such as Morpho rhetenor. Structural colors arise in nature from one or more of a palette of physical mechanisms that are now understood quite well and can be implemented industrially to produce structurally colored paints, fabrics, and cosmetics.

Dushkina, Natalia; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

2009-08-01

429

The Cambridge controlled choice plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parent choice in education is enjoying growing support among both minorities and whites. The greatest practical impetus to the extension of parent choice in public schools has been the use of magnet schools in desegregation plans. This study analyzes the history of parent choice in Cambridge, Mass. and its outcome. Parent choice in the Cambridge public schools has produced greater

Christine H. Rossell; Charles L. Glenn

1988-01-01

430

Functional mapping of ontogeny in flowering plants.  

PubMed

All organisms face the problem of how to perform a sequence of developmental changes and transitions during ontogeny. We revise functional mapping, a statistical model originally derived to map genes that determine developmental dynamics, to take into account the entire process of ontogenetic growth from embryo to adult and from the vegetative to reproductive phase. The revised model provides a framework that reconciles the genetic architecture of development at different stages and elucidates a comprehensive picture of the genetic control mechanisms of growth that change gradually from a simple to a more complex level. We use an annual flowering plant, as an example, to demonstrate our model by which to map genes and their interactions involved in embryo and postembryonic growth. The model provides a useful tool to study the genetic control of ontogenetic growth in flowering plants and any other organisms through proper modifications based on their biological characteristics. PMID:22138324

Zhao, Xiyang; Tong, Chunfa; Pang, Xiaoming; Wang, Zhong; Guo, Yunqian; Du, Fang; Wu, Rongling

2011-12-02

431

Precision of Synesthetic Color Matching Resembles That for Recollected Colors Rather than Physical Colors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Grapheme-color synesthesia is an atypical condition in which individuals experience sensations of color when reading printed graphemes such as letters and digits. For some grapheme-color synesthetes, seeing a printed grapheme triggers a sensation of color, but "hearing" the name of a grapheme does not. This dissociation allowed us to compare the…

Arnold, Derek H.; Wegener, Signy V.; Brown, Francesca; Mattingley, Jason B.

2012-01-01

432

Precision of Synesthetic Color Matching Resembles That for Recollected Colors Rather than Physical Colors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grapheme-color synesthesia is an atypical condition in which individuals experience sensations of color when reading printed graphemes such as letters and digits. For some grapheme-color synesthetes, seeing a printed grapheme triggers a sensation of color, but "hearing" the name of a grapheme does not. This dissociation allowed us to compare the…

Arnold, Derek H.; Wegener, Signy V.; Brown, Francesca; Mattingley, Jason B.

2012-01-01

433

The Color "Fruit": Object Memories Defined by Color  

PubMed Central

Most fruits and other highly color-diagnostic objects have color as a central aspect of their identity, which can facilitate detection and visual recognition. It has been theorized that there may be a large amount of overlap between the neural representations of these objects and processing involved in color perception. In accordance with this theory we sought to determine if the recognition of highly color diagnostic fruit objects could be facilitated by the visual presentation of their known color associates. In two experiments we show that color associate priming is possible, but contingent upon multiple factors. Color priming was found to be maximally effective for the most highly color diagnostic fruits, when low spatial-frequency information was present in the image, and when determination of the object's specific identity, not merely its category, was required. These data illustrate the importance of color for determining the identity of certain objects, and support the theory that object knowledge involves sensory specific systems.

Lewis, David E.; Pearson, Joel; Khuu, Sieu K.

2013-01-01

434

Color preferences revealed by statistical color rendition metric  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The color rendition engine based on the statistical metric allows us to uniquely quantify the characteristics of color quality of illumination and assess the color rendition preferences. We now report on using the color rendition engine for revealing individual and cultural differences in color quality preferences of 205 American and Chinese subjects. Our study demonstrated that the majority of individuals preferred the color blend with the same statistical figures of merit on the average but with a much larger spread of blends for Americans. For both groups, the color rendition preferences depended on the object being illuminated. This was demonstrated by illuminating a set of common colored objects and three different paintings. We conclude that the color quality of lighting can be optimized and enhanced using the feedback to change the spectral power distribution of the illuminating source depending on the object being illuminated and on the preferences of an individual observer and a cultural group.

Liu, Anqing; Tuzikas, ArĹ«nas; Žukauskas, ArtĹ«ras; Vaicekauskas, Rimantas; Vitta, Pranciškus; Shur, Michael

2013-09-01

435

A novel color mapping method for preferred color reproduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a novel color mapping method that generates smooth color transition and can accommodate the color preference. The method consists of two stages; rough calibration and black generation. The rough calibration process generates a three dimensional (3-D) Look-Up-Table converting input RGB data to printable CMY values. When the 3-D LUT is created, a new intent for color mapping, target color is internally used. The target color is predefined from a reference color book based on the color preferences of testers involved in the target definition phase. All of the input data of the 3-D LUT are mapped to the printable values in a printer based on the target color, and then simply converted to CMYK values. We evaluated the proposed algorithm comparing with a commercial printer profiler and found that the proposed algorithm makes better printing quality.

Kim, Kyeong Man; Oh, Hyun Soo; Kim, Sang Ho; Choi, Don Chul

2007-01-01

436

Genes Directing Flower Development in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the effects of four recessive homeotic mutations that specifically disrupt the development of flowers in Arabidopsis thaliana. Each of the recessive mutations affects the outcome of organ development, but not the location of organ primordia. Homeotic transformations observed are as follows. In agamous-1, stamens to petals; in apetala2-1, sepals to leaves and petals to staminoid petals; in apefala3-1,

John L. Bowman; David R. Smyth; Elliot M. Meyerowitz

1989-01-01

437

Antioxidant Principles in Peltophorum Ferrugineum Flower Extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts from the petals of the flowers of Peltophorum ferrugineum were evaluated for their phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and HPLC profile. The total phenolic contents of the ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts, as determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, were found to be 17.0 ± 0.8, 29.3 ± 0.4, and 18.6

S. Pavagadhi; G. S. Joseph; B. S. Jena

2012-01-01

438

Late Flowering of HorseChestnut  

Microsoft Academic Search

DR. JULIAN HUXLEY'S letter1 describing the late flowering of horse-chestnut in Paris this autumn brought back to me a vivid memory of autumn 1912. I turned up my youthful diary and found this entry:``Paris, 3rd September, 1912. The trees are in a queer state here; the old leaves are dead and falling as in autumn and at the same time

E. M. Blackwell

1945-01-01

439

How genes paint flowers and seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutant analyses have given insight into the various parameters that contribute to flower colour and pattern, which is so important for pollination. One important factor is the accumulation of orange, red and purple anthocyanin pigments in the cell vacuole—patterns arise by cell-specific expression of combinations of regulatory proteins. The overall colour perceived is also influenced by vacuolar pH, co-pigmentation and

Joseph Mol; Erich Grotewold; Ronald Koes

1998-01-01

440

Canna indica flower: New source of anthocyanins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the red flowers of Canna indica (Cannaceae) were extracted by using sonicator and isolation of anthocyanins have been carried out. Four anthocyanin pigments have been isolated apart from quercetin and lycopene. They are Cyanidin-3-O-(6??-O-?-rhamnopyranosyl)-?-glucopyranoside (1), Cyanidin-3-O-(6??-O-?-rhamnopyranosyl)-?-galactopyranoside (2), Cyanidin-3-O-?-glucopyranoside (3) and Cyanidin-O-?-galactopyranoside (4). These compounds were isolated by using HPLC and their structures were subsequently determined on the

Jyoti Srivastava; Padma S. Vankar

2010-01-01

441

Flower Constancy, Insect Psychology, and Plant Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals of some species of pollinating insects tend to restrict their visits to only a few of the available plant species,\\u000a in the process bypassing valuable food sources. The question of why this flower constancy exists is a rich and important one with implications for the organization of natural communities of plants, floral evolution,\\u000a and our understanding of the learning

Lars Chittka; James D. Thomson; Nickolas M. Waser

1999-01-01

442

ANTIOXDANT PRINCIPLES IN PELTOPHORUM FERRUGINEUM FLOWER EXTRACTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts from the petals of the flowers of Peltophorum ferrugineum were evaluated for their phenolic content, antioxidant activity and HPLC profile. The total phenolic contents of the ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts as determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method were found to be 17.0± 0.8, 29.3 ± 0.4, 18.6 ± 0.9 %

S. Pavagadhi; G. S. Joseph; B. S. Jena

2011-01-01

443

Introduction: The Challenge of Flowering Plant History  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angiosperms are well known for their incredible diversity in species number, range of habitat, and morphology. Recent counts\\u000a have shown that there are at least 234,000 described species of flowering plants in some 437 families (Thorne, 1992a). This\\u000a number exceeds the total number of species of all other photosynthetic land plants and algae combined (Sporne, 1974; Prance,\\u000a 1977). Not only

David Taylor; Leo Hickey

444

Limitations of surface-color and apparent-color constancy.  

PubMed

Color-constancy mechanisms have been studied and discussed in a number of investigations. However, there has been little attempt to reveal how color constancy deteriorates as the conditions for it become less than optimal. We carried out a series of asymmetric color-matching experiments, using two criteria: surface-color match and apparent-color match. With brief adaptation the degree of color constancy increased as chromatic cues were added in the surround. In the condition of black surround, the test stimuli appeared self-luminous, and chromaticities of the chosen matching stimuli were the same as the physical chromaticities of the test stimulus, indicating a total deficiency of color constancy. With 15 min of preadaptation to the illuminant, the surface-color matches showed almost perfect color constancy under illuminant change. In both adaptation conditions, the chromatic-shift of matches from what would be expected for perfect color constancy increased gradually between 1,700- and 30,000-K illuminant, as chromaticity of the illuminant departed from 6,500-K illuminant. Under 1,000-K illuminant the surface-color appearance became totally achromatic, and color constancy was completely lost. Our results show that, even with brief adaptation to the illuminant, the contribution of the surrounding stimulus is large enough to achieve a fair degree of color constancy, but complete adaptation to the illuminant helps to achieve almost perfect color constancy. PMID:8755788

Kuriki, I; Uchikawa, K

1996-08-01

445

Color universal design: analysis of color category dependency on color vision type (4)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report is af ollow-up to SPIE-IS+T / Vol. 7528 7528051-8, SPIE-IS+T / Vol. 7866 78660J-1-8 and SPIE-IS+T / Vol. 8292 829206-1-8. Colors are used to communicate information in various situations, not just for design and apparel. However, visual information given only by color may be perceived differently by individuals with different color vision types. Human color vision is non-uniform and the variation in most cases is genetically linked to L-cones and M-cones. Therefore, color appearance is not the same for all color vision types. Color Universal Design is an easy-to-understand system that was created to convey color-coded information accurately to most people, taking color vision types into consideration. In the present research, we studied trichromat (C-type), prolan (P-type), and deutan (D-type) forms of color vision. We here report the result of two experiments. The first was the validation of the confusion colors using the color chart on CIELAB uniform color space. We made an experimental color chart (total of color cells is 622, the color difference between color cells is 2.5) for fhis experiment, and subjects have P-type or D-type color vision. From the data we were able to determine "the limits with high probability of confusion" and "the limits with possible confusion" around various basing points. The direction of the former matched with the theoretical confusion locus, but the range did not extend across the entire a* range. The latter formed a belt-like zone above and below the theoretical confusion locus. This way we re-analyzed a part of the theoretical confusion locus suggested by Pitt-Judd. The second was an experiment in color classification of the subjects with C-type, P-type, or D-type color vision. The color caps of fhe 100 Hue Test were classified into seven categories for each color vision type. The common and different points of color sensation were compared for each color vision type, and we were able to find a group of color caps fhat people with C-, P-, and D-types could all recognize as distinguishable color categories. The result could be used as the basis of a color scheme for future Color Universal Design.

Ikeda, Tomohiro; Ichihara, Yasuyo G.; Kojima, Natsuki; Tanaka, Hisaya; Ito, Kei

2013-02-01

446

Origin choice and petal loss in the flower garden of spiral wave tip trajectories  

PubMed Central

Rotating spiral waves have been observed in numerous biological and physical systems. These spiral waves can be stationary, meander, or even degenerate into multiple unstable rotating waves. The spatiotemporal behavior of spiral waves has been extensively quantified by tracking spiral wave tip trajectories. However, the precise methodology of identifying the spiral wave tip and its influence on the specific patterns of behavior remains a largely unexplored topic of research. Here we use a two-state variable FitzHugh–Nagumo model to simulate stationary and meandering spiral waves and examine the spatiotemporal representation of the system’s state variables in both the real (i.e., physical) and state spaces. We show that mapping between these two spaces provides a method to demarcate the spiral wave tip as the center of rotation of the solution to the underlying nonlinear partial differential equations. This approach leads to the simplest tip trajectories by eliminating portions resulting from the rotational component of the spiral wave.

Gray, Richard A.; Wikswo, John P.; Otani, Niels F.

2009-01-01

447

Unconscious and conscious processing of color rely on activity in early visual cortex: a TMS study.  

PubMed

Chromatic information is processed by the visual system both at an unconscious level and at a level that results in conscious perception of color. It remains unclear whether both conscious and unconscious processing of chromatic information depend on activity in the early visual cortex or whether unconscious chromatic processing can also rely on other neural mechanisms. In this study, the contribution of early visual cortex activity to conscious and unconscious chromatic processing was studied using single-pulse TMS in three time windows 40-100 msec after stimulus onset in three conditions: conscious color recognition, forced-choice discrimination of consciously invisible color, and unconscious color priming. We found that conscious perception and both measures of unconscious processing of chromatic information depended on activity in early visual cortex 70-100 msec after stimulus presentation. Unconscious forced-choice discrimination was above chance only when participants reported perceiving some stimulus features (but not color). PMID:22126671

Railo, Henry; Salminen-Vaparanta, Niina; Henriksson, Linda; Revonsuo, Antti; Koivisto, Mika

2011-11-29

448

Public School Choice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two papers by B. C. Clewell and M. F. Joy and one paper by the Educational Commission of the States discuss the frequently debated questions of parental choice of the public schools their children attend. The first paper, "Montclair--A Model Magnet," describes the experience of the Montclair (New Jersey) school system in using a voluntary magnet…

ETS Policy Notes, 1990

1990-01-01

449

Supporting Family Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Supporting family choice in the decision-making process is recommended practice in the field of early childhood and early childhood special education. These decisions may relate to the medical, educational, social, recreational, therapeutic/rehabilitative, and community aspects of the child's disability. Although this practice conveys the message…

Murray, Mary M.; Christensen, Kimberly A.; Umbarger, Gardner T.; Rade, Karin C.; Aldridge, Kathryn; Niemeyer, Judith A.

2007-01-01

450

Advertising and Portfolio Choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a unique large-scale event, the year 2000 launch of a privatized social security system involving individual savings accounts in Sweden, I report empirical evidence on the link between fund advertising and people’s fund and portfolio choices. First, content analysis reveals that a very small portion of ads can be construed as directly informative about characteristics relevant for rational mutual

Henrik Cronqvist

2005-01-01

451

Choices, Values, and Frames  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the cognitive and the psy- chophysical determinants of choice in risky and risk- less contexts. The psychophysics of value induce risk aversion in the domain of gains and risk seeking in the domain of losses. The psychophysics of chance induce overweighting of sure things and of improbable events, relative to events of moderate probability. De- cision problems can

Daniel Kahneman; Amos Tversky

1984-01-01

452

Choice Over Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last twenty years a growing body of experimental evidence has posed a challenge to the standard Exponential Discounting Model of choice over time. Attention has focused on some specific ‘anomalies’, notably preference reversal and declining discount rates, leading to the formulation of the model of hyperbolic discounting which is finding increasing favour in the literature. In this paper

Paola Manzini; Marco Mariotti

2007-01-01

453

Teaching Negotiation: The Choices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the choices for teaching business skills in an elective negotiation skills course in the graduate program for entrepreneurs at the Department of Economics, University of Osijek. The paper first describes the author's teaching context. Then, it offers the author's views of learning and teaching, and discusses the relationship between students and the material they learn, between students

Ljerka Sedlan Konig

2002-01-01

454

How Happiness Affects Choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumers want to be happy, and marketers are increasingly trying to appeal to consumers’ pursuit of happiness. However, the results of six studies reveal that what happiness means varies, and consumers’ choices reflect those differences. In some cases, happiness is defined as feeling excited, and in other cases, happiness is defined as feeling calm. The type of happiness pursued is

Cassie Mogilner; Jennifer Aaker; Sepandar D. Kamvar

2012-01-01

455

How Happiness Impacts Choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumers want to be happy, and marketers are increasingly trying to appeal to consumers' pursuit of happiness. However, the results of six studies reveal that what happiness means varies, and consumers' choices reflect those differences. In some cases happiness is defined as feeling excited, and in other cases happiness is defined as feeling calm. The type of happiness pursued is

Cassie Mogilner; Jennifer Aaker; Sepandar Kamvar

2011-01-01

456

School Choice in Philadelphia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Throughout the country, a wide range of educational options exist, from neighborhood public schools to cyber-schools. This study focuses on school choice in improving the educational experience in one city, Philadelphia. The study employed interviews with policymakers, teachers, and others; a focus group of middle-school students; a collection of…

Keefe, Connie; Scher, Lauren; Sparks, Andrew; Weinbaum, Elliot

457

Extended Synchronized Choice Nets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike traditional classification by output conditions of places, synchronized choice nets (SNCs) were defined as a new class of nets where all first-order structures (FOSs) are symmetric. SNCs are extended to deal with nets with asymmetric first-order structures (AFOSs). A subclass called extended SNCs (ESNCs) can be converted to a general Petri net, called a weighted SNC (WSNC). A WSNC

Daniel Yuh Chao

2003-01-01

458

Multiple Choice Test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents a guide to developing and deploying effective multiple choice tests. The site also discusses the costs and benefits of this method, as well as the philosophy of this commonly used assessment method. Links to more detailed information are included as well.

Parkes, Jay; Guide, Field-Tested L.

459

Guiding Good Choices (GGC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Guiding Good Choices (GGC), formerly Preparing for the Drug-Free Years (PDFY), is a family competency training program (part of the Families That Care series) that promotes healthy, protective parent-child interactions and reduces children's risk for early substance use initiation. It is based on the social development model, which theorizes that enhancing protective factors such as effective parenting practices will decrease

S SH; E EE

2006-01-01

460

Learning from School Choice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This volume contains revised versions of 16 essays presented at a conference, "Rethinking School Governance," hosted by Harvard's Program on Education Policy and Governance in June 1997. Part 1, "Introduction," contains two chapters: (1) "School Choice: A Report Card" (Paul E. Peterson); and (2) "The Case for Charter Schools" (Bryan C. Hassel).…

Peterson, Paul E., Ed.; Hassel, Bryan C., Ed.

461

NBNews Editor's Choice Awards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An online newsletter, NBNews Editor's Choice Awards, an annotated listing of new Internet sites that is issued every ten days, has been added to the Internet Publications--Internet Webzines section of the Scout Toolkit. In addition, about one third of all the annotations in the Toolkit have been revised and updated in the last two weeks.

462

The Choice for Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We are building conventional library space without making the paradigm shift our digital environment requires. The chief obstacles to change lie in our conception of readers as information consumers, in our allegiance to library operations as the drivers of library design, and in the choice made between foundational and non-foundational views of…

Bennett, Scott

2006-01-01

463

"HANNAH'S CHOICE" HIGHBUSH BLUEBERRY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

'Hannah's Choice' is an early-ripening tetraploid highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) that was developed by the cooperative breeding program of the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station (NJAES). It repre...

464

PROCESS FOR COLORING DIAMONDS  

DOEpatents

A process is given for coloring substantially colorless diamonds in the blue to blue-green range and comprises the steps of irradiating the colorless diamonds with electrons having an energy within the range 0.5 to 2 Mev to obtain an integrated electron flux of between 1 and 2 x 10/sup 18/ thc diamonds may be irradiated 1 hr when they take on a blue color with a slight green tint: After being heated at about 500 deg C for half an hour they become pure blue. Electrons within this energy range contam sufficient energy to displace the diamond atoms from their normal lattice sites into interstitial sites, thereby causing the color changes.

Dugdale, R.A.

1960-07-19

465

Color image segmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we propose a modification to the color system I1, I2. I3. This color system was developed by Ohta et al. We named C1C2C3 the modified components, those were experimentally obtained. We use C1 C2 C3 to segment and generate maps. During the segmentation process we obtain binary images. In this work we propose two arithmetic operations with the binary images, product and sum. Multiplication reduces the Wise aroused during the thresholding segmentation process.

Rojas, J. J. B.; Guerrero, M. L.; Acevedo, J. C.; Vivanco, A. P.; Serrano, G. U.

2004-12-01

466

Lichens promote flowering Opuntia fragilis in west-central Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Clumps of the cactus Opuntia fragilis growing in association with mats of the lichens Cladina mitis, Cladina rangiferina and a spikemoss, Selaginella rupestris, were discovered in an agricultural field in Pepin County, Wisconsin, that had been abandoned for over 50 y. The association appeared to be beneficial to the cactus, which flowered almost exclusively in the presence of lichens. Of 294 cactus clumps examined in 2001, 127 grew in the presence of lichen mats and, of these, 24 flowered, producing 91 flowers, while none of the cacti growing in the absence of lichens flowered. In 2002, 19 out of 265 cactus clumps flowered, all but one in the presence of lichens. All sizes of cacti in the presence of lichens flowered and the probability of flowering increased with cactus size. In addition, the cacti that flowered had cladodes that were on average 19% heavier than those of cacti that did not flower. The presence of lichens lowered summer soil temperatures 2a??4 C compared to soil temperatures in the absence of lichens. Cooler soil temperatures conserve soil moisture better, which may enhance flowering in these cacti.

Bennett, J. P.; Bornar, C. R.; Harrington, C. A.

2003-01-01

467

Developing a method for customized induction of flowering  

PubMed Central

Background The ability to induce flowering on demand is of significant biotechnological interest. FT protein has been recently identified as an important component of the mobile flowering hormone, florigen, whose function is conserved across the plant kingdom. We therefore focused on manipulation of both endogenous and heterologous FT genes to develop a floral induction system where flowering would be inhibited until it was induced on demand. The concept was tested in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). Results Our starting point was plants with strongly delayed flowering due to silencing of FT with an artificial microRNA directed at FT (amiR-FT) [1]. First, we showed that constitutive expression of a heterologous FT gene (FTa1), from the model legume Medicago truncatula, (Medicago) was able to rescue the amiR-FT late-flowering phenotype. In order to induce flowering in a controlled way, the FTa1 gene was then expressed under the control of an alcohol-inducible promoter in the late flowering amiR-FT plants. Upon exposure to ethanol, FTa1 was rapidly up regulated and this resulted in the synchronous induction of flowering. Conclusions We have thus demonstrated a controlled-inducible flowering system using a novel combination of endogenous and heterologous FT genes. The universal florigenic nature of FT suggests that this type of system should be applicable to crops of economic value where flowering control is desirable.

2011-01-01

468

Cryptic female preference for colorful males in guppies.  

PubMed

Cryptic female choice (CFC) refers to female-mediated processes occurring during or after copulation that result in biased sperm use in favor of preferred or compatible males. Despite recent empirical support for this hypothesis, evidence that CFC contributes towards the evolution of male body ornaments, in the same way that precopulatory female choice does, is currently lacking. Here, we tested the possibility that CFC selects for increased male attractiveness in the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a freshwater fish exhibiting internal fertilization. Specifically, we examined whether females are able to manipulate the number of sperm transferred or retained at copulation in favor of relatively attractive males. In support of this prediction, we found that following solicited copulations the number of sperm inseminated is influenced exclusively by the female's perception of relative male coloration, independent of any direct manipulation of males themselves. Because females prefer brightly colored males during precopulatory mate choice, our finding that colorful males are also favored as a consequence of enhanced insemination success indicates that cryptic female choice can reinforce precopulatory preferences for extravagant male ornaments. PMID:15119451

Pilastro, Andrea; Simonato, Martina; Bisazza, Angelo; Evans, Jonathan P

2004-03-01

469

Progress in color night vision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an overview of our recent progress and the current state-of-the-art techniques of color image fusion for night vision applications. Inspired by previously developed color opponent fusing schemes, we initially developed a simple pixel-based false color-mapping scheme that yielded fused false color images with large color contrast and preserved the identity of the input signals. This method has been successfully deployed in different areas of research. However, since this color mapping did not produce realistic colors, we continued to develop a statistical color-mapping procedure that would transfer the color distribution of a given example image to a multiband nighttime image. This procedure yields a realistic color rendering. However, it is computationally expensive and achieves no color constancy since the mapping depends on the relative amounts of the different materials in the scene. By applying the statistical mapping approach in a color look-up-table framework, we finally achieved both color constancy and computational simplicity. This sample-based color transfer method is specific for different types of materials in a scene and can be easily adapted for the intended operating theatre and the task at hand. The method can be implemented as a look-up-table transform and is highly suitable for real-time implementations.

Toet, Alexander; Hogervorst, Maarten A.

2012-01-01

470

Seismic characteristics and identification of negative flower structures, positive flower structures, and positive structural inversion  

SciTech Connect

Negative and positive flower structures and positive inverted structures imply specific modes of formation, and their distinctive characteristics make them important criteria for the identification of certain structural styles. A negative flower structure from the Andaman Sea consists of a shallow synform bounded by upward-spreading strands of a wrench fault that have mostly normal separations. Paralleling monoclines and oblique, en echelon normal faults flank the divergent wrench fault. A positive flower structure from the Ardmore basin, Oklahoma, consists of a shallow antiform displaced by the upward diverging strands of a wrench fault that have mostly reverse separations. En echelon folds are present on either side of this convergent wrench fault. Positive structural inversion at the Rambutan oil field, South Sumatra basin, has formed a shallow anticlinorium and has partly uplifted the underlying graben. Deeper fault segments bounding the graben have retained their normal fault profiles, but at shallow levels some of these faults have reverse separations.

Harding, T.P.

1985-04-01

471

Flowering phenology and female reproductive success in Silene acutifolia Link ex Rohrb  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated flowering phenology and female reproductive success intwo populations of Silene acutifolia in northwest Spain,over one year (population A) or two consecutive years (population B). Floweringphenology was similar in the two populations and two years. However,significantinterannual and interindividual variation was detected in flowering start date,flowering finish date, flowering duration, relative flowering intensity,flowering synchrony index, and median flowering date (the

María Luisa Buide; José Antonio Díaz-Peromingo; Javier Guitián

2002-01-01

472

Red-green color vision in three catarrhine primates  

PubMed Central

The evolution of the red-green visual subsystem in trichromatic primates has been linked to foraging advantages, specifically the detection of either ripe fruits or young leaves amid mature foliage, and to the intraspecific socio-sexual communication, namely the signal of the male rank, the mate choice and the reproductive strategies in females. New data should be added to the debate regarding the evolution of trichromatic color vision. Three catarrhine primates were observed to achieve this goal. The research was performed on captive groups of vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops), pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) housed at Parco Natura Viva - Garda Zoological Park (Italy). Using pairs of red-green bags containing the same hidden reward in comparable outdoor enclosures, we recorded the choices by observed individuals (n = 25) to investigate the role of color cues in choosing an object. The results indicate that chimpanzees used red color as cue to choose an object that contains food by showing a preference toward red objects; in contrast, vervet monkeys and pig-tailed macaques do not demonstrate a clear choice based on the color of the object. Our findings highlight the importance of the foraging hypothesis but not rule out the potential role of the intraspecific socio-sexual communication and may serve to add useful information to the debate regarding the adaptive value of the evolution of color vision in order to fill a phylogenetic gap from Old World monkeys to humans. Future studies should address the role of socio-sexual communication, such as the selection of the reproductive partner of both high genetic quality and with compatible genes, to determine how this influenced the evolution of color vision in non-human primates.

Fornale, Francesca; Vaglio, Stefano; Spiezio, Caterina; Previde, Emanuela Prato

2012-01-01

473

Red-green color vision in three catarrhine primates.  

PubMed

The evolution of the red-green visual subsystem in trichromatic primates has been linked to foraging advantages, specifically the detection of either ripe fruits or young leaves amid mature foliage, and to the intraspecific socio-sexual communication, namely the signal of the male rank, the mate choice and the reproductive strategies in females. New data should be added to the debate regarding the evolution of trichromatic color vision. Three catarrhine primates were observed to achieve this goal. The research was performed on captive groups of vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops), pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) housed at Parco Natura Viva - Garda Zoological Park (Italy). Using pairs of red-green bags containing the same hidden reward in comparable outdoor enclosures, we recorded the choices by observed individuals (n = 25) to investigate the role of color cues in choosing an object. The results indicate that chimpanzees used red color as cue to choose an object that contains food by showing a preference toward red objects; in contrast, vervet monkeys and pig-tailed macaques do not demonstrate a clear choice based on the color of the object. Our findings highlight the importance of the foraging hypothesis but not rule out the potential role of the intraspecific socio-sexual communication and may serve to add useful information to the debate regarding the adaptive value of the evolution of color vision in order to fill a phylogenetic gap from Old World monkeys to humans. Future studies should address the role of socio-sexual communication, such as the selection of the reproductive partner of both high genetic quality and with compatible genes, to determine how this influenced the evolution of color vision in non-human primates. PMID:23336029

Fornalé, Francesca; Vaglio, Stefano; Spiezio, Caterina; Previde, Emanuela Prato

2012-11-01

474

A new method for skin color enhancement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Skin tone is the most important color category in memory colors. Reproducing it pleasingly is an important factor in photographic color reproduction. Moving skin colors toward their preferred skin color center improves the skin color preference on photographic color reproduction. Two key factors to successfully enhance skin colors are: a method to detect original skin colors effectively even if they are shifted far away from the regular skin color region, and a method to morph skin colors toward a preferred skin color region properly without introducing artifacts. A method for skin color enhancement presented by the authors in the same conference last year applies a static skin color model for skin color detection, which may miss to detect skin colors that are far away from regular skin tones. In this paper, a new method using the combination of face detection and statistical skin color modeling is proposed to effectively detect skin pixels and to enhance skin colors more effectively.

Zeng, Huanzhao; Luo, Ronnier

2012-01-01

475

Replicating Colors: Using tints, shades and primary colors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will mix paints and create a formula to match a muted color. The formula will be tested. Students will discuss their observations and develop new questions about color mixing to pursue.

476

Thin film color sensors in multichannel technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color images are commonly captured with sensor arrays covered with a mosaic of RGB-filters. In spite of the enormous success of CMOS and CCD color cameras, one-chip color imagers suffer form color aliasing or color moire effects. In order to overcome these limitations we have realized color sensors based on vertical integrated thin film structures. The compete color information of

Dietmar Knipp; Helmut Stiebig; Heribert Wagner

2001-01-01

477

Hongse : the Color Red  

Microsoft Academic Search

The video begins with a black and white wedding photograph from the mid 20th century of an Asian American wedding party with the women in cheongsams and the men in western suits. A male narrator states the importance of the bride. A stain (still in black and white) spreads from bottom of frame rising over the brides face. Color video

Amanda Young Shortall

2007-01-01

478

"Color-Blind" Racism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examining race relations in the United States from a historical perspective, this book explains how the constitution is racist and how color blindness is actually a racist ideology. It is argued that Justice Harlan, in his dissenting opinion in Plessy v. Ferguson, meant that the constitution and the law must remain blind to the existence of race…

Carr, Leslie G.

479

Bayesian color constancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of color constancy may be solved if we can recover the physical properties of illuminants and surfaces from photosensor responses. We consider this problem within the framework of Bayesian decision theory. First, we model the relation among illuminants, surfaces, and photosensor responses. Second, we construct prior distributions that describe the probability that particular illuminants and surfaces exist in

David H. Brainard; William T. Freeman

1997-01-01

480

Color Yes; Cancer No.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dyes based on known carcinogens such as benzidine and beta-naphthylamine can no longer be manufactured in the United States. In addition, numerous colorants have been banned from use by the food and cosmetic industries. These limitations have led to the e...

H. Freeman M. Esancy J. Esancy L. Claxton

1991-01-01

481

Colorimetry in Color Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the relations between the colorimetric quantities of the system and the electrical signals into which they are encoded for transmission. The type of system considered specifically is that in which the complete video signal comprises a monochrome component together with a color carrier, which collaborate to transmit all of the information necessary for a subjective reproduction of

F. J. Bingley

1953-01-01

482

OPEN DOOR = COLOR TV.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|WHEN A COMMERCIAL TELEVISION STATION OFFERED ONE WEEKLY HOUR OF FREE TIME FOR COLOR BROADCASTING, 17 JUNIOR COLLEGES IN LOS ANGELES COUNTY, CALIFORNIA, PARTICIPATED IN A COOPERATIVE PRESENTATION OF A CREDIT COURSE IN "GREAT CULTURES OF THE WESTERN WORLD." THE COURSE WAS SELECTED TO REPRESENT THE HIGHEST QUALITY OF WORK BEING DONE IN THE COLLEGES…

WILBUR, LESLIE

483

Colorful Kindergarten Mice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Developing kindergarten lessons can be very challenging, especially at the beginning of the school year when many students are just learning to cut paper and hold crayons. The author's favorite beginning unit of the year is "mice paintings," a practical introduction to drawing, color theory, and painting. This unit also incorporates children's…

Bobick, Bryna; Wheeler, Elizabeth

2008-01-01

484

COLOR YES; CANCER NO  

EPA Science Inventory

Dyes based on known carcinogens such as benzidine and beta naphthylamine can no longer be manufactured in the United States. n addition, numerous colorants have been banned from use by the food and cosmetic industries. hese limitations have led to the examination of structure-act...

485

Color theory and realism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critiques the prominent color theories by - Franklin, Hering and Young-Helmholtz theories, as being unable to satisfy the psychological requirements of sensational realism. Discusses the various theoretical concepts given by the theories. Also suggests modifications of the Helmholtz theory in such a way so as to make it compatible with sensory realism. Possibilities of psychological research in the area of

Knight Dunlap

1915-01-01

486

Mars Rotate (False Color)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center features an animation of Mars rotating. The visualization was created using data collected by the Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter (MOLA) on board the Mars Global Surveyor. The animation uses false color to highlight topography, specifically the Hellas Basin, Terra Meridiani, the Tharsis rise, and Lucus Planum. The site also provides still images of the same features.

Studio, Nasa/goddard S.

487

Colorful Kindergarten Mice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developing kindergarten lessons can be very challenging, especially at the beginning of the school year when many students are just learning to cut paper and hold crayons. The author's favorite beginning unit of the year is "mice paintings," a practical introduction to drawing, color theory, and painting. This unit also incorporates children's…

Bobick, Bryna; Wheeler, Elizabeth

2008-01-01

488

Color-sensation theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this discussion the author comments on Dr. Sanford's review of her paper on the color-sensation theory. In the article Franklin mentions briefly (1) that she has considered the reviewer's objection to her explanation of simultaneous contrast to be well taken, and that she shall hereafter attribute that phenomenon to a purposeful reflex action, which is also Hering's explanation of

Christine Ladd Franklin

1894-01-01

489

Mars Rotate (True Color)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center features an animation of Mars rotating. Topography is shown in true color and includes such features as the Hellas Basin, Terra Meridiani, the Tharsis rise, and Lucus Planum. Still images are also provided.

Studio, Nasa/goddard S.

490

Light and Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Overview: This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Nature of Light SciPack. It provides conceptual and real world understanding of how the wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation affect the way they interact with different materials. We perceive differences of wavelength within the visible part of the spectrum as differences in color. Shorter wavelengths of light (blue) are scattered more by air molecules than longer wavelengths of light (red). When the atmosphere scatters sunlight--which is a mixture of all wavelengths--short-wavelength light (which gives us the sensation of blue) is scattered much more by air molecules than long-wavelength (red) light is. The atmosphere, therefore, appears blue and the sun seen through it by un-scattered light appears reddened. Also, materials that allow one range of wavelengths to pass through them may completely absorb others. For example, some gases in the atmosphere, including carbon dioxide and water vapor, are transparent to much of the incoming sunlight but absorb the infrared radiation from the warmed surface of Earth. Learning Outcomes: Describe the relationship of color as perceived by the human eye and the wavelength of light waves. Describe the relationship of the colors in the visible spectrum (as perceived by the human eye) to the electromagnetic spectrum. Describe how the color of a beam of light is affected by scattering. Summarize the interaction of the molecules of greenhouse gases and different wavelengths of light, and how that results in heat being trapped in the troposphere.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

1900-01-01

491

Four Color Theorem Intro  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This informal introduction by Jim Loy to the four color theorem is designed specifically for a general, non-technical audience. Using simple language, examples and images, Loy explains the theorem and how it was proven by researchers. The author also briefly shows how the theorem became a part of the graph theory by displaying a map than the equivalent graph.

Loy, Jim

2010-07-30

492

Color enhanced emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Color Enhanced Emotion system controls the human 'emotion' drastically. The system recognizes the facial expressions and controls skin pigment components using a real-time processor. By implementing the proposed system, an attendee can experience a system that will usher in a new era in communication and in movie editing systems.

Toshiya Nakaguchi; Norimichi Tsumura; Koichi Takase; Takao Makino; Saya Okaguchi; Ryoko Usuba; Nobutoshi Ojima; Yoichi Miyake

2005-01-01

493

Hupa Nature Coloring Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Animals familiar to the northwest region of California where Hupa Indians reside are depicted in this coloring book which belongs to a series of materials developed to promote the use of the Hupa language. Each page contains a bold pen and ink drawing of an animal and the animal's name in the Unifon alphabet used for writing the Hupa language.…

Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; And Others

494

Color Wheel Windows  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author describes a painting and drawing lesson which was inspired by the beautiful circular windows found in cathedrals and churches (also known as "rose windows"). This two-week lesson would reinforce both the concept of symmetry and students' understanding of the color wheel. (Contains 1 online resource.)|

Leonard, Stephanie

2012-01-01

495

An Analysis of Combining Ability for Height, Leaf Out, Bloom Date and Flower Color for Crapemyrtle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Breeding of crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia) in the United States has focused on developing hybrids between parents with disease or pest resistance and those with good floral characteristics. The objective of this work was to study the general and specific combining ability of several horticulturally im...

496

Method for producing Abelmoschus manihot medicus flower perfumed product  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A producing method of Abelmoschus manihot Medicus flower perfumed products comprises steps of choosing a carrier from one of Abelmoschus manihot Medicus oil, vegetable oil with unsaturated fatty acid more than 60% and acid value less than 4.0, and cosmetic base oil grade high purity mineral oil; choosing Abelmoschus manihot Medicus flowers as main ingredient flowers; immersing the main ingredient flowers in the carrier by immersing the main ingredient flowers below a liquid level of the carrier; and placing stationarily the carrier with the main ingredient flowers immersed therein in dark places and keeping the carrier out of any direct sunlight under an environment with a temperature between 18 degrees centigrade and 48 degrees centigrade for more than 6 hours, or a temperature below 18 degrees centigrade for more than 180 hours.

2013-01-01