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Sample records for flue-cured tobacco leaves

  1. 7 CFR 29.9403 - Flue-Cured Tobacco Advisory Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flue-Cured Tobacco Advisory Committee. 29.9403 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Policy Statement and Regulations Governing Availability of Tobacco Inspection and Price Support Services to Flue-Cured Tobacco on Designated Markets § 29.9403...

  2. 7 CFR 29.9403 - Flue-Cured Tobacco Advisory Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flue-Cured Tobacco Advisory Committee. 29.9403 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Policy Statement and Regulations Governing Availability of Tobacco Inspection and Price Support Services to Flue-Cured Tobacco on Designated Markets § 29.9403...

  3. 7 CFR 29.9403 - Flue-Cured Tobacco Advisory Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flue-Cured Tobacco Advisory Committee. 29.9403 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Policy Statement and Regulations Governing Availability of Tobacco Inspection and Price Support Services to Flue-Cured Tobacco on Designated Markets § 29.9403...

  4. 7 CFR 29.9403 - Flue-Cured Tobacco Advisory Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flue-Cured Tobacco Advisory Committee. 29.9403 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Policy Statement and Regulations Governing Availability of Tobacco Inspection and Price Support Services to Flue-Cured Tobacco on Designated Markets § 29.9403...

  5. 7 CFR 29.9403 - Flue-Cured Tobacco Advisory Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flue-Cured Tobacco Advisory Committee. 29.9403 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Policy Statement and Regulations Governing Availability of Tobacco Inspection and Price Support Services to Flue-Cured Tobacco on Designated Markets § 29.9403...

  6. 7 CFR 29.75b - Display of baled flue-cured tobacco on auction warehouse floors in designated markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Display of baled flue-cured tobacco on auction... AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Mandatory Inspection § 29.75b Display of baled flue-cured tobacco on auction warehouse floors in designated...

  7. 7 CFR 29.75b - Display of baled flue-cured tobacco on auction warehouse floors in designated markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Display of baled flue-cured tobacco on auction... AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Mandatory Inspection § 29.75b Display of baled flue-cured tobacco on auction warehouse floors in designated...

  8. Uptake of Cadmium by Flue-Cured Tobacco Plants: Exploring Bioavailability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer, I.; Robarge, W. P.; Vann, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    Scientific understanding of cadmium (Cd) cycling in North Carolina tobacco plants and soils has lagged, even as production of flue-cured tobacco remains an important part of the NC economy ($903 million in 2014). Cd is considered a tobacco contaminant. When tobacco is burned, Cd can exist as a fine aerosol and subsequent inhalation is linked to cancer. Tobacco root exudates enhance Cd uptake, even though the Cd concentration in NC soils is <0.1 mg/kg. Quantifying Cd concentrations in tobacco plants is crucial to understanding Cd bioavailability and implementing soil remediation efforts. The objective of this study was to develop a Cd mass balance for flue-cured tobacco grown under field conditions in NC. Whole plant samples were collected at transplanting and every 2 weeks thereafter until harvest. Individual plants were segregated into root, stalk and individual leaves (n = 15 whole plants/sampling date; composite samples were taken early in the growing season). After recording dry mass, samples were analyzed using ion-coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry or ion-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Lower leaves contained the highest Cd concentrations ( 7-10 mg/kg). Leaves occupying the upper 50% of the plant had Cd concentrations of 2 mg/kg. Uptake rate was greatest from day 27 to 66 ( 21.5 μg Cd/day). Selective Cd uptake appears evident between day 27 and 43, but overall the relative rate of Cd uptake was similar to other trace metals and micronutrients. Cd distribution within the plants mirrored the distribution of calcium, a macronutrient. Of the 8 mg of soil extractable Cd (0.075 mg/kg) in the rooting zone, 15.0% (1203 μg) is removed by uptake. Of this 15%, 64.2% (772.2 μg) is exported at harvest, and 35.8% (430.8 μg; lower leaves, roots, stalks) is returned to the soil. This study must be replicated to account for seasonal and soil variations. These results do inform selection of tobacco strains that limit uptake of trace metals, particularly Cd.

  9. 7 CFR 29.75b - Display of baled flue-cured tobacco on auction warehouse floors in designated markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... warehouse floors in designated markets. 29.75b Section 29.75b Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Inspection § 29.75b Display of baled flue-cured tobacco on auction warehouse floors in designated markets. Each lot of baled flue-cured tobacco displayed for sale on auction warehouse floors shall have...

  10. [Effects of different organic fertilizers on the microbes in rhizospheric soil of flue-cured tobacco].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun-Wei; Xu, Zhi; Tang, Li; Li, Yan-Hong; Song, Jian-Qun; Xu, Jian-Qin

    2013-09-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of applying different organic fertilizers (refined organic fertilizer and bio-organic fertilizer) and their combination with 20% reduced chemical fertilizers on the microbes in rhizospheric soil of flue-cured tobacco, the resistance of the tobacco against bacterial wilt, and the tobacco yield and quality. As compared with conventional chemical fertilization (CK), applying refined organic fertilizer (ROF) or bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) in combining with 20% reduced chemical fertilization increased the bacterial number and the total microbial number in the rhizospheric soil significantly. Applying BIO in combining with 20% reduced chemical fertilization also increased the actinomyces number in the rhizospheric soil significantly, with an increment of 44.3% as compared with that under the application of ROF in combining with 20% reduced chemical fertilization, but decreased the fungal number. As compared with CK, the ROF and BIO increased the carbon use capacity of rhizospheric microbes significantly, and the BIO also increased the capacity of rhizospheric microbes in using phenols significantly. Under the application of ROF and BIO, the disease incidence and the disease index of bacterial wilt were decreased by 4% and 8%, and 23% and 15.9%, and the proportions of high grade tobacco leaves increased significantly by 10.5% and 9.7%, respectively, as compared with those in CK. BIO increased the tobacco yield and its output value by 17.1% and 18.9% , respectively, as compared with ROF. PMID:24417114

  11. Isolation, Identification, and Autotoxicity Effect of Allelochemicals from Rhizosphere Soils of Flue-Cured Tobacco.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xia; He, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Zhongfeng; Yan, Zhiqiang; Jin, Hui; Li, Xiuzhuang; Qin, Bo

    2015-10-21

    Autotoxicity, defined as a deleterious allelopathic effect among individuals of the same plant species, is considered as one of the factors that contributes to replant failure. Tobacco, as an important cultured and economic crop over the world, has been often hampered by replant failure. In view of the seriousness of this problem, the allelochemicals of flue-cured tobacco and their allelopathic effects were investigated. The extracts of rhizosphere soil exhibited phytotoxic activities against Lactuca sativa and autotoxic activities against tobacco itself. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the extract led to the isolation of six compounds, the structures of which were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Among them, β-cembrenediol (1), di-n-hexyl phthalate (2), and bis(2-propylheptyl) phthalate (3) showed observably phytotoxic activities against L. sativa seedlings and autotoxic activities on tobacco. The allelochemicals were then verified in the root zone soils of flue-cured tobacco by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). These results provide new insights into the allelopathic mechanisms involved in the replant failure of flue-cured tobacco. PMID:26416408

  12. Reproduction of Globodera tabacum solanacearum in Seven Flue-Cured Tobacco-Producing Soils

    PubMed Central

    Rideout, S. L.; JOHNSON, C. S.; Eisenback, J. D.; Reed, T. D.

    2000-01-01

    The tobacco cyst nematode (Globodera tabacum solanacearum) continues to pose a serious threat to flue-cured tobacco production in Virginia and nearby states. Soils were sampled from five uninfested and two infested flue-cured tobacco-producing locations. Twenty-three edaphic factors were characterized to determine if any were correlated with G. t. solanacearum reproduction. Comparisons were also made between pasteurized and natural soils to determine if biological suppression of G. t. solanacearum reproduction might be occurring in currently uninfested areas. Differences in G. t. solanacearum reproduction were noted among the soils, but results were inconsistent across the three trials conducted in this study. Only soil pH correlated significantly with nematode reproduction, and then only in one of three trials. Globodera tabacum solanacearum reproduced with similar efficiency in natural and pasteurized soils. PMID:19270999

  13. Large-scale development of SSR markers in tobacco and construction of a linkage map in flue-cured tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Zhijun; Xiao, Bingguang; Jiao, Fangchan; Fang, Dunhuang; Zeng, Jianmin; Wu, Xingfu; Chen, Xuejun; Yang, Jiankang; Li, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), particularly flue-cured tobacco, is one of the most economically important nonfood crops and is also an important model system in plant biotechnology. Despite its importance, only limited molecular marker resources are available for genome analysis, genetic mapping, and breeding. Simple sequence repeats (SSR) are one of the most widely-used molecular markers, having significant advantages including that they are generally co-dominant, easy to use, abundant in eukaryotic organisms, and produce highly reproducible results. In this study, based on the genome sequence data of flue-cured tobacco (K326), we developed a total of 13,645 mostly novel SSR markers, which were working in a set of eighteen tobacco varieties of four different types. A mapping population of 213 backcross (BC1) individuals, which were derived from an intra-type cross between two flue-cured tobacco varieties, Y3 and K326, was selected for mapping. Based on the newly developed SSR markers as well as published SSR markers, we constructed a genetic map consisting of 626 SSR loci distributed across 24 linkage groups and covering a total length of 1120.45 cM with an average distance of 1.79 cM between adjacent markers, which is the highest density map of flue-cured tobacco till date. PMID:27436948

  14. [Spatial and temporal characteristics of flue-cured tobacco water requirement and irrigation requirement index in Yunnan Province, China].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Dong-fang; Xu, Jia-yang; Lu, Xiu-ping; Xu, Zi-cheng; Li, Jun-ying; Pang, Tao; Zhang, Ya-jie; Wang, Pei-wen

    2015-07-01

    Based on the daily meteorological data of 124 agricultural meteorological sites during 1977-2010 in Yunnan Province, using recommended Penman-Monteith formula by FAO, water requirement and irrigation requirement index in the growth period of flue-cured tobacco were calculated to analyze their spatial and temporal characteristics and change patterns. The results showed that water requirements of flue-cured tobacco in root extending, vigorous, mature periods and field growth period during 1977-2010 were 76.73-174.73, 247.50-386.64, 180.28-258.14 and 528.18-764.08 mm, respectively, and the water requirement of vigorous period was the highest. The average irrigation demand index of each period was -0.02, 0.38, 0.17 and 0.26, respectively. Effective precipitation could meet the demand of flue-cured tobacco in root extending period. Water requirement of flue-cured tobacco in Yunnan Province decreased annually, and the rates of water requirement under the climate change trend in the four periods abovementioned were -12. 42, -21.46, -7.17 and -47.15 mm . (10 a)-1, respectively. The smallest irrigation demand index was observed in Dehong, and the largest in Diqing. The irrigation demand indexes of Dehong, Xishuangbanna and Puer regions were negative in flue-cured tobacco field growth period. The reference crop evapotranspiration, water requirement and effective precipitation decreased, but the irrigation requirement and irrigation requirement index increased with the increase of latitude. The effective precipitation decreased, but the irrigation requirement and irrigation requirement index increased with the increase of altitude. PMID:26710637

  15. [Effects of phosphorus fertilizer on the root system and its relationship with the aboveground part of flue-cured tobacco].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-li; Liu, Guo-shun; Ding, Song-shuang; Wang, Jing; Li, Yuan-bo; Dong, Xiao-li

    2015-05-01

    Using 'Yuyan 10' as the material, the effects of different phosphorus fertilizer application on root characteristics of tobacco, such as root dry mass and the difference of dry matter distribution and mineral nutrient accumulation between its above and underground parts were investigated. The results showed that the growth of flue-cured tobacco root system and the distribution of dry matter to the aboveground part were significantly promoted by phosphorus fertilizer application. The application of 30 kg P2O5 · hm(-2) led to the maximums of root dry mass, root volume, root activity and the minimum of root to shoot ratio. The maximum nutrient accumulation rates of root and leaf appeared 57-66 days after transplanting and 44-55 days after transplanting, respectively. Phosphorus could not only promote the mineral nutrition absorption of tobacco and the earlier appearance of maximum nutrient accumulation, but significantly promote the nutrient accumulation of the aboveground part. But, the positive effects described above would be weakened when the amount of phosphorus fertilizer was more than 30 kg P2O5 · hm(-2). Therefore, it's necessary to control the amount of phosphorus application to improve the quality of tobacco leaves. PMID:26571663

  16. [Effects of biochar on the micro-ecology of tobacco-planting soil and physiology of flue-cured tobacco].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Chen, Wei; Lin, Ye-chun; Cheng, Jian-zhong; Pan, Wen-jie

    2015-12-01

    Biochar is one of the research hotspots in the field of the agroforestry waste utilization. A field experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of different amounts of tobacco stem biochar (0, 1, 10, 50 t · hm⁻²) on soil micro-ecology and physiological properties of flue-cured tobacco. The results showed that soil water content (SWC) increased at all tobacco growth stages as the amounts of biochar applications increased. There were significant differences of SWC between the treatment of 50 t · hm⁻² and other treatments at the period of tobacco vigorous growth. As the application of biochar increased, the total soil porosity and capillary porosity increased, while soil bacteria, actinomyces, fungi amount increased firstly and then decreased. The amount of soil bacteria, actinomyces, fungi reached the maximum at the treatment of 10 t · hm⁻². Soil respiration rate (SRR) at earlier stage increased with the increase of biochar application. Compared with the control, SSR under biochar treatments increased by 7.9%-36.9%, and there were significant differences of SRR between high biochar application treatments (50 t · hm⁻² and 10 t · hm⁻²) and the control. Biochar improved leaf water potential, carotenoid and chlorophyll contents. Meanwhile, the dry mass of root, shoot and total dry mass under biochar application were higher than that of the control. These results indicated that the biochar played active roles in improving tobacco-planting soil micro-ecology and regulating physiological properties of flue-cured tobacco. PMID:27112019

  17. Aroma types of flue-cured tobacco in China: spatial distribution and association with climatic factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chao; Wu, Wei; Wu, Shu-Cheng; Liu, Hong-Bin; Peng, Qing

    2014-02-01

    Aroma types of flue-cured tobacco (FCT) are classified into light, medium, and heavy in China. However, the spatial distribution of FCT aroma types and the relationships among aroma types, chemical parameters, and climatic variables were still unknown at national scale. In the current study, multi-year averaged chemical parameters (total sugars, reducing sugars, nicotine, total nitrogen, chloride, and K2O) of FCT samples with grade of C3F and climatic variables (mean, minimum and maximum temperatures, rainfall, relative humidity, and sunshine hours) during the growth periods were collected from main planting areas across China. Significant relationships were found between chemical parameters and climatic variables ( p < 0.05). A spatial distribution map of FCT aroma types were produced using support vector machine algorithms and chemical parameters. Significant differences in chemical parameters and climatic variables were observed among the three aroma types based on one-way analysis of variance ( p < 0.05). Areas with light aroma type had significantly lower values of mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures than regions with medium and heavy aroma types ( p < 0.05). Areas with heavy aroma type had significantly lower values of rainfall and relative humidity and higher values of sunshine hours than regions with light and medium aroma types ( p < 0.05). The output produced by classification and regression trees showed that sunshine hours, rainfall, and maximum temperature were the most important factors affecting FCT aroma types at national scale.

  18. [Effects of combined fertilization of N, P, and K on nicotine content of filling type flue-cured tobacco].

    PubMed

    Yin, Peng-Da; Zhu, Wen-Xu; Zhao, Li-Na; Xu, Nan; Zhang, Hui-Hui; Jiao, Yu-Sheng; Zhao, Guang-Wei; Sun, Guang-Yu

    2011-05-01

    An orthogonal regression field experiment was conducted to study the effects of combined fertilization of N, P, and K on the nicotine content in the upper leaves of filling type flue-cured tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum) variety "Longjiang 911" from Northeast China. The regression effect models of N, P, and K fertilization rates and upper leaf nicotine content were established, and the effects of the fertilization rates and their interactions were analyzed. Based on these, an optimized NPK fertilization scheme was drawn up to reduce the nicotine content in the upper leaves of "Longjiang 911". The model analyses showed that the nicotine content in the upper leaves of "Longjiang 911" decreased after an initial increase with the increasing fertilization rate of N, increased with the increasing fertilization rate of P, and had a sharp decrease with the increasing fertilization rate of K. The two-factor effects of NKP on the nicotine content were in the order of NK >PK>NP. Within a certain range of fertilization rates, NP and PK had negative correlations with the nicotine content, suggesting the antagonistic effects between N and P and between P and K, while NK was on the contrary, suggesting the synergistic effects between N and K. A comprehensive analysis on the regression effect models of N, P, and K fertilization rates and upper leaf nicotine content showed that the basal fertilization rates of N, P, and K for the tobacco production on warp soil were recommended as 33.5-47.8 kg x hm(-2), 40.2-63.6 kg x hm(-2), and 78.0-119.6 kg x hm(-2), respectively. PMID:21812293

  19. Effects of Ph gene-associated versus induced resistance to tobacco cyst nematode in flue-cured tobacco.

    PubMed

    Parkunan, Venkatesan; Johnson, Charles S; Eisenback, Jon D

    2009-12-01

    Effects of the systemic acquired resistance (SAR)-inducing compound acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) and the plant-growth promoting rhizobacterial mixture Bacillus subtilis A13 and B. amyloliquefaciens IN937a (GB99+GB122) were assessed on the reproduction of a tobacco cyst nematode (TCN- Globodera tabacum solanacearum) under greenhouse conditions. Two sets of two independent experiments were conducted, each involving soil or root sampling. Soil sample experiments included flue-cured tobacco cultivars with (Ph(p)+: NC71 and NC102) and without (Ph(p)-: K326 and K346) a gene (Ph(p)) suppressing TCN parasitism. Root sample experiments examined TCN root parasitism of NC71 and K326. Cultivars possessing the Ph(p) gene (Ph(p)+) were compared with Ph(p)- cultivars to assess the effects of resistance mediated via Ph(p) gene vs. induced resistance to TCN. GB99+GB122 consistently reduced nematode reproductive ratio on both Ph(p)+ and Ph(p)- cultivars, but similar effects of ASM across Ph(p)- cultivars were less consistent. In addition, ASM application resulted in leaf yellowing and reduced root weight. GB99+GB122 consistently reduced nematode development in roots of both Ph(p)+ and Ph(p)- cultivars, while similar effects of ASM were frequently less consistent. The results of this study indicate that GB99+GB122 consistently reduced TCN reproduction in all flue-cured tobacco cultivars tested, while the effects of ASM were only consistent in Ph(p)+ cultivars. Under most circumstances, GB99+GB122 suppressed nematode reproduction more consistently than ASM compared to the untreated control. PMID:22736824

  20. Effects of X-ray irradiation on the microbial growth and quality of flue-cured tobacco during aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. J.; Xu, Z. C.; Fan, J. L.; Wang, Y.; Tian, Z. J.; Chen, Y. T.

    2015-06-01

    X-ray irradiation was evaluated for improving microbial safety and the quality of flue-cured tobacco during aging. Tobacco samples were irradiated at doses of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 5 kGy and stored for 12 months under normal storage conditions or in a high-humidity (RH>70%) room. Microbiological data indicated that the population of total aerobic bacteria was significantly decreased with increasing irradiation doses. In particular, a dose of 2 kGy was effective for the decontamination of fungi from the tested samples, with a 0.93 log CFU/g reduction for bacteria. The control and 1 kGy X-ray treated tobacco samples were became rotted and moldy after the 12th month, whereas those treated with 2, 3 and 5 kGy had no detectable mold during 12 months of storage at high humidity. Chemical measurements showed that irradiation up to 3 kGy did not affect the total nitrogen, nicotine, reducing and total sugars, ratio of total nitrogen to nicotine and sugar-to-nicotine ratio. Furthermore, sensory evaluation results also showed that X-ray irradiation did not affect sensory scores with irradiation at a dose <3 kGy. Based on these results, X-ray irradiation dose in the range of 2-3 kGy is recommended for the decontamination of fungi from flue-cured tobacco.

  1. Morphological and chemical characteristics of doubled haploids of flue-cured tobacco combining resistance to Thielaviopsis basicola and TSWV

    PubMed Central

    Trojak-Goluch, Anna; Laskowska, Dorota; Kursa, Karolina

    2016-01-01

    Thielaviopsis basicola and Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) are the most important problems in a moderate climate zone. Previously obtained doubled haploids (DH) of F1 hybrids of the flue-cured line WGL3 resistant to Th. basicola and the dark-cured line PW-834 carrying RTSW-al gene provided the research material. Biological tests and SCAR markers linked with TSWV were applied to confirm resistance of DH. Lines combining resistance to TSWV and Th. basicola were evaluated for morphological and chemical characteristics. Most of DH were significantly shorter than parents but two lines, 31/A/2 and 31/B/3, were close to the flue-cured WGL3. Usually DH possessed fewer leaves while one of them 31/B/3, exceeded parental forms. The doubled haploids flowered later than their parents. The most negative effect was reduced area of mid-position leaves of DH. It might be explained by a recombination during microsporogenesis in F1, however the influence of ‘Polalta’-derived RTSW-al gene cannot be excluded. Extensive line to line variation for nicotine and sugars content was not associated with the genes for TSWV and Th. basicola resistance. Biological tests and field performance of DH revealed potential to overcome the negative effect of coupling between the RSTV-al gene and genes responsible for the morphological deformations. PMID:27162500

  2. Morphological and chemical characteristics of doubled haploids of flue-cured tobacco combining resistance to Thielaviopsis basicola and TSWV.

    PubMed

    Trojak-Goluch, Anna; Laskowska, Dorota; Kursa, Karolina

    2016-03-01

    Thielaviopsis basicola and Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) are the most important problems in a moderate climate zone. Previously obtained doubled haploids (DH) of F1 hybrids of the flue-cured line WGL3 resistant to Th. basicola and the dark-cured line PW-834 carrying RTSW-al gene provided the research material. Biological tests and SCAR markers linked with TSWV were applied to confirm resistance of DH. Lines combining resistance to TSWV and Th. basicola were evaluated for morphological and chemical characteristics. Most of DH were significantly shorter than parents but two lines, 31/A/2 and 31/B/3, were close to the flue-cured WGL3. Usually DH possessed fewer leaves while one of them 31/B/3, exceeded parental forms. The doubled haploids flowered later than their parents. The most negative effect was reduced area of mid-position leaves of DH. It might be explained by a recombination during microsporogenesis in F1, however the influence of 'Polalta'-derived RTSW-al gene cannot be excluded. Extensive line to line variation for nicotine and sugars content was not associated with the genes for TSWV and Th. basicola resistance. Biological tests and field performance of DH revealed potential to overcome the negative effect of coupling between the RSTV-al gene and genes responsible for the morphological deformations. PMID:27162500

  3. [Geostatistical analysis on distribution dynamics of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) in flue-cured tobacco field].

    PubMed

    Xia, Peng-liang; Liu, Ying-hong; Fan, Jun; Tan, Jun

    2015-02-01

    Abstract: Myzus persicae belonging to Aphididae, Hemiptera, is an important migratory pest in tobacco field. As nymph and adult, it sucks the juice, breeds the mildew stains disease, spreads tobacco virus diseases and causes huge losses to the yield and quality. The distribution pattern and dynamics of winged and wingless aphids in the field were investigated from the transplanting of tobacco to the harvesting stage of mid-place tobacco leaves in Enshi, Hubei. The semivariable function characteristics were analyzed by geostatistical method, and the field migration pattern were simulated. The results showed that the population dynamics of winged aphids in Enshi were of bimodal curve, with two peaks at 3 weeks after transplanting and 2 weeks after multi-topping of tobacco leaves, and there were five-step process such as random, aggregation, random, aggregation and random. The population dynamics of wingless peach aphids were of single-peak curve, getting its peak before multi-topping, and had random, aggregation, random three-step process. Human factors and the hosts had considerable effects on the population density. Spatial distribution simulation-interpolation-figure could clearly reflect the dynamics of tobacco aphids. Combined with the Pearson correlation analysis, we found that the population density was low and highly concentrated as winged type in the immigration period, which was the key period for the management of peach aphids. PMID:26094473

  4. Relationship Between Population Densities of Pratylenchus penetrans and Crop Losses in Flue-Cured Tobacco in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Olthof, T H; Marks, C F; Elliot, J M

    1973-04-01

    Flue-cured tobacco was grown in microplots consisting of concrete drainage tries, 40-cm (i.d.), infested with 0; 666 ; 2000; 6000 or 18,000 root-lesion nematodes, Pratylenchus penetrans/kg of soil. Yield and grade index decreased with preplant soil population densities in excess of 2000/kg of soil. At initial densities of 6000 and 18,000/kg of soil losses in crop returns were 11.0% and 27.5%, respectively. Decreases in the maturity index and in percentage dry stalk weight with increasing densities showed that the nematode delayed maturity. Increases in population densities of nematodes were correlated with decreases in weights of tops and roots and in plant height. All final population densities in soil were lower than the initial densities except at the lowest pre-plant density. All soil populations at midseason were lower than those at the beginning and end of the growing season. Populations of P. penetrans at harvest were in excess of half a million per root system with the 18,000/kg initial soil population density. The results suggest that fumigation, which costs $75/ha, or approximately 2% of the crop value, is economically warranted at preplant densities in excess of 2000/kg of soft. PMID:19319324

  5. 7 CFR 30.36 - Class 1; flue-cured types and groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Class 1; flue-cured types and groups. 30.36 Section 30... Grades § 30.36 Class 1; flue-cured types and groups. All flue-cured tobacco is graded under the same set... type of flue-cured tobacco commonly known as Middle Belt Flue-cured, produced principally in a...

  6. [Difference of rhizosphere microbe quantity and functional diversity among three flue-cured tobacco cultivars with different resistance].

    PubMed

    Cai, Qiu-hua; Zuo, Jin-xiang; Li, Zhong-huan; Zhang, Ya-ping; Zhao, Yong-gang; Deng, Qiao; Ouyang, Jin; Huang, Jun-jie; Yu, Lu; Zou, Jian; Zhao, Zheng-xiong

    2015-12-01

    Field experiments were conducted in Shilin and Xundian respectively to study the diffe- rence of rhizosphere microbe quantity and functional diversity with plate culture method and Biolog technique among Hongda (high susceptibility, S), Yun87 (middle resistance, MR) and K326 (high resistance, R) , three flue-cured tobacco cultivars with different resistance to bacterial wilt and black shank. The results indicated that the amounts of bacteria, actinomycetes and the total number of microbes in tobacco plants' rhizosphere were positively correlated with the cultivar' s re- sistance, while it was opposite for the fungi. The consistent tendency was obtained not only at 35 d, 55 d and 75 d after transplanting, but also at two experimental sites. Cultivar and experimental con- ditions greatly affected the utilization of six types of carbon source by rhizospheric microbes, as well as the AWCD value. In Xundian site, rhizospheric microbes' utilization of carbohydrates, amino acids, carboxylic acids, polymers,. amines and the AWCD value were all higher at 55 d and 75 d after transplanting for the resistant cultivar than the susceptible one, but it was opposite at 75 d after transplanting for the phenolic acids. In Shilin, significant differences existed among the three culti- vars at 35 d, 55 d and 75 d after transplanting for the indices mentioned above, although they were not consistent with cultivars' resistance. Principal component (PC) analysis even showed that utili- zation of carbon sources by rhizosphere microorganisms differed significantly among the three culti- vars at the two sites, and it was better reflected by PC1 and PC2 at 55 d and 75 d after transplan- ting, respectively. In conclusion, rhizosphere microbial community structure and functional diversity were greatly affected not only by the cultivars' difference in resistance, but also by experimental conditions. PMID:27112017

  7. [Effects of interaction of genotypes with environments on major latently fragrant substances of flue-cured tobacco in Baoshan of Yunnan, Southwest China].

    PubMed

    Song, Shu-Fang; Zhou, Ji-Heng; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Yi-Yang; Cheng, Chang-Xin; Yang, Ying-Ming; Shen, Han

    2014-11-01

    To study the stability of major latently fragrant substances of flue-cured tobacco of different varieties in Baoshan of Yunnan, three tobacco cultivars (K326, Y87 and Y99) in two soil types at three test sites with different altitudes were tested. The contents of major latently fragrant substances were measured and the effects of genotypes, environments and their interactions were analyzed by AMMI model. The results showed that genotypes, environments and their interactions had significant effects on the contents of lutein, β-carotene, and chlorogenic acid. The rutin content was mainly influenced by genotypes while the major latently fragrant substances and their stability were affected significantly by the interactions of genotypes and environments. The contents of lutein, β-carotene, and chlorogenic acid increased remarkably with altitude, and their stabilities were strengthened to different extents. K326 adapted well to middle-lower altitude, while Y87 and Y99 adapted well to middle-higher altitude. PMID:25898620

  8. Biological and Chemical Induction of Resistance to the Globodera tabacum solanacearum in Oriental and Flue-Cured Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Charles S.; Eisenback, Jon D.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) and four combinations of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on the reproduction of a tobacco cyst nematode, Globodera tabacum solanacearum, and growth of Nicotiana tabacum (cv. K326 and Xanthi) were tested under greenhouse and field conditions. The PGPR included combinations of Bacillus subtilis A13 with B. pumilis INR7, B. pumilis SE34, B. licheniformis IN937b, or B. amyloliquefaciens IN937a, respectively. Among the four rhizobacterial combinations, IN937a + A13 exhibited the most consistent reduction in G. t. solanacearum cysts under greenhouse and field conditions. No undesirable effects of IN937a + A13 were observed on tobacco growth under greenhouse and field conditions. Use of INR7 + A13 reduced G. t. solanacearum reproduction on flue-cured tobacco cv. K326 but not on oriental tobacco cv. Xanthi. Application of ASM reduced final numbers of G. t. solanacearum cysts, but also resulted in phytotoxicity mainly under the greenhouse conditions. When oriental tobacco seedlings were pre-grown in a IN937a + A13-treated soil-less medium, a single application of ASM at 200 mg/L one week after transplanting significantly reduced G. t. solanacearum reproduction in the field. PMID:22736815

  9. Biological and chemical induction of resistance to the Globodera tabacum solanacearum in oriental and flue-cured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.).

    PubMed

    Parkunan, Venkatesan; Johnson, Charles S; Eisenback, Jon D

    2009-09-01

    The effects of acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) and four combinations of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on the reproduction of a tobacco cyst nematode, Globodera tabacum solanacearum, and growth of Nicotiana tabacum (cv. K326 and Xanthi) were tested under greenhouse and field conditions. The PGPR included combinations of Bacillus subtilis A13 with B. pumilis INR7, B. pumilis SE34, B. licheniformis IN937b, or B. amyloliquefaciens IN937a, respectively. Among the four rhizobacterial combinations, IN937a + A13 exhibited the most consistent reduction in G. t. solanacearum cysts under greenhouse and field conditions. No undesirable effects of IN937a + A13 were observed on tobacco growth under greenhouse and field conditions. Use of INR7 + A13 reduced G. t. solanacearum reproduction on flue-cured tobacco cv. K326 but not on oriental tobacco cv. Xanthi. Application of ASM reduced final numbers of G. t. solanacearum cysts, but also resulted in phytotoxicity mainly under the greenhouse conditions. When oriental tobacco seedlings were pre-grown in a IN937a + A13-treated soil-less medium, a single application of ASM at 200 mg/L one week after transplanting significantly reduced G. t. solanacearum reproduction in the field. PMID:22736815

  10. Effects of N2-O2 and CO2-O2 Tensions on Growth of Fungi Isolated from Damaged Flue-Cured Tobacco 1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, H.; Lucas, G. B.

    1970-01-01

    Ten fungi, Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, A. ochraceus, A. ruber, A. repens, A. amstelodami, Alternaria tenuis, Penicillium brevi-compactum, Cladosporium herbarum, and Chaetomium dolicotrichum, were isolated from moldy flue-cured tobacco and grown in various mixtures of N2-O2 or CO2-O2. A 1 to 5% concentration of O2 in an N2 atmosphere caused the greatest change in growth of the nine species, and a 10 to 20% concentration of O2 for A. flavus. All species, except A. amstelodami and A. ruber, grew faster in air than in mixtures containing 10% O2. High O2 concentrations generally inhibited furrow production in the mycelial mats. In an atmosphere of 5 to 40% O2 in the N2 atmosphere, furrows formed in mycelial mats between 5 and 40% O2 in the species except for A. ruber, A. repens, and A. amstelodami, which produced none in any concentration. As O2 decreased below 20%, spore production was progressively decreased, colony color faded to white, and cleistothecia formation was suppressed. In CO2-O2 mixtures radial growth of all species increased with each quantitative decrease of CO2. All species except A. niger grew faster in air than in 10% CO2. In contrast to N2-O2 mixtures, the fungi formed furrows, sporulation and cleistothecial formation were suppressed, and colony color changed to white in higher O2 concentrations. PMID:5461786

  11. Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita Race 3 on Flue-cured Tobacco Homozygous for Rk1 and/or Rk2 Resistance Genes.

    PubMed

    Pollok, Jill R; Johnson, Charles S; Eisenback, J D; Reed, T David

    2016-06-01

    Most commercial tobacco cultivars possess the Rk1 resistance gene to races 1 and 3 of Meloidogyne incognita and race 1 of Meloidogyne arenaria, which has caused a shift in population prevalence in Virginia tobacco fields toward other species and races. A number of cultivars now also possess the Rk2 gene for root-knot resistance. Experiments were conducted in 2013 to 2014 to examine whether possessing both Rk1 and Rk2 increases resistance to a variant of M. incognita race 3 compared to either gene alone. Greenhouse trials were arranged in a completely randomized design with Coker 371-Gold (C371G; susceptible), NC 95 and SC 72 (Rk1Rk1), T-15-1-1 (Rk2Rk2), and STNCB-2-28 and NOD 8 (Rk1Rk1 and Rk2Rk2). Each plant was inoculated with 5,000 root-knot nematode eggs; data were collected 60 d postinoculation. Percent galling and numbers of egg masses and eggs were counted, the latter being used to calculate the reproductive index on each host. Despite variability, entries with both Rk1 and Rk2 conferred greater resistance to a variant of M. incognita race 3 than plants with Rk1 or Rk2 alone. Entries with Rk1 alone were successful in reducing root galling and nematode reproduction compared to the susceptible control. Entry T-15-1-1 did not reduce galling compared to the susceptible control but often suppressed reproduction. PMID:27418700

  12. Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita Race 3 on Flue-cured Tobacco Homozygous for Rk1 and/or Rk2 Resistance Genes

    PubMed Central

    Pollok, Jill R.; Johnson, Charles S.; Eisenback, J. D.; Reed, T. David

    2016-01-01

    Most commercial tobacco cultivars possess the Rk1 resistance gene to races 1 and 3 of Meloidogyne incognita and race 1 of Meloidogyne arenaria, which has caused a shift in population prevalence in Virginia tobacco fields toward other species and races. A number of cultivars now also possess the Rk2 gene for root-knot resistance. Experiments were conducted in 2013 to 2014 to examine whether possessing both Rk1 and Rk2 increases resistance to a variant of M. incognita race 3 compared to either gene alone. Greenhouse trials were arranged in a completely randomized design with Coker 371-Gold (C371G; susceptible), NC 95 and SC 72 (Rk1Rk1), T-15-1-1 (Rk2Rk2), and STNCB-2-28 and NOD 8 (Rk1Rk1 and Rk2Rk2). Each plant was inoculated with 5,000 root-knot nematode eggs; data were collected 60 d postinoculation. Percent galling and numbers of egg masses and eggs were counted, the latter being used to calculate the reproductive index on each host. Despite variability, entries with both Rk1 and Rk2 conferred greater resistance to a variant of M. incognita race 3 than plants with Rk1 or Rk2 alone. Entries with Rk1 alone were successful in reducing root galling and nematode reproduction compared to the susceptible control. Entry T-15-1-1 did not reduce galling compared to the susceptible control but often suppressed reproduction. PMID:27418700

  13. Simultaneous determination of alkaloids and their related tobacco-specific nitrosamines in tobacco leaves using LC-MS-MS.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Pang, Tao; Shi, Junli; Lu, Xiuping; Deng, Jianhua; Lin, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco alkaloids (e.g., nicotine) and their metabolized tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) are very important compounds for tobacco quality and safety. A simple and specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous determination of eight tobacco alkaloids and their related four TSNAs in tobacco leaves. The milled tobacco was extracted using 0.1 mol/L ammonium acetate solution and purified using methanol. Mass spectrometry parameters including declustering potential and collision energy were optimized to ensure that both the TSNAs and the tobacco alkaloids have suitable responses. Recoveries for accuracy were in the range of 80.2-105.2%. Intra-day and inter-day repeatability were in the range of 1.7-12.1% and 6.4-18.7%, respectively. Limit of detection and limit of quantitation were estimated in the range of 6 ng/g-45 μg/g and 24 ng/g-90 μg/g, respectively. The established method was applied to investigate the distribution of tobacco alkaloids and TSNAs in four kinds of tobacco. The result showed that the burley and the flue-cured have the highest (0.00047%) and the lowest (0.000024%) percentage of transformation from alkaloids to TSNAs, respectively. Thus, this method can be used for a wide range of samples. PMID:26116833

  14. Ovipositional response of tobacco budworm moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to cuticular labdanes and sucrose esters from the green leaves ofNicotiana glutinosa L. (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Jackson, D M; Severson, R F; Sisson, V A; Stephenson, M G

    1991-12-01

    Field plots of three accessions ofNicotiana glutinosa L. (Nicotiana species accessions 24, 24A, and 24B) at Oxford, North Carolina and Tifton, Georgia were heavily damaged by natural populations of tobacco budworms,Heliothis virescens (F.), during 1985-1989. Experiments in outdoor screen cages demonstrated that all accessions ofN. glutinosa were as prone to oviposition byH. virescens moths as was NC 2326, a commercial cultivar of flue-cured tobacco,N. tabacum L. However, in greenhouse experiments, tobacco budworm larvae did not survive or grow as well when placed on plants ofN. glutinosa as they did when placed on plants of NC 2326. Four labdane diterpenes (manool, 2-hydroxymanool, a mixture of sclareols, and labda-13-ene-8α,15-diol [labdenediol]) and two sucrose ester fractions (2,3,4-tri-O-acyl-3'-O-acetyl-sucrose [G-SE-I] and 2,3,4,-tri-O-acyl-sucrose [G-SE-II]) were isolated from green leaves of the three accessions ofN. glutinosa. These components were bioassayed for their effects on the ovipositional behavior of tobacco budworm moths using small screen cages in a greenhouse at Oxford, North Carolina. Labdenediol, manool, and both sucrose ester fractions stimulated tobacco budworm moths to oviposit on a tobacco budworm-resistant Tobacco Introduction, TI 1112 (PI 124166), when these materials were sprayed onto a leaf. PMID:24258642

  15. Oil from Tobacco Leaves: FOLIUM - Installation of Hydrocarbon Accumulating Pathways in Tobacco Leaves

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    PETRO Project: LBNL is modifying tobacco to enable it to directly produce fuel molecules in its leaves for use as a biofuel. Tobacco is a good crop for biofuels production because it is an outstanding biomass crop, has a long history of cultivation, does not compete with the national food supply, and is highly responsive to genetic manipulation. LBNL will incorporate traits for hydrocarbon biosynthesis from cyanobacteria and algae, and enhance light utilization and carbon uptake in tobacco, improving the efficiency of photosynthesis so more fuel can be produced in the leaves. The tobacco-generated biofuels can be processed for gasoline, jet fuel or diesel alternatives. LBNL is also working to optimize methods for planting, cultivating and harvesting tobacco to increase biomass production several-fold over the level of traditional growing techniques.

  16. Tobacco constituents are mitogenic for arterial smooth-muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, C.G.; Hajjar, D.P.; Hefton, J.M.

    1985-07-01

    Tobacco glycoprotein (TGP) purified from flue-cured tobacco leaves, tar-derived material (TAR), the water soluble, nondialyzable, delipidized extract of cigarette smoke condensate, rutin-bovine serum albumin conjugates, quercetin, and chlorogenic acid are mitogenic for bovine aortic smooth-muscle cells, but not adventitial fibroblasts. The mitogenicity appears to depend on polyphenol epitopes on carrier molecules. Ellagic acid, another plant polyphenol, inhibited arterial smooth-muscle proliferation. These results suggest that a number of ubiquitous, plant-derived substances may influence smooth-muscle cell proliferation in the arterial wall.

  17. 7 CFR 29.1068 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.1068 Section 29.1068 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and...

  18. 7 CFR 29.1068 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.1068 Section 29.1068 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and...

  19. 7 CFR 29.1068 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.1068 Section 29.1068 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and...

  20. 7 CFR 29.1068 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.1068 Section 29.1068 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and...

  1. 7 CFR 29.1068 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.1068 Section 29.1068 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and...

  2. Radioactivity of Tobacco Leaves and Radiation Dose Induced from Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Papastefanou, Constantin

    2009-01-01

    The radioactivity in tobacco leaves collected from 15 different regions of Greece and before cigarette production was studied in order to find out any association between the root uptake of radionuclides from soil ground by the tobacco plants and the effective dose induced to smokers from cigarette tobacco due to the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides, such as 226Ra and 210Pb of the uranium series and 228Ra of the thorium series and/or man-made radionuclides, such as 137Cs of Chernobyl origin. Gamma-ray spectrometry was applied using Ge planar and coaxial type detectors of high resolution and high efficiency. It was concluded that the activities of the radioisotopes of radium, 226Ra and 228Ra in the tobacco leaves reflected their origin from the soil by root uptake rather than fertilizers used in the cultivation of tobacco plants. Lead-210 originated from the air and was deposited onto the tobacco leaves and trapped by the trichomes. Potassium-40 in the tobacco leaves was due to root uptake either from soil or from fertilizer. The cesium radioisotopes 137Cs and 134Cs in tobacco leaves were due to root uptake and not due to deposition onto the leaf foliage as they still remained in soil four years after the Chernobyl reactor accident, but were absent from the atmosphere because of the rain washout (precipitation) and gravitational settling. The annual effective dose due to inhalation for adults (smokers) for 226Ra varied from 42.5 to 178.6 μSv/y (average 79.7 μSv/y), while for 228Ra from 19.3 to 116.0 μSv/y (average 67.1 μSv/y) and for 210Pb from 47.0 to 134.9 μSv/y (average 104.7 μSv/y), that is the same order of magnitude for each radionuclide. The sum of the effective doses of the three radionuclides varied from 151.9 to 401.3 μSv/y (average 251.5 μSv/y). The annual effective dose from 137Cs of Chernobyl origin was three orders of magnitude lower as it varied from 70.4 to 410.4 nSv/y (average 199.3 nSv/y). PMID:19440399

  3. Radioactivity of tobacco leaves and radiation dose induced from smoking.

    PubMed

    Papastefanou, Constantin

    2009-02-01

    The radioactivity in tobacco leaves collected from 15 different regions of Greece and before cigarette production was studied in order to find out any association between the root uptake of radionuclides from soil ground by the tobacco plants and the effective dose induced to smokers from cigarette tobacco due to the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides , such as 226Ra and 210Pb of the uranium series and 228Ra of the thorium series and/or man-made radionuclides, such as 137Cs of Chernobyl origin. Gamma-ray spectrometry was applied using Ge planar and coaxial type detectors of high resolution and high efficiency. It was concluded that the activities of the radioisotopes of radium, 226Ra and 228Ra in the tobacco leaves reflected their origin from the soil by root uptake rather than fertilizers used in the cultivation of tobacco plants. Lead-210 originated from the air and was deposited onto the tobacco leaves and trapped by the trichomes. Potassium-40 in the tobacco leaves was due to root uptake either from soil or from fertilizer. The cesium radioisotopes 137Cs and 134Cs in tobacco leaves were due to root uptake and not due to deposition onto the leaf foliage as they still remained in soil four years after the Chernobyl reactor accident, but were absent from the atmosphere because of the rain washout (precipitation) and gravitational settling. The annual effective dose due to inhalation for adults (smokers) for 226Ra varied from 42.5 to 178.6 microSv/y (average 79.7 microSv/y), while for 228Ra from 19.3 to 116.0 microSv/y (average 67.1 microSv/y) and for 210Pb from 47.0 to 134.9 microSv/y (average 104.7 microSv/y), that is the same order of magnitude for each radionuclide. The sum of the effective doses of the three radionuclides varied from 151.9 to 401.3 microSv/y (average 251.5 microSv/y). The annual effective dose from 137Cs of Chernobyl origin was three orders of magnitude lower as it varied from 70.4 to 410.4 nSv/y (average 199.3 nSv/y). PMID:19440399

  4. Capillary gas chromatographic determination of dimethachlon residues in fresh tobacco leaves and cut-tobacco*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong-cheng; Li, Qi-wan; Tang, Li-bin

    2007-01-01

    Simple procedures for extraction and chromatographic determination of dimethachlon residues in fresh tobacco leaves and cut-tobacco are described. The determination was carried out by capillary gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detection (ECD) and confirmed by GC-MS. The mean recoveries and relative standard deviation (RSD) were 93.2%~112.9% and 3.5%~6.7%, respectively at levels ranging from 0.01 to 0.1 mg/kg. The limit of determination was 0.001 mg/kg. Tobacco samples in routine check were successfully analyzed using the proposed method. PMID:17444603

  5. 7 CFR 29.431 - Handling of imported tobacco pending test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Handling of imported tobacco pending test results. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.431 Handling of imported tobacco pending test results. After an individual shipment of imported flue-cured or burley tobacco...

  6. 7 CFR 29.431 - Handling of imported tobacco pending test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Handling of imported tobacco pending test results. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.431 Handling of imported tobacco pending test results. After an individual shipment of imported flue-cured or burley tobacco...

  7. 7 CFR 29.431 - Handling of imported tobacco pending test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Handling of imported tobacco pending test results. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.431 Handling of imported tobacco pending test results. After an individual shipment of imported flue-cured or burley tobacco...

  8. 7 CFR 29.431 - Handling of imported tobacco pending test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Handling of imported tobacco pending test results. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.431 Handling of imported tobacco pending test results. After an individual shipment of imported flue-cured or burley tobacco...

  9. 7 CFR 29.75 - Accessibility of tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... tobacco subject to mandatory inspection shall be made readily accessible for inspection. (b)(1) Each... and numbering arrangement shall follow the order of sale; that is, down one row and back on the... flue-cured tobacco allotted to be sold each day. Each warehouse operator shall designate to...

  10. Levels of heavy metals in the raw and processed Ethiopian tobacco leaves.

    PubMed

    Regassa, Girma; Chandravanshi, Bhagwan Singh

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) is a commercial plant. Tobacco leaves naturally accumulate and concentrate relatively high levels of heavy metals and particular cadmium in leaves. Tobacco is one of the basic agricultural products, in Ethiopia, with social and economic importance. However, there is no report in the literature on the determination of levels of heavy metals in Ethiopian tobacco leaves. Hence this research is intended to determine the levels of heavy metals in the raw and processed Ethiopian Virginia tobacco leaves. Samples of raw Virginia tobacco leaves were collected from two different regions of Ethiopia (Billate and Shewa Robit). The three processed tobacco samples were collected from National Tobacco Enterprise, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The samples were wet-digested using 3 mL HNO3 (69-72 %) and 3 mL HClO4 (70 %) at 350 °C for 3.5 h and concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the samples were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometer. The mean metals concentrations (in µg/g dry weight) in the raw Virginia tobacco leaves from Billate and Shewa Robit, respectively, were: Cu (4.38, 7.30), Zn (53.7, 33.2), Cd (1.20, 1.30), Cr (ND, 1.45), Ni (ND, 1.90). The mean metals concentrations (in µg/g dry weight) in the processed tobacco from Billate and Shewa Robit, respectively, were: Cu (9.80, 12.8), Ni (2.35, 2.20) Cd (1.45, 1.90), Cr (1.65, 1.75), Zn (101, 83.8). The mean metals concentrations (in µg/g dry weight) in the processed tobacco Nyala (Ethiopian cigarette leaves) were: Cu (8.95), Cd (1.55), Cr (1.62), Ni (4.70), Zn (79.3). The concentrations of Cr and Ni in tobacco leaves from Billate and Pb in all the tobacco samples were below the detection limits. This study showed that the metal contents of tobacco leaves varied with the geographical origin in which the tobacco plant grows. The metal contents of processed tobacco were higher than the corresponding raw leaves. Pb was not detected in both the raw and

  11. Moderate Photoinhibition of Photosystem II Protects Photosystem I from Photodamage at Chilling Stress in Tobacco Leaves.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Yang, Ying-Jie; Hu, Hong; Zhang, Shi-Bao

    2016-01-01

    It has been indicated that photosystem I (PSI) is susceptible to chilling-light stress in tobacco leaves, but the effect of growth light intensity on chilling-induced PSI photoinhibition in tobacco is unclear. We examined the effects of chilling temperature (4°C) associated with moderate light intensity (300 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) on the activities of PSI and photosystem II (PSII) in leaves from sun- and shade-grown plants of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. k326). The sun leaves had a higher activity of alternative electron flow than the shade leaves. After 4 h chilling treatment, the sun leaves showed significantly a higher PSI photoinhibition than the shade leaves. At chilling temperature the sun leaves showed a greater electron flow from PSII to PSI, accompanying with a lower P700 oxidation ratio. When leaves were pre-treated with lincomycin, PSII activity decreased by 42% (sun leaves) and 47% (shade leaves) after 2 h exposure to the chilling-light stress, but PSI activity remained stable during the chilling-light treatment, because the electron flow from PSII to PSI was remarkably depressed. These results indicated that the stronger chilling-induced PSI photoinhibition in the sun leaves was resulted from a greater electron flow from PSII to PSI. Furthermore, moderate PSII photoinhibition depressed electron flow to PSI and then protected PSI activity against further photodamage in chilled tobacco leaves. PMID:26941755

  12. Moderate Photoinhibition of Photosystem II Protects Photosystem I from Photodamage at Chilling Stress in Tobacco Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Yang, Ying-Jie; Hu, Hong; Zhang, Shi-Bao

    2016-01-01

    It has been indicated that photosystem I (PSI) is susceptible to chilling-light stress in tobacco leaves, but the effect of growth light intensity on chilling-induced PSI photoinhibition in tobacco is unclear. We examined the effects of chilling temperature (4°C) associated with moderate light intensity (300 μmol photons m-2 s-1) on the activities of PSI and photosystem II (PSII) in leaves from sun- and shade-grown plants of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. k326). The sun leaves had a higher activity of alternative electron flow than the shade leaves. After 4 h chilling treatment, the sun leaves showed significantly a higher PSI photoinhibition than the shade leaves. At chilling temperature the sun leaves showed a greater electron flow from PSII to PSI, accompanying with a lower P700 oxidation ratio. When leaves were pre-treated with lincomycin, PSII activity decreased by 42% (sun leaves) and 47% (shade leaves) after 2 h exposure to the chilling-light stress, but PSI activity remained stable during the chilling-light treatment, because the electron flow from PSII to PSI was remarkably depressed. These results indicated that the stronger chilling-induced PSI photoinhibition in the sun leaves was resulted from a greater electron flow from PSII to PSI. Furthermore, moderate PSII photoinhibition depressed electron flow to PSI and then protected PSI activity against further photodamage in chilled tobacco leaves. PMID:26941755

  13. Studies on Polyphenol Content, Activities and Isozymes of Polyphenol Oxidase and Peroxidase During Air-Curing in Three Tobacco Types 1

    PubMed Central

    Sheen, S. J.; Calvert, J.

    1969-01-01

    The change in polyphenol content in the primed leaves of burley, flue-cured, and Turkish tobaccos during air-curing was related to the activities and isozymes of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase. The quantity of chlorogenic acid was rapidly reduced during the first week of curing. The decrease in rutin content during curing was less significant, especially when the concentration of chlorogenic acid was high in leaf tissues. This result was further confirmed by in vitro assays with partially purified tobacco polyphenol oxidase. The polyphenol oxidase activity did not differ at any stage of curing in the 3 tobaccos. When the activity was measured by the oxidation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine it rose rapidly during the first day of curing and then decreased sharply so that in the fully cured leaf only 15% activity remained. The increase in activity was not observed when chlorogenic acid was used as the substrate. A similar level of peroxidase activity was found in the 3 tobaccos before curing. Peroxidase activities increased rapidly during the first 24 hr of curing, declined thereafter, and remained highest in the flue-cured tobacco, less in the Turkish line, and least in the burley at the end of curing process. By polyacrylamide gel block electrophoresis, 10 peroxidase isozyme bands, 2 cationic and 8 anionic, appeared identical in all 3 tobaccos. When catechol replaced benzidine-2 HCl as the electron donor, 1 cationic and 2 anionic peroxidase isozymes did not form. Of interest is that the same 10 peroxidase isozyme bands also exhibited polyphenol oxidase activities when treated with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine or chlorogenic acid. Results suggest that in the crude tobacco leaf extract the peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase may associate as protein complexes, and peroxidase isozymes may differ in electron-donor requirements. Isozyme patterns for both oxidases at various curing intervals differed only quantitatively. Images PMID:16657046

  14. Termination of Nutrient Import and Development of Vein Loading Capacity in Albino Tobacco Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Turgeon, Robert

    1984-01-01

    The sink-source conversion in developing leaves of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) was studied to determine whether import termination is caused by the onset of export or is related to achievement of positive carbon balance. Albino shoots were grown in vitro and grafted to detopped stems of green tobacco plants. Termination of import was studied by providing mature leaves of the stock plant with 14CO2 and detecting the presence of labeled nutrient in developing albino leaves by whole-leaf autoradiography. In albino leaves, import terminated progressively in the basipetal direction at the same stage of development as in leaves of green shoots. Starch was not present in the plastids of mesophyll cells of mature albino leaves but starch was synthesized when discs were cut from these leaves and incubated on 3 millimolar sucrose. Import ceased progressively in developing green leaves even when photosynthesis was prevented by darkening. It was concluded that cessation of import does not require achievement of positive carbon balance and is not the direct result of export initiation. To determine whether vein loading capacity develops in albino leaves, discs were cut from mature leaves and floated on [14C]sucrose solution. Uptake of label into the veins was detected by autoradiography and this uptake was sensitive to the phloem loading inhibitor p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid. However, the amount of label taken up by veins in albino leaves was less than that taken up by veins of mature green leaves. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:16663820

  15. [The Study of the Spectral Model for Estimating Pigment Contents of Tobacco Leaves in Field].

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiao; Lao, Cai-lian; Xu, Zhao-li; Jin, Yan; Guo, Yan; Li, Jun-hui; Yang, Yu-hong

    2015-06-01

    Fast and non-destructive measurements of tobacco leaf pigment contents by spectroscopy in situ in the field has great significance in production guidance for nutrient diagnosis and growth monitoring of tobacco in vegetative growth stage, and it is also very important for the quality evaluation of tobacco leaves in mature stage. The purpose of this study is to estimate the chlorophyll and carotenoid contents of tobacco leaves using tobacco leaf spectrum collected in the field. Reflectance spectrum of tobacco leaves in vegetative growth stage and mature stage were collected in situ in the field and the pigment contents of tobacco leaf samples were measured in this study, taking the tobacco leaf samples collected in each and both stages as modeling sets respectively, and using the methods of support vector machine (SVM) and spectral indice to establish the pigment content estimation models, and then compare the prediction performance of the models built by different methods. The study results indicated that the difference of estimation performance by each stage or mixed stages is not significant. For chlorophyll content, SVM and spectral indice modeling methods can both have a well estimation performance, while for carotenoid content, SVM modeling method has a better estimation performance than spectral indice. The coefficient of determination and the root mean square error of SVM model for estimating tobacco leaf chlorophyll content by each stage were 0.867 6 and 0.014 7, while the coefficient of determination and the root mean square error of SVM model for estimating tobacco leaf chlorophyll content by mixed stages were 0.898 6 and 0.012 3; The coefficient of determination and the root mean square error for estimating tobacco leaf carotenoid content by each stage were 0.861 4 and 0.002 5, while the coefficient of determination and the root mean square error of SVM model for estimating tobacco leaf carotenoid content by mixed stages were 0.839 9 and 0.002 5. The

  16. Managing Root-knot on Tobacco in the Southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Charles S.

    1989-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes suppress yields of flue-cured tobacco an estimated 0.1 to 4.8% annually in the southeastern United States, even though nematode management practices have been widely adopted. Although Meloidogyne incognita races 1 and 3 have predominated, M. arenaria, M. javanica, and M. incognita races 2 and 4 are increasingly important. Seventy-five percent of the flue-cured tobacco hectarage in North Carolina and Virginia is rotated on 2-year or 3-year intervals. Over half of the hectarage in the southeastern United States was planted with tobacco cultivars resistant to M. incognita races 1 and 3 in 1986. Resistance to other species or races of root-knot nematodes is not available in commercially available flue-cured tobacco cultivars. Most producers plow and (or) disc-out flue-cured tobacco roots and stalks after harvest. Nematicide use ranges from virtually 100% in Florida and Georgia to 60% in Virginia. Continued research is needed to develop management strategies for mixed populations of root-knot nematodes and to incorporate resistance to more root-knot nematode species and races into tobacco cultivars. Nematode advisory programs that allow producers to optimize nematicide use from an economical and ecological point of view are also needed. PMID:19287655

  17. Nitrate metabolism in tobacco leaves overexpressing Arabidopsis nitrite reductase.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Susie; Le Lay, Pascaline; Sanchez-Tamburrrino, Juan Pablo

    2015-12-01

    Primary nitrogen assimilation in plants includes the reduction of nitrite to ammonium in the chloroplasts by the enzyme nitrite reductase (NiR EC:1.7.7.1) or in the plastids of non-photosynthetic organs. Here we report on a study overexpressing the Arabidopsis thaliana NiR (AtNiR) gene in tobacco plants under the control of a constitutive promoter (CERV - Carnation Etched Ring Virus). The aim was to overexpress AtNiR in an attempt to alter the level of residual nitrite in the leaf which can act as precursor to the formation of nitrosamines. The impact of increasing the activity of AtNiR produced an increase in leaf protein and a stay-green phenotype in the primary transformed AtNiR population. Investigation of the T1 homozygous population demonstrated elevated nitrate reductase (NR) activity, reductions in leaf nitrite and nitrate and the amino acids proline, glutamine and glutamate. Chlorophyl content of the transgenic lines was increased, as evidenced by the stay-green phenotype. This reveals the importance of NiR in primary nitrogen assimilation and how modification of this key enzyme affects both the nitrogen and carbon metabolism of tobacco plants. PMID:26447683

  18. Characterization of Inositol-containing Phosphosphingolipids from Tobacco Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, Karan; Lester, Robert L.

    1975-01-01

    A method for a large scale extraction of phosphoglycosphingolipids from the leaves of Nicotiana tabacum L. has been developed. The phosphosphingolipid concentrate consists of a dozen or more polar lipids as judged by thin layer chromatography. Two of these lipids were purified by chromatography on porous silica beads and partially characterized. These lipids are formulated as: N-acetylglucosamidoglucuronidoinositol phosphorylceramide and glucosamidoglucuronidoinositol phosphorylceramide. Although not fully characterized, the other lipids in the concentrate are inositol-containing phosphosphingolipids with a higher carbohydrate content. PMID:16659016

  19. Identification of moisture content in tobacco plant leaves using outlier sample eliminating algorithms and hyperspectral data.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jun; Zhou, Xin; Wu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Xiaodong; Li, Qinglin

    2016-02-26

    Fast identification of moisture content in tobacco plant leaves plays a key role in the tobacco cultivation industry and benefits the management of tobacco plant in the farm. In order to identify moisture content of tobacco plant leaves in a fast and nondestructive way, a method involving Mahalanobis distance coupled with Monte Carlo cross validation(MD-MCCV) was proposed to eliminate outlier sample in this study. The hyperspectral data of 200 tobacco plant leaf samples of 20 moisture gradients were obtained using FieldSpc(®) 3 spectrometer. Savitzky-Golay smoothing(SG), roughness penalty smoothing(RPS), kernel smoothing(KS) and median smoothing(MS) were used to preprocess the raw spectra. In addition, Mahalanobis distance(MD), Monte Carlo cross validation(MCCV) and Mahalanobis distance coupled to Monte Carlo cross validation(MD-MCCV) were applied to select the outlier sample of the raw spectrum and four smoothing preprocessing spectra. Successive projections algorithm (SPA) was used to extract the most influential wavelengths. Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) was applied to build the prediction models based on preprocessed spectra feature in characteristic wavelengths. The results showed that the preferably four prediction model were MD-MCCV-SG (Rp(2) = 0.8401 and RMSEP = 0.1355), MD-MCCV-RPS (Rp(2) = 0.8030 and RMSEP = 0.1274), MD-MCCV-KS (Rp(2) = 0.8117 and RMSEP = 0.1433), MD-MCCV-MS (Rp(2) = 0.9132 and RMSEP = 0.1162). MD-MCCV algorithm performed best among MD algorithm, MCCV algorithm and the method without sample pretreatment algorithm in the eliminating outlier sample from 20 different moisture gradients of tobacco plant leaves and MD-MCCV can be used to eliminate outlier sample in the spectral preprocessing. PMID:26809097

  20. Induction of UDP-glucose:salicylic acid glucosyltransferase activity in tobacco mosaic virus-inoculated tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Enyedi, A.J.; Raskin, I. )

    1993-04-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a putative signal that activates plant resistance to pathogens. SA levels increase systemically following the hypersensitive response produced by tobacco masaic virus (TMV) inoculation of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi-nc) leaves. The SA increase in the inoculated leaf coincided with the appearance of a [beta]-glucosidase-hydrolyzable SA conjugate identified as [beta]-O-D-glucosylsalicylic acid (GSA). SA and GSA accumulation in the TMV-inoculated leaf paralleled the increase in the activity of a UDP-glucose:salicylic acid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.35) ([beta]-GTase) capable of converting SA to GSA. Healthy tissues had constitutive [beta]-GTase activity of 0.076 milliunits g[sup [minus]1] fresh weight. This activity started to increase 48 h after TMV inoculation, reaching its maximum (6.7-fold induction over the basal levels) 72 h after TMV inoculation. No significant GSA or elevated [beta]-GTase activity could be detected in the healthy leaf immediately above the TMV-inoculated leaf. The effect of TMV inoculation on the [beta]-GTase and GSA accumulation could be duplicated by infiltrating tobacco leaf discs with SA at the levels naturally produced in TMV-inoculated leaves (2.7--27.0 [mu]g g[sup [minus]1] fresh weight). Pretreatment of leaf discs with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide inhibited the induction of [beta]GTase by SA and prevented the formation of GSA. Of 12 analogs of SA tested, only 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid induced [beta]-GTase activity. 21 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Isolation of a cadmium-binding complex from cabbage and tobacco leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, C

    1980-01-01

    Cd binding complexes with mol wts of approximately 10k daltons were observed in extracts, protoplast lysates, and protoplast cytosol obtained from the leaves of several plants. Extracts of the roots and stems of cabbage also contain the complex. In cabbage and tobacco the ligand appears to be both inducible and constitutive as determined by its association with Cd acquired either during growth of plants in the presence of the metal or after addition of the metal to extracts of Cd free leaves. Current efforts are directed toward determining the nature of the ligand.

  2. Development and evaluation of formulations of microbial biotransformed extract of tobacco leaves for hair growth potential

    PubMed Central

    Murkute, Ashlesh V.; Sahu, Mahesh S.; Mali, Prashant Y.; Rangari, Vinod D.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Extensive researches are going on to explore the effective and safe drug for their hair growth. Tobacco leaves are traditionally known to potentiate hair growth promotion. Therefore, the aim of present study was to formulate and evaluate the microbial biotransformed extract of tobacco leaves for hair growth potential in male albino wister rats. Materials and Methods: The extract of was prepared by microbial biotransformation of tobacco leaves in cow urine for 28 days. The herbal formulations (lotion) were formulated by general method using o/w type base in various rations or concentrations such as 10%, 20% and 30% of extract. These lotions were applied on shaved skin area of rats for 30 days once in a day and hair length, serum total protein, and total testosterone were measured. Results: Our formulations show increase in hair growth and serum total protein at concentration dependent manner with effect to standard and control groups. Serum total testosterone decreases according to a concentration dependent manner. Conclusion: Further, series of investigations are, however, necessary to remain exploration, which includes their structural elucidation, characterization, clinical safety, reliability and molecular mechanism involved in this pharmacological activity. PMID:21589756

  3. Autophagy induction in tobacco leaves infected by potato virus Y(O) and its putative roles.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dabin; Park, Jaeyoung; Oh, Seonhee; Cheong, Hyunsook

    2016-06-01

    Autophagy plays a critical role in the innate immune response of plants to pathogen infection. In the present study, we examined autophagy induced by potato virus Y ordinary strain (PVY(O)) infection in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays revealed that the number of virus particles in the plant peaked at 2 weeks post-inoculation and then gradually decreased. Additionally, the amount of virus increased significantly in the 3rd and 4th leaves distal to the inoculated leaf and decreased slightly in the 5th leaf. Within 2 weeks of PVY(O) inoculation, the tobacco leaves showed typical symptoms of Potyvirus inoculation, including mottling, yellowing, a mosaic pattern, and necrotic tissue changes at the inoculated site. Based on an ultrastructural analysis of the PVY(O)-infected tobacco leaves, virus aggregates appeared as longitudinal and transverse arrays and pinwheels, which are typical of Potyvirus inoculation. Moreover, PVY(O) infection caused changes in the number, size, and shape of chloroplasts, whereas the number of plastogranules increased markedly. Furthermore, double-membrane autophagosome-like vacuoles, including electron-dense materials, laminated structures, and cellular organelles, were found. The induction of autophagy after the PVY(O) infection of tobacco leaves was further confirmed by the expression of lipidated microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II, an autophagy marker and p62, an autophagy adaptor protein. The LC3-II levels increased daily over the 4-week period. Although virus inoculation was performed systemically on the basal leaves of the plants, LC3-II was expressed throughout the leaves and the expression was higher in leaves distal to the inoculated leaf. Moreover, PVY(O) infection caused the activation of stress-activated protein kinases/c-Jun N-terminal kinases. Therefore, PVY(O) infection-induced autophagy was positively correlated with the virus content, suggesting that autophagy induction

  4. Concentration levels of 210Pb and 210Po in dry tobacco leaves in Greece.

    PubMed

    Savidou, A; Kehagia, K; Eleftheriadis, K

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco leaves are large and have sticky exudates that retain the radon decay products once they deposit on the leaves. The study of 210Po in tobacco is required, because of the cumulative alpha-radiation dose delivered to humans from inhaled 210Po in cigarette smoke. 210Pb is the other element of interest since it is the 210Po precursor in the radioactive decay chain. In the present study, the concentrations of these two radionuclides were determined in tobacco samples from seven regions in Greece. 210Po was determined by alpha spectrometry using a surface barrier detector after radiochemical separation and spontaneous deposition of polonium on a nickel disk. The 210Pb activity in the samples was determined via the 210Po resulting from the decay of 210Pb. The results of the present study indicate that 210Po concentrations ranged from 3.6 to 17.0 mBqg(-1) (average 13.1 mBqg(-1)) of dry tobacco, while 210Pb concentrations ranged from 7.3 to 18.0 mBqg(-1) (average 13.4 mBqg(-1)). The mean value of the annual committed effective dose for smokers (20 cigarettes per day) of Greek tobacco was estimated to be 287 microSv (124 microSv from 210Po and 163 microSv from 210Pb). The inhalation dose for smokers is on average about 12 times higher than for non-smokers living in the mid-latitudes of the northern hemisphere. PMID:16098642

  5. [Effect of chitosan on the cell ultrastructure and activity of hydrolases in tobacco leaves].

    PubMed

    Nagorskaia, V P; Reunov, A V; Lapshina, L A; Davydova, V N; Ermak, I M

    2012-01-01

    Effect of chitosan on the mesophyll cell ultrastucture and activity of hydrolases in leaves of tobacco cv. Samsun was studied. It was shown that, in many cells, chitosan treatment stimulated the protein-synthesizing apparatus (nucleolus dimension and amount of both mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum membranes increased) and, at the same time, caused some activation of lytic compartment expressed in the stimulation of the formation of dictyosomes, smooth ER elements and cytoplasmic vacuoles, which are all prominent constituents of this compartment. In biochemical experiments, it was established that chitosan substantially enhanced activity of hydrolases (acid phosphatase, RNase, proteases) in the leaves as compared to untreated leaves. In some cells chitosan treatment caused considerable destructive changes (condensation of nuclear chromatin, collapse of cytoplasm and so on) that can be classified as a result of programmed cell death development. PMID:23461036

  6. Analysis of sucrose esters--insecticides from the surface of tobacco plant leaves.

    PubMed

    Simonovska, Breda; Srbinoska, Marija; Vovk, Irena

    2006-09-15

    Sucrose esters from the surface of leaves of Nicotiana tabacum L. have been shown to possess interesting biological activities. We developed a simple and effective method for their analysis using HPTLC silica gel plates, n-hexane-ethyl acetate (1:3, v/v) as developing solvent and aniline-diphenylamine as a detection reagent. Off-line TLC-MS was also used for the detection and identification of the compounds. Solutions containing sucrose esters upon alkaline hydrolysis give sucrose, which is used for indirect estimation by TLC of the sucrose ester content. The method is applicable for the screening for sucrose esters in plant extracts. The extract obtained from the surface of green leaves of oriental tobacco type Prilep P-23 contains sucrose esters and is effective against Myzus persicae (Sulzer) in laboratory and field experiments. PMID:16820155

  7. Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase Kinase in Tobacco Leaves Is Activated by Light in a Similar but Not Identical Way as in Maize.

    PubMed Central

    Li, B.; Zhang, X. Q.; Chollet, R.

    1996-01-01

    We have previously reported the partial purification of a Ca2+- independent phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) protein-serine/threonine kinase (PEPC-PK) from illuminated leaves of N-sufficient tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants (Y.-H. Wang, R. Chollet [1993] FEBS Lett 328: 215-218). We now report that this C3 PEPC-kinase is reversibly light activated in vivo in a time-dependent manner. As the kinase becomes light activated, the activity and L-malate sensitivity of its target protein increases and decreases, respectively. The light activation of tobacco PEPC-PK is prevented by pretreatment of detached leaves with various photosynthesis and cytosolic protein-synthesis inhibitors. Similarly, specific inhibitors of glutamine synthetase block the light activation of tobacco leaf PEPC-kinase under both photorespiratory and nonphotorespiratory conditions. This striking effect is partially and specifically reversed by exogenous glutamine, whereas it has no apparent effect on the light activation of the maize (Zea mays L.) leaf kinase. Using an in situ "activity-gel" phosphorylation assay, we have identified two major Ca2+-independent PEPC-kinase catalytic polypeptides in illuminated tobacco leaves that have the same molecular masses (approximately 30 and 37 kD) as found in illuminated maize leaves. Collectively, these results indicate that the phosphorylation of PEPC in N-sufficient leaves of tobacco (C3) and maize (C4) is regulated through similar but not identical light-signal transduction pathways. PMID:12226305

  8. The influence of light quality on the accumulation of flavonoids in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Fu, Bo; Ji, Xiaoming; Zhao, Mingqin; He, Fan; Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Yiding; Liu, Pengfei; Niu, Lu

    2016-09-01

    Flavonoids are important secondary metabolites in plants regulated by the environment. To analyze the effect of light quality on the accumulation of flavonoids, we performed a rapid analysis of flavonoids in extracts of tobacco leaves using UHPLC-QTOF. A total of 12 flavonoids were detected and identified in tobacco leaves, which were classified into flavonoid methyl derivatives and flavonoid glycoside derivatives according to the groups linked to the flavonoid core. Correlation analysis was further conducted to investigate the effect of different wavelengths of light on their accumulation. The content of flavonoid methyl derivatives was positively correlated with the proportions of far-red light (FR; 716-810nm) and near-infrared light (NIR; 810-2200nm) in the sunlight spectrum and negatively correlated with the proportion of ultraviolet (UV-A; 350-400nm) and the red/far-red ratio (R/FR). By contrast, the content of flavonoid glycoside derivatives was positively correlated with the proportion of UV-A and the R/FR, and negatively correlated with FR and NIR. The results indicated that light quality with higher proportions of FR and NIR increases the activity of flavonoid methyltransferases but suppresses the activity of flavonoid glycoside transferases. While a high proportion of UV-A and a high R/FR can increase flavonoid glycoside transferase activity but suppress flavonoid methyltransferase activity. PMID:27474785

  9. Solanesol extraction from tobacco leaves by Flash chromatography based on molecularly imprinted polymers.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoqin; Meng, Zihui; Qiu, Lili; Chen, Jing; Guo, Yushu; Yi, Da; Ji, Tiantian; Jia, Hua; Xue, Min

    2016-05-01

    A novel solanesol extraction method based on molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) as the Flash chromatography stationary phase was established and evaluated. Spherical MIP particles in a size range of 250-350μm (d (0.5)=320μm) for solanesol were synthesized by suspension polymerization, with imprinting factor of 3.9. The MIP particles (5.5g) were packed in common Teflon column as the stationary phase while the sample solution and elution solvent were confirmed as methanol and methanol/acetic acid solution (80/20, v/v), loading at 4ml/min and eluting 8ml/min, respectively. Under the optimal chromatographic conditions, the adsorption capacity of the MIP-Flash column was determined as 107.3μmol/g, and in each process, 370.8mg purified solanesol (98.4%) could be obtained from the extract (20mM, 40ml) of tobacco leaves (14.7g), and the yield of solanesol was 2.5% of the dry weight of tobacco leaves. The results reported here confirm the feasibility to extract highly purified active ingredients directly from natural products on a large scale by MIP-Flash chromatography. PMID:26994329

  10. Invasion of minor veins of tobacco leaves inoculated with tobacco mosaic virus mutants defective in phloem-dependent movement.

    PubMed Central

    Ding, X; Shintaku, M H; Carter, S A; Nelson, R S

    1996-01-01

    To fully understand vascular transport of plant viruses, the viral and host proteins, their structures and functions, and the specific vascular cells in which these factors function must be determined. We report here on the ability of various cDNA-derived coat protein (CP) mutants of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) to invade vascular cells in minor veins of Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi nn. The mutant viruses we studied, TMV CP-O, U1mCP15-17, and SNC015, respectively, encode a CP from a different tobamovirus (i.e., from odontoglossum ringspot virus) resulting in the formation of non-native capsids, a mutant CP that accumulates in aggregates but does not encapsidate the viral RNA, or no CP. TMV CP-O is impaired in phloem-dependent movement, whereas U1mCP15-17 and SNC015 do not accumulate by phloem-dependent movement. In developmentally-defined studies using immunocytochemical analyses we determined that all of these mutants invaded vascular parenchyma cells within minor veins in inoculated leaves. In addition, we determined that the CPs of TMV CP-O and U1mCP15-17 were present in companion (C) cells of minor veins in inoculated leaves, although more rarely than CP of wild-type virus. These results indicate that the movement of TMV into minor veins does not require the CP, and an encapsidation-competent CP is not required for, but may increase the efficiency of, movement into the conducting complex of the phloem (i.e., the C cell/sieve element complex). Also, a host factor(s) functions at or beyond the C cell/sieve element interface with other cells to allow efficient phloem-dependent accumulation of TMV CP-O. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8855325

  11. Light Suppresses Bacterial Population through the Accumulation of Hydrogen Peroxide in Tobacco Leaves Infected with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Dan-Dan; Liu, Mei-Jun; Sun, Xing-Bin; Zhao, Min; Chow, Wah S; Sun, Guang-Yu; Zhang, Zi-Shan; Hu, Yan-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci (Pst) is a hemibiotrophic bacterial pathogen responsible for tobacco wildfire disease. Although considerable research has been conducted on the tobacco plant's tolerance to Pst, the role of light in the responses of the photosystems to Pst infection is poorly understood. This study aimed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of the reduced photosystem damage in tobacco leaves due to Pst infection under light conditions. Compared to dark conditions, Pst infection under light conditions resulted in less chlorophyll degradation and a smaller decline in photosynthetic function. Although the maximal quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) and the activity of the photosystem I (PSI) complex decreased as Pst infection progressed, damage to PSI and PSII after infection was reduced under light conditions compared to dark conditions. Pst was 17-fold more abundant in tobacco leaves under dark compared to light conditions at 3 days post inoculation (dpi). Additionally, H2O2 accumulated to a high level in tobacco leaves after Pst infection under light conditions; although to a lesser extent, H2O2 accumulation was also significant under dark conditions. Pretreatment with H2O2 alleviated chlorotic lesions and decreased Pst abundance in tobacco leaves at 3 dpi under dark conditions. MV pretreatment had the same effects under light conditions, whereas 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea pretreatment aggravated chlorotic lesions and increased the Pst population. These results indicate that chlorotic symptoms and the size of the bacterial population are each negatively correlated with H2O2 accumulation. In other words, light appears to suppress the Pst population in tobacco leaves through the accumulation of H2O2 during infection. PMID:27148334

  12. Light Suppresses Bacterial Population through the Accumulation of Hydrogen Peroxide in Tobacco Leaves Infected with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Dan-Dan; Liu, Mei-Jun; Sun, Xing-Bin; Zhao, Min; Chow, Wah S.; Sun, Guang-Yu; Zhang, Zi-Shan; Hu, Yan-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci (Pst) is a hemibiotrophic bacterial pathogen responsible for tobacco wildfire disease. Although considerable research has been conducted on the tobacco plant’s tolerance to Pst, the role of light in the responses of the photosystems to Pst infection is poorly understood. This study aimed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of the reduced photosystem damage in tobacco leaves due to Pst infection under light conditions. Compared to dark conditions, Pst infection under light conditions resulted in less chlorophyll degradation and a smaller decline in photosynthetic function. Although the maximal quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) and the activity of the photosystem I (PSI) complex decreased as Pst infection progressed, damage to PSI and PSII after infection was reduced under light conditions compared to dark conditions. Pst was 17-fold more abundant in tobacco leaves under dark compared to light conditions at 3 days post inoculation (dpi). Additionally, H2O2 accumulated to a high level in tobacco leaves after Pst infection under light conditions; although to a lesser extent, H2O2 accumulation was also significant under dark conditions. Pretreatment with H2O2 alleviated chlorotic lesions and decreased Pst abundance in tobacco leaves at 3 dpi under dark conditions. MV pretreatment had the same effects under light conditions, whereas 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea pretreatment aggravated chlorotic lesions and increased the Pst population. These results indicate that chlorotic symptoms and the size of the bacterial population are each negatively correlated with H2O2 accumulation. In other words, light appears to suppress the Pst population in tobacco leaves through the accumulation of H2O2 during infection. PMID:27148334

  13. Two New Reference Materials Based on Tobacco Leaves: Certification for over a Dozen of Toxic and Essential Elements

    PubMed Central

    Samczyński, Zbigniew; Dybczyński, Rajmund S.; Polkowska-Motrenko, Halina; Chajduk, Ewelina; Pyszynska, Marta; Danko, Bożena; Czerska, Elżbieta; Kulisa, Krzysztof; Doner, Katarzyna; Kalbarczyk, Paweł

    2012-01-01

    The preparation, certification, and characterization of two new biological certified reference materials for inorganic trace analysis have been presented. They are based on two different varieties of tobacco leaves, namely, Oriental Basma Tobacco Leaves (INCT-OBTL-5), grown in Greece, and Polish Virginia Tobacco Leaves (INCT-PVTL-6), grown in Poland. Certification of the materials was based on the statistical evaluation of results obtained in a worldwide interlaboratory comparison, in which 87 laboratories from 18 countries participated, providing 2568 laboratory averages on nearly 80 elements. It was possible to establish the certified values of concentration for many elements in the new materials, that is, 37 in INCT-OBTL-5 and 36 in INCT-PVTL-6, including several toxic ones like As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and so forth. The share and the role of instrumental analytical techniques used in the process of certification of the new CRMs are discussed. PMID:22536124

  14. Expression of a constitutively active nitrate reductase variant in tobacco reduces tobacco-specific nitrosamine accumulation in cured leaves and cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jianli; Zhang, Leichen; Lewis, Ramsey S; Bovet, Lucien; Goepfert, Simon; Jack, Anne M; Crutchfield, James D; Ji, Huihua; Dewey, Ralph E

    2016-07-01

    Burley tobaccos (Nicotiana tabacum) display a nitrogen-use-deficiency phenotype that is associated with the accumulation of high levels of nitrate within the leaf, a trait correlated with production of a class of compounds referred to as tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). Two TSNA species, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), have been shown to be strong carcinogens in numerous animal studies. We investigated the potential of molecular genetic strategies to lower nitrate levels in burley tobaccos by overexpressing genes encoding key enzymes of the nitrogen-assimilation pathway. Of the various constructs tested, only the expression of a constitutively active nitrate reductase (NR) dramatically decreased free nitrate levels in the leaves. Field-grown tobacco plants expressing this NR variant exhibited greatly reduced levels of TSNAs in both cured leaves and mainstream smoke of cigarettes made from these materials. Decreasing leaf nitrate levels via expression of a constitutively active NR enzyme represents an exceptionally promising means for reducing the production of NNN and NNK, two of the most well-documented animal carcinogens found in tobacco products. PMID:26800860

  15. The dynamics of apoplast phenolics in tobacco leaves following inoculation with bacteria.

    PubMed

    Baker, Con J; Mock, Norton M; Smith, Jodi M; Aver'yanov, Andrey A

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates that the accumulation of apoplastic phenolics is stimulated in planta in response to bacterial inoculation. Past studies have shown that levels of extracellular phenolics are elicited in plant cell suspensions in response to bacteria, and that tomato plants infected with viroids showed changes in apoplastic phenolics. The method described here monitored changes in apoplastic phenolics in tobacco leaves following bacterial inoculation of the same tissue. Inoculation with a saprophyte, Pseudomonas fluorescens, which does not cause visible symptoms or physical damage, was used to elicit phenolics and examine the effects of variable parameters on phenolic composition. Location of the inoculation on the leaf, position, or developmental age of the leaf on the plant, and inoculum concentration were standardized for further experiments. The patterns of phenolic change in the apoplast were compared for tobacco inoculated with P. syringae pathovars, pv. syringae, which causes a resistant HR reaction within 15 h, and pv. tabaci, which causes a susceptible reaction with delayed visible symptoms. Both pathogens elicited lower increased levels of acetosyringone compared to the saprophyte, P. fluorescens but had greatly increased levels of the chlorogenic acid derivatives. The latter metabolites appear to have come from the intracellular stores, which could indicate a weakening of the apoplast/symplast barrier. This unexpected aspect will require further study of intracellular phenolics. PMID:26347765

  16. The dynamics of apoplast phenolics in tobacco leaves following inoculation with bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Con J.; Mock, Norton M.; Smith, Jodi M.; Aver'yanov, Andrey A.

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates that the accumulation of apoplastic phenolics is stimulated in planta in response to bacterial inoculation. Past studies have shown that levels of extracellular phenolics are elicited in plant cell suspensions in response to bacteria, and that tomato plants infected with viroids showed changes in apoplastic phenolics. The method described here monitored changes in apoplastic phenolics in tobacco leaves following bacterial inoculation of the same tissue. Inoculation with a saprophyte, Pseudomonas fluorescens, which does not cause visible symptoms or physical damage, was used to elicit phenolics and examine the effects of variable parameters on phenolic composition. Location of the inoculation on the leaf, position, or developmental age of the leaf on the plant, and inoculum concentration were standardized for further experiments. The patterns of phenolic change in the apoplast were compared for tobacco inoculated with P. syringae pathovars, pv. syringae, which causes a resistant HR reaction within 15 h, and pv. tabaci, which causes a susceptible reaction with delayed visible symptoms. Both pathogens elicited lower increased levels of acetosyringone compared to the saprophyte, P. fluorescens but had greatly increased levels of the chlorogenic acid derivatives. The latter metabolites appear to have come from the intracellular stores, which could indicate a weakening of the apoplast/symplast barrier. This unexpected aspect will require further study of intracellular phenolics. PMID:26347765

  17. Spider dragline silk proteins in transgenic tobacco leaves: accumulation and field production.

    PubMed

    Menassa, Rima; Zhu, Hong; Karatzas, Costas N; Lazaris, Anthoula; Richman, Alex; Brandle, Jim

    2004-09-01

    Spider dragline silk is a unique biomaterial and represents nature's strongest known fibre. As it is almost as strong as many commercial synthetic fibres, it is suitable for use in many industrial and medical applications. The prerequisite for such a widespread use is the cost-effective production in sufficient quantities for commercial fibre manufacturing. Agricultural biotechnology and the production of recombinant dragline silk proteins in transgenic plants offer the potential for low-cost, large-scale production. The purpose of this work was to examine the feasibility of producing the two protein components of dragline silk (MaSp1 and MaSp2) from Nephila clavipes in transgenic tobacco. Two different promoters, the enhanced CaMV 35S promoter (Kay et al., 1987) and a new tobacco cryptic constitutive promoter, tCUP (Foster et al., 1999) were used, in conjunction with a plant secretory signal (PR1b), a translational enhancer (alfalfa mosaic virus, AMV) and an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal (KDEL), to express the MaSp1 and MaSp2 genes in the leaves of transgenic plants. Both genes expressed successfully and recombinant protein accumulated in transgenic plants grown in both greenhouse and field trials. PMID:17168889

  18. Scalable Production of HPV16 L1 Protein and VLPs from Tobacco Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Zahin, Maryam; Joh, Joongho; Khanal, Sujita; Husk, Adam; Mason, Hugh; Warzecha, Heribert; Ghim, Shin-je; Miller, Donald M.; Matoba, Nobuyuki; Jenson, Alfred Bennett

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common malignancy among women particularly in developing countries, with human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 causing 50% of invasive cervical cancers. A plant-based HPV vaccine is an alternative to the currently available virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines, and would be much less expensive. We optimized methods to express HPV16 L1 protein and purify VLPs from tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) leaves transfected with the magnICON deconstructed viral vector expression system. L1 proteins were extracted from agro-infiltrated leaves using a series of pH and salt mediated buffers. Expression levels of L1 proteins and VLPs were verified by immunoblot and ELISA, which confirmed the presence of sequential and conformational epitopes, respectively. Among three constructs tested (16L1d22, TPL1d22, and TPL1F), TPL1F, containing a full-length L1 and chloroplast transit peptide, was best. Extraction of HPV16 L1 from leaf tissue was most efficient (> 2.5% of total soluble protein) with a low-salt phosphate buffer. VLPs were purified using both cesium chloride (CsCl) density gradient and size exclusion chromatography. Electron microscopy studies confirmed the presence of assembled forms of HPV16 L1 VLPs. Collectively; our results indicated that chloroplast-targeted transient expression in tobacco plants is promising for the production of a cheap, efficacious HPV16 L1 VLP vaccine. Studies are underway to develop plant VLPs for the production of a cervical cancer vaccine. PMID:27518899

  19. Scalable Production of HPV16 L1 Protein and VLPs from Tobacco Leaves.

    PubMed

    Zahin, Maryam; Joh, Joongho; Khanal, Sujita; Husk, Adam; Mason, Hugh; Warzecha, Heribert; Ghim, Shin-Je; Miller, Donald M; Matoba, Nobuyuki; Jenson, Alfred Bennett

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common malignancy among women particularly in developing countries, with human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 causing 50% of invasive cervical cancers. A plant-based HPV vaccine is an alternative to the currently available virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines, and would be much less expensive. We optimized methods to express HPV16 L1 protein and purify VLPs from tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) leaves transfected with the magnICON deconstructed viral vector expression system. L1 proteins were extracted from agro-infiltrated leaves using a series of pH and salt mediated buffers. Expression levels of L1 proteins and VLPs were verified by immunoblot and ELISA, which confirmed the presence of sequential and conformational epitopes, respectively. Among three constructs tested (16L1d22, TPL1d22, and TPL1F), TPL1F, containing a full-length L1 and chloroplast transit peptide, was best. Extraction of HPV16 L1 from leaf tissue was most efficient (> 2.5% of total soluble protein) with a low-salt phosphate buffer. VLPs were purified using both cesium chloride (CsCl) density gradient and size exclusion chromatography. Electron microscopy studies confirmed the presence of assembled forms of HPV16 L1 VLPs. Collectively; our results indicated that chloroplast-targeted transient expression in tobacco plants is promising for the production of a cheap, efficacious HPV16 L1 VLP vaccine. Studies are underway to develop plant VLPs for the production of a cervical cancer vaccine. PMID:27518899

  20. [Analysis of alkaline CuO degradation products of acid detergent fiber from tobacco leaves by using liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Hao, Weiqiang; Wang, Leijun; Wu, Shun; Yue, Bangyi; Chen, Qiang; Zhang, Peipei

    2015-07-01

    The acid detergent fiber (ADF) from tobacco leaves was obtained by treating the sample with petroleum ether-ethanol (6:4, v/v), 30 g/L sodium dodecylsulfate and 0.5 mol/L sulphuric acid containing 20 g/L hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide successively. The ADF was degraded by the alkaline CuO oxidation procedure. In this work, six samples of ADF degradation products from tobacco leaves were prepared. The samples were analyzed by using gradient liquid chromatography (LC) where an Ultimate XB C18 column was used as stationary phase, with a mixture of methanol and water as mobile phase, at a column temperature of 35 °C and a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. Dual wavelengths of 280 nm and 320 nm were chosen for the detection. It was found that there were four characteristic peaks for the ADF degradation products. By taking these peaks as research object, the optimum time for the degradation was found to be 5 h and the sample solution could be kept stable within 7 days. The established method may provide a new approach for the studies of the differences between lignin composition in different tobacco leaves and the relationship between lignin content and the smoking quality of tobacco leaves. PMID:26672209

  1. Photosynthetic acclimation and decreased chlorophyll (a & b) concentrations occur in nitrogen sufficient tobacco leaves in response to carbon dioxide enrichment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of CO2 enrichment on plant growth and on nitrogen partitioning were examined using fully-expanded tobacco leaves (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Samsun). Plants were grown from single seeds in matching controlled environment chambers with continuous ambient CO2 partial pressures of 38 to 40 P...

  2. Subcellular localization of cadmium and cadmium-binding peptides in tobacco leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Voegeli-Lange, R.; Wagner, G.J. )

    1990-04-01

    The synthesis of Cd-binding peptides (CdBPs) was induced upon addition of 20 micromolar CdCl{sub 2} (nonphytotoxic level) to the nutrient solution of hydroponically grown tobacco seedlings (Nicotiana rustica var Pavonii). Amino acid analysis showed that the main components were {gamma}-(Glu-Cys){sub 3}-Gly and {gamma}-(Glu-Cys){sub 4}-Gly. Seedlings exposed to the metal for 1 week contained similar glutathione levels as found in the controls (about 0.18 micromole per gram fresh weight). If, as has been proposed, CdBPs are involved in Cd-detoxification by chelation, both metal and ligand must be localized in the same cellular compartment. To directly determine the localization of Cd and CdBPs, protoplasts and vacuoles were isolated from leaves of Cd-exposed seedlings. Purified vacuoles contained virtually all of the CdBPs and Cd found in protoplasts (104% {plus minus} 8 and 110% {plus minus} 8, respectively). CdBPs were associated with the vacuolar sap and not with the tonoplast membrane. Glutathione was observed in leaves and protoplasts but not in vacuoles. The probability that CdBPs are synthesized extravacuolarly and our finding that they and Cd are predominantly located in the vacuole suggest that these molecules might be involved in transport of Cd to the vacuole. Our results also suggest that a simple cytoplasmic chelator role for CdBPs in Cd tolerance cannot be assumed.

  3. Subcellular localization of Cd and Cd-binding peptides in tobacco leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Vogeli-Lange, R.; Wagner, G.J. )

    1989-04-01

    Cd-binding peptides (CdBP's) having the general structure {gamma}-(Glu-Cys){sub n}-Gly are inducible by and have high affinity for Cd. If these peptides are involved in Cd detoxification by chelation, both metal and ligand must be localized in the same cellular compartment. To address this question, we studied the vacuolar/extravacuolar distribution of Cd and CdBP's in leaves of hydroponically grown tobacco seedlings. CdBP's were induced upon addition of 20 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2} (non-phytotoxic level) to the nutrient solution. Amino acid analysis indicated that the main components were {gamma}-(Glu-Cys){sub 3}-Gly and {gamma}-(Glu-Cys){sub 4}-Gly. Purified vacuoles isolated from protoplasts of Cd treated leaves contained most of the total CdBP's and Cd found in protoplasts (104% {plus minus}8 and 110% {plus minus}8, respectively). The probability that CdBP's are synthesized extravacuolarly and their predominant location in the vacuole suggest that these molecules may be involved in translocation of Cd to the vacuole.

  4. Subcellular Localization of Cadmium and Cadmium-Binding Peptides in Tobacco Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Vögeli-Lange, Regina; Wagner, George J.

    1990-01-01

    The synthesis of Cd-binding peptides (CdBPs) was induced upon addition of 20 micromolar CdCl2 (nonphytotoxic level) to the nutrient solution of hydroponically grown tobacco seedlings (Nicotiana rustica var Pavonii). Amino acid analysis showed that the main components were γ-(Glu-Cys)3-Gly and γ-(Glu-Cys)4-Gly. Seedlings exposed to the metal for 1 week contained similar glutathione levels as found in the controls (about 0.18 micromole per gram fresh weight). If, as has been proposed, CdBPs are involved in Cd-detoxification by chelation, both metal and ligand must be localized in the same cellular compartment. To directly determine the localization of Cd and CdBPs, protoplasts and vacuoles were isolated from leaves of Cd-exposed seedlings. Purified vacuoles contained virtually all of the CdBPs and Cd found in protoplasts (104% ± 8 and 110% ± 8, respectively). CdBPs were associated with the vacuolar sap and not with the tonoplast membrane. Glutathione was observed in leaves and protoplasts but not in vacuoles. The probability that CdBPs are synthesized extravacuolarly and our finding that they and Cd are predominantly located in the vacuole suggest that these molecules might be involved in transport of Cd to the vacuole. Our results also suggest that a simple cytoplasmic chelator role for CdBPs in Cd tolerance cannot be assumed. Images Figure 3 PMID:16667375

  5. All Africa conference on tobacco control.

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, S.; Yach, D.; Saloojee, Y.; Simpson, D.

    1994-01-01

    Although the health hazards of smoking are now generally accepted in most Western countries, the arguments have not had much impact on poorer nations. A conference on tobacco control held in Harare, Zimbabwe, in November last year was the largest to tackle this problem. The conference heard how threats of epidemics of tobacco related disease in the distant future held little weight with governments of countries that often already had massive public health problems. More immediate effects needed to be emphasised. Speakers gave three cogent arguments; firstly, the loss of capacity for foreign trade in essential goods, since most African countries are net importers of tobacco; secondly, the extensive deforestation which is occurring to fuel the flue curing of tobacco; thirdly, evidence from Papua New Guinea that raising taxation on tobacco provides governments with increased income for many years before a decrease begins. Images p190-a PMID:8312774

  6. Effects of different routes of application on ethylenediurea persistence in tobacco leaves.

    PubMed

    Pasqualini, S; Paoletti, E; Cruciani, G; Pellegrino, R; Ederli, L

    2016-05-01

    Ethylenediurea (EDU) is a common research tool for investigating ozone impacts on vegetation, although the role of different application routes (foliar spray vs soil drench) on EDU persistence in the leaves is unknown. We quantified EDU concentrations in leaves of the O3-sensitive Bel-W3 cultivar of tobacco treated with EDU as either foliar spray or soil drench. Foliar EDU concentrations were measured by Q-TOF LC/MS. When EDU was applied as foliar spray, 1 h was enough for reaching a measurable concentration within the leaf. EDU concentration increased over the 21-day period when the leaf was not washed after the application (treatment #1), while it decreased when the leaf was washed after the application (treatment #2). These results suggest that: a) dry deposition of EDU onto the leaf surface was gradually absorbed into the unwashed leaf, although the mechanisms of such uptake were unclear; b) concentration of EDU was decreased quickly (-35%) during the first 24 h from application and more slowly during the following three days (-20%) in the washed leaves. Degradation did not involve enzymatic reactions and was not affected by the presence of ROS. When EDU was applied as soil drench, foliar concentrations increased over time, likely due to adsorption onto soil organic matter and gradual re-solubilization by irrigation water. An analysis of EDU concentration in protoplast and intercellular washing fluid showed that EDU did not enter the cells, but was retained in the apoplast only. Possible implications of EDU in the apoplast and recommendations for EDU application are discussed. PMID:26977961

  7. Hazardous impact of toxic metals on tobacco leaves grown in contaminated soil by ultrasonic assisted pseudo-digestion: multivariate study.

    PubMed

    Arain, Mohammad Balal; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Jamali, Mohammad Khan; Jalbani, Nusrat; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas; Ansari, Rehana; Sarfraz, Raja Adil

    2008-06-30

    Tobacco leaves (Nicotiana tabacum L.), agricultural soil and pollute irrigated lake water samples were collected during 2005--2006 and analyzed for Cd and Ni by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). A simple and efficient procedure was investigated for the complete decomposition of tobacco leaves using ultrasonic assisted acid pseudo-digestion method (UPDM). A Plackett-Burman experimental design was used as a multivariate strategy for the evaluation of seven factors/variables at once, while central composite were used to found optimum values of significant variables. The accuracy of the proposed methods was assessed by analyzing certified reference (CRM); Virginia tobacco leaves (CTA-VTL-2). The results being compared with those obtained by conventional wet acid digestion method. The result obtained by optimized method showed good agreement with the certified values and sufficiently high recovery 97.8 and 98.7% for Cd and Ni, respectively. Under optimal conditions, the detection limits (3sigma) were evaluated to be 0.019 microg g(-1) for Cd and 0.37 microg g(-1) for Ni. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of Cd and Ni in raw, processed tobacco and different branded cigarettes samples. PMID:18191022

  8. A novel formaldehyde metabolic pathway plays an important role during formaldehyde metabolism and detoxification in tobacco leaves under liquid formaldehyde stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ru; Zeng, Zhidong; Liu, Ting; Liu, Ang; Zhao, Yan; Li, Kunzhi; Chen, Limei

    2016-08-01

    Tobacco and Arabidopsis are two model plants often used in botany research. Our previous study indicated that the formaldehyde (HCHO) uptake and assimilation capacities of tobacco leaves were weaker than those of Arabidopsis leaves. After treatment with a 2, 4 or 6 mM HCHO solution for 24 h, detached tobacco leaves absorbed approximately 40% of the HCHO from the treatment solution. (13)C-NMR analysis detected a novel HCHO metabolic pathway in 2 mM H(13)CHO-treated tobacco leaves. [4-(13)C]Asn, [3-(13)C]Gln and [U-(13)C]oxalic acid (OA) were produced from this pathway after H(13)COOH generation during H(13)CHO metabolism in tobacco leaves. Pretreatments of cyclosporin A (CSA) and dark almost completely inhibited the generation of [4-(13)C]Asn, [3-(13)C]Gln and [U-(13)C]OA from this pathway but did not suppressed the production of H(13)COOH in 2 mM H(13)CHO-treated tobacco leaves. The evidence suggests that this novel pathway has an important role during the metabolic detoxification of HCHO in tobacco leaves. The analysis of the chlorophyll and Rubisco contents indicated that CSA and dark pretreatments did not severely affect the survival of leaf cells but significantly inhibited the HCHO uptake by tobacco leaves. Based on the effects of CSA and dark pretreatments on HCHO uptake and metabolism, it is estimated that the contribution of this novel metabolic pathway to HCHO uptake is approximately 60%. The data obtained from the (13)C-NMR analysis revealed the mechanism underlying the weaker HCHO uptake and assimilation of tobacco leaves compared to Arabidopsis leaves. PMID:27116371

  9. In vitro cytotoxicity of Nicotiana gossei leaves, used in the Australian Aboriginal smokeless tobacco known as pituri or mingkulpa.

    PubMed

    Moghbel, Nahid; Ryu, BoMi; Cabot, Peter J; Steadman, Kathryn J

    2016-07-01

    The Aboriginal population of Central Australia use endemic Nicotiana species to make a smokeless tobacco product known usually as pituri or mingkulpa. Nicotiana leaves are masticated with wood ash into a 'quid' that is chewed/sucked for absorption of nicotine. In addition to nicotine, smokeless tobacco products contain a spectrum of biologically active compounds that may contribute to effects on health. The objective of this study was to quantify nicotine, and related alkaloids and tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), in Nicotiana leaves used in pituri, and compare in vitro toxicity of pure nicotine with Nicotiana leaf extract at the same concentration of nicotine. An aqueous extract of dry leaves of Nicotiana gossei and a reference smokeless tobacco (CORESTA CRP2) were quantified for major pyridine alkaloids and TSNAs using HPLC-UV and LC-MS/MS. A range of extract concentrations and corresponding concentrations of nicotine standard were tested using an MTS assay to measure human lung epithelium cell (A549) survival. Cells treated for 24h with the maximum concentration of 1.5mg/ml of nicotine resulted in 77% viability. In contrast, extracts from N. gossei leaves and CRP2 containing a similar concentration of nicotine (1.3mg/ml) resulted in remarkably lower viability of 1.5 and 6%, respectively. Comparison of cytotoxicity of pure nicotine with that of the extracts revealed that nicotine was not the source of their cytotoxicity. Other biologically active compounds such as the known carcinogens NNK and NNN, derived from nicotine and nornicotine and found to be present in the smokeless tobacco extracts, may be responsible. PMID:27178269

  10. Changes in ratio of soluble sugars and free amino nitrogen in the apical meristem during floral transition of tobacco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rideout, J. W.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Miner, G. S.; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Under a modification of the nutrient diversion hypothesis, we propose that an inequality in carbohydrate and nitrogen translocation to the apical meristem may be a controlling factor in floral transition. Experiments were conducted in controlled-environment chambers to determine the associations between microscopic characteristics of the transition from vegetative to floral stages of the apical meristem of flue-cured tobacco and to assimilate concentrations in the plant and apical meristem. Low temperature, nitrogen withdrawal, and restriction of nitrogen uptake were used as treatment variables. In all of these stress treatments, flowering occurred at a lesser number of leaves than in control treatments. Low temperature stress accelerated the time of transition to the floral stage as compared with a high temperature control; however, nitrogen stress did not accelerate the time of transition. All stress treatments affected the levels of nitrogen and carbohydrate in whole plants. Most notable was an increase in the percentage of starch and a decrease in the percentage of total soluble carbohydrate induced by the stress treatments. These data indicate that tobacco plants under stress accumulate excess carbohydrate in the form of starch. An apparent inequality in the relative concentrations of carbohydrate and nitrogen in the apical meristem was observed in all treatments at the time of floral transition and is in support of the nutrient diversion hypothesis.

  11. Proteomic characterisation of endoplasmic reticulum-derived protein bodies in tobacco leaves

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The N-terminal proline-rich domain (Zera) of the maize storage protein γ-zein, is able to induce the formation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived protein bodies (PBs) when fused to proteins of interest. This encapsulation enables a recombinant fused protein to escape from degradation and facilitates its recovery from plant biomass by gradient purification. The aim of the present work was to evaluate if induced PBs encapsulate additional proteins jointly with the recombinant protein. The exhaustive analysis of protein composition of PBs is expected to facilitate a better understanding of PB formation and the optimization of recombinant protein purification approaches from these organelles. Results We analysed the proteome of PBs induced in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves by transient transformation with Zera fused to a fluorescent marker protein (DsRed). Intact PBs with their surrounding ER-membrane were isolated on iodixanol based density gradients and their integrity verified by confocal and electron microscopy. SDS-PAGE analysis of isolated PBs showed that Zera-DsRed accounted for around 85% of PB proteins in term of abundance. Differential extraction of PBs was performed for in-depth analysis of their proteome and structure. Besides Zera-DsRed, 195 additional proteins were identified including a broad range of proteins resident or trafficking through the ER and recruited within the Zera-DsRed polymer. Conclusions This study indicates that Zera-protein fusion is still the major protein component of the new formed organelle in tobacco leaves. The analysis also reveals the presence of an unexpected diversity of proteins in PBs derived from both the insoluble Zera-DsRed polymer formation, including ER-resident and secretory proteins, and a secretory stress response induced most likely by the recombinant protein overloading. Knowledge of PBs protein composition is likely to be useful to optimize downstream purification of recombinant proteins in molecular

  12. Metabolic engineering of ketocarotenoid biosynthesis in leaves and flowers of tobacco species.

    PubMed

    Gerjets, Tanja; Sandmann, Manuela; Zhu, Changfu; Sandmann, Gerhard

    2007-10-01

    Ketocarotenoids and especially astaxanthin are high-valued pigments used as feed additives. Conventionally, they are provided by chemical synthesis. Their biological production is a promising alternative. For the development of a plant production system, Nicotiana glauca, a species with carotenoid-containing yellow pigmented flower petals, was transformed with a cyanobacterial ketolase gene. The resulting plants accumulated 4-ketozeaxantin (adinoxanthin), which is the first ketocarotenoid synthesized in flower petals by genetic modification. Due to the very late flowering in this tobacco species, N. tabacum was used to optimize the yield and ketocarotenoid product pattern by metabolic engineering of the ketolation steps of carotenogenesis. The highly carotenogenic nectary tissue in the flowers represents a model of a flower chromoplast system. By expression of a ketolase gene, it was possible to engineer the biosynthetic pathway towards the formation of 3'-hydroxyechinenone, 3-hydroxyechinenone, 4-ketozeaxanthin, 4-ketozeaxanthin esters, 4-ketolutein and 4-ketolutein esters. Some of these ketocarotenoids were also formed in the leaves of the trangenic plants. In particular, by co-expression of the ketolase gene in combination with a hydroxylase gene under an ubiquitous promoter, the formation of total carotenoids in nectaries increased by more than 2.5-fold. In the nectaries of this type of transformants, more than 50% of the accumulating carotenoids were keto derivatives. In addition, the levels of ketocarotenoid esters were much lower and a higher percentage of the free ketocarotenoids accumulated. These results open new promising perspectives for a successful metabolic engineering of keto-hydroxy carotenoid production in carotenogenic flowers. PMID:17619231

  13. Nitration is exclusive to defense-related PR-1, PR-3 and PR-5 proteins in tobacco leaves.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Misa; Shigeto, Jun; Izumi, Shunsuke; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi; Morikawa, Hiromichi

    2016-07-01

    Protein tyrosine nitration is an important post-translational modification. A variety of nitrated proteins are reported in Arabidopsis leaves and seedlings, sunflower hypocotyls, and pea roots. The identities of nitrated proteins are species-/organ-specific, and chloroplast proteins are most nitratable in leaves. However, precise mechanism is unclear. Here, we investigated nitroproteome in tobacco leaves following exposure to nitrogen dioxide. Proteins were extracted, electrophoresed and immunoblotted using an anti-3-nitrotyrosine antibody. Mass spectrometry and FASTA search identified for the first time an exclusive nitration of pathogenesis-related proteins, PR-1, PR-3 and PR-5, which are reportedly located in the apoplast or the vacuole. Furthermore, Tyr(36) of thaumatin-like protein E2 was identfied as a nitration site. The underlying mechanism and physiological relevance are discussed. PMID:27301959

  14. Genetic decrease in fatty acid unsaturation of phosphatidylglycerol increased photoinhibition of photosystem I at low temperature in tobacco leaves.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A G; Allakhverdiev, S I; Huner, N P A; Murata, N

    2012-08-01

    Leaves of transgenic tobacco plants with decreased levels of fatty acid unsaturation in phosphatidylglycerol (PG) exhibited a slightly lower level of the steady state oxidation of the photosystem I (PSI) reaction center P700 (P700(+)) than wild-type plants. The PSI photochemistry of wild-type plants was only marginally affected by high light treatments. Surprisingly, all plants of transgenic lines exhibited much higher susceptibility to photoinhibition of PSI than wild-type plants. This was accompanied by a 2.5-fold faster re-reduction rate of P700(+) in the dark, indicating a higher capacity for cyclic electron flow around PSI in high light treated transgenic leaves. This was associated with a much higher intersystem electron pool size suggesting over-reduction of the PQ pool in tobacco transgenic lines with altered PG unsaturation compared to wild-type plants. The physiological role of PG unsaturation in PSI down-regulation and modulation of the capacity of PSI-dependent cyclic electron flows and distribution of excitation light energy in tobacco plants under photoinhibitory conditions at low temperatures is discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Photosynthesis Research for Sustainability: from Natural to Artificial. PMID:22445720

  15. Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors Extracted from Tobacco Smoke as Neuroprotective Factors for Potential Treatment of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Sari, Youssef; Khalil, Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of mainly the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, which leads to motor dysfunction. Although, most of the drugs are currently used for symptomatic treatment, there are at least three FDA-approved drugs for the treatment of PD that have been suggested preclinically to have neuroprotective effects. Among these drugs are monoamine oxidase (MAO) type B inhibitors such as selegiline and rasagiline, and non-ergot derivative dopamine agonist, pramipexole. In this review article, we focused on the potential uses of non-selective reversible MAO inhibitor, 2,3,6-trimethyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, from flue-cured tobacco leaves extract and two β- carboline alkaloids (harman and norharman) as potent, reversible and non-selective MAO inhibitors for the treatment of PD. In addition, we discussed the potential uses of farnesol as a potent inhibitor of MAO-B and farnesylacetone as a less potent selective MAO-B inhibitor. Furthermore, adducts of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline have shown to have competitive inhibitory effects for both MAO-A and MAO-B. These inhibitors have potential neuroprotective effects, which might be mediated at least through nerve growth factor, neurotrophin 3, brain derived neurotrophic factor, and glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor. We suggest here the neuroprotective implication of extracted MAO inhibitors from smoke tobacco; however, it is important to note that there are several existing compounds in tobacco smoke that have toxic effects in the brain, these include and not limited to the induction of neuropathological features observed in individuals suffering from Alzheimer's disease and dementia. PMID:25808895

  16. Inhibition of phenolic acid metabolism results in precocious cell death and altered cell morphology in leaves of transgenic tobacco plants

    PubMed Central

    Tamagnone, L; Merida, A; Stacey, N; Plaskitt, K; Parr, A; Chang, CF; Lynn, D; Dow, JM; Roberts, K; Martin, C

    1998-01-01

    Several complex phenotypic changes are induced when the transcription factor AmMYB308 is overexpressed in transgenic tobacco plants. We have previously shown that the primary effect of this transcription factor is to inhibit phenolic acid metabolism. In the plants that we produced, two morphological features were prominent: abnormal leaf palisade development and induction of premature cell death in mature leaves. Evidence from the analysis of these transgenic plants suggests that both changes resulted from the lack of phenolic intermediates. These results emphasize the importance of phenolic secondary metabolites in the normal growth and development of tobacco. We suggest that phenolic acid derivatives are important signaling molecules in the final stages of leaf palisade formation and that phenolic acid derivatives also play a prominent role in tissue senescence. PMID:9811790

  17. Developmental expression of violaxanthin de-epoxidase in leaves of tobacco growing under high and low light

    SciTech Connect

    Bugos, R.C.; Chang, S.H.; Yamamoto, H.Y.

    1999-09-01

    Violaxanthin de-epoxidase (BDE) is a lumen-localized enzyme that catalyzes the de-epoxidation of violaxanthin in the thylakoid membrane upon formation of a transthylakoin pH gradient. The authors investigated the developmental expression of VDE in leaves of mature tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants grown under high-light conditions (in the field) and low-light conditions (in a growth chamber). The difference in light conditions was evident by the increased pool size (violaxanthin + antheraxanthin - zeaxanthin, VAZ) throughout leaf development in field-grown plants. VDE activity based on chlorophyll or leaf area was low in the youngest leaves, with the levels increasing with increasing leaf age in both high- and low-light-grown plants. However, in high-light-grown plants, the younger leaves in early leaf expansion showed a more rapid increase in VDE activity and maintained higher levels of VDE transcript in more leaves, indicating that high light may induce greater levels of VDE. VDE transcript levels deceased substantially in leaves of mid-leaf expansion, which the levels of enzyme continued to increase, suggesting that the VDE enzyme does not turn over rapidly. The level of VDE changed in an inverse, nonlinear relationship with respect to the VAZ pool, suggesting that enzyme levels could be indirectly regulated by the VAZ pool.

  18. Two new benzolactones from the leaves of Nicotiana tabacum and their anti-tobacco mosaic virus activities.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qinpeng; Xu, Xingmeng; Zhang, Fengmei; Xiang, Nengjun; He, Pei; Si, Xiaoxi; Zhu, Ruizhi; Wang, Kunmiao; Liu, Zhihua; Liu, Chunbo; Miao, Mingming

    2016-07-01

    Two new benzolactones, 5-methyl-6-prenyl-isobenzofuran-1(3H)-one (1), 5-hydroxymethyl-6-prenyl-isobenzofuran-1(3H)-one (2), together with four known phenolic compounds (3-6), were isolated from the leaves of Nicotiana tabacum. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including extensive 1D and 2D NMR techniques. Compounds 1-6 were evaluated for their anti-tobacco mosaic virus (anti-TMV) activities. The results showed that compounds 1-6 exhibited high anti-TMV activities with inhibition rates in the range of 16.9-26.2%, respectively. PMID:26666679

  19. Pesticide residues in tobacco leaves from the Kushtia district in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Abdur; Chowdhury, Alamgir Zaman; Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Gan, Siew Hua; Islam, Mohammad Nazrul; Fardous, Zeenath; Alam, Mohammad Khorshed

    2012-09-01

    In this study, tobacco leaf samples (n = 26) were collected from different areas in Kushtia to determine the presence of residues of cypermethrin, diazinon, heptachlor, methoxychlor dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethan (DDD) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE). The analysis was conducted by a High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) system that was equipped with a photodiode array detector. Both cypermethrin and diazinon were detected in tobacco samples from six districts, namely, Mirzapur, Shahebnagar, Kodalipara, Pragpur, Farakpur and Taragunia. The highest concentration of cypermethrin was found in Kodalipara (2.00 ppm) while the highest concentration of diazinon was detected in a sample from Pragpur (0.15 ppm). The pesticide DDT was only detected in the sample from Pragpur at 4.00 ppm. This is the first study in Bangladesh that reports pesticide residue concentrations in tobacco leaf samples. PMID:22782359

  20. Cardiac and pulmonary anaphylaxis in guinea pigs and rabbits induced by glycoprotein isolated from tobacco leaves and cigarette smoke condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Levi, R.; Zavecz, J.H.; Burke, J.A.; Becker, C.G.

    1982-03-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for heart attack. The pathologic mechanisms responsible for this association are obscure. It has been reported that approximately one-third of human volunteers, smokers and nonsmokers, exhibit immediate cutaneous hypersensitivity to a glycoprotein antigen (TGP) purified from cured tobacco leaves and present in cigarette smoke. It is also known that the heart is a primary target organ for anaphylactic reaction in many animals, including primates. In experiments described herein anaphylaxis was induced in the isolated hearts and lungs of rabbits and guinea pigs previously sensitized by immunization with TGP and challenged with TGP isolated from either tobacco leaf or cigarette smoke condensate. Cardiac anaphylaxis was characterized by sinus tachycardia, decreased contractility, decreased coronary perfusion accompanied by hypoxic electrocardiographic changes, and a variety of rhythm disturbances, including idioventricular tachyarrhythmias. These observations suggest that allergic reactions to tobacco constituents may initiate cardiac arrhythmia and sudden death in some smokers and may, in part, underly the association between cigarette smoking and heart attack.

  1. Isolation and characterization of the cytochrome P450 gene CYP82E5v2 that mediates nicotine to nornicotine conversion in the green leaves of tobacco.

    PubMed

    Gavilano, Lily B; Siminszky, Balazs

    2007-11-01

    In the species of genus Nicotiana, nicotine to nornicotine conversion is mediated by closely related nicotine N-demethylase (NND) proteins that are encoded by the CYP82E subfamily of cytochrome P450 genes. The diverse number and transcriptional regulation of the NND genes have created large variations in the time and rate of nornicotine production in various Nicotiana species. In tobacco, previous studies have identified the senescence-inducible CYP82E4 gene as an important factor controlling nicotine conversion. Nornicotine is an undesirable alkaloid in tobacco, because it serves as a precursor for N'-nitrosonornicotine, a potent carcinogen in laboratory animals. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible catalytic roles of additional NND genes in shaping the alkaloid profile of tobacco. A PCR-based strategy using primers complementary to conserved regions of CYP82E genes yielded a cDNA, designated CYP82E5v2, which conferred NND activity in heterologous expression studies using yeast as a host. PCR amplification of CYP82E5v2 orthologs revealed that of the two progenitor species of tobacco, CYP82E5v2 was donated by the N. tomentosiformis parent. A comparison of CYP82E4 and CYP82E5v2 expression using qualitative real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that the transcription of CYP82E5v2 was higher in the green leaves of all tobacco genotypes tested, while the expression of CYP82E4 dominated in the senescing leaves of converter tobacco. These results suggest that differentially regulated NND genes regulate nornicotine production in the green and senescing leaves of tobacco and provide tools to reduce nornicotine levels in tobacco leaves. PMID:17923451

  2. iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis reveals proteomic changes in leaves of cultivated tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) in response to drought stress.

    PubMed

    Xie, He; Yang, Da-Hai; Yao, Heng; Bai, Ge; Zhang, Yi-Han; Xiao, Bing-Guang

    2016-01-15

    Drought is one of the most severe forms of abiotic stresses that threaten the survival of plants, including crops. In turn, plants dramatically change their physiology to increase drought tolerance, including reconfiguration of proteomes. Here, we studied drought-induced proteomic changes in leaves of cultivated tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), a solanaceous plant, using the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based protein labeling technology. Of identified 5570 proteins totally, drought treatment increased and decreased abundance of 260 and 206 proteins, respectively, compared with control condition. Most of these differentially regulated proteins are involved in photosynthesis, metabolism, and stress and defense. Although abscisic acid (ABA) levels greatly increased in drought-treated tobacco leaves, abundance of detected ABA biosynthetic enzymes showed no obvious changes. In contrast, heat shock proteins (HSPs), thioredoxins, ascorbate-, glutathione-, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-related proteins were up- or down-regulated in drought-treated tobacco leaves, suggesting that chaperones and redox signaling are important for tobacco tolerance to drought, and it is likely that redox-induced posttranslational modifications play an important role in modulating protein activity. This study not only provides a comprehensive dataset on overall protein changes in drought-treated tobacco leaves, but also shed light on the mechanism by which solanaceous plants adapt to drought stress. PMID:26692494

  3. RNA Sequencing Analysis Reveals Transcriptomic Variations in Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Leaves Affected by Climate, Soil, and Tillage Factors

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Bo; Lu, Kun; Ding, Fuzhang; Zhang, Kai; Chen, Yi; Zhao, Huina; Zhang, Lin; Ren, Zhu; Qu, Cunmin; Guo, Wenjing; Wang, Jing; Pan, Wenjie

    2014-01-01

    The growth and development of plants are sensitive to their surroundings. Although numerous studies have analyzed plant transcriptomic variation, few have quantified the effect of combinations of factors or identified factor-specific effects. In this study, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis on tobacco leaves derived from 10 treatment combinations of three groups of ecological factors, i.e., climate factors (CFs), soil factors (SFs), and tillage factors (TFs). We detected 4980, 2916, and 1605 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that were affected by CFs, SFs, and TFs, which included 2703, 768, and 507 specific and 703 common DEGs (simultaneously regulated by CFs, SFs, and TFs), respectively. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses showed that genes involved in abiotic stress responses and secondary metabolic pathways were overrepresented in the common and CF-specific DEGs. In addition, we noted enrichment in CF-specific DEGs related to the circadian rhythm, SF-specific DEGs involved in mineral nutrient absorption and transport, and SF- and TF-specific DEGs associated with photosynthesis. Based on these results, we propose a model that explains how plants adapt to various ecological factors at the transcriptomic level. Additionally, the identified DEGs lay the foundation for future investigations of stress resistance, circadian rhythm and photosynthesis in tobacco. PMID:24733065

  4. Synthesis of glycolate from pyruvate via isocitrate lyase by tobacco leaves in light. [Nicotiana tabacum var Havana Seed

    SciTech Connect

    Zelitch, I. )

    1988-02-01

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum var Havana Seed) leaf discs were supplied tracer quantities of (2-{sup 14}C)- and (3-{sup 14}C) pyruvate for 60 minutes in steady state photosynthesis with 21% or 1% O{sub 2}, and the glycolate oxidase inhibitor {alpha}-hydroxy-2-pyridinemethanesulfonic acid was then added for 5 or 10 minutes to cause glycolate to accumulate. The (3-{sup 14}C) pyruvate was converted directly to glycolate as shown by a 50% greater than equal-labeled {sup 14}C in C-2 of glycolate, and the fraction of {sup 14}C in C-2 increased in 1% O{sub 2} to 80% greater than equal-labeled. This suggests the pathway using pyruvate is less O{sub 2}-dependent than the oxygenase reaction producing glycolate from the Calvin cycle. The formation of glycolate from pyruvate in the leaf discs was time-dependent and with (2-{sup 14}C)- and (3-{sup 14}C) pyruvate supplied leaf discs the C-2 of glyoxylate derived from C-2 of isocitrate was labeled asymmetrically in a manner similar to the asymmetrical labeling of C-2 of glycolate under a number of conditions. Thus glycolate was probably formed by the reduction of glyoxylate. Isocitric lyase activity of tobacco leaves was associated with leaf mitochondria, through most of the activity was in the supernatant fraction after differential centrifugation of leaf homogenates.

  5. Expression of Trichoderma reesei exo-cellobiohydrolase I transgenic tobacco leaves and calli

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Ziyu ); Hooker, Brian S. ); Quesenberry, Ryan D. ); Gao, Jianwei

    1998-12-01

    Expression of Trichoderma reesei exo-cellobiohydrolase I (CBHI) gene in transgenic tobacco was under the control of CaMV 35S promoter. In transgenic leaf tissues, CBHI activity up to 66.1 mmol h{sup -1} g{sup -1} total protein was observed. In transgenic calli, the highest CBHI activity was 83.6 umol h{sup -1} g{sup -1} total protein. Protein immunoblot analysis confirms the presence of CBHI enzyme in both transgenic calli and leaf tissues. CBHI expression levels accounted for about 0.11% and 0.082% of total protein in transgenic leaf tissues and calli, respectively. Furthermore, expression of CBHI gene did not affect normal growth and development of transgenic plants.

  6. Leaving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robyn L.

    2011-01-01

    Within this article, the author presents a personal story, "Leaving," which highlights the problematic experience of opposing established practice. The tale tells of the difficulty faced by creative agency when confronted by a constraining structural hegemony. Specifically, it draws attention to the professionalization of academic life through a…

  7. Fast analysis of nicotine related alkaloids in tobacco and cigarette smoke by megabore capillary gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jibao; Liu, Baizhan; Lin, Ping; Su, Qingde

    2003-10-31

    A novel fast megabore capillary gas chromatographic (MCGC) method for analysis of 7 nicotine related alkaloids in tobacco and cigarette smoke, including nicotine, nornicotine, myosmine, nicotyrine, anabasine, anatabine and 2,3-dipyridyl, was developed. The use of megabore capillary column GC methodology, equipped with flame ionization detector (FID), provided rapid, unambiguous nicotine related alkaloids analysis. One gram flue-cured tobacco (or Cambridge filter pad), 20 ml ether, and 5 ml 10% sodium hydroxide solution, added with n-heptadecane as the internal standard, were placed in a flask, and the flask was capped and placed in an ultrasonic bath for 15 min. A 1 microl volume was analyzed by capillary GC operating in split-injection mode on a mega bore Simplicity-5 column. This simple procedure was compared with the previously reported packed column GC method and the Griffith still-colorimetric method. The application of the method for analysis of various flue-cured tobaccos and cigarette smoke was discussed. PMID:14584703

  8. Determination of pyrethroid residues in tobacco and cigarette smoke by capillary gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jibao; Liu, Baizhan; Zhu, Xiaolan; Su, Qingde

    2002-07-26

    The extraction of fenpropathrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate and deltamethrin from tobacco (Nicotina tobaccum) and cigarette smoke condensate with acetone, followed by partition of resulting acetone mixture with petroleum ether, was investigated and found suitable for capillary gas chromatography (GC) residue analysis. Florisil column clean-up was found to provide clean-up procedure for tobacco and cigarette smoke condensate permitting analysis to < or = 0.01 microgram.g-1 for most of the pyrethroids by GC with a 63Ni electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Quantitative determination was obtained by the method of external standards. Cigarettes made from flue-cured tobacco spiked with different amounts of pyrethroids were used and the pyrethroid levels in mainstream smoke were determined. For all the pyrethroid residues, 1.51-15.50% were transferred from tobacco into cigarette smoke. PMID:12198849

  9. Metabolic Profiling with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Capillary Electrophoresis-Mass Spectrometry Reveals the Carbon-Nitrogen Status of Tobacco Leaves Across Different Planting Areas.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jieyu; Zhao, Yanni; Hu, Chunxiu; Zhao, Chunxia; Zhang, Junjie; Li, Lili; Zeng, Jun; Peng, Xiaojun; Lu, Xin; Xu, Guowang

    2016-02-01

    The interaction between carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) metabolism can reflect plant growth status and environmental factors. Little is known regarding the connections between C-N metabolism and growing regions under field conditions. To comprehensively investigate the relationship in mature tobacco leaves, we established metabolomics approaches based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and capillary electrophoresis-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (CE-TOF-MS). Approximately 240 polar metabolites were determined. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that the growing region greatly influenced the metabolic profiles of tobacco leaves. A metabolic correlation network and related pathway maps were used to reveal the global overview of the alteration of C-N metabolism across three typical regions. In Yunnan, sugars and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates were closely correlated with amino acid pools. Henan tobacco leaves showed positive correlation between the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) intermediates and C-rich secondary metabolism. In Guizhou, the proline and asparagine had significant links with TCA cycle intermediates and urea cycle, and antioxidant accumulation was observed in response to drought. These results demonstrate that combined analytical approaches have great potential to detect polar metabolites and provide information on C-N metabolism related to planting regional characteristics. PMID:26784525

  10. The human immunodeficiency virus antigen Nef forms protein bodies in leaves of transgenic tobacco when fused to zeolin.

    PubMed

    de Virgilio, Maddalena; De Marchis, Francesca; Bellucci, Michele; Mainieri, Davide; Rossi, Marika; Benvenuto, Eugenio; Arcioni, Sergio; Vitale, Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    Protein bodies (PB) are stable polymers naturally formed by certain seed storage proteins within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The human immunodeficiency virus negative factor (Nef) protein, a potential antigen for the development of an anti-viral vaccine, is highly unstable when introduced into the plant secretory pathway, probably because of folding defects in the ER environment. The aim of this study was to promote the formation of Nef-containing PB in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves by fusing the Nef sequence to the N-terminal domains of the maize storage protein gamma-zein or to the chimeric protein zeolin (which efficiently forms PB and is composed of the vacuolar storage protein phaseolin fused to the N-terminal domains of gamma-zein). Protein blots and pulse-chase indicate that fusions between Nef and the same gamma-zein domains present in zeolin are degraded by ER quality control. Consistently, a mutated zeolin, in which wild-type phaseolin was substituted with a defective version known to be degraded by ER quality control, is unstable in plant cells. Fusion of Nef to the entire zeolin sequence instead allows the formation of PB detectable by electron microscopy and subcellular fractionation, leading to zeolin-Nef accumulation higher than 1% of total soluble protein, consistently reproduced in independent transgenic plants. It is concluded that zeolin, but not its gamma-zein portion, has a positive dominant effect over ER quality control degradation. These results provide insights into the requirements for PB formation and avoidance of quality-control degradation, and indicate a strategy for enhancing foreign protein accumulation in plants. PMID:18540021

  11. The human immunodeficiency virus antigen Nef forms protein bodies in leaves of transgenic tobacco when fused to zeolin

    PubMed Central

    de Virgilio, Maddalena; Bellucci, Michele; Mainieri, Davide; Rossi, Marika; Benvenuto, Eugenio; Arcioni, Sergio; Vitale, Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    Protein bodies (PB) are stable polymers naturally formed by certain seed storage proteins within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The human immunodeficiency virus negative factor (Nef) protein, a potential antigen for the development of an anti-viral vaccine, is highly unstable when introduced into the plant secretory pathway, probably because of folding defects in the ER environment. The aim of this study was to promote the formation of Nef-containing PB in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves by fusing the Nef sequence to the N-terminal domains of the maize storage protein γ-zein or to the chimeric protein zeolin (which efficiently forms PB and is composed of the vacuolar storage protein phaseolin fused to the N-terminal domains of γ-zein). Protein blots and pulse–chase indicate that fusions between Nef and the same γ-zein domains present in zeolin are degraded by ER quality control. Consistently, a mutated zeolin, in which wild-type phaseolin was substituted with a defective version known to be degraded by ER quality control, is unstable in plant cells. Fusion of Nef to the entire zeolin sequence instead allows the formation of PB detectable by electron microscopy and subcellular fractionation, leading to zeolin–Nef accumulation higher than 1% of total soluble protein, consistently reproduced in independent transgenic plants. It is concluded that zeolin, but not its γ-zein portion, has a positive dominant effect over ER quality control degradation. These results provide insights into the requirements for PB formation and avoidance of quality-control degradation, and indicate a strategy for enhancing foreign protein accumulation in plants. PMID:18540021

  12. Overexpression of the olive acyl carrier protein gene (OeACP1) produces alterations in fatty acid composition of tobacco leaves.

    PubMed

    De Marchis, Francesca; Valeri, Maria Cristina; Pompa, Andrea; Bouveret, Emmanuelle; Alagna, Fiammetta; Grisan, Simone; Stanzione, Vitale; Mariotti, Roberto; Cultrera, Nicolò; Baldoni, Luciana; Bellucci, Michele

    2016-02-01

    Taking into account that fatty acid (FA) biosynthesis plays a crucial role in lipid accumulation in olive (Olea europaea L.) mesocarp, we investigated the effect of olive acyl carrier protein (ACP) on FA composition by overexpressing an olive ACP cDNA in tobacco plants. The OeACP1.1A cDNA was inserted in the nucleus or in the chloroplast DNA of different tobacco plants, resulting in extensive transcription of the transgenes. The transplastomic plants accumulated lower olive ACP levels in comparison to nuclear-transformed plants. Moreover, the phenotype of the former plants was characterized by pale green/white cotyledons with abnormal chloroplasts, delayed germination and reduced growth. We suggest that the transplastomic phenotype was likely caused by inefficient olive ACP mRNA translation in chloroplast stroma. Conversely, total lipids from leaves of nuclear transformants expressing high olive ACP levels showed a significant increase in oleic acid (18:1) and linolenic acid (18:3), and a concomitant significant reduction of hexadecadienoic acid (16:2) and hexadecatrienoic acid (16:3). This implies that in leaves of tobacco transformants, as likely in the mesocarp of olive fruit, olive ACP not only plays a general role in FA synthesis, but seems to be specifically involved in chain length regulation forwarding the elongation to C18 FAs and the subsequent desaturation to 18:1 and 18:3. PMID:26560313

  13. Ectopic expression of a conifer Abscisic Acid Insensitive3 transcription factor induces high-level synthesis of recombinant human alpha-L-iduronidase in transgenic tobacco leaves.

    PubMed

    Kermode, Allison R; Zeng, Ying; Hu, Xiaoke; Lauson, Samantha; Abrams, Suzanne R; He, Xu

    2007-04-01

    We are examining various plant-based systems to produce enzymes for the treatment of human lysosomal storage disorders. Constitutive expression of the gene encoding the human lysosomal enzyme, alpha-L-iduronidase (IDUA; EC 3.2.1.76) in leaves of transgenic tobacco plants resulted in low-enzyme activity, and the protein appeared to be subject to proteolysis. Toward enhancing production of this recombinant enzyme in vegetative tissues, transgenic tobacco plants were generated to co-express a CaMV35S:Chamaecyparis nootkatensis Abscisic Acid Insensitive3 (CnABI3) gene construct, along with the human gene construct. The latter contained regulatory sequences of the Phaseolus vulgaris arcelin 5-I gene (5'-flanking, signal-peptide-encoding, and 3'-flanking regions). Ectopic synthesis of the CnABI3 protein led to the transactivation of the arcelin promoter and accordingly high activity (e.g., 25,000 pmol/min/mg total soluble protein) and levels of recombinant IDUA mRNA and protein were induced in leaves of transgenic tobacco, particularly in the presence of 150-200 microM S-(+)-ABA. Synthesis of human IDUA containing a carboxy-terminal ER retention (SEKDEL) sequence was also inducible by ABA in leaves co-transformed with the CnABI3 gene. As compared to the natural S-(+)-ABA, two persistent ABA analogues, (+)-8' acetylene ABA and (+)-8'methylene ABA, led to greater levels of beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter activities in leaves co-expressing the CnABI3 gene and a vicilin:GUS chimeric gene. In contrast, (+)-8' acetylene ABA and natural ABA appeared to be equally effective in stimulating the CnABI3-induced expression of an arcelin:GUS gene, and of the human IDUA gene, the latter also driven by arcelin-gene-regulatory sequences. Various stress-related treatments, particularly high concentrations of NaCl, had an even greater effect than ABA in promoting accumulation of human IDUA in co-transformed tobacco leaves. This strategy provides the means of enhancing the yields of

  14. Antiviral RNA silencing is restricted to the marginal region of the dark green tissue in the mosaic leaves of tomato mosaic virus-infected tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Katsuyuki; Kubota, Kenji; Mochizuki, Tomofumi; Tsuda, Shinya; Meshi, Tetsuo

    2008-04-01

    Mosaic is a common disease symptom caused by virus infection in plants. Mosaic leaves of Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV)-infected tobacco plants consist of yellow-green and dark green tissues that contain large and small numbers of virions, respectively. Although the involvement of RNA silencing in mosaic development has been suggested, its role in the process that results in an uneven distribution of the virus is unknown. Here, we investigated whether and where ToMV-directed RNA silencing was established in tobacco mosaic leaves. When transgenic tobaccos defective in RNA silencing were infected with ToMV, little or no dark green tissue appeared, implying the involvement of RNA silencing in mosaic development. ToMV-related small interfering RNAs were rarely detected in the dark green areas of the first mosaic leaves, and their interior portions were susceptible to infection. Thus, ToMV-directed RNA silencing was not effective there. By visualizing the cells where ToMV-directed RNA silencing was active, it was found that the effective silencing occurs only in the marginal regions of the dark green tissue ( approximately 0.5 mm in width) and along the major veins. Further, the cells in the margins were resistant against recombinant potato virus X carrying a ToMV-derived sequence. These findings demonstrate that RNA silencing against ToMV is established in the cells located at the margins of the dark green areas, restricting the expansion of yellow-green areas, and consequently defines the mosaic pattern. The mechanism of mosaic symptom development is discussed in relation to the systemic spread of the virus and RNA silencing. PMID:18216118

  15. Antiviral RNA Silencing Is Restricted to the Marginal Region of the Dark Green Tissue in the Mosaic Leaves of Tomato Mosaic Virus-Infected Tobacco Plants▿

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Katsuyuki; Kubota, Kenji; Mochizuki, Tomofumi; Tsuda, Shinya; Meshi, Tetsuo

    2008-01-01

    Mosaic is a common disease symptom caused by virus infection in plants. Mosaic leaves of Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV)-infected tobacco plants consist of yellow-green and dark green tissues that contain large and small numbers of virions, respectively. Although the involvement of RNA silencing in mosaic development has been suggested, its role in the process that results in an uneven distribution of the virus is unknown. Here, we investigated whether and where ToMV-directed RNA silencing was established in tobacco mosaic leaves. When transgenic tobaccos defective in RNA silencing were infected with ToMV, little or no dark green tissue appeared, implying the involvement of RNA silencing in mosaic development. ToMV-related small interfering RNAs were rarely detected in the dark green areas of the first mosaic leaves, and their interior portions were susceptible to infection. Thus, ToMV-directed RNA silencing was not effective there. By visualizing the cells where ToMV-directed RNA silencing was active, it was found that the effective silencing occurs only in the marginal regions of the dark green tissue (∼0.5 mm in width) and along the major veins. Further, the cells in the margins were resistant against recombinant potato virus X carrying a ToMV-derived sequence. These findings demonstrate that RNA silencing against ToMV is established in the cells located at the margins of the dark green areas, restricting the expansion of yellow-green areas, and consequently defines the mosaic pattern. The mechanism of mosaic symptom development is discussed in relation to the systemic spread of the virus and RNA silencing. PMID:18216118

  16. A metabolomics study delineating geographical location-associated primary metabolic changes in the leaves of growing tobacco plants by GC-MS and CE-MS

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanni; Zhao, Jieyu; Zhao, Chunxia; Zhou, Huina; Li, Yanli; Zhang, Junjie; Li, Lili; Hu, Chunxiu; Li, Wenzheng; Peng, Xiaojun; Lu, Xin; Lin, Fucheng; Xu, Guowang

    2015-01-01

    Ecological conditions and developmental senescence significantly affect the physiological metabolism of plants, yet relatively little is known about the influence of geographical location on dynamic changes in plant leaves during growth. Pseudotargeted gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring-mass spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry were used to investigate a time course of the metabolic responses of tobacco leaves to geographical location. Principal component analysis revealed obvious metabolic discrimination between growing districts relative to cultivars. A complex carbon and nitrogen metabolic network was modulated by environmental factors during growth. When the Xuchang and Dali Districts in China were compared, the results indicated that higher rates of photosynthesis, photorespiration and respiration were utilized in Xuchang District to generate the energy and carbon skeletons needed for the biosynthesis of nitrogen-containing metabolites. The increased abundance of defense-associated metabolites generated from the shikimate-phenylpropanoid pathway in Xuchang relative to Dali was implicated in protection against stress. PMID:26549189

  17. A metabolomics study delineating geographical location-associated primary metabolic changes in the leaves of growing tobacco plants by GC-MS and CE-MS.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanni; Zhao, Jieyu; Zhao, Chunxia; Zhou, Huina; Li, Yanli; Zhang, Junjie; Li, Lili; Hu, Chunxiu; Li, Wenzheng; Peng, Xiaojun; Lu, Xin; Lin, Fucheng; Xu, Guowang

    2015-01-01

    Ecological conditions and developmental senescence significantly affect the physiological metabolism of plants, yet relatively little is known about the influence of geographical location on dynamic changes in plant leaves during growth. Pseudotargeted gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring-mass spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry were used to investigate a time course of the metabolic responses of tobacco leaves to geographical location. Principal component analysis revealed obvious metabolic discrimination between growing districts relative to cultivars. A complex carbon and nitrogen metabolic network was modulated by environmental factors during growth. When the Xuchang and Dali Districts in China were compared, the results indicated that higher rates of photosynthesis, photorespiration and respiration were utilized in Xuchang District to generate the energy and carbon skeletons needed for the biosynthesis of nitrogen-containing metabolites. The increased abundance of defense-associated metabolites generated from the shikimate-phenylpropanoid pathway in Xuchang relative to Dali was implicated in protection against stress. PMID:26549189

  18. Imaging of elements in leaves of tobacco by solid sampling-electrothermal vaporization-inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Pierre

    2014-12-01

    Plants take up and store elements according to the environment in which they are growing. Because plants are at the base of the food chain, the determination of essential elements or toxic elements in plant materials is of importance. However, it is assumed that the element content determined on selected tissues may provide more specific information than that derived from the whole plant analysis. In this work, we assessed the feasibility of solid sampling-electrothermal vaporization-inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry analyses for quantitative imaging of Cd and Mg in plant leaves. Leaves of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) were selected to be used as samples. To produce a two dimensional image, sections cut from leaf samples were analyzed. Cellulose doped with multi-element solution standards was used as calibration samples. Two certified reference materials (NIST SRM 1547 Peach Leaves and NIST SRM 1573a Tomato leaves) were used to verify the accuracy of measurements with good agreement between the measured concentrations and the certified values. Quantitative imaging revealed the inhomogeneous distribution of the selected elements. Excess of Cd and Mg tended to be focused on peripheral regions and the tip of the leaf.

  19. Effect of codon optimization and subcellular targeting on Toxoplasma gondii antigen SAG1 expression in tobacco leaves to use in subcutaneous and oral immunization in mice

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Codon optimization and subcellular targeting were studied with the aim to increase the expression levels of the SAG178-322 antigen of Toxoplasma gondii in tobacco leaves. The expression of the tobacco-optimized and native versions of the SAG1 gene was explored by transient expression from the Agrobacterium tumefaciens binary expression vector, which allows targeting the recombinant protein to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the apoplast. Finally, mice were subcutaneously and orally immunized with leaf extracts-SAG1 and the strategy of prime boost with rSAG1 expressed in Escherichia coli was used to optimize the oral immunization with leaf extracts-SAG1. Results Leaves agroinfiltrated with an unmodified SAG1 gene accumulated 5- to 10-fold more than leaves agroinfiltrated with a codon-optimized SAG1 gene. ER localization allowed the accumulation of higher levels of native SAG1. However, no significant differences were observed between the mRNA accumulations of the different versions of SAG1. Subcutaneous immunization with leaf extracts-SAG1 (SAG1) protected mice against an oral challenge with a non-lethal cyst dose, and this effect could be associated with the secretion of significant levels of IFN-γ. The protection was increased when mice were ID boosted with rSAG1 (SAG1+boost). This group elicited a significant Th1 humoral and cellular immune response characterized by high levels of IFN-γ. In an oral immunization assay, the SAG1+boost group showed a significantly lower brain cyst burden compared to the rest of the groups. Conclusion Transient agroinfiltration was useful for the expression of all of the recombinant proteins tested. Our results support the usefulness of endoplasmic reticulum signal peptides in enhancing the production of recombinant proteins meant for use as vaccines. The results showed that this plant-produced protein has potential for use as vaccine and provides a potential means for protecting humans and animals against

  20. Application of GC-MS/MS for the analysis of tobacco alkaloids in cigarette filler and various tobacco species.

    PubMed

    Lisko, Joseph G; Stanfill, Stephen B; Duncan, Bryce W; Watson, Clifford H

    2013-03-19

    This publication reports the first known use of gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the quantitation of five minor tobacco alkaloids (nornicotine, myosmine, anabasine, anatabine, and isonicoteine) in various tobacco samples. A summary of the concentrations of these minor alkaloid levels in the filler from 50 popular cigarette brands were found to be 659-986 μg/g nornicotine, 8.64-17.3 μg/g myosmine, 127-185 μg/g anabasine, 927-1390 μg/g anatabine, and 23.4-45.5 μg/g isonicoteine. Levels of minor alkaloids found in reference cigarettes (1R5F, 2R4F, 3R4F, CM4, and CM6) as well as burley, flue-cured, oriental, reconstituted, and Nicotiana rustica and Nicotiana glauca tobacco types are also reported. Quantitation of the minor tobacco alkaloids is important because the alkaloids have been shown to be precursors of carcinogenic tobacco specific N'-nitrosamines. PMID:23394466

  1. Different roles of cyclic electron flow around photosystem I under sub-saturating and saturating light intensities in tobacco leaves

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Yang, Ying-Jie; Hu, Hong; Zhang, Shi-Bao

    2015-01-01

    In higher plants, the generation of proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane (ΔpH) through cyclic electron flow (CEF) has mainly two functions: (1) to generate ATP and balance the ATP/NADPH energy budget, and (2) to protect photosystems I and II against photoinhibition. The intensity of light under which plants are grown alters both CEF activity and the ATP/NADPH demand for primary metabolic processes. However, it is unclear how the role of CEF is affected by the level of irradiance that is applied during the growth and measurement periods. We studied the role of CEF at different light intensities in leaves from sun- and shade-grown plants. At 849 μmol photons m-2 s-1, both types of leaves had nearly the same degree of CEF activation. Modeling of the ATP/NADPH demand revealed that, at this light intensity, the contribution of CEF toward supplying ATP was much higher in the sun leaves. Meanwhile, the shade leaves showed higher levels of non-photochemical quenching and the P700 oxidation ratio. Therefore, at 849 μmol photons m-2 s-1, CEF mainly helped in the synthesis of ATP in the sun leaves, but functioned in photoprotection for the shade leaves. When the light intensity increased to 1976 μmol photons m-2 s-1, CEF activation was greatly enhanced in the sun leaves, but its contribution to supplying ATP changed slightly. These results indicate that the main role of CEF is altered flexibly in response to light intensity. In particular, CEF mainly contributes to balancing the ATP/NADPH energy budget under sub-saturating light intensities. When exposed to saturating light intensities, CEF mainly protects photosynthetic apparatus against photoinhibition. PMID:26579169

  2. Changes in Air CO₂ Concentration Differentially Alter Transcript Levels of NtAQP1 and NtPIP2;1 Aquaporin Genes in Tobacco Leaves.

    PubMed

    Secchi, Francesca; Schubert, Andrea; Lovisolo, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The aquaporin specific control on water versus carbon pathways in leaves is pivotal in controlling gas exchange and leaf hydraulics. We investigated whether Nicotiana tabacum aquaporin 1 (NtAQP1) and Nicotiana tabacum plasma membrane intrinsic protein 2;1 (NtPIP2;1) gene expression varies in tobacco leaves subjected to treatments with different CO₂ concentrations (ranging from 0 to 800 ppm), inducing changes in photosynthesis, stomatal regulation and water evaporation from the leaf. Changes in air CO₂ concentration ([CO₂]) affected net photosynthesis (Pn) and leaf substomatal [CO₂] (Ci). Pn was slightly negative at 0 ppm air CO₂; it was one-third that of ambient controls at 200 ppm, and not different from controls at 800 ppm. Leaves fed with 800 ppm [CO₂] showed one-third reduced stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration (E), and their gs was in turn slightly lower than in 200 ppm- and in 0 ppm-treated leaves. The 800 ppm air [CO₂] strongly impaired both NtAQP1 and NtPIP2;1 gene expression, whereas 0 ppm air [CO₂], a concentration below any in vivo possible conditions and specifically chosen to maximize the gene expression alteration, increased only the NtAQP1 transcript level. We propose that NtAQP1 expression, an aquaporin devoted to CO₂ transport, positively responds to CO₂ scarcity in the air in the whole range 0-800 ppm. On the contrary, expression of NtPIP2;1, an aquaporin not devoted to CO₂ transport, is related to water balance in the leaf, and changes in parallel with gs. These observations fit in a model where upregulation of leaf aquaporins is activated at low Ci, while downregulation occurs when high Ci saturates photosynthesis and causes stomatal closure. PMID:27089333

  3. Changes in Air CO2 Concentration Differentially Alter Transcript Levels of NtAQP1 and NtPIP2;1 Aquaporin Genes in Tobacco Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Secchi, Francesca; Schubert, Andrea; Lovisolo, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The aquaporin specific control on water versus carbon pathways in leaves is pivotal in controlling gas exchange and leaf hydraulics. We investigated whether Nicotiana tabacum aquaporin 1 (NtAQP1) and Nicotiana tabacum plasma membrane intrinsic protein 2;1 (NtPIP2;1) gene expression varies in tobacco leaves subjected to treatments with different CO2 concentrations (ranging from 0 to 800 ppm), inducing changes in photosynthesis, stomatal regulation and water evaporation from the leaf. Changes in air CO2 concentration ([CO2]) affected net photosynthesis (Pn) and leaf substomatal [CO2] (Ci). Pn was slightly negative at 0 ppm air CO2; it was one-third that of ambient controls at 200 ppm, and not different from controls at 800 ppm. Leaves fed with 800 ppm [CO2] showed one-third reduced stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration (E), and their gs was in turn slightly lower than in 200 ppm– and in 0 ppm–treated leaves. The 800 ppm air [CO2] strongly impaired both NtAQP1 and NtPIP2;1 gene expression, whereas 0 ppm air [CO2], a concentration below any in vivo possible conditions and specifically chosen to maximize the gene expression alteration, increased only the NtAQP1 transcript level. We propose that NtAQP1 expression, an aquaporin devoted to CO2 transport, positively responds to CO2 scarcity in the air in the whole range 0–800 ppm. On the contrary, expression of NtPIP2;1, an aquaporin not devoted to CO2 transport, is related to water balance in the leaf, and changes in parallel with gs. These observations fit in a model where upregulation of leaf aquaporins is activated at low Ci, while downregulation occurs when high Ci saturates photosynthesis and causes stomatal closure. PMID:27089333

  4. A role for PHANTASTICA in medio-lateral regulation of adaxial domain development on tomato and tobacco leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diverse leaf forms in nature can be categorized into two groups: simple and compound. A simple leaf has a single blade unit, whilst a compound leaf is dissected into leaflets. For both simple and compound leaves, a MYB domain transcription factor PHANTASTICA (PHAN) plays an important role in establi...

  5. Smokeless Tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Smokeless Tobacco KidsHealth > For Teens > Smokeless Tobacco Print A A ... thing as a "safe" tobacco product. What Is Smokeless Tobacco? Smokeless tobacco is also called spit tobacco, chewing ...

  6. Chloroplastic NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase in Tobacco Leaves Functions in Alleviation of Oxidative Damage Caused by Temperature Stress1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Duan, Wei; Takabayashi, Atsushi; Endo, Tsuyoshi; Shikanai, Toshiharu; Ye, Ji-Yu; Mi, Hualing

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the function of the NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (NDH)-dependent pathway in suppressing the accumulation of reactive oxygen species in chloroplasts was investigated. Hydrogen peroxide accumulated in the leaves of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) defective in ndhC-ndhK-ndhJ (ΔndhCKJ) at 42°C and 4°C, and in that of wild-type leaves at 4°C. The maximum quantum efficiency of PSII decreased to a similar extent in both strains at 42°C, while it decreased more evidently in ΔndhCKJ at 4°C. The parameters linked to CO2 assimilation, such as the photochemical efficiency of PSII, the decrease of nonphotochemical quenching following the initial rise, and the photosynthetic O2 evolution, were inhibited more significantly in ΔndhCKJ than in wild type at 42°C and were seriously inhibited in both strains at 4°C. While cyclic electron flow around PSI mediated by NDH was remarkably enhanced at 42°C and suppressed at 4°C. The proton gradient across the thylakoid membranes and light-dependent ATP synthesis were higher in wild type than in ΔndhCKJ at either 25°C or 42°C, but were barely formed at 4°C. Based on these results, we suggest that cyclic photophosphorylation via the NDH pathway might play an important role in regulation of CO2 assimilation under heat-stressed condition but is less important under chilling-stressed condition, thus optimizing the photosynthetic electron transport and reducing the generation of reactive oxygen species. PMID:16428601

  7. Effect of a mutagenized acyl-ACP thioesterase FATA allele from sunflower with improved activity in tobacco leaves and Arabidopsis seeds.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Pérez, Antonio Javier; Venegas-Calerón, Mónica; Vaistij, Fabián E; Salas, Joaquin J; Larson, Tony R; Garcés, Rafael; Graham, Ian A; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2014-03-01

    The substrate specificity of the acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases significantly determines the type of fatty acids that are exported from plastids. Thus, designing acyl-ACP thioesterases with different substrate specificities or kinetic properties would be of interest for plant lipid biotechnology to produce oils enriched in specialty fatty acids. In the present work, the FatA thioesterase from Helianthus annuus was used to test the impact of changes in the amino acids present in the binding pocket on substrate specificity and catalytic efficiency. Amongst all the mutated enzymes studied, Q215W was especially interesting as it had higher specificity towards saturated acyl-ACP substrates and higher catalytic efficiency compared to wild-type H. annuus FatA. Null, wild type and high-efficiency alleles were transiently expressed in tobacco leaves to check their effect on lipid biosynthesis. Expression of active FatA thioesterases altered the composition of leaf triacylglycerols but did not alter total lipid content. However, the expression of the wild type and the high-efficiency alleles in Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic seeds resulted in a strong reduction in oil content and an increase in total saturated fatty acid content. The role and influence of acyl-ACP thioesterases in plant metabolism and their possible applications in lipid biotechnology are discussed. PMID:24327259

  8. Tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines NNN and NNK levels in cigarette brands between 2000 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Gunduz, I; Kondylis, A; Jaccard, G; Renaud, J-M; Hofer, R; Ruffieux, L; Gadani, F

    2016-04-01

    The evolution of the levels of tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNA), N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) in mainstream (MS) cigarette smoke is investigated based on smoke and tobacco chemistry data of cigarette brands sold by Philip Morris International (PMI) between 2000 and 2014. A total of 315 cigarette samples representing a wide range of product and design characteristics manufactured by PMI between 2008 and 2014 were analyzed and compared to a previously published dataset of PMI brands manufactured in 2000. The data indicate that there is a substantial reduction of NNN and NNK levels in tobacco fillers and MS cigarette smoke per mg of tar and per mg of nicotine using Health Canada Intense (HCI) machine-smoking regime. This observed reduction in NNN and NNK levels in MS cigarette smoke is also supported by the downward trend observed on NNN and NNK levels in USA flue-cured Virginia and Burley tobacco lots from 2000 to 2014 crops, reflecting effectiveness of measures taken on curing and agricultural practices designed to minimize TSNA formation in tobacco. PMID:26806560

  9. Smokeless Tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    ... stillbirth when used during pregnancy Smokeless tobacco can lead to nicotine poisoning and even death in children who mistake it for candy. Smokeless tobacco causes nicotine addiction. This can lead to smoking and using other forms of tobacco. ...

  10. Expression of a recombinant chimeric protein of hepatitis A virus VP1-Fc using a replicating vector based on Beet curly top virus in tobacco leaves and its immunogenicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ho Yong; Lee, Hyun Ho; Kim, Kyung Il; Chung, Ha Young; Hwang-Bo, Jeon; Park, Jong Hwa; Sunter, Garry; Kim, Jong Bum; Shon, Dong Hwa; Kim, Wonyong; Chung, In Sik

    2011-08-01

    We describe the expression and immunogenicity of a recombinant chimeric protein (HAV VP1-Fc) consisting of human hepatitis A virus VP1 and an Fc antibody fragment using a replicating vector based on Beet curly top virus (BCTV) in Agrobacterium-infiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Recombinant HAV VP1-Fc was expressed with a molecular mass of approximately 68 kDa. Recombinant HAV VP1-Fc, purified using Protein A Sepharose affinity chromatography, elicited production of specific IgG antibodies in the serum after intraperitoneal immunization. Following vaccination with recombinant HAV VP1-Fc protein, expressions of IFN-γ and IL-4 were increased in splenocytes at the time of sacrifice. Recombinant VP1-Fc from infiltrated tobacco plants can be used as an effective experimental immunogen for research into vaccine development. PMID:21442402

  11. Fatty Acid Desaturation during Chilling Acclimation Is One of the Factors Involved in Conferring Low-Temperature Tolerance to Young Tobacco Leaves.

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, H.; Horiguchi, G.; Nishiuchi, T.; Nishimura, M.; Iba, K.

    1995-01-01

    The FAD7 gene, a gene for a chloroplast [omega]-3 fatty acid desaturase, is responsible for the trienoic fatty acid (TA) formation in leaf tissues. The TA content of the leaf tissue of the 25[deg]C-grown transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv SR1) plants, in which the FAD7 gene from Arabidopsis thaliana was overexpressed, increased uniformly by about 10%. Fatty acid unsaturation in all major leaf polar lipid species increased in the 25[deg]C-grown FAD7 transformants but was approximately the same between the control plants and the FAD7 transformants when grown at 15[deg]C. Therefore, the overexpression of the exogenous FAD7 gene leads to the same consequence in the tobacco plants as the low-temperature-induced TA production that may be catalyzed by an endogenous, temperature-regulated chloroplast [omega]-3 fatty acid desaturase. In the 25[deg]C-grown control plants, the chilling treatment caused symptoms of leaf chlorosis and suppression of leaf growth. The 25[deg]C-grown FAD7 transgenic plants conferred alleviation of these chilling-induced symptoms. A reductions of the chilling injury similar to that of the FAD7 transformants was also observed in the 15[deg]C-preincubated control plants. These results indicate that the increased TA production during chilling acclimation is one of the prerequisites for the normal leaf development at low, nonfreezing temperatures. PMID:12228424

  12. Determinants of Plant Growth-promoting Ochrobactrum lupini KUDC1013 Involved in Induction of Systemic Resistance against Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum in Tobacco Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Sumayo, Marilyn; Hahm, Mi-Seon; Ghim, Sa-Youl

    2013-01-01

    The plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Ochrobactrum lupini KUDC1013 elicited induced systemic resistance (ISR) in tobacco against soft rot disease caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. We investigated of its factors involved in ISR elicitation. To characterize the ISR determinants, KUDC1013 cell suspension, heat-treated cells, supernatant from a culture medium, crude bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and flagella were tested for their ISR activities. Both LPS and flagella from KUDC1013 were effective in ISR elicitation. Crude cell free supernatant elicited ISR and factors with the highest ISR activity were retained in the n-butanol fraction. Analysis of the ISR-active fraction revealed the metabolites, phenylacetic acid (PAA), 1-hexadecene and linoleic acid (LA), as elicitors of ISR. Treatment of tobacco with these compounds significantly decreased the soft rot disease symptoms. This is the first report on the ISR determinants by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) KUDC1013 and identifying PAA, 1-hexadecene and LA as ISR-related compounds. This study shows that KUDC1013 has a great potential as biological control agent because of its multiple factors involved in induction of systemic resistance against phytopathogens. PMID:25288944

  13. Molecular diversity, population structure, and linkage disequilibrium in a worldwide collection of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) germplasm

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The goals of our study were to assess the phylogeny and the population structure of tobacco accessions representing a wide range of genetic diversity; identify a subset of accessions as a core collection capturing most of the existing genetic diversity; and estimate, in the tobacco core collection, the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in seven genomic regions using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. To this end, a collection of accessions were genotyped with SSR markers. Molecular diversity was evaluated and LD was analyzed across seven regions of the genome. Results A genotyping database for 312 tobacco accessions was profiled with 49 SSR markers. Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) and Bayesian cluster analysis revealed structuring of the tobacco population with regard to commercial classes and six main clades were identified, which correspond to "Oriental", Flue-Cured", "Burley", "Dark", "Primitive", and "Other" classes. Pairwise kinship was calculated between accessions, and an overall low level of co-ancestry was observed. A set of 89 genotypes was identified that captured the whole genetic diversity detected at the 49 loci. LD was evaluated on these genotypes, using 422 SSR markers mapping on seven linkage groups. LD was estimated as squared correlation of allele frequencies (r2). The pattern of intrachromosomal LD revealed that in tobacco LD extended up to distances as great as 75 cM with r2 > 0.05 or up to 1 cM with r2 > 0.2. The pattern of LD was clearly dependent on the population structure. Conclusions A global population of tobacco is highly structured. Clustering highlights the accessions with the same market class. LD in tobacco extends up to 75 cM and is strongly dependent on the population structure. PMID:22435796

  14. Smokeless Tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    Many people who chew tobacco or dip snuff think it's safer than smoking. But you don't have to smoke tobacco for it to be dangerous. Chewing or dipping ... cancer Recent research shows the dangers of smokeless tobacco may go beyond the mouth. It might also ...

  15. Nicotine and tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    Withdrawal from nicotine; Smoking - nicotine addiction and withdrawal; Smokeless tobacco - nicotine addiction; Cigar smoking; Pipe smoking; Smokeless snuff; Tobacco use; Chewing tobacco; Nicotine addiction and tobacco

  16. [Difference of potassium absorption characters and mechanism of tobacco in genotypes].

    PubMed

    He, Bing; Han, Zhu-jun; Xue, Gang; Xing, Xue-xia; Xu, Xiao-jing; Xu, Shi-xiao; Zhang, Xiao-quan; Yang, Tie-zhao

    2015-11-01

    Tabacco (Nicotiana tabacum) has a relatively high requirement for potassium (K). The difference in root characteristics and ability to release K from minerals of flue-cured tobacco in four genotypes ND202, NC628, G28 and NC628 x ND202 were analyzed. The results showed that the more available K released from minerals by roots, the more K would be accumulated by plants. ND202, which was K-enriched genotype, had well developed root system and was easily influenced by K content in the environment. Compared with ND202, NC628 significantly enhanced the effectiveness of K in substrate by releasing K from minerals, though the ability to absorb K was weak. Moreover, the hybrid of NC628 x ND202 had a higher ability to release K and to tolerate low-level K than maternal parent. It was higher in dry matter accumulation and K enrichment than male parent. So hybridization had the utility value in high-K variety cultivation. These results provided evidence that parents should have the ability to enhance available K from soil besides the high combining ability for breeding the high-K variety. PMID:26915192

  17. [Effects of tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping on tobacco yield and rhizosphere soil phosphorus fractions].

    PubMed

    Tang, Biao; Zhang, Xi-zhou; Yang, Xian-bin

    2015-07-01

    A field plot experiment was conducted to investigate the tobacco yield and different forms of soil phosphorus under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping patterns. The results showed that compared with tobacco monoculture, the tobacco yield and proportion of middle/high class of tobacco leaves to total leaves were significantly increased in tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping, and the rhizosphere soil available phosphorus contents were 1.3 and 1.7 times as high as that of tobacco monoculture at mature stage of lower leaf. For the inorganic phosphorus in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil in different treatments, the contents of O-P and Fe-P were the highest, followed by Ca2-P and Al-P, and Ca8-P and Ca10-P were the lowest. Compared with tobacco monoculture and tobacco garlic crop intercropping, the Ca2-P concentration in rhizosphere soil under tobacco garlic crop rotation at mature stage of upper leaf, the Ca8-P concentration at mature stage of lower leaf, and the Ca10-P concentration at mature stage of middle leaf were lowest. The Al-P concentrations under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping were 1.6 and 1.9 times, and 1.2 and 1.9 times as much as that under tobacco monoculture in rhizosphere soil at mature stages of lower leaf and middle leaf, respectively. The O-P concentrations in rhizosphere soil under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping were significantly lower than that under tobacco monoculture. Compared with tobacco garlic crop intercropping, the tobacco garlic crop rotation could better improve tobacco yield and the proportion of high and middle class leaf by activating O-P, Ca10-P and resistant organic phosphorus in soil. PMID:26710622

  18. Tobacco-Related Mortality

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tobacco-Related Disparities African Americans and Tobacco Use American Indians/Alaska Natives and Tobacco Use Asian Americans, Pacific ... YTS) Alaska Native Adult Tobacco Survey Guidance Manual American Indian Adult Tobacco Survey Implementation Manual Hispanic/Latino ATS ...

  19. Smokeless Tobacco and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... harmful chemicals in smokeless tobacco? Does smokeless tobacco cause cancer? Does smokeless tobacco cause other diseases? Can a ... chemicals in smokeless tobacco have been found to cause cancer ( 1 ). The most harmful chemicals in smokeless tobacco ...

  20. Determination of carbohydrates in tobacco by pressurized liquid extraction combined with a novel ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method.

    PubMed

    Cai, Kai; Hu, Deyu; Lei, Bo; Zhao, Huina; Pan, Wenjie; Song, Baoan

    2015-07-01

    A novel derivatization-ultrasonic assisted-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UA-DLLME) method for the simultaneous determination of 11 main carbohydrates in tobacco has been developed. The combined method involves pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), derivatization, and UA-DLLME, followed by the analysis of the main carbohydrates with a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). First, the PLE conditions were optimized using a univariate approach. Then, the derivatization methods were properly compared and optimized. The aldononitrile acetate method combined with the O-methoxyoxime-trimethylsilyl method was used for derivatization. Finally, the critical variables affecting the UA-DLLME extraction efficiency were searched using fractional factorial design (FFD) and further optimized using Doehlert design (DD) of the response surface methodology. The optimum conditions were found to be 44 μL for CHCl3, 2.3 mL for H2O, 11% w/v for NaCl, 5 min for the extraction time and 5 min for the centrifugation time. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the detection limit of the method (LODs) and linear correlation coefficient were found to be in the range of 0.06-0.90 μg mL(-1) and 0.9987-0.9999. The proposed method was successfully employed to analyze three flue-cured tobacco cultivars, among which the main carbohydrate concentrations were found to be very different. PMID:26043096

  1. [Tobacco farming in Italy receives more funds in comparison to tobacco control].

    PubMed

    Martino, Gianrocco; Gorini, Giuseppe; Aquilini, Ferruccio; Miligi, Lucia; Chellini, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    In the European Union almost 300,000 tons of raw tobacco are produced every year, contributing for 4% of the world production. In Italy, tobacco crop produces around 90,000 tons/year and is concentrated in Veneto, Tuscany, Umbria and Campania Regions. In 1970, Common Market Organisation provided a virtually unlimited support for European tobacco production. After 2004, funds progressively has been cut by half, even though the other half has been given for restructuring or reconversion of tobacco farms through the Rural Development Plan. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control recommends conversion of tobacco crops, although there are no effective measures. Tobacco production requires large quantities of chemicals (pesticides, growth regulators, fertilisers), with significant workers' exposure if applied without personal protective equipments. Pesticides may have genotoxic, teratogenic, immunotoxic, hormonal, and carcinogenic effects. Tobacco itself may cause also a disease called "Green tobacco sickness" syndrome, as a consequence of nicotine dermal absorption due to skin exposure to tobacco leaves. In Italy, financial resources for tobacco production and restructuring/conversion to other crops of previously tobacco planted fields are available. On the contrary, anti-smoking media interventions do not receive funds comparatively relevant as those for tobacco production. PMID:24736963

  2. Genotoxicity of Nicotiana tabacum leaves on Helix aspersa

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Fernanda R.; Erdtmann, Bernardo; Dalpiaz, Tiago; Nunes, Emilene; Ferraz, Alexandre; Martins, Tales L.C.; Dias, Johny F.; da Rosa, Darlan P.; Porawskie, Marilene; Bona, Silvia; da Silva, Juliana

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco farmers are routinely exposed to complex mixtures of inorganic and organic chemicals present in tobacco leaves. In this study, we examined the genotoxicity of tobacco leaves in the snail Helix aspersa as a measure of the risk to human health. DNA damage was evaluated using the micronucleus test and the Comet assay and the concentration of cytochrome P450 enzymes was estimated. Two groups of snails were studied: one fed on tobacco leaves and one fed on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) leaves (control group). All of the snails received leaves (tobacco and lettuce leaves were the only food provided) and water ad libitum. Hemolymph cells were collected after 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. The Comet assay and micronucleus test showed that exposure to tobacco leaves for different periods of time caused significant DNA damage. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes occurred only in the tobacco group. Chemical analysis indicated the presence of the alkaloid nicotine, coumarins, saponins, flavonoids and various metals. These results show that tobacco leaves are genotoxic in H. aspersa and inhibit cytochrome P450 activity, probably through the action of the complex chemical mixture present in the plant. PMID:23885210

  3. Smokeless Tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    ... smoking. But you don't have to smoke tobacco for it to be dangerous. Chewing or dipping carries risks like Cancer of the mouth Decay of exposed tooth roots Pulling away of the gums from the teeth ...

  4. Risks of tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    Secondhand smoke - risks; Cigarette smoking - risks; Smoking and smokeless tobacco - risks ... tobacco that are known to cause cancer. HEALTH RISKS OF SMOKING OR USING SMOKELESS TOBACCO Knowing the ...

  5. 7 CFR 29.1066 - Symbol (S).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Symbol (S). 29.1066 Section 29.1066 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1066 Symbol (S). As applied to Flue-cured tobacco the symbol (S) when used (a) as...

  6. Secondhand Smoke/"Light" Tobacco/ Smokeless Tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Quit Smoking Secondhand Smoke/"Light" Tobacco/ Smokeless Tobacco Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table ... pneumonia Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention "Light" Tobacco = Heavy Health Risks Federal law restricts the ...

  7. Wheezing in Tobacco Farm Workers in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Fiori, Nadia Spada; Fassa, Anaclaudia Gastal; Faria, Neice Muller Xavier; Meucci, Rodrigo Dalke; Miranda, Vanessa Iribarrem; Christiani, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tobacco workers are exposed to several respiratory occupational sensitizers. Methods A representative cross-sectional study was carried out on 2469 tobacco family farming growers. Gender-stratified multivariate analyses evaluated the association between wheezing and socio-demographic, behavioral and occupational variables. Results Wheezing prevalence was 11.0% with no difference between genders. Among men, age, smoking, strenuous work, pesticide use, contact with vegetable dust and dried tobacco dust, lifting sticks with tobacco leaves to the curing barns and green tobacco sickness (GTS) were risk factors for wheezing. Among women, family history of asthma, tying hands of tobacco, strenuous work, contact with chemical disinfectants and GTS were positively associated with wheezing. Harvesting lower tobacco leaves was a protective factor for the outcome in both genders. Conclusions Pesticides, dusts exposure and GTS were risk factors for wheezing. The synergic effect of these factors needs to be better evaluated to improve prevention. PMID:26471879

  8. Application of succulent plant leaves for Agrobacterium infiltration-mediated protein production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infiltration of tobacco leaves with a suspension of Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring a binary plant expression plasmid provides a convenient method for laboratory scale protein production. When expressing plant cell wall degrading enzymes in the widely used tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana), diffic...

  9. Comparative Carcinogenicity for Mouse-Skin of Smoke Condensates Prepared from Cigarettes Made from the Same Tobacco Cured by Two Processes

    PubMed Central

    Roe, F. J. C.; Clack, J. C.; Bishop, D.; Peto, R.

    1970-01-01

    Bright tobacco grown in Mexico was either flue-cured and redried (FC) or air-cured and bulk-fermented (AC). Both FC and AC were made into cigarettes standardized for draw resistance. FC and AC cigarettes were smoked under similar conditions in a smoking machine (one 2-second 25 ml. puff per minute down to a 20 mm. butt length). Condensates were kept at 0-4° C. until applied to the skin of mice. Three groups of 400 female Swiss mice were treated as follows: Group 1— thrice weekly application of 60 mg. FC in 0.25 ml. acetone to the clipped dorsal skin: Group 2— similar treatment with AC; Group 3—thrice weekly application of 0.25 ml. acetone only. Chemical analysis of the 2 tobaccos and 2 condensates revealed only small differences in composition and it is noteworthy that the concentration of reducing sugars was almost as high as in the AC tobacco as in the FC tobacco. The risk of development of skin tumours, particularly malignant skin tumours, was higher in FC-treated mice than in AC-treated mice (p < 0.01), but the difference may have been due to the use of equal weights of condensates rather than the use of extracts from equal numbers of cigarettes, since the AC cigarettes produced more condensate. The rates of detection of pulmonary tumours also varied between groups (p < 0.01) but this does not necessarily imply that the incidence rates of pulmonary tumours varied. There was no evidence that the detection or incidence rates of any other neoplasms, including malignant lymphoma, were affected by treatment with either of the condensates. PMID:5428608

  10. Tobacco, Microbes, and Carcinogens: Correlation Between Tobacco Cure Conditions, Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamine Content, and Cured Leaf Microbial Community.

    PubMed

    Law, Audrey D; Fisher, Colin; Jack, Anne; Moe, Luke A

    2016-07-01

    Tobacco-specific nitrosamines are carcinogenic N-nitrosamine compounds present at very low levels in freshly harvested tobacco leaves that accumulate during leaf curing. Formation of N-nitrosamine compounds is associated with high nitrate levels in the leaf at harvest, and nitrate is presumed to be the source from which the N-nitrosation species originates. More specifically, nitrite is considered to be a direct precursor, and nitrite is linked with N-nitrosation in many environmental matrices where it occurs via microbial nitrate reduction. Here, we initiate work exploring the role of leaf microbial communities in formation of tobacco-specific nitrosamines. Leaves from burley tobacco line TN90H were air cured under various temperature and relative humidity levels, and 22 cured tobacco samples were analyzed for their microbial communities and leaf chemistry. Analysis of nitrate, nitrite, and total tobacco-specific nitrosamine levels revealed a strong positive correlation between the three variables, as well as a strong positive correlation with increasing relative humidity during cure conditions. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was used to assess microbial communities in each of the samples. In most samples, Proteobacteria predominated at the phylum level, accounting for >90 % of the OTUs. However, a distinct shift was noted among members of the high tobacco-specific nitrosamine group, with increases in Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. Several OTUs were identified that correlate strongly (positive and negative) with tobacco-specific nitrosamine content. Copy number of bacterial nitrate reductase genes, obtained using quantitative PCR, did not correlate strongly with tobacco-specific nitrosamine content. Incomplete denitrification is potentially implicated in tobacco-specific nitrosamine levels. PMID:27023797

  11. 7 CFR 29.9402 - Policy statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Services to Flue-Cured Tobacco on Designated Markets § 29.9402 Policy statement. The sets of inspectors available to serve the flue-cured marketing areas are currently adequate to provide inspection service...

  12. Cytokinin control of sequential leaf senescence in tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S. ); Letham, D.S.; Parker, C.W. )

    1990-05-01

    Exogenously applied cytokinins (especially dihydrozeatin) retarded senescence of leaf disks, detached and intact leaves of tobacco. The cytokinin complex in tobacco leaves of various maturities was characterized by radioimmunoassay. Zeatin was the major base whereas zeatin riboside was identified as the main riboside in both young (green) and senescing leaves. The basal, senescing leaves had lower levels of both cytokinin bases and ribosides. Exogenous applications of dihydrozeatin and zeatin to detached tobacco leaves delayed leaf senescence and elevated cytokinin base levels. These differences in endogenous levels of active cytokins in senescent and non-senescent leaves may be involved in the regulation of sequential leaf senescence in tobacco. There was no appreciable difference in either translocation or metabolism of xylem supplied tritium-labelled dihydrozeatin riboside between upper green and lower senescing leaves. The apical, green leaves (and not the basal, yellowing leaves) exhibited incorporation of ({sup 14}C)adenine into zeatin. The differing cytokinin levels in leaves of various maturity levels may be due to difference in cytokinin biosynthetic capacity.

  13. Youth and Tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    ... from Tobacco Regulations Restricting the Sale, Distribution, and Marketing of Cigarettes, Cigarette Tobacco, and Smokeless Tobacco. Preventing ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  14. 7 CFR 29.1008 - Combination symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... tobacco. As applied to flue-cured tobacco, the combination symbols are XL—lug side, PO—oxidized primings...-bodied nondescript, LP—lemon (primings side), and FP—orange (primings side), KK-excessively scorched....

  15. The Catalytic Properties of Hybrid Rubisco Comprising Tobacco Small and Sunflower Large Subunits Mirror the Kinetically Equivalent Source Rubiscos and Can Support Tobacco Growth1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Sharwood, Robert Edward; von Caemmerer, Susanne; Maliga, Pal; Whitney, Spencer Michael

    2008-01-01

    Plastomic replacement of the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Rubisco large subunit gene (rbcL) with that from sunflower (Helianthus annuus; rbcLS) produced tobaccoRst transformants that produced a hybrid Rubisco consisting of sunflower large and tobacco small subunits (LsSt). The tobaccoRst plants required CO2 (0.5% v/v) supplementation to grow autotrophically from seed despite the substrate saturated carboxylation rate, Km, for CO2 and CO2/O2 selectivity of the LsSt enzyme mirroring the kinetically equivalent tobacco and sunflower Rubiscos. Consequently, at the onset of exponential growth when the source strength and leaf LsSt content were sufficient, tobaccoRst plants grew to maturity without CO2 supplementation. When grown under a high pCO2, the tobaccoRst seedlings grew slower than tobacco and exhibited unique growth phenotypes: Juvenile plants formed clusters of 10 to 20 structurally simple oblanceolate leaves, developed multiple apical meristems, and the mature leaves displayed marginal curling and dimpling. Depending on developmental stage, the LsSt content in tobaccoRst leaves was 4- to 7-fold less than tobacco, and gas exchange coupled with chlorophyll fluorescence showed that at 2 mbar pCO2 and growth illumination CO2 assimilation in mature tobaccoRst leaves remained limited by Rubisco activity and its rate (approximately 11 μmol m−2 s−1) was half that of tobacco controls. 35S-methionine labeling showed the stability of assembled LsSt was similar to tobacco Rubisco and measurements of light transient CO2 assimilation rates showed LsSt was adequately regulated by tobacco Rubisco activase. We conclude limitations to tobaccoRst growth primarily stem from reduced rbcLS mRNA levels and the translation and/or assembly of sunflower large with the tobacco small subunits that restricted LsSt synthesis. PMID:17993544

  16. [Tobacco cadmium health risk assessment and reduction techniques: A review].

    PubMed

    Cao, Chen-liang; Ma, Yi-bing; Li, Ju-mei; Wei, Dong-pu; Shi, Yi

    2015-04-01

    Tobacco is one of the cadmium accumulation and tolerance plants. Decreasing cadmium content of tobacco contributes to environmental safety and human health. Three aspects on tobacco cadmium research were reviewed in this paper, i.e. uptake and distribution of cadmium in tobacco, and health risk assessment of cadmium in tobacco and reduction measures. The current situations and existing challenges in the research field were discussed. The cadmium tolerance mechanisms of tobacco were reviewed, the factors on cadmium uptake were analyzed, and the general distribution of cadmium in tobacco was summarized. From the point of health risk assessment, the lack of cadmium limits in tobacco was identified, the recommended formula to calculate cadmium limits of tobacco based on atmosphere cadmium limits and digestion cadmium limits was provided and the cadmium limits of tobacco were estimated using each formula, and suggestions on cadmium limits in tobacco were presented. At last, we put forward several effective reduction measures to lower cadmium level in tobacco leaves. PMID:26259474

  17. Tobacco farmers and tobacco manufacturers: implications for tobacco control in tobacco-growing developing countries.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alison Snow; Austin, W David; Beach, Robert H; Altman, David G

    2008-12-01

    Assisting tobacco farmers to transition to non-tobacco alternatives is a key element of comprehensive tobacco control's end-game strategy and specifically required by the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC). We examine the historical relationship between tobacco manufacturers and tobacco farmers in the United States, where the duration of the relationship has been longest and use information obtained to inform possible end-game strategies for tobacco control advocates working with tobacco farmers in developing countries. Tobacco Documents obtained under the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) provide evidence of conflicts between tobacco manufacturers and tobacco farmers. Findings support WHO FCTC articles aimed at helping developing country tobacco farmers adversely affected by tobacco control efforts and highlight difficulties in discouraging tobacco cultivation as long as it remains relatively profitable. We conclude that successful end-game strategies should take a long-term approach aimed at building alliances with tobacco farmers and at creating mechanisms for tobacco farmer investment in local infrastructure. PMID:19079300

  18. Cadmium determination in Mexican-produced tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Saldivar De R., L.; Soto, R.; Fortoul, T.I. ); Luna, M.; Reyes, E. )

    1991-06-01

    Exposure to cadmium by inhalation or ingestion is dangerous for human health. This metal induces damage to the kidneys, the bones, the prostate, and the lungs. In the lungs, cadmium can produce cancer, emphysema, and fibrosis. It is well known that tobacco leaves are contaminated with cadmium, a metal that has been related to pulmonary damage. In this paper the authors report the concentration of cadmium in tobacco leaves and in cigarettes produced for domestic consumption. Fifty-five cigarettes of different brands, prices, and stocks were analyzed as well as 48 samples from four different types of tobacco. The average concentration of cadmium in cigarettes was 4.41 {plus minus} 0.67 {mu}g/g, and 2.65 {plus minus} 0.99 {mu}g/g for tobacco leaves; the content of cadmium, was 2.8 {plus minus} 0.4 {mu}g/cigarette. It was estimated that a person that smokes 20 Mexican cigarettes per day can increase his(her) cadmium burden by 1.4 to 2.8 {mu}g per day.

  19. DECOMPOSTION OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED TOBACCO UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS: PERSISTENCE OF THE PROTEINASE INHIBITOR I PRODUCT AND EFFECTS OF SOIL MICROBIAL RESPIRATION AND PROTOZOA, NEMATODE AND MICROARTHR

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. To evaluate the potential effects of genetically engineered (transgenic) plants on soil ecosystems, litterbags containing leaves of non-engineered (parental) and transgenic tobacco plants were buried in field plots. The transgenic tobacco plants were genetically engineered to ...

  20. Nicotine Levels and Presence of Selected Tobacco-Derived Toxins in Tobacco Flavoured Electronic Cigarette Refill Liquids

    PubMed Central

    Farsalinos, Konstantinos E.; Gillman, I. Gene; Melvin, Matt S.; Paolantonio, Amelia R.; Gardow, Wendy J.; Humphries, Kathy E.; Brown, Sherri E.; Poulas, Konstantinos; Voudris, Vassilis

    2015-01-01

    Background. Some electronic cigarette (EC) liquids of tobacco flavour contain extracts of cured tobacco leaves produced by a process of solvent extraction and steeping. These are commonly called Natural Extract of Tobacco (NET) liquids. The purpose of the study was to evaluate nicotine levels and the presence of tobacco-derived toxins in tobacco-flavoured conventional and NET liquids. Methods. Twenty-one samples (10 conventional and 11 NET liquids) were obtained from the US and Greek market. Nicotine levels were measured and compared with labelled values. The levels of tobacco-derived chemicals were compared with literature data on tobacco products. Results. Twelve samples had nicotine levels within 10% of the labelled value. Inconsistency ranged from −21% to 22.1%, with no difference observed between conventional and NET liquids. Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) were present in all samples at ng/mL levels. Nitrates were present almost exclusively in NET liquids. Acetaldehyde was present predominantly in conventional liquids while formaldehyde was detected in almost all EC liquids at trace levels. Phenols were present in trace amounts, mostly in NET liquids. Total TSNAs and nitrate, which are derived from the tobacco plant, were present at levels 200–300 times lower in 1 mL of NET liquids compared to 1 gram of tobacco products. Conclusions. NET liquids contained higher levels of phenols and nitrates, but lower levels of acetaldehyde compared to conventional EC liquids. The lower levels of tobacco-derived toxins found in NET liquids compared to tobacco products indicate that the extraction process used to make these products did not transfer a significant amount of toxins to the NET. Overall, all EC liquids contained far lower (by 2–3 orders of magnitude) levels of the tobacco-derived toxins compared to tobacco products. PMID:25811768

  1. You(th) & Tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    ... on tobacco. Spend it on CDs, clothes, computer games, and movies. Get involved: make your team, school, ... home for parents to review. Make all practices, games, and competitions tobacco-free—on the field and ...

  2. Tobacco and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Cancer Get information on cigarette, cigar, and smokeless tobacco use, and learn how it affects different groups ... Any Type of Smoking Safe? Health Risks of Smokeless Tobacco Health Risks of Secondhand Smoke Smoking While You ...

  3. Youth and Tobacco Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... 8 Lower socioeconomic status, including lower income or education Lack of skills to resist influences to tobacco use Lack of support or involvement from parents Accessibility, availability, and price of tobacco products Low levels of academic achievement ...

  4. Tobacco Harm to Kids

    MedlinePlus

    TOBACCO HARM TO KIDS Over 1.8 million high school students still smoke . 1 Nationwide, about one in ten ... women are exposed to secondhand smoke – causing enormous harms to newborn babies. 11 Tobacco Use Harms At ...

  5. Tobacco and Pregnancy

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper will review the epidemiology of the impact of cigarette smoking and other forms of tobacco exposure on human development. Sources of exposure described include cigarettes and other forms of smoked tobacco, secondhand (environmental) tobacco smoke, several forms of smok...

  6. North Carolina Tobacco Farmers' Changing Perceptions of Tobacco Control and Tobacco Manufacturers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crankshaw, Erik C.; Beach, Robert H.; Austin, W. David; Altman, David G.; Jones, Alison Snow

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine tobacco farmers' attitudes toward tobacco control, public health, and tobacco manufacturers in order to determine the extent to which rapidly changing economic conditions have influenced North Carolina tobacco farmer attitudes in ways that may provide tobacco control advocates with new opportunities to promote tobacco control…

  7. Tobacco Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Camenga, Deepa R; Klein, Jonathan D

    2016-07-01

    Tobacco use is a pervasive public health problem and the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States. This article reviews the epidemiology of tobacco use in youth, with a description of cigarettes, alternative tobacco product, and polytobacco use patterns among the general population and among adolescents with psychiatric and/or substance use disorders. The article also provides an update on the diagnosis and assessment of tobacco use disorder in adolescents, with a particular focus on the clinical management of tobacco use in adolescents with co-occurring disorders. PMID:27338966

  8. Interventions to Correct Misinformation About Tobacco Products

    PubMed Central

    Cappella, Joseph N.; Maloney, Erin; Ophir, Yotam; Brennan, Emily

    2016-01-01

    In 2006, the U.S. District Court held that tobacco companies had “falsely and fraudulently” denied: tobacco causes lung cancer; environmental smoke endangers children’s respiratory systems; nicotine is highly addictive; low tar cigarettes were less harmful when they were not; they marketed to children; they manipulated nicotine delivery to enhance addiction; and they concealed and destroyed evidence to prevent accurate public knowledge. The courts required the tobacco companies to repair this misinformation. Several studies evaluated types of corrective statements (CS). We argue that most CS proposed (“simple CS’s”) will fall prey to “belief echoes” leaving affective remnants of the misinformation untouched while correcting underlying knowledge. Alternative forms for CS (“enhanced CS’s”) are proposed that include narrative forms, causal linkage, and emotional links to the receiver. PMID:27135046

  9. Expression of tobacco mosaic virus RNA in transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Yamaya, J; Yoshioka, M; Meshi, T; Okada, Y; Ohno, T

    1988-03-01

    Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is a message-sense, single-stranded RNA virus that infects many Solanaceae plants. A full-length cDNA copy of TMV genomic RNA was constructed and introduced into the genomic DNA of tobacco plants using a disarmed Ti plasmid vector. Transformed plants showed typical symptoms of TMV infection, and their leaves contained infectious TMV particles. This is the first example of the expression of RNA virus genomic RNAs in plants. PMID:2835637

  10. Lipidomics of tobacco leaf and cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Dunkle, Melissa N; Yoshimura, Yuta; t'Kindt, Ruben; Ortiz, Alexia; Masugi, Eri; Mitsui, Kazuhisa; David, Frank; Sandra, Pat; Sandra, Koen

    2016-03-25

    Detailed lipidomics experiments were performed on the extracts of cured tobacco leaf and of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) using high-resolution liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF MS). Following automated solid-phase extraction (SPE) fractionation of the lipid extracts, over 350 lipids could be annotated. From a large-scale study on 22 different leaf samples, it was determined that differentiation based on curing type was possible for both the tobacco leaf and the CSC extracts. Lipids responsible for the classification were identified and the findings were correlated to proteomics data acquired from the same tobacco leaf samples. Prediction models were constructed based on the lipid profiles observed in the 22 leaf samples and successfully allowed for curing type classification of new tobacco leaves. A comparison of the leaf and CSC data provided insight into the lipidome changes that occur during the smoking process. It was determined that lipids which survive the smoking process retain the same curing type trends in both the tobacco leaf and CSC data. PMID:26585203

  11. Role of transpiration and metabolism in translocation and accumulation of cadmium in tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Haiwei; Wang, Haiyun; Ma, Yibing; Wang, Haohao; Shi, Yi

    2016-02-01

    Tobacco plants grown in pots and in hydroponic culture accumulated cadmium (Cd) particularly: the Cd content of tobacco leaves exceeded 100 mg/kg and the enrichment factor (the ratio of Cd in leaves to that in soil) was more than 4. These high levels of accumulation identify tobacco as a hyperaccumulator of Cd. Two transpiration inhibitors (paraffin or CaCl2) and shade decreased the Cd content of tobacco leaves, and the decrease showed a linear relationship with the leaf transpiration rate. A metabolism inhibitor, namely 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), and low temperature (4 °C) also lowered the Cd content of tobacco leaves, but the inhibitory effect of low temperature was greater. In the half number of leaves that were shaded, the Cd content decreased to 26.5% of that in leaves that were not shaded in the same tobacco plants. These results suggests that translocation of Cd from the medium to the leaves is driven by the symplastic and the apoplastic pathways. Probably, of the two crucial steps in the translocation of Cd in tobacco plants, one, namely uptake from the medium to the xylem, is energy-dependent whereas the other, namely the transfer from the xylem to the leaves, is driven mainly by transpiration. PMID:26547876

  12. Cadmium in tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, L. )

    1992-03-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the cadmium level in tobacco planted in five main tobacco-producing areas, a cadmium polluted area, and in cigarettes produced domestically (54 brands). The results indicate that average cadmium content in tobacco was 1.48 (0.10-4.95 mg/kg), which was similar to that of Indian tobacco (1.24 mg/kg), but the cadmium of tobacco produced in the cadmium polluted area was quite high (8.60 mg/kg). The average cigarette cadmium was 1.05 micrograms/g (with filter tip) and 1.61 micrograms/g (regular cigarette). Therefore special attention should be paid to the soil used in planting tobacco.

  13. [Kidney bean "Pervomayskaya" as the indicator plant for tobacco mosaic virus].

    PubMed

    Kraiev, V H

    2005-01-01

    It was shown that garden beans of "Pervomayskaya" variety respond to mechanical inoculation of leaves with tobacco mosaic virus by formation of local lesions, and thus it may be the indicator plant for the virus. PMID:16250238

  14. Tobacco control in India.

    PubMed Central

    Shimkhada, Riti; Peabody, John W.

    2003-01-01

    Legislation to control tobacco use in developing countries has lagged behind the dramatic rise in tobacco consumption. India, the third largest grower of tobacco in the world, amassed 1.7 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 1990 due to disease and injury attributable to tobacco use in a population where 65% of the men and 38% of the women consume tobacco. India's anti-tobacco legislation, first passed at the national level in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be insufficient. In the last decade state legislation has increasingly been used but has lacked uniformity and the multipronged strategies necessary to control demand. A new piece of national legislation, proposed in 2001, represents an advance. It includes the following key demand reduction measures: outlawing smoking in public places; forbidding sale of tobacco to minors; requiring more prominent health warning labels; and banning advertising at sports and cultural events. Despite these measures, the new legislation will not be enough to control the demand for tobacco products in India. The Indian Government must also introduce policies to raise taxes, control smuggling, close advertising loopholes, and create adequate provisions for the enforcement of tobacco control laws. PMID:12640476

  15. Tobacco-Control Policies in Tobacco-Growing States: Where Tobacco Was King

    PubMed Central

    Fallin, Amanda; Glantz, Stanton A

    2015-01-01

    Context The 5 major tobacco-growing states (Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia) are disproportionately affected by the tobacco epidemic, with higher rates of smoking and smoking-induced disease. These states also have fewer smoke-free laws and lower tobacco taxes, 2 evidence-based policies that reduce tobacco use. Historically, the tobacco farmers and hospitality associations allied with the tobacco companies to oppose these policies. Methods This research is based on 5 detailed case studies of these states, which included key informant interviews, previously secret tobacco industry documents (available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu), and media articles. This was supplemented with additional tobacco document and media searches specifically for this article. Findings The tobacco companies were particularly concerned about blocking tobacco-control policies in the tobacco-growing states by promoting a pro-tobacco culture, beginning in the late 1960s. Nevertheless, since 2003, there has been rapid progress in the tobacco-growing states’ passage of smoke-free laws. This progress came after the alliance between the tobacco companies and the tobacco farmers fractured and hospitality organizations stopped opposing smoke-free laws. In addition, infrastructure built by National Cancer Institute research projects (COMMIT and ASSIST) led to long-standing tobacco-control coalitions that capitalized on these changes. Although tobacco production has dramatically fallen in these states, pro-tobacco sentiment still hinders tobacco-control policies in the major tobacco-growing states. Conclusions The environment has changed in the tobacco-growing states, following a fracture of the alliance between the tobacco companies and their former allies (tobacco growers and hospitality organizations). To continue this progress, health advocates should educate the public and policymakers on the changing reality in the tobacco-growing states, notably the

  16. Composition of distilled Perique tobacco liqueur: a connoisseur's spirit or a health risk due to nicotine?

    PubMed

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Breaux, Theodore A; Kuballa, Thomas; Schlee, Claudia; Monakhova, Yulia B

    2014-09-15

    The use of tobacco leaves as a food ingredient has been controversially discussed, and alcoholic beverages containing distillates from fermented tobacco leaves can be found as niche products. Currently there is an absence of knowledge regarding the composition and toxicity of these products. One liqueur sample based on distilled Louisiana Perique tobacco was analysed using quantitative FTIR, GC-FID, LC/MS/MS and GC/MS/MS methodologies, and qualitatively using non-targeted NMR and GC/MS techniques. Quantitative NMR was used for nicotine analysis. Nicotine was not detectable (LOD=0.2 mg/l). Other compounds associated with toxicity of tobacco or alcoholic beverages were either not detectable, or were found below the toxicity thresholds. A model experiment using fractionised distillation of a nicotine solution has confirmed that the compound was predominantly found in the tailing fractions of the distillate, which are discarded. In conclusion, there was no additional health risk associated with beverages diligently distilled from tobacco leaves, beside the effects of ethanol. This judgment clearly does not apply to beverages where tobacco leaves have only been macerated (and not distilled) or foods where the whole tobacco leaves are incorporated. PMID:24767049

  17. Global leaf companies control the tobacco market in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Otañez, Marty G; Mamudu, Hadii; Glantz, Stanton A

    2007-01-01

    Objective To examine the influence of US‐based tobacco leaf‐buying companies, Universal Corporation and Alliance One International, on Malawi's economy and trade policy in 2000–6. Design Analyses of ethnographic data and tobacco industry documents. Results Universal Corporation and Alliance One International, through their subsidiary companies Limbe Leaf and Alliance One, respectively, in Malawi, control policy‐making advisory groups and operate a tobacco cartel to influence Malawi's economic and trade sectors. Limbe Leaf's corporate secretary and lawyer is a member of several policy‐making committees that advise the Malawi government on tobacco‐related trade policy. The corporate representative's presence prevents other committee members from taking positions against the tobacco industry and ensures government policy that advances industry interests to obtain low‐cost tobacco. The World Bank and Malawi's Anti‐corruption Bureau report allegations of collusion between Limbe Leaf and Alliance One over prices at tobacco markets. Allegations of collusion between Limbe Leaf and Alliance One prompted Malawi President Bingu Mutharika in 2006 to warn the companies to end non‐competitive practices or leave the country, but there was no meaningful follow‐up action. Findings from interviews with small‐scale tobacco traders in Malawi suggest that Universal and Alliance One International purchase smuggled raw tobacco from the neighbouring countries, Zambia and Mozambique, undermining growers' efforts to benefit from tobacco farming in Malawi. Conclusion These actions restrict competition, depress tobacco prices for Malawi's farmers and contribute to poverty in Malawi, while keeping the country dependent on tobacco growing. PMID:17652242

  18. Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming in African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Teh-wei; Lee, Anita H.

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade, tobacco leaf production has shifted from high-income countries to developing countries, particularly those in Africa. Most African governments promote tobacco farming as a way to alleviate poverty. The economic benefit of tobacco farming has been used by the tobacco industry to block tobacco control policies. The tobacco industry is active in promoting the alleged positive aspects of tobacco farming and in “protecting” farmers from what they portray as unfair tobacco control regulations that reduce demand. Tobacco farming has many negative consequences for the health and wellbeing of farmers, as well as for the environment and the long-term wellbeing of the country concerned.1-3 We provide an overview of tobacco farming issues in Africa. Encompassing multi-dimensional issues of economic development, there is far more to it than tobacco control questions. PMID:25428192

  19. 19 CFR 148.63 - Articles for use while on temporary leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... case of tobacco products and alcoholic beverages, the containers have been opened and the total... proportionate amount of each, and 1 liter of alcoholic beverages. (b) Temporary leave. A crewmember is...

  20. 19 CFR 148.63 - Articles for use while on temporary leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... case of tobacco products and alcoholic beverages, the containers have been opened and the total... proportionate amount of each, and 1 liter of alcoholic beverages. (b) Temporary leave. A crewmember is...

  1. 19 CFR 148.63 - Articles for use while on temporary leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... case of tobacco products and alcoholic beverages, the containers have been opened and the total... proportionate amount of each, and 1 liter of alcoholic beverages. (b) Temporary leave. A crewmember is...

  2. Tobacco Interventions. Fastback 421.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fibkins, William L.

    Tobacco is routinely used during the school day by many middle school, junior, and senior high school students. Since the cost of tobacco addiction in terms of illness and the drain on school resources are enormous, an in-school cessation program is needed. No other institution in the community is better situated to provide intervention programs…

  3. Tobacco Use and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Regulations HEALTH EFFECTS Nicotine Addiction and Your Health Secondhand Smoke Effects of Smoking on Your Health Smokeless Tobacco and Your Health ... Pregnancy HEALTH EFFECTS Nicotine Addiction and Your Health Secondhand Smoke Effects of Smoking on Your Health Smokeless Tobacco and Your Health ...

  4. Smokeless Tobacco: Tips on How to Stop

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Tobacco Addiction | Smokeless Tobacco: Tips on how to stop Why is it hard to quit using smokeless tobacco? Like cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (snuff or chewing tobacco) contains ...

  5. Smoking and Tobacco Use: How to Quit

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tobacco-Related Disparities African Americans and Tobacco Use American Indians/Alaska Natives and Tobacco Use Asian Americans, Pacific ... YTS) Alaska Native Adult Tobacco Survey Guidance Manual American Indian Adult Tobacco Survey Implementation Manual Hispanic/Latino ATS ...

  6. Tobacco control for clinicians who treat adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sargent, James D; DiFranza, Joseph R

    2003-01-01

    Smoking remains the most common preventable cause of death in the developed world, and is rapidly becoming an important cause of death in the developing world. Nicotine is a powerfully addictive substance, and the tobacco industry spends billions annually promoting it in the United States. It is therefore important for clinicians to understand why people smoke, to address smoking in patients of all ages, and to lobby for health-preserving tobacco control policies at the community level. Children take up smoking in response to social influences: smoking by friends, parents, and family, and through exposure to smoking in media. Parents who smoke not only model the behavior, but also often make the product available by leaving cigarettes around the house. Media influences include the dollar 10 billion spent per year on tobacco marketing, but more importantly, the modeling of the behavior on screen by movie and television stars. Once children start smoking, many rapidly lose autonomy over the behavior. Youth can get hooked after smoking just a few cigarettes. The most effective community efforts for reducing tobacco use are: raising the price of tobacco; halting the sale of tobacco to minors; enforcing strict school tobacco policies; and making public places smoke free through local ordinances. Working with individuals, clinicians should support cessation in all smokers, including parents of children and adolescents. They should screen children for smoking risk factors beginning at age 10. They should teach parents to maintain smoke-free households, to set nonsmoking expectations early on, and to monitor adolescents for signs of smoking. Parents should limit exposure to adult media (e.g., R-rated movies) and use family television time to discuss the effect of seeing screen depictions of smoking on adolescent behavior. Adolescents who smoke should be assessed for signs of nicotine dependence and counseled about quitting. Clinicians are effective community voices; they

  7. Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs Resource Guide: Tobacco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuckerman, Karen, Ed.

    This guide was designed to aid prevention specialists, educators, parents, and others in addressing tobacco problems among youth. Listed here are numerous publications--each one summarized--on tobacco use. The guide is divided into two sections: (1) Prevention Material for Tobacco; and (2) Studies, Articles, and Reports on Tobacco. Section one…

  8. Cadmium concentrations in tobacco and tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, G.; Barkemeyer, H.

    1983-02-01

    The amount of cadmium in tobacco depends on the variety and origin of the plant as well as on the analytical method used to determine cadmium. In the literature, cadmium concentrations in tobacco of between 0.5 and 5 ppm are reported. Modern German cigarette tobacco contains about 0.5-1.5 micrograms cadmium/cigarette. Of importance for the smoker is the amount of the metal in the mainstream smoke. The cadmium level in the mainstream smoke of modern cigarettes is reduced by means of filters and other construction features. The average Cd value of German filter cigarettes is less than 0.1 microgram/cigarette in mainstream smoke. An average daily intake of about 1 microgram cadmium by smoking 20 cigarettes can be calculated on the basis of an experimentally proved pulmonary retention rate of 50%. Pulmonary resorption rates relevant to uptake rates of cadmium by smoking are discussed. It can be assumed that cadmium uptake by smoking modern cigarettes has been reduced because of modifications in tobacco processing and cigarette construction in the last few decades.

  9. Differntial cadmium accumulation and phytotoxicity in sixteen tobacco cultivars

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, B.B.; Brennan, E. )

    1988-01-01

    Contrary to most agronomic plants, tobacco accumulates a greater proportion of cadmium (Cd) in its foliage than in any other plant part when it is exposed to Cd-contaminated soil or sand. Because tobacco leaves are marketed as a commercial product, this pattern of partitioning is highly undesirable from the standpoint of human toxicity. Recognizing that Cd uptake and translocation is under genetic control, the authors evaluated the distribution of cadmium in 16 tobacco cultivars to determine whether a genotype could be selected that minimizes the accumulation of Cd in the leaf. In order to assess the impact of low levels of cadmium that might originate from superphosphate, fertilizers, sludge, or contaminated rain on plant growth, several growth parameters of Cd-treated and untreated tobacco plants were compared. The results of these studies are presented.

  10. Predictors of Smokeless Tobacco Abstinence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebbert, Jon O.; Glover, Elbert D.; Shinozaki, Eri; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Dale, Lowell C.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate predictors of tobacco abstinence among smokeless tobacco (ST) users. Methods: Logistic regression analyses assessed characteristics associated with tobacco abstinence among ST users receiving bupropion SR. Results: Older age was associated with increased tobacco abstinence in both placebo and bupropion SR groups at end…

  11. Smoked Tobacco Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... cigarettes primarily imported to the United States from India and other Southeast Asian countries. They are tobacco ... in the United States. However, research studies from India show that bidi smoking is associated with cancer ...

  12. Tobacco and chemicals (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Some of the chemicals associated with tobacco smoke include ammonia, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, propane, methane, acetone, hydrogen cyanide and various carcinogens. Other chemicals that are associated with chewing ...

  13. Risks of tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    Secondhand smoke - risks; Cigarette smoking - risks; Smoking and smokeless tobacco - risks ... Infants and children who are often exposed to secondhand smoke are at ... cessation medications . Join a smoking cessation program and ...

  14. [Construction of transgenic tobacco expressing popW and analysis of its biological phenotype].

    PubMed

    Wang, Cui; Liu, Hongxia; Cao, Jing; Wang, Chao; Guo, Jianhua

    2014-04-01

    In a previous study, we cloned popW from Ralstonia solanacearum strain ZJ3721, coding PopW, a new harpin protein. The procaryotically expressed PopW can induce resistance to Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), enhance growth and improve quality of tobacco, when sprayed onto tobacco leaves. Here, we constructed an expression vector pB- popW by cloning popW into the bionary vector pBI121 and transformed it into Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 via freeze-thaw method. Tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum cv. Xanthi nc.) transformation was conducted by infection of tobacco leaf discs with recombinant A. tumefaciens. After screening on MS medium containing kanamycin, PCR and RT-PCR analysis, 21 T3 lines were identified as positive transgenic. Genomic intergration and expression of the transferred gene were determined by PCR and RT-PCR. And GUS staining analysis indicated that the protein expressed in transgenic tobacco was bioactive and exhibited different expression levels among lines. Disease bioassays showed that the transgenic tobacco had enhanced resistance to TMV with biocontrol efficiency up to 54.25%. Transgenic tobacco also exhibited enhanced plant growth, the root length of 15 d old seedlings was 1.7 times longer than that of wild type tobacco. 60 d after transplanting to pots, the height, fresh weight and dry weight of transgenic tobacco were 1.4, 1.7, 1.8 times larger than that of wild type tobacco, respectively. PMID:25195247

  15. Tobacco industry litigation strategies to oppose tobacco control media campaigns

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, J K; Glantz, Stanton A

    2006-01-01

    Objective To document the tobacco industry's litigation strategy to impede tobacco control media campaigns. Methods Data were collected from news and reports, tobacco industry documents, and interviews with health advocates and media campaign staff. Results RJ Reynolds and Lorillard attempted to halt California's Media Campaign alleging that the campaign polluted jury pools and violated First Amendment rights because they were compelled to pay for anti‐industry ads. The American Legacy Foundation was accused of violating the Master Settlement Agreement's vilification clause because its ads attacked the tobacco industry. The tobacco companies lost these legal challenges. Conclusion The tobacco industry has expanded its efforts to oppose tobacco control media campaigns through litigation strategies. While litigation is a part of tobacco industry business, it imposes a financial burden and impediment to media campaigns' productivity. Tobacco control professionals need to anticipate these challenges and be prepared to defend against them. PMID:16436406

  16. Tobacco document research reporting

    PubMed Central

    Carter, S

    2005-01-01

    Design: Interpretive analysis of published research. Sample: 173 papers indexed in Medline between 1995 and 2004 that cited tobacco industry documents. Analysis: Information about year published, journal and author, and a set of codes relating to methods reporting, were managed in N*Vivo. This coding formed the basis of an interpretation of tobacco document research reporting. Results: Two types of papers were identified. The first used tobacco documents as the primary data source (A-papers). The second was dedicated to another purpose but cited a small number of documents (B-papers). In B-papers documents were used either to provide a specific example or to support an expansive contention. A-papers contained information about purpose, sources, searching, analysis, and limitations that differed by author and journal and over time. A-papers had no clear methodological context, but used words from three major traditions—interpretive research, positivist research, and history—to describe analysis. Interpretation: A descriptive mainstream form of tobacco document reporting is proposed, initially typical but decreasing, and a continuum of positioning of the researcher, from conduit to constructor. Reporting practices, particularly from experienced researchers, appeared to evolve towards researcher as constructor, with later papers showing more complex purposes, diverse sources, and detail of searching and analysis. Tobacco document research could learn from existing research traditions: a model for planning and evaluating tobacco document research is presented. PMID:16319359

  17. 7 CFR 30.44 - Class 9; foreign-grown types other than cigar leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... cigarette and pipe tobacco. (b) Type 92. Foreign-grown flue-cured tobacco. (c) Type 93. Foreign-cured burley tobacco. (d) Type 95. Foreign-grown dark air-cured. (e) Type 96. Foreign-grown fire-cured. (f) Type 99. Other Foreign-grown cigarette and dark tobacco. Reports...

  18. 7 CFR 1463.102 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definitions. 1463.102 Section 1463.102 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS 2005-2014 TOBACCO TRANSITION PROGRAM Tobacco Transition... 35 and 36), fire-cured tobacco (types 21, 22 and 23); flue-cured tobacco (types 11, 12, 13 and...

  19. 7 CFR 1463.102 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1463.102 Section 1463.102 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS 2005-2014 TOBACCO TRANSITION PROGRAM Tobacco Transition... 35 and 36), fire-cured tobacco (types 21, 22 and 23); flue-cured tobacco (types 11, 12, 13 and...

  20. 7 CFR 1463.102 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definitions. 1463.102 Section 1463.102 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS 2005-2014 TOBACCO TRANSITION PROGRAM Tobacco Transition... 35 and 36), fire-cured tobacco (types 21, 22 and 23); flue-cured tobacco (types 11, 12, 13 and...

  1. 7 CFR 1463.102 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definitions. 1463.102 Section 1463.102 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS 2005-2014 TOBACCO TRANSITION PROGRAM Tobacco Transition... 35 and 36), fire-cured tobacco (types 21, 22 and 23); flue-cured tobacco (types 11, 12, 13 and...

  2. 7 CFR 30.44 - Class 9; foreign-grown types other than cigar leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... cigarette and pipe tobacco. (b) Type 92. Foreign-grown flue-cured tobacco. (c) Type 93. Foreign-cured burley tobacco. (d) Type 95. Foreign-grown dark air-cured. (e) Type 96. Foreign-grown fire-cured. (f) Type 99. Other Foreign-grown cigarette and dark tobacco. Reports...

  3. Tobacco Use in Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Daniel; Berk, Michael; Dodd, Seetal; Rapado-Castro, Marta; Quirk, Shae E.; Ellegaard, Pernille K.; Berk, Lesley; Dean, Olivia M.

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco use in mental health in general and bipolar disorder in particular remains disproportionally common, despite declining smoking rates in the community. Furthermore, interactions between tobacco use and mental health have been shown, indicating the outcomes for those with mental health disorders are impacted by tobacco use. Factors need to be explored and addressed to improve outcomes for those with these disorders and target specific interventions for people with psychiatric illness to cease tobacco smoking. In the context of bipolar disorder, this review explores; the effects of tobacco smoking on symptoms, quality of life, suicidal behaviour, the biological interactions between tobacco use and bipolar disorder, the interactions between tobacco smoking and psychiatric medications, rates and factors surrounding tobacco smoking cessation in bipolar disorder and suggests potential directions for research and clinical translation. The importance of this review is to bring together the current understanding of tobacco use in bipolar disorder to highlight the need for specific intervention. PMID:25912533

  4. Tobacco use in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Daniel; Berk, Michael; Dodd, Seetal; Rapado-Castro, Marta; Quirk, Shae E; Ellegaard, Pernille K; Berk, Lesley; Dean, Olivia M

    2015-04-30

    Tobacco use in mental health in general and bipolar disorder in particular remains disproportionally common, despite declining smoking rates in the community. Furthermore, interactions between tobacco use and mental health have been shown, indicating the outcomes for those with mental health disorders are impacted by tobacco use. Factors need to be explored and addressed to improve outcomes for those with these disorders and target specific interventions for people with psychiatric illness to cease tobacco smoking. In the context of bipolar disorder, this review explores; the effects of tobacco smoking on symptoms, quality of life, suicidal behavior, the biological interactions between tobacco use and bipolar disorder, the interactions between tobacco smoking and psychiatric medications, rates and factors surrounding tobacco smoking cessation in bipolar disorder and suggests potential directions for research and clinical translation. The importance of this review is to bring together the current understanding of tobacco use in bipolar disorder to highlight the need for specific intervention. PMID:25912533

  5. Why and How the Tobacco Industry Sells Cigarettes to Young Adults: Evidence From Industry Documents

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Pamela M.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. To improve tobacco control campaigns, we analyzed tobacco industry strategies that encourage young adults (aged 18 to 24) to smoke. Methods. Initial searches of tobacco industry documents with keywords (e.g., “young adult”) were extended by using names, locations, and dates. Results. Approximately 200 relevant documents were found. Transitions from experimentation to addiction, with adult levels of cigarette consumption, may take years. Tobacco marketing solidifies addiction among young adults. Cigarette advertisements encourage regular smoking and increased consumption by integrating smoking into activities and places where young adults' lives change (e.g., leaving home, college, jobs, the military, bars). Conclusions. Tobacco control efforts should include both adults and youths. Life changes are also opportunities to stop occasional smokers' progress to addiction. Clean air policies in workplaces, the military, bars, colleges, and homes can combat tobacco marketing. (Am J Public Health. 2002;92:908–916) PMID:12036776

  6. Radiation dose from cigarette tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Papastefanou, C.

    2008-08-07

    The radioactivity in tobacco leaves collected from 15 different regions of Greece before cigarette production was studied in order to estimate the effective dose from cigarette tobacco due to the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides, such as {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb of the uranium series and {sup 228}Ra of the thorium series and/or man-made produced radionuclides, such as {sup 137}Cs of Chernobyl origin. Gamma-ray spectrometry was applied using Ge planar and coaxial type detectors of high resolution and high efficiency. It was concluded that the annual effective dose due to inhalation for adults (smokers) for {sup 226}Ra varied from 42.5 to 178.6 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} (average 79.7 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}), while for {sup 228}Ra from 19.3 to 116.0 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} (average 67.1 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}) and for {sup 210}Pb from 47.0 to 134.9 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} (average 104.7 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}), that is the same order of magnitude for each radionuclide. The sum of the effective dose of the three natural radionuclides varied from 151.9 to 401.3 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} (average 251.5 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}). The annual effective dose from {sup 137}Cs of Chernobyl origin was three orders of magnitude lower as it varied from 70.4 to 410.4 nSv y{sup -1} (average 199.3 nSv y{sup -1})

  7. Radiation Dose from Cigarette Tobacco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papastefanou, C.

    2008-08-01

    The radioactivity in tobacco leaves collected from 15 different regions of Greece before cigarette production was studied in order to estimate the effective dose from cigarette tobacco due to the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides, such as 226Ra and 210Pb of the uranium series and 228Ra of the thorium series and/or man-made produced radionuclides, such as 137Cs of Chernobyl origin. Gamma-ray spectrometry was applied using Ge planar and coaxial type detectors of high resolution and high efficiency. It was concluded that the annual effective dose due to inhalation for adults (smokers) for 226Ra varied from 42.5 to 178.6 μSv y-1 (average 79.7 μSv y-1), while for 228Ra from 19.3 to 116.0 μSv y-1 (average 67.1 μSv y-1) and for 210Pb from 47.0 to 134.9 μSv y-1 (average 104.7 μSv y-1), that is the same order of magnitude for each radionuclide. The sum of the effective dose of the three natural radionuclides varied from 151.9 to 401.3 μSv y-1 (average 251.5 μSv y-1). The annual effective dose from 137Cs of Chernobyl origin was three orders of magnitude lower as it varied from 70.4 to 410.4 nSv y-1 (average 199.3 nSv y-1).

  8. To leave or not to leave.

    PubMed

    Buchan, James

    2016-06-22

    Lies, damned lies and Brexit statistics. It's not been a good month for anyone espousing evidence-based policy and politics after the chair of the Commons health committee switched from Leave to Remain, citing misuse of data by the Leave campaign. PMID:27332589

  9. Accumulation of nickel in transgenic tobacco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidik, Nik Marzuki; Othman, Noor Farhan

    2013-11-01

    The accumulation of heavy metal Ni in the roots and leaves of four T1 transgenic lines of tobacco (T(1)20E, T(1)24C, T(1)18B1 and T(1)20B) expressing eiMT1 from E.indica was assessed. The aim of the study was to investigate the level of Ni accumulation in the leaves and roots of each transgenic lines and to evaluate the eligibility of the plants to be classified as a phytoremediation agent. All of the transgenic lines showed different ability in accumulating different metals and has translocation factor (TF) less than 1 (TF<1) at all levels of metal treatment. Among the 4 transgenic lines, transgenic line T(1)24C showed the highest accumulation of Ni (251.9 ± 0.014 mg/kg) and the lowest TF value (TFT(1)24C=0.0875) at 60 ppm Ni.

  10. An endgame for tobacco?

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Kenneth E

    2013-01-01

    Since its origins in the 1960s, tobacco control has achieved remarkable success against the scourge of tobacco-produced disease and death. Yet tobacco use, especially cigarette smoking, remains the world's leading cause of preventable premature death and is likely to do so for decades to come. Evidence-based policies seem incapable of substantially hastening the demise of smoking. Slowness in the decline of smoking in developed nations, and increasing smoking in many low- and middle-income countries has sparked interest in novel, even radical 'endgame' strategies to eliminate the toll of tobacco. This paper identifies the principal endgame proposals and, with the other papers in this volume, has the goal of expanding and deepening the endgame conversation by engaging the broader tobacco control community. While we struggle today with often widely divergent perspectives and beliefs about what is possible and how it might be achieved, we all share the same vision of the final words to this story: ‘The end’. PMID:23591502

  11. Using natural beta emission for detecting concealed tobacco in parcels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Jeremy; Hussein, Esam M. A.

    2007-10-01

    It is suspected that postal systems are used for the illegal shipment of tobacco products to circumvent taxation and excise payments. This paper demonstrates that beta-particle emission from the potassium-40 contained in tobacco can be used to passively detect its presence in paperboard postal parcels. The same concept can be utilized for the detection of marijuana, whose leaves are also rich in 40K. The combination of high beta activity and a low weight is a good indicator of the presence of these two contraband materials.

  12. GENOTOXICITY OF TOBACCO SMOKE AND TOBACCO SMOKE CONDENSATE: A REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genotoxicity of Tobacco Smoke and Tobacco Smoke Condensate: A Review
    Abstract
    This report reviews the literature on the genotoxicity of main-stream tobacco smoke and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) published since 1985. CSC is genotoxic in nearly all systems in which it h...

  13. Tobacco industry successfully prevented tobacco control legislation in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Sebrie, E; Barnoya, J; Perez-Stable, E; Glantz, S

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate how transnational tobacco companies, working through their local affiliates, influenced tobacco control policymaking in Argentina between 1966 and 2005. Methods: Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents, local newspapers and magazines, internet resources, bills from the Argentinean National Congress Library, and interviews with key individuals in Argentina. Results: Transnational tobacco companies (Philip Morris International, British American Tobacco, Lorillard, and RJ Reynolds International) have been actively influencing public health policymaking in Argentina since the early 1970s. As in other countries, in 1977 the tobacco industry created a weak voluntary self regulating code to avoid strong legislated restrictions on advertising. In addition to direct lobbying by the tobacco companies, these efforts involved use of third party allies, public relations campaigns, and scientific and medical consultants. During the 1980s and 1990s efforts to pass comprehensive tobacco control legislation intensified, but the organised tobacco industry prevented its enactment. There has been no national activity to decrease exposure to secondhand smoke. Conclusions: The tobacco industry, working through its local subsidiaries, has subverted meaningful tobacco control legislation in Argentina using the same strategies as in the USA and other countries. As a result, tobacco control in Argentina remains governed by a national law that is weak and restricted in its scope. PMID:16183967

  14. Exposure to Tobacco Marketing and Support for Tobacco Control Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, David; Costello, Mary-Jean; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Topham, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the salience of tobacco marketing on postsecondary campuses and student support for tobacco control policies. Methods: Face-to-face surveys were conducted with 1690 students at 3 universities in southwestern Ontario. Results: Virtually all (97%) students reported noticing tobacco marketing in the past year, and 35% reported…

  15. School Tobacco Policies in a Tobacco-Growing State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Ellen J.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Rasnake, Rob; York, Nancy; Okoli, Chizimuzo T.C.; Riker, Carol A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined factors associated with tobacco-free policies and tobacco cessation in schools serving children in grades 6 to 12 in a tobacco-growing state using a cross-sectional telephone survey of school administrators from public and private middle and high schools (N = 691), representing 117 of the 120 Kentucky counties. Trained health…

  16. Elicitins from Phytophthora and basic resistance in tobacco.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, L M

    1995-01-01

    Elicitins are a family of small proteins secreted by species of Phytophthora. They are thought to be major determinants of the resistance response of tobacco against these oomycetes, since purified elicitins, alone and at low concentrations, can induce vigorous defense responses in tobacco (i.e., hypersensitive cell death and resistance against subsequent pathogen attack), and in vitro elicitin production by Phytophthora isolates is strongly negatively correlated with their pathogenicity on tobacco plants. A number of elicitins have been purified and their amino acid sequences have been determined and found to be conserved. A three-dimensional structure for elicitin is emerging from nuclear magnetic resonance studies. Two structural classes, alpha and beta, are distinguished by their biological effects when applied to decapitated stems or petioles; the beta class causes more necrosis on leaves and provides better subsequent protection against pathogen attack. However, both these classes of elicitins will similarly cause necrosis when each is, instead, directly infiltrated into tobacco leaf panels. Effects of elicitins on tobacco cells include rapid electrolyte leakage, changes in protein phosphorylation and amounts of active oxygen species, and later production of ethylene and capsidiol. The sites of initial interaction with tobacco cells are unknown, but the interaction appears to induce general defense-related responses. PMID:7753775

  17. Tobacco-induced contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bonamonte, Domenico; Vestita, Michelangelo; Filoni, Angela; Mastrolonardo, Mario; Angelini, Gianni; Foti, Caterina

    2016-06-01

    Tobacco and tobacco smoke are strongly associated with various skin conditions, among which contact dermatitis is of prime importance. The aetiological and clinical aspects vary according to the different tobacco production and processing steps. Contact dermatitis is frequent in tobacco harvesters, curers and cigar makers, whereas it rarely affects smokers and, only exceptionally, cigarette packaging workers. The skin sites involved also vary, according to whether the exposure is occupational or non-occupational. Tobacco contact irritation is far more frequent than contact allergy. The sensitizing compound in tobacco is unknown; nicotine, while highly toxic, does not seem to cause sensitization, except in rare cases. Besides natural substances, several compounds are added to tobacco during processing and manufacturing. For this reason, identifying the aetiological factors is exceedingly difficult. Another important aspect to take into account is the co-causative role of tobacco in eliciting or exacerbating contact dermatitis in response to other agents, occupational or extra-occupational. PMID:27020490

  18. Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... prevent young people from ever starting to smoke INTERNATIONAL ISSUES Tobacco use killed one hundred million people ... laws and litigation from around the world. Key International Issues Advertising and Promotion Bans on tobacco advertising, ...

  19. Pathway of salicylic acid biosynthesis in healthy and virus-inoculated tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Yalpani, N.; Leon, J.; Lawton, M.A.; Raskin, I. )

    1993-10-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a likely endogenous regulator of localized and systemic disease resistance in plants. During the hypersensitive response of Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi-nc to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), SA levels rise dramatically. We studied Sa biosynthesis in healthy and TMV-inoculated tobacco by monitoring the levels of SA and its likely precursors in extracts of leaves and cell suspensions. In TMV-inoculated leaves, stimulation of Sa accumulation is accompanied by a corresponding increase in the levels of benzoic acid. [sup 14]C-Tracer studies with cell suspensions and mock- or TMV-inoculated leaves indicate that the label moves from trans-cinnamic acid to SA via benzoic acid. In healthy and TMV-inoculated tobacco leaves, benzoic acid induced SA accumulation. o-Coumaric acid, which was previously reported as a possible precursor of SA in other species, did not increase SA levels in tobacco. In healthy tobacco tissue, the specific activity of newly formed SA was equal to that of the supplied [[sup 14]C] benzoic acid, whereas in TMV-inoculated leaves some isotope dilution was observed, presumably because of the increase in the pool of endogenous benzoic acid. We observed accumulation of pathogenesis-related-1 proteins and increased resistance to TMV in benzoic acid but no in 0-coumaric acid-treated tobacco leaves. This is consistent with benzoic acid being the immediate precursor of SA. We conclude that in healthy and virus-inoculated tobacco, SA is formed from cinnamic acid via benzoic acid. 27 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Study Leave in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Arthur

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of statistics since 1994 on the use of study leave as allowed by a 1974 Swedish law indicates that about 1% of the work force takes leave at any time. Women and manual workers benefit more than men and salaried workers. Leave application causes employees few problems with employers but financial assistance is a concern. (Contains 37…

  1. 27 CFR 40.257 - Processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...

  2. 27 CFR 40.257 - Processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...

  3. 27 CFR 40.257 - Processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...

  4. 27 CFR 40.257 - Processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...

  5. 27 CFR 40.257 - Processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...

  6. Permissiveness toward tobacco sponsorship undermines tobacco control support in Africa.

    PubMed

    Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A; Olutola, Bukola G; Agaku, Israel T

    2016-06-01

    School personnel, who are respected members of the community, may exert significant influence on policy adoption. This study assessed the impact of school personnel's permissiveness toward tobacco industry sponsorship activities on their support for complete bans on tobacco advertisements, comprehensive smoke-free laws and increased tobacco prices. Representative data were obtained from the Global School Personnel Survey for 29 African countries (n = 17 929). Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) were calculated using multi-variable Poisson regression models to assess the impact of permissiveness toward tobacco sponsorship activities on support for tobacco control policies (p < 0.05). The median of prevalence of support for different tobacco control policies among all countries was as follows: complete ban on tobacco advertisements (84.9%); comprehensive smoke-free laws (92.4%) and tobacco price increases (80.8%). School personnel who believed that the tobacco industry should be allowed to sponsor school events were significantly less likely to support complete bans on tobacco advertisements [aPR = 0.89; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-0.95] and comprehensive smoke-free laws (aPR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.92-0.98). In contrast, support for complete tobacco advertisement bans was more likely among those who believed that the tobacco industry encourages youths to smoke (aPR = 1.27; 95% CI 1.17-1.37), and among those who taught about health sometimes (aPR = 1.06; 95% CI 1.01-1.11) or a lot (aPR = 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.10) compared with those who did not teach about health at all. These findings underscore the need to educate school personnel on tobacco industry's strategies to undermine tobacco control policies. This may help to build school personnel support for laws intended to reduce youth susceptibility, experimentation and established use of tobacco products. PMID:25524474

  7. Tobacco Use among Sexual Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Lawrence O.; Bowman, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    This chapter addresses tobacco use among sexual minorities. It examines research on the prevalence of tobacco use in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community and discusses why tobacco use within this group continues to significantly exceed that of the general population.

  8. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. 41.30 Section 41.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO...

  9. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. 41.30 Section 41.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO...

  10. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. 41.30 Section 41.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO...

  11. 27 CFR 40.521 - Record of tobacco and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Record of tobacco and processed tobacco. 40.521 Section 40.521 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  12. 27 CFR 40.521 - Record of tobacco and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Record of tobacco and processed tobacco. 40.521 Section 40.521 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  13. 27 CFR 40.182 - Record of tobacco and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Record of tobacco and processed tobacco. 40.182 Section 40.182 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  14. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. 41.30 Section 41.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO...

  15. 27 CFR 40.182 - Record of tobacco and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Record of tobacco and processed tobacco. 40.182 Section 40.182 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  16. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your..., CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.30 Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. (a) Tax rates. Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco are taxed at the following...

  17. The tobacco industry, state politics, and tobacco education in California.

    PubMed Central

    Begay, M E; Traynor, M; Glantz, S A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Proposition 99 added 25 cents to the California state cigarette tax and mandated that 20% of the new revenues be spent on tobacco education and prevention programs. This paper examines the implementation of these programs and the tobacco industry's response to Proposition 99. METHODS. Political expenditure data for twelve tobacco firms and associations were gathered from California's Fair Political Practices Commission and secretary of state's Political Reform Division. Tobacco education expenditure data were collected from Governor's Budgets and the Department of Finance. RESULTS. Since Proposition 99 passed, tobacco industry political expenditures in California have risen 10-fold, from $790,050 in the 1985-1986 election to $7,615,091 in the 1991-1992 election. The tobacco industry is contributing more heavily to the California legislature than to Congress. A statistical analysis of data on campaign contributions indicates that California legislators' policy-making is influenced by campaign contributions from the tobacco industry. Since fiscal year 1989-1990, the state has ignored the voters' mandate and spent only 14.7% of the new revenues to tobacco education. Medical care programs received more money than permitted by the voters. CONCLUSIONS. The tobacco industry has become politically active in California following the passage of Proposition 99. One result may be that the state has underfunded tobacco education by $174.7 million through the 1993-1994 fiscal year. The estimated redirection of funds to medical care would essentially eliminate the tobacco education campaign by the year 2000. PMID:8362994

  18. Protecting Children From Tobacco, Nicotine, and Tobacco Smoke.

    PubMed

    Farber, Harold J; Groner, Judith; Walley, Susan; Nelson, Kevin

    2015-11-01

    This technical report serves to provide the evidence base for the American Academy of Pediatrics' policy statements "Clinical Practice Policy to Protect Children From Tobacco, Nicotine, and Tobacco Smoke" and "Public Policy to Protect Children From Tobacco, Nicotine, and Tobacco Smoke." Tobacco use and involuntary exposure are major preventable causes of morbidity and premature mortality in adults and children. Tobacco dependence almost always starts in childhood or adolescence. Electronic nicotine delivery systems are rapidly gaining popularity among youth, and their significant harms are being documented. In utero tobacco smoke exposure, in addition to increasing the risk of preterm birth, low birth weight, stillbirth, placental abruption, and sudden infant death, has been found to increase the risk of obesity and neurodevelopmental disorders. Actions by pediatricians can help to reduce children's risk of developing tobacco dependence and reduce children's involuntary tobacco smoke exposure. Public policy actions to protect children from tobacco are essential to reduce the toll that the tobacco epidemic takes on our children. PMID:26504135

  19. Tobacco point‐of‐purchase promotion: examining tobacco industry documents

    PubMed Central

    Lavack, Anne M; Toth, Graham

    2006-01-01

    In the face of increasing media restrictions around the world, point‐of‐purchase promotion (also called point‐of‐sale merchandising, and frequently abbreviated as POP or POS) is now one of the most important tools that tobacco companies have for promoting tobacco products. Using tobacco industry documents, this paper demonstrates that tobacco companies have used point‐of‐purchase promotion in response to real or anticipated advertising restrictions. Their goal was to secure dominance in the retail setting, and this was achieved through well‐trained sales representatives who offered contracts for promotional incentive programmes to retailers, which included the use of point‐of‐sale displays and merchandising fixtures. Audit programmes played an important role in ensuring contract enforcement and compliance with a variety of tobacco company incentive programmes. Tobacco companies celebrated their merchandising successes, in recognition of the stiff competition that existed among tobacco companies for valuable retail display space. PMID:16998172

  20. Tobacco and ethics

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Gerard; Porter, Alan

    1986-01-01

    Tobacco is both dangerous and addictive. Its production and use thus raise ethical questions which involve the smoker, parents, teachers, producers, distributors and the State. The moral responsibilities of the various parties are examined critically and legal restrictions are considered to be justified. PMID:3735230

  1. Environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.R.; Jenkins, R.A.

    1992-12-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material in indoor air which results from tobacco smoking. Early work on the chemistry of ETS and on estimates of the resulting human exposure relied heavily on studies of sidestream smoke, on the characterization of highly contaminated environments, and on the use of contained experimental atmospheres. It had also been common practice to equate ETS with mainstream smoke for purposes of risk assessments. More recent work has identified potentially important differences between the properties of ETS and those of mainstream smoke. Recent work has also included major surveys of commonly encountered smoking and nonsmoking environments for their indoor air concentrations of, particularly, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and/or respirable suspended particulate matter (RSP). Studies have also now been reported which address the general composition of the particulate and vapor phases of ETS and which measure concentrations of trace and miscellaneous constituents of tobacco smoke in indoor air. The data demonstrate that tobacco smoking clearly contributes to indoor air contamination but that the contribution is often less than was previously assumed for the more-commonly encountered environments. The data also identify difficulties in the use of nicotine, carbon monoxide, and RSP as surrogate measures of ETS as a whole. This paper summarizes recent observation concerning the measurement and concentrations of ETS constituents in indoor air.

  2. Environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.R.; Jenkins, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material in indoor air which results from tobacco smoking. Early work on the chemistry of ETS and on estimates of the resulting human exposure relied heavily on studies of sidestream smoke, on the characterization of highly contaminated environments, and on the use of contained experimental atmospheres. It had also been common practice to equate ETS with mainstream smoke for purposes of risk assessments. More recent work has identified potentially important differences between the properties of ETS and those of mainstream smoke. Recent work has also included major surveys of commonly encountered smoking and nonsmoking environments for their indoor air concentrations of, particularly, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and/or respirable suspended particulate matter (RSP). Studies have also now been reported which address the general composition of the particulate and vapor phases of ETS and which measure concentrations of trace and miscellaneous constituents of tobacco smoke in indoor air. The data demonstrate that tobacco smoking clearly contributes to indoor air contamination but that the contribution is often less than was previously assumed for the more-commonly encountered environments. The data also identify difficulties in the use of nicotine, carbon monoxide, and RSP as surrogate measures of ETS as a whole. This paper summarizes recent observation concerning the measurement and concentrations of ETS constituents in indoor air.

  3. The Tobacco Mosaic Virus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulzinski, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    Explains how the tobacco mosaic virus can be used to study virology. Presents facts about the virus, procedures to handle the virus in the laboratory, and four laboratory exercises involving the viruses' survival under inactivating conditions, dilution end point, filterability, and microscopy. (MDH)

  4. Environmental Health Organisations against Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Mulcahy, Maurice; Evans, David S.; Lahiffe, Blaithin; Goggin, Deirdre; Smyth, Colm; Hastings, Gerard; Byrne, Miriam

    2009-01-01

    Implementing the World Health Organisation (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) relies heavily on enforcement. Little is known of the way different enforcement agencies operate, prioritise or network. A questionnaire was sent to representatives of the International Federation of Environmental Health (IFEH) in 36 countries. Tobacco control was given low priority. Almost two thirds did not have any tobacco control policy. A third reported their organisation had worked with other agencies on tobacco control. Obstacles to addressing tobacco control included a lack of resources (61%) and absence of a coherent strategy (39%). PMID:19440528

  5. Adolescent tobacco use and cessation.

    PubMed

    DuRant, R H; Smith, J A

    1999-09-01

    Over one third of high school students in the United States smoke cigarettes, and close to 10% use spit tobacco. Tobacco use clusters with alcohol use, other substance abuse, and other health risk behaviors among teenagers. Public health and law enforcement policy changes, combined with effective substance use prevention programs in both elementary and middle school, are needed to prevent the early age of onset of tobacco use by youth. Primary care providers can play a key role in identifying children and adolescents who smoke or use spit tobacco and helping them discontinue their tobacco use. PMID:10436287

  6. Potential of MuS1 Transgenic Tobacco for Phytoremediation of the Urban Soils Contaminated with Cadmium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. H.; Kim, Y. N.; Kim, S. H.

    2010-05-01

    Urban soils are prone to contamination by trace elements such as Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Phytoremediation is one of the attractive remediation methods for soils contaminated with trace elements due to its non-destructive and environmentally-friendly characteristic. Scientists have tried to find hyper-accumulator plants in nature or to develop transgenic plant through genetic engineering. This study was carried out to identify a potential of MuS1 transgenic tobacco for phytoremediation of the urban soils contaminated with Cd. MuS1 is known as a multiple stress related gene with several lines. The previous study using RT-PCR showed that the expression of MuS1 gene in tobacco plant induced tolerance to Cd stress. For this study, MuS1 transgenic tobacco and wild-type tobacco (control) were cultivated in a hydroponic system treated with Cd (0, 50, 100 and 200μM Cd) for 3 weeks. At harvest, both tobacco and nutrient solution were collected and were analyzed for Cd. Effect of Cd treatment on morphological change of the tobacco leaves was also observed by variable-pressure scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM). The tolerance of MuS1 transgenic tobacco to Cd stress was better than that of wild-type tobacco at all Cd levels. Especially, wild-type tobacco showed chlorosis and withering with 200μM Cd treatment, whereas MuS1 transgenic tobacco gradually recovered from Cd damage. Wild-type tobacco accumulated more Cd (4.65mg per plant) than MuS1 transgenic tobacco (2.37mg per plant) with 200μM Cd treatment. Cd translocation rate from root to leaves was 81.8 % for wild-type tobacco compared to 37.1 % for MuS1 transgenic tobacco. Result of VP-SEM showed that the number of trichome in the leaves for wild-type tobacco increased in comparison with that for untreated samples after 3 weeks, while that for MuS1 transgenic tobacco was not changed by Cd treatment. Results showed that the mechanism of the recovery of the MuS1 tobacco plant was not by high level of Cd uptake and accumulation

  7. Isolation of 6-hydroxykynurenic acid from the tobacco leaf

    PubMed Central

    Macnicol, P. K.

    1968-01-01

    1. 6-Hydroxykynurenic acid (4,6-dihydroxyquinoline-2-carboxylic acid, 6-HKA) was isolated in crystalline form from both green and cured tobacco leaves. 2. A method for the determination of 6-HKA by paper chromatography and fluorimetry is described. 3. The content of 6-HKA in the flowers, stem and roots of the tobacco plant was much lower than that in the leaf. 4. The 6-HKA content increased throughout leaf development and senescence. 5. 6-HKA was detected in the leaves of plants representing 11 out of 27 families sampled. 6. 6-HKA was found to be devoid of antibacterial and antifungal activity, and was inactive in the Avena-coleoptile and cress-seed-germination tests. 7. The presence of 6-HKA is taken as evidence in plants of the tryptophan-catabolic pathway already known in mammals and micro-organisms. PMID:5665251

  8. Design of a tobacco exon array with application to investigate the differential cadmium accumulation property in two tobacco varieties

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background For decades the tobacco plant has served as a model organism in plant biology to answer fundamental biological questions in the areas of plant development, physiology, and genetics. Due to the lack of sufficient coverage of genomic sequences, however, none of the expressed sequence tag (EST)-based chips developed to date cover gene expression from the whole genome. The availability of Tobacco Genome Initiative (TGI) sequences provides a useful resource to build a whole genome exon array, even if the assembled sequences are highly fragmented. Here, the design of a Tobacco Exon Array is reported and an application to improve the understanding of genes regulated by cadmium (Cd) in tobacco is described. Results From the analysis and annotation of the 1,271,256 Nicotiana tabacum fasta and quality files from methyl filtered genomic survey sequences (GSS) obtained from the TGI and ~56,000 ESTs available in public databases, an exon array with 272,342 probesets was designed (four probes per exon) and tested on two selected tobacco varieties. Two tobacco varieties out of 45 accumulating low and high cadmium in leaf were identified based on the GGE biplot analysis, which is analysis of the genotype main effect (G) plus analysis of the genotype by environment interaction (GE) of eight field trials (four fields over two years) showing reproducibility across the trials. The selected varieties were grown under greenhouse conditions in two different soils and subjected to exon array analyses using root and leaf tissues to understand the genetic make-up of the Cd accumulation. Conclusions An Affymetrix Exon Array was developed to cover a large (~90%) proportion of the tobacco gene space. The Tobacco Exon Array will be available for research use through Affymetrix array catalogue. As a proof of the exon array usability, we have demonstrated that the Tobacco Exon Array is a valuable tool for studying Cd accumulation in tobacco leaves. Data from field and greenhouse

  9. Tobacco and Nicotine Product Testing

    PubMed Central

    Biener, Lois; Leischow, Scott J.; Zeller, Mitch R.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco product testing is a critical component of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA), which grants the Food and Drug Administration the authority to regulate tobacco products. The availability of methods and measures that can provide accurate data on the relative health risks across types of tobacco products, brands, and subbrands of tobacco products on the validity of any health claims associated with a product, and on how consumers perceive information on products toxicity or risks is crucial for making decisions on the product's potential impact on public health. These tools are also necessary for making assessments of the impact of new indications for medicinal products (other than cessation) but more importantly of tobacco products that may in the future be marketed as cessation tools. Objective: To identify research opportunities to develop empirically based and comprehensive methods and measures for testing tobacco and other nicotine-containing products so that the best science is available when decisions are made about products or policies. Methods: Literature was reviewed to address sections of the FSPTCA relevant to tobacco product evaluation; research questions were generated and then reviewed by a committee of research experts. Results: A research agenda was developed for tobacco product evaluation in the general areas of toxicity and health risks, abuse liability, consumer perception, and population effects. Conclusion: A cohesive, systematic, and comprehensive assessment of tobacco products is important and will require building consensus and addressing some crucial research questions. PMID:21460383

  10. Tobacco industry tactics.

    PubMed

    Sweda, E L; Daynard, R A

    1996-01-01

    The tobacco industry's strong-arm tactics have been used consistently over many years. These tactics include: using the industry's size, wealth, and legal resources to intimidate individuals and local governmental bodies; setting up 'front groups' to make it appear that it has more allies than it really does; spending large sums of money to frame the public debate about smoking regulations around 'rights and liberty' rather than health and portraying its tobacco company adversaries as extremists; 'investing' thousands of dollars in campaign contributions to politicians; and using financial resources to influence science. These tactics are designed to produce delay, giving the nicotine cartel more time to collect even more profits at the direct expense of millions of lives around the world. PMID:8746306