Sample records for fluid cell count

  1. Relationship between automated total nucleated cell count and enumeration of cells on direct smears of canine synovial fluid.

    PubMed

    Dusick, Allison; Young, Karen M; Muir, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Canine osteoarthritis is a common disorder seen in veterinary clinical practice and causes considerable morbidity in dogs as they age. Synovial fluid analysis is an important tool for diagnosis and treatment of canine joint disease and obtaining a total nucleated cell count (TNCC) is particularly important. However, the low sample volumes obtained during arthrocentesis are often insufficient for performing an automated TNCC, thereby limiting diagnostic interpretation. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether estimation of TNCC in canine synovial fluid could be achieved by performing manual cell counts on direct smears of fluid. Fifty-eight synovial fluid samples, taken by arthrocentesis from 48 dogs, were included in the study. Direct smears of synovial fluid were prepared, and hyaluronidase added before cell counts were obtained using a commercial laser-based instrument. A protocol was established to count nucleated cells in a specific region of the smear, using a serpentine counting pattern; the mean number of nucleated cells per 400?×?field was then calculated. There was a positive correlation between the automated TNCC and mean manual cell count, with more variability at higher TNCC. Regression analysis was performed to estimate TNCC from manual counts. By this method, 78% of the samples were correctly predicted to fall into one of three categories (within the reference interval, mildly to moderately increased, or markedly increased) relative to the automated TNCC. Intra-observer and inter-observer agreement was good to excellent. The results of the study suggest that interpretation of canine synovial fluid samples of low volume can be aided by methodical manual counting of cells on direct smears. PMID:25439439

  2. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cell counts in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis and their relation to therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Haslam, P L; Turton, C W; Lukoszek, A; Salsbury, A J; Dewar, A; Collins, J V; Turner-Warwick, M

    1980-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage was used to sample inflammatory cells from the lungs of 51 patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA) (24 smokers, 12 ex-smokers, and 15 non-smokers). The smokers with CFA have been compared with 15 smoking control subjects in whom there was no radiographic abnormality or clinical evidence of chronic bronchitis. Significantly lower volumes of lavage fluid were recovered from the smokers with CFA (p < 0.001) and the fluid contained lower percentages of macrophages (p < 0.01), reflecting increased percentages of eosinophils (p < 0.001) and neutrophils (p < 0.01). Similar changes were seen in the ex-smokers and non-smokers. There was also an increase in the percentages of lymphocytes when the whole group of CFA patients was compared with the control subjects (p less than or equal to 0.05). No significant differences were found when patients with "lone" CFA were compared with those having associated systemic disease. The only feature distinguishing smokers from non-smokers with CFA was the presence of pigmented cytoplasmic inclusions in the macrophages from the smokers (p < 0.001). However, there were lower numbers of pigmented macrophages in the smoking CFA patients by comparison with the control subjects suggesting either a change in phagocytic capacity or turnover rate in this disease. Profiles of differential cell counts in individual patients showed that increases of eosinophils over 3% or neutrophils over 4% or both with lymphocyte counts of less than 11% related to a poor clinical response to corticosteroids, but lymphocyte percentages greater than 11% related to improvement (p < 0.05). Images PMID:7434282

  3. Assignment 2 Counting Cells

    E-print Network

    Prasad, Sanjiva

    Assignment 2 Counting Cells This assignment is based on funny cells. Please look up the following, you are expected to program Counting Cells that can count the number of Susceptible Cells on the map in a distributed manner. Objective The objective is to count the number of Susceptible Cells on the map. When

  4. Effects of Somatic Cell Count on Quality and ShelfLife of Pasteurized Fluid Milk1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Ma; C. Ryan; D. M. Barbano; D. M. Galton; M. A. Rudan; K. J. Boor

    2000-01-01

    Milk was collected from eight Holstein cows four times before and four times after intramammary infec- tion with Streptococcus agalactiae. Postinfection milk had significantly higher somatic cell count (SCC) (849,000 cells\\/ml) than preinfection milk (45,000 cells\\/ ml). High SCC raw milk had more lipolysis and proteol- ysis than low SCC raw milk. Pasteurized, homogenized, 2% fat milks from pre- and

  5. White blood cell counting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter. Preliminary test results show the sample collection and the dilution subsystems are functional and fulfill design goals. Results for the fluid containment subsystem show the handling bags cause counting errors due to: (1) adsorption of cells to the walls of the container, and (2) inadequate cleaning of the plastic bag material before fabrication. It was recommended that another bag material be selected.

  6. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cell counts in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis and their relation to therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P L Haslam; C W Turton; A Lukoszek; A J Salsbury; A Dewar; J V Collins; M Turner-Warwick

    1980-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage was used to sample inflammatory cells from the lungs of 51 patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA) (24 smokers, 12 ex-smokers, and 15 non-smokers). The smokers with CFA have been compared with 15 smoking control subjects in whom there was no radiographic abnormality or clinical evidence of chronic bronchitis. Significantly lower volumes of lavage fluid were recovered from

  7. Evaluation of White Cell Count and Differential in Synovial Fluid for Diagnosing Infections after Total Hip or Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haowei; Wu, Chuanlong; Li, Yang; Li, Huiwu; Zhu, Zhenan; Qin, An; Dai, Kerong

    2014-01-01

    Background The accuracy of synovial fluid (SF) white cell count (WCC) and polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell evaluation for predicting prosthetic joint infection (PJI) at the total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) site is unknown. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to summarize the diagnostic validity of SF-WCC and SF-PMN for diagnosing PJI. Methods The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and OVID databases were searched for studies that had evaluated the diagnostic validity of SF-WCC and SF-PMN between January 1990 and May 2013. Meta-analysis methods were used to pool sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odd ratios (DORs), the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC), positive likelihood ratios (PLR), negative likelihood ratios (NLR), and post-test probability. We also conducted heterogeneity, publication bias, subgroup, and meta-regression analyses. Results Fifteen articles (15 SF-WCC and 14 SF-PMN) that included a total of 2787 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were considered for analysis. The pooled sensitivity and specificity for PJI detection was 0.88 (95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.81–0.93) and 0.93 (95% CI, 0.88–0.96) for SF-WCC and 0.90 (95% CI, 0.84–0.93) and 0.88 (95% CI, 0.83–0.92) for SF-PMN, respectively. The AUC was 0.96 for SF-WCC and 0.95 for SF-PMN. PLR and NLR were 13.3 and 0.13 for SF-WCC, and 7.6 and 0.12 for SF-PMN, respectively. There was no evidence of publication bias. Low-clinical-scenario (pre-test probability, 20%) post-test probabilities were 3% for both negative SF-WCC and SF-PMN results. The subgroup analyses indicated that the sensitivity/specificity of THA were 0.73/0.96 for SF-WCC and 0.85/0.83 for SF-PMN, whereas those of TKA were 0.90/0.91 for SF-WCC and 0.90/0.88 for SF-PMN. We also found that collection of SF-WCC preoperatively had a higher sensitivity than that obtained intraoperatively (0.91 vs. 0.77). Conclusions SF-WCC and SF-PMN have an adequate and clinically acceptable diagnostic value for detecting PJI, particularly after TKA. PMID:24416276

  8. Low white blood cell count and cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    When your blood is tested, ask for your white blood cell count. When your white blood cell count is low, do what you can to prevent infections. Know the signs of infection and what to do if you see them.

  9. Automatic cell counting with ImageJ.

    PubMed

    Grishagin, Ivan V

    2015-03-15

    Cell counting is an important routine procedure. However, to date there is no comprehensive, easy to use, and inexpensive solution for routine cell counting, and this procedure usually needs to be performed manually. Here, we report a complete solution for automatic cell counting in which a conventional light microscope is equipped with a web camera to obtain images of a suspension of mammalian cells in a hemocytometer assembly. Based on the ImageJ toolbox, we devised two algorithms to automatically count these cells. This approach is approximately 10 times faster and yields more reliable and consistent results compared with manual counting. PMID:25542972

  10. White blood cell counts: reference methodology.

    PubMed

    Chabot-Richards, Devon S; George, Tracy I

    2015-03-01

    Modern hematology laboratories use automated hematology analyzers to perform cell counts. These instruments provide accurate, precise, low-cost differential counts with fast turnaround times. Technologies commonly used include electrical impedance, radiofrequency conductivity, laser light scattering, and cytochemistry. This article reviews the principles of these methodologies and possible sources of error, provides guidance for selecting flagging criteria, and discusses novel, clinically relevant white blood cell parameters provided by new instruments, including immature granulocyte count and granularity index. PMID:25676369

  11. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...

  12. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...

  13. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...

  14. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...

  15. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...

  16. CELL TYPES, DIFFERENTIAL CELL COUNTS, AND BLOOD CELL MEASUREMENTS OF

    E-print Network

    count than those repolted for other sharks. 10 Microns I I FIGURE I.-Mitosis-Prophase. Cell Differentials FIGURE 2.-Mitosis-Anaphase. The mean size of the POltuguese shark mature erythrocytes (Figure 3

  17. Why Count Types of White Blood Cells?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ethel D. Stanley (Beloit College; Biology)

    2006-05-20

    How can we make use of complex cellular level responses in the human body to microbial infections and other disorders? Why is it important to differentiate between white blood cells in a blood sample and keep a record of their numbers? Improve skills at cell identification and explore these questions with the program Cell Differentials. * identify lymphocytes in a clinical laboratory simulation of blood cell counts

  18. Differential white cell count by centrifugal microfluidics.

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, Gregory Jon; Tentori, Augusto M.; Schaff, Ulrich Y.

    2010-07-01

    We present a method for counting white blood cells that is uniquely compatible with centrifugation based microfluidics. Blood is deposited on top of one or more layers of density media within a microfluidic disk. Spinning the disk causes the cell populations within whole blood to settle through the media, reaching an equilibrium based on the density of each cell type. Separation and fluorescence measurement of cell types stained with a DNA dye is demonstrated using this technique. The integrated signal from bands of fluorescent microspheres is shown to be proportional to their initial concentration in suspension. Among the current generation of medical diagnostics are devices based on the principle of centrifuging a CD sized disk functionalized with microfluidics. These portable 'lab on a disk' devices are capable of conducting multiple assays directly from a blood sample, embodied by platforms developed by Gyros, Samsung, and Abaxis. [1,2] However, no centrifugal platform to date includes a differential white blood cell count, which is an important metric complimentary to diagnostic assays. Measuring the differential white blood cell count (the relative fraction of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) is a standard medical diagnostic technique useful for identifying sepsis, leukemia, AIDS, radiation exposure, and a host of other conditions that affect the immune system. Several methods exist for measuring the relative white blood cell count including flow cytometry, electrical impedance, and visual identification from a stained drop of blood under a microscope. However, none of these methods is easily incorporated into a centrifugal microfluidic diagnostic platform.

  19. Optical planar waveguide for cell counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeBlanc, John; Mueller, Andrew J.; Prinz, Adrian; Butte, Manish J.

    2012-01-01

    Low cost counting of cells has medical applications in screening, military medicine, disaster medicine, and rural healthcare. In this report, we present a shallow, buried, planar waveguide fabricated by potassium ion exchange in glass that enables low-cost and rapid counting of metal-tagged objects that lie in the evanescent field of the waveguide. Laser light transmitted through the waveguide was attenuated proportionately to the presence of metal-coated microstructures fabricated from photoresist. This technology enables the low-cost enumeration of cells from blood, urine, or other biofluids.

  20. Optical planar waveguide for cell counting.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, John; Mueller, Andrew J; Prinz, Adrian; Butte, Manish J

    2012-01-23

    Low cost counting of cells has medical applications in screening, military medicine, disaster medicine, and rural healthcare. In this report, we present a shallow, buried, planar waveguide fabricated by potassium ion exchange in glass that enables low-cost and rapid counting of metal-tagged objects that lie in the evanescent field of the waveguide. Laser light transmitted through the waveguide was attenuated proportionately to the presence of metal-coated microstructures fabricated from photoresist. This technology enables the low-cost enumeration of cells from blood, urine, or other biofluids. PMID:22331960

  1. Effect of saliva contamination on induced sputum cell counts, IL-8 and eosinophil cationic protein levels.

    PubMed

    Simpson, J L; Timmins, N L; Fakes, K; Talbot, P I; Gibson, P G

    2004-05-01

    Excessive salivary contamination of induced sputum samples prevents the satisfactory examination of lower airway inflammation. The effects of salivary contamination on different sputum fluid phase measures and the levels of salivary contamination preventing analysis are not defined. The present study sought to examine this by investigating the effect of increasing salivary contamination on induced sputum samples. Sputum and saliva samples from subjects with asthma and healthy controls were collected, and treated with dithiothreitol (DTT). Saliva was then added to aliquots of dispersed sputum in increasing proportions (0% to 100%). The effect of increasing saliva contamination was assessed on sputum total cell count, viability, differential cell count and fluid phase levels of interleukin (IL)-8, eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and total protein. The addition of saliva to induced sputum reduced total cell counts and absolute cell counts but did not change the differential cell count. Levels of fluid phase ECP and IL-8 were significantly reduced with increased salivary contamination. There was a progressive reduction in ECP and IL-8, which reached significance at 70% and 80% saliva contamination, respectively. IL-8 levels corrected for total protein showed no change with increasing saliva concentrations. Induced sputum differential cell counts expressed as the proportion of nonsquamous cells are robust measures that are not influenced by salivary contamination. Studies reporting total and absolute cell counts and fluid phase mediator levels require control for squamous contamination. PMID:15176693

  2. 21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. 864...Reagents § 864.8185 Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for red cell and white cell counting is a...

  3. Number of counting cells and cytospins selection influences on bronchoalveolar lavage cell profiles.

    PubMed

    Harabajsa, Suzana; Martinci?, Josipa; Peharec, Ivancica; Popek, Bozena; Suskovi?-Medved, Snjezana; Zadrazil, Barica; Smojver-Jezek, Silvana

    2010-03-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid cells count provides information about presence or absence of interstitial lung diseases. BAL fluid samples were taken from 50 patients hospitalized in University Hospital for Lung Diseases "Jordanovac" in Zagreb, Croatia. The samples of BAL fluid were prepared by cytocentrifuge. From each sample two cytospin were selected (C1 and C2) and after determing adequacy, counted up to 200 and 400 cells. After air drying, samples were stained according to May Grünwald Giemsa (MGG). Cells were counted by light microscope at magnification of 400x. Obtained results were analyzed in Statistics version 6 and Med Calc. Results for bronchial epithelial cells, alveolar macrophages, lymphocytes and neutrophilic granulocytes showed insignificant statistical differences between groups (p > 0.05). Eosinophils percentages showed borderline insignificant statistical difference between groups of these cells (p = 0.052.). As it was exemplificated, the percentages of differentiated cells do not significant differ according to differentiation on 200 and 400 cells and cytospin selection. PMID:20432749

  4. Counting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Beck

    2006-12-08

    Students will practice counting different objects. Have fun counting with this counting game. Play the game three times. Go under the sea with Fishy Count. Play the game three times. These spooky ghosts want you to practice counting by 2 s. ...

  5. Electrical cell counting process characterization in a microfluidic impedance cytometer.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Umer; Bashir, Rashid

    2014-10-01

    Particle counting in microfluidic devices with coulter principle finds many applications in health and medicine. Cell enumeration using microfluidic particle counters is fast and requires small volumes of sample, and is being used for disease diagnostics in humans and animals. A complete characterization of the cell counting process is critical for accurate cell counting especially in complex systems with samples of heterogeneous population interacting with different reagents in a microfluidic device. In this paper, we have characterized the electrical cell counting process using a microfluidic impedance cytometer. Erythrocytes were lysed on-chip from whole blood and the lysing was quenched to preserve leukocytes which subsequently pass through a 15 ?m?×?15 ?m measurement channel used to electrically count the cells. We show that cell counting over time is a non-homogeneous Poisson process and that the electrical cell counts over time show the log-normal distribution, whose skewness can be attributed to diffusion of cells in the buffer that is used to meter the blood. We further found that the heterogeneous cell population (i.e. different cell types) shows different diffusion characteristics based on the cell size. Lymphocytes spatially diffuse more as compared to granulocytes and monocytes. The time difference between the cell occurrences follows an exponential distribution and when plotted over time verifies the cell diffusion characteristics. We also characterized the probability of occurrence of more than one cell at the counter within specified time intervals using Poisson counting statistics. For high cell concentration samples, we also derived the required sample dilution based on our particle counting characterization. Buffer characterization by considering the size based particle diffusion and estimating the required dilution are critical parameters for accurate counting results. PMID:24898912

  6. Mast cell and histamine content of human bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

    PubMed Central

    Agius, R M; Godfrey, R C; Holgate, S T

    1985-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed in 97 patients including control patients with bronchial carcinoma (24) and patients with sarcoidosis (20), cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (9), and asthma (4), and others. Cytocentrifuged slides were stained by two methods: May-Grünwald Giemsa and toluidine blue. In the last 32 subjects the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was separated into supernatant and cell pellet for the subsequent assay of the performed mast cell mediator, histamine. Comparison of the two methods of staining showed a bias towards toluidine blue. Controls had a differential mean (SE) mast cell count of 0.07% (0.01%). Higher counts were noted in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis--0.61% (0.15%) (p less than 0.001)--and in sarcoidosis--0.14% (0.02%) (p less than 0.05). There was a strong correlation between absolute mast cell counts and cell lysate histamine concentration (r = 0.78, p less than 0.001). Less strong, significant, correlations between supernatant histamine concentration and absolute mast cell counts (r = 0.48, p less than 0.01) or cell lysate histamine concentration (r = 0.72, p less than 0.01) were also found. Derived mean values of histamine per mast cell ranged from 3.7 to 10.9 picograms. The mean histamine content of lavage fluid supernatant as a percentage of the total lavage fluid histamine was 24.9% (3.3%). The possible clinical significance of these findings is discussed. Images PMID:4060097

  7. The cytospin technique improves the detection of calcium pyrophosphate crystals in synovial fluid samples with a low leukocyte count.

    PubMed

    Robier, Christoph; Quehenberger, Franz; Neubauer, Manfred; Stettin, Mariana; Rainer, Franz

    2014-06-01

    In synovial fluids (SF) with low leukocyte or/and crystal counts, important features may be missed, if exclusively smears are examined by polarized microscopy. That may be overcome by cytocentrifuges, which use low-speed centrifugal force to concentrate cells onto a glass slide and thus enhance the number of cells per high power field (HPF). We compared the calcium pyrophosphate (CPP) crystal counts in cytospin preparations with those in common smears of SF. The number of CPP crystals was counted in 50 SF samples by polarized microscopy, and statistical comparisons of the mean values of the cytospin and smear preparations were performed using the Wilcoxon test. The reproducibility within the slides of the cytocentrifuge and smear samples was determined by Spearman's rank correlation. The crystal counts were significantly higher in the cytospin than in the smear preparations (median 96/10 HPF vs. 2.5/10 HPF, p < 0.0001). The correlation in the crystal count between the slides 1 and 2 was significantly higher within the cytocentrifuge than in the smear group (0.97 vs. 0.73, p = 0.0004). CPP-negative cytospin preparations in initially smear-positive slides were not observed. We confirmed that the cytospin technique significantly enhances the number of examinable crystals per HPF, compared to common smears. PMID:23388697

  8. Quantification of periodontal pathogens cell counts by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenqing; Chen, Shaoxiong; Liu, Chenchen; Zhang, Dawei; Dou, Xiaoming; Yamaguchi, Yoshinori

    2014-09-26

    Gingivitis is a highly prevalent periodontal disease around the worldwide. Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g), Treponema denticola (T.d) and Tannerela forsythia (T.f) were considered to be three important periodontal pathogens related to gingivitis, and research shows that the counts of periodontal pathogen cells in the patients before, during, and after fixed orthodontic appliance therapy were quite different. We proposed a simple method to extract the periodontal pathogens from the periodontal pocket in this work and demonstrated a new approach to determine periodontal pathogen level based on capillary electrophoresis (CE). After polymerase chain reaction amplification of P.g (197 bp), T.d (311 bp), and T.f (641 bp), it shows that they can rapidly identified by CE within 5 min. The peak area in the eletropherogram is linearly related to the concentration of P.g, T.d, and T.f, and the correlation coefficients R(2) corresponding to them are 0.993, 0.993, and 0.956, respectively. According to this linearly relationship, the estimated concentration of P.g, T.d, and T.f in gingival crevicular fluid from one volunteer was inferred to be about 9.90×10(2), 1.48×10(3), and 9.01×10(2)cells/?l, respectively. PMID:25145561

  9. Trends in asbestos body counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid over two decades

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trends in asbestos body counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid over two decades. P. Dumortier, J. Thimpont, V. de Maertelaer, P. De Vuyst. #ERS Journals Ltd 2003. ABSTRACT: As in most western countries, the use of asbestos has decreased in Belgium since the mid 19709s. Successive regulations have lowered the permissible levels of exposure and prohibited the use of various asbestos

  10. An automated cell-counting algorithm for fluorescently-stained cells in migration assays

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A cell-counting algorithm, developed in Matlab®, was created to efficiently count migrated fluorescently-stained cells on membranes from migration assays. At each concentration of cells used (10,000, and 100,000 cells), images were acquired at 2.5 ×, 5 ×, and 10 × objective magnifications. Automated cell counts strongly correlated to manual counts (r2 = 0.99, P < 0.0001 for a total of 47 images), with no difference in the measurements between methods under all conditions. We conclude that our automated method is accurate, more efficient, and void of variability and potential observer bias normally associated with manual counting. PMID:22011343

  11. Development of a stained cell nuclei counting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timilsina, Niranjan; Moffatt, Christopher; Okada, Kazunori

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a novel cell counting system which exploits the Fast Radial Symmetry Transformation (FRST) algorithm [1]. The driving force behind our system is a research on neurogenesis in the intact nervous system of Manduca Sexta or the Tobacco Hornworm, which was being studied to assess the impact of age, food and environment on neurogenesis. The varying thickness of the intact nervous system in this species often yields images with inhomogeneous background and inconsistencies such as varying illumination, variable contrast, and irregular cell size. For automated counting, such inhomogeneity and inconsistencies must be addressed, which no existing work has done successfully. Thus, our goal is to devise a new cell counting algorithm for the images with non-uniform background. Our solution adapts FRST: a computer vision algorithm which is designed to detect points of interest on circular regions such as human eyes. This algorithm enhances the occurrences of the stained-cell nuclei in 2D digital images and negates the problems caused by their inhomogeneity. Besides FRST, our algorithm employs standard image processing methods, such as mathematical morphology and connected component analysis. We have evaluated the developed cell counting system with fourteen digital images of Tobacco Hornworm's nervous system collected for this study with ground-truth cell counts by biology experts. Experimental results show that our system has a minimum error of 1.41% and mean error of 16.68% which is at least forty-four percent better than the algorithm without FRST.

  12. Is total lymphocyte count a predictor for CD4 cell count in initiation antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients?

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahi, Alireza; Saffar, Hana; Shoar, Saeed; Jafari, Siroos

    2014-01-01

    Background: Since laboratory assessments of HIV-infected patients by flow cytometric methods are expensive and unavailable in resource-limited countries, total lymphocyte count by haematology cell counter is supposed to be a suitable surrogate marker to initiate and monitor course of the disease in these patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of total lymphocyte count as a surrogate marker for CD4 count in HIV-infected patients. Patients and Methods: In a prospective study 560 HIV-positive individuals evaluated for total and CD4 lymphocyte count. For correlation between CD4 count and total lymphocyte count, haemoglobin and haematocrit we defined cut-off values as 200 cell/?l, 1200 cell/?l, 12 gr/dl and 30%, respectively, and compared CD4 count with each parameter separately. Positive predictive value, negative predictive value, sensitivity and specificity of varying total lymphocyte count cutoffs were computed for CD4 count ? 200 cell/?l and ? 350 cell/?l. Results: Strong degree of correlation was noted between CD4 and total lymphocyte count (r: 0.610, P < 0.001). Mean and standard deviation of total lymphocyte count, haemoglobin and haematocrit in relation to CD4 count were calculated which indicated significant correlation between these variables. Kappa coefficient for agreement was also calculated which showed fair correlation between CD4 200 cell/?l and total lymphocyte count 1200 cell/?l (0.35). Conclusion: This study reveals that despite low sensitivity and specificity of total lymphocyte count as a surrogate marker for CD4, total lymphocyte count is of great importance and benefit in resource-limited settings. PMID:25114362

  13. Image-based red cell counting for wild animals blood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudio R. M. Mauricio; Fábio K. Schneider; L. Correia dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    An image-based red blood cell (RBC) automatic counting system is presented for wild animals blood analysis. Images with 2048×1536-pixel resolution acquired on an optical microscope using Neubauer chambers are used to evaluate RBC counting for three animal species (Leopardus pardalis, Cebus apella and Nasua nasua) and the error found using the proposed method is similar to that obtained for inter

  14. BREEDING, SELECTION AND SOMATIC CELL COUNTS: WHERE ARE WE TODAY?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Shook

    Genetics can help prevent mastitis and reduce somatic cell count. The purpose of this article is to inform producers, veterinarians, extension personnel, artificial breeding personnel, and genetics specialists about the methods and usefulness of genetics to improve milk quality. The USDA Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory (AIPL) has published genetic evaluations for Somatic Cell Score (SCS) since 1994 (Schutz et al.,

  15. Reliability of cell counts and protein determinations in serial bronchoalveolar lavage procedures performed on healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Banks, D E; Morgan, J E; Deshazo, R D; Weissman, D; Rodriguez, F H; Barkman, H W; Salvaggio, J E

    1990-11-01

    We measured the variability in volume, total cells, cell types, and proteins in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid recovered from 10 volunteers (five smokers, five non-smokers) lavaged repeatedly over a three-year period. Thirty lavages were performed using a rigorously standardized approach. Differential counts on the cytospin preparations were performed by three independent readers and interobserver variability in the interpretation of these counts measured. Variability in interpreting the cellular counts was less in smokers than non-smokers and decreased as the number of cells of any particular type increased. Only one reader interpreting the mean percentage of cells recovered of one cell type (neutrophils) in only one smoking group, the nonsmokers, was significantly different from the other two. There was also considerable variability in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid total protein, albumin, IgG, and IgA. Expressing albumin and IgG as a percentage of total protein recovered and expressing IgA and albumin as a ratio in nonsmokers lessened the variability of these parameters. Mean and standard deviations of the cellular and protein concentrations showed that large differences in these parameters would be necessary in order to attribute these changes to changes in the underlying pulmonary status. Excessive variability in nearly all parameters in this group without recognized lung disease challenges the usefulness of this test in the clinical assessment of patients serially followed because of underlying lung disease. PMID:2240014

  16. 21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. 864.8185 Section 864.8185 Food...Hematology Reagents § 864.8185 Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification....

  17. 21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. 864.8185 Section 864.8185 Food...Hematology Reagents § 864.8185 Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification....

  18. 21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. 864.8185 Section 864.8185 Food...Hematology Reagents § 864.8185 Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification....

  19. 21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. 864.8185 Section 864.8185 Food...Hematology Reagents § 864.8185 Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification....

  20. Amniotic fluid stem cells prevent ?-cell injury

    PubMed Central

    VILLANI, VALENTINA; MILANESI, ANNA; SEDRAKYAN, SARGIS; DA SACCO, STEFANO; ANGELOW, SUSANNE; CONCONI, MARIA TERESA; DI LIDDO, ROSA; DE FILIPPO, ROGER; PERIN, LAURA

    2015-01-01

    Background aims The contribution of amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSC) to tissue protection and regeneration in models of acute and chronic kidney injuries and lung failure has been shown in recent years. In the present study, we used a chemically induced mouse model of type 1 diabetes to determine whether AFSC could play a role in modulating ?-cell injury and restoring ?-cell function. Methods Streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were given intracardial injection of AFSC; morphological and physiological parameters and gene expression profile for the insulin pathway were evaluated after cell transplantation. Results AFSC injection resulted in protection from ?-cell damage and increased ?-cell regeneration in a subset of mice as indicated by glucose and insulin levels, increased islet mass and preservation of islet structure. Moreover, ?-cell preservation/regeneration correlated with activation of the insulin receptor/Pi3K/Akt signaling pathway and vascular endothelial growth factor-A expression involved in maintaining ?-cell mass and function. Conclusions Our results suggest a therapeutic role for AFSC in preserving and promoting endogenous ?-cell functionality and proliferation. The protective role of AFSC is evident when stem cell transplantation is performed before severe hyperglycemia occurs, which suggests the importance of early intervention. The present study demonstrates the possible benefits of the application of a non–genetically engineered stem cell population derived from amniotic fluid for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus and gives new insight on the mechanism by which the beneficial effect is achieved. PMID:24210784

  1. COUNTING NATURAL POPULATIONS OF MICROCYSTIS AERUGINOSA: A SIMPLE METHOD FOR COLONY DISRUPTION INTO SINGLE CELLS AND ITS EFFECT ON CELL COUNTS OF OTHER SPECIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamar Zohary; Arcangela M. Pais Madeira

    2001-01-01

    A rapid, high-speed blending method for disrupting colonies of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa to single cells in preparation for cell counts is described. Cell counts obtained for treated samples of natural populations of M. aeruginosa from Hartbeespoort Dam did not differ significantly from counts obtained after colonies were disrupted by the heating method of Humphries & Widjaja (1979). Untreated, handshaken

  2. COUNTING NATURAL POPULATIONS OF MICROCYSTIS AERUGINOSA: A SIMPLE METHOD FOR COLONY DISRUPTION INTO SINGLE CELLS AND ITS EFFECT ON CELL COUNTS OF OTHER SPECIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamar Zohary; Arcangela M. Pais Madeira

    1987-01-01

    A rapid, high-speed blending method for disrupting colonies of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa to single cells in preparation for cell counts is described. Cell counts obtained for treated samples of natural populations of M. aeruginosa from Hartbeespoort Dam did not differ significantly from counts obtained after colonies were disrupted by the heating method of Humphries & Widjaja (1979). Untreated, handshaken

  3. A cell-counting factor regulating structure size in Dictyostelium

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Debra A.; Gomer, Richard H.

    1999-01-01

    Developing Dictyostelium cells form large aggregation streams that break up into groups of 0.2?×?105 to 1?×?105 cells. Each group then becomes a fruiting body. smlA cells oversecrete an unknown factor that causes aggregation streams to break up into groups of ?5?×?103 cells and thus form very small fruiting bodies. We have purified the counting factor and find that it behaves as a complex of polypeptides with an effective molecular mass of 450 kD. One of the polypeptides is a 40-kD hydrophilic protein we have named countin. In transformants with a disrupted countin gene, there is no detectable secretion of counting factor, and the aggregation streams do not break up, resulting in huge (up to 2?×?105 cell) fruiting bodies. PMID:10444594

  4. MONITORING GOAT AND SHEEP MILK SOMATIC CELL COUNTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The milk somatic cell count (MSCC) forms the basis of abnormal milk control programs world wide for goats, cows and sheep. To better understand factors that contribute to elevations in MSCC, the effects of stage of lactation, parity, breed and state/area in the United States (US) on MSCC were exami...

  5. Pleural Fluid Analysis Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... set of tests (cell count, protein, albumin, or lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level, and appearance of the fluid) ... on exudate fluid may include: Pleural fluid glucose, lactate, amylase, triglyceride, and/or tumor markers Microscopic examination – ...

  6. Digital Cell Counting Device Integrated with a Single-Cell Array

    PubMed Central

    Saeki, Tatsuya; Hosokawa, Masahito; Lim, Tae-kyu; Harada, Manabu; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel cell counting method accomplished using a single-cell array fabricated on an image sensor, complementary metal oxide semiconductor sensor. The single-cell array was constructed using a microcavity array, which can trap up to 7,500 single cells on microcavities periodically arranged on a plane metallic substrate via the application of a negative pressure. The proposed method for cell counting is based on shadow imaging, which uses a light diffraction pattern generated by the microcavity array and trapped cells. Under illumination, the cell-occupied microcavities are visualized as shadow patterns in an image recorded by the complementary metal oxide semiconductor sensor due to light attenuation. The cell count is determined by enumerating the uniform shadow patterns created from one-on-one relationships with single cells trapped on the microcavities in digital format. In the experiment, all cell counting processes including entrapment of non-labeled HeLa cells from suspensions on the array and image acquisition of a wide-field-of-view of 30 mm2 in 1/60 seconds were implemented in a single integrated device. As a result, the results from the digital cell counting had a linear relationship with those obtained from microscopic observation (r2?=?0.99). This platform could be used at extremely low cell concentrations, i.e., 25–15,000 cells/mL. Our proposed system provides a simple and rapid miniaturized cell counting device for routine laboratory use. PMID:24551208

  7. Counts-in-cells comparisons of redshift surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efstathiou, George

    1995-10-01

    A statistical technique is presented for comparing galaxy counts in cells in redshift surveys sampling the same volume of space. The technique can be used to recover the variances and covariances in the cell counts. It can be used to derive the relative amplitude of the clustering pattern traced by galaxies of different types, for example optical and infrared-selected galaxies, early- and late-type galaxies, or luminous and faint galaxies. The statistics can also be used to test for systematic errors in galaxy catalogues. We illustrate the technique with two applications. We compare the cell count statistics of the 1.2-Jy and QDOT redshift surveys of IRAS galaxies, and show that, although there are large differences in the variances measured in cells of size L=30 and 40h^-1 Mpc,^1 the two surveys are compatible with the hypothesis that they sample the same underlying density field. We show that the variances measured from the QDOT survey are extremely sensitive to a small number of galaxies in the region of the Hercules supercluster. We also compare the clustering of optically luminous and faint galaxies in the Stromlo-APM redshift survey and show, within large errors, that there is no firm evidence for any differences in the clustering properties of galaxies with different luminosities on scales L>~10h^-1 Mpc.

  8. Cell detection and counting through cell lysate impedance spectroscopy in microfluidic devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xuanhong Cheng; Yi-shao Liu; Daniel Irimia; Utkan Demirci; Liju Yang; Lee Zamir; William R Rodríguez; Mehmet Toner; Rashid Bashir

    2007-01-01

    Cell-based microfluidic devices have attracted interest for a wide range of applications. While optical cell counting and flow cytometry-type devices have been reported extensively, sensitive and efficient non-optical methods to detect and quantify cells attached over large surface areas within microdevices are generally lacking. We describe an electrical method for counting cells based on the measurement of changes in conductivity

  9. Guidelines for monitoring bulk tank milk somatic cell and bacterial counts.

    PubMed

    Jayarao, B M; Pillai, S R; Sawant, A A; Wolfgang, D R; Hegde, N V

    2004-10-01

    This study was conducted to establish guidelines for monitoring bulk tank milk somatic cell count and bacterial counts, and to understand the relationship between different bacterial groups that occur in bulk tank milk. One hundred twenty-six dairy farms in 14 counties of Pennsylvania participated, each providing one bulk tank milk sample every 15 d for 2 mo. The 4 bulk tank milk samples from each farm were examined for bulk tank somatic cell count and bacterial counts including standard plate count, preliminary incubation count, laboratory pasteurization count, coagulase-negative staphylococcal count, environmental streptococcal count, coliform count, and gram-negative noncoliform count. The milk samples were also examined for presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Mycoplasma. The bacterial counts of 4 bulk tank milk samples examined over an 8-wk period were averaged and expressed as mean bacterial count per milliliter. The study revealed that an increase in the frequency of isolation of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae was significantly associated with an increased bulk tank somatic cell count. Paired correlation analysis showed that there was low correlation between different bacterial counts. Bulk tank milk with low (<5000 cfu/mL) standard plate count also had a significantly low level of mean bulk tank somatic cell count (<200,000 cells/mL), preliminary incubation count (<10,000 cfu/mL), laboratory pasteurization count (<100 cfu/mL), coagulase-negative staphylococci and environmental streptococcal counts (<500 cfu/mL), and noncoliform count (<200 cfu/mL). Coliform count was less likely to be associated with somatic cell or other bacterial counts. Herd size and farm management practices had considerable influence on somatic cell and bacterial counts in bulk tank milk. Dairy herds that used automatic milking detachers, sand as bedding material, dip cups for teat dipping instead of spraying, and practiced pre-and postdipping had significantly lower bulk tank somatic cell and/or bacterial counts. In conclusion, categorized bulk tank somatic cell and bacterial counts could serve as indicators and facilitate monitoring of herd udder health and milk quality. PMID:15377636

  10. Cell detection and counting through cell lysate impedance spectroscopy in microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xuanhong; Liu, Yi-shao; Irimia, Daniel; Demirci, Utkan; Yang, Liju; Zamir, Lee; Rodríguez, William R; Toner, Mehmet; Bashir, Rashid

    2007-06-01

    Cell-based microfluidic devices have attracted interest for a wide range of applications. While optical cell counting and flow cytometry-type devices have been reported extensively, sensitive and efficient non-optical methods to detect and quantify cells attached over large surface areas within microdevices are generally lacking. We describe an electrical method for counting cells based on the measurement of changes in conductivity of the surrounding medium due to ions released from surface-immobilized cells within a microfluidic channel. Immobilized cells are lysed using a low conductivity, hypotonic media and the resulting change in impedance is measured using surface patterned electrodes to detect and quantify the number of cells. We found that the bulk solution conductance increases linearly with the number of isolated cells contributing to solution ion concentration. The method of cell lysate impedance spectroscopy is sensitive enough to detect 20 cells microL(-1), and offers a simple and efficient method for detecting and enumerating cells within microfluidic devices for many applications including measurement of CD4 cell counts in HIV patients in resource-limited settings. To our knowledge, this is the most sensitive approach using non-optical setups to enumerate immobilized cells. The microfluidic device, capable of isolating specific cell types from a complex bio-fluidic and quantifying cell number, can serve as a single use cartridge for a hand-held instrument to provide simple, fast and affordable cell counting in point-of-care settings. PMID:17538717

  11. Mast cell count in oral reactive lesions: A histochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Vandana; Bhagwath, Sundeep S.; Reddy, Munish

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to quantify the number of mast cells in focal reactive hyperplastic lesions of the oral cavity and to compare these two number of mast cells in normal gingival tissues and to correlate their presence with the state of connective tissue changes in reactive lesions and probably suggest a role for mast cells in these lesions. Materials and Methods: Patient records were retrieved during a 10 year period from 2001 to 2010. Data of all reactive hyperplasias namely focal fibrous hyperplasia, pyogenic granuloma (PG), peripheral ossifying fibroma (POF) and peripheral giant cell granuloma (PGCG) were reviewed and 10 cases seen in the gingiva were selected for each category and stained with 1% toluidine blue for mast cells. Statistical analysis was applied to see the significant differences between the groups and with the normal gingival tissue. One-way ANOVA-F and unpaired t-test was applied and significant differences were seen between the groups at 5% level of significance. Results: In this study, mast cell count was maximum in POF and fibrous hyperplasia (FH) followed by cases of PG and PGCG. Conclusion: The number of mast cells was more numerous in POF and FH suggesting that mast cell activation is a characteristic feature of chronic inflammation, a condition that may lead to fibrosis as a result of increased collagen synthesis by fibroblasts. PMID:24932188

  12. Neurogenic differentiation of amniotic fluid stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Rosner; M. Mikula; A. Preitschopf; M. Feichtinger; K. Schipany; M. Hengstschläger

    In 2003, human amniotic fluid has been shown to contain stem cells expressing Oct-4, a marker for pluripotency. This finding\\u000a initiated a rapidly growing and very promising new stem cell research field. Since then, amniotic fluid stem (AFS) cells have\\u000a been demonstrated to harbour the potential to differentiate into any of the three germ layers and to form three-dimensional\\u000a aggregates,

  13. WBC count

    MedlinePLUS

    Leukocyte count; White blood cell count ... in the blood is 4,500-10,000 white blood cells per microliter (mcL). Normal value ranges ... LOW WHITE BLOOD CELL (WBC) COUNT A low number of WBCs is called leukopenia. A WBC count below 4500 ...

  14. CELLCOUNTER: Novel Open-Source Software for Counting Cell Migration and Invasion In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hongshun; Zhu, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Transwell Boyden chamber based migration/invasion assay is a simple and extensively used approach for the characterization of cell motility in vitro. Cell motility is quantified by counting the number of cells that pass through the filter membrane. The counting is usually performed manually, which is laborious and error prone. We have therefore developed CELLCOUNTER, an application that is capable of recognizing and counting the total number of cells through an intuitive graphical user interface. The counting can be performed in batch, and the counting results can be visualized and further curated manually. CELLCOUNTER will be helpful in streamlining the experimental process and improving the reliability of the data acquisition. PMID:25054152

  15. Cell detection and counting through cell lysate impedance spectroscopy in microfluidic devices{

    E-print Network

    Demirci, Utkan

    ion concentration. The method of cell lysate impedance spectroscopy is sensitive enough to detect 20Cell detection and counting through cell lysate impedance spectroscopy in microfluidic devices-type devices have been reported extensively, sensitive and efficient non-optical methods to detect and quantify

  16. Intracellular fluid flow in rapidly moving cells

    PubMed Central

    Keren, Kinneret; Yam, Patricia T.; Kinkhabwala, Anika; Mogilner, Alex; Theriot, Julie A.

    2010-01-01

    Cytosolic fluid dynamics have been implicated in cell motility1–5 because of the hydrodynamic forces they induce and because of their influence on transport of components of the actin machinery to the leading edge. To investigate the existence and the direction of fluid flow in rapidly moving cells, we introduced inert quantum dots into the lamellipodia of fish epithelial keratocytes and analysed their distribution and motion. Our results indicate that fluid flow is directed from the cell body towards the leading edge in the cell frame of reference, at about 40% of cell speed. We propose that this forward-directed flow is driven by increased hydrostatic pressure generated at the rear of the cell by myosin contraction, and show that inhibition of myosin II activity by blebbistatin reverses the direction of fluid flow and leads to a decrease in keratocyte speed. We present a physical model for fluid pressure and flow in moving cells that quantitatively accounts for our experimental data. PMID:19767741

  17. FISH and Chips: Automation of Fluorescent Dot Counting in Interphase Cell Nuclei

    E-print Network

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    FISH and Chips: Automation of Fluorescent Dot Counting in Interphase Cell Nuclei Hans Netten,1 Ian abnormalities in inter- phase cell nuclei. This process is called dot counting. To estimate the distribution in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques in interphase cell nuclei have great potential, both in re- search

  18. Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Daniel O. (Glenville, NY); Walsh, Michael M. (Fairfield, CT)

    2003-01-01

    A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).

  19. Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Daniel O. (Glenville, NY); Walsh, Michael M. (Fairfield, CT)

    1999-01-01

    A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel in order to mix its respective portion of liquid water with the corresponding portion of the stream. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).

  20. Long-Term CD4+ Cell Count in Response to Combination Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Paula M.; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Velasque, Luciane; Pacheco, Antonio G.; Veloso, Valdilea G.; Moore, Richard D.; Struchiner, Claudio J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective There is a continuous debate on how to adequately evaluate long-term CD4+ cell count in response to combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Our study evaluated the long-term CD4+ cell count response (up to ten years) after initiation of ART and described the differences in the CD4+ cell count response stratified by pretreatment CD4+ cell count, and other socio-demographic, behavioral, and clinical factors. Methods The study population included patients starting ART in the clinical cohorts of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and Baltimore, United States. Inverse probability of censoring weighting was used to estimate mean annual CD4+ cell counts while adjusting for choice of initial ART regimen, ART discontinuation and losses-to-follow-up. Results From 1997 to 2011, 3116 individuals started ART; preferred initial regimen was NNRTI-based (63%). The median follow-up time was 5 years, 10% of the individuals had nine or more years of follow-up. Observed CD4+ cell counts increased throughout the ten years of follow-up. Weighted results, in contrast, increased up to year four and plateaued thereafter with 50% of the population reaching CD4+ cell counts of 449/?L or more. Out of all stratification variables considered, only individuals with pre-treatment CD4+ cell counts ?350/?L showed increasing CD4+ cell counts over time with 76% surpassing the CD4+ cell count >500/?L threshold at year ten. Conclusion The present study corroborates the growing body of knowledge advocating early start of ART by showing that only patients who start ART early fully recover to normal CD4+ cell counts. PMID:24695533

  1. Automated counting of cell bodies using Nissl stained cross-sectional images

    E-print Network

    D'Souza, Aswin Cletus

    2008-10-10

    Cell count is an important metric in neurological research. The loss in numbers of certain cells like neurons has been found to accompany not only the deterioration of important brain functions but disorders like clinical depression as well. Since...

  2. Automated counting of cell bodies using Nissl stained cross-sectional images

    E-print Network

    D'Souza, Aswin Cletus

    2009-05-15

    Cell count is an important metric in neurological research. The loss in numbers of certain cells like neurons has been found to accompany not only the deterioration of important brain functions but disorders like clinical depression as well. Since...

  3. Micro-a-fluidics ELISA for Rapid CD4 Cell Count at the Point-of-Care

    PubMed Central

    Wang, ShuQi; Tasoglu, Savas; Chen, Paul Z.; Chen, Michael; Akbas, Ragip; Wach, Sonya; Ozdemir, Cenk Ibrahim; Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Giguel, Francoise F.; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.; Demirci, Utkan

    2014-01-01

    HIV has become one of the most devastating pathogens in human history. Despite fast progress in HIV-related basic research, antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains the most effective method to save AIDS patients' lives. Unfortunately, ART cannot be universally accessed, especially in developing countries, due to the lack of effective treatment monitoring diagnostics. Here, we present an inexpensive, rapid and portable micro-a-fluidic platform, which can streamline the process of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in a fully automated manner for CD4 cell count. The micro-a-fluidic CD4 cell count is achieved by eliminating operational fluid flow via “moving the substrate”, as opposed to “flowing liquid” in traditional ELISA or microfluidic methods. This is the first demonstration of capturing and detecting cells from unprocessed whole blood using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in a microfluidic channel. Combined with cell phone imaging, the presented micro-a-fluidic ELISA platform holds great promise for offering rapid CD4 cell count to scale up much needed ART in resource-constrained settings. The developed system can be extended to multiple areas for ELISA-related assays. PMID:24448112

  4. Micro-a-fluidics ELISA for rapid CD4 cell count at the point-of-care.

    PubMed

    Wang, ShuQi; Tasoglu, Savas; Chen, Paul Z; Chen, Michael; Akbas, Ragip; Wach, Sonya; Ozdemir, Cenk Ibrahim; Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Giguel, Francoise F; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Demirci, Utkan

    2014-01-01

    HIV has become one of the most devastating pathogens in human history. Despite fast progress in HIV-related basic research, antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains the most effective method to save AIDS patients' lives. Unfortunately, ART cannot be universally accessed, especially in developing countries, due to the lack of effective treatment monitoring diagnostics. Here, we present an inexpensive, rapid and portable micro-a-fluidic platform, which can streamline the process of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in a fully automated manner for CD4 cell count. The micro-a-fluidic CD4 cell count is achieved by eliminating operational fluid flow via "moving the substrate", as opposed to "flowing liquid" in traditional ELISA or microfluidic methods. This is the first demonstration of capturing and detecting cells from unprocessed whole blood using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in a microfluidic channel. Combined with cell phone imaging, the presented micro-a-fluidic ELISA platform holds great promise for offering rapid CD4 cell count to scale up much needed ART in resource-constrained settings. The developed system can be extended to multiple areas for ELISA-related assays. PMID:24448112

  5. Association of Psychological Stress Response of Fatigue with White Blood Cell Count in Male Daytime Workers

    PubMed Central

    NISHITANI, Naoko; SAKAKIBARA, Hisataka

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between work-related psychological and physical stress responses and counts of white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils, and lymphocytes were investigated in 101 daytime workers. Counts of WBCs and neutrophils were positively associated with smoking and inversely correlated with high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Additionally, general fatigue score as measured by the profile of mood state was positively correlated with WBC and neutrophil counts whereas lymphocyte counts was not significantly associated with fatigue score. Multiple regression analysis showed that WBC count was significantly related to general fatigue, age, and HDL-cholesterol levels. Neutrophil count was significantly related to HDL-cholesterol levels and fatigue score. Among various psychological stress response variables, general fatigue may be a key determinant of low-grade inflammation as represented by increases of WBC and neutrophil counts. PMID:24975105

  6. Immature germ cells in semen – correlation with total sperm count and sperm motility

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Priya S.; Humbarwadi, Rajendra S.; Patil, Ashalata D.; Gune, Anita R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Current data regarding infertility suggests that male factor contributes up to 30% of the total cases of infertility. Semen analysis reveals the presence of spermatozoa as well as a number of non-sperm cells, presently being mentioned in routine semen report as “round cells” without further differentiating them into leucocytes or immature germ cells. Aim: The aim of this work was to study a simple, cost-effective, and convenient method for differentiating the round cells in semen into immature germ cells and leucocytes and correlating them with total sperm counts and motility. Materials and Methods: Semen samples from 120 males, who had come for investigation for infertility, were collected, semen parameters recorded, and stained smears studied for different round cells. Statistical analysis of the data was done to correlate total sperm counts and sperm motility with the occurrence of immature germ cells and leucocytes. The average shedding of immature germ cells in different groups with normal and low sperm counts was compared. The clinical significance of “round cells” in semen and their differentiation into leucocytes and immature germ cells are discussed. Conclusions: Round cells in semen can be differentiated into immature germ cells and leucocytes using simple staining methods. The differential counts mentioned in a semen report give valuable and clinically relevant information. In this study, we observed a negative correlation between total count and immature germ cells, as well as sperm motility and shedding of immature germ cells. The latter was statistically significant with a P value 0.000. PMID:24130411

  7. Accurate cell counts in live mouse embryos using optical quadrature and differential interference contrast microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warger, William C., II; Newmark, Judith A.; Zhao, Bing; Warner, Carol M.; DiMarzio, Charles A.

    2006-02-01

    Present imaging techniques used in in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics are unable to produce accurate cell counts in developing embryos past the eight-cell stage. We have developed a method that has produced accurate cell counts in live mouse embryos ranging from 13-25 cells by combining Differential Interference Contrast (DIC) and Optical Quadrature Microscopy. Optical Quadrature Microscopy is an interferometric imaging modality that measures the amplitude and phase of the signal beam that travels through the embryo. The phase is transformed into an image of optical path length difference, which is used to determine the maximum optical path length deviation of a single cell. DIC microscopy gives distinct cell boundaries for cells within the focal plane when other cells do not lie in the path to the objective. Fitting an ellipse to the boundary of a single cell in the DIC image and combining it with the maximum optical path length deviation of a single cell creates an ellipsoidal model cell of optical path length deviation. Subtracting the model cell from the Optical Quadrature image will either show the optical path length deviation of the culture medium or reveal another cell underneath. Once all the boundaries are used in the DIC image, the subtracted Optical Quadrature image is analyzed to determine the cell boundaries of the remaining cells. The final cell count is produced when no more cells can be subtracted. We have produced exact cell counts on 5 samples, which have been validated by Epi-Fluorescence images of Hoechst stained nuclei.

  8. Current automated 3D cell detection methods are not a suitable replacement for manual stereologic cell counting

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Christoph; Eastwood, Brian S.; Tappan, Susan J.; Glaser, Jack R.; Peterson, Daniel A.; Hof, Patrick R.

    2014-01-01

    Stereologic cell counting has had a major impact on the field of neuroscience. A major bottleneck in stereologic cell counting is that the user must manually decide whether or not each cell is counted according to three-dimensional (3D) stereologic counting rules by visual inspection within hundreds of microscopic fields-of-view per investigated brain or brain region. Reliance on visual inspection forces stereologic cell counting to be very labor-intensive and time-consuming, and is the main reason why biased, non-stereologic two-dimensional (2D) “cell counting” approaches have remained in widespread use. We present an evaluation of the performance of modern automated cell detection and segmentation algorithms as a potential alternative to the manual approach in stereologic cell counting. The image data used in this study were 3D microscopic images of thick brain tissue sections prepared with a variety of commonly used nuclear and cytoplasmic stains. The evaluation compared the numbers and locations of cells identified unambiguously and counted exhaustively by an expert observer with those found by three automated 3D cell detection algorithms: nuclei segmentation from the FARSIGHT toolkit, nuclei segmentation by 3D multiple level set methods, and the 3D object counter plug-in for ImageJ. Of these methods, FARSIGHT performed best, with true-positive detection rates between 38 and 99% and false-positive rates from 3.6 to 82%. The results demonstrate that the current automated methods suffer from lower detection rates and higher false-positive rates than are acceptable for obtaining valid estimates of cell numbers. Thus, at present, stereologic cell counting with manual decision for object inclusion according to unbiased stereologic counting rules remains the only adequate method for unbiased cell quantification in histologic tissue sections. PMID:24847213

  9. The Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, J. E.; Ohlsen, D.; Kittleman, S.; Borhani, N.; Leslie, F.; Miller, T.

    1999-01-01

    The Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) experiment performed visualizations of thermal convection in a rotating differentially heated spherical shell of fluid. In these experiments dielectric polarization forces are used to generate a radially directed buoyancy force. This enables the laboratory simulation of a number of geophysically and astrophysically important situations in which sphericity and rotation both impose strong constraints on global scale fluid motions. During USML-2 a large set of experiments with spherically symmetric heating were carried out. These enabled the determination of critical points for the transition to various forms of nonaxisymmetric convection and, for highly turbulent flows, the transition latitudes separating the different modes of motion. This paper presents a first analysis of these experiments as well as data on the general performance of the instrument during the USML-2 flight.

  10. Correlation between Peripheral White Blood Cell Counts and Hyperglycemic Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; Wu, Hai-feng; Ma, Shao-gang; Bai, Feng; Hu, Wen; Jin, Yue; Liu, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the correlation between differential leukocyte counts and hyperglycemic emergencies. Methods: Fifty patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), 50 patients with diabetic ketosis (DK), 50 non-DK diabetic patients with stable glycemic control, and 50 normal controls were enrolled. Their total and differential leukocyte counts were measured and evaluated at admission and after treatment. Results: The patients with DKA and DK had higher plasma glucose levels (20.84±6.73 mmol/L, 15.55±2.6 mmol/L, respectively) and more median leukocytes (13325/mm3 and 6595/mm3, respectively) and median neutrophils (11124 /mm3 and 4125/mm3, respectively) but fewer median eosinophils (28/mm3 and 72/mm3, respectively) compared to non-DK and control groups (all p < 0.05). Acute infection increased the elevating extent. The median leukocyte counts in DK and non-DK patients (6595/mm3 and 6008/mm3, respectively) were within the normal range. The counts of total leukocytes and neutrophils were significantly higher but eosinophils lower in severe DKA cases than in mild/moderate cases (p < 0.05). When the DKA and DK and infection resolved, total leukocytes and neutrophils fell, but eosinophils increased. The counts of total leukocytes, neutrophils, and monocytes were negatively correlated with arterial pH levels (r = -0.515, r = -0.510, r = -0.517, all p < 0.001, respectively) and positively correlated with plasma glucose levels (r = 0.722, r = 0.733, r = 0.632, all p < 0.05, respectively) in DKA patients. The arterial pH level was the most significant factor affecting total leukocytes in DKA (? = 0.467, p = 0.003). The diagnosis analysis showed that higher total leukocyte and neutrophil counts and lower eosinophil counts had a significant ability to reflect the presence of hyperglycemic emergencies. Conclusion: More total leukocytes and neutrophils but fewer eosinophils was significantly correlated with DKA and DK. Leukocyte counts can add valuable information to reflect the presence of hyperglycemic crisis and acute infection. PMID:23630441

  11. Optimization of a Cell Counting Algorithm for Mobile Point-of-Care Testing Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, DaeHan; Kim, Nam Sung; Moon, SangJun; Park, Taejoon; Son, Sang Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    In a point-of-care (POC) setting, it is critically important to reliably count the number of specific cells in a blood sample. Software-based cell counting, which is far faster than manual counting, while much cheaper than hardware-based counting, has emerged as an attractive solution potentially applicable to mobile POC testing. However, the existing software-based algorithm based on the normalized cross-correlation (NCC) method is too time- and, thus, energy-consuming to be deployed for battery-powered mobile POC testing platforms. In this paper, we identify inefficiencies in the NCC-based algorithm and propose two synergistic optimization techniques that can considerably reduce the runtime and, thus, energy consumption of the original algorithm with negligible impact on counting accuracy. We demonstrate that an Android™ smart phone running the optimized algorithm consumes 11.5× less runtime than the original algorithm. PMID:25195851

  12. The volumes and transcript counts of single cells reveal concentration homeostasis and capture biological noise.

    PubMed

    Kempe, Hermannus; Schwabe, Anne; Crémazy, Frédéric; Verschure, Pernette J; Bruggeman, Frank J

    2015-02-15

    Transcriptional stochasticity can be measured by counting the number of mRNA molecules per cell. Cell-to-cell variability is best captured in terms of concentration rather than molecule counts, because reaction rates depend on concentrations. We combined single-molecule mRNA counting with single-cell volume measurements to quantify the statistics of both transcript numbers and concentrations in human cells. We compared three cell clones that differ only in the genomic integration site of an identical constitutively expressed reporter gene. The transcript number per cell varied proportionally with cell volume in all three clones, indicating concentration homeostasis. We found that the cell-to-cell variability in the mRNA concentration is almost exclusively due to cell-to-cell variation in gene expression activity, whereas the cell-to-cell variation in mRNA number is larger, due to a significant contribution of cell volume variability. We concluded that the precise relationship between transcript number and cell volume sets the biological stochasticity of living cells. This study highlights the importance of the quantitative measurement of transcript concentrations in studies of cell-to-cell variability in biology. PMID:25518937

  13. CD8+ T-Cells Count in Acute Myocardial Infarction in HIV Disease in a Predominantly Male Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chung-Chou; So-Armah, Kaku A.; Baker, Jason V.; Butt, Adeel A.; Gordon, Adam J.; Rinaldo, Charles R.; Samet, Jeffrey H.; Tindle, Hilary A.; Goetz, Matthew B.; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C.; Bedimo, Roger; Gibert, Cynthia L.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Deeks, Steven G.; Justice, Amy C.; Freiberg, Matthew S.

    2015-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus- (HIV-) infected persons have a higher risk for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) than HIV-uninfected persons. Earlier studies suggest that HIV viral load, CD4+ T-cell count, and antiretroviral therapy are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Whether CD8+ T-cell count is associated with CVD risk is not clear. We investigated the association between CD8+ T-cell count and incident AMI in a cohort of 73,398 people (of which 97.3% were men) enrolled in the U.S. Veterans Aging Cohort Study-Virtual Cohort (VACS-VC). Compared to uninfected people, HIV-infected people with high baseline CD8+ T-cell counts (>1065?cells/mm3) had increased AMI risk (adjusted HR = 1.82, P < 0.001, 95% CI: 1.46 to 2.28). There was evidence that the effect of CD8+ T-cell tertiles on AMI risk differed by CD4+ T-cell level: compared to uninfected people, HIV-infected people with CD4+ T-cell counts ?200?cells/mm3 had increased AMI risk with high CD8+ T-cell count, while those with CD4+ T-cell counts <200?cells/mm3 had increased AMI risk with low CD8+ T-cell count. CD8+ T-cell counts may add additional AMI risk stratification information beyond that provided by CD4+ T-cell counts alone. PMID:25688354

  14. Correlation between CD4 T cell Counts and Virus Compartmentalization in Genital and Systemic Compartments of HIV-infected Females

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Suman; Noel, Richard J.; Rodríguez, Nayra; Collado, Santiago; Munoz, Jhoanne; Kumar, Anil; Yamamura, Yashuhiro

    2011-01-01

    The majority of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) across the world occurs by heterosexual transmission and is likely mediated by virus present in genital secretions. In spite of this, infection is followed by clinical markers of the virus present in blood, which may not be representative of the virus involved in transmission. In fact, several studies have demonstrated that the genital tract represents a unique compartment for the virus. We assessed the relationship between immune system integrity, represented by CD4+ T cell counts, and the maintenance of viral compartmentalization between plasma and vaginal fluid virus in treatment naïve women from the Dominican Republic infected by the heterosexual transmission route. We cloned and sequenced cell free virus from plasma and genital fluid samples from six women to assess viral evolution, phylogenetic relatedness, and calculated co-receptor use for the C2V3 region of the envelope. Our analyses demonstrated plasma and vaginal fluid virus compartments remained intact only in samples from women with CD4+ T cell counts over 350 cells/?1 majority of viral forms were predicted to use the CCR5 co-receptor, although several dual tropic forms were also identified. None of the clones were found to use the CXCR4 co-receptor even though many of the patients showed severe disease. Our findings lend further support to the role of an intact immune system in maintaining compartmentalization across blood and genital quasispecies and provide a compelling rationale to specifically consider genital tract viral forms in therapeutic and vaccine research. PMID:21745672

  15. Differential white cell count and incident type 2 diabetes: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo, Carlos; Hanley, Anthony J.; Haffner, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis White cell count has been shown to predict incident type 2 diabetes, but differential white cell count has received scant attention. We examined the risk of developing diabetes associated with differential white cell count and neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio and the effect of insulin sensitivity and subclinical inflammation on white cell associations. Methods Incident diabetes was ascertained in 866 participants aged 40–69 years in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study after a 5 year follow-up period. The insulin sensitivity index (SI) was measured by the frequently sampled IVGTT. Results C-reactive protein was directly and independently associated with neutrophil (p<0.001) and monocyte counts (p<0.01) and neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio (p<0.001), whereas SI was inversely and independently related to lymphocyte count (p<0.05). There were 138 (15.9%) incident cases of diabetes. Demographically adjusted ORs for incident diabetes, comparing the top and bottom tertiles of white cell (1.80 [95% CI 1.10, 2.92]), neutrophil (1.67 [1.04, 2.71]) and lymphocyte counts (2.30 [1.41, 3.76]), were statistically significant. No association was demonstrated for monocyte count (1.18 [0.73, 1.90]) or neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio (0.89 [0.55, 1.45]). White cell and neutrophil associations were no longer significant after further adjusting for family history of diabetes, fasting glucose and smoking, but the OR comparing the top and bottom tertiles of lymphocyte count remained significant (1.92 [1.12, 3.29]). This last relationship was better explained by SI rather than C-reactive protein. Conclusions/interpretation A lymphocyte association with incident diabetes, which was the strongest association among the major white cell types, was partially explained by insulin sensitivity rather than subclinical inflammation. PMID:24141640

  16. The Effects of Gamma and Proton Radiation Exposure on Hematopoietic Cell Counts in the Ferret Model

    PubMed Central

    Sanzari, Jenine K.; Wan, X. Steven; Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Wroe, Andrew J.; Gridley, Daila S.; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to total-body radiation induces hematological changes, which can detriment one's immune response to wounds and infection. Here, the decreases in blood cell counts after acute radiation doses of ?-ray or proton radiation exposure, at the doses and dose-rates expected during a solar particle event (SPE), are reported in the ferret model system. Following the exposure to ?-ray or proton radiation, the ferret peripheral total white blood cell (WBC) and lymphocyte counts decreased whereas neutrophil count increased within 3 hours. At 48 hours after irradiation, the WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts decreased in a dose-dependent manner but were not significantly affected by the radiation type (?-rays verses protons) or dose rate (0.5 Gy/minute verses 0.5 Gy/hour). The loss of these blood cells could accompany and contribute to the physiological symptoms of the acute radiation syndrome (ARS). PMID:25356435

  17. Method validation of circulating tumour cell enumeration at low cell counts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Circulating tumour cells (CTC) are receiving increasing attention as prognostic, predictive and pharmacodynamic biomarkers in cancer patients. However, their clinical significance can be dependent on an accurate determination of CTC around cut-off values at low cell counts (<10 cells/7.5 ml). Consequently, we have conducted method validation of the CellSearch™ system focusing on clinical samples containing CTC in the cut-off region. Methods Analytical accuracy was first assessed employing quality controls (QC) and spiked healthy volunteer blood specimens. Results were analysed by ?-expectation tolerance intervals (BETI). Inter-operator error (6 different readers) was then characterised in 38 different patient samples, 68% of which had ?5 CTC and data were analysed by ?-content ?-confidence tolerance intervals (BCTI). Results Results from QCs and spiked blood confirmed a 3-4-fold higher degree of imprecision at the low (48 cells, BETI?=?+ 0.288/-0.345, ??=?95%) compared to the high QC (987 cells, BETI?=?+0.065/-0.140, ??=?95%). However, when data for individual analysts were interrogated characteristic systematic errors were detected. In the analysis of patient samples again individual analysts introduced a highly specific error into the interpretation of CTC images, which correlated to the level of training and experience. When readers were selected based on BETI and BCTI results, the high level of between-operator error (up to 170%) observed at CTC of???5 was reduced to?cell counts can be considerable, but is also potentially avoidable by following simple guidance steps. PMID:24024881

  18. Mechanotransduction of fluid stresses governs 3D cell migration

    E-print Network

    Polacheck, William J.

    Solid tumors are characterized by high interstitial fluid pressure, which drives fluid efflux from the tumor core. Tumor-associated interstitial flow (IF) at a rate of ?3 µm/s has been shown to induce cell migration in the ...

  19. Automatic counting of FISH spots in interphase cells for prenatal characterization of aneuploidies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravkin, Ilya; Temov, Vladimir

    1999-06-01

    Fluorescent In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) is becoming an accepted technique for identification of aneuploidies in interphase fetal cells obtained by either CVS (chorionic villus sampling) or amniocentesis. Currently the analysis is done manually by a skilled operator and is a lengthy and fatiguing process. Applied Imaging is developing an automated procedure for counting FISH spots in these samples. Spot counting involves slide preparation, probe hybridization, filter selection, FISH image acquisition, image analysis, operator verification, and analysis of count distributions. We concentrate on the tasks starting with image acquisition. The following topics are covered: selection of appropriate cells, acquisition and processing of Z-stacks of FISH images for presentation and spot counting, background removal, formation of segmentation tree and selection of spot markers, growing of spot markers by means of constrained watershed, detection of irregular spots and flagging them for the user, time and accuracy compared with manual method, and applicability to a clinical research setting.

  20. Predicting Progression in Glaucoma Suspects With Longitudinal Estimates of Retinal Ganglion Cell Counts

    PubMed Central

    Meira-Freitas, Daniel; Lisboa, Renato; Tatham, Andrew; Zangwill, Linda M.; Weinreb, Robert N.; Girkin, Christopher A.; Liebmann, Jeffrey M.; Medeiros, Felipe A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. We evaluated the ability of baseline and longitudinal estimates of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) counts in predicting progression in eyes suspected of having glaucoma. Methods. The study included 288 glaucoma suspect eyes of 288 patients followed for an average of 3.8 ± 1.0 years. Participants had normal standard automated perimetry (SAP) at baseline. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness assessment was performed with optical coherence tomography (OCT). Progression was defined as development of repeatable abnormal SAP or glaucomatous progressive optic disc changes. Estimates of RGC counts were obtained by combining data from SAP and OCT according to a previously described method. Joint longitudinal survival models were used to evaluate the ability of baseline and rates of change in estimated RGC counts for predicting progression over time, adjusting for confounding variables. Results. A total of 48 eyes (17%) showed progression during follow-up. The mean rate of change in estimated RGC counts was ?18,987 cells/y in progressors versus ?8,808 cells/y for nonprogressors (P < 0.001). Baseline RGC counts and slopes of RGC loss were significantly predictive of progression, with HRs of 1.56 per 100,000 cells lower (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18–2.08; P = 0.002) and 2.68 per 10,000 cells/y faster loss (95% CI, 1.22–5.90; P = 0.014), respectively. The longitudinal model including estimates of RGC counts performed significantly better than models including only structural or functional indexes separately. Conclusions. Baseline and longitudinal estimates of RGC counts may be helpful in predicting progression and performed significantly better than conventional approaches for risk stratification of glaucoma suspects. PMID:23661375

  1. Counting cells with a low-cost integrated microfluidics-waveguide sensor.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Daniel; Ghansah, Isaac; Leblanc, John; Butte, Manish J

    2012-03-01

    The capability to count cells from biofluids at low cost has important diagnostic implications in resource-poor settings. Many approaches have been developed to address this important need, and while most envision a low per-test cost, the detector instrument can be quite expensive. In this report, we present a novel device that enables low-cost and rapid counting of cells from a drop of blood. We demonstrate a shallow, buried, planar waveguide fabricated by ion exchange in glass that underlies a microfluidic structure for capturing cells. Laser light transmitted through the waveguide was attenuated by the number of metal nanoparticles tagged to the cells because of the interaction of the metal particles with the evanescent field of the waveguide. Calibration of the sensor using bead-tagged lymphocytes captured from human blood showed that the sensor could semi-quantitatively count as few as 100 cells/µL of blood. This technology enables the enumeration of specifically captured cells, allowing for a point-of-care, hand-held device for fast and affordable cell counting in screening, remote, or resource-poor settings. PMID:22454696

  2. Optical inline measurement procedures for counting and sizing cells in bioprocess technology.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Guido; Lindner, Patrick; Bluma, Arne; Joeris, Klaus; Martinez, Geovanni; Hitzmann, Bernd; Scheper, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    To observe and control cultivation processes, optical sensors are used increasingly. Important parameters for controlling such processes are cell count, cell size distribution, and the morphology of cells. Among turbidity measurement methods, imaging procedures are applied for determining these process parameters. A disadvantage of most previously developed imaging procedures is that they are only available offline which requires sampling. On the other hand, available imaging inline probes can so far only deliver a limited number of process parameters. This chapter presents new optical procedures for the inline determination of cell count, cell size distribution, and other parameters. In particular, by in situ microscopy an imaging procedure will be described which allows the determination of direct and nondirect cell parameters in real time without sampling. PMID:19609497

  3. Concomitant spuriously elevated white blood cell count, a previously underestimated phenomenon in EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yufei; Xu, Yang

    2014-10-01

    Abstract The proportion and potential risk of concomitant spuriously elevated white blood cell count (SEWC) are underestimated in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia (PTCP). The proportion, kinetics and prevention of SEWC remain poorly understood. A total of 25 patients with EDTA-dependent PTCP were enrolled in this study. With the hematology analyzer Coulter LH 750, we determined the time courses of WBC count, WBC differential and platelet count in EDTA- and sodium citrate-anticoagulated blood, respectively. Blood smears were prepared to inspect the presence of platelet clumps using light microscopy. The effect of automatic instrumental correction on the extent of SEWC was evaluated. The proportion of SEWC was 92% in EDTA-dependent PTCP and 73.9% of SEWCs were within the normal range. The development of SEWC was time-dependent, and neutrophils and lymphocytes were the main subpopulations involved in SEWC. A strong and significant correlation (r?=?0.9937, p?count and the decreased platelet count. Both corrected and uncorrected WBC counts at 15 minutes or later after blood collection in EDTA were significantly higher than their basal counts, respectively, p?counts after blood collection were not significantly different from its basal counts, p?>?0.05. A high proportion of concomitant SEWCs, which are mainly within normal range, are present in patients with EDTA-dependent PTCP. Proper interpretation of SEWC is crucial to avoid clinic errors. SEWC develops in a time-dependent pattern, although the Coulter LH 750 only partly mitigates the extent of SEWC, sodium citrate is able to effectively prevent SEWC. PMID:25275874

  4. Flow Cytometric White Blood Cell Differential Using CytoDiff is Excellent for Counting Blasts

    PubMed Central

    Kahng, Jimin; Kim, Yonggoo; Kim, Myungshin; Oh, Eun-Jee; Park, Yeon-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Background The usefulness of the CytoDiff flow cytometric system (Beckman Coulter, USA) has been studied in various conditions, but its performance including rapidity in detecting and counting blasts, the most significant abnormal cells in the peripheral blood, has not been well evaluated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the CytoDiff differential counting method in challenging samples with blasts. Methods In total, 815 blood samples were analyzed. Samples flagged as "blasts" or "variant lymphocytes" and showing <10% blasts by manual counts were included. In total, 322 samples showed blasts on manual counts, ranging from 0.5% to 99%. The CytoDiff method was performed by flow cytometry (FC500; Beckman Coulter, USA) with a pre-mixed CytoDiff reagent and analyzing software (CytoDiff CXP 2.0; Beckman Coulter). Results The average time required to analyze 20 samples was approximately 60 min for manual counts, and the hands-on time for the CytoDiff method was 15 min. The correlation between the CytoDiff and manual counts was good (r>0.8) for neutrophils and lymphocytes but poor (r<0.8) for other cells. When the cutoff value of the CytoDiff blast count was set at 1%, the sensitivity was 94.4% (95% CI; 91.2-96.6) and specificity was 91.9% (95% CI; 89.0-94.1). The positive predictive value was 88.4% (95% CI; 84.4-91.5) (304/344 cases) and negative predictive value was 96.2% (95% CI; 93.9-97.7) (453/471 cases). The CytoDiff blast counts correlated well to the manual counts (r=0.9223). Conclusions The CytoDiff method is a specific, sensitive, and rapid method for counting blasts. A cutoff value of 1% of at least 1 type of blast is recommended for positive CytoDiff blast counts. PMID:25553277

  5. Analysis of the distribution of the brain cells of the fruit fly by an automatic cell counting algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Takashi; Kato, Kentaro; Kamikouchi, Azusa; Ito, Kei

    2005-05-01

    The fruit fly is the smallest brain-having model animal. Its brain is said to consist only of about 250,000 neurons, whereas it shows “the rudiments of consciousness” in addition to its high abilities such as learning and memory. As the starting point of the exhaustive analysis of its brain-circuit information, we have developed a new algorithm of counting cells automatically from source 2D/3D figures. In our algorithm, counting cells is realized by embedding objects (typically, disks/balls), each of which has exclusive volume. Using this method, we have succeeded in counting thousands of cells accurately. This method provides us the information necessary for the analysis of brain circuits: the precise distribution of the whole brain cells.

  6. Factors influencing variation of bulk milk antibiotic residue occurrence, somatic cell count, and total bacterial count in dairy sheep flocks.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo, C; Carriedo, J A; García-Jimeno, M C; Pérez-Bilbao, M; de la Fuente, L F

    2010-04-01

    To study the variations of bulk tank milk variables in dairy ewe flocks and to identify the main target practices and flock groups to improve milk quality and safety, a total of 71,228 records of antibiotic residue (AR) and milk yield and 68,781 records of somatic cell count (SCC) and total bacterial count (TBC) were obtained over 5 yr from the same 209 dairy ewe flocks of the Assaf breed belonging to the Consortium for Ovine Promotion of Castilla-León (Spain). Based on a logistic regression model, year, month, semester, SCC, TBC, dry therapy, and milk yield significantly contributed to AR variation. High SCC was associated with increased AR violations. When antibiotic dry therapy was implemented, AR occurrence was higher than when this practice was not used. A polynomial monthly distribution throughout the year was observed for AR occurrence; the highest values were in autumn, coinciding with low milk yields per flock. Yearly occurrences drastically diminished from 2004 (1.36%) to 2008 (0.30%), probably as a result of effective educational programs. The mixed-model ANOVA of factors influencing variation in SCC and TBC indicated that year, month, AR, dry therapy group, milking type, and year interactions were significant variation factors for SCC and TBC; mathematical model accounted for 74.1 and 35.4% of total variance for each variable, respectively. Differences in management and hygiene practice caused significant SCC and TBC variations among flocks and within flocks throughout the 5-yr study. Over time, continuously dry treated flocks showed lower logSCC (5.80) and logTBC (4.92) than untreated (6.10 and 5.18, respectively) or discontinuously dry treated (6.01 and 5.05, respectively) flocks. Continuously dry treated flocks had lower AR occurrences than did discontinuously dry treated flocks. As a whole, AR occurrence and SCC and TBC bulk tank milk variables can be used for monitoring mammary health and milk hygiene and safety in dairy sheep throughout time. PMID:20338436

  7. Increased Mast Cell Counts in Benign and Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Ashraf, Mohammad-Javad

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Mast cells are one of the characteristic factors in angiogenesis, growth, and metastatic spread of tumors. The distribution and significance of mast cells in many tumors have been demonstrated. However, few studies have evaluated mast cell infiltration in salivary gland tumors. In this study, mast cell counts were evaluated in benign and malig-nant salivary gland tumors. Materials and methods. This descriptive and cross-sectional study assessed 30 cases of pleomorphic adenoma, 13 cases of adenoid cystic carcinoma, 7 cases of mucoepidermoid carcinoma (diagnosed on the basis of 2005 WHO classifica-tion), with adequate stroma in peritumoral and intratumoral areas, and 10 cases of normal salivary glands. The samples were stained with 5% diluted Giemsa solution and the average stained cell counts were calculated in 10 random microscopic fields in peri- and intra-tumoral areas. Data were analyzed by t-test and Mann-Whitney and Krusskal-Wallis tests. Results. The average mast cell counts increased in the tumors compared to normal salivary glands. There was no signifi-cant difference between benign and malignant tumors and also between different malignant tumors. Infiltration was signifi-cantly denser in peri-tumoral stroma in both tumoral groups (P = 0.001). Minor salivary glands contained significantly more numerous mast cells. Conclusion. Although mast cell counts increased in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors, there were no signifi-cant differences between the tumoral groups. Further studies are suggested to determine the type of these cells which might be useful in the assessment of biological nature of the tumor and its future treatment modality. PMID:25024834

  8. Clinical Significance of Platelet Count in Patients with Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fikret Erdemir; Mete Kilciler; Selahattin Bedir; Yasar Ozgok; Hidayet Coban; Koray Erten

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: During the last decades numerous prognostic factors have been studied for predicting survival of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Platelet count has previously been reported to correlate with prognosis in RCC. The aim of the this study was to evaluate the significance of thrombocytosis in determining prognosis in patients with localized RCC who underwent radical nephrectomy. Patients and Methods: The

  9. Whole blood cell counts and leucocyte differentials in patients with benign or malignant ovarian tumours

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. den Ouden; J. M. H. Ubachs; J. E. G. M. Stoot; J. W. J. van Wersch

    1997-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to determine whether ovarian cancer patients had haematological anomalies compared to patients with benign ovarian tumours. Study design: Whole blood cell counts and leucocyte differentials were measured in 70 patients suspected of having ovarian tumours. Postoperatively, 20 patients had metastatic ovarian cancer and 50 patients had benign ovarian tumours. A control group consisted

  10. EFFECT OF YEAR, STAGE OF LACTATION, PARITY, BREED AND REGION ON GOAT MILK SOMATIC CELL COUNTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The milk somatic cell count (MSCC) forms the basis of abnormal milk control programs world wide for goats, cows and sheep. To better understand factors that contribute to elevations in MSCC, the effects of stage of lactation, parity, breed and state/area in the United States (US) on goat MSCC were ...

  11. The future role of CD4 cell count for monitoring antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Ford, Nathan; Meintjes, Graeme; Pozniak, Anton; Bygrave, Helen; Hill, Andrew; Peter, Trevor; Davies, Mary-Ann; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Calmy, Alexandra; Kumarasamy, N; Phanuphak, Praphan; deBeaudrap, Pierre; Vitoria, Marco; Doherty, Meg; Stevens, Wendy; Siberry, George K

    2015-02-01

    For more than two decades, CD4 cell count measurements have been central to understanding HIV disease progression, making important clinical decisions, and monitoring the response to antiretroviral therapy (ART). In well resourced settings, the monitoring of patients on ART has been supported by routine virological monitoring. Viral load monitoring was recommended by WHO in 2013 guidelines as the preferred way to monitor people on ART, and efforts are underway to scale up access in resource-limited settings. Recent studies suggest that in situations where viral load is available and patients are virologically suppressed, long-term CD4 monitoring adds little value and stopping CD4 monitoring will have major cost savings. CD4 cell counts will continue to play an important part in initial decisions around ART initiation and clinical management, particularly for patients presenting late to care, and for treatment monitoring where viral load monitoring is restricted. However, in settings where both CD4 cell counts and viral load testing are routinely available, countries should consider reducing the frequency of CD4 cell counts or not doing routine CD4 monitoring for patients who are stable on ART. PMID:25467647

  12. Somatic Cell Count in Milk of Goats Enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement Program in 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of breed, parity, stage of lactation (month), herd size, and regions/states on somatic cell count (SCC) and production of milk from dairy goats enrolled in the Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) program in the United States in 2007 were investigated to monitor the current status of SCC and to ...

  13. Longitudinal trends of total white blood cell and differential white blood cell counts of atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wan-Ling; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Yamada, Michiko; Cologne, John; Fujiwara, Saeko

    2010-01-01

    In studying the late health effects of atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, earlier findings were that white blood cell (WBC) count increased with radiation dose in cross-sectional studies. However, a persistent effect of radiation on WBC count and other risk factors has yet to be confirmed. The objectives of the present study were 1) to examine the longitudinal relationship between A-bomb radiation dose and WBC and differential WBC counts among A-bomb survivors and 2) to investigate the potential confounding risk factors (such as age at exposure and smoking status) as well as modification of the radiation dose-response. A total of 7,562 A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were included in this study from 1964-2004. A linear mixed model was applied using the repeated WBC measurements. During the study period, a secular downward trend of WBC count was observed. Radiation exposure was a significant risk factor for elevated WBC and differential WBC counts over time. A significant increase of WBC counts among survivors with high radiation dose (> 2 Gy) was detected in men exposed below the age of 20 and in women regardless of age at exposure. Effects on WBC of low dose radiation remain unclear, however. Cigarette smoking produced the most pronounced effect on WBC counts and its impact was much larger than that of radiation exposure. PMID:20543527

  14. Natural killer cell subsets in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Martín, E; Picón, C; Costa-Frossard, L; Alenda, R; Sainz de la Maza, S; Roldán, E; Espiño, M; Villar, L M; Álvarez-Cermeño, J C

    2015-05-01

    Changes in blood natural killer (NK) cells, important players of the immune innate system, have been described in multiple sclerosis (MS). We studied percentages and total cell counts of different effector and regulatory NK cells in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of MS patients and other neurological diseases to gain clearer knowledge of the role of these cells in neuroinflammation. NK cell subsets were assessed by flow cytometry in CSF of 85 consecutive MS patients (33 with active disease and 52 with stable MS), 16 with other inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (IND) and 17 with non-inflammatory neurological diseases (NIND). MS patients showed a decrease in percentages of different CSF NK subpopulations compared to the NIND group. However, absolute cell counts showed a significant increase of all NK subsets in MS and IND patients, revealing that the decrease in percentages does not reflect a real reduction of these immune cells. Remarkably, MS patients showed a significant increase of regulatory/effector (CD56(bright) /CD56(dim) ) NK ratio compared to IND and NIND groups. In addition, MS activity associated with an expansion of NK?T cells. These data show that NK cell subsets do not increase uniformly in all inflammatory neurological disease and suggest strongly that regulatory CD56(bright) and NK?T cells may arise in CSF of MS patients as an attempt to counteract the CNS immune activation characteristic of the disease. PMID:25565222

  15. Constructing two-sided simultaneous confidence intervals for multinomial proportions for small counts in a large number of cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Warren L. May; William D. Johnson

    2000-01-01

    Confidence intervals for multinomial proportions are often constructed using large-sample methods that rely on expected cell counts of 5 or greater. In situations that give rise to a large number of categories, the cell counts may not be of adequate size to ensure the appropriate overall coverage probability and alternative methods of construction have been proposed. Sison and Glaz (1995)

  16. Label-free method for cell counting in crude biological samples via paramagnetic bead aggregation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingyi; Liu, Qian; Xiao, Li; Haverstick, Doris M; Dewald, Alison; Columbus, Linda; Kelly, Kimberly; Landers, James P

    2013-12-01

    Under chaotropic conditions, DNA released from lysed cells causes the aggregation of paramagnetic beads in a rotating magnetic field in a manner that is independent of the presence of other cellular components. The extent of aggregation correlates with the mass of DNA in a quantitative manner (Leslie, D. C. et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 5689-96), and from this, the number of DNA-containing cells in the sample can be enumerated. Microbial growth testing is demonstrated by monitoring bead aggregation with E. coli in the presence of ampicillin. Without the need for fluorescent labeling or Coulter counting, the white blood cell count can be defined directly from a microliter of crude whole blood. Specificity is brought to the process by coupling bead-based immunocapture with DNA-bead aggregation allowing for the enumeration of CD4+ T cells from human blood samples. The results of DNA-induced bead aggregation had a 95% correlation with those generated by flow cytometry. With the process requiring only inexpensive, widely available benchtop laboratory hardware, a digital camera, and a simple algorithm, this provided a highly accessible alternative to more expensive cell-counting techniques. PMID:24187938

  17. Design of a new counting cell for monitoring ⁸⁵Kr in environmental air samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Lo; D. Y. Chen; J. Z. Wang

    1986-01-01

    A sample counting cell for monitoring ultralow-level ⁸⁵Kr in environmental air samples has been designed. The cell consists of approx. =10g of hydrogen mordenite covered with 0.075-mm aluminum foil. The ⁸⁵Kr is adsorbed by the hydrogen mordenite inside the counting cell. The radioactivity of ⁸⁵Kr in the cell is measured by a modified external gas flow proportional counter. A refined

  18. Fluid flow plate for decreased density of fuel cell assembly

    DOEpatents

    Vitale, Nicholas G. (Albany, NY)

    1999-01-01

    A fluid flow plate includes first and second outward faces. Each of the outward faces has a flow channel thereon for carrying respective fluid. At least one of the fluids serves as reactant fluid for a fuel cell of a fuel cell assembly. One or more pockets are formed between the first and second outward faces for decreasing density of the fluid flow plate. A given flow channel can include one or more end sections and an intermediate section. An interposed member can be positioned between the outward faces at an interface between an intermediate section, of one of the outward faces, and an end section, of that outward face. The interposed member can serve to isolate the reactant fluid from the opposing outward face. The intermediate section(s) of flow channel(s) on an outward face are preferably formed as a folded expanse.

  19. Probing Stemness and Neural Commitment in Human Amniotic Fluid Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Jezierski; Andree Gruslin; Roger Tremblay; Dao Ly; Cathie Smith; Kursad Turksen; Marianna Sikorska; Mahmud Bani-Yaghoub

    2010-01-01

    Recently, human amniotic fluid (AF) cells have attracted a great deal of attention as an alternative cell source for transplantation\\u000a and tissue engineering. AF contains a variety of cell types derived from fetal tissues, of which a small percentage is believed\\u000a to represent stem cell sub-population(s). In contrast to human embryonic stem (ES) cells, AF cells are not subject to

  20. A comparative study of white blood cell counts and disease risk in carnivores.

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Charles L; Gittleman, John L; Antonovics, Janis

    2003-01-01

    In primates, baseline levels of white blood cell (WBC) counts are related to mating promiscuity. It was hypothesized that differences in the primate immune system reflect pathogen risks from sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Here, we test for the generality of this result by examining hypotheses involving behavioural, ecological and life-history factors in carnivores. Again, we find a significant correlation in carnivores between mating promiscuity and elevated levels of WBC counts. In addition, we find relationships with measures of sociality, substrate use and life-history parameters. These comparative results across independent taxonomic orders indicate that the evolution of the immune system, as represented by phylogenetic differences in basal levels of blood cell counts, is closely linked to disease risk involved with promiscuous mating and associated variables. We found only limited support for an association between the percentage of meat in the diet and WBC counts, which is consistent with the behavioural and physiological mechanisms that carnivores use to avoid parasite transmission from their prey. We discuss additional comparative questions related to taxonomic differences in disease risk, modes of parasite transmission and implications for conservation biology. PMID:12639313

  1. Fluid mechanics of method of separating motile cells

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Krane, Matthew J. M.

    2008-10-25

    If the Reynolds number is small enough (Re<<1), then two fluids can flow in parallel in direct contact, exchanging momentum and species only by diffusion. If the interface is stable, then this system can be used as a filter. In this problem, the flow fields in both fluids are found. The system here has a diffusing species which is motile cells with a random behavior relative to the flowing fluid.

  2. Higher baseline CD4 cell count predicts treatment interruptions and persistent viremia in patients initiating ARVs in rural Uganda

    PubMed Central

    ADAKUN, Susan A.; SIEDNER, Mark J.; MUZOORA, Conrad; HABERER, Jessica E.; TSAI, Alexander C.; HUNT, Peter W.; MARTIN, Jeff N.; BANGSBERG, David R.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the association between CD4 cell count and adherence in a cohort of Ugandans initiating ARVs. Outcomes were: a) adherence<90%; b) any treatment interruptions>72 hours; c) number of treatment interruptions; and d) HIV RNA>400 copies/ml. We fit regression models to estimate associations with our exposure of interest, baseline CD4 cell count ?250 cells/?L (n=60) versus <250 cells/?L (n=413). CD4 cell count?250 cells/?L was independently associated with increased odds and number of treatment interruptions, and increased odds of persistent viremia. Interventions to support adherence in patients with higher CD4 cell counts should be considered as drug availability to this population increases. PMID:23242160

  3. Handheld 2-channel impedimetric cell counting system with embedded real-time processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rottigni, A.; Carminati, M.; Ferrari, G.; Vahey, M. D.; Voldman, J.; Sampietro, M.

    2011-05-01

    Lab-on-a-chip systems have been attracting a growing attention for the perspective of miniaturization and portability of bio-chemical assays. Here we present a the design and characterization of a miniaturized, USB-powered, self-contained, 2-channel instrument for impedance sensing, suitable for label-free tracking and real-time detection of cells flowing in microfluidic channels. This original circuit features a signal generator based on a direct digital synthesizer, a transimpedance amplifier, an integrated square-wave lock-in coupled to a ?? ADC converter, and a digital processing platform. Real-time automatic peak detection on two channels is implemented in a FPGA. System functionality has been tested with an electronic resistance modulator to simulate 1% impedance variation produced by cells, reaching a time resolution of 50?s (enabling a count rate of 2000 events/s) with an applied voltage as low as 200mV. Biological experiments have been carried out counting yeast cells. Statistical analysis of events is in agreement with the expected amplitude and time distributions. 2-channel yeast counting has been performed with concomitant dielectrophoretic cell separation, showing that this novel and ultra compact sensing system, thanks to the selectivity of the lock-in detector, is compatible with other AC electrical fields applied to the device.

  4. Blood cell counting and classification by nonflowing laser light scattering method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ye; Zhang, Zhenxi; Yang, Xinhui; Jiang, Dazong; Yeo, Joon Hock

    1999-11-01

    A new non-flowing laser light scattering method for counting and classifying blood cells is presented. A linear charge- coupled device with 1024 elements is used to detect the scattered light intensity distribution of the blood cells. A pinhole plate is combined with the CCD to compete the focusing of the measurement system. An isotropic sphere is used to simulate the blood cell. Mie theory is used to describe the scattering of blood cells. In order to inverse the size distribution of blood cells from their scattered light intensity distribution, Powell method combined with precision punishment method is used as a dependent model method for measurement red blood cells and blood plates. Non-negative constraint least square method combined with Powell method and precision punishment method is used as an independent model for measuring white blood cells. The size distributions of white blood cells and red blood cells, and the mean diameter of red blood cells are measured by this method. White blood cells can be divided into three classes: lymphocytes, middle-sized cells and neutrocytes according to their sizes. And the number of blood cells in unit volume can also be measured by the linear dependence of blood cells concentration on scattered light intensity.

  5. Association Between White Blood Cell Count Following Radiation Therapy With Radiation Pneumonitis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Chad; Gomez, Daniel R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wang, Hongmei [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Levy, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhuang, Yan [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Xu, Ting; Nguyen, Quynh; Komaki, Ritsuko [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Liao, Zhongxing, E-mail: zliao@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: Radiation pneumonitis (RP) is an inflammatory response to radiation therapy (RT). We assessed the association between RP and white blood cell (WBC) count, an established metric of systemic inflammation, after RT for non-small cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 366 patients with non-small cell lung cancer who received ?60 Gy as definitive therapy. The primary endpoint was whether WBC count after RT (defined as 2 weeks through 3 months after RT completion) was associated with grade ?3 or grade ?2 RP. Median lung volume receiving ?20 Gy (V{sub 20}) was 31%, and post-RT WBC counts ranged from 1.7 to 21.2 × 10{sup 3} WBCs/?L. Odds ratios (ORs) associating clinical variables and post-RT WBC counts with RP were calculated via logistic regression. A recursive-partitioning algorithm was used to define optimal post-RT WBC count cut points. Results: Post-RT WBC counts were significantly higher in patients with grade ?3 RP than without (P<.05). Optimal cut points for post-RT WBC count were found to be 7.4 and 8.0 × 10{sup 3}/?L for grade ?3 and ?2 RP, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed significant associations between post-RT WBC count and grade ?3 (n=46, OR=2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4?4.9, P=.003) and grade ?2 RP (n=164, OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.2?3.4, P=.01). This association held in a stepwise multivariate regression. Of note, V{sub 20} was found to be significantly associated with grade ?2 RP (OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.2?3.4, P=.01) and trended toward significance for grade ?3 RP (OR=1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5, P=.06). Conclusions: Post-RT WBC counts were significantly and independently associated with RP and have potential utility as a diagnostic or predictive marker for this toxicity.

  6. Relationship among specific bacterial counts and total bacterial and somatic cell counts and factors influencing their variation in ovine bulk tank milk.

    PubMed

    de Garnica, M L; Linage, B; Carriedo, J A; De La Fuente, L F; García-Jimeno, M C; Santos, J A; Gonzalo, C

    2013-02-01

    To analyze the relationship among the counts of different organisms and total bacterial count (BTTBC) and somatic cell count (BTSCC) as determined in dairy laboratories in ovine bulk tank milk, 751 bulk tank milk samples from 205 dairy sheep flocks belonging to Consortium for Ovine Promotion (CPO) were collected between January and December 2011. Four samplings were carried out in each flock, once per season, throughout 1 yr. Variables analyzed were bulk tank counts of thermoduric, psychrotrophic, coliform, and gram-positive catalase-negative cocci (GPCNC) bacterial groups. Thermoduric, psychrotrophic, and coliform species were significantly related to BTTBC, whereas GPCNC were correlated with both BTTBC and BTSCC variables. Highest counts were for psychrotroph and coliform groups, and a moderate to high correlation (r=0.51) was found between both variables, indicating that poor cleaning practices in the flocks tend to select for less-resistant organisms, such as gram-negative rods. In addition, BTTBC correlated with BTSCC (r=0.42). Some variation factors for specific bacterial counts, such as breed, season, milking type, dry therapy, and milk yield, were also analyzed. Flock information was collected from flock books, annual audits, and the CPO traceability system. Psychrotrophs and coliforms had elevated counts in winter, whereas GPCNC were higher in summer and in hand-milked flocks. Dry therapy contributed to the reduction in psychrotrophic bacteria; therefore, some strains of mammary pathogens could also be psychrotrophic bacteria. Results of this study would be helpful for troubleshooting milk quality problems and developing premium payment systems in dairy sheep. PMID:23200475

  7. Association between pre–biopsy white blood cell count and prostate biopsy – related sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Bulut, Suleyman; Aktas, Binhan Kagan; Gokkaya, Cevdet Serkan; Akdemir, Alp Ozgur; Erkmen, Akif Ersoy; Memis, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite all preventive measures and improved biopsy techniques, serious, life–threatening complications of prostate biopsy, including sepsis, still exist. In the present study, in order to identify the risk factors that may be associated with sepsis development after prostate–biopsy, we aimed to analyze retrospectively the data of our patients who underwent transrectal ultrasound–guided prostate biopsy. Material and methods We retrospectively reviewed the data of 889 patients who underwent prostate biopsy at our clinic. We compared pre–biopsy parameters (age, prostate volume, white blood cell (WBC) count, fasting blood glucose, free and total prostate specific antigen levels) between patients who developed sepsis and those who were sepsis–free following prostate biopsy. Results 28 patients (3.1%) developed sepsis. Among the risk factors evaluated, only pre–biopsy WBC count was found to be a significant risk factor for biopsy–related sepsis. A 5.1 fold increase was detected in the risk for sepsis development, when the cut–off value of WBC was accepted as 11.165/?L, OR: 5.1 (95% CI: 2.3–11.5). The post–biopsy sepsis development rate in patients with pre–biopsy WBC count greater and less than 11.165/?L was 13.7% (n = 10) and 3% (n = 18) respectively. Conclusions Patients with a pre–biopsy WBC count greater than 11.165/?L should be informed of the increased risk of developing post–biopsy sepsis.

  8. Prognostic significance of peripheral monocyte count in patients with extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (ENKL) has heterogeneous clinical manifestations and prognosis. This study aims to evaluate the prognostic impact of absolute monocyte count (AMC) in ENKL, and provide some immunologically relevant information for better risk stratification in patients with ENKL. Methods Retrospective data from 163 patients newly diagnosed with ENKL were analyzed. The absolute monocyte count (AMC) at diagnosis was analyzed as continuous and dichotomized variables. Independent prognostic factors of survival were determined by Cox regression analysis. Results The AMC at diagnosis were related to overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with ENKL. Multivariate analysis identified AMC as independent prognostic factors of survival, independent of International Prognostic Index (IPI) and Korean prognostic index (KPI). The prognostic index incorporating AMC and absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), another surrogate factor of immune status, could be used to stratify all 163 patients with ENKL into different prognostic groups. For patients who received chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy (102 cases), the three AMC/ALC index categories identified patients with significantly different survivals. When superimposed on IPI or KPI categories, the AMC/ALC index was better able to identify high-risk patients in the low-risk IPI or KPI category. Conclusion The baseline peripheral monocyte count is shown to be an effective prognostic indicator of survival in ENKL patients. The prognostic index related to tumor microenvironment might be helpful to identify high-risk patients with ENKL. PMID:23638998

  9. The predictive value of white cell count in assessing clinical severity of sickle cell anaemia in Afro-Caribbeans patients.

    PubMed

    Olatunji, P O; Davies, S C

    2000-03-01

    The relationship between each of haemoglobin concentration (Hb), red cell count (RCC), white cell count (WBC), platelet count (PLT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), red cell width difference (RWD), and average number of acute admissions per year (AVEADM), were determined in a cross-sectional study of 128 Afro-Caribbean sickle cell anaemia patients attending the Sickle Cell Disease Clinic of Central Middlesex Hospital in London for a mean of 7.6 patient-years. The diagnosis of sickle cell anaemia was made by both haematological and DNA analyses. The haematological parameters were determined using Coulter S automated counter during the steady state periods while the AVEADM was computed from all admissions for painful crisis, acute anaemia and acute chest syndrome, priapism, and acute stroke. Haemoglobin F level was determined by HPLC. Analysis was done in the paediatric and adult patients separately. There were no significant correlations between any of the parameters and AVEADM in the paediatric group. In adult patients, there was significant positive correlation (P < 0.05) between WBC and AVEADM. WBC has a negative correlation with Hb concentration and HbF level. WBC 10 x 10(9)/L and above is associated with Hb and HbF level below the mean for the group. WBC is lower but not significantly, in patients with single alpha-gene deletion than in those without deletion (P = 0.06). This study suggests that higher WBC count may suggest possible increased hospital admission, lower Hb concentration, and lower HbF level, in adult patients, and that, as a single parameter it can be of value in the assessment of patients with sickle cell anaemia. Possible mechanisms for these findings are also suggested. PMID:11379463

  10. Salivary biomass assessed by bioluminescence ATP assay related to (bacterial and somatic) cell counts.

    PubMed

    Gallez, F; Fadel, M; Scruel, O; Cantraine, F; Courtois, P

    2000-06-01

    The present work aimed (1) to evaluate ATP content in saliva by the bioluminescent luciferin-luciferase method, (2) to evaluate the relationships between ATP content, bacterial count and epithelial cell numbers in saliva, (3) to study the effect of two different antiseptics (peroxidase system producing hypothiocyanite and chlorhexidine) on the salivary biomass. In 45 young adults, the salivary ATP content ranged from 8 to 1515 nM. Salivary ATP content was significantly and directly correlated to bacterial count and epithelial cell numbers (Spearman-Rank correlation, P< or =0.001). Regression analysis allowed the inference of a mean epithelial cell and bacterial ATP content of 152.7 fg and 8.3 fg per cell, respectively. The salivary ATP content decreased significantly to 38. 8+/-12.3 per cent (mean+/-SEM, N=6) of its initial value after a 30-min incubation in the presence of a peroxidase system producing hypothiocyanite (OSCN(-)). Chlorhexidine (CHX) reduced salivary ATP content to 52.0+/-16.7 per cent. OSCN(-) did not affect the transformed logarithm of bacterial count but CHX reduced it from 7. 02+/-0.26 to 0.52+/-0.33. No effect of OSCN(-) was seen on the ratio of epithelial cell viability while CHX reduced it from 46.7+/-5.1 to 3.9+/-1.1 per cent. It is concluded that the combination of the evaluations of the ATP content and cell numbers in saliva can provide reliable data about the effects of oral antiseptics on salivary biomass. PMID:10814968

  11. A Fluid-Kinetic Particle-in-Cell Solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markidis, Stefano; Henri, Pierre; Lapenta, Giovanni; Ronnmark, Kjell; Hamrin, Maria; Laure, Erwin

    2012-10-01

    A fluid solver that retains kinetic effects by using the Particle-in-Cell (PIC) algorithm is presented in the context of future coupled fluid-kinetic plasma simulations. The fluid continuity and momentum equations together with the second order formulation of Maxwell's equations are solved concurrently using the finite volume box scheme. The pressure tensor in the fluid momentum equation is self-consistently computed using the computational particles. The electric field is corrected to take into account the discrepancies between the fluid densities calculated from the fluid equation and the one calculated directly from the computational particles. The magnetic field is determined from Faraday's law. Finally, the position and velocity of the computational particles are advanced in time. The fluid-kinetic PIC solver is implemented starting from the iPIC3D code, a massively parallel fully kinetic code. The fluid-kinetic PIC solver method could be used in spatial regions where kinetic effects are important, while a traditional fluid solver would be used in regions of space where the kinetic effects are negligible to save computational time. Therefore, the proposed scheme is a promising approach for coupling fluid and kinetic methods in a unified framework.

  12. Correlation of Circulating MMP-9 with White Blood Cell Count in Humans: Effect of Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Kathleen A.; Yu, Daozhan; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Gong, Da-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Background Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is an emerging biomarker for several disease conditions, where white blood cell (WBC) count is also elevated. In this study, we examined the relationship between MMP-9 and WBC levels in apparently healthy smoking and non-smoking human subjects. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the relationship of serum MMP-9 with WBC in 383 men and 356 women. Next, we divided the male population (women do not smoke in this population) into three groups: never (n?=?243), current (n?=?76) and former (n?=?64) smokers and compared the group differences in MMP-9 and WBC levels and their correlations within each group. Results Circulating MMP-9 and WBC count are significantly correlated in men (R2?=?0.13, p<0.001) and women (R2?=?0.19, p<0.001). After stratification by smoking status, MMP-9 level was significantly higher in current smokers (mean ± SE; 663.3±43.4 ng/ml), compared to never (529.7±20.6) and former smokers (568±39.3). WBC count was changed in a similar pattern. Meanwhile, the relationship became stronger in current smokers with increased correlation coefficient of r?=?0.45 or R2?=?0.21 (p<0.001) and steeper slope of ß?=?1.16±0.30 (p<0.001) in current smokers, compared to r?=?0.26 or R2?=?0.07 (p<0.001) and ß?=?0.34±0.10 (p<0.001) in never smokers. Conclusions WBC count accounts for 13% and 19% of MMP-9 variance in men and women, respectively. In non-smoking men, WBC count accounts for 7% of MMP-9 variance, but in smoking subjects, it accounts for up to 21% of MMP-9 variance. Thus, we have discovered a previously unrecognized correlation between the circulating MMP-9 and WBC levels in humans. PMID:23825535

  13. Correlation of striatal dopamine transporter imaging with post mortem substantia nigra cell counts.

    PubMed

    Kraemmer, Julia; Kovacs, Gabor G; Perju-Dumbrava, Laura; Pirker, Susanne; Traub-Weidinger, Tatiana; Pirker, Walter

    2014-12-01

    Dopamine transporter imaging is widely used for the differential diagnosis of parkinsonism. Only limited data are available on the relationship between striatal dopamine transporter binding and dopaminergic cell loss in the substantia nigra (SN). We analyzed postmortem SN cell counts in patients who had previously undergone dopamine transporter single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Pathological diagnoses included Parkinson's disease (n?=?1), dementia with Lewy bodies (n?=?2), multiple system atrophy (n?=?1), corticobasal degeneration (n?=?2), atypical parkinsonism with multiple pathological conditions (n?=?1), Alzheimer's disease (n?=?1), and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (n?=?1). [(12) (3) I]?-CIT SPECT had been performed in all subjects using a standardized protocol on the same triple-head gamma camera. The density of neuromelanin-containing and tyrosine hydroxylase-positive substantia nigra neurons/mm(2) was evaluated in paraffin-embedded tissue sections by morphometric methods. Mean disease duration at the time of dopamine transporter imaging was 2.3 years, and the mean interval from imaging to death was 29.3 months (range, 4-68 months). Visual analysis of dopamine transporter images showed reduced striatal uptake in all seven patients with neurodegenerative parkinsonism, but not in Alzheimer's and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease cases. Averaged [(right+left)/2] striatal uptake was highly correlated with averaged SN cell counts (rs ?=?0.98, P?cells). Similar strong correlations were found in separate analyses for the right and left sides. Striatal dopamine transporter binding highly correlated with postmortem SN cell counts, confirming the validity of dopamine transporter imaging as an excellent in vivo marker of nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration. PMID:25048738

  14. The joint statistics of mildly non-linear cosmological densities and slopes in count in cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardeau, Francis; Codis, Sandrine; Pichon, Christophe

    2015-04-01

    In the context of count-in-cells statistics, the joint probability distribution of the density in two concentric spherical shells is predicted from first principle for sigmas of the order of 1. The agreement with simulation is found to be excellent. This statistics allows us to deduce the conditional one dimensional probability distribution function of the slope within under dense (resp. overdense) regions, or of the density for positive or negative slopes. The former conditional distribution is likely to be more robust in constraining the cosmological parameters as the underlying dynamics is less evolved in such regions. A fiducial dark energy experiment is implemented on such counts derived from ? cold dark matter simulations.

  15. Fluorescence based cell counting in collagen monolayer cultures of primary hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Priesnitz, C; Sperber, S; Garg, R; Orsini, M; Noor, F

    2014-11-26

    Accurate determination of cell number is essential for the quantitative description of biological processes. The changes should be related to a measurable reference e.g. in the case of cell culture, the viable cell number is a very valuable reference parameter. Indirect methods of cell number/viability measurements may have up to 10 % standard deviation. This can lead to undesirable large deviations in the analysis of "-omics" data as well as time course studies. Such data should be preferably normalized to the exact viable cell number at a given time to allow meaningful interpretation and understanding of the biological processes. Manual counting of cell number is very laborious and not possible in certain experimental setups. We therefore, developed a simple and reliable fluorescence based method with an accuracy of 95-98 % for the determination of the viable cell number in situ. We optimized the seeding cell densities for primary rat hepatocytes for optimal cell adhesion. This will help in efficient use of primary cells which are usually limited in availability. The method will be very useful in the application of "-omics" techniques, especially metabolome analysis where the specific rates of uptake/production of metabolites can be reliably calculated. PMID:25424145

  16. Depression severity is associated with increased risk behaviors and decreased CD4 cell counts.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Toshibumi; Shacham, Enbal; Onen, Nur Fiona; Grubb, Jessica Rosenbaum; Overton, Edgar Turner

    2014-01-01

    Depression is a common comorbidity among HIV-infected individuals. We studied the relationship between depressive symptoms, risk behaviors (risky-sexual behavior, tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drug use) and HIV outcomes. This cross-sectional study conducted in 2009 at the Washington University HIV Clinic included screening for depression with patient health questionnaire, survey of sexual behavior, illicit drug, alcohol, and tobacco use within 30 days. Sociodemographics, plasma HIV RNA levels, CD4 cell counts, and sexually transmitted disease test results were obtained from medical records. Multivariate logistic and linear regression models were used to assess the association between depressive symptoms severity and risk behaviors, HIV outcomes and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) adherence. A total of 624 persons completed the assessment of whom 432 (69%) were male and 426 (68%) African-American. The median CD4 cell count was 410 cells/mm(3) and 479 persons (77%) were on cART of whom 112 (23%) had HIV RNA level > 400 copies/mL. Overall, 96 (15%) had symptoms of major depressive disorder. Depressive symptom severity was associated with increased likelihood of high-risk drinking (odds ratio [OR], 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-5.1), current tobacco use (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1-2.9), illicit drug use (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-2.8), and risky-sexual behavior (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 0.8-2.7). Suboptimal cART adherence (visual analog scale < 95%) was also associated with depressive symptoms severity (p < 0.05). After adjustment for age, sex, race, receipt of cART, and cART adherence, depressive symptoms severity was independently associated with lower CD4 cell count (p < 0.05) but not with higher HIV RNA level (p = 0.39). Depression adversely affects HIV-infected individuals, requiring greater effort at utilizing multidisciplinary interventions. PMID:24479743

  17. Oligonol Supplementation Affects Leukocyte and Immune Cell Counts after Heat Loading in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong Beom; Shin, Young Oh

    2014-01-01

    Oligonol is a low-molecular-weight form of polyphenol and has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, making it a potential promoter of immunity. This study investigates the effects of oligonol supplementation on leukocyte and immune cell counts after heat loading in 19 healthy male volunteers. The participants took a daily dose of 200 mg oligonol or a placebo for 1 week. After a 2-week washout period, the subjects were switched to the other study arm. After each supplement, half-body immersion into hot water was made, and blood was collected. Then, complete and differential blood counts were performed. Flow cytometry was used to enumerate and phenotype lymphocyte subsets. Serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6 in blood samples were analyzed. Lymphocyte subpopulation variables included counts of total T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. Oligonol intake attenuated elevations in IL-1? (an 11.1-fold change vs. a 13.9-fold change immediately after heating; a 12.0-fold change vs. a 12.6-fold change 1h after heating) and IL-6 (an 8.6-fold change vs. a 9.9-fold change immediately after heating; a 9.1-fold change vs. a 10.5-fold change 1h after heating) immediately and 1 h after heating in comparison to those in the placebo group. Oligonol supplementation led to significantly higher numbers of leukocytes (a 30.0% change vs. a 21.5% change immediately after heating; a 13.5% change vs. a 3.5% change 1h after heating) and lymphocytes (a 47.3% change vs. a 39.3% change immediately after heating; a 19.08% change vs. a 2.1% change 1h after heating) relative to those in the placebo group. Oligonol intake led to larger increases in T cells, B cells, and NK cells at rest (p < 0.05, p < 0.05, and p < 0.001, respectively) and immediately after heating (p < 0.001) in comparison to those in the placebo group. In addition, levels of T cells (p < 0.001) and B cells (p < 0.001) were significantly higher 1 h after heating in comparison to those in the placebo group. These results demonstrate that supplementation with oligonol for 1 week may enhance the immune function under heat and suggest a potential useful adjunct to chemotherapy in malignant diseases. PMID:24962480

  18. Oligonol supplementation affects leukocyte and immune cell counts after heat loading in humans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Beom; Shin, Young Oh

    2014-06-01

    Oligonol is a low-molecular-weight form of polyphenol and has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, making it a potential promoter of immunity. This study investigates the effects of oligonol supplementation on leukocyte and immune cell counts after heat loading in 19 healthy male volunteers. The participants took a daily dose of 200 mg oligonol or a placebo for 1 week. After a 2-week washout period, the subjects were switched to the other study arm. After each supplement, half-body immersion into hot water was made, and blood was collected. Then, complete and differential blood counts were performed. Flow cytometry was used to enumerate and phenotype lymphocyte subsets. Serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6 in blood samples were analyzed. Lymphocyte subpopulation variables included counts of total T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. Oligonol intake attenuated elevations in IL-1? (an 11.1-fold change vs. a 13.9-fold change immediately after heating; a 12.0-fold change vs. a 12.6-fold change 1h after heating) and IL-6 (an 8.6-fold change vs. a 9.9-fold change immediately after heating; a 9.1-fold change vs. a 10.5-fold change 1h after heating) immediately and 1 h after heating in comparison to those in the placebo group. Oligonol supplementation led to significantly higher numbers of leukocytes (a 30.0% change vs. a 21.5% change immediately after heating; a 13.5% change vs. a 3.5% change 1h after heating) and lymphocytes (a 47.3% change vs. a 39.3% change immediately after heating; a 19.08% change vs. a 2.1% change 1h after heating) relative to those in the placebo group. Oligonol intake led to larger increases in T cells, B cells, and NK cells at rest (p < 0.05, p < 0.05, and p < 0.001, respectively) and immediately after heating (p < 0.001) in comparison to those in the placebo group. In addition, levels of T cells (p < 0.001) and B cells (p < 0.001) were significantly higher 1 h after heating in comparison to those in the placebo group. These results demonstrate that supplementation with oligonol for 1 week may enhance the immune function under heat and suggest a potential useful adjunct to chemotherapy in malignant diseases. PMID:24962480

  19. Fluids as Dynamic Templates for Cytoskeletal Proteins in Plant Cells

    E-print Network

    J. T. Lofthouse

    2008-07-12

    The Dynamic Template model of biological cell membranes and the cytoplasm as spatially organised fluid layers is extended to plant cells, and is shown to offer a feasible shear driven mechanism for the co-alignment of internal and external fibres observed during growth and tropic responses

  20. Cell counts and maps in the larval central nervous system of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis (L.).

    PubMed

    Nicol, D; Meinertzhagen, I A

    1991-07-22

    Although the ascidian tadpole larva harbors a prospectively valuable prototype of the chordate nervous system, with extensively characterized neural plate cell lineages, the simple cellular composition of the resultant central nervous system (CNS) is not documented in detail. The average total number of cells in the larval CNS of Ciona intestinalis is 335 (range +/- 4, n = 3), 65 or 66 of which reside in the nerve cord of the tail. The estimates were made by tracing and counting the number of nuclei in serial semithin (1 micron) sections cut longitudinally through three larvae, fixed no later than 2 hours after hatching. Within a single fourth larva, L4, 266 cells constituted the CNS in the trunk region of the larva, 45 of which occurred within the visceral ganglion, 215 in the sensory vesicle, and 6 in the neck between the two. Each cell was assigned to one of thirteen categories. Most (182, roughly 68%) are classified as ependymal, a specialized non-neural cell peculiar to embryonic and larval chordates, from their position lining the cavities of the neural tube's elaborations or from clear similarities in the cytological appearance to those that do. Five cells are accessory cells of the sensory structures: three lens cells and a pigment-cup cell in the ocellus, and a single pigment cell in the otolith. Of the remaining 79 cells, 36 are sensory, 17 receptors in the ocellus and 19 presumed hydrostatic pressure receptors; these lie on the right and left sides of the sensory vesicle, respectively. Eighteen of the visceral ganglion cells have been tentatively classified as neurons, as have the remaining 25 cells which form two clusters in the posterior region of the sensory vesicle. PMID:1918443

  1. A Multiple Parameters Biodosimetry Tool with Various Blood Cell Counts - the Hemodose Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Shaowen

    2014-01-01

    There continue to be important concerns about the possibility of the occurrence of acute radiation syndromes following nuclear and radiological terrorism or accidents that may result in mass casualties in densely populated areas. To guide medical personnel in their clinical decisions for effective medical management and treatment of the exposed individuals, biological markers are usually applied to examine radiation induced biological changes to assess the severity of radiation injury to sensitive organ systems. Among these the peripheral blood cell counts are widely used to assess the extent of radiation induced bone marrow injury. This is due to the fact that the hematopoietic system is the most vulnerable part of the human body to radiation damage. Particularly, the lymphocyte, granulocyte, and platelet cells are the most radiosensitive of the blood elements, and monitoring their changes after exposure is regarded as a practical and recommended laboratory test to estimate radiation dose and injury. Based upon years of physiological and pathophysiological investigation of mammalian hematopoietic systems, and rigorous coarse-grained bio-mathematical modeling and validation on species from mouse, to dog, monkey, and human, we have developed a set of software tools Hemodose, which can use single or serial granulocyte, lymphocyte, leukocyte, or platelet counts after exposure to estimate absorbed doses of adult victims very rapidly and accurately. Some patient data from historical accidents are utilized as examples to demonstrate the capabilities of these tools as a rapid point-of-care diagnostic or centralized high-throughput assay system in a large-scale radiological disaster scenario. Most significant to the improvement of national and local preparedness of a potential nuclear/radiological disaster, this HemoDose approach establishes robust correlations between the absorbed doses and victim's various types of blood cell counts not only in the early time window (1 or 2 days), but also in the very late phase (up to 4 weeks) after exposure.

  2. Alcohol dependence and CD4 cell count: is there a relationship?

    PubMed

    Malbergier, Andre; Amaral, Ricardo Abrantes do; Cardoso, Luciana Donola

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol and other drugs use seem to be common among people infected with HIV on antiretroviral treatment (ART). Their effects on HIV progression is still in debate. This study aimed to assess the association between alcohol and drug use and an HIV disease progression biomarker (CD4 cell count) among patients on ART. A cross-sectional study was carried out at an HIV treatment center affiliated with Medical School of the University of São Paulo, Brazil. Four hundred and thirty-eight HIV-positive patients on ART were interviewed by trained psychiatrists and psychologists using the following instruments: Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and the Simplified Medication Adherence Questionnaire (SMAQ). In the previous month, 219 (50%) and 41 (9.3%) patients reported use of alcohol and illicit drugs, respectively. Fifty patients (12.6%) were classified as having harmful alcohol use by AUDIT. According to SCID-I, 80 patients (18.3%) were alcohol abusers, 24 (5.5%) alcohol dependents, and 21 (4.2%) had a current depressive disorder. Almost 73% (n = 319-72.8%) of the patients were adherent to ART. Alcohol dependents were nine times (p < 0.01) more likely to have CD4 cell count ?200/mm(3), and this association was independent of ART adherence. In conclusion, alcohol dependence seems to be associated with low CD4 cell count in HIV-positive patients. Based on these data, HIV health care workers should always assess alcohol consumption in the treatment setting, and patients should be advised that alcohol dependence may be linked to low CD4. PMID:25179410

  3. Enhanced cell viability via strain stimulus and fluid flow in magnetically actuated scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Mack, Julia J; Corrin, Abigail A; dos Santos e Lucato, Sergio L; Dunn, James C Y; Wu, Benjamin W; Cox, Brian N

    2013-03-01

    A novel magnetically actuated scaffold was used to explore the effects of strain stimulus on the proliferation and spatial distribution of smooth muscle cells and improve cell viability in the scaffold interior by pumping nutrients throughout the structure. Magnetically actuable scaffolds were fabricated in a tube shape by winding electrospun sheets of a biodegradable polymer modified with magnetic Fe(2)O(3) nanoparticles. Prior to rolling, the sheets were seeded with smooth muscle cells and wound into tubes with diameter 5.2 mm and wall thickness 0.2 mm. The tubular scaffolds were actuated by a magnetic field to induce a cyclic crimping deformation, which applies strain stimulus to the cells and pumps nutrient fluid through the porous tube walls. Comparison with non-actuated controls shows that magnetic actuation increases the total cell count throughout the scaffold after 14 days of incubation. Furthermore, whereas cell density as a function of position through the tube wall thickness showed a minimum in the mid-interior in the controls after 14 days due to cell starvation, the actuated scaffolds displayed a maximum cell density. Comparison of cell distributions with the expected spatial variations in strain amplitude and nutrient flux implies that both strain stimulus and nutrient pumping are significant factors in cell proliferation. PMID:23042257

  4. A Cell Number Counting Factor Regulates Akt\\/Protein Kinase B To Regulate Dictyostelium discoideum Group Size

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tong Gao; David Knecht; Lei Tang; R. Diane Hatton; Richard H. Gomer

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about how individual cells can organize themselves to form structures of a given size. During development, Dictyostelium discoideum aggregates in dendritic streams and forms groups of 20,000 cells. D. discoideum regulates group size by secreting and simultaneously sensing a multiprotein complex called count- ing factor (CF). If there are too many cells in a stream, the associated

  5. Computer-assisted counting of retinal cells by automatic segmentation after TV denoising

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Quantitative evaluation of mosaics of photoreceptors and neurons is essential in studies on development, aging and degeneration of the retina. Manual counting of samples is a time consuming procedure while attempts to automatization are subject to various restrictions from biological and preparation variability leading to both over- and underestimation of cell numbers. Here we present an adaptive algorithm to overcome many of these problems. Digital micrographs were obtained from cone photoreceptor mosaics visualized by anti-opsin immuno-cytochemistry in retinal wholemounts from a variety of mammalian species including primates. Segmentation of photoreceptors (from background, debris, blood vessels, other cell types) was performed by a procedure based on Rudin-Osher-Fatemi total variation (TV) denoising. Once 3 parameters are manually adjusted based on a sample, similarly structured images can be batch processed. The module is implemented in MATLAB and fully documented online. Results The object recognition procedure was tested on samples with a typical range of signal and background variations. We obtained results with error ratios of less than 10% in 16 of 18 samples and a mean error of less than 6% compared to manual counts. Conclusions The presented method provides a traceable module for automated acquisition of retinal cell density data. Remaining errors, including addition of background items, splitting or merging of objects might be further reduced by introduction of additional parameters. The module may be integrated into extended environments with features such as 3D-acquisition and recognition. PMID:24138794

  6. Straw blood cell count, growth, inhibition and comparison to apoptotic bodies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yonnie; Henry, David C; Heim, Kyle; Tomkins, Jeffrey P; Kuan, Cheng-Yi

    2008-01-01

    Background Mammalian cells transform into individual tubular straw cells naturally in tissues and in response to desiccation related stress in vitro. The transformation event is characterized by a dramatic cellular deformation process which includes: condensation of certain cellular materials into a much smaller tubular structure, synthesis of a tubular wall and growth of filamentous extensions. This study continues the characterization of straw cells in blood, as well as the mechanisms of tubular transformation in response to stress; with specific emphasis placed on investigating whether tubular transformation shares the same signaling pathway as apoptosis. Results There are approximately 100 billion, unconventional, tubular straw cells in human blood at any given time. The straw blood cell count (SBC) is 45 million/ml, which accounts for 6.9% of the bloods dry weight. Straw cells originating from the lungs, liver and lymphocytes have varying nodules, hairiness and dimensions. Lipid profiling reveals severe disruption of the plasma membrane in CACO cells during transformation. The growth rates for the elongation of filaments and enlargement of rabbit straw cells is 0.6~1.1 (?m/hr) and 3.8 (?m3/hr), respectively. Studies using apoptosis inhibitors and a tubular transformation inhibitor in CACO2 cells and in mice suggested apoptosis produced apoptotic bodies are mediated differently than tubular transformation produced straw cells. A single dose of 0.01 mg/kg/day of p38 MAPK inhibitor in wild type mice results in a 30% reduction in the SBC. In 9 domestic animals SBC appears to correlate inversely with an animal's average lifespan (R2 = 0.7). Conclusion Straw cells are observed residing in the mammalian blood with large quantities. Production of SBC appears to be constant for a given animal and may involve a stress-inducible protein kinase (P38 MAPK). Tubular transformation is a programmed cell survival process that diverges from apoptosis. SBCs may be an important indicator of intrinsic aging-related stress. PMID:18492269

  7. Design, fabrication, and applications of in situ fluid cell TEM.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongsheng; Nielsen, Michael H; De Yoreo, James J

    2013-01-01

    In situ fluid cell TEM is a powerful new tool for understanding dynamic processes during liquid phase chemical reactions, including mineral formation. This technique, which operates in the high vacuum of a TEM chamber, provides information on crystal structure, phase, morphology, size, aggregation/segregation, and crystal growth mechanisms in real time. In situ TEM records both crystal structure and morphology at spatial resolutions down to the atomic level with high temporal resolution of up to 10(-6)s per image, giving it distinct advantages over other in situ techniques such as optical microscopy, AFM, or X-ray scattering or diffraction. This chapter addresses the design, fabrication, and assembly of TEM fluid cells and applications of fluid cell TEM to understanding mechanisms of mineralization. PMID:24188766

  8. Mechanotransduction of fluid stresses governs 3D cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Polacheck, William J.; German, Alexandra E.; Mammoto, Akiko; Ingber, Donald E.; Kamm, Roger D.

    2014-01-01

    Solid tumors are characterized by high interstitial fluid pressure, which drives fluid efflux from the tumor core. Tumor-associated interstitial flow (IF) at a rate of ?3 µm/s has been shown to induce cell migration in the upstream direction (rheotaxis). However, the molecular biophysical mechanism that underlies upstream cell polarization and rheotaxis remains unclear. We developed a microfluidic platform to investigate the effects of IF fluid stresses imparted on cells embedded within a collagen type I hydrogel, and we demonstrate that IF stresses result in a transcellular gradient in ?1-integrin activation with vinculin, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), FAKPY397, F actin, and paxillin-dependent protrusion formation localizing to the upstream side of the cell, where matrix adhesions are under maximum tension. This previously unknown mechanism is the result of a force balance between fluid drag on the cell and matrix adhesion tension and is therefore a fundamental, but previously unknown, stimulus for directing cell movement within porous extracellular matrix. PMID:24550267

  9. Method of detecting and counting bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Picciolo, G. L.; Chappelle, E. W. (inventors)

    1976-01-01

    An improved method is provided for determining bacterial levels, especially in samples of aqueous physiological fluids. The method depends on the quantitative determination of bacterial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the presence of nonbacterial ATP. The bacterial ATP is released by cell rupture and is measured by an enzymatic bioluminescent assay. A concentration technique is included to make the method more sensitive. It is particularly useful where the fluid to be measured contains an unknown or low bacteria count.

  10. Low blood cell counts in wild Japanese monkeys after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Kazuhiko; Hayama, Shin-ichi; Nakiri, Sachie; Nakanishi, Setsuko; Ishii, Naomi; Uno, Taiki; Kato, Takuya; Konno, Fumiharu; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Tsuchida, Shuichi; Omi, Toshinori

    2014-01-01

    In April 2012 we carried out a 1-year hematological study on a population of wild Japanese monkeys inhabiting the forest area of Fukushima City. This area is located 70 km from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), which released a large amount of radioactive material into the environment following the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011. For comparison, we examined monkeys inhabiting the Shimokita Peninsula in Aomori Prefecture, located approximately 400 km from the NPP. Total muscle cesium concentration in Fukushima monkeys was in the range of 78-1778 Bq/kg, whereas the level of cesium was below the detection limit in all Shimokita monkeys. Compared with Shimokita monkeys, Fukushima monkeys had significantly low white and red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, and the white blood cell count in immature monkeys showed a significant negative correlation with muscle cesium concentration. These results suggest that the exposure to some form of radioactive material contributed to hematological changes in Fukushima monkeys. PMID:25060710

  11. Alternative experiments using the geophysical fluid flow cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    This study addresses the possibility of doing large scale dynamics experiments using the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell. In particular, cases where the forcing generates a statically stable stratification almost everywhere in the spherical shell are evaluated. This situation is typical of the Earth's atmosphere and oceans. By calculating the strongest meridional circulation expected in the spacelab experiments, and testing its stability using quasi-geostrophic stability theory, it is shown that strongly nonlinear baroclinic waves on a zonally symmetric modified thermal wind will not occur. The Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell does not have a deep enough fluid layer to permit useful studies of large scale planetary wave processes arising from instability. It is argued, however, that by introducing suitable meridional barriers, a significant contribution to the understanding of the oceanic thermocline problem could be made.

  12. Standard Microlithographic Mosaics to Assess Endothelial Cell Counting Methods by Light Microscopy in Eye Banks Using Organ Culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nilanjana Deb-Joardar; Gilles Thuret; David Pons; Gerald Brun; Olivier Parriaux; Sophie Acquart

    PURPOSE. To develop standard microscopic hexagonal mosaics mimicking the human corneal endothelium for quality control of endothelial cell density (ECD) measurement and verification of cell counting strategy by light microscopy in eye banks using organ culture. METHODS. A standard slide, the Keratotest, was developed with 10 laser-engraved mosaics and different predetermined \\

  13. Neutron confinement cell for investigating complex fluids Tonya L. Kuhla)

    E-print Network

    Kuhl, Tonya L.

    Neutron confinement cell for investigating complex fluids Tonya L. Kuhla) Department of Chemical Manuel Lujan, Jr. Neutron Scattering Center, LANSCE-12, MS H805, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Lujan, Jr. Neutron Scattering Center, LANSCE-12, MS H805, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos

  14. Laboratory adverse events and discontinuation of therapy according to CD4+ cell count at the start of antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Sophie; Quinn, Killian; Hill, Teresa; Leen, Clifford; Walsh, John; Hay, Phillip; Fisher, Martin; Post, Frank; Nelson, Mark; Gompels, Mark; Johnson, Margaret; Chadwick, David; Gilson, Richard; Sabin, Caroline; Fidler, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Few data describe antiretroviral treatment (ART)-related adverse events when treatment is initiated at CD4+ cell counts more than 350?cells/?l. We compared rates of laboratory-defined adverse events (LDAEs) according to CD4+ cell count at ART initiation. Design: Analysis of on-going cohort study. Methods: ART-naive persons initiating ART from 2000 to 2010 were included. Chi-square, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Kruskal–Wallis tests compared characteristics among those starting ART with a CD4+ cell count of 350 or less, 351–499 and at least 500?cells/?l. Time-updated Poisson regression compared rates of LDAE in the three CD4+ cell strata. Cox proportional hazard models compared risk of ART discontinuation. Results: Nine thousand, four hundred and six individuals were included: median age 37 years, 61% white, 80% men, median viral load 4.8?log copies/ml. Four hundred and forty-seven (4.9%) and 1099 (11.7%) started ART with a CD4+ cell count at least 500 and 351–499?cells/?l, respectively. One thousand, two hundred and eighty-three (13.6%) patients experienced at least one LDAE. The rate of LDAE did not differ between those starting ART with a CD4+ cell count 351–499 and less than 350?cells/?l [relative rate 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74–1.09)], but an increased risk of ART discontinuation was observed (hazard ratio 1.58, 95% CI 1.10–2.27). Those starting ART at CD4+ cell count at least 500?cells/?l had an increased rate of LDAE (relative rate 1.44, 95% CI 1.13–1.82) but were not more likely to discontinue ART (hazard ratio 1.15, 95% CI 0.64–2.09). Conclusion: This study demonstrates the need to consider ART-related toxicities when initiating therapy at CD4+ cell counts at least 500?cells/?l. Whilst evidence from randomized controlled trials is awaited, the timing of ART initiation in terms of benefits and risks of ART remains an important question. PMID:24583670

  15. Evaluation of confirmatory stains used for direct microscopic somatic cell counting of sheep milk.

    PubMed

    Petersson, K H; Connor, L A; Petersson-Wolfe, C S; Rego, K A

    2011-04-01

    Current FDA regulatory screening and confirmatory methods, electronic cell counting and the direct microscopic somatic cell count (DMSCC), differ for the detection of abnormal milk in sheep and goats. The DNA-specific electronic SCC screening methods such as Fossomatic (Foss, Hillerød, Denmark) can be used for both sheep and goat milk; however, the nonspecific methylene blue-based stains used for DMSCC in sheep cannot be used for goats as they nonspecifically stain cytoplasmic particles naturally present in goat milk. The DNA-specific stain pyronin Y-methyl green (PMG) is currently used for DMSCC in goats. Sheep also shed cytoplasmic particles during the milk secretory process, but in fewer numbers than goats. The objective of this study was to determine whether the nonspecific, methylene blue-based Levowitz-Weber (L-W) stain is the appropriate regulatory stain to use for DMSCC in sheep milk. Composite milk samples from 42 commercial dairy ewes were collected every 4 wk for the duration of each ewe's lactation for a total of 10 sample days. Milk samples were subjected to 3 methods of SCC determination: automated Fossomatic counting, DMSCC with L-W stain, and DMSCC with PMG stain conducted according to FDA regulatory procedures (2400 series forms). The DMSCC from milk smears stained with L-W were greater than those from smears stained with PMG and those from the Fossomatic analysis on 6 of the 10 sampling days. Milk smears stained with PMG did not differ from Fossomatic analysis at any sampling. The average milk SCC for L-W, PMG, and Fossomatic were (mean±SE) 275±36×10(3), 174±24×10(3), and 164±24×10(3) cells/mL, respectively. The DMSCC for milk stained with L-W was 58% greater than that with PMG and 68% greater than that obtained with the Fossomatic analysis. In conclusion, DMSCC of sheep milk stained with the nonspecific, methylene blue L-W stain resulted in a marked increase in SCC over that of the DNA-specific stain PMG and Fossomatic SCC analysis. The findings of this study support the continued use of Fossomatic SCC but recommend the replacement of the methylene blue-based stains with DNA-specific PMG for determination of DMSCC in sheep milk. PMID:21426980

  16. Measuring High-Order Moments of the Galaxy Distribution from Counts in Cells -- The Edgeworth Approximation

    E-print Network

    Rita Seungjung Kim; Michael A. Strauss

    1997-09-24

    To probe the weakly non-linear regime, past the point where simple linear theory is sufficient to describe the statistics of the density distribution, we measure the skewness (S_3) and kurtosis (S_4) of the Count Probability Distribution Function (CPDF) of the IRAS 1.2 Jy sample obtained from counts in cells. These quantities are free parameters in a maximum likelihood fit of an Edgeworth expansion convolved with a Poissonian to the observed CPDF. This method, applicable on scales greater than 5 Mpc, is appreciably less sensitive to the tail of the distribution than are measurements of S_3 and S_4 from moments of the CPDF. We measure S_3 and S_4 to l~50 h^{-1} Mpc; the data are consistent with scale invariance, yielding averages of = 2.83 +/- 0.09, and = 6.89 +/- 0.68. These values are higher than those found using the moments method on the same data set, = 1.5 +/- 0.5 and = 4.4 +/- 3.7, due to lack of correction in the latter work for finite-volume effects. Unlike the moments method, our results are quite robust to the fact that IRAS galaxies are under-represented in cluster cores. We use N-body simulations to show that our method yields unbiased results.

  17. Trypanosoma cruzi infectivity assessment in "in vitro" culture systems by automated cell counting.

    PubMed

    Liempi, Ana; Castillo, Christian; Cerda, Mauricio; Droguett, Daniel; Duaso, Juan; Barahona, Katherine; Hernández, Ariane; Díaz-Luján, Cintia; Fretes, Ricardo; Härtel, Steffen; Kemmerling, Ulrike

    2015-03-01

    Chagas disease is an endemic, neglected tropical disease in Latin America that is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. In vitro models constitute the first experimental approach to study the physiopathology of the disease and to assay potential new trypanocidal agents. Here, we report and describe clearly the use of commercial software (MATLAB(®)) to quantify T. cruzi amastigotes and infected mammalian cells (BeWo) and compared this analysis with the manual one. There was no statistically significant difference between the manual and the automatic quantification of the parasite; the two methods showed a correlation analysis r(2) value of 0.9159. The most significant advantage of the automatic quantification was the efficiency of the analysis. The drawback of this automated cell counting method was that some parasites were assigned to the wrong BeWo cell, however this data did not exceed 5% when adequate experimental conditions were chosen. We conclude that this quantification method constitutes an excellent tool for evaluating the parasite load in cells and therefore constitutes an easy and reliable ways to study parasite infectivity. PMID:25553972

  18. Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Konstom, M.A. (New England Medical Center, Boston, MA); Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

    1982-09-01

    The effects of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling was studied. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased in erythrocyte count (r=0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. It was concluded that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume.

  19. Chondrogenic differentiation of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kolambkar, Yash M; Peister, Alexandra; Soker, Shay; Atala, Anthony; Guldberg, Robert E

    2007-10-01

    For regenerating damaged articular cartilage, it is necessary to identify an appropriate cell source that is easily accessible, can be expanded to large numbers, and has chondrogenic potential. Amniotic fluid-derived stem (AFS) cells have recently been isolated from human and rodent amniotic fluid and shown to be highly proliferative and broadly pluripotent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the chondrogenic potential of human AFS cells in pellet and alginate hydrogel cultures. Human AFS cells were expanded in various media conditions, and cultured for three weeks with growth factor supplementation. There was increased production of sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) and type II collagen in response to transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) supplementation, with TGF-beta1 producing greater increases than TGF-beta3. Modification of expansion media supplements and addition of insulin-like growth factor-1 during pellet culture further increased sGAG/DNA over TGF-beta1 supplementation alone. Compared to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, the AFS cells produced less cartilaginous matrix after three weeks of TGF-beta1 supplementation in pellet culture. Even so, this study demonstrates that AFS cells have the potential to differentiate along the chondrogenic lineage, thus establishing the feasibility of using these cells for cartilage repair applications. PMID:17668282

  20. Counting Gene Expression in Single Cells to Identify Stem Cells | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    Using a technique that can track the expression of multiple genes in a single cell, a team of investigators from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences have demonstrated that they can identify and track individual stem cells from fixed samples of intestinal tissues. The researchers believe that this approach will be useful for studying the role of stem cells in the development of cancer.

  1. Amniotic Fluid-Derived Stem Cells for Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering Applications

    E-print Network

    Petsche Connell, Jennifer

    Recent research has demonstrated that a population of stem cells can be isolated from amniotic fluid removed by amniocentesis that are broadly multipotent and nontumorogenic. These amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (AFSC) ...

  2. Possible Prognostic and Therapeutic Significance of c-Kit Expression, Mast Cell Count and Microvessel Density in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Marech, Ilaria; Gadaleta, Cosmo Damiano; Ranieri, Girolamo

    2014-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most frequent renal tumor and its incidence is increasing worldwide. Tumor angiogenesis is known to play a crucial role in the etiopathogenesis of RCC and over the last few years an even deeper knowledge of its contribution in metastatic RCC development has led to the development of numerous molecular targeting agents (such as sunitinib, sorafenib, pazopanib, axitinib, tivozanib, and dovitinib). The above agents are principally directed against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) members and also against c-Kit receptor (c-KitR). The role of c-kitR inhibition on clear cell RCC (ccRCC), the main RCC subtype, is less well established. Whether c-kitR activation through its ligand, stem cell factor (SCF) contributes significantly to the effects of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) treatment remains to be established. It is important to underscore that the c-KitR is expressed on mast cells (MCs) and cancer cells. After an examination of the c-KitR/SCF pathway, we review here the principal studies that have evaluated c-Kit expression in RCC. Moreover, we summarize some investigations that have observed the distribution of MCs in primary renal cancer and in adjacent normal tissue with appropriate histological immunohistochemical techniques. We also focus on few studies that have evaluated the correlation between RCC proliferation, MC count and microvessel density (MVD), as hallmarks of tumor angiogenesis. Thus, the aim of this review of the literature is to clarify if c-KitR expression, MC count and MVD could have prognostic significance and the possible predictive therapeutic implications in RCC. PMID:25056544

  3. Circulating Tumor Cells Count and Morphological Features in Breast, Colorectal and Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ligthart, Sjoerd T.; Coumans, Frank A. W.; Bidard, Francois-Clement; Simkens, Lieke H. J.; Punt, Cornelis J. A.; de Groot, Marco R.; Attard, Gerhardt; de Bono, Johann S.; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Terstappen, Leon W. M. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Presence of circulating tumor cells (CTC) in patients with metastatic breast, colorectal and prostate cancer is indicative for poor prognosis. An automated CTC (aCTC) algorithm developed previously to eliminate the variability in manual counting of CTC (mCTC) was used to extract morphological features. Here we validated the aCTC algorithm on CTC images from prostate, breast and colorectal cancer patients and investigated the role of quantitative morphological parameters. Methodology Stored images of samples from patients with prostate, breast and colorectal cancer, healthy controls, benign breast and colorectal tumors were obtained using the CellSearch system. Images were analyzed for the presence of aCTC and their morphological parameters measured and correlated with survival. Results Overall survival hazard ratio was not significantly different for aCTC and mCTC. The number of CTC correlated strongest with survival, whereas CTC size, roundness and apoptosis features reached significance in univariate analysis, but not in multivariate analysis. One aCTC/7.5 ml of blood was found in 7 of 204 healthy controls and 9 of 694 benign tumors. In one patient with benign tumor 2 and another 9 aCTC were detected. Significance of the study CTC can be identified and morphological features extracted by an algorithm on images stored by the CellSearch system and strongly correlate with clinical outcome in metastatic breast, colorectal and prostate cancer. PMID:23826219

  4. PyMGC3: Finding stellar streams in the Galactic Halo using a family of Great Circle Cell counts methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateu, C.

    2014-11-01

    PyMGC3 is a Python toolkit to apply the Modified Great Circle Cell Counts (mGC3) method to search for tidal streams in the Galactic Halo. The code computes pole count maps using the full mGC3/nGC3/GC3 family of methods. The original GC3 method (Johnston et al., 1996) uses positional information to search for 'great-circle-cell structures'; mGC3 makes use of full 6D data and nGC3 uses positional and proper motion data.

  5. Fluid phase biopsy for detection and characterization of circulating endothelial cells in myocardial infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bethel, Kelly; Luttgen, Madelyn S.; Damani, Samir; Kolatkar, Anand; Lamy, Rachelle; Sabouri-Ghomi, Mohsen; Topol, Sarah; Topol, Eric J.; Kuhn, Peter

    2014-02-01

    Elevated levels of circulating endothelial cells (CECs) occur in response to various pathological conditions including myocardial infarction (MI). Here, we adapted a fluid phase biopsy technology platform that successfully detects circulating tumor cells in the blood of cancer patients (HD-CTC assay), to create a high-definition circulating endothelial cell (HD-CEC) assay for the detection and characterization of CECs. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 79 MI patients, 25 healthy controls and six patients undergoing vascular surgery (VS). CECs were defined by positive staining for DAPI, CD146 and von Willebrand Factor and negative staining for CD45. In addition, CECs exhibited distinct morphological features that enable differentiation from surrounding white blood cells. CECs were found both as individual cells and as aggregates. CEC numbers were higher in MI patients compared with healthy controls. VS patients had lower CEC counts when compared with MI patients but were not different from healthy controls. Both HD-CEC and CellSearch® assays could discriminate MI patients from healthy controls with comparable accuracy but the HD-CEC assay exhibited higher specificity while maintaining high sensitivity. Our HD-CEC assay may be used as a robust diagnostic biomarker in MI patients.

  6. Correlation between the reduced circulating endothelial progenitor cell counts and elevated intraocular pressure-induced retinal ganglion cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Yao, Baoqun; Zhao, Qing; Yan, Hua; Chen, Fanglian; Liu, Li

    2014-07-15

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate the correlations between intraocular pressure (IOP) and circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), retinal ganglion cells (RGC) apoptosis and EPCs, and explore the possible role of EPCs in the elevated IOP-induced RGC apoptosis. Materials and methods: A rat model of IOP elevation was induced by photocoagulation of the limbus vein and episcleral veins using a 532-nm green laser. Twenty rats were randomly assigned to normal control (NC) group, 30 rats were randomly assigned to sham-treated control (STC) group and 50 rats were randomly assigned to laser-treated (LT) group. The IOPs were measured with a Tono-pen XL tonometer. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was performed to observe the effects of IOP elevation on the structure of retina. Retinal apoptotic cells were determined by in situ TUNEL staining, and peripheral blood EPCs (CD34(+)/CD133(+)) were detected by flow cytometry. Results: Compared with the NC group (9.9?±?1.2?mmHg), the IOPs in the LT group were 37.4?±?1.5, 31.8?±?4.1, 25.9?±?2.2, 23.1?±?3.6 and 22.4?±?3.0?mmHg on the third day, seventh day, third week, second month and third month, respectively, after the laser photocoagulation. There were significant differences in IOPs between the groups at the different time points (F?=?110.02, p?counts were 121.3?±?22.4, 81.3?±?23.7, 46.1?±?15.8, 54.4?±?19.1 and 54.7?±?15.9 /2?×?10(5) mononuclear cells (MNCs) on the third day, seventh day, third week, second month and third month, respectively, after the laser photocoagulation, compared with the NC group (62.1?±?13.1)/2?×?10(5) MNCs. There were significant differences in EPC counts between the groups at the different time points (F?=?22.09, p?counts. PMID:25025752

  7. The Influence of Age and Sex on the Cell Counts of Peripheral Blood Leukocyte Subpopulations in Chinese Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Hou-Jun; Zhang, Gao-Hong; Wang, Rui-Rui; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2009-01-01

    Non-human primates such as Chinese rhesus macaques are the favorable models for preclinical study of potential therapeutic drugs, vaccines and mechanisms of human diseases. Little is known about the normal levels of leukocyte subpopulations of Chinese rhesus macaques. To obtain these data, 100 blood samples from Chinese rhesus macaques were collected. The normal range of major leukocyte subpopulations, such as T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, monocytes, myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), were quantitatively analyzed by flow cytometry through BD trucount tubes. The influence of age and sex on the cell counts of leukocyte subpopulations was analyzed. The counts of CD3+T cells, CD3+CD4+T cells, CD3+CD8+T cells and B cells decreased with age, but those of monocytes, mDCs and pDCs had no significant correlation with age. Significant differences existed in the cell counts of most leukocyte subpopulations between the male and female groups except pDCs. Furthermore the values of the females were higher than those of the males. The study provided basic information about the leukocyte subpopulations of Chinese rhesus macaques, and it may be valuable for immunobiological study of Chinese rhesus macaques. PMID:20003819

  8. Three-dimensional counting of morphologically normal human red blood cells via digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Faliu; Moon, Inkyu; Lee, Yeon H.

    2015-01-01

    Counting morphologically normal cells in human red blood cells (RBCs) is extremely beneficial in the health care field. We propose a three-dimensional (3-D) classification method of automatically determining the morphologically normal RBCs in the phase image of multiple human RBCs that are obtained by off-axis digital holographic microscopy (DHM). The RBC holograms are first recorded by DHM, and then the phase images of multiple RBCs are reconstructed by a computational numerical algorithm. To design the classifier, the three typical RBC shapes, which are stomatocyte, discocyte, and echinocyte, are used for training and testing. Nonmain or abnormal RBC shapes different from the three normal shapes are defined as the fourth category. Ten features, including projected surface area, average phase value, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, perimeter, mean corpuscular hemoglobin surface density, circularity, mean phase of center part, sphericity coefficient, elongation, and pallor, are extracted from each RBC after segmenting the reconstructed phase images by using a watershed transform algorithm. Moreover, four additional properties, such as projected surface area, perimeter, average phase value, and elongation, are measured from the inner part of each cell, which can give significant information beyond the previous 10 features for the separation of the RBC groups; these are verified in the experiment by the statistical method of Hotelling's T-square test. We also apply the principal component analysis algorithm to reduce the dimension number of variables and establish the Gaussian mixture densities using the projected data with the first eight principal components. Consequently, the Gaussian mixtures are used to design the discriminant functions based on Bayesian decision theory. To improve the performance of the Bayes classifier and the accuracy of estimation of its error rate, the leaving-one-out technique is applied. Experimental results show that the proposed method can yield good results for calculating the percentage of each typical normal RBC shape in a reconstructed phase image of multiple RBCs that will be favorable to the analysis of RBC-related diseases. In addition, we show that the discrimination performance for the counting of normal shapes of RBCs can be improved by using 3-D features of an RBC.

  9. In Vitro Cardiomyogenic Potential of Human Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Xuan; Delo, Dawn M.; Atala, Anthony; Soker, Shay

    2010-01-01

    Stem cell therapy for damaged cardiac tissue is currently limited by a number of factors, including the inability to obtain sufficient cell numbers, the potential tumorigenicity of certain types of stem cells, and the possible link between stem cell therapy and the development of malignant arrhythmias. In this study, we investigated whether human amniotic fluid-derived stem (hAFS) cells could be a potential source of cells for cardiac cell therapy by testing the in vitro differentiation capabilities. Undifferentiated hAFS cells express several cardiac genes, including the transcription factor mef2, the gap junction connexin43, and H- and N-cadherin. A 24-hour incubation with 5-aza-2?–deoxycytidine (5-AZA-dC) induced hAFS cell differentiation along the cardiac lineage. Evidence for this differentiation included morphological changes, up-regulation of cardiac-specific genes (cardiac troponin I and cardiac troponin T) and redistribution of connexin43, as well as down-regulation of the stem cell marker SRY-box 2 (sox2). When co-cultured with neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCs), hAFS cells formed both mechanical and electrical connections with the NRCs. Dye transfer experiments showed that calcein dye could be transferred from NRCs to hAFS cells through cellular connections. The gap junction connexin 43 likely involved in the communication between the two cell types, because 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) could partially block cellular crosstalk. We conclude that hAFS cells can be differentiated into a cardiomyocyte-like phenotype and can establish functional communication with NRCs. Thus, hAFS cells may potentially be used for cardiac cell therapy. PMID:20687122

  10. How to count cells: the advantages and disadvantages of the isotropic fractionator compared with stereology.

    PubMed

    Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; von Bartheld, Christopher S; Miller, Daniel J; Kaas, Jon H

    2015-04-01

    The number of cells comprising biological structures represents fundamental information in basic anatomy, development, aging, drug tests, pathology and genetic manipulations. Obtaining unbiased estimates of cell numbers, however, was until recently possible only through stereological techniques, which require specific training, equipment, histological processing and appropriate sampling strategies applied to structures with a homogeneous distribution of cell bodies. An alternative, the isotropic fractionator (IF), became available in 2005 as a fast and inexpensive method that requires little training, no specific software and only a few materials before it can be used to quantify total numbers of neuronal and non-neuronal cells in a whole organ such as the brain or any dissectible regions thereof. This method entails transforming a highly anisotropic tissue into a homogeneous suspension of free-floating nuclei that can then be counted under the microscope or by flow cytometry and identified morphologically and immunocytochemically as neuronal or non-neuronal. We compare the advantages and disadvantages of each method and provide researchers with guidelines for choosing the best method for their particular needs. IF is as accurate as unbiased stereology and faster than stereological techniques, as it requires no elaborate histological processing or sampling paradigms, providing reliable estimates in a few days rather than many weeks. Tissue shrinkage is also not an issue, since the estimates provided are independent of tissue volume. The main disadvantage of IF, however, is that it necessarily destroys the tissue analyzed and thus provides no spatial information on the cellular composition of biological regions of interest. PMID:25740200

  11. Hyperhomocysteinemia in HIV-Infected Individuals: Correlation of a Frequent Prothrombotic Factor with CD4+ Cell Count

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahi, Alireza; Shoar, Tahereh Sanaei

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study was aimed at providing an analysis of the correlation between CD4/CD8 counts and some coagulation factors in HIV-Positive Iranian patients. Methods A case-control study on 58 HIV-infected patients and control group (58 healthy individuals). Patients and controls were matched for sex and age. In this study, several blood parameters were measured in 58 HIV-infected patients and the controls. Laboratory data were then measured including hemoglobin, platelets, homocysteine, serum levels of IgM and IgG antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), IgM and IgG anticardiolipin antibotdies (aCL), and CD4+ and CD8+ cell count. Results The HIV-infected patients, compared to healthy controls, showed a significant decline in platelets, CD4 count and CD8 count (p<0.0001), and an increase of homocysteine (p<0.0001) and IgG aPL levels (p<0.0001). No statistical difference was found between patients with CD4 count ?200 and CD4 count >200 in the evaluated variables. Conclusion The results showed that thrombophilic abnormality in the form of hyperhomocysteinemia is more frequent in HIV-infected patients and should be considered by clinicians in view of an early diagnosis of the hypercoagulability state to prevent thrombotic complications. PMID:22811772

  12. Fluid and Cell Transport Through a Microfabricated Flow Chamber.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brody, James Patrick

    We use silicon processing techniques to construct microfabricated fluid flow chambers. Custom designed silicon wafers with feature sizes of 1-10 ?m and etch depths from 0.5-5 ?m are anodically bonded to Pyrex glass to create a hermetically sealed chamber. A pressure gradient is placed across the chamber to induce bulk fluid flow. Properties of fluid flow and red blood cells are recorded using video microscopy. The human red blood cell is ideal for studying cellular membranes. It is an 8 ?m diameter biconcave disc containing a membrane and associated cytoskeleton which surrounds a thick solution of hemoglobin. The material properties of individual red blood cells have been extensively studied in the past using micropipettes. However, we can get statistics on hundreds of red blood cells by fabricating an array of narrow channels 4 mu m x 4 ?m in cross-section (the diameter of the smallest capillaries in the human body) and 13 ?m long. These narrow channels are followed by an open space. This geometry forces red cells to repeatedly fold and unfold. Using these arrays, we show that the shear modulus of the membrane does not have a unique value, but has a distribution that ranges from 3-12 times 10 ^{-6} N/m. The surprisingly wide distribution is not due to cell size or cell age. It does seem to be correlated with intracellular Ca^ {2+}<=vels, leading us to believe that cell rigidity is controlled by some active process. We also report observations on red blood cells changing their rigidity by factors of fifty over tens of seconds. These microfabricated flow chambers are ideal for studying fluid flow through porous media. We construct custom designed two-dimensional environments with micron size features. These environments can be described by simple analytical theories which also attempt to describe flow through rock. For example, we image viscous imbibition of water into a percolation grid with 5 mu m edges in real time, and measure the permeability as a function of concentration for a simple rectangular array geometry.

  13. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SUKKEE UM; C.-Y. Wang; KEN S. CHEN

    2000-01-01

    A transient, multi-dimensional model has been developed to simulate proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. The model accounts simultaneously for electrochemical kinetics, current distribution, hydrodynamics and multi-component transport. A single set of conservation equations valid for flow channels, gas-diffusion electrodes, catalyst layers and the membrane region are developed and numerically solved using a finite-volume-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. The

  14. A novel method to derive amniotic fluid stem cells for therapeutic purposes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatsanee Phermthai; Yuparat Odglun; Suphakde Julavijitphong; Vitaya Titapant; Prakong Chuenwattana; Chanchai Vantanasiri; Kovit Pattanapanyasat

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human amniotic fluid stem (hAFS) cells have become an attractive stem cell source for medical therapy due to both their ability to propagate as stem cells and the lack of ethical debate that comes with the use of embryonic stem cells. Although techniques to derive stem cells from amniotic fluid are available, the techniques have limitations for clinical uses,

  15. Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center study examines predicting ovarian cancer by counting tumor-attacking immune cells

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center have developed a new method for counting a special class of cancer-fighting cells – called tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes, or TILs – reliably, quickly and cheaply in patients with early stage and advanced ovarian cancer.

  16. Prolonged effect of fluid flow stress on the proliferative activity of mesothelial cells after abrupt discontinuation of fluid streaming

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, Shigehisa, E-mail: aokis@cc.saga-u.ac.jp [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Saga (Japan)] [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Saga (Japan); Ikeda, Satoshi [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Saga (Japan)] [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Saga (Japan); Takezawa, Toshiaki [Transgenic Animal Research Center, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Ibaraki (Japan)] [Transgenic Animal Research Center, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Ibaraki (Japan); Kishi, Tomoya [Department of Internal Medicine, Saga University, Saga (Japan)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Saga University, Saga (Japan); Makino, Junichi [Makino Clinic, Saga (Japan)] [Makino Clinic, Saga (Japan); Uchihashi, Kazuyoshi; Matsunobu, Aki [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Saga (Japan)] [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Saga (Japan); Noguchi, Mitsuru [Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Saga (Japan)] [Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Saga (Japan); Sugihara, Hajime [Department of Physical Therapy, International University of Health and Welfare, Fukuoka (Japan)] [Department of Physical Therapy, International University of Health and Welfare, Fukuoka (Japan); Toda, Shuji [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Saga (Japan)] [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Saga (Japan)

    2011-12-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Late-onset peritoneal fibrosis leading to EPS remains to be elucidated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fluid streaming is a potent factor for peritoneal fibrosis in PD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We focused on the prolonged effect of fluid streaming on mesothelial cell kinetics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A history of fluid streaming exposure promoted mesothelial proliferative activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have thus identified a potent new factor for late-onset peritoneal fibrosis. -- Abstract: Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) often develops after transfer to hemodialysis and transplantation. Both termination of peritoneal dialysis (PD) and transplantation-related factors are risks implicated in post-PD development of EPS, but the precise mechanism of this late-onset peritoneal fibrosis remains to be elucidated. We previously demonstrated that fluid flow stress induced mesothelial proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition via mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Therefore, we speculated that the prolonged bioactive effect of fluid flow stress may affect mesothelial cell kinetics after cessation of fluid streaming. To investigate how long mesothelial cells stay under the bioactive effect brought on by fluid flow stress after removal of the stress, we initially cultured mesothelial cells under fluid flow stress and then cultured the cells under static conditions. Mesothelial cells exposed to fluid flow stress for a certain time showed significantly high proliferative activity compared with static conditions after stoppage of fluid streaming. The expression levels of protein phosphatase 2A, which dephosphorylates MAPK, in mesothelial cells changed with time and showed a biphasic pattern that was dependent on the duration of exposure to fluid flow stress. There were no differences in the fluid flow stress-related bioactive effects on mesothelial cells once a certain time had passed. The present findings show that fluid flow stress exerts a prolonged bioactive effect on mesothelial cells after termination of fluid streaming. These findings support the hypothesis that a history of PD for a certain period could serve as a trigger of EPS after stoppage of PD.

  17. Multilineage potential research of bovine amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuhua; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Yuhua; Hua, Jinlian; Ma, Yuehui; Guan, Weijun

    2014-01-01

    The use of amnion and amniotic fluid (AF) are abundant sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that can be harvested at low cost and do not pose ethical conflicts. In human and veterinary research, stem cells derived from these tissues are promising candidates for disease treatment, specifically for their plasticity, their reduced immunogenicity, and high anti-inflammatory potential. This work aimed to obtain and characterize bovine amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSC). The bovine AF from the amniotic cavity of pregnant gilts in the early stages of gestation (3- and 4-m-old bovine embryos) was collected. AFMSCs exhibit a fibroblastic-like morphology only starting from the fourth passage, being heterogeneous during the primary culture. Immunofluorescence results showed that AFMSCs were positive for ?-integrin, CD44, CD73 and CD166, but negative for CD34, CD45. Meanwhile, AFMSCs expressed ES cell markers, such as Oct4, and when appropriately induced, are capable of differentiating into ectodermal and mesodermal lineages. This study reinforces the emerging importance of these cells as ideal tools in veterinary medicine; future studies aimed at a deeper evaluation of their immunological properties will allow a better understanding of their role in cellular therapy. PMID:24590129

  18. Absolute monocyte count predicts overall survival in mantle cell lymphomas: correlation with tumour-associated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Koh, Young Wha; Shin, Su-Jin; Park, Chansik; Yoon, Dok Hyun; Suh, Cheolwon; Huh, Jooryung

    2014-12-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is characterized by a variable clinical course in which patients can experience indolent disease or frequent relapses despite a good initial response to conventional therapy. Risk stratification of MCL is most frequently performed using the MCL International Prognostic Index (MIPI). Recent studies indicate that the peripheral blood absolute monocyte count (AMC) and tumour-associated macrophages may reflect the state of the tumour microenvironment in lymphomas. The significance of AMC and tumour-associated macrophages in the clinical course of MCL is unknown. The prognostic impact of the AMC, of CD68 expression and of CD163 expression was retrospectively examined in 103 MCL samples using the receiver operating characteristic curved. Patients with an AMC???375 cells/?L at diagnosis were more likely to present with advanced-stage disease (p?=?0.026), leukocytosis (p?cells/?L) correlated with poorer overall survival (OS) (p?=?0.01). Neither CD68 nor CD163 expression was significantly associated with either OS or event-free survival. Multivariate analysis showed that a high AMC was a prognostic factor for OS, independent of the MIPI [hazards ratio (HR), 1.811; 95% confidence interval, 1.018-3.223; p?=?0.043]. This study demonstrates that the AMC at the time of diagnosis is an independent prognostic factor for OS in MCL, which suggests the possibility that AMC may be used in addition to the MIPI to predict outcome in patients with MCL. PMID:24910369

  19. Synovial fluid antigen-presenting cell function in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Viner, N J; Gaston, J S; Bacon, P A

    1993-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated enhanced synovial fluid (SF) antigen-presenting cell (APC) function in inflammatory arthritis patients selected on the basis of marked SF mononuclear cell (MNC) responsiveness to reactive arthritis-associated bacteria (Clin Exp Immunol 1990; 79:189-94). In this study we have assessed whether similarly enhanced synovial APC function is present in other inflammatory arthritis patients by using two assay systems to study 18 rheumatoid arthritis patients whose MNC responsiveness had not been determined in advance. We demonstrate that rheumatoid SF APC are much more potent than peripheral blood (PB) APC in stimulating the responses of autologous PB T cells to a range of recall antigens. In addition, SF APC are shown to be efficient stimulators of the antigen-specific responses of MHC-compatible, cloned T cells. Enhanced synovial APC function is thus likely to be a general feature of inflammatory arthritis and may play an important role in its pathogenesis. PMID:8485910

  20. Incidence of Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Herds Grouped in Three Categories by Bulk Milk Somatic Cell Counts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. W. Barkema; Y. H. Schukken; T. J. G. M. Lam; M. L. Beiboer; H. Wilmink; G. Benedictus; A. Brand

    1998-01-01

    Incidence of clinical mastitis was studied in 274 herds grouped in three categories by bulk milk so- matic cell count (SCC). Mean incidence rate of clini- cal mastitis was 0.278, 0.257, and 0.252 cases per 365 cow-days at risk in herds with low ( ?150,000), medium (150,000 to 250,000), and high (250,000 to 400,000 cells\\/ml) bulk milk SCC, respectively. The

  1. Fluid models and simulations of biological cell phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenspan, H. P.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamics of coated droplets are examined within the context of biofluids. Of specific interest is the manner in which the shape of a droplet, the motion within it as well as that of aggregates of droplets can be controlled by the modulation of surface properties and the extent to which such fluid phenomena are an intrinsic part of cellular processes. From the standpoint of biology, an objective is to elucidate some of the general dynamical features that affect the disposition of an entire cell, cell colonies and tissues. Conventionally averaged field variables of continuum mechanics are used to describe the overall global effects which result from the myriad of small scale molecular interactions. An attempt is made to establish cause and effect relationships from correct dynamical laws of motion rather than by what may have been unnecessary invocation of metabolic or life processes. Several topics are discussed where there are strong analogies droplets and cells including: encapsulated droplets/cell membranes; droplet shape/cell shape; adhesion and spread of a droplet/cell motility and adhesion; and oams and multiphase flows/cell aggregates and tissues. Evidence is presented to show that certain concepts of continuum theory such as suface tension, surface free energy, contact angle, bending moments, etc. are relevant and applicable to the study of cell biology.

  2. CD4 Cell Count Trends after Commencement of Antiretroviral Therapy among HIV-Infected Patients in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Asfaw, Addisu; Ali, Dagim; Eticha, Tadele; Alemayehu, Adissu; Alemayehu, Mussie; Kindeya, Filmon

    2015-01-01

    Background The rate and extent of CD4 cell recovery varies widely among HIV-infected patients with different baseline CD4 cell count strata. The objective of the study was to assess trends in CD4 cell counts in HIV-infected patients after initiation of antiretroviral therapy in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted by reviewing medical records of HIV patients who received antiretroviral treatment at twenty health centers in Tigray region during 2008–2012. Multi-stage cluster sampling technique was employed to collect data, and the data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 software. Results The median change from baseline to the most recent CD4 cell count was +292 cells/?l. By 5 years, the overall median (inter-quartile range, IQR) CD4 cell count was 444(263-557) cells/?l while the median (IQR) CD4 cell count was 342(246-580) cells/?l among patients with baseline CD4 cell counts ?200 cells/?l, 500(241-557) cells/?l among those with baseline CD4 cell counts of 201–350 cells/?l, and 652(537-767) cells/?l among those with baseline CD4 cell counts >350 cells/?l. Higher baseline CD4 cell counts and being male were independently associated with the risk of immunological non-response at 12 months. Furthermore, it was also investigated that these factors were significant predictors of subsequent CD4 cell recovery. Conclusions Patients with higher baseline CD4 cell stratum returned to normal CD4 Cell counts though they had an increased risk of immunological non-response at 12 months compared to those with the least baseline CD4 cell stratum. The findings suggest that consideration be given to initiation of HAART at a CD4 cell count >350 cells/?l to achieve better immune recovery, and to HIV-infected male patients to improve their health seeking behavior. PMID:25816222

  3. Microparticle and cell counting with digital microfluidic compact disc using standard CD drive.

    PubMed

    Imaad, Syed M; Lord, Nathan; Kulsharova, Gulsim; Liu, Gang Logan

    2011-04-21

    Lab-on-chip medical diagnostics in a global health setting would greatly benefit from highly portable, cost effective and readily available devices. Digital compact disc (CD) and the corresponding detection device-CD drives-for personal computers are extremely affordable and distributable worldwide, therefore they can be immediately used in global health applications if empowered with molecular and cellular biosensing functions. Here we present a novel digital microfluidic CD device derived from conventional music or data CD and demonstrate its preliminary application of counting polystyrene microparticles and living cells in minute-volume fluidic samples. No other detection instruments except for a standard CD drive in a personal computer is used for reading and decoding the quantitative liquid sample information from the digital microfluidic CD. The results presented herein are the first step towards creating a truly portable, low-cost and ubiquitously accessible device-health diagnostic compact disc (HDCD)-for biosensing and health diagnostics, especially in remote or impoverished settings with limited medical infrastructure and healthcare workers. PMID:21350788

  4. Refined medullary blast and white blood cell count based classification of chronic myelomonocytic leukemias.

    PubMed

    Schuler, E; Schroeder, M; Neukirchen, J; Strupp, C; Xicoy, B; Kündgen, A; Hildebrandt, B; Haas, R; Gattermann, N; Germing, U

    2014-12-01

    Since 2001, chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is classified by the WHO as myeloproliferative/myelodysplastic neoplasm. Herein we tried to better describe CMML patients with regard to hematological characteristics and prognosis using data of the Duesseldorf registry. We created 6 CMML subgroups, by dividing dysplastic and proliferative CMML at the cut-off of white blood cell count of 13,000/?L and splitting these two groups into 3 subgroups: CMML 0 with <5% blasts (n=101), CMML I with 5-9% blasts (n=204) and CMML II with 10-19% blasts (n=81). For comparison we included patients with RCMD, RAEB I and II. The newly created CMML 0 group had better prognosis than CMML I and II, median survival times were 31 months (ms), 19ms and 13ms, respectively (p<0.001). Median survival times between the corresponding dysplastic and proliferative subgroups 0 and 1 differed significantly: CMML 0 dysplastic 48ms and CMML 0 proliferative 17ms (p=0.03), CMML I dysplastic 29ms and CMML I proliferative 15ms (p=0.008), CMML II dysplastic 17ms and CMML II proliferative 10ms (p=0.09). Outcome of CMML patients worsens with increasing medullary blasts and when presenting as proliferative type. Therefore it is justified to separate CMML with <5% medullary blasts. PMID:25444076

  5. Enumeration of CD4+ T-Cells Using a Portable Microchip Count Platform in Tanzanian HIV-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Moon, SangJun; Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Blander, Jeffrey; Fawzi, Wafaie W.; Aboud, Said; Mugusi, Ferdinand; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.; Demirci, Utkan

    2011-01-01

    Background CD4+ T-lymphocyte count (CD4 count) is a standard method used to monitor HIV-infected patients during anti-retroviral therapy (ART). The World Health Organization (WHO) has pointed out or recommended that a handheld, point-of-care, reliable, and affordable CD4 count platform is urgently needed in resource-scarce settings. Methods HIV-infected patient blood samples were tested at the point-of-care using a portable and label-free microchip CD4 count platform that we have developed. A total of 130 HIV-infected patient samples were collected that included 16 de-identified left over blood samples from Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH), and 114 left over samples from Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS) enrolled in the HIV and AIDS care and treatment centers in the City of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The two data groups from BWH and MUHAS were analyzed and compared to the commonly accepted CD4 count reference method (FACSCalibur system). Results The portable, battery operated and microscope-free microchip platform developed in our laboratory (BWH) showed significant correlation in CD4 counts compared with FACSCalibur system both at BWH (r?=?0.94, p<0.01) and MUHAS (r?=?0.49, p<0.01), which was supported by the Bland-Altman methods comparison analysis. The device rapidly produced CD4 count within 10 minutes using an in-house developed automated cell counting program. Conclusions We obtained CD4 counts of HIV-infected patients using a portable platform which is an inexpensive (<$1 material cost) and disposable microchip that uses whole blood sample (<10 µl) without any pre-processing. The system operates without the need for antibody-based fluorescent labeling and expensive fluorescent illumination and microscope setup. This portable CD4 count platform displays agreement with the FACSCalibur results and has the potential to expand access to HIV and AIDS monitoring using fingerprick volume of whole blood and helping people who suffer from HIV and AIDS in resource-limited settings. PMID:21754988

  6. Increased counts and degranulation of duodenal mast cells and eosinophils in functional dyspepsia- a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Song, Shijun; Song, Yan; Zhang, Haishan; Li, Gaiqin; Li, Xiaopei; Wang, Xiaohong; Liu, Zhen

    2015-02-01

    The above article published in Medicinski Glasnik online on 26 June 2014 by the Medical Association of Zenica-Doboj Canton (http://www.ljkzedo.com.ba/index.php/u-sljedecem-broju) and in Volume 11, Issue 2, pages 276-282, has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor-in-Chief, Professor Selma Uzunovi?, and the Medical Association of Zenica-Doboj Canton. The reasons for this retraction are as follows: The work reported in the paper was about the role of duodenal eosinophils and mast cells in the pathogenesis of functional dyspepsia. Most of the experiments were carried out by a former member of the authors' team named Yuan Haipeng, who has left the team for more than two years. A high proportion of data in the paper had been reported in the doctoral dissertation of Yuan Haipeng in 2012, and the paper was published without the knowledge or permission of Yuan. Besides the data previously reported in the doctoral dissertation of Yuan Haipeng, the authors calculated the other data in the paper before the submission. However, it has come to the authors' attention that they had made quite a few mistakes due to a loss of the original data, which was not described in details in the dissertation. REFERENCE Shijun Song, Yan Song, Haishan Zhang, Gaiqin Li, Xiaopei Li, Xiaohong Wang, Zhen Liu. Increased counts and degranulation of duodenal mast cells and eosinophils in functional dyspepsia- a clinical study. Med Glas (Zenica) 2014; 11(2):276-82. PMID:25669347

  7. Hard ewe's milk cheese manufactured from milk of three different groups of somatic cell counts.

    PubMed

    Jaeggi, J J; Govindasamy-Lucey, S; Berger, Y M; Johnson, M E; McKusick, B C; Thomas, D L; Wendorff, W L

    2003-10-01

    As ovine milk production increases in the United States, somatic cell count (SCC) is increasingly used in routine ovine milk testing procedures as an indicator of flock health. Ovine milk was collected from 72 East Friesian-crossbred ewes that were machine milked twice daily. The milk was segregated and categorized into three different SCC groups: < 100,000 (group I); 100,000 to 1,000,000 (group II); and > 1,000,000 cells/ ml (group III). Milk was stored frozen at -19 degrees C for 4 mo. Milk was then thawed at 7 degrees C over a 3-d period before pasteurization and cheese making. Casein (CN) content and CN-to-true protein ratio decreased with increasing SCC group 3.99, 3.97, to 3.72% CN, and 81.43, 79.72, and 79.32% CN to true protein ratio, respectively. Milk fat varied from 5.49, 5.67, and 4.86% in groups I, II, and III, respectively. Hard ewe's milk cheese was made from each of the three different SCC groups using a Manchego cheese manufacturing protocol. As the level of SCC increased, the time required for visual flocculation increased, and it took longer to reach the desired firmness for cutting the coagulum. The fat and moisture contents were lower in the highest SCC cheeses. After 3 mo, total free fatty acids (FFA) contents were significantly higher in the highest SCC cheeses. Butyric and caprylic acids levels were significantly higher in group III cheeses at all stages of ripening. Cheese graders noted rancid or lipase flavor in the highest SCC level cheeses at each of the sampling points, and they also deducted points for more body and textural defects in these cheeses at 6 and 9 mo. PMID:14594225

  8. Innate immunity in free-ranging African buffalo (Syncerus caffer): associations with parasite infection and white blood cell counts.

    PubMed

    Beechler, Brianna R; Broughton, Heather; Bell, Austin; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Jolles, Anna E

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian immunology has been studied in great detail in laboratory animals, but few of the tools and less of the insight derived from these studies have been placed in the context of natural, outbred wildlife populations subject to variable environments. We investigated patterns of innate immunity in free-ranging African buffalo in relation to host traits (age, reproductive status, body condition, white blood cell counts) and disease status (bovine tuberculosis [BTB], gastrointestinal nematodes, coccidia, ticks). We evaluated and used an in vitro assay measuring bactericidal competence of blood to assess a component of innate immunity in 200 female buffalo captured at Kruger National Park, South Africa, in June/July and October 2008. Animals with BTB had higher bactericidal competence of blood. Animals with higher neutrophil counts had higher bactericidal competence, whereas animals with lower lymphocyte counts had higher bactericidal competence. This pattern was driven by animals captured at the end of the dry season (October) and may be evidence of immune polarization, whereby individuals are unable to upregulate multiple components of immunity simultaneously. Bactericidal competence did not vary with host pregnancy status, body condition, age, lactation, tick infestation, nematode egg count, or coccidia oocyst count. Overall, we demonstrate that the bactericidal competence assay is practical and informative for field-based studies in wild bovids. Our results also show a correlation between bactericidal competence and bovine tuberculosis infection and reveal possible functional polarizations between different types of immune response in a free-ranging mammal. PMID:22494981

  9. Thermodynamic and fluid properties of cells, tissues and membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyaya, Arpita

    2000-10-01

    This dissertation studies cellular rearrangements in tissues and attempts to establish the role of physical properties of cells, tissues and membranes in several biological phenomena. Using experiments and statistical mechanical modeling, we study cell sorting, tissue engulfment, single cell motion and membrane fluctuations. When cells of two different types are mixed together, they sort out, with the less cohesive tissue surrounding the more cohesive one. This sorting out resembles the phase separation of a mixture of immiscible liquids. We have measured the rate of sorting in tissues and compared it with a cellular automaton based model of cell aggregates. We have also established that cell sorting agrees well with the theory for phase separating fluids. Engulfment is the spreading of one type of tissue over the surface of another tissue placed adjacent to it. Differences in adhesion cause an imbalance of surface tension forces which drives tissue spreading. We have quantitatively studied engulfment between different tissue types and compared the experimental rate with results from computer simulations and a liquid model. Our results suggest that simple physical principles can model tissue motion. Studying the motion of single cells in aggregates is important to understanding the overall pattern formation in tissues. We characterized cell motion in different types of adhesive aggregates to elucidate the role of adhesion in cell motion. We also observed that the cells exhibited a novel type of statistics including correlations and collective motion. Membrane deformations of cells played a negligible role in large scale cell motion. Our results indicate the importance of correlated motion for cells to move long distances in tissues. At the single cell level, tension of the cell membrane and intracellular membrane can play an important role in cell shape changes, regulation of cell motility and membrane dynamics. We used optical tweezers to measure the membrane tension of tubulo-vesicular networks obtained from Golgi and Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) membranes within cells. As expected on the basis of some previous experiments, the ER has a higher membrane tension than the Golgi.

  10. Counting Craze

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-19

    In this activity, learners practice counting objects found on patterned wrapping paper or fabric. Repeated experiences with counting will help young learners understand that the last number they say when counting objects tells them "how many" objects in all.

  11. Donor lymphocyte count and thymic activity predict lymphocyte recovery and outcomes after matched-sibling hematopoietic stem cell transplant

    PubMed Central

    McIver, Zachariah; Melenhorst, Jan Joseph; Wu, Colin; Grim, Andrew; Ito, Sawa; Cho, Irene; Hensel, Nancy; Battiwalla, Minoo; Barrett, Austin John

    2013-01-01

    Delayed immune recovery is a characteristic feature of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in adult recipients. Although recipient thymic T-cell neogenesis contributes to T-cell regeneration after transplantation, thymic recovery in the transplant recipient decreases with increasing age, and is diminished by intensive preconditioning regimens and graft-versus-host disease. In adult recipients, most events that determine transplant success or failure occur during the period when the majority of circulating T cells is derived from the donor’s post thymic T-cell repertoire. As a result, the make-up of the donor lymphocyte compartment may strongly influence immune recovery and transplant outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine donor lymphocyte counts in a series of patients undergoing an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant to identify the potential contribution of donor regulatory and conventional T lymphocyte populations to immune recovery and transplant outcomes. We examined donor lymphocyte subset counts in relation to post-transplant lymphocyte recovery and transplant events in 220 consecutive myeloablative, T-cell-depleted, HLA-identical sibling hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with hematologic malignancies. In a multivariate analysis, absolute numbers of donor CD4+ recent thymic emigrants were associated with overall survival (P=0.032). The donors’ absolute lymphocyte count and thymic production of regulatory T cells were both associated with extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease (P=0.002 and P=0.022, respectively). In conclusion, these results identify donor immune characteristics that are associated with lymphocyte recovery, extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease, and survival in the recipient following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The study reported here was performed using peripheral blood samples drawn from donors and patients enrolled in the ClinicalTrials.gov-registered trials NCT00001623, NCT00001873, NCT00353860, NCT00066300, NCT00079391, and NCT00398346. PMID:23065508

  12. Donor lymphocyte count and thymic activity predict lymphocyte recovery and outcomes after matched-sibling hematopoietic stem cell transplant.

    PubMed

    McIver, Zachariah; Melenhorst, Jan Joseph; Wu, Colin; Grim, Andrew; Ito, Sawa; Cho, Irene; Hensel, Nancy; Battiwalla, Minoo; Barrett, Austin John

    2013-03-01

    Delayed immune recovery is a characteristic feature of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in adult recipients. Although recipient thymic T-cell neogenesis contributes to T-cell regeneration after transplantation, thymic recovery in the transplant recipient decreases with increasing age, and is diminished by intensive preconditioning regimens and graft-versus-host disease. In adult recipients, most events that determine transplant success or failure occur during the period when the majority of circulating T cells is derived from the donor's post thymic T-cell repertoire. As a result, the make-up of the donor lymphocyte compartment may strongly influence immune recovery and transplant outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine donor lymphocyte counts in a series of patients undergoing an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant to identify the potential contribution of donor regulatory and conventional T lymphocyte populations to immune recovery and transplant outcomes. We examined donor lymphocyte subset counts in relation to post-transplant lymphocyte recovery and transplant events in 220 consecutive myeloablative, T-cell-depleted, HLA-identical sibling hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with hematologic malignancies. In a multivariate analysis, absolute numbers of donor CD4(+) recent thymic emigrants were associated with overall survival (P=0.032). The donors' absolute lymphocyte count and thymic production of regulatory T cells were both associated with extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease (P=0.002 and P=0.022, respectively). In conclusion, these results identify donor immune characteristics that are associated with lymphocyte recovery, extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease, and survival in the recipient following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The study reported here was performed using peripheral blood samples drawn from donors and patients enrolled in the ClinicalTrials.gov-registered trials NCT00001623, NCT00001873, NCT00353860, NCT00066300, NCT00079391, and NCT00398346. PMID:23065508

  13. Validation of a single-platform, volumetric, flow cytometry for CD4 T cell count monitoring in therapeutic mobile unit

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A mobile health unit may be useful to follow up adult and pediatric patients on antiretroviral treatment and living in remote areas devoid of laboratory facilities. The study evaluated the use of the simplified, robust, single-plateform, volumetric, pan-leucogating Auto40 flow cytometer (Apogee Flow Systems Ltd, Hemel Hempstead, UK) for CD4 T cell numeration in a mobile unit, compared against a reference flow cytometry method. Methods The therapeutic mobile unit of the Laboratoire National de Santé Hygiène Mobile, Yaoundé, Cameroon, was equipped with the Auto40. A FACSCalibur flow cytometer (Becton Dickinson Immuno-cytometry System, San Jose, CA, USA) was used as reference method. EDTA-blood samples from volunteers were first subjected to CD4 T cell count in the mobile unit, and an aliquot was sent within 4 hours to Centre International de Référence Chantal Biya, Yaoundé, for FACSCalibur assay. Results Two HIV screening campaigns with the mobile unit were organised in December 2009 and January 2010. The campaign in the suburb of Yaoundé which was 20 km from the reference laboratory included 188 volunteers comprising 93 children less than 5 years old. The campaign in Ambang Bikok (53 km far from Yaoundé) included 69 adult volunteers. In Yaoundé suburb, mean ± standard deviation (SD) CD4 T cell count was 996 ± 874 cells/?l by Auto40, and 989 ± 883 cells/?l by FACSCalibur; in Ambang Bikok, mean ± SD CD4 T cell count was 1041 ± 317 cells/?l by Auto40, and 1032 ± 294 cells/?l by FACSCalibur. Results by Auto40 and FACSCalibur were highly correlated in Yaoundé (r2 = 0.982) as in Ambang Bikok (r2 = 0.921). Bland-Altman analysis showed a close agreement between Auto40 and FACSCalibur results expressed in absolute count as in percentage in Yaoundé and Ambang Bikok. When pooling the 257 CD4 T cell count measurements, the Auto40 yielded a mean difference of +7.6 CD4 T cells/?l higher than by reference flow cytometry; and the sensitivity and specificity of Auto40 in enumerating absolute CD4 T cell counts of less than 200 cells/?l were 87% and 99%, respectively, and in enumerating absolute CD4 T cell counts of less than 350 cells/?l were 87% and 98%, respectively. The intrarun and interun precisions of the Auto40 assay assessed in the mobile unit were 5.5% and 7.9%, respectively. Conclusions The Auto40 flow cytometer installed in a therapeutic mobile unit and operated far from its reference laboratory gave a perfect correlation with the reference method, and could be useful in carrying out immunological monitoring of HIV-infected patients living in areas without access to laboratory facilities. PMID:22309994

  14. A cell-based sensor of fluid shear stress for microfluidics

    E-print Network

    Varma, Sarvesh

    2013-01-01

    Fluid flow is an essential feature of every microsystem involving cell handling, culture or sorting. The particular application determines the relevant flow rates used in a device. Flows inevitably generate fluid shear ...

  15. Absolute peripheral monocyte count at diagnosis predicts central nervous system relapse in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Nitta, Hideaki; Terui, Yasuhito; Yokoyama, Masahiro; Mishima, Yuko; Nishimura, Noriko; Ueda, Kyoko; Kusano, Yoshiharu; Tsuyama, Naoko; Takeuchi, Kengo; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Hatake, Kiyohiko

    2015-01-01

    Recently, elevated peripheral blood monocyte counts at diagnosis have been shown to be an independent marker associated with poor prognosis in patients with both non-Hodgkin and Hodgkin lymphoma. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed the data from a total of 550 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and evaluated the relationship between central nervous system relapse and absolute monocyte counts at diagnosis. Twenty-six patients developed central nervous system relapse. The central nervous system relapse-free survival rate was significantly lower in patients with the absolute monocyte counts ?0.51×109/L (87.8% versus 96.4%; P<0.001). This association was independently significant after adjusting for other significant factors, including systemic relapse as a time-dependent covariate by multivariate analysis (hazard ratio 2.46; 95% confidence intervals 1.05–5.75; P=0.039). These results suggest that the absolute monocyte count at diagnosis is an independent significant risk factor for central nervous system relapse in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. PMID:25261092

  16. Confocal Raman microscopy of pathologic cells in cerebrospinal fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonchukov, S. A.; Lonkina, T. V.; Minaeva, S. A.; Sundukov, A. V.; Migmanov, T. E.; Lademann, J.; Darvin, M. E.; Bagratashvili, V. N.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the spatial localization of leucocytes, bacteria, and erythrocytes in the crystal pattern of a dried droplet of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is established. Characteristic lines are detected and identified in the Raman spectrum of the CSF that point to the presence of pathologic cells therein and can be used in a timely way to diagnose meningitis, the spectroscopic sample preparation procedure being simple enough. A dry CSF sample retains its characteristic spectral features for no less than three days, which is important for its safe keeping and transportation, and also for the computer processing of its spectra.

  17. Relationship between the somatic cell count in milk and reproductive function in peripartum dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    ISOBE, Naoki; IWAMOTO, Chihiro; KUBOTA, Hirokazu; YOSHIMURA, Yukinori

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of the somatic cell count (SCC) in milk on reproductive performance, such as pregnancy status in the prepartum period and ovarian function in the postpartum period, in dairy cows. Blood samples were collected every week from one month prepartum to parturition in order to measure the concentrations of 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF2? (PGFM), estrone sulfate (E1S) and progesterone. Milk samples were collected three times per week in both the prepartum (for one month before the dry period) and postpartum periods (for 3 months immediately after parturition) to measure the SCC. Progesterone was also determined in the whole milk of postpartum cows to define the day of the first ovulation. In the prepartum period, the maximum SCC negatively correlated with the pregnancy period (r = –0.77), but not the calf birth weight. Positive and negative correlations were observed between the average SCC and PGFM or progesterone concentrations in plasma, respectively (r = 0.84 or –0.92, respectively), at 39 weeks of pregnancy. In the postpartum period, a correlation was observed between the day of the first ovulation and both the average and maximum SCC (r = –0.74 and –0.75, respectively), whereas days open was not related to the SCC. These results suggest that a high SCC in the prepartum period may advance parturition by increasing PGF2? and decreasing progesterone and that the first ovulation in the postpartum period was affected by a high SCC. PMID:25196356

  18. Relationship between the somatic cell count in milk and reproductive function in peripartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Naoki; Iwamoto, Chihiro; Kubota, Hirokazu; Yoshimura, Yukinori

    2014-12-27

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of the somatic cell count (SCC) in milk on reproductive performance, such as pregnancy status in the prepartum period and ovarian function in the postpartum period, in dairy cows. Blood samples were collected every week from one month prepartum to parturition in order to measure the concentrations of 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF2? (PGFM), estrone sulfate (E1S) and progesterone. Milk samples were collected three times per week in both the prepartum (for one month before the dry period) and postpartum periods (for 3 months immediately after parturition) to measure the SCC. Progesterone was also determined in the whole milk of postpartum cows to define the day of the first ovulation. In the prepartum period, the maximum SCC negatively correlated with the pregnancy period (r = -0.77), but not the calf birth weight. Positive and negative correlations were observed between the average SCC and PGFM or progesterone concentrations in plasma, respectively (r = 0.84 or -0.92, respectively), at 39 weeks of pregnancy. In the postpartum period, a correlation was observed between the day of the first ovulation and both the average and maximum SCC (r = -0.74 and -0.75, respectively), whereas days open was not related to the SCC. These results suggest that a high SCC in the prepartum period may advance parturition by increasing PGF2? and decreasing progesterone and that the first ovulation in the postpartum period was affected by a high SCC. PMID:25196356

  19. Effect of high somatic cell counts on reproductive performance of Chilean dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Pinedo, P J; Melendez, P; Villagomez-Cortes, J A; Risco, C A

    2009-04-01

    The objectives were to evaluate the effect of high linear somatic cell counts (LNSCC > or =4.5) during early lactation on reproductive performance and to estimate their association with the risk of abortion in a population of central-southern Chilean dairy cattle. The analysis included records from a population of 157 farms and considered 1,127,405 test-day records including 101,944 lactations that began between 1997 and 2006. After data edits, the analyses of calving to first service and calving to conception intervals consisted of 88,633 and 70,877 lactations, respectively. Once controlling for significant variables, time to first breeding was 21.8 d longer in cows with at least 1 high LNSCC before the first breeding compared with controls. Cows with at least 1 high LNSCC before the fertile breeding had an increment in time to conception of 48.7 d and required, on average, 0.49 more services to conceive. The odds of conception at first service in cows with a high LNSCC within 30 d before [after] breeding were 0.85 (0.81 to 0.89; 95% confidence interval ) [0.82 (0.78 to 0.87; 95% confidence interval)] times the odds of conception for cows without a high LNSCC during that period. The Cox proportional hazard model indicated that after correction by calving year, lactation number, and milk yield standardized to 305 d, the risk of pregnancy decreased by 44% if a high LNSCC occurred before breeding. Cows registering a high LNSCC during the first 90 d of gestation had an increased risk of abortion, being 1.22 (1.07 to 1.35; 95% confidence interval) times more likely to abort than nonaffected cows. It is concluded that subclinical mastitis, measured as LNSCC >/=4.5, had a significant effect on reproductive performance in Chilean dairy cattle. PMID:19307638

  20. Complete Blood Count

    MedlinePLUS

    ... bruising or bleeding. Red blood cells: The CBC's measurements of red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin (the ... lungs to the rest of the body. These measurements are usually done to test for anemia, a ...

  1. Prognostic effect of peripheral blood cell counts in advanced diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with R-CHOP-like chemotherapy: A single institution analysis

    PubMed Central

    YAMAUCHI, TAKAHIRO; TASAKI, TOSHIKI; TAI, KATSUNORI; IKEGAYA, SATOSHI; TAKAGI, KAZUTAKA; NEGORO, EIJU; KISHI, SHINJI; YOSHIDA, AKIRA; IWASAKI, HIROMICHI; UEDA, TAKANORI

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to correlate blood cell counts (lymphocyte, monocyte and platelet counts) with early disease relapse following the attainment of complete remission (CR) by the rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone (R-CHOP)-like regimen in patients with advanced diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). In total, 30 patients were evaluated, with a median follow-up period of 43 months. All the participating patients attained CR. In total, eight patients experienced relapse within two years of the diagnosis, and the three-year overall survival rate was recorded as 77%. The peripheral counts for lymphocytes, monocytes and platelets, and the lymphocyte-monocyte ratio, all of which have been reported to be prognostic in DLBCL, were assessed. None of these parameters were correlated with the incidence of early relapse or with the prognosis. The lymphocyte count was higher in the patients with durable remission than in those who relapsed, however, no significant differences were identified. Thus, the present study concluded that early disease relapse was not predicted by peripheral blood cell counts in advanced DLBCL that reached CR using the R-CHOP-like regimen. PMID:25621059

  2. Nuclear magnetic resonance metabonomics reveals strong association between milk metabolites and somatic cell count in bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Sundekilde, U K; Poulsen, N A; Larsen, L B; Bertram, H C

    2013-01-01

    Somatic cell count (SCC) is associated with changes in milk composition, including changes in proteins, lipids, and milk metabolites. Somatic cell count is normally used as an indicator of mastitis infection. The compositional changes in protein and fat affect milk coagulation properties, and also the metabolite composition is thought to contribute to differential milk properties. Milk somatic cells comprise different cell types, which may contribute to differential milk metabolite fingerprints. In this study, milk from a relatively large number of individual cows, representing significant differences in SCC, were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics, and the milk metabolite profiles were analyzed for differences related to SCC. Global principal component analysis performed on 876 samples from 2 Danish dairy breeds and orthogonal projection of latent structures discriminant analysis performed on a smaller subset (n=70) representing high (SCC >7.2×10(5) cells/mL) and low (SCC <1.4×10(4) cells/mL) milk SCC identified latent variables, which could be attributed to milk with elevated SCC. In addition, partial least squares regression between the NMR milk metabolite profiles and SCC revealed a strong correlation. The orthogonal projection of latent structures discriminant analysis and partial least squares regressions pinpointed specific NMR spectral regions and thereby identification of milk metabolites that differed according to SCC. Relative quantification of the identified metabolites revealed that lactate, butyrate, isoleucine, acetate, and ?-hydroxybutyrate were increased, whereas hippurate and fumarate were decreased in milk with high levels of somatic cells. PMID:23182357

  3. Intestinal parasitic infections in relation to HIV\\/AIDS status, diarrhea and CD4 T-cell count

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shimelis Assefa; Berhanu Erko; Girmay Medhin; Zelalem Assefa; Techalew Shimelis

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HIV infection has been modifying both the epidemiology and outcome of parasitic infections. Hence, this study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection among people with and without HIV infection and its association with diarrhea and CD4 T-cell count. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Hawassa Teaching and Referral Hospital focusing on HIV positive individuals,

  4. Fluid mechanics, cell distribution, and environment in CellCube bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Auni?s, John G; Bader, Brett; Caola, Anthony; Griffiths, Janet; Katz, Maayan; Licari, Peter; Ram, Kripa; Ranucci, Colette S; Zhou, Weichang

    2003-01-01

    Cultivation of MRC-5 cells and attenuated hepatitis A virus (HAV) for the production of VAQTA, an inactivated HAV vaccine (1), is performed in the CellCube reactor, a laminar flow fixed-bed bioreactor with an unusual diamond-shaped, diverging-converging flow geometry. These disposable bioreactors have found some popularity for the production of cells and gene therapy vectors at intermediate scales of operation (2, 3). Early testing of the CellCube revealed that the fluid mechanical environment played a significant role in nonuniform cell distribution patterns generated during the cell growth phase. Specifically, the reactor geometry and manufacturing artifacts, in combination with certain inoculum practices and circulation flow rates, can create cell growth behavior that is not simply explained. Via experimentation and computational fluid dynamics simulations we can account for practically all of the observed cell growth behavior, which appears to be due to a complex mixture of flow distribution, particle deposition under gravity, fluid shear, and possibly nutritional microenvironment. PMID:12572999

  5. Stem cells from fetal membranes and amniotic fluid: markers for cell isolation and therapy.

    PubMed

    Pozzobon, Michela; Piccoli, Martina; De Coppi, Paolo

    2014-06-01

    Stem cell therapy is in constant need of new cell sources to conceive regenerative medicine approaches for diseases that are still without therapy. Scientists drew the attention toward amniotic membrane and amniotic fluid stem cells, since these sources possess many advantages: first of all as cells can be extracted from discarded foetal material it is inexpensive, secondly abundant stem cells can be obtained and finally, these stem cell sources are free from ethical considerations. Many studies have demonstrated the differentiation potential in vitro and in vivo toward mesenchymal and non-mesenchymal cell types; in addition the immune-modulatory properties make these cells a good candidate for allo- and xenotransplantation. This review offers an overview on markers characterisation and on the latest findings in pre-clinical or clinical setting of the stem cell populations isolated from these sources. PMID:24554400

  6. Fluids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malcolm Fisher

    \\u000a It is impossible to imagine daily critical care practice without intravenous fluids, yet as a safe and dependable form of\\u000a treatment, it is a relatively new phenomenon. The need for fluid administration and its importance has been recognized since\\u000a ancient times, but the ancients had no recourse to intravenous administration. Fluids of various kinds, particularly blood,\\u000a have fascinated the medical

  7. White Blood Cell Counts in Persons Aged 65 Years or More from the Cardiovascular Health Study Correlations with Baseline Clinical and Demographic Characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edwin G. Bovill; Diane E. Bild; Gerardo Heiss; Lewis H. Kuller; Marshall H. Lee; Robert Rock; Patricia W. Wahl

    A higher white blood cell (WBC) count has been shown to be a risk factor for myocardial infarction and stroke in middle-aged populations. This study evaluated the relation between baseline WBC count and other risk factors, as well as subclinical and prevalent disease, in the Cardiovascular Health Study, an epidemiologic study of coronary heart disease and stroke in 5,201 persons

  8. Influence of Fluid Velocity and Cell Concentration on the Transport of

    E-print Network

    Influence of Fluid Velocity and Cell Concentration on the Transport of Motile and Nonmotile, Pennsylvania 16802 The effect of fluid velocity on the transport of motile and nonmotile bacteria was studied fluid velocity in a porous medium increases the number of collisions of passive colloids with particles

  9. MEASUREMENT OF RADIONUCLIDES USING ION CHROMATOGRAPHY AND FLOW-CELL SCINTILLATION COUNTING WITH PULSE SHAPE DISCRIMINATION

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Fjeld; T.A. DeVol; J.D. Leyba

    2000-03-30

    Radiological characterization and monitoring is an important component of environmental management activities throughout the Department of Energy complex. Gamma-ray spectroscopy is the technology most often used for the detection of radionuclides. However, radionuclides which cannot easily be detected by gamma-ray spectroscopy, such as pure beta emitters and transuranics, pose special problems because their quantification generally requires labor intensive radiochemical separations procedures that are time consuming and impractical for field applications. This project focused on a technology for measuring transuranics and pure beta emitters relatively quickly and has the potential of being field deployable. The technology combines ion exchange liquid chromatography and on-line alpha/beta pulse shape discriminating scintillation counting to produce simultaneous alpha and beta chromatograms. The basic instrumentation upon which the project was based was purchased in the early 1990's. In its original commercial form, the instrumentation was capable of separating select activation/fission products in ionic forms from relatively pure aqueous samples. We subsequently developed the capability of separating and detecting actinides (thorium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium) in less than 30 minutes (Reboul, 1993) and realized that the potential time savings over traditional radiochemical methods for isolating some of these radionuclides was significant. However, at that time, the technique had only been used for radionuclide concentrations that were considerably above environmental levels and for aqueous samples of relatively high chemical purity. For the technique to be useful in environmental applications, development work was needed in lowering detection limits; to be useful in applications involving non-aqueous matrices such as soils and sludges or complex aqueous matrices such as those encountered in waste samples, development work was needed in sample preparation and processing. The general goal of this project was to address the issues mentioned above, and in so doing transform an interesting laboratory technique of limited applicability into a robust field instrument suitable for environmental restoration and waste management applications. The project consisted of the following tasks: (1) development of a low background, flow-cell detector, (2) identification of sample chemical and radiological interferences, (3) development of protocols for processing waste and/or environmental samples, and (4) integration and testing of the prototype system. The scope of work associated with these tasks has been completed and the report for Tasks 1-3 was submitted previously. Presented here are the results for Task 4.

  10. Relationships between milk culture results and composite milk somatic cell counts in Norwegian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Reksen, O; Sølverød, L; Østerås, O

    2008-08-01

    Associations between test-day composite milk somatic cell counts (CMSCC) and results from quarter milk cultures for various pathogens associated with mastitis, including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp., coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), were investigated. S. aureus was dichotomized according to sparse (1,500 colony forming units/mL of milk) growth of the bacteria. Quarter milk samples were obtained on between 1 and 4 occasions from 2,714 cows in 354 Norwegian dairy herds, resulting in a total of 3,396 samples. Cows included in the study were randomly selected, without regard to current or previous udder health status. Measures of test-day CMSCC were obtained every second month, and related to 3528 microbiological diagnoses at the cow level. Mixed linear regression models incorporating a compound symmetry covariance structure accounting for repeated test-day CMSCC within cow, and a random effect variable on herd level, was used to quantify the relationship between a positive milk culture and the natural logarithm of test-day CMSCC (LnCMSCC). The material was stratified in time periods before 151 d in milk (DIM) and after 150 DIM. A positive diagnosis for any category of mastitis pathogen was significantly associated with elevated CMSCC. Pathogen positive cows sampled for microbiological diagnosis during the first 150 DIM had higher levels of CMSCC throughout lactation than cows with a positive diagnosis after 150 DIM. Streptococcus spp.-positive milk cultures were associated with steadily elevated values for CMSCC throughout lactation both when sampled before and after 150 DIM. Cows diagnosed with rich growth of S. aureus after 150 DIM experienced a characteristic and sharp increase in CMSCC, but this effect was not observed in cows with a positive diagnosis for rich growth of S. aureus during the first 150 DIM. A considerable increase in CMSCC in cows positive for CNS during the first part of the lactation period was also observed. The practicability of using CMSCC in a diagnostic test to identify cows with a positive milk culture for mastitis pathogens was also assessed. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values of the tests were regarded as low when sampling for milk culture was conducted, irrespective of cow level characteristics. PMID:18650286

  11. Amniotic fluid-derived stem cells as a cell source for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Márcia T; Lee, Sang Jin; Gomes, Manuela E; Reis, Rui L; Atala, Anthony; Yoo, James J

    2012-12-01

    In tissue engineering, stem cells have become an ideal cell source that can differentiate into most human cell types. Among the stem cells, bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) have been widely studied, and there is strong evidence that these cells can be differentiated into cells of the osteogenic lineage. Thus, BMSCs have become the gold standard for studies of tissue engineering in orthopedics. However, novel stem cell sources, such as amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (AFSCs) have been identified, and these have important and unique features that may lead to novel and successful applications toward the regeneration of bone tissue. This study was designed to originally compare the osteogenic potential of both BMSCs and AFSCs under distinct culture environments to determine whether the osteogenic differentiation process of both types of stem cells is related to the origin of the cells. Osteogenic differentiation was carried out in both two and three dimensions using a tissue culture plate and by means of seeding the cells onto microfibrous starch and poly(?-caprolactone) scaffolds (a blend of starch and polycaprolactone), respectively. BMSCs and AFSCs were successfully differentiated into the osteogenic cell type, as cells derived from them produced a mineralized extracellular matrix. Nevertheless, the two types of cells presented different expression patterns of bone-related markers as well as different timing of differentiation, indicating that both cell origin and the culture environment have a significant impact on the differentiation into the osteogenic phenotype in AFSCs and BMSCs. PMID:22891759

  12. INTERFERENCE OF PERITONEAL DIALYSIS FLUIDS WITH CELL CYCLE MECHANISMS.

    PubMed

    Büchel, Janine; Bartosova, Maria; Eich, Gwendolyn; Wittenberger, Timo; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Steppan, Sonja; Hackert, Thilo; Schaefer, Franz; Passlick-Deetjen, Jutta; Schmitt, Claus P

    2014-07-31

    ? Introduction: Peritoneal dialysis fluids (PDF) differ with respect to osmotic and buffer compound, and pH and glucose degradation products (GDP) content. The impact on peritoneal membrane integrity is still insufficiently described. We assessed global genomic effects of PDF in primary human peritoneal mesothelial cells (PMC) by whole genome analyses, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and functional measurements. ? Methods: PMC isolated from omentum of non-uremic patients were incubated with conventional single chamber PDF (CPDF), lactate- (LPDF), bicarbonate- (BPDF) and bicarbonate/lactate-buffered double-chamber PDF (BLPDF), icodextrin (IPDF) and amino acid PDF (APDF), diluted 1:1 with medium. Affymetrix GeneChip U133Plus2.0 (Affymetrix, CA, USA) and quantitative RT-PCR were applied; cell viability was assessed by proliferation assays. ? Results: The number of differentially expressed genes compared to medium was 464 with APDF, 208 with CPDF, 169 with IPDF, 71 with LPDF, 45 with BPDF and 42 with BLPDF. Out of these genes 74%, 73%, 79%, 72%, 47% and 57% were downregulated. Gene Ontology (GO) term annotations mainly revealed associations with cell cycle (p = 10-35), cell division, mitosis, and DNA replication. One hundred and eighteen out of 249 probe sets detecting genes involved in cell cycle/division were suppressed, with APDF-treated PMC being affected the most regarding absolute number and degree, followed by CPDF and IPDF. Bicarbonate-containingPDF and BLPDF-treated PMC were affected the least. Quantitative RT-PCR measurements confirmed microarray findings for key cell cycle genes (CDK1/CCNB1/CCNE2/AURKA/KIF11/KIF14). Suppression was lowest for BPDF and BLPDF, they upregulated CCNE2 and SMC4. All PDF upregulated 3 out of 4 assessed cell cycle repressors (p53/BAX/p21). Cell viability scores confirmed gene expression results, being 79% of medium for LPDF, 101% for BLPDF, 51% for CPDF and 23% for IPDF. Amino acid-containing PDF (84%) incubated cells were as viable as BPDF (86%). ? Conclusion: In conclusion, PD solutions substantially differ with regard to their gene regulating profile and impact on vital functions of PMC, i.e. on cells known to be essential for peritoneal membrane homeostasis. PMID:25082841

  13. Fluids

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brieske, Joel A.

    2002-01-01

    This Topic in Depth explores the Web's offerings on the physics of fluids. By an educational Web site called School for Champions, the first site is the Fluids lesson plan (1). Here, students or anyone interested can read about the basics of fluids and then take a short interactive quiz on the topic. The second site is maintained by Steve Lower of the Department of Chemistry at Simon Fraser University called Liquids and their Vapors (2). This Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) file contains an eighteen-page document that covers topics such as properties of liquids and changes of state. The next site contains an interactive multimedia activity presented by explorescience.com called Floating Log (3). The site allows users to explore how a fluid can affect buoyancy by letting them change the mass of the log and the fluid's density. The next site from Purdue University's Chemical Education Web site is called Liquids (4). This page describes the structure of liquids, what kinds of materials form liquids, vapor pressure, and more. The fifth site, offered by Professor M.S. Cramer at the College of Engineering at Virginia Tech, is entitled Gallery of Fluid Dynamics (5). It contains movies, animations, photographs, and descriptions of various fluid mechanics topics such as condensation, shock waves, and supersonic cars. Next comes the Innovative Technology Solutions Corporation's Fundamental Fluid Mechanics Movies Web site (6). Over thirty short films show how fluids move in various conditions including gravity waves, fire, material transport, and hydraulics. From the University of Waterloo's Department of Mechanical Engineering-Microelectronics Heat Transfer Laboratory comes the next site, called the Fluid Properties Calculator (7). This online tool allows users to select a fluid and enter a temperature to calculate various parameters such as density, viscosity, specific heat, and thermal diffusivity. The last site is the online journal Physics of Fluids (8), which is published monthly by the American Institute of Physics with the cooperation of The American Physical Society Division of Fluid Dynamics. The journal is "devoted to the publication of original theoretical, computational, and experimental contributions to the dynamics of gases, liquids, and complex or multiphase fluids" and provides free full-text articles for online viewing.

  14. Flow-cytometric total bacterial cell counts as a descriptive microbiological parameter for drinking water treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Hammes, Frederik; Berney, Michael; Wang, Yingying; Vital, Marius; Köster, Oliver; Egli, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    There are significantly more microbial cells in drinking water than what can be cultured on synthetic growth media. Nonetheless, cultivation-based heterotrophic plate counts (HPCs) are used worldwide as a general microbial quality parameter in drinking water treatment and distribution. Total bacterial cell concentrations are normally not considered during drinking water treatment as a design, operative or legislative parameters. This is mainly because easy and rapid methods for quantification of total bacterial cell concentrations have, up to now, not been available. As a consequence, the existing lack of data does not allow demonstrating the practical value of this parameter. In this study, we have used fluorescence staining of microbial cells with the nucleic acid stain SYBR((R)) Green I together with quantitative flow cytometry (FCM) to analyse total cell concentrations in water samples from a drinking water pilot plant. The plant treats surface water (Lake Zürich) through sequential ozonation, granular active carbon (GAC) filtration and membrane ultrafiltration (UF). The data were compared with adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) measurements and conventional HPCs performed on the same water samples. We demonstrated that the impact of all three major treatment steps on the microbiology in the system could accurately be described with total cell counting: (1) ozonation caused chemical destruction of the bacterial cells; (2) GAC filtration facilitated significant regrowth of the microbial community; and (3) membrane UF physically removed the bacterial cells from the water. FCM typically detected 1-2 log units more than HPC, while ATP measurements were prone to interference from extracellular ATP released during the ozonation step in the treatment train. We have shown that total cell concentration measured with FCM is a rapid, easy, sensitive and importantly, a descriptive parameter of several widely applied drinking water treatment processes. PMID:17659762

  15. Letters to Analytical Chemistry Microfluidic CD4+ T-Cell Counting Device Using

    E-print Network

    Sia, Samuel K.

    seconds after running the test. For management of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), which remains a major pandemic in both developed1 and developing countries,2 counting device would produce a tremendous clinical impact via timely diagnosis of AIDS patients.9

  16. Guidelines for Monitoring Bulk Tank Milk Somatic Cell and Bacterial Counts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. Jayarao; S. R. Pillai; A. A. Sawant; D. R. Wolfgang; N. V. Hegde

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to establish guidelines for monitoringbulk tankmilksomatic cellcount andbacte- rial counts, and tounderstand the relationship between different bacterial groups that occur in bulk tank milk. One hundred twenty-six dairy farms in 14 counties of Pennsylvania participated, each providing one bulk tank milk sample every 15 d for 2 mo. The 4 bulk tank milk samples from each

  17. White blood cell count, sex and age are major determinants of heterogeneity of platelet indices in an adult general population: results from the MOLI-SANI project

    PubMed Central

    Santimone, Iolanda; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; De Curtis, Amalia; Spinelli, Maria; Cugino, Daniela; Gianfagna, Francesco; Zito, Francesco; Donati, Maria Benedetta; Cerletti, Chiara; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Iacoviello, Licia

    2011-01-01

    Background The understanding of non-genetic regulation of platelet indices - platelet count, plateletcrit, mean platelet volume, and platelet distribution width - is limited. The association of these platelet indices with a number of biochemical, environmental and clinical variables was studied in a large cohort of the general population. Design and Methods Men and women (n=18,097, 52% women, 56±12 years) were randomly recruited from various villages in Molise (Italy) in the framework of the population-based cohort study “Moli-sani”. Hemochromocytometric analyses were performed using an automatic analyzer (Beckman Coulter, IL, Milan, Italy). Associations of platelet indices with dependent variables were investigated by multivariable linear regression analysis. Results Full models including age, sex, body mass index, blood pressure, smoking, menopause, white and red blood cell counts, mean corpuscular volume, D-dimers, C-reactive protein, high-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, triglycerides, glucose, and drug use explained 16%, 21%, 1.9% and 4.7% of platelet count, plateletcrit, mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width variability, respectively; variables that appeared to be most strongly associated were white blood cell count, age, and sex. Platelet count, mean platelet volume and plateletcrit were positively associated with white blood cell count, while platelet distribution width was negatively associated with white blood cell count. Platelet count and plateletcrit were also positively associated with C-reactive protein and D-dimers (P<0.0001). Each of the other variables, although associated with platelet indices in a statistically significant manner, only explained less than 0.5% of their variability. Platelet indices varied across Molise villages, independently of any other platelet count determinant or characteristics of the villages. Conclusions The association of platelet indices with white blood cell count, C-reactive protein and D-dimers in a general population underline the relation between platelets and inflammation. PMID:21546503

  18. Genetic modification of primate amniotic fluid-derived stem cells produces pancreatic progenitor cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu; Mack, David L; Williams, J Koudy; Mirmalek-Sani, Sayed-Hadi; Moorefield, Emily; Chun, So-Young; Wang, Jun; Lorenzetti, Diego; Furth, Mark; Atala, Anthony; Soker, Shay

    2013-01-01

    Insulin therapy for type 1 diabetes does not prevent serious long-term complications including vascular disease, neuropathy, retinopathy and renal failure. Stem cells, including amniotic fluid-derived stem (AFS) cells - highly expansive, multipotent and nontumorigenic cells - could serve as an appropriate stem cell source for ?-cell differentiation. In the current study we tested whether nonhuman primate (nhp)AFS cells ectopically expressing key pancreatic transcription factors were capable of differentiating into a ?-cell-like cell phenotype in vitro. nhpAFS cells were obtained from Cynomolgus monkey amniotic fluid by immunomagnetic selection for a CD117 (c-kit)-positive population. RT-PCR for endodermal and pancreatic lineage-specific markers was performed on AFS cells after adenovirally transduced expression of PDX1, NGN3 and MAFA. Expression of MAFA was sufficient to induce insulin mRNA expression in nhpAFS cell lines, whereas a combination of MAFA, PDX1 and NGN3 further induced insulin expression, and also induced the expression of other important endocrine cell genes such as glucagon, NEUROD1, NKX2.2, ISL1 and PCSK2. Higher induction of these and other important pancreatic genes was achieved by growing the triply infected AFS cells in media supplemented with a combination of B27, betacellulin and nicotinamide, as well as culturing the cells on extracellular matrix-coated plates. The expression of pancreatic genes such as NEUROD1, glucagon and insulin progressively decreased with the decline of adenovirally expressed PDX1, NGN3 and MAFA. Together, these experiments suggest that forced expression of pancreatic transcription factors in primate AFS cells induces them towards the pancreatic lineage. PMID:23306211

  19. Characterization of human afferent lymph dendritic cells from seroma fluids.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Barbara; Bonaccorsi, Irene; Mesiti, Mario; Conte, Romana; Carrega, Paolo; Costa, Gregorio; Iemmo, Raffaella; Martini, Stefania; Ferrone, Soldano; Cantoni, Claudia; Mingari, Maria Cristina; Moretta, Lorenzo; Ferlazzo, Guido

    2013-11-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) migrate from peripheral tissues to secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) through the afferent lymph. Owing to limitations in investigating human lymph, DCs flowing in afferent lymph have not been properly characterized in humans until now. In this study, DCs present in seroma, an accrual of human afferent lymph occurring after lymph node surgical dissection, were isolated and analyzed in detail. Two main DC subsets were identified in seroma that corresponded to the migratory DC subsets present in lymph nodes, that is, CD14(+) and CD1a(+). The latter also included CD1a(bright) Langerhans cells. The two DC subsets appeared to share the same monocytic precursor and to be developmentally related; both of them spontaneously released high levels of TGF-? and displayed similar T cell-activating and -polarizing properties. In contrast, they differed in the expression of surface molecules, including TLRs; in their phagocytic activity; and in the expression of proteins involved in Ag processing and presentation. It is worth noting that although both subsets were detected in seroma in the postsurgical inflammatory phase, only CD1a(+) DCs migrated via afferent lymph under steady-state conditions. In conclusion, the high numbers of DCs contained in seroma fluids allowed a proper characterization of human DCs migrating via afferent lymph, revealing a continuous stream of DCs from peripheral regions toward SLOs under normal conditions. Moreover, we showed that, in inflammatory conditions, distinct subsets of DCs can migrate to SLOs via afferent lymph. PMID:24078697

  20. Counting Quail

    E-print Network

    Rollins, Dale; Brooks, Jason; Wilkins, Neal; Ransom, Dean

    2005-10-05

    Landowners and managers need a way of estimating quail populations to determine whether quail management practices are successful. Several direct and indirect methods of counting quail are described, including roadside counts, helicopter surveys...

  1. EQUIVALENCE OF MICROBIAL BIOMASS MEASURES BASED ON MEMBRANE LIPID AND CELL WALL COMPONENTS, ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE, AND DIRECT COUNTS IN SUBSURFACE AQUIFER SEDIMENTS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An uncontaminated subsurface aquifer sediment contains a sparse microbial community consisting primarily of coccobacillary bacteria of relatively uniform size which can be counted directly with appropriate straining. The morphological simplicity and the relatively decreased cell ...

  2. Genetic Modification of Primate Amniotic Fluid-derived Stem Cells Produces Pancreatic Progenitor Cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yu; Mack, David L.; Williams, J Koudy; Mirmalek-Sani, Sayed-Hadi; Moorefield, Emily; Chun, So-Young; Wang, Jun; Lorenzetti, Diego; Furth, Mark; Atala, Anthony; Soker, Shay

    2013-01-01

    Insulin therapy for Type 1 diabetes (T1D) does not prevent serious long-term complications including vascular disease, neuropathy, retinopathy and renal failure. Stem cells, including amniotic fluid-derived stem (AFS) cells--highly expansive, multipotent, and non-tumorigenic cells--could serve as an appropriate stem cell source for ?-cell differentiation. In the current study we tested whether nonhuman primate (nhp) AFS cells ectopically expressing key pancreatic transcription factors were capable of differentiating into a beta-like cell phenotype in vitro. NHPAFS cells were obtained from Cynomolgus monkey amniotic fluid by immunomagnetic selection for a CD117 (c-kit) positive population. RT-PCR for endodermal and pancreatic lineage-specific markers was performed on AFS cells after adenovirally transduced expression of PDX1, NGN3 and MAFA. Expression of MAFA was sufficient to induce insulin mRNA expression in nhpAFS cell lines, whereas a combination of MAFA, PDX1 and NGN3further induced insulin expression, as well as induced the expression of other important endocrine cell genes such as glucagon, NEUROD1, NKX2.2, ISL1 and PCSK2. Higher induction of these and other important pancreatic genes was achieved by growing the triply infected AFS cells in media supplemented with a combination of B27, betacellulin and nicotinamide, as well as culturing the cells on extra-cellular matrix coated plates. The expression of pancreatic genes such as NEUROD1, glucagon and insulin progressively decreased with the decline of adenovirally-expressed PDX1, NGN3 and MAFA. Together, these experiments suggest that forced expression of pancreatic transcription factors in primate AFS cells induces them towards the pancreatic lineage. PMID:23306211

  3. Counting Books

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    The web site provides instructions for making counting books. Suggestions for using the completed books for counting one at a time, skip-counting, fractions and introducing addition and subtraction are given. Children should be able to write the numbers from 1 to 10 before beginning this activity.

  4. Let's Count!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Popwell

    2010-09-20

    Let's practice our counting skills with these fun games! Let's soar into the sky and practice Counting on a Cloud! The ants need lining up, let's Count the Ants! Help Rabbit eat his carrots by dropping the correct number of food into the basket! ...

  5. Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid IFN-?+ Th17 Cells and Regulatory T Cells in Pulmonary Sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Tøndell, Anders; Moen, Torolf; Børset, Magne; Salvesen, Øyvind; Rø, Anne Dorthea; Sue-Chu, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    In sarcoidosis, increased Th17 cell fractions have been reported in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and elevated numbers of Th17 cells producing IFN-? have been observed in peripheral blood. The balance between Th1, Th17, and FoxP3+ CD4+ T cell subsets in sarcoidosis remains unclear. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells, from 30 patients with sarcoidosis, 18 patients with other diffuse parenchymal lung diseases, and 15 healthy controls, were investigated with flow cytometry for intracellular expression of FoxP3. In a subset of the patients, expression of the cytokines IL17A and IFN-? was investigated. The fractions of FoxP3+ CD4+ T cells and Th17 cells were both lower in sarcoidosis compared to controls (P = 0.017 and P = 0.011, resp.). The proportion of Th17 cells positive for IFN-? was greater in sarcoidosis than controls (median 72.4% versus 31%, P = 0.0005) and increased with radiologic stage (N = 23, rho = 0.45, and P = 0.03). IFN-?+ Th17 cells were highly correlated with Th1 cells (N = 23, rho = 0.64, and P = 0.001), and the ratio of IFN-?+ Th17/FoxP3+ CD4+ T cells was prominently increased in sarcoidosis. IFN-?+ Th17 cells may represent a pathogenic subset of Th17 cells, yet their expression of IFN-? could be a consequence of a Th1-polarized cytokine milieu. Our results indicate a possible immune cell imbalance in sarcoidosis. PMID:24882950

  6. Inner ear stem cells derived feeder layer promote directional differentiation of amniotic fluid stem cells into functional neurons.

    PubMed

    Zong, Ling; Chen, Kaitian; Zhou, Wei; Jiang, Di; Sun, Liang; Zhang, Xuemei; Jiang, Hongyan

    2014-10-01

    Intact spiral ganglion neurons are required for cochlear implantation or conventional hearing amplification as an intervention for sensorineural hearing loss. Treatment strategies to replace the loss of spiral ganglion neurons are needed. Recent reports have suggested that amniotic fluid-derived stem cells are capable of differentiating into neuron-like cells in response to cytokines and are not tumorigenic. Amniotic fluid stem cells represent a potential resource for cellular therapy of neural deafness due to spiral ganglion pathology. However, the directional differentiation of amniotic fluid stem cells is undetermined in the absence of cytokines and the consequence of inner ear supporting cells from the mouse cochlea organ of Corti on the differentiation of amniotic fluid stem cells remains to be defined. In an effort to circumvent these limitations, we investigated the effect of inner ear stem cells derived feeder layer on amniotic fluid stem cells differentiation in vitro. An inner ear stem cells derived feeder layer direct contact system was established to induce differentiation of amniotic fluid stem cells. Our results showed that inner ear stem cells derived feeder layer successfully promoted directional differentiation of amniotic fluid stem cells into neurons with characteristics of functionality. Furthermore, we showed that Wnt signaling may play an essential role in triggering neurogenesis. These findings indicate the potential use of inner ear stem cells derived feeder layer as a nerve-regenerative scaffold. A reliable and effective amniotic fluid stem cell differentiation support structure provided by inner ear stem cells derived feeder layer should contribute to efforts to translate cell-based strategies to the clinic. PMID:25124154

  7. Self-Calibration of Cluster Dark Energy Studies: Counts in Cells

    E-print Network

    Marcos Lima; Wayne Hu

    2004-01-26

    Cluster number counts can constrain the properties of dark energy if and only if the evolution in the relationship between observable quantities and the cluster mass can be calibrated. Next generation surveys with ~10000 clusters will have sufficient statistics to enable some degree of self-calibration. The excess variance of counts due to the clustering of clusters provides such an opportunity and can be measured from the survey without additional observational cost. It can minimize the degradation in dark energy constraints due to an unknown power law evolution in the mass-observable relation improving constraints on the dark energy equation of state by a factor of 2 or more to sigma(w)=0.06 for a deep 4000 deg2 survey.

  8. Count Around

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-08-23

    Learners explore their surroundings while reasoning about categories and counting. Pose a question that involves locating items in the room or building, and have learners count how many they can find—and figure out "what counts." It’s easy to vary the question for different levels of challenge. For instance, for less challenge, ask: How many light switches are in the room? For more, ask: How many light sources are in the room? Once everyone has counted, engage the group in discussing findings: Why might the answers differ even if everyone counted correctly? Available as a web page or downloadable pdf. Students should be able to write the numbers to 12.

  9. White blood cell counts, leukocyte ratios, and eosinophils as inflammatory markers in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Kounis, Nicholas G; Soufras, George D; Tsigkas, Grigorios; Hahalis, George

    2015-03-01

    Inflammation is a key feature of atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestations. The leukocyte count has emerged as a marker of inflammation that is widely available in clinical practice. Since inflammation plays a key role in atherosclerosis and its end results, discovering new biomarkers of inflammation becomes important in order to help diagnostic accuracy and provide prognostic information about coronary cardiac disease. In acute coronary syndromes and percutaneous coronary intervention, elevated levels of almost all subtypes of white blood cell counts, including eosinophils, monocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes, and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and eosinophil-leukocyte ratio constitute independent predictors of adverse outcomes. Eosinophil count and eosinophil-leukocyte ratio, in particular, emerge as novel biomarkers for risk stratification in patients with coronary artery disease. Since the presence of eosinophils denotes hypersensitivity inflammation and hypersensitivity associated with Kounis syndrome, this reality is essential for elucidating the etiology of inflammation in order to consider predictive and preventive measures and to apply the appropriate therapeutic methods. PMID:24770327

  10. T E C H N I C A L R E P O R T Single-molecule transcript counting of stem-cell

    E-print Network

    van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    T E C H N I C A L R E P O R T Single-molecule transcript counting of stem-cell markers in the mouse the molecular identities of adult stem cells requires technologies for sensitive transcript detection in tissues distinct stem-cell populations, residing either at crypt bases or at position +4, but a detailed analysis

  11. Factors associated with short-term changes in HIV viral load and CD4+ cell count in antiretroviral-naive individuals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Among antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive individuals, viral load levels tend to increase and CD4+ cell counts decline over time. We sought to explore the rate of change and influence of other factors associated with these markers of HIV progression. Design: An observational cohort collaboration study. Methods: A total of 158?385 pairs of consecutive viral load and CD4+ cell count simultaneously measured from 34?384 ART-naive individuals in the COHERE database were analysed. Annual changes and factors associated with these changes were estimated using generalized estimating equations. Results: Viral load continued to rise at a mean [95% confidence interval (CI)] rate of 0.091 (0.086–0.096) log10?copies/ml per year. A faster rise in viral load was significantly associated with older age, such that for every 10 years older, it was a mean 0.022 log10?copies/ml per year greater. The mean (95% CI) CD4+ cell count change was ?78.0 (?80.1 to ?76.0) cell/?l per year and it was strongly associated with a higher current viral load: for every 1 log10?copies/ml higher, CD4+ cell count declined by an additional 37.6?cells/?l per year (P?cell count depletion than baseline viral load. Neither sex, race nor transmission by injecting drug use was associated with change in either the viral load or CD4+ cell count. Discussion: We found that in ART-naive individuals, viral load continues to increase over time and more sharply in those who are older. Our results also suggest that higher current viral load is strongly associated with ongoing rate of CD4+ cell count depletion. PMID:24959963

  12. Weighing of biomolecules, single cells and single nanoparticles in fluid.

    PubMed

    Burg, Thomas P; Godin, Michel; Knudsen, Scott M; Shen, Wenjiang; Carlson, Greg; Foster, John S; Babcock, Ken; Manalis, Scott R

    2007-04-26

    Nanomechanical resonators enable the measurement of mass with extraordinary sensitivity. Previously, samples as light as 7 zeptograms (1 zg = 10(-21) g) have been weighed in vacuum, and proton-level resolution seems to be within reach. Resolving small mass changes requires the resonator to be light and to ring at a very pure tone-that is, with a high quality factor. In solution, viscosity severely degrades both of these characteristics, thus preventing many applications in nanotechnology and the life sciences where fluid is required. Although the resonant structure can be designed to minimize viscous loss, resolution is still substantially degraded when compared to measurements made in air or vacuum. An entirely different approach eliminates viscous damping by placing the solution inside a hollow resonator that is surrounded by vacuum. Here we demonstrate that suspended microchannel resonators can weigh single nanoparticles, single bacterial cells and sub-monolayers of adsorbed proteins in water with sub-femtogram resolution (1 Hz bandwidth). Central to these results is our observation that viscous loss due to the fluid is negligible compared to the intrinsic damping of our silicon crystal resonator. The combination of the low resonator mass (100 ng) and high quality factor (15,000) enables an improvement in mass resolution of six orders of magnitude over a high-end commercial quartz crystal microbalance. This gives access to intriguing applications, such as mass-based flow cytometry, the direct detection of pathogens, or the non-optical sizing and mass density measurement of colloidal particles. PMID:17460669

  13. Eosinophil count - absolute

    MedlinePLUS

    An absolute eosinophil count is a blood test that measures the number of white blood cells called eosinophils. Eosinophils become active when you have certain allergic diseases, infections, and other medical conditions.

  14. Effect of saliva contamination on induced sputum cell counts, IL8 and eosinophil cationic protein levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Simpson; N. L. Timmins; K. Fakes; P. I. Talbot; P. G. Gibson

    2004-01-01

    Excessive salivary contamination of induced sputum samples prevents the satisfactory examination of lower airway inflammation. The effects of salivary contamination on different sputum fluid phase measures and the levels of salivary contamination preventing analysis are not defined. The present study sought to examine this by investigating the effect of increasing salivary contamination on induced sputum samples. Sputum and saliva samples

  15. Decline of CD3-positive T-cell counts by 6 months of age is associated with rapid disease progression in HIV-1–infected infants

    PubMed Central

    Chinen, Javier; Easley, Kirk A.; Mendez, Herman; Shearer, William T.

    2015-01-01

    Because HIV-1 infected infants with rapid progression (RP) of disease might benefit from early and intense antiretroviral therapy, the identification of predictive factors of RP becomes extremely important. Currently, the best predictive factors of RP in HIV-1 infected children are HIV-1 RNA levels and CD4-positive T-cell counts. A decrease in CD3-positive T-cell count has been identified as a predictive factor of AIDS development in HIV-1 infected adults. Our objective was to evaluate decreased number of CD3-positive T-cells as a predictive factor of RP in infants. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from HIV-1 infected infants (up to 6 months of age) were analyzed for an association of lymphocyte subsets with RP, which was defined as the occurrence of AIDS or death before 18 months of age. In infants with RP (n = 32), CD3-positive T-cell counts were 3093 cells/?L at <1 month of age, 3092 cells/?L at 1 to 3 months, and 2062 cells/?L at 3 to 6 months. Non-RP infants (n = 49) maintained their CD3-positive T-cells counts at approximately 4000 cells/?L for at least 6 months of life. CD3-positive and CD4-positive T-cell counts were significantly associated with RP. Our results suggest that a decreased CD3-positive T-cell count may be used to predict RP in HIV-1 infected infants (RR = 2.16, P = .001). PMID:11496244

  16. Fluid Inclusion Gas Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dilley, Lorie

    2013-01-01

    Fluid inclusion gas analysis for wells in various geothermal areas. Analyses used in developing fluid inclusion stratigraphy for wells and defining fluids across the geothermal fields. Each sample has mass spectrum counts for 180 chemical species.

  17. Fluid Inclusion Gas Analysis

    DOE Data Explorer

    Dilley, Lorie

    Fluid inclusion gas analysis for wells in various geothermal areas. Analyses used in developing fluid inclusion stratigraphy for wells and defining fluids across the geothermal fields. Each sample has mass spectrum counts for 180 chemical species.

  18. Milk production, water consumption, and somatic cell count responses of cows subject to one to two volts of alternating current.

    PubMed

    Southwick, L H; Wilson, D J; Sears, P M

    1992-08-01

    A dairy farm located in central New York was visited because of complaints of electrical shock in the farmhouse shower and the milk house sink. As much as 2 volts AC of potential difference was measured between the waterline and the cow platform (cow-contact voltage). Voltage was coming from the primary neutral wire. The farm's electrical service was modified so that the farmstead could be connected or disconnected from the primary neutral wire at 2-week intervals for 12 weeks. When connected to the primary neutral wire, voltage between waterline and floor ranged between 0 and 1.8 volts, producing estimated current flow through cows of 3.6 to 4.9 mA; when disconnected from primary neutral wire, voltage between waterline and floor was less than 0.1 volt. There was no difference in mean milk production, bulk tank milk somatic cell count, or water consumption among periods when cows were exposed or unexposed to voltage. Despite statistical nonsignificance, the values for somatic cell count were lower and water consumption was higher when cows were exposed to voltage than when they were not. PMID:1506248

  19. Circulating tumor cell count during zoledronic acid treatment in men with metastatic prostate cancer: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Ide, Hisamitsu; Lu, Yan; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Wakumoto, Yoshiaki; Kitamura, Kosuke; Muto, Satoru; Yamaguchi, Raizo; Masumori, Naoya; Horie, Shigeo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Recent clinical trials have demonstrated that zoledronic acid (ZOL) significantly prolongs survival in prostate cancer patients undergoing androgen deprivation therapy. This pilot study investigated the influence of ZOL on circulating tumor cell (CTC) counts in prostate cancer patients in association with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) used as a serum biomarker. Methods Patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) who were CTC-positive (n=4) were enrolled in treatment with ZOL between April 2012 and December 2013. CTCs were detected using the Cell Search System. The study evaluated CTC fluctuations at 1, 2, and 3 months versus baseline, as well as patient outcomes and adverse events. Results Two patients showed evidence of temporally decreased CTCs after ZOL treatment. Instead of decreasing the number of CTCs, the PSA level did not go down during the ZOL treatment. One patient could not undergo ZOL treatment due to rapid disease progression. Conclusions Although CTC count arguably provides useful information about patients undergoing ZOL treatment, the positive influence of ZOL may be limited to temporary effects for CRPC. PMID:25325027

  20. Revisiting the white blood cell count: immature granulocytes count as a diagnostic marker to discriminate between SIRS and sepsis - a prospective, observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sepsis is a serious disease condition and a major cause of intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Its diagnosis in critically ill patients is complicated. To diagnose an infection rapidly, and to accurately differentiate systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) from sepsis, is challenging yet early diagnosis is vital for early induction of an appropriate therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the immature granulocyte (IG) count is a useful early diagnostic marker of sepsis compared to other markers. Therefore, a total of 70 consecutive surgical intensive care patients were assessed. IGs were measured from whole blood samples using an automated analyzer. C-reactive protein (CRP), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations were also determined. The observation period was a maximum of 21?days and ended with the patients’ discharge from ICU or death. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were conducted and area under the curve (AUC) was calculated to determine sensitivities and specificities for the parameters. Results We found that the IG count significantly discriminates between infected and non-infected patients (P?count was more indicative than other clinical parameters such as CRP, LBP and IL-6, which had a sensitivity of less than 68%. Additionally, the highest diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) with 26.7 was calculated for the IG count within the first 48?hours. During the course of the disease ROC curve analyses showed a superior positive predictive value of the IG count compared to the other measured parameters during the first five days following the fulfillment of SIRS criteria. However, the number of IGs was not correlated with ICU mortality. Conclusions The total number of IG in peripheral blood from ICU patients is a good marker to discriminate infected and non-infected patients very early during SIRS. However, the IG count is not suitable as a prognostic marker for mortality. Routine and serial measurement of IGs may provide new possibilities for rapid screening of SIRS patients on ICU with suspected infections. PMID:23398965

  1. CD4+ cell count recovery in naïve patients initiating cART, who achieved and maintained plasma HIV-RNA suppression

    PubMed Central

    Costagliola, Dominique; Lacombe, Jean-Marc; Ghosn, Jade; Delaugerre, Constance; Pialoux, Gilles; Cuzin, Lise; Launay, Odile; Ménard, Amélie; de Truchis, Pierre; Mary-Krause, Murielle; Weiss, Laurence; Delfraissy, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A key objective of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) is to reach and maintain high CD4 cell counts to provide long-term protection against AIDS-defining opportunistic infections and malignancies, as well as other comorbidities. However, a high proportion of patients present late for care. Our objective was to assess CD4 cell count recovery up to seven years in naïve patients initiating cART with at least three drugs in usual clinical care. Methods From the French Hospital Database on HIV, we selected naïve individuals initiating cART from 2000 with at least two years of follow-up. Participants were further required to have achieved viral load suppression by six months after initiating cART and were censored in case of virological failure. We calculated the proportion of patients (Kaplan-Meier estimates) who achieved CD4 recovery to >500/mm3 according to baseline CD4 cell count. Results A total of 15,025 patients were analyzed with a median follow-up on ART of 65.5 months (IQR: 42.3–96.0). At cART initiation, the median age was 38.6 years (IQR: 32.2–46.0), 9734 (64.8%) were men, median CD4 cell count was 239 (IQR: 130–336) and 2668 (17.8%) had a prior AIDS event. Results are presented in the Table 1. Conclusions This study shows that CD4 cell counts continue to increase seven years after cART initiation, whatever the baseline CD4 cell count. Failing to achieve CD4 recovery with continuous viral load suppression is rare for naïve patients initiating cART in routine clinical practice, but takes substantially longer in patients who initiate antiretroviral therapy at low CD4 cell counts. PMID:25393990

  2. Activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with sarcoidosis: visualisation of single cell activation products.

    PubMed Central

    Pantelidis, P.; Southcott, A. M.; Cambrey, A. D.; Laurent, G. J.; du Bois, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Interstitial lung diseases are characterised by the recruitment of mononuclear cells to disease sites where maturation occurs and activation products, including lysozyme (LZM), are released. Analysis of in vitro cell culture supernatants for activation products masks the functional heterogeneity of cell populations. It is therefore necessary to examine the secretion of activation products by single cells to assess whether the activation of newly recruited mononuclear phagocytes at the sites of disease in the lung is uniform and controlled by the local microenvironment. METHODS--The reverse haemolytic plaque assay was used to evaluate, at a single cell level, the ability of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from seven patients with sarcoidosis to activate Ficoll-Hypaque-separated peripheral blood mononuclear cells by comparison with BAL fluid from six normal volunteers and nine patients with systemic sclerosis. Monolayers of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and sheep red blood cells were cultured either alone or in the presence of 20% (v/v) BAL fluid with a polyclonal anti-LZM antibody. LZM/anti-LZM complexes bound to red blood cells surrounding the secreting cells were disclosed following complement lysis of red blood cells and quantification of plaque dimensions using microscopy and image analysis. RESULTS--Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from all the patients with sarcoidosis increased LZM secretion by peripheral blood mononuclear cells compared with unstimulated mononuclear cells. By contrast, BAL fluid from the other individuals had no effect on LZM secretion. CONCLUSIONS--Single cells activated by BAL fluid can be evaluated by the reverse haemolytic plaque assay. BAL fluid from patients with sarcoidosis, but not from patients with systemic sclerosis or normal individuals, contains components capable of activating mononuclear phagocytes to secrete lysozyme. Images PMID:7831632

  3. Mechanical interaction between cells and fluid for bone tissue engineering scaffold: Modulation of the interfacial shear stress

    E-print Network

    Guerraoui, Rachid

    Mechanical interaction between cells and fluid for bone tissue engineering scaffold: Modulation Analytical solution Bone tissue engineering a b s t r a c t An analytical model of the fluid/cell mechanical n f o Article history: Accepted 1 November 2009 Keywords: Cell fluid interaction Shear stress

  4. A Spore Counting Method and Cell Culture Model for Chlorine Disinfection Studies of Encephalitozoon syn. Septata intestinalis

    PubMed Central

    Wolk, D. M.; Johnson, C. H.; Rice, E. W.; Marshall, M. M.; Grahn, K. F.; Plummer, C. B.; Sterling, C. R.

    2000-01-01

    The microsporidia have recently been recognized as a group of pathogens that have potential for waterborne transmission; however, little is known about the effects of routine disinfection on microsporidian spore viability. In this study, in vitro growth of Encephalitozoon syn. Septata intestinalis, a microsporidium found in the human gut, was used as a model to assess the effect of chlorine on the infectivity and viability of microsporidian spores. Spore inoculum concentrations were determined by using spectrophotometric measurements (percent transmittance at 625 nm) and by traditional hemacytometer counting. To determine quantitative dose-response data for spore infectivity, we optimized a rabbit kidney cell culture system in 24-well plates, which facilitated calculation of a 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) and a minimal infective dose (MID) for E. intestinalis. The TCID50 is a quantitative measure of infectivity and growth and is the number of organisms that must be present to infect 50% of the cell culture wells tested. The MID is as a measure of a system's permissiveness to infection and a measure of spore infectivity. A standardized MID and a standardized TCID50 have not been reported previously for any microsporidian species. Both types of doses are reported in this paper, and the values were used to evaluate the effects of chlorine disinfection on the in vitro growth of microsporidia. Spores were treated with chlorine at concentrations of 0, 1, 2, 5, and 10 mg/liter. The exposure times ranged from 0 to 80 min at 25°C and pH 7. MID data for E. intestinalis were compared before and after chlorine disinfection. A 3-log reduction (99.9% inhibition) in the E. intestinalis MID was observed at a chlorine concentration of 2 mg/liter after a minimum exposure time of 16 min. The log10 reduction results based on percent transmittance-derived spore counts were equivalent to the results based on hemacytometer-derived spore counts. Our data suggest that chlorine treatment may be an effective water treatment for E. intestinalis and that spectrophotometric methods may be substituted for labor-intensive hemacytometer methods when spores are counted in laboratory-based chlorine disinfection studies. PMID:10742198

  5. Increased CD133+ cell infiltration in the rat brain following fluid percussion injury?

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Ming; Zhou, Ziwei; Li, Shenghui; Jing, Chengwei; Zhi, Dashi; Zhang, Jianning

    2012-01-01

    The prominin-1/CD133 epitope is expressed in undifferentiated cells. Studies have reported that craniocerebral trauma in animal models of fluid percussion injury induces production of a specific stem cell subgroup. It has been hypothesized that fluid percussion injury induces CD133+ cell infiltration in the brain tissue. The present study established a traumatic brain injury model through fluid percussion injury. Immunohistochemical staining showed significantly increased CD133 antigen expression in the rat brain following injury. CD133+ cells were mainly distributed in hippocampal CA1–3 regions, as well as the dentate gyrus and hilus, of the lesioned hemisphere. Occasional cells were also detected in the cortex. In addition, reverse transcription-PCR revealed that no change in CD133 mRNA expression in injured brain tissue. These results suggested that fluid percussion injury induced CD133 antigen expression in the brain tissues as a result of conformational epitope changes, but not transcriptional expression.

  6. arXiv:astro-ph/0401559v126Jan2004 Self-Calibration of Cluster Dark Energy Studies: Counts in Cells

    E-print Network

    Hu, Wayne

    arXiv:astro-ph/0401559v126Jan2004 Self-Calibration of Cluster Dark Energy Studies: Counts in Cells of Chicago, Chicago IL 60637 Cluster number counts can constrain the properties of dark energy if and only constraints on the dark energy equation of state by a factor of 2 or more to (w) = 0.06 for a deep 4000 deg2

  7. Association between herd exposure to BVDV-infection and bulk milk somatic cell count of Flemish dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Laureyns, Jozef; Piepers, Sofie; Ribbens, Stefaan; Sarrazin, Steven; De Vliegher, Sarne; Van Crombrugge, Jean-Marie; Dewulf, Jeroen

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the statistical association between herd bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) status based on bulk milk antibody detection and monthly bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) as a reflection of the udder health. A distinction was made between vaccinating and non-vaccinating herds via a questionnaire concerning BVD-vaccination. No significant difference in BMSCC was found between vaccinating (228,300 cells/ml; SD 180,019) and non-vaccinating (237,070 cells/ml; SD 77,900) herds. Non-vaccinating herds (n=243) were selected, and the relationship between a single BVDV-antibody titre and the BMSCC of each herd over a 12-month observation period evaluated. For this purpose, the non-vaccinating herds were divided into five groups depending on bulk milk BVDV-antibody titres. Overall, no significant relationship between the antibody titre and the BMSCC was found. Still, when comparing the category with the lowest S/P ratio (essentially BVDV-naïve herds; BMSCC=211,390 cells/ml) with the combined four other categories (BMSCC=242,790 cells/ml), a significant difference in BMSSC was observed (P=0.01). PMID:23063176

  8. Bulk tank milk somatic cell counts in dairy herds with different bovine viral diarrhoea virus status in Poland.

    PubMed

    Rola, Jolanta G; Larska, Magdalena; Grzeszuk, Monika; Bocian, Lukasz; Kuta, Aleksandra; Polak, Miroslaw P; Rola, Jerzy

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effect of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection on bulk tank milk somatic cell counts (BMSCC). Twenty nine dairy farms supplying milk to a dairy in Eastern Poland were recruited for the study. Bulk milk ELISA and RT-PCR were used to determine the BVDV infection status and the presence of PI animals in the farms. The BMSCC mean values for the BVDV seronegative (218.7 × 10(3)cells/ml; SD: 89.8) and seropositive (214.9 × 10(3)cells/ml; SD: 74.0) herds did not differ significantly. To assess the relationship between BVDV infection and BMSCC a multilevel mixed-effects linear model was used. No statistically significant effect of BVDV infection on BMSCC was found. The mean values of BMSCC for the herds with PI individuals measured before (230.1 × 10(3)cells/ml, SD: 64.9) and after (223.3 × 10(3)cells/ml, SD: 62.4) the PI removal were not statistically different. An increase in herd size was associated with a significant decrease in BMSCC. An increase in BMSCC was observed during summer (from May to September) compared to during winter (from October to April). PMID:25023907

  9. Effects of chocolate cyst fluid on endometrioma cell growth in culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shawky Z. A Badawy; Violeta Cuenca; Shubhra Kumar; James Holland

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of chocolate cyst fluid on the proliferation of cultured human endometrioma cells and to assay the concentration of transforming growth factor-B1 in this fluid.Design: Controlled in vitro study.Setting: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, State University of New York Health Science Center.Patient(s): Five women with ovarian endometriomas.Intervention(s): Endometrioma tissue and chocolate fluid from five different patients

  10. Platelet count

    MedlinePLUS

    A platelet count is a test to measure how many platelets you have in your blood. Platelets are parts of the blood that help the ... The number of platelets in your blood can be affected by many ... Platelets may be counted to monitor or diagnose diseases, or ...

  11. Counting Money

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Bunn

    2010-10-30

    Students will reinforce the idea of counting coins as well as adding different amounts of coins. First, play Shoot your fruit! to identify your numbers! Then, dive into Underwater Counting!! Ms. Eppes Class: First, visit farm stand to figure out how much it will cost to buy eggs and apples. Once you have completed the farm stand go on a spending spree! ...

  12. Fluid shear stress sensitizes cancer cells to receptor-mediated apoptosis via trimeric death receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Michael J.; King, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer metastasis, the process of cancer cell migration from a primary to distal location, typically leads to a poor patient prognosis. Hematogenous metastasis is initiated by intravasation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) into the bloodstream, which are then believed to adhere to the luminal surface of the endothelium and extravasate into distal locations. Apoptotic agents such as tumor necrosis factor apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), whether in soluble ligand form or expressed on the surface of natural killer cells, have shown promise in treating CTCs to reduce the probability of metastasis. The role of hemodynamic shear forces in altering the cancer cell response to apoptotic agents has not been previously investigated. Here, we report that human colon cancer COLO 205 and prostate cancer PC-3 cells exposed to a uniform fluid shear stress in a cone-and-plate viscometer become sensitized to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Shear-induced sensitization directly correlates with the application of fluid shear stress, and TRAIL-induced apoptosis increases in a fluid shear stress force- and time-dependent manner. In contrast, TRAIL-induced necrosis is not affected by the application fluid shear stress. Interestingly, fluid shear stress does not sensitize cancer cells to apoptosis when treated with doxorubicin, which also induces apoptosis in cancer cells. Caspase inhibition experiments reveal that shear stress-induced sensitization to TRAIL occurs via caspase-dependent apoptosis. These results suggest that physiological fluid shear forces can modulate receptor-mediated apoptosis of cancer cells in the presence of apoptotic agents.

  13. Effect of somatic cell count in goat milk on yield, sensory quality and fatty acid profile of semi-hard cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the effect of somatic cell count (SCC) of goat milk on yield, free fatty acid (FFA) profile, and sensory quality of semi-hard cheese. Thirty kilograms of goat milk with mean SCC levels of 410,000 (Low), 770,000 (Medium), and 1,250,000 cells/mL (High) was obtained for the manu...

  14. Somatic cell counts of milk from Dairy Herd Improvement herds during 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Test-day data from all herds enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) somatic cell testing during 2008 were examined to assess the status of national milk quality. Cows with records failing some AIPL editing procedures were excluded. Somatic cell score (SCS) is reported to AIPL and was converted to ...

  15. Somatic Cell Counts of Milk from Dairy Herd Improvement Herds during 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Test-day data from all herds enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) somatic cell testing during 2007 were examined to assess the status of national milk quality. Cows with records failing some AIPL editing procedures were excluded. Somatic cell score (SCS) is reported to AIPL and was converted to ...

  16. Somatic cell counts of milk from Dairy Herd Improvement herds during 2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Test-day data from all herds enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) somatic cell testing during 2009 were examined to assess the status of national milk quality. Cows with records failing some AIPL editing procedures were excluded. Somatic cell score (SCS) is reported to AIPL and was converted to ...

  17. SOMATIC CELL COUNTS OF MILK FROM DAIRY HERD IMPROVEMENT HERDS DURING 2001

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Test-day data from all herds enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) somatic cell testing during 2001 was examined to assess the status of national milk quality. Cows with records failing AIPL editing procedures were excluded. Somatic cell score (SCS) is reported to AIPL and was converted to somati...

  18. SOMATIC CELL COUNTS OF MILK FROM DAIRY HERD IMPROVEMENT HERDS DURING 2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Test-day data from all herds enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) somatic cell testing during 2004 were examined to assess the status of national milk quality. Cows with records failing AIPL editing procedures were excluded. Somatic cell score (SCS) is reported to AIPL and was converted to somat...

  19. SOMATIC CELL COUNTS OF MILK FROM DAIRY HERD IMPROVEMENT HERDS DURING 2005

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Test-day data from all herds enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) somatic cell testing during 2005 were examined to assess the status of national milk quality. Cows with records failing AIPL editing procedures were excluded. Somatic cell score (SCS) is reported to AIPL and was converted to somat...

  20. Somatic Cell Counts of Milk from Dairy Herd Improvement Herds during 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Test-day data from all herds enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) somatic cell testing during 2006 were examined to assess the status of national milk quality. Cows with records failing some AIPL editing procedures were excluded. Somatic cell score (SCS) is reported to AIPL and was converted to ...

  1. The Effects of Decreasing Maternal Anxiety on Fetal Oxygenation and Nucleated Red Blood Cells Count in the Cord Blood

    PubMed Central

    Masoudi, Zahra; Akbarzadeh, Marziyeh; Vaziri, Farideh; Zare, Najaf; Ramzi, Mani

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Vasoconstriction during anxiety reduces fetal oxygenation and leads to hypoxia. Hypoxia in turn results in increase of the number of nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) in the cord blood. The present study aimed to assess the effect of decreasing maternal anxiety on fetal oxygenation and NRBCs count in the cord blood. Methods:. In this study, 150 women were randomly divided into two intervention groups [supportive care and acupressure in BL32 (bladder) acupoint] and a control group (hospital routine care). The infants' cord blood was investigated regarding the number of NRBCs and the intensity of hypoxia after birth. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software (v. 16) and analyzed using ANOVA, Chi-square test, and logistic regression analysis. Findings : The significant difference was found between the two groups regarding the number of NRBCs counted in the peripheral blood smear (P<0.001). Besides, a significant relationship was observed between the length of the first and second stages of labor and the number of NRBCs in the cord blood (P=0.01). Also, a significant association was observed between the type of delivery and the number of NRBCs in the cord blood in both intervention (P<0.001) and control groups (P=0.03). Conclusion: Doula supportive care and acupressure at BL32 point reduced the length of labor stages as well as the anxiety level. Also, nucleated red blood cells were less in the 2 groups of intervention than in control group. Regarding the fact that nucleated red blood cells cannot be the only factor for hypoxia predicting, for affirmation of this theory study with higher sample size and survey of mothers at high risk are needed. PMID:25562022

  2. Enhanced generation of retinal progenitor cells from human retinal pigment epithelial cells induced by amniotic fluid

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Retinal progenitor cells are a convenient source of cell replacement therapy in retinal degenerative disorders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression patterns of the homeobox genes PAX6 and CHX10 (retinal progenitor markers) during treatment of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells with amniotic fluid (AF), RPE cells harvested from neonatal cadaver globes were cultured in a mixture of DMEM and Ham's F12 supplemented with 10% FBS. At different passages, cells were trypsinized and co-cultured with 30% AF obtained from normal fetuses of 1416 weeks gestational age. Results Compared to FBS-treated controls, AF-treated cultures exhibited special morphological changes in culture, including appearance of spheroid colonies, improved initial cell adhesion and ordered cell alignment. Cell proliferation assays indicated a remarkable increase in the proliferation rate of RPE cells cultivated in 30% AF-supplemented medium, compared with those grown in the absence of AF. Immunocytochemical analyses exhibited nuclear localization of retinal progenitor markers at a ratio of 33% and 27% for CHX10 and PAX6, respectively. This indicated a 3-fold increase in retinal progenitor markers in AF-treated cultures compared to FBS-treated controls. Real-time PCR data of retinal progenitor genes (PAX6, CHX10 and VSX-1) confirmed these results and demonstrated AF's capacity for promoting retinal progenitor cell generation. Conclusion Taken together, the results suggest that AF significantly promotes the rate of retinal progenitor cell generation, indicating that AF can be used as an enriched supplement for serum-free media used for the in vitro propagation of human progenitor cells. PMID:22490806

  3. A thermocapillary cell in a layer of a heavy fluid heated from above

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. I. Vybornov; Yu. V. Sanochkin

    1985-01-01

    A solution is found to the problem of steady thermocapillaty convection in a thin horizontal layer of a heavy fluid with Prandtl number P ? 1 which is developing while being locally heated from above, for the case of large Marangoni numbers. The shape of the free surface of the fluid was determined and the structure of the convective cell

  4. Pseudopod Projection and Cell Spreading of Passive Leukocytes in Response to Fluid Shear Stress

    E-print Network

    Braslavsky, Ido

    Pseudopod Projection and Cell Spreading of Passive Leukocytes in Response to Fluid Shear Stress evidence suggests that circulating leukocytes respond to physiological levels of fluid shear stress. This study was designed to examine the shear stress response of individual leukocytes adhering passively

  5. Flow manipulation and cell immobilization for biochemical applications using thermally responsive fluids

    PubMed Central

    Haraksingh Thilsted, Anil; Bazargan, Vahid; Piggott, Nina; Measday, Vivien; Stoeber, Boris

    2012-01-01

    A flow redirection and single cell immobilization method in a microfluidic chip is presented. Microheaters generated localized heating and induced poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) phase transition, creating a hydrogel that blocked a channel or immobilized a single cell. The heaters were activated in sets to redirect flow and exchange the fluid in which an immobilized cell was immersed. A yeast cell was immobilized in hydrogel and a 4?,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) fluorescent stain was introduced using flow redirection. DAPI diffused through the hydrogel and fluorescently labelled the yeast DNA, demonstrating in situ single cell biochemistry by means of immobilization and fluid exchange. PMID:24285990

  6. Flow Cytometry Total Cell Counts: A Field Study Assessing Microbiological Water Quality and Growth in Unchlorinated Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    PubMed Central

    Liu, G.; Van der Mark, E. J.; Verberk, J. Q. J. C.; Van Dijk, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the application of flow cytometry total cell counts (TCCs) as a parameter to assess microbial growth in drinking water distribution systems and to determine the relationships between different parameters describing the biostability of treated water. A one-year sampling program was carried out in two distribution systems in The Netherlands. Results demonstrated that, in both systems, the biomass differences measured by ATP were not significant. TCC differences were also not significant in treatment plant 1, but decreased slightly in treatment plant 2. TCC values were found to be higher at temperatures above 15°C than at temperatures below 15°C. The correlation study of parameters describing biostability found no relationship among TCC, heterotrophic plate counts, and Aeromonas. Also no relationship was found between TCC and ATP. Some correlation was found between the subgroup of high nucleic acid content bacteria and ATP (R2 = 0.63). Overall, the results demonstrated that TCC is a valuable parameter to assess the drinking water biological quality and regrowth; it can directly and sensitively quantify biomass, detect small changes, and can be used to determine the subgroup of active HNA bacteria that are related to ATP. PMID:23819117

  7. Morbidity and Mortality According to Latest CD4+ Cell Count among HIV Positive Individuals in South Africa Who Enrolled in Project Phidisa

    PubMed Central

    Maduna, Patrick H.; Dolan, Matt; Kondlo, Lwando; Mabuza, Honey; Dlamini, Judith N.; Polis, Mike; Mnisi, Thabo; Orsega, Susan; Maja, Patrick; Ledwaba, Lotty; Molefe, Thuthukile; Sangweni, Phumelele; Malan, Lisette; Matchaba, Gugu; Khabo, Paul; Grandits, Greg; Neaton, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Short-term morbidity and mortality rates for HIV positive soldiers in the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) would inform decisions about deployment and HIV disease management. Risks were determined according to the latest CD4+ cell count and use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV positive individuals in the SANDF and their dependents. Methods and Findings A total of 7,114 participants were enrolled and followed for mortality over a median of 4.7 years (IQR: 1.9, 7.1 years). For a planned subset (5,976), progression of disease (POD) and grade 4, potentially life-threatening events were also ascertained. CD4+ count and viral load were measured every 3 to 6 months. Poisson regression was used to compare event rates by latest CD4+ count (<50, 50–99, 100–199, 200–349, 350–499, 500+) with a focus on upper three strata, and to estimate relative risks (RRs) (ART/no ART). Median entry CD4+ was 207 cells/mm3. During follow-up over 70% were prescribed ART. Over follow-up 1,226 participants died; rates ranged from 57.6 (< 50 cells) to 0.8 (500+ cells) per 100 person years (py). Compared to those with latest CD4+ 200–349 (2.2/100py), death rates were significantly lower (p<0.001), as expected, for those with 350–499 (0.9/100py) and with 500+ cells (0.8/100py). The composite outcome of death, POD or grade 4 events occurred in 2,302 participants (4,045 events); rates were similar in higher CD4+ count strata (9.4 for 350–499 and 7.9 for 500+ cells) and lower than those with counts 200–349 cells (13.5) (p<0.001). For those with latest CD4+ 350+ cells, 63% of the composite outcomes (680 of 1,074) were grade 4 events. Conclusion Rates of morbidity and mortality are lowest among those with CD4+ count of 350 or higher and rates do not differ for those with counts of 350–499 versus 500+ cells. Grade 4 events are the predominant morbidity for participants with CD4+ counts of 350+ cells. PMID:25856495

  8. Single-molecule transcript counting of stem-cell markers in the mouse intestine

    E-print Network

    Itzkovitz, Shaul Shalev

    Determining the molecular identities of adult stem cells requires technologies for sensitive transcript detection in tissues. In mouse intestinal crypts, lineage-tracing studies indicated that different genes uniquely mark ...

  9. Handling solid-fluid interfaces for viscous flows: explicit jump approximation vs. ghost cell approaches

    E-print Network

    Handling solid-fluid interfaces for viscous flows: explicit jump approximation vs. ghost cell University, Jhongli, Taiwan Abstract The ghost cell approaches (GCA) for handling stationary solid boundaries so that one can reproduce the numerical results. Key words: Explicit jump approximation; Ghost cell

  10. Inhibitory effect on the formation of chlamydial inclusions in McCoy cells by seminal fluid and some of its components.

    PubMed

    Mårdh, P A; Colleen, S; Sylwan, J

    1980-05-01

    Our purpose was to determine the effect of semen and some of its components upon chlamydial inclusion (CI) count and cytopathogenic effect in cycloheximide-treated McCoy cells. Semen and spermine caused a dose-related decrease in the number of CI, using a standardized infectious dose of Chlamydia trachomatis, immunotype F. Lysozyme in certain concentrations stimulated CI formation, whereas the cations Cu++ and Zn++ produced a cytopathogenic effect and a dose-related reduction of the CI count, EDTA neutralized the effects of the cations and its addition to seminal fluid experimentally infected with C. trachomatis resulted in a greater number of CI than found in control cultures containing only semen. PMID:6246025

  11. Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after /sup 99m/Tc in vivo red blood cell labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Konstam, M.A.; Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

    1982-09-01

    We studied the effect of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after /sup 99m/Tc in vivo red blood cell labeling. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased during exercise in all 13 subjects. Percent increase in activity correlated with percent increase in erythrocyte count (r . -0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. We conclude that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume.

  12. Different Immunological Phenotypes Associated with Preserved CD4+ T Cell Counts in HIV-Infected Controllers and Viremic Long Term Non-Progressors

    PubMed Central

    Gaardbo, Julie Christine; Hartling, Hans J.; Ronit, Andreas; Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Madsen, Hans Ole; Springborg, Karoline; Gjerdrum, Lise Mette Rahbek; Birch, Carsten; Laye, Matthew; Ullum, Henrik; Andersen, Åse Bengaard; Nielsen, Susanne Dam

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV-infected controllers control viral replication and maintain normal CD4+ T cell counts. Long Term Non-Progressors (LTNP) also maintain normal CD4+ T cell counts, but have on-going viral replication. We hypothesized that different immunological mechanisms are responsible for preserved CD4+ T cell counts in controllers and LTNP. Methods 25 HIV-infected controllers and 14 LTNP were included in this cross-sectional study. For comparison, 25 progressors and 34 healthy controls were included. Production and destruction of T cells were addressed by determination of T cell receptor excision circles (TREC), recent thymic emigrants, naïve cells, immune activation, senescence and apoptosis. Furthermore, telomere length was determined, and the amount of lymphoid tissue in tonsil biopsies was quantified. Results Controllers presented with partly preserved thymic output, preserved expression of the IL-7 receptor and IL-7 receptor density, and lower levels of destruction of cells than progressors resembling HIV-negative healthy controls. In contrast, LTNP appeared much like progressors, and different from controllers in immune activation, senescence, and apoptosis. Interestingly, CD8+ RTE, TREC and telomere length were partly preserved. Finally, both controllers and LTNP displayed decreased amounts of lymphoid tissue compared to healthy controls. Conclusions Controllers presented with an immunological profile different from LTNP. While controllers resembled healthy controls, LTNP were similar to progressors, suggesting different immunological mechanisms to be responsible for preserved CD4+ T cell counts in LTNP and controllers. However, both controllers and LTNP presented with reduced amounts of lymphoid tissue despite preserved CD4+ T cell counts, indicating HIV to cause damage even in non-progressors. PMID:23696852

  13. Novel quantitative biosystem for modeling physiological fluid shear stress on cells.

    PubMed

    Nauman, Eric A; Ott, C Mark; Sander, Ed; Tucker, Don L; Pierson, Duane; Wilson, James W; Nickerson, Cheryl A

    2007-02-01

    The response of microbes to changes in the mechanical force of fluid shear has important implications for pathogens, which experience wide fluctuations in fluid shear in vivo during infection. However, the majority of studies have not cultured microbes under physiological fluid shear conditions within a range commonly encountered by microbes during host-pathogen interactions. Here we describe a convenient batch culture biosystem in which (i) the levels of fluid shear force can be varied within physiologically relevant ranges and quantified via mathematical models and (ii) large numbers of cells can be planktonically grown and harvested to examine the effect of fluid shear levels on microbial genomic and phenotypic responses. A quantitative model based on numerical simulations and in situ imaging analysis was developed to calculate the fluid shear imparted by spherical beads of different sizes on bacterial cell cultures grown in a rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor. To demonstrate the application of this model, we subjected cultures of the bacterial pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to three physiologically-relevant fluid shear ranges during growth in the RVW and demonstrated a progressive relationship between the applied fluid shear and the bacterial genetic and phenotypic responses. By applying this model to different cell types, including other bacterial pathogens, entire classes of genes and proteins involved in cellular interactions may be discovered that have not previously been identified during growth under conventional culture conditions, leading to new targets for vaccine and therapeutic development. PMID:17142365

  14. Evaluation of the T helper 17 cell specific genes and the innate lymphoid cells counts in the peripheral blood of patients with the common variable immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Ganjalikhani-Hakemi, Mazdak; Yazdani, Reza; Sherkat, Roya; Homayouni, Vida; Masjedi, Mohsen; Hosseini, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is characterized by a deficiency in the immune system with a heterogeneous collection of disorders resulting in antibody deficiency and recurrent infections. T helper 17 (Th17) cells promote B-cell survival and synergize with the B-cell activating factor to induce their differentiation into the plasma cells. A sub-population of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) also produces interleukin 17 (IL-17). This study aimed to measure the Th17 specific genes and ILCs counts in the CVID patients in comparison with control subjects. Materials and Methods: Total messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) was extracted from the whole blood samples of 10 CVID patients and 10 healthy individuals. IL-17, retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor C2 (RORC2), IL-23R, and IL-9 gene expression were measured using the quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Count of lineage negative/CD127+/CD90+ ILCs in the blood samples was performed by the flow cytometry method. Results: The transcript levels of IL-17 and RORC2 in CVID patients was strongly lower than control subjects (P = 0.049 and P = 0.046, respectively), but slight reduction in the IL-23R expression (P = 0.252) have seen in the CVID patients. Accordingly, the number of ILCs decreased significantly (P = 0.04). Interestingly, IL-9 mRNA level was more significantly in the CVID patients (P = 0.001). Conclusion: The results presented in this study show that the Th17 cell specific genes expression (as the determiner Th17 cells) and ILCs (another lymphoid source of IL-17) are decreased in patients with CVID and this could be an explanation for the defect of their humoral immune response. In addition, elevation of the IL-9 gene expression may shed a new light into the way toward the understanding of the mechanism of autoimmunity in the CVID patients. PMID:25002891

  15. Counting carbohydrates

    MedlinePLUS

    Carbohydrates are found in fruit, cereal, bread, pasta, and rice. They are quickly turned into a sugar ... sugar better if they can count how many carbohydrates they eat. Your dietitian will teach you a ...

  16. Clock Counting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. McDuffee

    2008-11-12

    Students will practice telling time. Review clock counting with the interactive clock. Now match the clocks. Move over the hour clock to see if you chose correctly. Click the arrows to match the dragon clock to the written time. ...

  17. Responses of synovial fluid and peripheral blood mononuclear cells to bacterial antigens and autologous antigen presenting cells.

    PubMed Central

    Klasen, I S; Melief, M J; Swaak, T J; Severijnen, A J; Hazenberg, M P

    1993-01-01

    The specificity of T cells in the inflamed joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been the subject of much study. Bacterial antigens are suspect in the aetiology of rheumatic diseases. The responsiveness of the mononuclear cell fraction of peripheral blood and synovial fluid of patients with RA and of patients with rheumatic diseases other than RA to bacterial antigens such as cell wall fragments of the anaerobic intestinal flora, cell wall fragments of Streptococcus pyogenes, intestinal flora derived peptidoglycan polysaccharide complexes, the 65 kilodalton protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and muramyldipeptide was investigated. No significant difference in response was found to all these bacterial antigens in the synovial fluid of patients with RA compared with the responses in patients with other rheumatic diseases. The highest responsiveness in the synovial fluid of the patients with RA was to the streptococcal cell wall fragments and to the 65 kilodalton protein. Higher responses to several bacterial antigens in the synovial fluid of patients with RA were found compared with peripheral blood from the same patient group. The antigen presenting cell population of the synovial fluid in patients with RA and the patients with other rheumatic diseases was found to be stimulatory for autologous peripheral blood T cells even in the absence of antigen. This suggests an important role for the synovial antigen presenting cell in the aetiology of inflammatory joint diseases. PMID:8447692

  18. Choral Counting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Illustrative Mathematics

    2012-07-31

    As a whole group, have students chant the counting sequence starting with one to thirty, using the pointer to follow the number sequence. Over time, increase the range to one to fifty and then one to one hundred. Eventually have a student take over the job of pointing out the numbers in the sequence. Highlight the multiples of ten using a marker or a colored screen and have students chant the counting sequence by 10s. This should be done daily.

  19. Method for filling the cavities of cells with a chromogenic fluid

    DOEpatents

    Tonazzi, Juan C. Lopez (Tucson, AZ); Kucharczyk, Jr., Joseph E. (Tucson, AZ); Agrawal, Anoop (Tucson, AZ)

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for filling a cell cavity positioned between a first substrate and a second substrate with a cell filling liquid. The method entails forming at least one evacuation cavity encompassing at least a portion of an outer surface of each of the first and second substrates of a cell containing a cell cavity and isolating the cell cavity from the evacuation cavity; reducing a pressure in each of the evacuation cavity and the cell cavity; and dispensing the cell filling fluid into the cell cavity.

  20. Method for filling the cavities of cells with a chromogenic fluid

    DOEpatents

    Tonazzi, J.C.L.; Kucharczyk, J.E. Jr.; Agrawal, A.

    1999-01-05

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for filling a cell cavity positioned between a first substrate and a second substrate with a cell filling liquid. The method entails forming at least one evacuation cavity encompassing at least a portion of an outer surface of each of the first and second substrates of a cell containing a cell cavity and isolating the cell cavity from the evacuation cavity; reducing a pressure in each of the evacuation cavity and the cell cavity; and dispensing the cell filling fluid into the cell cavity. The application is to the fabrication of electrochromic windows. 22 figs.

  1. Apparatus for filling the cavities of cells and laminated substrates with a fluid

    DOEpatents

    Lopez Tonazzi, Juan C. (Tucson, AZ); Kucharczyk, Jr., Joseph E. (Tucson, AZ); Agrawal, Anoop (Tucson, AZ)

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for filling a cell cavity positioned between a first substrate and a second substrate with a cell filling liquid. The method entails forming at least one evacuation cavity encompassing at least a portion of an outer surface of each of the first and second substrates of a cell containing a cell cavity and isolating the cell cavity from the evacuation cavity; reducing a pressure in each of the evacuation cavity and the cell cavity; and dispensing the cell filling fluid into the cell cavity.

  2. Estimating the impact of somatic cell count on the value of milk utilising parameters obtained from the published literature.

    PubMed

    Geary, Una; Lopez-Villalobos, Nicolas; O'Brien, Bernadette; Garrick, Dorian J; Shalloo, Laurence

    2014-05-01

    The impact of mastitis on milk value per litre independent of the effect of mastitis on milk volume, was quantified for Ireland using a meta-analysis and a processing sector model. Changes in raw milk composition, cheese processing and composition associated with increased bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) were incorporated into the model. Processing costs and market values were representative of current industry values. It was assumed that as BMSCC increased (i) milk fat and milk protein increased and milk lactose decreased, (ii) fat and protein recoveries decreased, (iii) cheese protein decreased and cheese moisture increased. Five BMSCC categories were examined from ?100 000 to >400 000 cells/ml. The analysis showed that as BMSCC increased the production quantities reduced. An increase in BMSCC from 100 000 to >400 000 cells/ml saw a reduction in net revenue of 3·2% per annum (€51·3 million) which corresponded to a reduction in the value of raw milk of €0·0096 cents/l. PMID:24666778

  3. H Netten, I.T. Young, M. Prins, L.J. van Vliet, H. Tanke, J. Vrolijk, W. Sloos, Automation of dot counting in cell nuclei, in: Proc. 12 th IAPR International Conference on Pattern Recognition, Jerusalem, Israel, 1994, 8487.

    E-print Network

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    counting in cell nuclei, in: Proc. 12 th IAPR International Conference on Pattern Recognition, Jerusalem, Israel, 1994, 84­87. Automation of Fluorescent Dot Counting in Cell Nuclei Hans Netten 1 , Ian T. Young 1 microscope system that can examine 500 cells in approximately 20 minutes to determine the number of labeled

  4. H Netten, I.T. Young, M. Prins, L.J. van Vliet, H. Tanke, J. Vrolijk, W. Sloos, Automation of dot counting in cell nuclei, in: Proc. 12th

    E-print Network

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    counting in cell nuclei, in: Proc. 12th IAPR International Conference on Pattern Recognition, Jerusalem, Israel, 1994, 84-87. Automation of Fluorescent Dot Counting in Cell Nuclei Hans Netten1, Ian T. Young1 system that can examine 500 cells in approximately 20 minutes to determine the number of labeled

  5. Ca²? signaling and fluid secretion by secretory cells of the airway epithelium.

    PubMed

    Lee, Robert J; Foskett, J Kevin

    2014-06-01

    Cytoplasmic Ca(2+) is a master regulator of airway physiology; it controls fluid, mucus, and antimicrobial peptide secretion, ciliary beating, and smooth muscle contraction. The focus of this review is on the role of cytoplasmic Ca(2+) in fluid secretion by airway exocrine secretory cells. Airway submucosal gland serous acinar cells are the primary fluid secreting cell type of the cartilaginous conducting airways, and this review summarizes the current state of knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of serous cell ion transport, with an emphasis on their regulation by intracellular Ca(2+). Many neurotransmitters that regulate secretion from serous acinar cells utilize Ca(2+) as a second messenger. Changes in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration regulate the activities of ion transporters and channels involved in transepithelial ion transport and fluid secretion, including Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels and Cl(-) channels. We also review evidence of interactions of Ca(2+) signaling with other signaling pathways (cAMP, NO) that impinge upon different ion transport pathways, including the cAMP/PKA-activated cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) anion channel. A better understanding of Ca(2+) signaling and its targets in airway fluid secretion may identify novel strategies to intervene in airway diseases, for example to enhance fluid secretion in CF airways. PMID:24703093

  6. Human transgene-free amniotic-fluid-derived induced pluripotent stem cells for autologous cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guihua; Di Bernardo, Julie; Maiden, Michael M; Villa-Diaz, Luis G; Mabrouk, Omar S; Krebsbach, Paul H; O'Shea, K Sue; Kunisaki, Shaun M

    2014-11-01

    The establishment of a reliable prenatal source of autologous, transgene-free progenitor cells has enormous potential in the development of regenerative-medicine-based therapies for infants born with devastating birth defects. Here, we show that a largely CD117-negative population of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stromal cells (AF-MSCs) obtained from fetuses with or without prenatally diagnosed anomalies are readily abundant and have limited baseline differentiation potential when compared with bone-marrow-derived MSCs and other somatic cell types. Nonetheless, the AF-MSCs could be easily reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) using nonintegrating Sendai viral vectors encoding for OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and cMYC. The iPSCs were virtually indistinguishable from human embryonic stem cells in multiple assays and could be used to generate a relatively homogeneous population of neural progenitors, expressing PAX6, SOX2, SOX3, Musashi-1, and PSA-NCAM, for potential use in neurologic diseases. Further, these neural progenitors showed engraftment potential in vivo and were capable of differentiating into mature neurons and astrocytes in vitro. This study demonstrates the usefulness of AF-MSCs as an excellent source for the generation of human transgene-free iPSCs ideally suited for autologous perinatal regenerative medicine applications. PMID:25014361

  7. Sex and species differences in plasma testosterone and in counts of androgen receptor-positive cells in key brain regions of Sceloporus lizard species that differ in aggression.

    PubMed

    Hews, Diana K; Hara, Erina; Anderson, Maurice C

    2012-05-01

    We studied neuroendocrine correlates of aggression differences in adults of two Sceloporus lizard species. These species differ in the degree of sex difference in aggressive color signals (belly patches) and in aggression: Sceloporus undulatus (males blue, high aggression; females white, low aggression) and Sceloporus virgatus (both sexes white, lower aggression). We measured plasma testosterone and counted cells expressing androgen receptor-like immunoreactivity to the affinity-purified polyclonal AR antibody, PG-21, in three brain regions of breeding season adults. Male S. undulatus had the highest mean plasma testosterone and differed significantly from conspecific females. In contrast, there was no sex difference in plasma testosterone concentrations in S. virgatus. Male S. undulatus also had the highest mean number of AR-positive cells in the preoptic area: the sexes differed in S. undulatus but not in S. virgatus, and females of the two species did not differ. In the ventral medial hypothalamus, S. undulatus males had higher mean AR cell counts compared to females, but again there was no sex difference in S. virgatus. In the habenula, a control brain region, the sexes did not differ, and although the sex by species interaction significant was not significant, there was a trend (p=0.050) for S. virgatus to have higher mean AR cell counts than S. undulatus. Thus hypothalamic AR cell counts paralleled sex and species differences in aggression, as did mean plasma testosterone levels in these breeding-season animals. PMID:22230767

  8. Sex and species differences in plasma testosterone and in counts of androgen receptor-positive cells in key brain regions of Sceloporus lizard species that differ in aggression

    PubMed Central

    Hews, Diana K.; Hara, Erina; Anderson, Maurice C.

    2012-01-01

    We studied neuroendocrine correlates of aggression differences in adults of two Sceloporus lizard species. These species differ in the degree of sex difference in aggressive color signals (belly patches) and in aggression: S. undulatus (males blue, high aggression; females white, low aggression) and S. virgatus (both sexes white, lower aggression). We measured plasma testosterone and counted cells expressing androgen receptor-like immunoreactivity to the affinity-purified polyclonal AR antibody, PG-21, in three brain regions of breeding season adults. Male S. undulatus had the highest mean plasma testosterone and differed significantly from conspecific females. In contrast, there was no sex difference in plasma testosterone concentrations in S. virgatus. Male S. undulatus also had the highest mean number of AR-positive cells in the preoptic area: the sexes differed in S. undulatus but not in S. virgatus, and females of the two species did not differ. In the ventral medial hypothalamus, S. undulatus males had higher mean AR cell counts compared to females, but again there was no sex difference in S. virgatus. In the habenula, a control brain region, the sexes did not differ, and although the sex by species interaction significant was not significant, there was a trend (p = 0.050) for S. virgatus to have higher mean AR cell counts than S. undulatus. Thus hypothalamic AR cell counts paralleled sex and species differences in aggression, as did mean plasma testosterone levels in these breeding-season animals. PMID:22230767

  9. Flagellar Kinematics and Swimming of Algal Cells in Viscoelastic Fluids

    PubMed Central

    Qin, B.; Gopinath, A.; Yang, J.; Gollub, J. P.; Arratia, P. E.

    2015-01-01

    The motility of microorganisms is influenced greatly by their hydrodynamic interactions with the fluidic environment they inhabit. We show by direct experimental observation of the bi-flagellated alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that fluid elasticity and viscosity strongly influence the beating pattern - the gait - and thereby control the propulsion speed. The beating frequency and the wave speed characterizing the cyclical bending are both enhanced by fluid elasticity. Despite these enhancements, the net swimming speed of the alga is hindered for fluids that are sufficiently elastic. The origin of this complex response lies in the interplay between the elasticity-induced changes in the spatial and temporal aspects of the flagellar cycle and the buildup and subsequent relaxation of elastic stresses during the power and recovery strokes. PMID:25778677

  10. Flagellar Kinematics and Swimming of Algal Cells in Viscoelastic Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, B.; Gopinath, A.; Yang, J.; Gollub, J. P.; Arratia, P. E.

    2015-03-01

    The motility of microorganisms is influenced greatly by their hydrodynamic interactions with the fluidic environment they inhabit. We show by direct experimental observation of the bi-flagellated alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that fluid elasticity and viscosity strongly influence the beating pattern - the gait - and thereby control the propulsion speed. The beating frequency and the wave speed characterizing the cyclical bending are both enhanced by fluid elasticity. Despite these enhancements, the net swimming speed of the alga is hindered for fluids that are sufficiently elastic. The origin of this complex response lies in the interplay between the elasticity-induced changes in the spatial and temporal aspects of the flagellar cycle and the buildup and subsequent relaxation of elastic stresses during the power and recovery strokes.

  11. Flagellar kinematics and swimming of algal cells in viscoelastic fluids.

    PubMed

    Qin, B; Gopinath, A; Yang, J; Gollub, J P; Arratia, P E

    2015-01-01

    The motility of microorganisms is influenced greatly by their hydrodynamic interactions with the fluidic environment they inhabit. We show by direct experimental observation of the bi-flagellated alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that fluid elasticity and viscosity strongly influence the beating pattern - the gait - and thereby control the propulsion speed. The beating frequency and the wave speed characterizing the cyclical bending are both enhanced by fluid elasticity. Despite these enhancements, the net swimming speed of the alga is hindered for fluids that are sufficiently elastic. The origin of this complex response lies in the interplay between the elasticity-induced changes in the spatial and temporal aspects of the flagellar cycle and the buildup and subsequent relaxation of elastic stresses during the power and recovery strokes. PMID:25778677

  12. A noninvasive approach to determine viscoelastic properties of an individual adherent cell under fluid flow.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jun; Baik, Andrew D; Lu, X Lucas; Hillman, Elizabeth M C; Zhuang, Zhuo; Dong, Cheng; Guo, X Edward

    2014-04-11

    Mechanical properties of cells play an important role in their interaction with the extracellular matrix as well as the mechanotransduction process. Several in vitro techniques have been developed to determine the mechanical properties of cells, but none of them can measure the viscoelastic properties of an individual adherent cell in fluid flow non-invasively. In this study, techniques of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) finite element method and quasi-3-dimensional (quasi-3D) cell microscopy were innovatively applied to the frequently used flow chamber experiment, where an adherent cell was subjected to fluid flow. A new non-invasive approach, with cells at close to physiological conditions, was established to determine the viscoelastic properties of individual cells. The results showed an instantaneous modulus of osteocytes of 0.49 ± 0.11 kPa, an equilibrium modulus of 0.31 ± 0.044 kPa, and an apparent viscosity coefficient of 4.07 ± 1.23 kPas. This new quantitative approach not only provides an excellent means to measure cell mechanical properties, but also may help to elucidate the mechanotransduction mechanisms for a variety of cells under fluid flow stimulation. PMID:24581798

  13. A Noninvasive Approach to Determine Viscoelastic Properties of an Individual Adherent Cell under Fluid Flow

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jun; Baik, Andrew D.; Lu, X. Lucas; Hillman, Elizabeth M. C.; Zhuang, Zhuo; Dong, Cheng; Guo, X. Edward

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical properties of cells play an important role in their interaction with the extracellular matrix as well as the mechanotransduction process. Several in vitro techniques have been developed to determine the mechanical properties of cells, but none of them can measure the viscoelastic properties of an individual adherent cell in fluid flow non-invasively. In this study, techniques of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) finite element method and quasi-3-dimensional (quasi-3D) cell microscopy were innovatively applied to the frequently used flow chamber experiment, where an adherent cell was subjected to fluid flow. A new non-invasive approach, with cells at close to physiological conditions, was established to determine the viscoelastic properties of individual cells. The results showed an instantaneous modulus of osteocytes of 0.49±0.11 kPa, an equilibrium modulus of 0.31±0.044 kPa, and an apparent viscosity coefficient of 4.07±1.23 kPa·s. This new quantitative approach not only provides an excellent means to measure cell mechanical properties, but also may help to elucidate the mechanotransduction mechanisms for a variety of cells under fluid flow stimulation. PMID:24581798

  14. Optical Detection and Virotherapy of Live Metastatic Tumor Cells in Body Fluids with Vaccinia Strains

    PubMed Central

    Minev, Boris R.; Zimmermann, Martina; Aguilar, Richard J.; Zhang, Qian; Sturm, Julia B.; Fend, Falko; Yu, Yong A.; Cappello, Joseph; Lauer, Ulrich M.; Szalay, Aladar A.

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic tumor cells in body fluids are important targets for treatment, and critical surrogate markers for evaluating cancer prognosis and therapeutic response. Here we report, for the first time, that live metastatic tumor cells in blood samples from mice bearing human tumor xenografts and in blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with cancer were successfully detected using a tumor cell-specific recombinant vaccinia virus (VACV). In contrast to the FDA-approved CellSearch system, VACV detects circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in a cancer biomarker-independent manner, thus, free of any bias related to the use of antibodies, and can be potentially a universal system for detection of live CTCs of any tumor type, not limited to CTCs of epithelial origin. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time that VACV was effective in preventing and reducing circulating tumor cells in mice bearing human tumor xenografts. Importantly, a single intra-peritoneal delivery of VACV resulted in a dramatic decline in the number of tumor cells in the ascitic fluid from a patient with gastric cancer. Taken together, these results suggest VACV to be a useful tool for quantitative detection of live tumor cells in liquid biopsies as well as a potentially effective treatment for reducing or eliminating live tumor cells in body fluids of patients with metastatic disease. PMID:24019862

  15. Circulating hematopoietic stem cell count is a valuable predictor of prematurity complications in preterm newborns

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The frequency of preterm labour has risen over the last few years. Hence, there is growing interest in the identification of markers that may facilitate prediction and prevention of premature birth complications. Here, we studied the association of the number of circulating stem cell populations with the incidence of complications typical of prematurity. Methods The study groups consisted of 90 preterm (23–36 weeks of gestational age) and 52 full-term (37–41 weeks) infants. Non-hematopoietic stem cells (non-HSCs; CD45-lin-CD184+), enriched in very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs), expressing pluripotent (Oct-4, Nanog), early neural (?-III-tubulin), and oligodendrocyte lineage (Olig-1) genes as well as hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs; CD45+lin-CD184+), and circulating stem/progenitor cells (CSPCs; CD133+CD34+; CD133-CD34+) in association with characteristics of prematurity and preterm morbidity were analyzed in cord blood (CB) and peripheral blood (PB) until the sixth week after delivery. Phenotype analysis was performed using flow cytometry methods. Clonogenic assays suitable for detection of human hematopoietic progenitor cells were also applied. The quantitative parameters were compared between groups by the Mann–Whitney test and between time points by the Friedman test. Fisher’s exact test was used for qualitative variables. Results We found that the number of CB non-HSCs/VSELs is inversely associated with the birth weight of preterm infants. More notably, a high number of CB HSCs is strongly associated with a lower risk of prematurity complications including intraventricular hemorrhage, respiratory distress syndrome, infections, and anemia. The number of HSCs remains stable for the first six weeks of postnatal life. Besides, the number of CSPCs in CB is significantly higher in preterm infants than in full-term neonates (p?

  16. Photoacoustic and photothermal detection of circulating tumor cells, bacteria and nanoparticles in cerebrospinal fluid in vivo and ex vivo

    PubMed Central

    Nedosekin, Dmitry A.; Juratli, Mazen A.; Sarimollaoglu, Mustafa; Moore, Christopher L.; Rusch, Nancy J.; Smeltzer, Mark S.; Zharov, Vladimir P.; Galanzha, Ekaterina I.

    2014-01-01

    Circulating cells, proteins, microparticles, and DNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are excellent biomarkers of many diseases, including cancer and infections. However, the sensitivity of existing methods is limited in their ability to detect rare CSF biomarkers at the treatable, early-stage of diseases. Here, we introduce novel CSF tests based on in vivo multicolor photoacoustic flow cytometry (PAFC) and ex vivo photothermal scanning cytometry. In the CSF of tumor-bearing mice, we molecularly detected in vivo circulating tumor cells (CTCs) before the development of breast cancer brain metastasis with 20-times higher sensitivity than with current assays. For the first time, we demonstrated assessing three pathways (i.e., blood, lymphatic, and CSF) of CTC dissemination, tracking nanoparticles in CSF in vivo and their imaging ex vivo. In label-free CSF samples, we counted leukocytes, erythrocytes, melanoma cells, and bacteria and imaged intracellular cytochromes, hemoglobin, melanin, and carotenoids, respectively. Taking into account the safety of PAFC, its translation for use in humans is expected to improve disease diagnosis beyond conventional detection limits. PMID:23681943

  17. Photoacoustic and photothermal detection of circulating tumor cells, bacteria and nanoparticles in cerebrospinal fluid in vivo and ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Nedosekin, Dmitry A; Juratli, Mazen A; Sarimollaoglu, Mustafa; Moore, Christopher L; Rusch, Nancy J; Smeltzer, Mark S; Zharov, Vladimir P; Galanzha, Ekaterina I

    2013-06-01

    Circulating cells, bacteria, proteins, microparticles, and DNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are excellent biomarkers of many diseases, including cancer and infections. However, the sensitivity of existing methods is limited in their ability to detect rare CSF biomarkers at the treatable, early-stage of diseases. Here, we introduce novel CSF tests based on in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry (PAFC) and ex vivo photothermal scanning cytometry. In the CSF of tumor-bearing mice, we molecularly detected in vivo circulating tumor cells (CTCs) before the development of breast cancer brain metastasis with 20-times higher sensitivity than with current assays. For the first time, we demonstrated assessing three pathways (i.e., blood, lymphatic, and CSF) of CTC dissemination, tracking nanoparticles in CSF in vivo and their imaging ex vivo. In label-free CSF samples, we counted leukocytes, erythrocytes, melanoma cells, and bacteria and imaged intracellular cytochromes, hemoglobin, melanin, and carotenoids, respectively. Taking into account the safety of PAFC, its translation for use in humans is expected to improve disease diagnosis beyond conventional detection limits. PMID:23681943

  18. Measurement of radionuclides using ion chromatography and flow-cell scintillation counting with pulse shape discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    DeVol, T.A.; Fjeld, R.A.; Roane, J.E. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Dept. of Environmental Systems Engineering; Leyba, J.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Branton, S.D. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Principal conclusions are: CsI(Tl) provides sufficient pulse shape discrimination for use in the flow-cell detector. However, an improved method of coating is needed to extend the useful life of a detection cell. Of the activation/fission products investigated, only the co-elution of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 63}Ni produced a radiological interference. Tritium (and presumably other non-ionic radioisotopes) can be separated during the loading of the solution onto the pre- concentration column. Natural U (and/or decay products) produced a radiological interference with {sup 90}Sr. This is a potential problem. No potential radiological interferences were observed with {sup 223}Th. Chemical interferences were observed to some degree for all the chemicals tested except for the chloride solutions, NaCl and KCl, and the sulfate solution, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The specific interference effects were decreased detection efficiencies and changes in peak elution times. The NEL`s (non-observable effects loadings) are tentative targets for development of sample processing protocols, which is the next phase of the work.

  19. Clinical usefulness of the hematopoietic progenitor cell counts in predicting the optimal timing of peripheral blood stem cell harvest.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Lyun; Kim, Sung-Bae; Lee, Gyeong-Won; Ryu, Min-Hee; Kim, Eun-Kyeong; Kim, Shin; Kim, Woo-Kun; Lee, Jung-Shin; Park, Keon Uk; Suh, Cheolwon

    2003-01-01

    Although enumeration of CD34+ cells in the peripheral blood (PB) on the day of apheresis predicts the quantity of those cells collected, the flow cytometric techniques used are complex and expensive, and several hours are required to obtain the result in the clinical practice setting. The Sysmex SE-9000 automated haematology analyzer provides an estimate of immature cells, called hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of HPC in predicting the optimal timing of peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) harvest. Studies were performed on 628 aphereses from 160 patients with hematologic or solid malignancies. Spearman's rank statistics was used to assess correlation between HPC, WBC, mononuclear cells (MNC), and CD34+ cells. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn for cutoff value of HPC, and predictive values of the chosen cutoff value of HPC for different target CD34+ cell collections were calculated. The PB HPC had a stronger correlation (rho=0.592, p<0.001) with collected CD34+ cells than did PB WBC and PB MNC. The ROC curve showed that the best cutoff value of HPC was 50 x 10(6)/L for the target CD34+ cells > or =1 x 10(6)/kg with sensitivity of 75%. Positive and negative predictive values of HPC > or =50 x 10(6)/L for CD34+ cells > or =1 x 10(6)/kg were 59.7% and 81.1%, respectively. In the clinical practice setting, applying variable cutoff values of HPC would be a useful tool to predict the optimal timing of PBPC collection. PMID:12589083

  20. Resistance to Fluid Shear Stress Is a Conserved Biophysical Property of Malignant Cells

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    During metastasis, cancer cells enter the circulation in order to gain access to distant tissues, but how this fluid microenvironment influences cancer cell biology is poorly understood. A longstanding view is that circulating cancer cells derived from solid tissues may be susceptible to damage from hemodynamic shear forces, contributing to metastatic inefficiency. Here we report that compared to non-transformed epithelial cells, transformed cells are remarkably resistant to fluid shear stress (FSS) in a microfluidic protocol, exhibiting a biphasic decrease in viability when subjected to a series of millisecond pulses of high FSS. We show that magnitude of FSS resistance is influenced by several oncogenes, is an adaptive and transient response triggered by plasma membrane damage and requires extracellular calcium and actin cytoskeletal dynamics. This novel property of malignant cancer cells may facilitate hematogenous metastasis and indicates, contrary to expectations, that cancer cells are quite resistant to destruction by hemodynamic shear forces. PMID:23226552

  1. Th1 polarization of T cells injected into the cerebrospinal fluid induces brain immunosurveillance.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Yair; Strominger, Itai; Biton, Shva; Nemirovsky, Anna; Baron, Rona; Monsonego, Alon

    2014-01-01

    Although CD4 T cells reside within the cerebrospinal fluid, it is yet unclear whether and how they enter the brain parenchyma and migrate to target specific Ags. We examined the ability of Th1, Th2, and Th17 CD4 T cells injected intracerebroventricularly to migrate from the lateral ventricles into the brain parenchyma in mice. We show that primarily Th1 cells cross the ependymal layer of the ventricle and migrate within the brain parenchyma by stimulating an IFN-?-dependent dialogue with neural cells, which maintains the effector function of the T cells. When injected into a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, amyloid-? (A?)-specific Th1 cells target A? plaques, increase A? uptake, and promote neurogenesis with no evidence of pathogenic autoimmunity or neuronal loss. Overall, we provide a mechanistic insight to the migration of cerebrospinal fluid CD4 T cells into the brain parenchyma and highlight implications on brain immunity and repair. PMID:24307730

  2. Count On

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Count On is an educational mathematics Web site based in the United Kingdom. Mainly intended for elementary school students, Count On offers a variety of online multimedia games and modules that serve as a fun way to practice math concepts or learn new ones. The Explorer section is a good place to start when first visiting the site; it has everything from basic numbers to fractions to mathematical art. The Matrix is a virtual museum of mathematics, where users can learn about historical figures and innovations by exploring each room. The games section has many instructive resources, but it is difficult to see the connection to mathematics for a couple of them.

  3. Genome-Wide Association Study of White Blood Cell Count in 16,388 African Americans: the Continental Origins and Genetic Epidemiology Network (COGENT)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander P. Reiner; Guillaume Lettre; Michael A. Nalls; Santhi K. Ganesh; Rasika Mathias; Melissa A. Austin; Eric Dean; Sampath Arepalli; Angela Britton; Zhao Chen; David Couper; J. David Curb; Charles B. Eaton; Myriam Fornage; Struan F. A. Grant; Tamara B. Harris; Dena Hernandez; Naoyuki Kamatini; Brendan J. Keating; Michiaki Kubo; Andrea LaCroix; Leslie A. Lange; Simin Liu; Kurt Lohman; Yan Meng; Emile R. Mohler; Solomon Musani; Yusuke Nakamura; Christopher J. ODonnell; Yukinori Okada; Cameron D. Palmer; George J. Papanicolaou; Kushang V. Patel; Andrew B. Singleton; Atsushi Takahashi; Hua Tang; Herman A. Taylor; Kent Taylor; Cynthia Thomson; Lisa R. Yanek; Lingyao Yang; Elad Ziv; Alan B. Zonderman; Aaron R. Folsom; Michele K. Evans; Yongmei Liu; Diane M. Becker; Beverly M. Snively; James G. Wilson

    2011-01-01

    Total white blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil counts are lower among individuals of African descent due to the common African-derived “null” variant of the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC) gene. Additional common genetic polymorphisms were recently associated with total WBC and WBC sub-type levels in European and Japanese populations. No additional loci that account for WBC variability have been

  4. Increases in platelet and red cell counts, blood viscosity, and arterial pressure during mild surface cooling: factors in mortality from coronary and cerebral thrombosis in winter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W R Keatinge; S R Coleshaw; F Cotter; M Mattock; M Murphy; R Chelliah

    1984-01-01

    Six hours of mild surface cooling in moving air at 24 degrees C with little fall in core temperature (0.4 degree C) increased the packed cell volume by 7% and increased the platelet count and usually the mean platelet volume to produce a 15% increase in the fraction of plasma volume occupied by platelets. Little of these increases occurred in

  5. Fluid Shear Stress Stimulates Phosphorylation of Akt in Human Endothelial Cells Involvement in Suppression of Apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefanie Dimmeler; Birgit Assmus; Corinna Hermann; Judith Haendeler; Andreas M. Zeiher

    Fluid shear stress alters the morphology and function of the endothelium by activating several kinases. Furthermore, shear stress potently inhibits apoptosis of endothelial cells. Since activation of Akt kinase has been shown to prevent cell death, we investigated the effects of shear stress on Akt phosphorylation. To test the hypothesis that shear stress interacts with the Akt kinase pathway, human

  6. Regulation of bronchoalveolar lavage fluids cell function by the immunomodulatory agents from Cordyceps sinensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuh-Chi Kuo; Wei-Jern Tsai; Jir-Yenn Wang; Shi-Chung Chang; Ching-Yuang Lin; Ming-Shi Shiao

    2001-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) is one of the well known fungi used in traditional Chinese medicine for treatment asthma and bronchial and lung inflammation. In this study, effects of C. sinensis methanolic extracts on bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) cells proliferation, inflammatory cytokines production, and genes expression were evaluated. The proliferative response of BALF cells to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was determined by

  7. Insulin and secretagogues differentially regulate fluid-phase pinocytosis in insulin-secreting beta-cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, G; Howland, J; Rothenberg, P L

    1996-09-01

    The physiological role of the beta-cell insulin receptor is unknown. To evaluate a candidate function, the insulin regulation of fluid-phase pinocytosis was investigated in a clonal insulinoma cell line (beta TC6-F7) and, for comparison, also in Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with the human insulin receptor (CHO-T cells). In CHO-T cells, the net rate of fluid-phase pinocytosis was rapidly increased 3-4-fold over the basal rate by 100 nM insulin, with half-maximal stimulation at 2 nM insulin, as assayed by cellular uptake of horseradish peroxidase from the medium. Wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol (PI)-3-kinase, blocked insulin-stimulated pinocytosis with an IC50 of 7.5 nM without affecting the basal rate of pinocytosis. In insulin-secreting beta TC6-F7 cells, the secretagogues glucose and carbachol (at maximally effective concentrations of 15 mM and 0.5 mM respectively) augmented fluid-phase pinocytosis 1.65-fold over the basal rate. Wortmannin also inhibited secretagogue-stimulated pinocytosis in these beta-cells with an IC50 of 7 nM but did not affect the basal rate of pinocytosis measured in the absence of secretagogues. Wortmannin did not influence either basal or secretagogue-induced insulin secretion. Although these beta TC6-F7 cells have cell-surface insulin receptors, adding exogenous insulin or insulin-like growth factor 1 did not affect their rate of fluid-phase pinocytosis, either in the absence or presence of secretagogues. From these observations, we conclude that: (1) in both insulin-secreting beta-cells and in conventional, insulin-responsive CHO-T cells, a common, wortmannin-sensitive reaction, which probably involves PI-3-kinase, regulates fluid-phase pinocytosis; (2) the insulin-receptor signal transduction pathway is dissociated from the regulation of fluid-phase pinocytosis in the insulin-secreting beta-cell line we studied; and (3) the enhancement of fluid-phase pinocytosis associated with secretagogue-induced insulin release in beta TC6-F7 cells is not attributable to autocrine activation of beta-cell surface insulin receptors. PMID:8809056

  8. Fluid biopsy for circulating tumor cell identification in patients with early-and late-stage non-small cell lung cancer: a glimpse into lung cancer biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, Marco; Bazhenova, Lyudmila; Boshuizen, Rogier; Kolatkar, Anand; Honnatti, Meghana; Cho, Edward H.; Marrinucci, Dena; Sandhu, Ajay; Perricone, Anthony; Thistlethwaite, Patricia; Bethel, Kelly; Nieva, Jorge; van den Heuvel, Michel; Kuhn, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Circulating tumor cell (CTC) counts are an established prognostic marker in metastatic prostate, breast and colorectal cancer, and recent data suggest a similar role in late stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, due to sensitivity constraints in current enrichment-based CTC detection technologies, there are few published data about CTC prevalence rates and morphologic heterogeneity in early-stage NSCLC, or the correlation of CTCs with disease progression and their usability for clinical staging. We investigated CTC counts, morphology and aggregation in early stage, locally advanced and metastatic NSCLC patients by using a fluid-phase biopsy approach that identifies CTCs without relying on surface-receptor-based enrichment and presents them in sufficiently high definition (HD) to satisfy diagnostic pathology image quality requirements. HD-CTCs were analyzed in blood samples from 78 chemotherapy-naïve NSCLC patients. 73% of the total population had a positive HD-CTC count (>0 CTC in 1 mL of blood) with a median of 4.4 HD-CTCs mL-1 (range 0-515.6) and a mean of 44.7 (±95.2) HD-CTCs mL-1. No significant difference in the medians of HD-CTC counts was detected between stage IV (n = 31, range 0-178.2), stage III (n = 34, range 0-515.6) and stages I/II (n = 13, range 0-442.3). Furthermore, HD-CTCs exhibited a uniformity in terms of molecular and physical characteristics such as fluorescent cytokeratin intensity, nuclear size, frequency of apoptosis and aggregate formation across the spectrum of staging. Our results demonstrate that despite stringent morphologic inclusion criteria for the definition of HD-CTCs, the HD-CTC assay shows high sensitivity in the detection and characterization of both early- and late-stage lung cancer CTCs. Extensive studies are warranted to investigate the prognostic value of CTC profiling in early-stage lung cancer. This finding has implications for the design of extensive studies examining screening, therapy and surveillance in lung cancer patients.

  9. Somatic Cells Count and Its Genetic Association with Milk Yield in Dairy Cattle Raised under Thai Tropical Environmental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Jattawa, D.; Koonawootrittriron, S.; Elzo, M. A.; Suwanasopee, T.

    2012-01-01

    Somatic cells count (SCC), milk yield (MY) and pedigree information of 2,791 first lactation cows that calved between 1990 and 2010 on 259 Thai farms were used to estimate genetic parameters and trends for SCC and its genetic association with MY. The SCC were log-transformed (lnSCC) to make them normally distributed. An average information-restricted maximum likelihood procedure was used to estimate variance components. A bivariate animal model that considered herd-yr-season, calving age, and regression additive genetic group as fixed effects, and animal and residual as random effects was used for genetic evaluation. Heritability estimates were 0.12 (SE = 0.19) for lnSCC, and 0.31 (SE = 0.06) for MY. The genetic correlation estimate between lnSCC and MY was 0.26 (SE = 0.59). Mean yearly estimated breeding values during the last 20 years increased for SCC (49.02 cells/ml/yr, SE = 26.81 cells/ml/yr; p = 0.08), but not for MY (0.37 kg/yr, SE = 0.87 kg/yr; p = 0.68). Sire average breeding values for SCC and MY were higher than those of cows and dams (p<0.01). Heritability estimates for lnSCC and MY and their low but positive genetic correlation suggested that selection for low SCC may be feasible in this population as it is in other populations of dairy cows. Thus, selection for high MY and low SCC should be encouraged in Thai dairy improvement programs to increase profitability by improving both cow health and milk yield. PMID:25049683

  10. Herd-level and territorial-level factors influencing average herd somatic cell count in France in 2005 and 2006.

    PubMed

    Raboisson, Didier; Dervillé, Marie; Herman, Nicolas; Cahuzac, Eric; Sans, Pierre; Allaire, Gilles

    2012-08-01

    Mastitis is a multifactorial disease and the most costly dairy production issue. In spite of extensive literature on udder-health risk factors, effects of metabolic diseases, farmers' competencies and livestock farming system on somatic cells count (SCC) are sparsely described. Herd-level or territorial-level factors affecting monthly composite milk weighted mean cow SCC (CMSCC) were analysed with a linear mixed effect model. The average CMSCC was 266,000 cells/ml. Half of the herds had CMSCC >300,000 cells/ml for 2-6 months a year, and 15% of herds for more than 7 months a year. CMSCC was positively associated with the number of cows, having a beef or fattening herd in addition to the dairy herd, the monthly average days in milk, the yearly age at first calving, the yearly proportion of purchased cows and the yearly culling rate. Moreover, a positive association is reported between CMSCC and the monthly proportion of cows probably with subacute ruminal acidosis (fat percentage minus protein percentage ?0·30%, for Holstein) and negative energy balance (protein to fat ratio ?0·66, for Holstein), the yearly average calving interval, having at least one dead cow and the mean monthly temperature. The association was negative for a predominant breed other than Holstein, the monthly milk production, the yearly dry-off period length, the monthly first calving cow proportion, having an autumn calving peak, being a Good Breeding Practices member, the monthly number of days with rain, the altitude and the territorial cattle density. CMSCC varied widely among the 11 dairy production areas. In conclusion, this study showed the average CMSCC for the French dairy cows, compared with international results. Moreover, it quantified the contribution of several factors to CMSCC, in particular metabolic diseases and the farm environment. PMID:22687283

  11. Differences in Baseline Lymphocyte Counts and Autoreactivity Are Associated With Differences in Outcome of Islet Cell Transplantation in Type 1 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hilbrands, Robert; Huurman, Volkert A.L.; Gillard, Pieter; Velthuis, Jurjen H.L.; De Waele, Marc; Mathieu, Chantal; Kaufman, Leonard; Pipeleers-Marichal, Miriam; Ling, Zhidong; Movahedi, Babak; Jacobs-Tulleneers-Thevissen, Daniel; Monbaliu, Diethard; Ysebaert, Dirk; Gorus, Frans K.; Roep, Bart O.; Pipeleers, Daniel G.; Keymeulen, Bart

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The metabolic outcome of islet cell transplants in type 1 diabetic patients is variable. This retrospective analysis examines whether differences in recipient characteristics at the time of transplantation are correlated with inadequate graft function. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Thirty nonuremic C-peptide–negative type 1 diabetic patients had received an intraportal islet cell graft of comparable size under an ATG-tacrolimus–mycophenolate mofetil regimen. Baseline patient characteristics were compared with outcome parameters during the first 6 posttransplant months (i.e., plasma C-peptide, glycemic variability, and gain of insulin independence). Correlations in univariate analysis were further examined in a multivariate model. RESULTS Patients that did not become insulin independent exhibited significantly higher counts of B-cells as well as a T-cell autoreactivity against insulinoma-associated protein 2 (IA2) and/or GAD. In one of them, a liver biopsy during posttransplant year 2 showed B-cell accumulations near insulin-positive ?-cell aggregates. Higher baseline total lymphocytes and T-cell autoreactivity were also correlated with lower plasma C-peptide levels and higher glycemic variability. CONCLUSIONS Higher total and B-cell counts and presence of T-cell autoreactivity at baseline are independently associated with lower graft function in type 1 diabetic patients receiving intraportal islet cells under ATG-tacrolimus–mycophenolate mofetil therapy. Prospective studies are needed to assess whether control of these characteristics can help increase the function of islet cell grafts during the first year posttransplantation. PMID:19602536

  12. Counting Coins

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    K12, Inc.

    2011-03-23

    In this iOS app students practice counting U.S. coins by matching the value, making the total, telling how much, and creating their own values. Students drag coins onto a digital mat or enter values with a keypad to complete the tasks, and then receive feedback.

  13. Counting Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

  14. Biodiversity Count

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Suzanne Savanick, Science Education Resource Center, Carleton College, ssavanic@carleton.edu

    In this class exercise, students count the number of species they can find in a five minute block of time in both an urban lawn and natural, remnant forest area. The students are introduced to the concept of low and high biodiversity areas and engage in a discussion about biodiversity loss.

  15. Fluid flow regulates e-selectin protein levels in human endothelial cells by inhibiting translation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry W. Kraiss; Neal M. Alto; Dan A. Dixon; Thomas M. McIntyre; Andrew S. Weyrich; Guy A. Zimmerman

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism with which fluid flow inhibits endothelial E-selectin expression. Methods: Cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells were stimulated with inflammatory agonists (tumor necrosis factor-? [TNF-?], interleukin-1?, oncostatin M, or phorbol ester) in the presence or absence of fluid flow (peak shear stress, ?12 dynes\\/cm2) imposed with an orbital shaker. E-selectin

  16. Osmotic induction of fluid-phase endocytosis in onion epidermal cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. Oparka; D. A. M. Prior; N. Harris

    1990-01-01

    A transient plasmolysis\\/deplasmolysis (plasmolytic cycle) of onion epidermal cells has been shown to induce the formation\\u000a of fluid-phase endocytic vesicles. Plasmolysis in the presence of the membrane-impermeant fluorescent probes Lucifer Yellow\\u000a CH (LYCH) and Cascade Blue hydrazide resulted in the uptake of these probes by fluid-phase endocytosis. Following deplasmolysis,\\u000a many of the dye-containing vesicles left their parietal positions within the

  17. Automated Static Culture System Cell Module Mixing Protocol and Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleis, Stanley J.; Truong, Tuan; Goodwin, Thomas J,

    2004-01-01

    This report is a documentation of a fluid dynamic analysis of the proposed Automated Static Culture System (ASCS) cell module mixing protocol. The report consists of a review of some basic fluid dynamics principles appropriate for the mixing of a patch of high oxygen content media into the surrounding media which is initially depleted of oxygen, followed by a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study of this process for the proposed protocol over a range of the governing parameters. The time histories of oxygen concentration distributions and mechanical shear levels generated are used to characterize the mixing process for different parameter values.

  18. Cerebrospinal fluid proteins and cells in normal-pressure hydrocephalus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Wikkelsø; C. Blomstrand

    1982-01-01

    Summary  A total of 21 patients with normal-pressure hydrocephalus were examined. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was collected before and\\u000a after operation with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. A slight plasma-like protein pattern indicating a blood-brain barrier (BBB)\\u000a dysfunction was seen in 38% of the patients before operation. No characteristic changes could be found in the “CSF-specific”\\u000a protein fraction. After the shunt operation 65% of

  19. High-pressure cell for neutron reflectometry of supercritical and subcritical fluids at solid interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmichael, Justin R.; Rother, Gernot; Browning, James F.; Ankner, John F.; Banuelos, Jose L.; Anovitz, Lawrence M.; Wesolowski, David J.; Cole, David R.

    2012-04-01

    A new high-pressure cell design for use in neutron reflectometry (NR) for pressures up to 50 MPa and a temperature range of 300-473 K is described. The cell design guides the neutron beam through the working crystal without passing through additional windows or the bulk fluid, which provides for a high neutron transmission, low scattering background, and low beam distortion. The o-ring seal is suitable for a wide range of subcritical and supercritical fluids and ensures high chemical and pressure stability. Wafers with a diameter of 5.08 cm (2 in.) and 5 mm or 10 mm thickness can be used with the cells, depending on the required pressure and momentum transfer range. The fluid volume in the sample cell is very small at about 0.1 ml, which minimizes scattering background and stored energy. The cell design and pressure setup for measurements with supercritical fluids are described. NR data are shown for silicon/silicon oxide and quartz wafers measured against air and subsequently within the high-pressure cell to demonstrate the neutron characteristics of the high-pressure cell. Neutron reflectivity data for supercritical CO2 in contact with quartz and Si/SiO2 wafers are also shown.

  20. Interstitial Fluid Flow: The Mechanical Environment of Cells and Foundation of Meridians

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Wei; Ding, Guanghong

    2012-01-01

    Using information from the deep dissection, microobservation, and measurement of acupoints in the upper and lower limbs of the human body, we developed a three-dimensional porous medium model to simulate the flow field using FLUENT software and to study the shear stress on the surface of interstitial cells (mast cells) caused by interstitial fluid flow. The numerical simulation results show the following: (i) the parallel nature of capillaries will lead to directional interstitial fluid flow, which may explain the long interstitial tissue channels or meridians observed in some experiments; (ii) when the distribution of capillaries is staggered, increases in the velocity alternate, and the velocity tends to be uniform, which is beneficial for substance exchange; (iii) interstitial fluid flow induces a shear stress, with magnitude of several Pa, on interstitial cell membranes, which will activate cells and lead to a biological response; (iv) capillary and interstitial parameters, such as capillary density, blood pressure, capillary permeability, interstitial pressure, and interstitial porosity, affect the shear stress on cell surfaces. The numerical simulation results suggest that in vivo interstitial fluid flow constitutes the mechanical environment of cells and plays a key role in guiding cell activities, which may explain the meridian phenomena and the acupuncture effects observed in experiments. PMID:23365601

  1. Effect of estrus synchronization on daily somatic cell count variation in goats according to lactation number and udder health status.

    PubMed

    Mehdid, A; Díaz, J R; Martí, A; Vidal, G; Peris, C

    2013-07-01

    Two repeated experiments were carried out in 2 different years to study the effect of estrus on somatic cell count (SCC) in dairy goats. In the first year, 36 Murciano-Granadina goats were used [12 primiparous and 24 multiparous; 22 healthy and 14 with an intramammary infection (IMI)] and, after a 6-d pre-experimental period, were divided into 2 groups according to lactation number, udder health status, SCC, and milk production. One group was kept as a control, whereas the other received an estrus synchronization hormonal treatment lasting 11d. At 24, 48, and 72h after cessation of the hormone treatment, goats were placed in contact with a buck to confirm that they were in estrus. For 32 consecutive days (6 pre-experimental, 11 in hormone treatment, and 15 post-treatment) the SCC per gland and udder were monitored in all animals. In the second year, we repeated the same experimental design using a total of 38 Murciano-Granadina breed goats (12 primiparous and 26 multiparous; 26 healthy and 12 with IMI). Throughout this experiment, milk yield and composition were also recorded daily for each goat. Upon termination of the hormonal treatment, the SCC in udder milk increased significantly in the treatment group compared with the control group over 3 consecutive days. This increase was observed for year (1 and 2), parity (primiparous and multiparous), and udder health status (healthy and IMI). The log10 SCC (cells/mL) increased from 5.5±0.09 before estrus to 6.04±0.09 during treatment; therefore, the geometric mean of the SCC increased 3.5 times during treatment. The maximum values obtained in healthy glands of primiparous goats (geometric mean=0.37 million cells/mL) were lower than in healthy glands (1.1 million cells/mL) or infected glands (1.7 million cells/mL) of multiparous goats. The increase in SCC observed during estrus (200% increase in geometric means) could not be explained by the changes in milk production, which only fell by 13%. During estrus, the percentage of protein and dry matter in the milk also increased significantly. We concluded that it is necessary to consider the presence of estrus to correctly interpret milk SCC, as an indirect method for detecting IMI or as a commercial milk quality parameter. PMID:23664342

  2. Dunaliella Cells in Fluid Inclusions in Halite: Significance for Long-term Survival of Prokaryotes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian A. Schubert; Michael N. Timofeeff; Tim K. Lowenstein; Jürgen E. W. Polle

    2010-01-01

    A 90-m-long (100,000 year old) salt core from Death Valley, California, contains cells of the algal genus Dunaliella co-trapped with prokaryote cells in fluid inclusions in halite. It is hypothesized that Dunaliella cells provided glycerol, the carbon source needed by halophilic Archaea for survival over periods of tens of thousands of years. Support for this hypothesis includes: observations that intracellular

  3. Clinical Outcome of HIV Viraemic Controllers and Noncontrollers with Normal CD4 Counts Is Exclusively Determined by Antigen-Specific CD8+ T-Cell-Mediated HIV Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Tansiri, Yada; Rowland-Jones, Sarah L.; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Hansasuta, Pokrath

    2015-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study we evaluated T-cell responses using several assays to determine immune correlates of HIV control that distinguish untreated viraemic controllers (VC) from noncontrollers (NC) with similar CD4 counts. Samples were taken from 65 ART-naïve chronically HIV-infected VC and NC from Thailand with matching CD4 counts in the normal range (>450 cells/?l). We determined HIVp24-specific T-cell responses using standard Interferon-gamma (IFN?) ELISpot assays, and compared the functional quality of HIVp24-specific CD8+ T-cell responses using polychromatic flow cytometry. Finally, in vitro HIV suppression assays were performed to evaluate directly the activity of CD8+ T cells in HIV control. Autologous CD4+ T cells were infected with primary patient-derived HIV isolates and the HIV suppressive activity of CD8+ T cells was determined after co-culture, measuring production of HIVp24 Ag by ELISA. The HIVp24-specific T-cell responses of VC and NC could not completely be differentiated through measurement of IFN?-producing cells using ELISpot assays, nor by the absolute cell numbers of polyfunctional HIVp24-specific CD8+ T cells. However, in vitro HIV suppression assays showed clear differences between VC and NC. HIV suppressive activity, mediated by either ex vivo unstimulated CD8+ T cells or HIVp24-specific T-cell lines, was significantly greater using cells from VC than NC cells. Additionally, we were able to demonstrate a significant correlation between the level of HIV suppressive activity mediated by ex vivo unstimulated CD8+ T cells and plasma viral load (pVL) (Spearman r = -0.7345, p = 0.0003). This study provides evidence that in vitro HIV suppression assays are the most informative in the functional evaluation of CD8+ T-cell responses and can distinguish between VC and NC. PMID:25764310

  4. Changes in Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate, White Blood Cell Count, Liver Enzymes, and Magnesium after Gastric Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Hans-Erik; Haenni, Arvo; Zethelius, Björn

    2011-01-01

    Background. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) is an established method for treatment of obesity, a condition of chronic inflammation with liver steatosis, characterised by increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), white blood cell count (WBC), liver enzymes, and decreased magnesium (Mg). We investigated alterations, if any, in ESR, WBC, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and Mg after RYGBP. Methods. 21 morbidly obese nondiabetic patients who underwent RYGBP surgery were evaluated preoperatively (baseline), then 1 year (1st followup) and 3.5 years (2nd followup) after RYGBP and compared to an untreated control group. Results. Body mass index, ESR, WBC, ALT, and GGT were all significantly reduced at 1 year in the RYGBP group (30%, 35%, 20%, 45%, and 57%, resp.) while Mg increased by 6%, compared to control group (P = 0.001?0.009). Conclusions. Obese patients treated by RYGBP show sustained reductions in ESR, WBC, ALT, and GGT possibly due to reduced liver steatosis and increased Mg. PMID:22235366

  5. Effect of storage temperature on prokaryotic cell counts and community composition analysis from fixed and filtered seawater samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beardsley, Christine; Moss, Shaun M.; Azam, Farooq

    2008-06-01

    Marine, pelagic prokaryotes commonly are visualized and enumerated by epifluorescence microscopy after staining with fluorescent, DNA-binding dyes and sample preparation and storage has a major influence on obtaining reliable estimates. However, sampling often takes place in remote locations and the recommended continuous sample storage at -20°C until further sample evaluation is often logistically challenging or infeasible. We investigated the effect of storage temperature on fixed and filtered seawater samples for subsequent enumeration of total prokaryotic cells and community composition analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Prokaryotic abundance in surface seawater was not significantly different after 99 days when filters were stored either at room temperature (RT) or at -20°C. Furthermore, there was no loss in detection rates of phylotypes by FISH from filters stored at RT or -20°C for 28-30 days. We conclude that fixed and filtered seawater samples intended for total prokaryote counts or for FISH may be maintained long-term at room temperature, and this should logistically facilitate diverse studies of prokaryote ecology, biogeography, and the occurrence of human and fish/shellfish pathogens.

  6. Immune regulatory properties of CD117(pos) amniotic fluid stem cells vary according to gestational age.

    PubMed

    Di Trapani, Mariano; Bassi, Giulio; Fontana, Emanuela; Giacomello, Luca; Pozzobon, Michela; Guillot, Pascale V; De Coppi, Paolo; Krampera, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Amniotic Fluid Stem (AFS) cells are broadly multipotent fetal stem cells derived from the positive selection and ex vivo expansion of amniotic fluid CD117/c-kit(pos) cells. Considering the differentiation potential in vitro toward cell lineages belonging to the three germ layers, AFS cells have raised great interest as a new therapeutic tool, but their immune properties still need to be assessed. We analyzed the in vitro immunological properties of AFS cells from different gestational age in coculture with T, B, and natural killer (NK) cells. Nonactivated (resting) first trimester-AFS cells showed lower expression of HLA class-I molecules and NK-activating ligands than second and third trimester-AFS cells, whose features were associated with lower sensitivity to NK cell-mediated lysis. Nevertheless, inflammatory priming with interferon gamma (IFN-?) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) enhanced resistance of all AFS cell types to NK cytotoxicity. AFS cells modulated lymphocyte proliferation in a different manner according to gestational age: first trimester-AFS cells significantly inhibited T and NK cell proliferation, while second and third trimester-AFS cells were less efficient. In addition, only inflammatory-primed second trimester-AFS cells could suppress B cell proliferation, which was not affected by the first and third trimester-AFS cells. Indolamine 2,3 dioxygenase pathway was significantly involved only in T cell suppression mediated by second and third trimester-AFS cells. Overall, this study shows a number of significant quantitative differences among AFS cells of different gestational age that have to be considered in view of their clinical application. PMID:25072397

  7. Sperm counts and serum follicle-stimulating hormone levels before and after radiotherapy and chemotherapy in men with testicular germ cell cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Berthelsen, J.G.

    1984-02-01

    Sperm counts were low (median, 15 X 10(6) per ejaculate) and serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were moderately elevated (median, 31 IU/l) after unilateral orchiectomy and immediately before radiotherapy and chemotherapy in 34 patients with seminomas and 20 patients with nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. The scattered radiation (0.2 to 1.3 Gray (Gy)) reaching the remaining testicle during radiotherapy caused azoospermia in more than two thirds of the patients. A median of 540 days elapsed after the end of treatment before spermatozoa were again found in semen samples, while a median of 1250 days passed before the pretreatment sperm count was reached. One to 5 years after treatment, sperm counts were still low (median, 6 X 10(6) per ejaculate) and serum FSH was elevated (median, 61 IU/l). The adjuvant chemotherapy given to the 20 patients with nonseminomatous tumors did not appear to affect restitution appreciably.

  8. C-reactive protein and white blood cell count as triage test between urgent and nonurgent conditions in 2961 patients with acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Gans, Sarah L; Atema, Jasper J; Stoker, Jaap; Toorenvliet, Boudewijn R; Laurell, Helena; Boermeester, Marja A

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to assess the diagnostic accuracy of C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) count to discriminate between urgent and nonurgent conditions in patients with acute abdominal pain at the emergency department, thereby guiding the selection of patients for immediate diagnostic imaging.Data from 3 large published prospective cohort studies of patients with acute abdominal pain were combined in an individual patient data meta-analysis. CRP levels and WBC counts were compared between patients with urgent and nonurgent final diagnoses. Parameters of diagnostic accuracy were calculated for clinically applicable cutoff values of CRP levels and WBC count, and for combinations.A total of 2961 patients were included of which 1352 patients (45.6%) had an urgent final diagnosis. The median WBC count and CRP levels were significantly higher in the urgent group than in the nonurgent group (12.8?×10/L; interquartile range [IQR] 9.9-16) versus (9.3?×10/L; IQR 7.2-12.1) and (46?mg/L; IQR 12-100 versus 10?mg/L; IQR 7-26) (P?50?mg/L and WBC count >15?×10/L were combined; however, 85.3% of urgent cases was missed.A high CRP level (>50?mg/L) combined with a high WBC count (>15?×10/L) leads to the highest PPV. However, this applies only to a small subgroup of patients (8.7%). Overall, CRP levels and WBC count are insufficient markers to be used as a triage test in the selection for diagnostic imaging, even with a longer duration of complaints (>48?hours). PMID:25738473

  9. A Novel Marker for Screening Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria Using Routine Complete Blood Count and Cell Population Data

    PubMed Central

    Kahng, Jimin; Kim, Yonggoo; Kim, Jung Ok; Koh, Kwangsang; Lee, Jong Wook

    2015-01-01

    Background Final diagnosis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) may take years demanding a quick diagnosis measure. We used the facts that PNH cells are damaged in acid, and reagents for measuring reticulocytes in Coulter DxH800 (Beckman Coulter, USA) are weakly acidic and hypotonic, to create a new PNH screening marker. Methods We analyzed 979 complete blood counts (CBC) data from 963 patients including 57 data from 44 PNH patients. Standard criteria for PNH assay for population selection were followed: flow cytometry for CD55 and CD59 on red blood cells (RBCs) to a detection level of 1%; and fluorescent aerolysin, CD24 and CD15 in granulocytes to 0.1%. Twenty-four PNH minor clone-positive samples (minor-PNH+) were taken, in which the clone population was <5% of RBCs and/or granulocytes. Excluding PNH and minor-PNH+ patients, the population was divided into anemia, malignancy, infection, and normal groups. Parameters exhibiting a distinct demarcation between PNH and non-PNH groups were identified, and each parameter cutoff value was sought that includes the maximum [minimum] number of PNH [non-PNH] patients. Results Cutoff values for 5 selected CBC parameters (MRV, RDWR, MSCV, MN-AL2-NRET, and IRF) were determined. Positive rates were: PNH (86.0%), minor-PNH+ (33.3%), others (5.0%), anemia (13.4%), malignancy (5.3%), infection (3.7%), normal (0.0%); within anemia group, aplastic anemia (40.0%), immune hemolytic anemia (11.1%), iron deficiency anemia (1.6%). Sensitivity (86.0%), specificity (95.0%), PPV (52.1%), and NPV (99.1%) were achieved in PNH screening. Conclusion A new PNH screening marker is proposed with 95% specificity and 86% sensitivity. The flag identifies PNH patients, reducing time to final diagnosis by flow cytometry. PMID:25553278

  10. Erythrocyte deformability and white blood cell count are associated with aspirin resistance in high-risk vascular patients.

    PubMed

    Mannini, Lucia; Marcucci, Rossella; Paniccia, Rita; Antonucci, Emilia; Giglioli, Cristina; Valente, Serafina; Gori, Anna Maria; Prisco, Domenico; Gensini, Gian Franco; Abbate, Rosanna

    2006-01-01

    Recently the phenomenon of aspirin resistance has been object of several studies, but no data are available on the possible role of the haemorheologic parameters in affecting platelet function and resistance to antiplatelet agents. Aim of our study was to evaluate platelet function and haemorheology in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), receiving double antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel. The study population included 301 (231M/70F; age: 66 +/- 13 yrs) consecutive adult patients admitted to the Coronary Care Unit of the Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, with diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina. We assessed: whole blood viscosity (WBV) at shear rates of 0.512 s(-1) and 94.5 s(-1), plasma viscosity (PLV) at 94.5 s(-1) shear rate, erythrocyte deformability index (DI) and PFA-100 closure times with ADP (PFA/ADP) and epinephrine (PFA/EPI). We considered any PFA-100-EPI result < 203 sec (95th percentile of control distribution) to be indicative of aspirin resistance. 104/301 patients (34.5%) had PFA/EPI CTs in the reference range (group 1) whereas the remaining had values higher than 203 sec (group 2). WBV at 94.5 sec (-1) s.r. was similar in group 1 and 2 (WBV: 4.43 +/- 0.25 vs 4.45 +/- 0.61 mPa.sec, respectively). PLV and WBV at 0.512 sec (-1) s.r. were slightly higher, but not significantly, in group 1 than in group 2 (PLV: 1.47+/-0.13 vs 1.44 +/- 0.15 mPa.sec; p = 0.08 and WBV: 23.37 +/- 4.6 vs 22.54 +/- 3.90 mPa.sec; p = 0.07). DI was significantly lower in group 1 with respect to group 2 (4.05 +/- 2.93 vs 5.71 +/- 3.30, p < 0.0001). White blood count (WBC) was significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 (11464 +/- 3504 vs 7867 +/- 2162, p < 0.0001). In conclusion, these results demonstrate that in patients with acute coronary syndromes the antiaggregant effect of aspirin is modulated not only by the direct action on platelets, but also by erythrocyte deformability and white blood cell count. PMID:16899924

  11. Characteristics of Human Amniotic Fluid Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Their Tropism to Human Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liru; Wang, Dejun; Zhou, Jun; Cheng, Yan; Liang, Tian; Zhang, Guangmei

    2015-01-01

    The mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from amniotic fluid (AF) have become an attractive stem cells source for cell-based therapy because they can be harvested at low cost and avoid ethical disputes. In human research, stem cells derived from AF gradually became a hot research direction for disease treatment, specifically for their plasticity, their reduced immunogenicity and their tumor tropism regardless of the tumor size, location and source. Our work aimed to obtain and characterize human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSCs) and detect their ovarian cancer tropsim in nude mice model. Ten milliliters of twenty independent amniotic fluid samples were collected from 16-20 week pregnant women who underwent amniocentesis for fetal genetic determination in routine prenatal diagnosis in the first affiliated hospital of Harbin medical university. We successfully isolated the AFMSCs from thirteen of twenty amniotic fluid samples. AFMSCs presented a fibroblastic-like morphology during the culture. Flow cytometry analyses showed that the cells were positive for specific stem cell markers CD73,CD90, CD105, CD166 and HLA-ABC (MHC class I), but negative for CD 45,CD40, CD34, CD14 and HLA-DR (MHC class II). RT-PCR results showed that the AFMSCs expressed stem cell marker OCT4. AFMSCs could differentiate into bone cells, fat cells and chondrocytes under certain conditions. AFMSCs had the high motility to migrate to ovarian cancer site but didn’t have the tumorigenicity. This study enhances the possibility of AFMSCs as drug carrier in human cell-based therapy. Meanwhile, the research emphasis in the future can also put in targeting therapy of ovarian cancer. PMID:25880317

  12. Characteristics of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells and their tropism to human ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Liru; Wang, Dejun; Zhou, Jun; Cheng, Yan; Liang, Tian; Zhang, Guangmei

    2015-01-01

    The mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from amniotic fluid (AF) have become an attractive stem cells source for cell-based therapy because they can be harvested at low cost and avoid ethical disputes. In human research, stem cells derived from AF gradually became a hot research direction for disease treatment, specifically for their plasticity, their reduced immunogenicity and their tumor tropism regardless of the tumor size, location and source. Our work aimed to obtain and characterize human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSCs) and detect their ovarian cancer tropsim in nude mice model. Ten milliliters of twenty independent amniotic fluid samples were collected from 16-20 week pregnant women who underwent amniocentesis for fetal genetic determination in routine prenatal diagnosis in the first affiliated hospital of Harbin medical university. We successfully isolated the AFMSCs from thirteen of twenty amniotic fluid samples. AFMSCs presented a fibroblastic-like morphology during the culture. Flow cytometry analyses showed that the cells were positive for specific stem cell markers CD73,CD90, CD105, CD166 and HLA-ABC (MHC class I), but negative for CD 45,CD40, CD34, CD14 and HLA-DR (MHC class II). RT-PCR results showed that the AFMSCs expressed stem cell marker OCT4. AFMSCs could differentiate into bone cells, fat cells and chondrocytes under certain conditions. AFMSCs had the high motility to migrate to ovarian cancer site but didn't have the tumorigenicity. This study enhances the possibility of AFMSCs as drug carrier in human cell-based therapy. Meanwhile, the research emphasis in the future can also put in targeting therapy of ovarian cancer. PMID:25880317

  13. Counting Money

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    areese

    2008-09-25

    Today you are going to practice counting money. We will be reviewing the penny, nickel, and dime, and quarter. The coin with the lowest value is the penny. Here is a picture of a penny. A penny is worth one cent or $0.01picture of a penny The next coin of the lowest value is the nickel. Here is a picture of a nickel. picture of a nickel A nickel is worth five cents or $0.05 The next coin ...

  14. Tip Velocity of Viscous Fingers in Shear-Thinning Fluids in a Hele-Shaw Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Takehiro; Kimoto, Ryusuke; Mori, Noriyasu

    Viscous fingering in non-Newtonian fluids in a rectangular Hele-Shaw cell was investigated. The cell was filled with a 0.5 or 1.0wt% aqueous solution of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), a shear-thinning fluid. Air was injected into the cell and the growth of viscous fingers was observed. The velocity of finger tip was characterized by the pressure gradient. A modified Darcy law was able to describe the characteristics of the tip velocity that the growth rate of the tip velocity increased with increasing pressure gradient in the CMC solutions. The prediction of tip velocity with the modified Darcy law indicated that an effective pressure gradient near the tip was larger than the average pressure gradient between the finger tip and the cell exit and that the rate of increase depended on the cell gap width.

  15. Flow around cells adhered to a microvessel wall. I. Fluid stresses and forces acting on the cells.

    PubMed

    Sugihara-Seki, M

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the fluid forces acting on cells adhered to a microvessel wall, we numerically studied the flow field around adherent cells and the distribution of the stresses on their surfaces. For simplicity, the cells were modeled as rigid particles attached to a wall of a circular cylindrical tube regularly in the flow direction, in a row or two rows. It was found that not the detailed shape of the model cells but their height from the vessel wall is a key determinant of the fluid forces and torque acting on them. In both arrangements of one row and two rows, the axial spacing between neighboring adherent cells significantly affects the distributions of the stresses on them, which results in drastic variations of the fluid forces with the axial spacing and the relative positions with respect to their neighboring cells. The drag force acting on an adherent cell in the vessel was evaluated to be larger than the value in the 2D chamber flow at the same wall shear stress, mainly due to much larger variations of the pressure distribution on the cell surface in the vessel flow. PMID:11204541

  16. Myocardial infarction induces embryonic reprogramming of epicardial c-kit(+) cells: role of the pericardial fluid.

    PubMed

    Limana, Federica; Bertolami, Chiara; Mangoni, Antonella; Di Carlo, Anna; Avitabile, Daniele; Mocini, David; Iannelli, Pina; De Mori, Roberta; Marchetti, Carlo; Pozzoli, Ombretta; Gentili, Carlo; Zacheo, Antonella; Germani, Antonia; Capogrossi, Maurizio C

    2010-04-01

    Stem cells expressing c-kit have been identified in the adult epicardium. In mice, after myocardial infarction, these cells proliferate, migrate to the injury site and differentiate toward myocardial and vascular phenotype. We hypothesized that, acutely after myocardial infarction, pericardial sac integrity and pericardial fluid (PF) may play a role on epicardial cell gene expression, proliferation and differentiation. Microarray analysis indicated that, in the presence of an intact pericardial sac, myocardial infarction modulated 246 genes in epicardial cells most of which were related to cell proliferation, cytoskeletal organization, wound repair and signal transduction. Interestingly, WT1, Tbx18 and RALDH2, notably involved in epicardial embryonic development, were markedly up-regulated. Importantly, coexpression of stem cell antigen c-kit and WT1 and/or Tbx18 was detected by immunohistochemistry in the mouse epicardium during embryogenesis as well as in adult mouse infarcted heart. Injection of human pericardial fluid from patients with acute myocardial ischemia (PFMI) in the pericardial cavity of non-infarcted mouse hearts, enhanced, epicardial cell proliferation and WT1 expression. Further, PFMI supplementation to hypoxic cultured human epicardial c-kit(+) cells increased WT1 and Tbx18 mRNA expression. Finally, insulin-like growth factor 1, hepatocyte growth factor and high mobility group box 1 protein, previously involved in cardiac c-kit(+) cell proliferation and differentiation, were increased in PFMI compared to the pericardial fluid of non ischemic patients. In conclusion, myocardial infarction reactivates an embryonic program in epicardial c-kit(+) cells; soluble factors released in the pericardial fluids following myocardial necrosis may play a role in this process. PMID:19968998

  17. White Blood Cell Count, C-Reactive Protein and Incident Heart Failure in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Bekwelem, Wobo; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Loehr, Laura R.; Agarwal, Sunil K.; Astor, Brad C.; Guild, Cameron; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Folsom, Aaron R.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE To testthe hypothesis that inflammation measured by white blood cell count (WBC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) is associated positively with incident heart failure (HF). METHODS Using the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, we conducted separate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses for WBC (measured 1987 to 1989) and CRP (measured 1996 to 1998) in relation to subsequent heart failure occurrence. A total of 14,485 and 9,978 individuals were included in the WBC and CRP analyses, respectively. RESULTS There were 1647 participants that developed HF during follow up after WBC assessment and 613 developed HF after CRP assessment. After adjustment for demographic variables and traditional HF risk factors, the hazard ratio (95% CI)for incident HF across quintiles of WBC was 1.0, 1.10 (0.9-1.34), 1.27(1.05-1.53), 1.44(1.19-1.74), and 1.62(1.34-1.96) (p trend <0.001); hazard ratio across quintiles of CRP was 1.0, 1.03 (0.68-1.55), 0.99 (0.66-1.51), 1.40 (0.94-2.09) and 1.70 (1.14-2.53) (p trend 0.002). Granulocytes appeared to drive the relation between WBCs and heart failure [hazard ratios across quintiles: 1.0, 0.93(0.76-1.15), 1.26 (1.04-1.53), 1.67(1.39-2.01) and 2.19 (1.83-2.61) (p trend <0.0001)], while lymphocytes or monocytes were not related. CONCLUSIONS Greater levels of WBC (especially granulocytes) and CRP are associated with increased risk of heart failure in middle-aged adults, independent of traditional risk factors. PMID:21784657

  18. Therapeutic outcomes of transplantation of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells in experimental ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Tajiri, Naoki; Acosta, Sandra; Portillo-Gonzales, Gabriel S.; Aguirre, Daniela; Reyes, Stephanny; Lozano, Diego; Pabon, Mibel; Dela Peña, Ike; Ji, Xunming; Yasuhara, Takao; Date, Isao; Solomita, Marianna A.; Antonucci, Ivana; Stuppia, Liborio; Kaneko, Yuji; Borlongan, Cesar V.

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating preclinical evidence suggests the use of amnion as a source of stem cells for investigations of basic science concepts related to developmental cell biology, but also for stem cells’ therapeutic applications in treating human disorders. We previously reported isolation of viable rat amniotic fluid-derived stem (AFS) cells. Subsequently, we recently reported the therapeutic benefits of intravenous transplantation of AFS cells in a rodent model of ischemic stroke. Parallel lines of investigations have provided safety and efficacy of stem cell therapy for treating stroke and other neurological disorders. This review article highlights the need for investigations of mechanisms underlying AFS cells’ therapeutic benefits and discusses lab-to-clinic translational gating items in an effort to optimize the clinical application of the cell transplantation for stroke. PMID:25165432

  19. Total and differential white blood cell counts, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and cardiovascular risk in non-affective psychoses.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brian J; Kandhal, Prianka; Rapaport, Mark Hyman; Mellor, Andrew; Buckley, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with increased cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Schizophrenia is also associated with immune and inflammatory abnormalities, including aberrant blood levels of lymphocytes, cytokines and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between total and differential white blood cell (WBC) counts, hsCRP, and indices of cardiovascular disease risk in patients with schizophrenia and related non-affective psychoses. 108 inpatients and outpatients age 18-70 with non-affective psychoses and 44 controls participated in this cross-sectional study. Subjects had a fasting blood draw between 8 and 9am for glucose, lipids, total and differential WBC counts, and hsCRP. Vital signs and medical history were obtained. Patients with non-affective psychosis had significantly higher hsCRP levels than controls (p=0.04). In linear regression analyses, lymphocyte and monocyte counts were a significant predictor of the total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio in subjects with non-affective psychosis (p?0.02 for each). In binary logistic regression analyses, total WBC count was a significant predictor of an elevated 10-year estimated risk of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular disease in subjects with non-affective psychosis (p?0.03 for each). Associations between total and differential WBC counts and cardiovascular disease risk indices were stronger in males than females with non-affective psychosis. Our findings provide further evidence that measurement of total and differential WBC counts may be germane to the clinical care of patients with schizophrenia and related disorders, and support an association between inflammation and cardiovascular disease risk in these patients. PMID:25542737

  20. Biodiversity Counts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This extensive collection of activities from the American Museum of Natural History offers middle school students "an exciting and creative context for involving students in the scientific process while introducing them to the rich diversity and beauty of their local ecosystem." Lesson plans, Web-based interactive activities, useful Web links, profiles of AMNH scientists and staff, and other features help students inventory and analyze the plants and arthropods found in their own neighborhoods. All activities address national science standards, and have been "field tested" in schools around the nation. Biodiversity Counts even has students develop their own exhibitions for their findings -- a great way to build science communication skills.

  1. Obstructive renal injury: from fluid mechanics to molecular cell biology

    PubMed Central

    Ucero, Alvaro C; Gonçalves, Sara; Benito-Martin, Alberto; Santamaría, Beatriz; Ramos, Adrian M; Berzal, Sergio; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Egido, Jesus; Ortiz, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Urinary tract obstruction is a frequent cause of renal impairment. The physiopathology of obstructive nephropathy has long been viewed as a mere mechanical problem. However, recent advances in cell and systems biology have disclosed a complex physiopathology involving a high number of molecular mediators of injury that lead to cellular processes of apoptotic cell death, cell injury leading to inflammation and resultant fibrosis. Functional studies in animal models of ureteral obstruction using a variety of techniques that include genetically modified animals have disclosed an important role for the renin-angiotensin system, transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and other mediators of inflammation in this process. In addition, high throughput techniques such as proteomics and transcriptomics have identified potential biomarkers that may guide clinical decision-making. PMID:24198613

  2. Applications of Amniotic Membrane and Fluid in Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Rennie, Kerry; Gruslin, Andrée; Hengstschläger, Markus; Pei, Duanqing; Cai, Jinglei; Nikaido, Toshio; Bani-Yaghoub, Mahmud

    2012-01-01

    The amniotic membrane (AM) and amniotic fluid (AF) have a long history of use in surgical and prenatal diagnostic applications, respectively. In addition, the discovery of cell populations in AM and AF which are widely accessible, nontumorigenic and capable of differentiating into a variety of cell types has stimulated a flurry of research aimed at characterizing the cells and evaluating their potential utility in regenerative medicine. While a major focus of research has been the use of amniotic membrane and fluid in tissue engineering and cell replacement, AM- and AF-derived cells may also have capabilities in protecting and stimulating the repair of injured tissues via paracrine actions, and acting as vectors for biodelivery of exogenous factors to treat injury and diseases. Much progress has been made since the discovery of AM and AF cells with stem cell characteristics nearly a decade ago, but there remain a number of problematic issues stemming from the inherent heterogeneity of these cells as well as inconsistencies in isolation and culturing methods which must be addressed to advance the field towards the development of cell-based therapies. Here, we provide an overview of the recent progress and future perspectives in the use of AM- and AF-derived cells for therapeutic applications. PMID:23093978

  3. A comparison of strain and fluid shear stress in stimulating bone cell responses a computational and experimental study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James G. McGarry; Jenneke Klein-Nulend; Margriet G. Mullender; Patrick J. Prendergast

    2004-01-01

    Bone undergoes continuous remodeling in response to mechanical loading. However, the underlying mechanisms by which bone cells respond to their changing mechanical environment, that is, strain in the load-bearing matrix or fluid flow through the canalicular network, are not well understood. It has been established in vitro that bone cells respond differently to substrate strain and fluid shear stress treatments.

  4. Genetic relationships among mastitis and alternative somatic cell count traits in the first 3 lactations of Swedish Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Urioste, J I; Franzén, J; Windig, J J; Strandberg, E

    2012-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate heritabilities of, and genetic correlations among, clinical mastitis (CM), subclinical mastitis (SCM), and alternative somatic cell count (SCC) traits in the first 3 lactations of Swedish Holstein cows, and to estimate genetic correlations for the alternative traits across lactations. Data from cows having their first calving between 2002 and 2009 were used. The alternative SCC traits were based on information on CM and monthly test-day (TD) records of SCC traits of 178,613, 116,079, and 64,474 lactations in first, second, or third parity, respectively. Sires had an average of 230, 165, or 124 daughters in the data (parities 1, 2, or 3, respectively). Subclinical mastitis was defined as the number of periods with an SCC >150,000 cell/mL and without a treatment for CM. Average TD SCC between 5 and 150 d was used as a reference trait. The alternative SCC traits analyzed were 1) presence of at least 1 TD SCC between 41,000 and 80,000 cell/mL (TD41-80), 2) at least 1 TD SCC >500,000 cells/mL, 3) standard deviation of log SCC over the lactation, 4) number of infection peaks, and 5) average days diseased per peak. The same variables in different parities were treated as distinct traits. The statistical model considered the effects of herd-year, year, month, age at calving, animal, and residual. Heritability estimates were 0.07 to 0.08 for CM, 0.12 to 0.17 for SCM, and 0.14 for SCC150. For the alternative traits, heritability estimates were 0.12 to 0.17 for standard deviation of log SCC, TD SCC >500,000 cells/mL, and average days diseased per peak, and 0.06 to 0.10 for TD41-80 and number of infection peaks. Genetic correlations between CM with SCM were 0.62 to 0.74, and correlations for these traits with the alternative SCC traits were positive and very high (0.67 to 0.82 for CM, and 0.94 to 0.99 for SCM). Trait TD41-80 was the only alternative trait that showed negative, favorable, genetic correlations with CM (-0.22 to -0.50) and SCM (-0.48 to -0.85) because it is associated with healthy cows. Genetic correlations among the alternative traits in all 3 parities were high (0.93 to 0.99, 0.92 to 0.98, and 0.78 to 0.99, respectively). The only exception was TD41-80, which showed moderate to strong negative correlations with the rest of the traits. Genetic correlations of the same trait across parities were in general positive and very high (0.83 to 0.99). In conclusion, these alternative SCC traits could be used in practical breeding programs aiming to improve udder health in dairy cattle. PMID:22612977

  5. Assessment of Carotenoids Recovery through Cell Rupture of Sporidiobolus salmonicolor CBS 2636 Using Compressed Fluids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luciana Monks; Lídia Tiggamann; Marcio A. Mazuti; Vladimir J. Oliveira; Eunice Valduga

    The increasing demand for carotenoids by industries has drawn attention to their bio-production. Since pigments are intracellular,\\u000a extraction steps are then needed after cell cultivation. In this work, different strategies for extraction of carotenoid pigments\\u000a from Sporidiobolus salmonicolor (CBS 2636) were investigated. The cell rupture was carried out using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), two pure compressed fluids,\\u000a supercritical carbon dioxide and

  6. Air pollution exposure affects circulating white blood cell counts in healthy subjects: the role of particle composition, oxidative potential and gaseous pollutants - the RAPTES project.

    PubMed

    Steenhof, Maaike; Janssen, Nicole A H; Strak, Maciej; Hoek, Gerard; Gosens, Ilse; Mudway, Ian S; Kelly, Frank J; Harrison, Roy M; Pieters, Raymond H H; Cassee, Flemming R; Brunekreef, Bert

    2014-02-01

    Studies have linked air pollution exposure to cardiovascular health effects, but it is not clear which components drive these effects. We examined the associations between air pollution exposure and circulating white blood cell (WBC) counts in humans. To investigate independent contributions of particulate matter (PM) characteristics, we exposed 31 healthy volunteers at five locations with high contrast and reduced correlations amongst pollutant components: two traffic sites, an underground train station, a farm and an urban background site. Each volunteer visited at least three sites and was exposed for 5?h with intermittent exercise. Exposure measurements on-site included PM mass and number concentration, oxidative potential (OP), elemental- and organic carbon, metals, O3 and NO2. Total and differential WBC counts were performed on blood collected before and 2 and 18?h post-exposure (PE). Changes in total WBC counts (2 and 18?h PE), number of neutrophils (2?h PE) and monocytes (18?h PE) were positively associated with PM characteristics that were high at the underground site. These time-dependent changes reflect an inflammatory response, but the characteristic driving this effect could not be isolated. Negative associations were observed for NO2 with lymphocytes and eosinophils. These associations were robust and did not change after adjustment for a large suite of PM characteristics, suggesting an independent effect of NO2. We conclude that short-term air pollution exposure at real-world locations can induce changes in WBC counts in healthy subjects. Future studies should indicate if air pollution exposure-induced changes in blood cell counts results in adverse cardiovascular effects in susceptible individuals. PMID:24517839

  7. Variability of Test-Day Milk Production and Composition and Relation of Somatic Cell Counts with Yield and Compositional Changes of Bovine Milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. F. Ng-Kwai-Hang; J. F. Hayes; J. E. Moxley; H. G. Monardes

    1984-01-01

    Between November 1979 and No- vember 1981, 41,783 test-day observa- tions were obtained from 63 Holstein herds in the province of Quebec. Measured were milk yield, percentages of fat, protein, casein, and serum protein, and somatic cell counts that had unadjusted means with standard errors 20.44 + .04 kg, 3.684 + .003%, 3.314 + 002%, 2.694 + .001, .699 -+

  8. Lower Purkinje cell counts in the cerebella of four autistic subjects: initial findings of the UCLA-NSAC Autopsy Research Report.

    PubMed

    Ritvo, E R; Freeman, B J; Scheibel, A B; Duong, T; Robinson, H; Guthrie, D; Ritvo, A

    1986-07-01

    As part of an autopsy research project, the brains of four autistic subjects were examined and compared with those of three comparison subjects without CNS pathology and one with phenytoin toxicity. The cerebellum was selected for initial investigation because pathognomonic symptoms and neurophysiological measures suggest that pathology may exist in the cerebellar-vestibular axis in certain patients. Total Purkinje cell counts were significantly lower in the cerebellar hemisphere and vermis of each autistic subject than in the comparison subjects. PMID:3717426

  9. Fluid Flow through a High Cell Density Fluidized-Bed during Centrifugal Bioreactor Culture

    PubMed Central

    Detzel, Christopher J.; Van Wie, Bernard J.; Ivory, Cornelius F.

    2010-01-01

    An increasing demand for products such as tissues, proteins, and antibodies from mammalian cell suspension cultures is driving interest in increasing production through high-cell density bioreactors. The centrifugal bioreactor (CCBR) retains cells by balancing settling forces with surface drag forces due to medium throughput and is capable of maintaining cell densities above 108 cells/mL. This article builds on a previous study where the fluid mechanics of an empty CCBR were investigated showing fluid flow is nonuniform and dominated by Coriolis forces, raising concerns about nutrient and cell distribution. In this article, we demonstrate that the previously reported Coriolis forces are still present in the CCBR, but masked by the presence of cells. Experimental dye injection observations during culture of 15 ?m hybridoma cells show a continual uniform darkening of the cell bed, indicating the region of the reactor containing cells is well mixed. Simulation results also indicate the cell bed is well mixed during culture of mammalian cells ranging in size from 10 to 20 ?m. However, simulations also allow for a slight concentration gradient to be identified and attributed to Coriolis forces. Experimental results show cell density increases from 0.16 to 0.26 when centrifugal force is doubled by increasing RPM from 650 to 920 at a constant inlet velocity of 6.5 cm/s; an effect also observed in the simulation. Results presented in this article indicate cells maintained in the CCBR behave as a high-density fluidized bed of cells providing a homogeneous environment to ensure optimal growth conditions. PMID:20205172

  10. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor BB-Mediated Normalization of Dermal Interstitial Fluid Pressure After Mast Cell Degranulation Depends on 3 but Not 1 Integrins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Åsa Liden; Ansgar Berg; Torbjørn Nedrebø; Rolf K. Reed; Kristofer Rubin

    2010-01-01

    Interstitial fluid pressure (PIF) is one of the determinants of transcapillary fluid flux and thereby interstitial fluid volume. Cell-mediated control of PIF regulates fluid content in the loose interstitial connective tissues that surround the capillary bed. To maintain a normal PIF in dermis, 1 integrins mediate the tensile strength applied by connective tissue cells on the extracellular matrix. Platelet-derived growth

  11. AIDS and Non-AIDS Morbidity and Mortality Across the Spectrum of CD4 Cell Counts in HIV-Infected Adults Before Starting Antiretroviral Therapy in Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Minga, Albert; Gabillard, Delphine; Ouassa, Timothée; Messou, Eugene; Morris, Brandon; Traore, Moussa; Coulibaly, Ali; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Lewden, Charlotte; Ménan, Hervé; Abo, Yao; Dakoury-Dogbo, Nicole; Toure, Siaka; Seyler, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Background.?In Western Europe, North America, and Australia, large cohort collaborations have been able to estimate the short-term CD4 cell count–specific risk of AIDS or death in untreated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected adults with high CD4 cell counts. In sub–Saharan Africa, these CD4 cell count–specific estimates are scarce. Methods.?From 1996 through 2006, we followed up 2 research cohorts of HIV-infected adults in Côte d’Ivoire. This included follow-up off antiretroviral therapy (ART) across the entire spectrum of CD4 cell counts before the ART era, and only in patients with CD4 cell counts >200?cells/?L once ART became available. Data were censored at ART initiation. We modeled the CD4 cell count decrease using an adjusted linear mixed model. CD4 cell count–specific rates of events were obtained by dividing the number of first events occurring in a given CD4 cell count stratum by the time spent in that stratum. Results.?Eight hundred sixty patients were followed off ART over 2789 person-years (PY). In the ?650, 500–649, 350–499, 200–349, 100–199, 50–99, and 0–49?cells/?L CD4 cell count strata, the rates of AIDS or death were 0.9, 1.7, 3.7, 10.4, 30.9, 60.8, and 99.9 events per 100 PY, respectively. In patients with CD4 cell counts ?200 CD4?cells/?L, the most frequent AIDS-defining disease was tuberculosis (decreasing from 4.0 to 0.6 events per 100 PY for 200–349 and ?650 cells/?L, respectively), and the most frequent HIV non-AIDS severe diseases were visceral bacterial diseases (decreasing from 9.1 to 3.6 events per 100 PY). Conclusions.?Rates of AIDS or death, tuberculosis, and invasive bacterial diseases are substantial in patients with CD4 cell counts ?200 cells/?L. Tuberculosis and bacterial diseases should be the most important outcomes in future trials of early ART in sub–Saharan Africa. PMID:22173233

  12. Atypical manifestation of progressive outer retinal necrosis in AIDS patient with CD4+ T-cell counts more than 100 cells/microL on highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Vichitvejpaisal, Pornpattana; Reeponmahar, Somporn; Tantisiriwat, Woraphot

    2009-06-01

    Typical progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) is an acute ocular infectious disease in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients with extremely low CD4+ T-cell counts. It is a form of the Varicella- zoster virus (VZV) infection. This destructive infection has an extremely rapid course that may lead to blindness in affected eyes within days or weeks. Attempts at its treatment have had limited success. We describe the case of a bilateral PORN in an AIDS patient with an initial CD4+ T-cell count >100 cells/microL that developed after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). A 29-year-old Thai female initially diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in 1998, presented with bilaterally decreased visual acuity after initiating HAART two months earlier. Multiple yellowish spots appeared in the deep retina without evidence of intraocular inflammation or retinal vasculitis. Her CD4+ T-cell count was 127 cells/microL. She was diagnosed as having PORN based on clinical features and positive VZV in the aqueous humor and vitreous by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Despite combined treatment with intravenous acyclovir and intravitreous ganciclovir, the patient's visual acuity worsened with no light-perception in either eye. This case suggests that PORN should be included in the differential diagnosis of reduced visual acuity in AIDS patients initiating HAART with higher CD4+ T-cell counts. PORN may be a manifestation of the immune reconstitution syndrome. PMID:19702067

  13. The effects of HIV-1 subtype and ethnicity on the rate of CD4 cell count decline in patients naive to antiretroviral therapy: a Canadian?European collaborative retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Young, Jim; Dunn, David; Ledergerber, Bruno; Sabin, Caroline; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Dabis, Francois; Harrigan, Richard; Tan, Darrell H.; Walmsley, Sharon; Gill, John; Cooper, Curtis; Scherrer, Alexandra U.; Mocroft, Amanda; Hogg, Robert S.; Smaill, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Background Ethnic differences have the potential to confound associations between HIV-1 subtype and immunologic progression. We compared declines in CD4 cell counts during untreated infection for the most prevalent HIV-1 subtypes, focusing on distinguishing between the effects of viral subtype and ethnicity. Methods We combined data from 4 European and 6 Canadian cohorts, selecting adults in the stable chronic phase of untreated HIV infection. We estimated the change in square root CD4 cell count over time for subtypes and ethnicities using mixed models, adjusting for covariates selected for their potential effect on initial CD4 cell count or its decline. Results Data from 9772 patients were analyzed, contributing 79 175 measurements of CD4 cell count and 24 157 person-years of follow-up. Overall, there were no appreciable differences in CD4 cell count decline for viral subtypes A, CRF01_AE, CRF02_AG, C and G compared with viral subtype B; whereas the decline in CD4 cell count in patients of African ancestry was considerably slower than in patients of other ethnicity. When ethnic groups were studied separately, there was evidence for slower declines in CD4 cell count in viral subtypes C, and possibly A and G, compared with viral subtype B in patients of African ancestry but not among patients of other ethnicities, suggesting an interaction between subtype and ethnicity. Interpretation Ethnicity is a major determinant of CD4 cell count decline; viral subtype differences may have existed but were small compared with the effect of ethnicity and were most apparent in patients of African ancestry. In developing countries, slower CD4 cell count declines among individuals of African descent may translate to a longer asymptomatic phase and increase the opportunity for HIV transmission. PMID:25485259

  14. Fluid Shear Stress Pre-Conditioning Promotes Endothelial Morphogenesis of Embryonic Stem Cells Within Embryoid Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Nsiah, Barbara A.; Ahsan, Tabassum; Griffiths, Sarah; Cooke, Marissa; Nerem, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are capable of differentiating into all mesoderm-derived cell lineages, including endothelial, hematopoietic, and cardiac cell types. Common strategies to direct mesoderm differentiation of ESCs rely on exposing the cells to a series of biochemical and biophysical cues at different stages of differentiation to promote maturation toward specific cell phenotypes. Shear forces that mimic cardiovascular physiological forces can evoke a myriad of responses in somatic and stem cell populations, and have, thus, been studied as a means to direct stem cell differentiation. However, elucidating the effects of shear pre-conditioning on the subsequent vascular differentiation and morphogenesis of ESCs has yet to be examined. In this study, ESC monolayers were subjected to physiological shear (5?dyn/cm2) or static conditions for 2 days on collagen IV-coated substrates before initiating embryoid body (EB) differentiation. Immediately after the pre-conditioning period, shear pre-conditioned and statically cultured ESCs exhibited similar morphologies and largely retained a pluripotent phenotype; however, ESCs exposed to fluid shear expressed increased levels of endothelial marker genes Flk-1 (?3-fold), VE-cadherin (?3-fold), and PECAM (?2-fold), compared with statically cultured ESCs. After 7 days of EB culture, ?70% of EBs formed from shear pre-conditioned ESCs expressed significantly higher levels of endothelial marker genes compared with EBs formed from statically cultured ESCs. Interestingly, unlike EBs formed from statically cultured ESCs, EBs formed from fluid shear stress pre-conditioned ESCs exhibited a centrally localized region of VE-cadherin+ cells that persisted for at least 10 days of differentiation. These results demonstrate that fluid shear stress pre-conditioning not only promotes ESC endothelial gene expression but also subsequently impacts the organization of endothelial cells within EBs. Together, these studies highlight a novel approach to promote in vitro morphogenesis of developmental vasculogenic models and potentially promote pre-vascularization of tissue-engineered constructs derived from pluripotent stem cells. PMID:24138406

  15. Neuronal death and synapse elimination in the olivocerebellar system. II. Cell counts in the inferior olive of adult x-irradiated rats and weaver and reeler mutant mice

    SciTech Connect

    Shojaeian, H.; Delhaye-Bouchaud, N.; Mariani, J.

    1985-02-15

    Cell death in the developing rat inferior olive precedes the regression of the polyneuronal innervation of Purkinje cells by olivary axons (i.e., climbing fibers), suggesting that the involution of the redundant olivocerebellar contacts is caused by a withdrawal of supernumerary axonal collaterals rather than by degeneration of the parent cell. However, a subsequent apparent increase of the olivary population occurs, which could eventually mask a residual presynaptic cell death taking place at the same time. Therefore, cell counts were performed in the inferior olive of adult rodents in which the multiple innervation of Purkinje cells by olivary axons is maintained, with the idea that if cell death plays a role in the regression of supernumerary climbing fibers, the number of olivary cells should be higher in these animals than in their controls. The results show that the size of the cell population in the inferior olive of weaver and reeler mutant mice and rats degranulated by early postnatal x-irradiation does not differ significantly from that of their controls. Similarly, the distribution of the cells in the four main olivary subnuclei is not modified in weaver mice and x-irradiated rats. The present data further support the assumption that the regression of the polyneuronal innervation of Purkinje cells occurs independently of cell death in the presynaptic population.

  16. Amniotic fluid promotes the appearance of neural retinal progenitors and neurons in human RPE cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Davari, Maliheh; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Sanie-Jahromi, Fateme; Ghaderi, Shima; Kanavi, Mozhgan Rezaei; Samiei, Shahram; Akrami, Hassan; Haghighi, Massoud; Javidi-Azad, Fahimeh

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are capable of differentiating into retinal neurons when induced by the appropriate growth factors. Amniotic fluid contains a variety of growth factors that are crucial for the development of a fetus. In this study, the effects of human amniotic fluid (HAF) on primary RPE cell cultures were evaluated. Methods RPE cells were isolated from the globes of postnatal human cadavers. The isolated cells were plated and grown in DMEM/F12 with 10% fetal bovine serum. To confirm the RPE identity of the cultured cells, they were immunocytochemically examined for the presence of the RPE cell-specific marker RPE65. RPE cultures obtained from passages 2–7 were treated with HAF and examined morphologically for 1 month. To determine whether retinal neurons or progenitors developed in the treated cultures, specific markers for bipolar (protein kinase C isomer ?, PKC?), amacrine (cellular retinoic acid–binding protein I, CRABPI), and neural progenitor (NESTIN) cells were sought, and the amount of mRNA was quantified using real-time PCR. Results Treating RPE cells with HAF led to a significant decrease in the number of RPE65-positive cells, while PKC?- and CRABPI-positive cells were detected in the cultures. Compared with the fetal bovine serum–treated cultures, the levels of mRNAs quantitatively increased by 2-, 20- and 22-fold for NESTIN, PKC?, and CRABPI, respectively. The RPE cultures treated with HAF established spheres containing both pigmented and nonpigmented cells, which expressed neural progenitor markers such as NESTIN. Conclusions This study showed that HAF can induce RPE cells to transdifferentiate into retinal neurons and progenitor cells, and that it provides a potential source for cell-based therapies to treat retinal diseases. PMID:24265548

  17. Money Counts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PBS

    2012-01-01

    In this math lesson, learners count and compare amounts of money less than or equal to one dollar. Learners begin by finding all of the possible combinations of coins that can be used to equal a specified amount of money. They then compare two amounts of money and use number sense skills and problem solving strategies to move coins from one group to another so that both groups are equal in value. Learners play the Money Exchange Game as they roll a die with money amounts and try to be the first person to obtain exactly $1.00. Learners must make monetary exchanges in the game such as trading ten pennies for a dime. Finally, learners shop in a puppet supply store where they are given one dollar to buy items to make a paper bag puppet.

  18. A practical device designed to concentrate cells for cytomorphological studies of biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Torres-Guerra, E

    1998-03-01

    In the present work, a device designed for concentrating cells from biological fluids is described. The instrument consists of a tube in which the inner cavity has a conical shape at one of its ends and a small orifice is found at the bottom, while the tube's exterior maintains its cylindrical shape. The tube is placed inside a second tube that ends on a flat surface on which a glass cover slide is placed. The sample to be studied is placed in the inner tube of the assembled device and spun in a regular clinical centrifuge. Cells are collected on the glass slide, fixed and stained for microscopical studies. The device was tested using 23 samples of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with lymphoproliferative diseases. An adequate number of intact cells was recovered for observation, and a precise diagnosis was possible. Cells from three aliquots of each CSF sample were concentrated by this method, and by the more expensive standard commercial cytocentrifuge, with similar results. The device described here provides an easy, efficient and inexpensive method, for the concentration of cells from organic fluids. PMID:9586398

  19. Cell Recovery in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid in Smokers Is Dependent on Cumulative Smoking History

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Reza; Tornling, Göran; Grunewald, Johan; Eklund, Anders; Sköld, C. Magnus

    2012-01-01

    Background Smoking is a risk factor for various lung diseases in which BAL may be used as a part of a clinical investigation. Interpretation of BAL fluid cellularity is however difficult due to high variability, in particular among smokers. In this study we aimed to evaluate the effect of smoking on BAL cellular components in asymptomatic smokers. The effects of smoking cessation, age and gender were also investigated in groups of smokers and exsmokers. Methods We performed a retrospective review of BAL findings, to our knowledge the largest single center investigation, in our department from 1999 to 2009. One hundred thirty two current smokers (48 males and 84 females) and 44 ex-smokers (16 males and 28 females) were included. A group of 295 (132 males and 163 females) never-smokers served as reference. Result The median [5–95 pctl] total number of cells and cell concentration in current smokers were 63.4 [28.6–132.1]×106 and 382.1 [189.7–864.3]×106/L respectively and correlated positively to the cumulative smoking history. Macrophages were the predominant cell type (96.7% [90.4–99.0]) followed by lymphocytes (2% [0.8–7.7]) and neutrophils (0.6% [0–2.9]). The concentration of all inflammatory cells was increased in smokers compared to never smokers and ex-smokers. BAL fluid recovery was negatively correlated with age (p<0.001). Smoking men had a lower BAL fluid recovery than smoking women. Conclusion Smoking has a profound effect on BAL fluid cellularity, which is dependent on smoking history. Our results performed on a large group of current smokers and ex-smokers in a well standardized way, can contribute to better interpretation of BAL fluid cellularity in clinical context. PMID:22479573

  20. Different screening tests and milk somatic cell count for the prevalence of subclinical bovine mastitis in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hoque, Md Nazmul; Das, Ziban Chandra; Talukder, Anup Kumar; Alam, Mohammad Shah; Rahman, Abu Nasar Md Aminoor

    2015-01-01

    Identification of cows with subclinical mastitis (SCM) is an important tool for sustainable dairying and implementing effective mastitis control strategies. A total of 892 quarters milk samples from 228 lactating cows were screened by California mastitis test (CMT), White side test (WST), Surf field mastitis test (SFMT), and somatic cell count (SCC) to study the prevalence of bovine SCM in some selected areas of Bangladesh. Out of 228 cows, 148 (64.9%), 138 (60.5%), 132 (57.9%), and 164 (71.9%) were found positive for SCM by CMT, WST, SFMT, and SCC, respectively. The prevalence of bovine SCM was diagnosed 45.7, 40.2, 36.6, and 29.6% in Chittagong, Sirajgonj, Mymensingh, and Gazipur districts, respectively, based on a combination of all tests. The overall quarter-wise prevalence of SCM was 45.7, 43.5, 41.2, and 55.0% for CMT, WST, SFMT, and SCC. Single quarters and left front quarters were more prone to SCM (P?CMT>WST>SFMT). Thus, CMT was concluded to be the most accurate (r?=?0.782) field diagnostic test after laboratory test like SCC (r?=?0.924). However, the use of any single test may not be reliable in diagnosing SCM, while the result of CMT supported by SCC might be used effectively to pinpoint diagnosis of SCM in dairy animals than alone. PMID:25326717

  1. Inverse Relationship of Serum Hepcidin Levels with CD4 Cell Counts in HIV-Infected Patients Selected from an Indonesian Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wisaksana, Rudi; de Mast, Quirijn; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Jusuf, Hadi; Sudjana, Primal; Indrati, Agnes R.; Sumantri, Rachmat; Swinkels, Dorine; van Crevel, Reinout; van der Ven, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Background Distortion of iron homeostasis may contribute to the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and tuberculosis (TB). We studied the association of the central iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin with the severity of HIV and the association between hepcidin and other markers of iron homeostasis with development of TB. Methods Three groups of patients were selected from a prospective cohort of HIV-infected subjects in Bandung, Indonesia. The first group consisted of HIV-infected patients who started TB treatment more than 30 days after cohort enrollment (cases). The second group consisted of HIV-infected patients who were matched for age, gender and CD4 cell count to the cases group (matched controls). The third group consisted of HIV-infected patients with CD4 cell counts above 200 cells/mm3 (unmatched controls). Iron parameters including hepcidin were compared using samples collected at cohort enrollment, and compared with recently published reference values for serum hepcidin. Results A total of 127 HIV-infected patients were included, 42 cases together with 42 matched controls and 43 unmatched controls. Patients with advanced HIV infection had elevated serum hepcidin and ferritin levels. Hepcidin levels correlated inversely with CD4 cells and hemoglobin. Cases had significantly higher hepcidin and ferritin concentrations at cohort enrollment compared to matched controls, but these differences were fully accounted for by the cases who started TB treatment between day 31 and 60 after enrollment. Hepcidin levels were not different in those with or without hepatitis C infection. Conclusion Iron metabolism is distorted in advanced HIV infection with CD4 cell counts correlating inversely with serum hepcidin levels. High serum hepcidin levels and hyperferritinemia were found in patients starting TB treatment shortly after cohort enrollment, suggesting that these parameters have a predictive value for development of manifest TB in HIV-infected patients. PMID:24244576

  2. Short-time scale variation of phytoplankton succession in Lisbon bay (Portugal) as revealed by microscopy cell counts and HPLC pigment analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A.; Mendes, C. R.; Palma, S.; Brotas, V.

    2008-08-01

    The phytoplankton distribution and composition in Lisbon bay was studied, at a short time scale based on a weekly sampling, during one year (April 2004 - May 2005), using microscopic examination and pigment analysis with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). This work is a contribution to the knowledge on species succession and ecology of coastal communities. The frequency of the sampling permitted monitoring peak blooming and decaying, a process which frequently occurred within 1 -2 weeks. Cell counts determined that the classes Dinophyceae, Bacillariophyceae and Prymnesiophyceae dominated the assemblages. Maxima abundances and diversity of phytoplankton were observed from spring to autumn. HPLC analysis reflected the major seasonal variations observed by the cell counts and in addition detected the presence of four small sized phytoplankton classes that were not identified by microscopy. Phytoplankton counts were essential to identify the main contributing species to total chlorophyll a. Fucoxantin, peridinin and 19'-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin appeared as good indicators for diatoms, dinoflagellates and coccolithophores, respectively, with synchronized seasonal variations and significant positive correlations.

  3. Renal ?-intercalated cells maintain body fluid and electrolyte balance

    PubMed Central

    Gueutin, Victor; Vallet, Marion; Jayat, Maximilien; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Cornière, Nicolas; Leviel, Françoise; Sohet, Fabien; Wagner, Carsten A.; Eladari, Dominique; Chambrey, Régine

    2013-01-01

    Inactivation of the B1 proton pump subunit (ATP6V1B1) in intercalated cells (ICs) leads to type I distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), a disease associated with salt- and potassium-losing nephropathy. Here we show that mice deficient in ATP6V1B1 (Atp6v1b1–/– mice) displayed renal loss of NaCl, K+, and water, causing hypovolemia, hypokalemia, and polyuria. We demonstrated that NaCl loss originated from the cortical collecting duct, where activity of both the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and the pendrin/Na+-driven chloride/bicarbonate exchanger (pendrin/NDCBE) transport system was impaired. ENaC was appropriately increased in the medullary collecting duct, suggesting a localized inhibition in the cortex. We detected high urinary prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and ATP levels in Atp6v1b1–/– mice. Inhibition of PGE2 synthesis in vivo restored ENaC protein levels specifically in the cortex. It also normalized protein levels of the large conductance calcium-activated potassium channel and the water channel aquaporin 2, and improved polyuria and hypokalemia in mutant mice. Furthermore, pharmacological inactivation of the proton pump in ?-ICs induced release of PGE2 through activation of calcium-coupled purinergic receptors. In the present study, we identified ATP-triggered PGE2 paracrine signaling originating from ?-ICs as a mechanism in the development of the hydroelectrolytic imbalance associated with dRTA. Our data indicate that in addition to principal cells, ICs are also critical in maintaining sodium balance and, hence, normal vascular volume and blood pressure. PMID:24051376

  4. The interaction between a solid body and viscous fluid by marker-and-cell method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, R. Y. K.

    1976-01-01

    A computational method for solving nonlinear problems relating to impact and penetration of a rigid body into a fluid type medium is presented. The numerical techniques, based on the Marker-and-Cell method, gives the pressure and velocity of the flow field. An important feature in this method is that the force and displacement of the rigid body interacting with the fluid during the impact and sinking phases are evaluated from the boundary stresses imposed by the fluid on the rigid body. A sample problem of low velocity penetration of a rigid block into still water is solved by this method. The computed time histories of the acceleration, pressure, and displacement of the block show food agreement with experimental measurements. A sample problem of high velocity impact of a rigid block into soft clay is also presented.

  5. White Blood Cell, Neutrophil, and Lymphocyte Counts in Individuals in the Evacuation Zone Designated by the Government After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: The Fukushima Health Management Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Akira; Ohira, Tetsuya; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Ohtsuru, Akira; Satoh, Hiroaki; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kobashi, Gen; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yasumura, Seiji; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    Background Lymphocytes are susceptible to damage from radiation, and the white blood cell (WBC) count, including counts of neutrophils and lymphocytes, is a useful method of dosimetry. According to the basic survey of the Fukushima Health Management Survey (FHMS), among 13 localities where evacuation was recommended, Iitate and Namie had more individuals with external radiation exposure of more than 5 mSv than the other evacuation areas. We analyzed whether or not WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts decreased after the disaster. Methods The subjects of this study were 45 278 men and women aged 20 to 99 years (18 953 men and 26 325 women; mean age 56 years) in the evacuation zone who participated in the Comprehensive Health Check (CHC) from June 2011 to the end of March 2012. Results Significant differences were detected in the mean values of WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts, and for the proportion of individuals under the minimum standard for WBC and neutrophil counts, among the 13 localities. However, the distribution of individuals at each 200-cell/µL increment in lymphocyte count were similar in these areas, and the WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts did not decrease in Iitate or Namie specifically. Conclusions No marked effects of radiation exposure on the distribution of WBC counts, including neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were detected within one year after the disaster in the evacuation zone. PMID:25311030

  6. Bone cell mechanosensation of fluid flow stimulation: a fluid-structure interaction model characterising the role integrin attachments and primary cilia.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, T J; Mullen, C A; Verbruggen, S W; McNamara, L M

    2014-11-16

    Load-induced fluid flow acts as an important biophysical signal for bone cell mechanotransduction in vivo, where the mechanical environment is thought to be monitored by integrin and primary cilia mechanoreceptors on the cell body. However, precisely how integrin- and primary cilia-based mechanosensors interact with the surrounding fluid flow stimulus and ultimately contribute to the biochemical response of bone cells within either the in vitro or in vivo environment remains poorly understood. In this study, we developed fluid-structure interaction models to characterise the deformation of integrin- and primary cilia-based mechanosensors in bone cells under fluid flow stimulation. Under in vitro fluid flow stimulation, these models predicted that integrin attachments on the cell-substrate interface were highly stimulated [Formula: see text], while the presence of a primary cilium on the cell also resulted in significant strain amplifications, arising at the ciliary base. As such, these mechanosensors likely play a role in mediating bone mechanotransduction in vitro. Under in vivo fluid flow stimulation, integrin attachments along the canalicular wall were highly stimulated and likely play a role in mediating cellular responses in vivo. The role of the primary cilium as a flow sensor in vivo depended upon its configuration within the lacunar cavity. Specifically, our results showed that a short free-standing primary cilium could not effectively fulfil a flow sensing role in vivo. However, a primary cilium that discretely attaches the lacunar wall can be highly stimulated, due to hydrodynamic pressure in the lacunocanalicular system and, as such, could play a role in mediating bone mechanotransduction in vivo. PMID:25399300

  7. Effect of Allium cepa L. on Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Osteoclast Precursor Cell Viability, Count, and Morphology Using 4?,6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole-Staining

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Tatiane; Figueiredo, Camila A.; Stavroullakis, Alexander; Da Silva Velozo, Eudes; Nogueira-Filho, Getulio

    2014-01-01

    Allium cepa L. is known to possess numerous pharmacological properties. Our aim was to examine the in vitro effects of Allium cepa L. extract (AcE) on Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS and Escherichia coli LPS-stimulated osteoclast precursor cells to determine cell viability to other future cell-based assays. Osteoclast precursor cells (RAW 264.7) were stimulated by Pg LPS (1??g/mL) and E. coli LPS (1??g/mL) in the presence or absence of different concentrations of AcE (10–1000??g/mL) for 5 days at 37°C/5% CO2. Resazurin reduction and total protein content assays were used to detect cell viability. AcE did not affect cell viability. Resazurin reduction assay showed that AcE, at up to 1000??g/mL, did not significantly affect cell viability and cellular protein levels. Additionally a caspase 3/7 luminescence assay was used to disclose apoptosis and there was no difference in apoptotic activity between tested groups and control group. Fluorescence images stained by DAPI showed no alteration on the morphology and cell counts of LPS-stimulated osteoclast precursor cells with the use of AcE in all tested concentrations when compared to control. These findings suggest that Allium cepa L. extract could be used for in vitro studies on Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS and Escherichia coli LPS-stimulated osteoclast precursor cells. PMID:25221602

  8. Hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell: Application to studies of geologic fluids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I.-Ming

    2003-01-01

    The hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell (HDAC) was designed to simulate the geologic conditions of crustal processes in the presence of water or other fluids. The HDAC has been used to apply external pressure to both synthetic and natural fluid inclusions in quartz to minimize problems caused by stretching or decrepitation of inclusions during microthermometric analysis. When the HDAC is loaded with a fluid sample, it can be considered as a large synthetic fluid inclusion and therefore, can be used to study the PVTX properties as well as phase relations of the sample fluid. Because the HDAC has a wide measurement pressure-temperature range and also allows in-situ optical observations, it has been used to study critical phenomena of various chemical systems, such as the geologically important hydrous silicate melts. It is possible, when the HDAC is combined with synchrotron X-ray sources, to obtain basic information on speciation and structure of metal including rare-earth elements (REE) complexes in hydrothermal solutions as revealed by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectra. Recent modifications of the HDAC minimize the loss of intensity of X-rays due to scattering and absorption by the diamonds. These modifications are especially important for studying elements with absorption edges below 10 keV and therefore particularly valuable for our understanding of transport and deposition of first-row transition elements and REE in hydrothermal environments.

  9. Single cell rheometry with a microfluidic constriction: Quantitative control of friction and fluid leaks between cell and channel walls.

    PubMed

    Preira, Pascal; Valignat, Marie-Pierre; Bico, José; Théodoly, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    We report how cell rheology measurements can be performed by monitoring the deformation of a cell in a microfluidic constriction, provided that friction and fluid leaks effects between the cell and the walls of the microchannels are correctly taken into account. Indeed, the mismatch between the rounded shapes of cells and the angular cross-section of standard microfluidic channels hampers efficient obstruction of the channel by an incoming cell. Moreover, friction forces between a cell and channels walls have never been characterized. Both effects impede a quantitative determination of forces experienced by cells in a constriction. Our study is based on a new microfluidic device composed of two successive constrictions, combined with optical interference microscopy measurements to characterize the contact zone between the cell and the walls of the channel. A cell squeezed in a first constriction obstructs most of the channel cross-section, which strongly limits leaks around cells. The rheological properties of the cell are subsequently probed during its entry in a second narrower constriction. The pressure force is determined from the pressure drop across the device, the cell velocity, and the width of the gutters formed between the cell and the corners of the channel. The additional friction force, which has never been analyzed for moving and constrained cells before, is found to involve both hydrodynamic lubrication and surface forces. This friction results in the existence of a threshold for moving the cells and leads to a non-linear behavior at low velocity. The friction force can nevertheless be assessed in the linear regime. Finally, an apparent viscosity of single cells can be estimated from a numerical prediction of the viscous dissipation induced by a small step in the channel. A preliminary application of our method yields an apparent loss modulus on the order of 100 Pa s for leukocytes THP-1 cells, in agreement with the literature data. PMID:24404016

  10. Fluid Shear Stress Alters the Hemostatic Properties of Endothelial Outgrowth Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ensley, Ann E.; Nerem, Robert M.; Anderson, Deirdre E.J.; Hanson, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Surface endothelialization is an attractive means to improve the performance of small diameter vascular grafts. While endothelial outgrowth cells (EOCs) are considered a promising source of autologous endothelium, the ability of EOCs to modulate coagulation-related blood activities is not well understood. The goal of this study was to assess the role of arterial flow conditions on the thrombogenic phenotype of EOCs. EOCs derived from baboon peripheral blood, as well as mature arterial endothelial cells from baboons, were seeded onto adsorbed collagen, then exposed to physiologic levels of fluid shear stress. For important hemostatic pathways, cellular responses to shear stress were characterized at the gene and protein level and confirmed with a functional assay for activated protein C (APC) activity. For EOCs, fluid shear stress upregulated gene and protein expression of anticoagulant and platelet inhibitory factors, including thrombomodulin, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, and nitric oxide synthase 3 (eNOS). Fluid shear stress significantly altered the functional activity of EOCs by increasing APC levels. This study demonstrates that fluid shear stress is an important determinant of EOC hemostatic properties. Accordingly, manipulation of EOC phenotype by mechanical forces may be important for the development of thrombo-resistant surfaces on engineered vascular implants. PMID:21787250

  11. Fluid shear stress alters the hemostatic properties of endothelial outgrowth cells.

    PubMed

    Ensley, Ann E; Nerem, Robert M; Anderson, Deirdre E J; Hanson, Stephen R; Hinds, Monica T

    2012-01-01

    Surface endothelialization is an attractive means to improve the performance of small diameter vascular grafts. While endothelial outgrowth cells (EOCs) are considered a promising source of autologous endothelium, the ability of EOCs to modulate coagulation-related blood activities is not well understood. The goal of this study was to assess the role of arterial flow conditions on the thrombogenic phenotype of EOCs. EOCs derived from baboon peripheral blood, as well as mature arterial endothelial cells from baboons, were seeded onto adsorbed collagen, then exposed to physiologic levels of fluid shear stress. For important hemostatic pathways, cellular responses to shear stress were characterized at the gene and protein level and confirmed with a functional assay for activated protein C (APC) activity. For EOCs, fluid shear stress upregulated gene and protein expression of anticoagulant and platelet inhibitory factors, including thrombomodulin, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, and nitric oxide synthase 3 (eNOS). Fluid shear stress significantly altered the functional activity of EOCs by increasing APC levels. This study demonstrates that fluid shear stress is an important determinant of EOC hemostatic properties. Accordingly, manipulation of EOC phenotype by mechanical forces may be important for the development of thrombo-resistant surfaces on engineered vascular implants. PMID:21787250

  12. CXCR2 agonists in ADPKD liver cyst fluids promote cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Amura, Claudia; Brodsky, Kelley; Gitomer, Berenice; McFann, Kim; Lazennec, Gwendal; Nichols, Matthew T.; Jani, Alkesh; Schrier, Robert W.; Brian Doctor, R.

    2008-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a highly prevalent genetic disease that results in cyst formation in kidney and liver. Cytokines and growth factors secreted by the cyst lining epithelia are positioned to initiate autocrine/paracrine signaling and promote cyst growth. Comparative analyses of human kidney and liver cyst fluids revealed disparate cytokine/growth factor profiles. CXCR2 agonists, including interleukin-8 (IL-8), epithelial neutrophil activating peptide (ENA78), growth related oncogne alpha (GRO?), are potent proliferative agents that were found at high levels in liver but not kidney cyst fluids. Liver cysts are lined by epithelial cells derived from the intrahepatic bile duct (i.e. cholangiocytes). In polarized pkd2(WS25/?) mouse liver cyst epithelial monolayers, CXCR2 agonists were released both apically and basally, indicating they may act both on the endothelial and epithelial cells within or lining the cyst wall. IL-8 and human liver cyst fluid induced cell proliferation of HMEC-1 cells, a human microvascular endothelial cell line, and Mz-ChA1 cells, a human cholangiocyte cell model. IL-8 expression can be regulated by specific stresses. Hypoxia and mechanical stretch, two likely stressors acting on the liver cyst epithelia, significantly increased IL-8 secretion and promoter activity. AP-1, c/EBP and NF?B were required but not sufficient to drive the stress-induced increase in IL-8 transcription. An upstream element between ?272 and ?1,481 bp allowed for the stress-induced increase in IL-8 transcription. These studies support the hypothesis that CXCR2 signaling promotes ADPKD liver cyst growth. PMID:18199703

  13. Computational fluid dynamics-based design of a microfabricated cell capture device.

    PubMed

    Jarvas, Gabor; Szigeti, Marton; Hajba, Laszlo; Furjes, Peter; Guttman, Andras

    2015-03-01

    A microfluidic cell capture device was designed, fabricated, evaluated by numerical simulations and validated experimentally. The cell capture device was designed with a minimal footprint compartment comprising internal micropillars with the goal to obtain a compact, integrated bioanalytical system. The design of the device was accomplished by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Various microdevice designs were rapidly prototyped in poly-dimethylsiloxane using conventional soft lithograpy technique applying micropatterned SU-8 epoxy based negative photoresist as moulding replica. The numerically modeled flow characteristics of the cell capture device were experimentally validated by tracing and microscopic recording the flow trajectories using yeast cells. Finally, we give some perspectives on how CFD modeling can be used in the early stage of microfluidics-based cell capture device development. PMID:25205671

  14. Cooperative vaccinia infection demonstrated at the single-cell level using FluidFM.

    PubMed

    Stiefel, Philipp; Schmidt, Florian I; Dörig, Pablo; Behr, Pascal; Zambelli, Tomaso; Vorholt, Julia A; Mercer, Jason

    2012-08-01

    The mechanisms used by viruses to enter and replicate within host cells are subjects of intense investigation. These studies are ultimately aimed at development of new drugs that interfere with these processes. Virus entry and infection are generally monitored by dispensing bulk virus suspensions on layers of cells without accounting for the fate of each virion. Here, we take advantage of the recently developed FluidFM to deposit single vaccinia virions onto individual cells in a controlled manner. While the majority of virions were blocked prior to early gene expression, infection of individual cells increased in a nondeterministic fashion with respect to the number of viruses placed. Microscopic analyses of several stages of the virus lifecycle indicated that this was the result of cooperativity between virions during early stages of infection. These findings highlight the importance of performing controlled virus infection experiments at the single cell level. PMID:22731659

  15. ‘Living cantilever arrays’ for characterization of mass of single live cells in fluids†

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kidong; Jang, Jaesung; Irimia, Daniel; Sturgis, Jennifer; Lee, James; Robinson, J. Paul; Toner, Mehmet; Bashir, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    The size of a cell is a fundamental physiological property and is closely regulated by various environmental and genetic factors. Optical or confocal microscopy can be used to measure the dimensions of adherent cells, and Coulter counter or flow cytometry (forward scattering light intensity) can be used to estimate the volume of single cells in a flow. Although these methods could be used to obtain the mass of single live cells, no method suitable for directly measuring the mass of single adherent cells without detaching them from the surface is currently available. We report the design, fabrication, and testing of ‘living cantilever arrays’, an approach to measure the mass of single adherent live cells in fluid using silicon cantilever mass sensor. HeLa cells were injected into microfluidic channels with a linear array of functionalized silicon cantilevers and the cells were subsequently captured on the cantilevers with positive dielectrophoresis. The captured cells were then cultured on the cantilevers in a microfluidic environment and the resonant frequencies of the cantilevers were measured. The mass of a single HeLa cell was extracted from the resonance frequency shift of the cantilever and was found to be close to the mass value calculated from the cell density from the literature and the cell volume obtained from confocal microscopy. This approach can provide a new method for mass measurement of a single adherent cell in its physiological condition in a non-invasive manner, as well as optical observations of the same cell. We believe this technology would be very valuable for single cell time-course studies of adherent live cells. PMID:18584076

  16. Computational analysis of fluid flow within a device for applying biaxial strain to cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jason; Baker, Aaron B

    2015-05-01

    In vitro systems for applying mechanical strain to cultured cells are commonly used to investigate cellular mechanotransduction pathways in a variety of cell types. These systems often apply mechanical forces to a flexible membrane on which cells are cultured. A consequence of the motion of the membrane in these systems is the generation of flow and the unintended application of shear stress to the cells. We recently described a flexible system for applying mechanical strain to cultured cells, which uses a linear motor to drive a piston array to create biaxial strain within multiwell culture plates. To better understand the fluidic stresses generated by this system and other systems of this type, we created a computational fluid dynamics model to simulate the flow during the mechanical loading cycle. Alterations in the frequency or maximal strain magnitude led to a linear increase in the average fluid velocity within the well and a nonlinear increase in the shear stress at the culture surface over the ranges tested (0.5-2.0?Hz and 1-10% maximal strain). For all cases, the applied shear stresses were relatively low and on the order of millipascal with a dynamic waveform having a primary and secondary peak in the shear stress over a single mechanical strain cycle. These findings should be considered when interpreting experimental results using these devices, particularly in the case when the cell type used is sensitive to low magnitude, oscillatory shear stresses. PMID:25611013

  17. A cell-based sensor of fluid shear stress for microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Varma, Sarvesh; Voldman, Joel

    2015-03-01

    Microsystems designed for cell-based studies or applications inherently require fluid handling. Flows within such systems inevitably generate fluid shear stress (FSS) that may adversely affect cell health. Simple assays of cell viability, morphology or growth are typically reported to indicate any gross disturbances to cell physiology. However, no straightforward metric exists to specifically evaluate physiological implications of FSS within microfluidic devices, or among competing microfluidic technologies. This paper presents the first genetically encoded cell sensors that fluoresce in a quantitative fashion upon FSS pathway activation. We picked a widely used cell line (NIH3T3s) and created a transcriptional cell-sensor where fluorescence turns on when transcription of a relevant FSS-induced protein is initiated. Specifically, we chose Early Growth Factor-1 (a mechanosensitive protein) upregulation as the node for FSS detection. We verified our sensor pathway specificity and functionality by noting induced fluorescence in response to chemical induction of the FSS pathway, seen both through microscopy and flow cytometry. Importantly, we found our cell sensors to be inducible by a range of FSS intensities and durations, with a limit of detection of 2 dynes cm(-2) when applied for 30 minutes. Additionally, our cell-sensors proved their versatility by showing induction sensitivity when made to flow through an inertial microfluidic device environment with typical flow conditions. We anticipate these cell sensors to have wide application in the microsystems community, allowing the device designer to engineer systems with acceptable FSS, and enabling the end-user to evaluate the impact of FSS upon their assay of interest. PMID:25648195

  18. Reliable and Accurate CD4+ T Cell Count and Percent by the Portable Flow Cytometer CyFlow MiniPOC and “CD4 Easy Count Kit-Dry”, as Revealed by the Comparison with the Gold Standard Dual Platform Technology

    PubMed Central

    Nasi, Milena; De Biasi, Sara; Bianchini, Elena; Gibellini, Lara; Pinti, Marcello; Scacchetti, Tiziana; Trenti, Tommaso; Borghi, Vanni; Mussini, Cristina; Cossarizza, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Background An accurate and affordable CD4+ T cells count is an essential tool in the fight against HIV/AIDS. Flow cytometry (FCM) is the “gold standard” for counting such cells, but this technique is expensive and requires sophisticated equipment, temperature-sensitive monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and trained personnel. The lack of access to technical support and quality assurance programs thus limits the use of FCM in resource-constrained countries. We have tested the accuracy, the precision and the carry-over contamination of Partec CyFlow MiniPOC, a portable and economically affordable flow cytometer designed for CD4+ count and percentage, used along with the “CD4% Count Kit-Dry”. Materials and Methods Venous blood from 59 adult HIV+ patients (age: 25–58 years; 43 males and 16 females) was collected and stained with the “MiniPOC CD4% Count Kit-Dry”. CD4+ count and percentage were then determined in triplicate by the CyFlow MiniPOC. In parallel, CD4 count was performed using mAbs and a CyFlow Counter, or by a dual platform system (from Beckman Coulter) based upon Cytomic FC500 (“Cytostat tetrachrome kit” for mAbs) and Coulter HmX Hematology Analyzer (for absolute cell count). Results The accuracy of CyFlow MiniPOC against Cytomic FC500 showed a correlation coefficient (CC) of 0.98 and 0.97 for CD4+ count and percentage, respectively. The accuracy of CyFlow MiniPOC against CyFlow Counter showed a CC of 0.99 and 0.99 for CD4 T cell count and percentage, respectively. CyFlow MiniPOC showed an excellent repeatability: CD4+ cell count and percentage were analyzed on two instruments, with an intra-assay precision below ±5% deviation. Finally, there was no carry-over contamination for samples at all CD4 values, regardless of their position in the sequence of analysis. Conclusion The cost-effective CyFlow MiniPOC produces rapid, reliable and accurate results that are fully comparable with those from highly expensive dual platform systems. PMID:25622041

  19. Natural evolution of CD4+ cell count in patients with CD4 >350 or >500? cells/mm3 at the time of diagnosis according to HIV-1 coreceptor tropism.

    PubMed

    Soulié, Cathia; Charpentier, Charlotte; Flandre, Philippe; Nino, Clément; Carcelain, Guislaine; Simon, Anne; Katlama, Christine; Landman, Roland; Brun-Vézinet, Françoise; Descamps, Diane; Calvez, Vincent; Marcelin, Anne-Geneviève

    2012-12-01

    The HIV-1 coreceptor usage may play a critical role in AIDS pathogenesis and the X4-using viruses are considered to be more pathogenic than the R5-tropic viruses. These observations may influence the therapeutic decisions by asking for an earlier antiretroviral (ARV) treatment for the patients infected by the X4-tropic viruses compared with those infected by the R5-tropic viruses. The natural evolution of CD4+ cell count for 109 non-treated patients infected by the R5- or X4-tropic HIV-1 viruses with CD4+ >350 and >500 cells/mm(3) at time of diagnosis was compared until the initiation of an ARV regimen. The coreceptor usage was determined from the V3 env region sequence by Geno2Pheno (false positive rate 10%). A mixed linear regression model to analyse the CD4+ data with tropism as fixed effect in the model was used. Overall, 93 (85.3%) and 16 (14.7%) were infected by R5- and X4-tropic viruses, respectively. The median age, baseline CD4+ cell count, and viral load were 34 years (IQR: 30-42), 523 cells/mm(3) (IQR: 420-604), and 4.5 log(10) ?copies/ml (IQR: 3.9-5.0), respectively. There was no statistical difference in time to progression between the patients harboring R5- or X4-tropic viruses. The same results were observed for the sub-group of patients with CD4+ cell count >500 cells/mm(3). The virus tropism has no impact on the CD4+ cell count evolution in these HIV-1 patients diagnosed with CD4+ >350 or >500 cells/mm(3) suggesting that the tropism determination at time of diagnosis does not seem to be a useful tool to predict the clinical progression. PMID:23080487

  20. Mechanism of vibration-induced repulsion force on a particle in a viscous fluid cell.

    PubMed

    Saadatmand, Mehrrad; Kawaji, Masahiro

    2013-08-01

    Space platforms such as the Space Shuttle and International Space Station have been considered an ideal environment for production of protein and semiconductor crystals of superior quality due to the negligible gravity-induced convection. Although it was believed that under microgravity environment diffusive mass transport would dominate the growth of the crystals, some related experiments have not shown satisfactory results possibly due to the movement of the growing crystals in fluid cells caused by small vibrations present in the space platforms called g-jitter. In ground-based experiments, there have been clear observations of attraction and repulsion of a solid particle with respect to a nearby wall of the fluid cell due to small vibrations. The present work is a numerical investigation on the physical mechanisms responsible for the repulsion force, which has been predicted to increase with the cell vibration frequency and amplitude, as well as the fluid viscosity. Moreover, the simulations have revealed that the repulsion force occurs mostly due to the increased pressure in the narrow gap between the particle and the nearest wall. PMID:24032936

  1. The quantitative effect of microextractor cell geometry on the analytical supercritical fluid extraction efficiencies of environmentally important compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. G. Furton; J. Rein

    1991-01-01

    The quantitative effect of microextractor cell geometries on supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) efficiencies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and methoxychlor from octadecyl-bonded sorbents has been evaluated and compared to similar effects seen upon increasing the supercritical fluid density. For the PAHs studied, correlations between the fused ring number and the relative increase in recoveries have been established. SFE recoveries can

  2. Neuronal death and synapse elimination in the olivocerebellar system: III. Cell counts in the inferior olive of developing rats X-irradiated from birth

    SciTech Connect

    Geoffroy, B.; Shojaeian, H.; Delhaye-Bouchaud, N.; Mariani, J.

    1988-01-08

    The change with age of cell number in the developing inferior olivary nucleus (ION) of the normal rat, compared to the time course of the regression of the polyneuronal innervation of Purkinje cells by olivary axons (i.e., the climbing fibers), suggests that the involution of the redundant olivocerebellar contacts is caused by a reduction of axonal branching rather than by degeneration of the parent cells, this being also suggested by the normal size of the olivary population in adult rodents whose Purkinje cells retain polyneuronal innervation. However, the similar size of the adult ION population does not necessarily imply that the development history is the same in normal and multiply innervated adult rodents. Therefore, cell counts were performed in developing rats which had been repeatedly X-irradiated from birth until postnatal day 14 and which retained polyneuronal innervation. The results show that, although less marked than during normal development, the evolution of the ION population is also characterized by a phase of cell loss followed by a slow increase. However, the number of cells in X-irradiated rats is higher than in their controls from birth to postnatal day 15 but becomes identical at 20 days and later. These data confirm that cell death in the ION does not play a major role in the shaping of olivocerebellar connections.

  3. Human Amniotic Fluid Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Combination with Hyperbaric Oxygen Augment Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hung-Chuan Pan; Chun-Shih Chin; Dar-Yu Yang; Shu-Peng Ho; Chung-Jung Chen; Shiaw-Min Hwang; Ming-Hong Chang; Fu-Chou Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Attenuation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and associated inflammatory cell deposits rescues human amniotic fluid mesenchymal\\u000a stem cells (AFS) from apoptosis. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) suppressed stimulus-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production\\u000a in blood-derived monocyte-macrophages. Herein, we evaluate the beneficial effect of hyperbaric oxygen on transplanted AFS\\u000a in a sciatic nerve injury model. Methods Peripheral nerve injury was produced in Sprague-Dawley rats by crushing

  4. New apparatus for direct counting of. beta. particles from two-dimensional gels and an application to changes in protein synthesis due to cell density

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, H.L.; Puck, T.T.; Shera, E.B.

    1987-07-01

    A new method is described for scanning two-dimensional gels by the direct counting of ..beta.. particles instead of autoradiography. The methodology is described; results are compared with autoradiographic results; and data are presented demonstrating changed patterns of protein synthesis accompanying changes in cell density. The method is rapid and permits identification of differences in protein abundance of approximately 10% for a substantial fraction of the more prominent proteins. A modulation effect of more than 5 standard deviations, accompanying contact inhibition of cell growth, is shown to occur for an appreciable number of these proteins. The method promises to be applicable to a variety of biochemical and genetic experiments designed to delineate changes in protein synthesis accompanying changes in genome, molecular environment, history, and state of differentiation of the cell populations studied. 13 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. A Fluid Membrane-Based Soluble Ligand Display System for Live CellAssays

    SciTech Connect

    Nam, Jwa-Min; Nair, Pradeep N.; Neve, Richard M.; Gray, Joe W.; Groves, Jay T.

    2005-10-14

    Cell communication modulates numerous biological processes including proliferation, apoptosis, motility, invasion and differentiation. Correspondingly, there has been significant interest in the development of surface display strategies for the presentation of signaling molecules to living cells. This effort has primarily focused on naturally surface-bound ligands, such as extracellular matrix components and cell membranes. Soluble ligands (e.g. growth factors and cytokines) play an important role in intercellular communications, and their display in a surface-bound format would be of great utility in the design of array-based live cell assays. Recently, several cell microarray systems that display cDNA, RNAi, or small molecules in a surface array format were proven to be useful in accelerating high-throughput functional genetic studies and screening therapeutic agents. These surface display methods provide a flexible platform for the systematic, combinatorial investigation of genes and small molecules affecting cellular processes and phenotypes of interest. In an analogous sense, it would be an important advance if one could display soluble signaling ligands in a surface assay format that allows for systematic, patterned presentation of soluble ligands to live cells. Such a technique would make it possible to examine cellular phenotypes of interest in a parallel format with soluble signaling ligands as one of the display parameters. Herein we report a ligand-modified fluid supported lipid bilayer (SLB) assay system that can be used to functionally display soluble ligands to cells in situ (Figure 1A). By displaying soluble ligands on a SLB surface, both solution behavior (the ability to become locally enriched by reaction-diffusion processes) and solid behavior (the ability to control the spatial location of the ligands in an open system) could be combined. The method reported herein benefits from the naturally fluid state of the supported membrane, which allows surface-linked ligands to diffuse freely in two dimensions. Ligands can become reorganized beneath cells, by reaction-diffusion processes, and may also adopt spatial configurations reflecting those of their cognate receptors on the cell surface (Figure 1B). This provides a significant benefit over conventional cell signaling and culturing systems that present inflexible distributions of signaling molecules. In this study, we observe marked differences in the response of cells to membrane surface displayed soluble ligands as a function of membrane fluidity. Tethering of soluble signaling molecules to fluid supported membranes opens up opportunities to use already developed membrane fabrication technologies to present soluble components within a surface array format.

  6. Tree network channels as fluid distributors constructing double-staircase polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senn, S. M.; Poulikakos, D.

    2004-07-01

    In this article, constructal tree-like channel networks are introduced as a fuel cell fluid distribution concept, which also optimizes the shape of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. This concept is the main contribution of the article. To perform quantitative calculations based on this concept, a one-dimensional model, accounting for oxygen consumption in the feed channel, oxygen mass transfer between the channel and the backing layer, and oxygen mass transfer through the backing layer to the catalyst layer, is used to predict the polarization curve of a so-constructed polymer electrolyte fuel cell. Pressure drop and pumping power required for the fluid circulation is estimated. Multiobjective genetic search is performed to maximize the net power density with respect to constructal parameters and operating conditions, leading to the optimized tree network. It is found that the use of tree networks instead of the traditional, nonbifurcating serpentine channels in rectangular systems can provide substantially improved cell performance due their intrinsic advantage with respect to both mass transfer and pressure drop. The resulting "double-staircase" shape of the fuel cells differs from the traditional rectangular shape while maintaining simplicity, and it is determined based on the functionality of the flow distribution system.

  7. Application of Fluid Mechanical Force to Embryonic Sources of Hemogenic Endothelium and Hematopoietic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Diaz, Miguel F; Wenzel, Pamela L

    2014-07-26

    During embryonic development, hemodynamic forces caused by blood flow support vascular remodeling, arterialization of luminal endothelium, and hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) emergence. Previously, we reported that fluid shear stress plays a key role in stimulating nitric oxide (NO) signaling in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) and is essential for definitive hematopoiesis. We employed a Dynamic Flow System modified from a cone-and-plate assembly to precisely regulate in vitro exposure of AGM cells to a defined pattern of laminar shear stress. Here, we present the design of a microfluidic platform accessible to any research group that requires small cell numbers and allows for recirculation of paracrine signaling factors with minimal damage to nonadherent hematopoietic progenitors and stem cells. We detail the assembly of the microfluidic platform using commercially available components and provide specific guidance in the use of an emerging standard in the measurement of embryonic HSC potential, intravenous neonatal transplantation. PMID:25063503

  8. Force-controlled manipulation of single cells: from AFM to FluidFM.

    PubMed

    Guillaume-Gentil, Orane; Potthoff, Eva; Ossola, Dario; Franz, Clemens M; Zambelli, Tomaso; Vorholt, Julia A

    2014-07-01

    The ability to perturb individual cells and to obtain information at the single-cell level is of central importance for addressing numerous biological questions. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) offers great potential for this prospering field. Traditionally used as an imaging tool, more recent developments have extended the variety of cell-manipulation protocols. Fluidic force microscopy (FluidFM) combines AFM with microfluidics via microchanneled cantilevers with nano-sized apertures. The crucial element of the technology is the connection of the hollow cantilevers to a pressure controller, allowing their operation in liquid as force-controlled nanopipettes under optical control. Proof-of-concept studies demonstrated a broad spectrum of single-cell applications including isolation, deposition, adhesion and injection in a range of biological systems. PMID:24856959

  9. Neural Differentiation of Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Cerebrospinal Fluid

    PubMed Central

    FARIVAR, Shirin; MOHAMADZADE, Zahra; SHIARI, Reza; FAHIMZAD, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Objective Wharton’s jelly (WJ) is the gelatinous connective tissue from the umbilical cord. It is composed of mesenchymal stem cells, collagen fibers, and proteoglycans. The stem cells in WJ have properties that are interesting for research. For example, they are simple to harvest by noninvasive methods, provide large numbers of cells without risk to the donor, the stem cell population may be expanded in vitro, cryogenically stored, thawed, genetically manipulated, and differentiated in vitro. In our study, we investigated the effect of human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on neural differentiation of human WJ stem cells. Material & Methods The cells in passage 2 were induced into neural differentiation with different concentrations of human cerebrospinal fluid. Differentiation along with neural lineage was documented by expression of three neural markers: Nestin, Microtubule-Associated Protein 2 (MAP2), and Glial Fibrillary Astrocytic Protein (GFAP) for 21 days. The expression of the identified genes was confirmed by Reverse Transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). Results Treatment with 100 and 200?g/ml CSF resulted in the expression of GFAP and glial cells marker on days 14 and 21. The expression of neural-specific genes following CSF treatment was dose-dependent and time-dependent. Treatment of the cells with a twofold concentration of CSF, led to the expression of MAP2 on day 14 of induction. No expression of GFAP was detected before day 14 or MAP2 before day 21, which shows the importance of the treatment period. In the present study, expression analysis for the known neural markers: Nestin, GFAP, and MAP2 using RT-PCR were performed. The data demonstrated that CSF could play a role as a strong inducer. Conclusion RT-PCR showed that cerebrospinal fluid promotes the expression of Nestin, MAP2, and GFAP mRNA in a dose-dependent manner, especially at a concentration of 200 ?l/ml. In summary, CSF induces neurogenesis of WJ stem cells that encourages tissue engineering applications with these cells for treatments of neurodegenerative defects and traumatic brain injury. PMID:25767544

  10. Proteomic analysis of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm cells grown under physiologically relevant fluid shear stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The biofilm forming bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for maladies ranging from severe skin infection to major diseases such as bacteremia, endocarditis and osteomyelitis. A flow displacement system was used to grow S. aureus biofilms in four physiologically relevant fluid shear rates (50, 100, 500 and 1000 s-1) to identify proteins that are associated with biofilm. Results Global protein expressions from the membrane and cytosolic fractions of S. aureus biofilm cells grown under the above shear rate conditions are reported. Sixteen proteins in the membrane-enriched fraction and eight proteins in the cytosolic fraction showed significantly altered expression (p?fluid shear. These 24 proteins were identified using nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS. They were found to be associated with various metabolic functions such as glycolysis / TCA pathways, protein synthesis and stress tolerance. Increased fluid shear stress did not influence the expression of two important surface binding proteins: fibronectin-binding and collagen-binding proteins. Conclusions The reported data suggest that while the general metabolic function of the sessile bacteria is minimal under high fluid shear stress conditions, they seem to retain the binding capacity to initiate new infections. PMID:24855455

  11. Death rates in HIV-positive antiretroviral-naive patients with CD4 count greater than 350 cells per microL in Europe and North America: a pooled cohort observational study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether antiretroviral (ART) naive HIV-positive individuals with high CD4 counts have a raised mortality risk compared with the general population, but this is relevant for considering earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Methods Pooling data from 23 European and North American cohorts, we calculated country-, age-, sex-, and year-standardised mortality ratios (SMRs), stratifying by risk group. Included patients had at least one pre-ART CD4 count above 350 cells/mm3. The association between CD4 count and death rate was evaluated using Poisson regression methods. Findings Of 40,830 patients contributing 80,682 person-years of follow up with CD4 count above 350 cells/mm3, 419 (1.0%) died. The SMRs (95% confidence interval) were 1.30 (1.06-1.58) in homosexual men, and 2.94 (2.28-3.73) and 9.37 (8.13-10.75) in the heterosexual and IDU risk groups respectively. CD4 count above 500 cells/mm3 was associated with a lower death rate than 350-499 cells/mm3: adjusted rate ratios (95% confidence intervals) for 500-699 cells/mm3 and above 700 cells/mm3 were 0.77 (0.61-0.95) and 0.66 (0.52-0.85) respectively. Interpretation In HIV-infected ART-naive patients with high CD4 counts, death rates were raised compared with the general population. In homosexual men this was modest, suggesting that a proportion of the increased risk in other groups is due to confounding by other factors. Even in this high CD4 count range, lower CD4 count was associated with raised mortality. PMID:20638118

  12. Fluid flow releases fibroblast growth factor-2 from human aortic smooth muscle cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoads, D. N.; Eskin, S. G.; McIntire, L. V.

    2000-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that fluid shear stress regulates the release of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 from human aortic smooth muscle cells. FGF-2 is a potent mitogen that is involved in the response to vascular injury and is expressed in a wide variety of cell types. FGF-2 is found in the cytoplasm of cells and outside cells, where it associates with extracellular proteoglycans. To test the hypothesis that shear stress regulates FGF-2 release, cells were exposed to flow, and FGF-2 amounts were measured from the conditioned medium, pericellular fraction (extracted by heparin treatment), and cell lysate. Results from the present study show that after 15 minutes of shear stress at 25 dyne/cm(2) in a parallel-plate flow system, a small but significant fraction (17%) of the total FGF-2 was released from human aortic smooth muscle cells. FGF-2 levels in the circulating medium increased 10-fold over medium from static controls (P<0.01). A 50% increase in FGF-2 content versus control (P<0.01) was found in the pericellular fraction (extracted by heparin treatment). Furthermore, a significant decrease in FGF-2 was detected in the cell lysate, indicating that FGF-2 was released from inside the cell. Cell permeability studies with fluorescent dextran were performed to examine whether transient membrane disruption caused FGF-2 release. Flow cytometry detected a 50% increase in mean fluorescence of cells exposed to 25 dyne/cm(2) versus control cells. This indicates that the observed FGF-2 release from human aortic smooth muscle cells is likely due to transient membrane disruption on initiation of flow.

  13. Amniotic fluid-derived stem cells demonstrated cardiogenic potential in indirect co-culture with human cardiac cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yang; Connell, Jennifer Petsche; Wadhwa, Lalita; Ruano, Rodrigo; Jacot, Jeffrey G

    2014-12-01

    Amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (AFSC) have been shown to be broadly multipotent and non-tumorogenic. Previous studies of direct mixing of AFSC and neonatal rat ventricle myocytes indicated evidence of AFSC cardiogenesis. In this study, we examined human AFSC cardiogenic potential in indirect co-culture with human cardiac cells in conditions that eliminated the possibility of cell fusion. Human AFSC in contact with human cardiac cells showed expression of cardiac troponin T (cTnT) in immunohistochemistry, and no evidence of cell fusion was found through fluorescent in situ hybridization. When indirectly co-cultured with cardiac cells, human AFSC in contact with cardiac cells across a thin porous membrane showed a statistically significant increase in cTnT expression compared to non-contact conditions but lacked upregulation of calcium modulating proteins and did not have functional or morphological characteristics of mature cardiomyocytes. This suggests that contact is a necessary but not sufficient condition for AFSC cardiac differentiation in co-culture with cardiac cells. PMID:25266932

  14. Fuel cell assembly unit for promoting fluid service and electrical conductivity

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Daniel O. (Glenville, NY)

    1999-01-01

    Fluid service and/or electrical conductivity for a fuel cell assembly is promoted. Open-faced flow channel(s) are formed in a flow field plate face, and extend in the flow field plate face between entry and exit fluid manifolds. A resilient gas diffusion layer is located between the flow field plate face and a membrane electrode assembly, fluidly serviced with the open-faced flow channel(s). The resilient gas diffusion layer is restrained against entering the open-faced flow channel(s) under a compressive force applied to the fuel cell assembly. In particular, a first side of a support member abuts the flow field plate face, and a second side of the support member abuts the resilient gas diffusion layer. The support member is formed with a plurality of openings extending between the first and second sides of the support member. In addition, a clamping pressure is maintained for an interface between the resilient gas diffusion layer and a portion of the membrane electrode assembly. Preferably, the support member is spikeless and/or substantially flat. Further, the support member is formed with an electrical path for conducting current between the resilient gas diffusion layer and position(s) on the flow field plate face.

  15. Cellular cardiomyoplasty with human amniotic fluid stem cells: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Yi-Chun; Wei, Hao-Ji; Lee, Wen-Yu; Yu, Chu-Leng; Chang, Yen; Hsu, Li-Wen; Chung, Min-Fan; Tsai, Ming-Song; Hwang, Shiaw-Min; Sung, Hsing-Wen

    2010-06-01

    Human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFSCs) derived from second-trimester amniocentesis were evaluated for the therapeutic potential of cardiac repair. Whether hAFSCs can be differentiated into cardiomyogenic cells and toward the maturation of endothelial cell lineage was investigated in vitro using mimicking differentiation milieu. Employing an immune-suppressed rat model with experimental myocardial infarction, an intramyocardial injection was conducted with a needle directly into the peri-infarct areas. There were three treatment groups: sham, saline, and hAFSCs (n > or = 10). When cultured with rat neonatal cardiomyocytes or in endothelial growth medium-2 enriched with vascular endothelial growth factor, hAFSCs were differentiated into cardiomyocyte-like cells and cells of endothelial lineage, respectively. After 4 weeks, hAFSC-treated animals showed a preservation of the infarcted thickness, an attenuation of left ventricle remodeling, a higher vascular density, and thus an improvement in cardiac function, when compared with the saline injection group. Survival and proliferation of the transplanted hAFSCs were revealed by immunohistochemical staining. Expressions of the cardiac-specific markers such as Nkx2.5, alpha-actinin, and cardiac Troponin T were observed in the transplanted hAFSCs. Additionally, Cx43 was clearly expressed at the borders of the transplanted/transplanted and host/transplanted cells, an indication of enhancement of cell connection. The results demonstrated that hAFSCs induce angiogenesis, have cardiomyogenic potential, and may be used as a new cell source for cellular cardiomyoplasty. PMID:20067384

  16. Effect of amniotic fluid on the in vitro culture of human corneal endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Feizi, Sepehr; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Bagheri, Abouzar; Balagholi, Sahar; Mohammadian, Azam; Rezaei-Kanavi, Mozhgan; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Samiei, Shahram; Negahban, Kambiz

    2014-05-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of human amniotic fluid (HAF) on the growth of human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs) and to establish an in vitro method for expanding HCECs. HCECs were cultured in DMEM-F12 supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Confluent monolayer cultures were trypsinized and passaged using either FBS- or HAF-containing media. Cell proliferation and cell death ELISA assays were performed to determine the effect of HAF on cell growth and viability. The identity of the cells cultured in 20% HAF was determined using immunocytochemistry (ICC) and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques to evaluate the expression of factors that are characteristic of HCECs, including Ki-67, Vimentin, Na+/K+-ATPase and ZO-1. HCEC primary cultures were successfully established using 20% HAF-containing medium, and these cultures demonstrated rapid cell proliferation according to the cell proliferation and death ELISA assay results. The ICC and real time RT-PCR results indicated that there was a higher expression of Na+/K+-ATPase and ZO-1 in the 20% HAF cell cultures compared with the control (20% FBS) (P < 0.05). The 20% HAF-containing medium exhibited a greater stimulatory effect on HCEC growth and could represent a potential enriched supplement for HCEC regeneration studies. PMID:24726921

  17. A fictitious domain method with a hybrid cell model for simulating motion of cells in fluid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Wenrui; Xu, Zhiliang; Liu, Chun; Lin, Guang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we develop a hybrid model to represent membranes of biological cells and use the distributed-Lagrange-multiplier/fictitious-domain (DLM/FD) formulation for simulating the fluid/cell interactions. The hybrid model representing the cellular structure consists of a continuum representation of the lipid bilayer, from which the bending force is calculated through energetic variational approach, a discrete cytoskeleton model utilizing the worm-like chain to represent network filament, and area/volume constraints. For our computational scheme, a formally second-order accurate fractional step scheme is employed to decouple the entire system into three sub-systems: a fluid problem, a solid problem and a Lagrange multiplier problem. The flow problem is solved by the projection method; the solid problem based on the cell model is solved by a combination of level set method, ENO reconstruction, and the Newton method; and the Lagrange multiplier problem is solved by immerse boundary interpolation. The incompressibility of the material is implemented with the penalty function method. Numerical results compare favorably with previously reported numerical and experimental results, and show that our method is suited to the simulation of the cell motion in flow.

  18. Lymphoblast morphology in predicting leukemic meningeal relapse with low chamber count and lymphoblasts.

    PubMed

    Goldsby, R E; Morgan, J G; Egger, M J; Feusner, J

    1997-08-01

    The diagnostic criteria for meningeal relapse (MR) of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) chamber count of more than five leukocytes per microliter and a cytomorphological evaluation revealing lymphoblasts. A dilemma arises when confronted with a patient with a low CSF white blood cell (WBC) chamber count and lymphoblasts. We utilized a scoring system to review lymphoblast morphology in 12 such patients. A cell was defined as a lymphoblast if it could not be easily categorized as a lymphocyte, monocyte. histiocyte, or granulocyte. Each lymphoblast was scored on four parameters: presence of nucleoli, homogeneous distribution of chromatin, nucleocytoplasmic ratio greater than 75%, and nuclear irregularity. Cells were scored without knowledge of the patients' out come. Seven patients eventually developed MR by current criteria and five patients never relapsed. The mean lymphoblast scores for patients that did and did not relapse were 2.35 and 1.53, respectively (P < .001). The percent of cells scored as lymphoblasts was also significantly higher in patients that relapsed, 36.9% vs. 19.4% (P = .01). Our study shows that careful cytomorphologic analysis can predict which patients with low chamber counts and "blasts" on cytocentrifuge examination will progress to meningeal relapse. We recommend reviewing the definition of MR and using a scoring system when confronted with blasts in a low chamber count cerebrospinal fluid specimen. PMID:9180910

  19. FLIP (fluid-implicit-particle): A low-dissipation, particle-in-cell method for fluid flow

    SciTech Connect

    Brackbill, J.U.; Kothe, D.B.; Ruppel, H.M.

    1987-01-01

    Since convective transport is the largest source of computational diffusion, FLIP (fluid-implicit-particle) eliminates convection, and uses instead a Lagrangian formulation. In FLIP, as in PIC, particles represent the fluid: a grid is used only to calculate interactions among particles. FLIP is an adaptation to fluid flows of the implicit moment method for plasma simulation. The particles carry coordinates, momentum, mass and energy; everything necessary to describe the fluid. Using the particle data, Lagrangian moment equations solved on a grid advance the particle variables from time step to time step. An adaptive grid and implicit time differencing extend the method to singular and low-speed flows. Aspects of FLIP's properties are illustrated by calculations of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, an unstable, subsonic stream, and a supersonic jet. The results demonstrate FLIP's applicability to the many problems where low dissipation is crucial to correct modeling. 21 refs.

  20. The cerebrospinal fluid provides a proliferative niche for neural progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Lehtinen, Maria K.; Zappaterra, Mauro W.; Chen, Xi; Yang, Yawei J.; Hill, Anthony; Lun, Melody; Maynard, Thomas; Gonzalez, Dilenny; Kim, Seonhee; Ye, Ping; D’Ercole, A. Joseph; Wong, Eric T.; LaMantia, Anthony S.; Walsh, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    Cortical development depends on the active integration of cell autonomous and extrinsic cues, but the coordination of these processes is poorly understood. Here, we show that the apical complex protein Pals1 and Pten have opposing roles in localizing the Igf1R to the apical, ventricular domain of cerebral cortical progenitor cells. We found that the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which contacts this apical domain, has an age-dependent effect on proliferation, much of which is attributable to Igf2, but that CSF contains other signaling activities as well. CSF samples from patients with glioblastoma multiforme show elevated Igf2 and stimulate stem cell proliferation in an Igf2-dependent manner. Together, our findings demonstrate that the apical complex couples intrinsic and extrinsic signaling, enabling progenitors to sense and respond appropriately to diffusible CSF-borne signals distributed widely throughout the brain. The temporal control of CSF composition may have critical relevance to normal development and neuropathological conditions. PMID:21382550

  1. Sheep CD34+ amniotic fluid cells have hematopoietic potential and engraft after autologous in utero transplantation.

    PubMed

    Shaw, S W Steven; Blundell, Michael P; Pipino, Caterina; Shangaris, Panicos; Maghsoudlou, Panagiotis; Ramachandra, Durrgah L; Georgiades, Fanos; Boyd, Michael; Thrasher, Adrian J; Porada, Christopher D; Almeida-Porada, Graça; Cheng, Po-Jen; David, Anna L; de Coppi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Unmatched allogeneic in utero stem cell transplantation (IUSCT) produces poor engraftment unless the fetus has congenital immunodeficiency, probably because of maternal and fetal immune responses to injected cells. We studied the functional hematopoietic potential of transduced green fluorescent protein (GFP+) sheep amniotic fluid (AF) stem cells, before and after autologous IUSCT. CD34+ cells were selected from first trimester sheep AF, transduced overnight, and injected intravenously into NOD-SCID-gamma (NSG) mice. At 3 months, primary recipient bone marrow (BM) was injected into secondary NSG recipients. GFP+ cells were detected in the hematopoietic organs and peripheral blood of primary and secondary recipients at 3 months. Autologous IUSCT (transduced GFP+CD34+AF) was performed in fetal sheep. Six months postnatally, lamb BM was injected into secondary NSG recipients. GFP+ cells were detected in the peripheral blood of primary and secondary recipients. This confirms the hematopoietic potential of AF stem cells supporting the concept of autologous IUSCT to treat congenital hematopoietic disease. PMID:25186828

  2. Avian leucocyte counting using the hemocytometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dein, F.J.; Wilson, A.; Fischer, D.; Langenberg, P.

    1994-01-01

    Automated methods for counting leucocytes in avian blood are not available because of the presence of nucleated erythrocytes and thrombocytes. Therefore, total white blood cell counts are performed by hand using a hemocytometer. The Natt and Herrick and the Unopette methods are the most common stain and diluent preparations for this procedure. Replicate hemocytometer counts using these two methods were performed on blood from four birds of different species. Cells present in each square of the hemocytometer were counted. Counting cells in the corner, side, or center hemocytometer squares produced statistically equivalent results; counting four squares per chamber provided a result similar to that obtained by counting nine squares; and the Unopette method was more precise for hemocytometer counting than was the Natt and Herrick method. The Unopette method is easier to learn and perform but is an indirect process, utilizing the differential count from a stained smear. The Natt and Herrick method is a direct total count, but cell identification is more difficult.

  3. Human mid-trimester amniotic fluid stem cells cultured under embryonic stem cell conditions with valproic acid acquire pluripotent characteristics.

    PubMed

    Moschidou, Dafni; Mukherjee, Sayandip; Blundell, Michael P; Jones, Gemma N; Atala, Anthony J; Thrasher, Adrian J; Fisk, Nicholas M; De Coppi, Paolo; Guillot, Pascale V

    2013-02-01

    Human mid-trimester amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSC) have promising applications in regenerative medicine, being broadly multipotent with an intermediate phenotype between embryonic (ES) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Despite this propluripotent phenotype, AFSC are usually cultured in adherence in a serum-based expansion medium, and how expansion in conditions sustaining pluripotency might affect their phenotype remains unknown. We recently showed that early AFSC from first trimester amniotic fluid, which endogenously express Sox2 and Klf4, can be reprogrammed to pluripotency without viral vectors using the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid (VPA). Here, we show that mid-trimester AFSC cultured under MSC conditions contained a subset of cells endogenously expressing telomerase, CD24, OCT4, C-MYC, and SSEA4, but low/null levels of SOX2, NANOG, KLF4, SSEA3, TRA-1-60, and TRA-1-81, with cells unable to form embryoid bodies (EBs) or teratomas. In contrast, AFSC cultured under human ESC conditions were smaller in size, grew faster, formed colonies, upregulated OCT4 and C-MYC, and expressed KLF4 and SOX2, but not NANOG, SSEA3, TRA-1-60, and TRA-1-81. Supplementation with VPA for 5 days further upregulated OCT4, KLF4, and SOX2, and induced expression of NANOG, SSEA3, TRA-1-60, and TRA-1-81, with cells now able to form EBs and teratomas. We conclude that human mid-trimester AFSC, which may be isolated autologously during pregnancy without ethics restriction, can acquire pluripotent characteristics without the use of ectopic factors. Our data suggest that this medium-dependant approach to pluripotent mid-trimester AFSC reflects true reprogramming and not the selection of prepluripotent cells. PMID:23050522

  4. Effects of freezing-induced cell-fluid-matrix interactions on the cells and extracellular matrix of engineered tissues.

    PubMed

    Teo, Ka Yaw; DeHoyos, Tenok O; Dutton, J Craig; Grinnell, Frederick; Han, Bumsoo

    2011-08-01

    The two most significant challenges for successful cryopreservation of engineered tissues (ETs) are preserving tissue functionality and controlling highly tissue-type dependent preservation outcomes. In order to address these challenges, freezing-induced cell-fluid-matrix interactions should be understood, which determine the post-thaw cell viability and extracellular matrix (ECM) microstructure. However, the current understanding of this tissue-level biophysical interaction is still limited. In this study, freezing-induced cell-fluid-matrix interactions and their impact on the cells and ECM microstructure of ETs were investigated using dermal equivalents as a model ET. The dermal equivalents were constructed by seeding human dermal fibroblasts in type I collagen matrices with varying cell seeding density and collagen concentration. While these dermal equivalents underwent an identical freeze/thaw condition, their spatiotemporal deformation during freezing, post-thaw ECM microstructure, and cellular level cryoresponse were characterized. The results showed that the extent and characteristics of freezing-induced deformation were significantly different among the experimental groups, and the ETs with denser ECM microstructure experienced a larger deformation. The magnitude of the deformation was well correlated to the post-thaw ECM structure, suggesting that the freezing-induced deformation is a good indicator of post-thaw ECM structure. A significant difference in the extent of cellular injury was also noted among the experimental groups, and it depended on the extent of freezing-induced deformation of the ETs and the initial cytoskeleton organization. These results suggest that the cells have been subjected to mechanical insult due to the freezing-induced deformation as well as thermal insult. These findings provide insight on tissue-type dependent cryopreservation outcomes, and can help to design and modify cryopreservation protocols for new types of tissues from a pre-developed cryopreservation protocol. PMID:21549425

  5. Alterations in cancer cell mechanical properties after fluid shear stress exposure: a micropipette aspiration study

    PubMed Central

    Chivukula, Venkat Keshav; Krog, Benjamin L; Nauseef, Jones T; Henry, Michael D; Vigmostad, Sarah C

    2015-01-01

    Over 90% of cancer deaths result not from primary tumor development, but from metastatic tumors that arise after cancer cells circulate to distal sites via the circulatory system. While it is known that metastasis is an inefficient process, the effect of hemodynamic parameters such as fluid shear stress (FSS) on the viability and efficacy of metastasis is not well understood. Recent work has shown that select cancer cells may be able to survive and possibly even adapt to FSS in vitro. The current research seeks to characterize the effect of FSS on the mechanical properties of suspended cancer cells in vitro. Nontransformed prostate epithelial cells (PrEC LH) and transformed prostate cancer cells (PC-3) were used in this study. The Young’s modulus was determined using micropipette aspiration. We examined cells in suspension but not exposed to FSS (unsheared) and immediately after exposure to high (6,400 dyn/cm2) and low (510 dyn/cm2) FSS. The PrEC LH cells were ~140% stiffer than the PC-3 cells not exposed to FSS. Post-FSS exposure, there was an increase of ~77% in Young’s modulus after exposure to high FSS and a ~47% increase in Young’s modulus after exposure to low FSS for the PC-3 cells. There was no significant change in the Young’s modulus of PrEC LH cells post-FSS exposure. Our findings indicate that cancer cells adapt to FSS, with an increased Young’s modulus being one of the adaptive responses, and that this adaptation is specific only to PC-3 cells and is not seen in PrEC LH cells. Moreover, this adaptation appears to be graded in response to the magnitude of FSS experienced by the cancer cells. This is the first study investigating the effect of FSS on the mechanical properties of cancer cells in suspension, and may provide significant insights into the mechanism by which some select cancer cells may survive in the circulation, ultimately leading to metastasis at distal sites. Our findings suggest that biomechanical analysis of cancer cells could aid in identifying and diagnosing cancer in the future.

  6. SOX9 as a Predictor for Neurogenesis Potentiality of Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Pei-Cih; Chao, Angel; Peng, Hsiu-Huei; Chao, An-Shine; Chang, Yao-Lung; Chang, Shuenn-Dyh; Wang, Hsin-Shih; Chang, Yu-Jen; Tsai, Ming-Song; Sieber, Martin; Chen, Hua-Chien; Chen, Shu-Jen; Lee, Yun-Shien; Hwang, Shiaw-Min; Wang, Tzu-Hao

    2014-10-01

    Preclinical studies of amniotic fluid-derived cell therapy have been successful in the research of neurodegenerative diseases, peripheral nerve injury, spinal cord injury, and brain ischemia. Transplantation of human amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs) into rat brain ventricles has shown improvement in symptoms of Parkinson's disease and also highlighted the minimal immune rejection risk of AFSCs, even between species. Although AFSCs appeared to be a promising resource for cell-based regenerative therapy, AFSCs contain a heterogeneous pool of distinct cell types, rendering each preparation of AFSCs unique. Identification of predictive markers for neuron-prone AFSCs is necessary before such stem cell-based therapeutics can become a reality. In an attempt to identify markers of AFSCs to predict their ability for neurogenesis, we performed a two-phase study. In the discovery phase of 23 AFSCs, we tested ZNF521/Zfp521, OCT6, SOX1, SOX2, SOX3, and SOX9 as predictive markers of AFSCs for neural differentiation. In the validation phase, the efficacy of these predictive markers was tested in independent sets of 18 AFSCs and 14 dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). We found that high expression of SOX9 in AFSCs is associated with good neurogenetic ability, and these positive correlations were confirmed in independent sets of AFSCs and DPSCs. Furthermore, knockdown of SOX9 in AFSCs inhibited their neuronal differentiation. In conclusion, the discovery of SOX9 as a predictive marker for neuron-prone AFSCs could expedite the selection of useful clones for regenerative medicine, in particular, in neurological diseases and injuries. PMID:25154783

  7. Obesity Impairs Lymphatic Fluid Transport and Dendritic Cell Migration to Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Weitman, Evan S.; Aschen, Seth Z.; Farias-Eisner, Gina; Albano, Nicholas; Cuzzone, Daniel A.; Ghanta, Swapna; Zampell, Jamie C.; Thorek, Daniel; Mehrara, Babak J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is a major cause of morbidity and mortality resulting in pathologic changes in virtually every organ system. Although the cardiovascular system has been a focus of intense study, the effects of obesity on the lymphatic system remain essentially unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify the pathologic consequences of diet induced obesity (DIO) on the lymphatic system. Methods Adult male wild-type or RAG C57B6-6J mice were fed a high fat (60%) or normal chow diet for 8–10 weeks followed by analysis of lymphatic transport capacity. In addition, we assessed migration of dendritic cells (DCs) to local lymph nodes, lymph node architecture, and lymph node cellular make up. Results High fat diet resulted in obesity in both wild-type and RAG mice and significantly impaired lymphatic fluid transport and lymph node uptake; interestingly, obese wild-type but not obese RAG mice had significantly impaired migration of DCs to the peripheral lymph nodes. Obesity also resulted in significant changes in the macro and microscopic anatomy of lymph nodes as reflected by a marked decrease in size of inguinal lymph nodes (3.4-fold), decreased number of lymph node lymphatics (1.6-fold), loss of follicular pattern of B cells, and dysregulation of CCL21 expression gradients. Finally, obesity resulted in a significant decrease in the number of lymph node T cells and increased number of B cells and macrophages. Conclusions Obesity has significant negative effects on lymphatic transport, DC cell migration, and lymph node architecture. Loss of T and B cell inflammatory reactions does not protect from impaired lymphatic fluid transport but preserves DC migration capacity. Future studies are needed to determine how the interplay between diet, obesity, and the lymphatic system modulate systemic complications of obesity. PMID:23950984

  8. Clonally expanded plasma cells in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with central nervous system autoimmune demyelination produce “oligoclonal bands”

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans-Christian von Büdingen; Monica Gulati; Sandra Kuenzle; Katja Fischer; Tobias A. Rupprecht; Norbert Goebels

    2010-01-01

    Clonally expanded plasma cells (cePC) and oligoclonal IgG (oligoclonal bands, OCB) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) suggest an involvement of B cell mechanisms in autoimmune CNS demyelination. Due to their CSF-restricted occurrence, OCB are commonly believed to be the products of B cells inside the borders of the blood brain barrier. A comparison of CSF cell Ig transcriptomes and CSF-Ig

  9. Membrane with internal passages to permit fluid flow and an electrochemical cell containing the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cisar, Alan J. (Inventor); Gonzalez-Martin, Anuncia (Inventor); Hitchens, G. Duncan (Inventor); Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The invention provides an improved proton exchange membrane for use in electrochemical cells having internal passages parallel to the membrane surface, an apparatus and process for making the membrane, membrane and electrode assemblies fabricated using the membrane, and the application of the membrane and electrode assemblies to a variety of devices, both electrochemical and otherwise. The passages in the membrane extend from one edge of the membrane to another and allow fluid flow through the membrane and give access directly to the membrane for purposes of hydration.

  10. Levels of CD105(+) cells increase and cell proliferation decreases during S-phase arrest of amniotic fluid cells in long-term culture.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ding; Chen, Rui; Zhong, Xuan; Fan, Yong; Lai, Weiqiang; Sun, Xiaofang

    2014-11-01

    The present study aimed to improve the characterization of amniotic fluid cells (AFCs) in order to optimize their use in chromosomal prenatal diagnosis and as seed or stem cells for tissue engineering. The AFCs used in the current study were obtained from three females in their second trimester of pregnancy. The cells were cultured independently and characterized by cell morphology, cell markers, cell cycle distribution and chromosome Giemsa banding in an early- and late-passage. The AFCs remained homogeneous in culture and expressed mesenchymal markers, but not endothelial markers along the culture process. In addition, compared with the early-passage cells, the late-passage cells exhibit an increase in CD105 expression, a decrease in cell division and a delay in the cell cycle, and a number of cells underwent cell cycle arrest. However, the cells retained a normal karyotype. Therefore, the current study characterized AFCs in a clinical culture and confirmed that AFCs are mesenchymal precursors. The results obtained may be useful for the application of AFCs in prenatal diagnosis. PMID:25289067

  11. Air sparging for prevention of antibody disulfide bond reduction in harvested CHO cell culture fluid.

    PubMed

    Mun, Melissa; Khoo, Stefanie; Do Minh, Aline; Dvornicky, James; Trexler-Schmidt, Melody; Kao, Yung-Hsiang; Laird, Michael W

    2015-04-01

    During the scale-up of several Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell monoclonal antibody production processes, significant reduction of the antibody interchain disulfide bonds was observed. The reduction was correlated with excessive mechanical cell shear during the harvest operations. These antibody reduction events resulted in failed product specifications and the subsequent loss of the drug substance batches. Several methods were recently developed to prevent antibody reduction, including modifying the cell culture media, using pre- and post-harvest chemical additions to the cell culture fluid (CCF), lowering the pH, and air sparging of the harvested CCF (HCCF). The work described in this paper further explores the option of HCCF air sparging for preventing antibody reduction. Here, a small-scale model was developed using a 3-L bioreactor to mimic the conditions of a manufacturing-scale harvest vessel and was subsequently employed to evaluate several air sparging strategies. In addition, these studies enabled further understanding of the relationships between cell lysis levels, oxygen consumption, and antibody reduction. Finally, the effectiveness of air sparging for several CHO cell lines and the potential impact on product quality were assessed to demonstrate that air sparging is an effective method in preventing antibody reduction. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2015;112: 734-742. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25384896

  12. A Cell Number-Counting Factor Regulates Levels of a Novel Protein, SslA, as Part of a Group Size Regulation Mechanism in Dictyostelium?

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Tong; Roisin-Bouffay, Celine; Hatton, R. Diane; Tang, Lei; Brock, Debra A.; DeShazo, Tiffany; Olson, Laura; Hong, Wan-Pyo; Jang, Wonhee; Canseco, Elvia; Bakthavatsalam, Deenadayalan; Gomer, Richard H.

    2007-01-01

    Developing Dictyostelium cells form aggregation streams that break into groups of ?2 × 104 cells. The breakup and subsequent group size are regulated by a secreted multisubunit counting factor (CF). To elucidate how CF regulates group size, we isolated second-site suppressors of smlA?, a transformant that forms small groups due to oversecretion of CF. smlA? sslA1(CR11) cells form roughly wild-type-size groups due to an insertion in the beginning of the coding region of sslA1, one of two highly similar genes encoding a novel protein. The insertion increases levels of SslA. In wild-type cells, the sslA1(CR11) mutation forms abnormally large groups. Reducing SslA levels by antisense causes the formation of smaller groups. The sslA(CR11) mutation does not affect the extracellular accumulation of CF activity or the CF components countin and CF50, suggesting that SslA does not regulate CF secretion. However, CF represses levels of SslA. Wild-type cells starved in the presence of smlA? cells, recombinant countin, or recombinant CF50 form smaller groups, whereas sslA1(CR11) cells appear to be insensitive to the presence of smlA? cells, countin, or CF50, suggesting that the sslA1(CR11) insertion affects CF signal transduction. We previously found that CF reduces intracellular glucose levels. sslA(CR11) does not significantly affect glucose levels, while glucose increases SslA levels. Together, the data suggest that SslA is a novel protein involved in part of a signal transduction pathway regulating group size. PMID:17660362

  13. Can Outer Hair Cells Actively Pump Fluid into the Tunnel of Corti?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagadou, Brissi Franck; Mountain, David C.

    2011-11-01

    Non-classical models of the cochlear traveling wave have been introduced in attempt to capture the unique features of the cochlear amplifier (CA). These models include multiple modes of longitudinal coupling. In one approach, it is hypothesized that two wave modes can add their energies to create amplification such as that desired in the CA. The tunnel of Corti (ToC) was later used to represent the second wave mode for the proposed traveling wave amplifier model, and was incorporated in a multi-compartment cochlea model. The results led to the hypothesis that the CA functions as a fluid pump. However, this hypothesis must be consistent with the anatomical structure of the organ of Corti (OC). The fluid must pass between the outer pillar cells before reaching the ToC, and the ToC fluid and the underlying basilar membrane must constitute an appropriate waveguide. We have analyzed an anatomically based 3D finite element model of the ToC of the gerbil. Our results demonstrate that the OC structure is consistent with the hypothesis.

  14. The use of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells as the feeder layer to establish human embryonic stem cell lines.

    PubMed

    Soong, Yung-Kwei; Huang, Shang-Yu; Yeh, Chiu-Hsiang; Wang, Tzu-Hao; Chang, Kuo-Hsuan; Cheng, Po-Jen; Shaw, S W Steven

    2013-03-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are pluripotent cells that have the potential to differentiate into the three germ layers and possibly all tissues of the human body. To fulfil the clinical potentials for cell-based therapy, banks of hESC lines that express different combinations of the major histocompatibility genes should be established, preferably without exposing such cells to animal cells and proteins. In this study, we tested human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSCs) as feeder cells to support the growth of hESCs. Our results indicated that mitomycin-treated AFMSCs were able to support the newly established hESC lines CGLK-1 and CGLK-2. The hESC colonies cultured on AFMSCs expressed alkaline phosphatase (ALK-P), SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81, Oct-4, Nanog and Sox-2, which are markers for undifferentiated hESCs. Chromosomal analyses of both hESC lines, CGLK-1 and CGLK-2, which were cultured on AFMSC feeders for 22 and 14 passages, respectively, were confirmed to be normal karyotypes (46, XX). The ability of AFMSCs as feeder cells to maintain the undifferentiated growth and pluripotency of hESCs was confirmed by in vivo formation of teratomas derived on AFMSC hESCs in severe combined immune-compromised mice. The use of AFMSCs for feeder cells to culture hESCs has several advantages, in that AFMSCs are not tumourigenic and can be expanded extensively with a short doubling time. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23460275

  15. In utero therapy for congenital disorders using amniotic fluid stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandra, Durrgah L.; Shaw, Steven S. W.; Shangaris, Panicos; Loukogeorgakis, Stavros; Guillot, Pascale V.; Coppi, Paolo De; David, Anna L.

    2014-01-01

    Congenital diseases are responsible for over a third of all pediatric hospital admissions. Advances in prenatal screening and molecular diagnosis have allowed the detection of many life-threatening genetic diseases early in gestation. In utero transplantation (IUT) with stem cells could cure affected fetuses but so far in humans, successful IUT using allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), has been limited to fetuses with severe immunologic defects and more recently IUT with allogeneic mesenchymal stem cell transplantation, has improved phenotype in osteogenesis imperfecta. The options of preemptive treatment of congenital diseases in utero by stem cell or gene therapy changes the perspective of congenital diseases since it may avoid the need for postnatal treatment and reduce future costs. Amniotic fluid stem (AFS) cells have been isolated and characterized in human, mice, rodents, rabbit, and sheep and are a potential source of cells for therapeutic applications in disorders for treatment prenatally or postnatally. Gene transfer to the cells with long-term transgenic protein expression is feasible. Recently, pre-clinical autologous transplantation of transduced cells has been achieved in fetal sheep using minimally invasive ultrasound guided injection techniques. Clinically relevant levels of transgenic protein were expressed in the blood of transplanted lambs for at least 6 months. The cells have also demonstrated the potential of repair in a range of pre-clinical disease models such as neurological disorders, tracheal repair, bladder injury, and diaphragmatic hernia repair in neonates or adults. These results have been encouraging, and bring personalized tissue engineering for prenatal treatment of genetic disorders closer to the clinic. PMID:25566071

  16. Roles of cell confluency and fluid shear in 3-dimensional intracellular forces in endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Sung Sik; del Álamo, Juan C.; Park, Joon Seok; Li, Yi-Shuan; Nguyen, Hong A.; Teng, Dayu; Wang, Kuei-Chun; Flores, Leona; Alonso-Latorre, Baldomero; Lasheras, Juan C.; Chien, Shu

    2012-01-01

    We use a novel 3D inter-/intracellular force microscopy technique based on 3D traction force microscopy to measure the cell–cell junctional and intracellular tensions in subconfluent and confluent vascular endothelial cell (EC) monolayers under static and shear flow conditions. We found that z-direction cell–cell junctional tensions are higher in confluent EC monolayers than those in subconfluent ECs, which cannot be revealed in the previous 2D methods. Under static conditions, subconfluent cells are under spatially non-uniform tensions, whereas cells in confluent monolayers are under uniform tensions. The shear modulations of EC cytoskeletal remodeling, extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesions, and cell–cell junctions lead to significant changes in intracellular tensions. When a confluent monolayer is subjected to flow shear stresses with a high forward component comparable to that seen in the straight part of the arterial system, the intracellular and junction tensions preferentially increase along the flow direction over time, which may be related to the relocation of adherens junction proteins. The increases in intracellular tensions are shown to be a result of chemo-mechanical responses of the ECs under flow shear rather than a direct result of mechanical loading. In contrast, the intracellular tensions do not show a preferential orientation under oscillatory flow with a very low mean shear. These differences in the directionality and magnitude of intracellular tensions may modulate translation and transcription of ECs under different flow patterns, thus affecting their susceptibility for atherogenesis. PMID:22665785

  17. Human amniotic fluid stem cells have a potential to recover ovarian function in mice with chemotherapy-induced sterility

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human amniotic fluid cells (hAFCs) may differentiate into multiple cell lineages and thus have a great potential to become a donor cell source for regenerative medicine. The ability of hAFCs to differentiate into germ cell and oocyte-like cells has been previously documented. Herein we report the potential use of hAFCs to help restore follicles in clinical condition involving premature ovarian failure. Results Human amniotic fluid was obtained via amniocentesis, yielding a subpopulation of cloned hAFCs that was able to form embryoid bodies (EBs) and differentiate into three embryonic germ layers. Moreover, culture of EBs in medium containing human follicular fluid (HFF) or a germ cell maturation factor cocktail (FAC), expressed germ cells markers such as BLIMP1, STELLA, DAZL, VASA, STRA8, SCP3, SCP1, and GDF9. Furthermore, one cell line was grown from clone cells transfected with lentivirus-GFP and displaying morphological characteristics of mesenchymal cells, had the ability to restore ovarian morphology following cell injection into the ovaries of mice sterilized by intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide and busulphan. Restored ovaries displayed many follicle-enclosed oocytes at all stages of development, but no oocytes or follicles were observed in sterilized mice whose ovaries had been injected with medium only (control). Notably, identification of GFP-labeled cells and immunostaining with anti–human antigen-specific antibodies demonstrated that grafted hAFCs survived and differentiated into granulosa cells which directed oocyte maturation. Furthermore, labeling of ovarian tissue for anti-Müllerian hormone expression, a functional marker of folliculogenesis, was strong in hAFCs-transplanted ovaries but inexistent in negative controls. Conclusion These findings highlight the possibility of using human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells in regenerative medicine, in particular in the area of reproductive health. PMID:24006896

  18. Rapid, low-cost and instrument-free CD4+ cell counting for HIV diagnostics in resource-poor settings.

    PubMed

    Glynn, Macdara T; Kinahan, David J; Ducrée, Jens

    2014-08-01

    We present a novel, user-friendly and widely autonomous point-of-care diagnostic to enable HIV monitoring in resource-poor regions where the current pandemic is most prevalent. To specifically isolate magnetically tagged CD4+ cells directly from patient blood, the low-cost and disposable microfluidic chip operates by dual-force CD4+ cell magnetophoresis; whereby the interplay of flow and magnetic fields governs the trajectory of target cells depending on whether the cell binds to a magnetic microbead. Instrument-free pumping is implemented by a finger-actuated elastic membrane; tagged beads are laterally deflected by a small and re-useable permanent magnet. The single-depth and monolithic microfluidic structure can easily be fabricated in a single casting step. After their magnetophoretic isolation from whole blood, estimation of CD4+ cell concentrations is then measured by bright-field inspection of the capture chamber. In addition, an optional fluorescence measurement can be used for confirmation of the bright-field result if required. On-chip CD4+ estimation produces a linear response over the full range of medically relevant CD4+ cell concentrations. Our technology combines high-efficiency capture (93.0 ± 3.3%) and cell enumeration. PMID:24911165

  19. From pre-DP, post-DP, SP4, and SP8 Thymocyte Cell Counts to a Dynamical Model of Cortical and Medullary Selection.

    PubMed

    Sawicka, Maria; Stritesky, Gretta L; Reynolds, Joseph; Abourashchi, Niloufar; Lythe, Grant; Molina-París, Carmen; Hogquist, Kristin A

    2014-01-01

    Cells of the mature ?? T cell repertoire arise from the development in the thymus of bone marrow precursors (thymocytes). ?? T cell maturation is characterized by the expression of thousands of copies of identical ?? T cell receptors and the CD4 and/or CD8 co-receptors on the surface of thymocytes. The maturation stages of a thymocyte are: (1) double negative (DN) (TCR(-), CD4(-) and CD8(-)), (2) double positive (DP) (TCR(+), CD4(+) and CD8(+)), and (3) single positive (SP) (TCR(+), CD4(+) or CD8(+)). Thymic antigen presenting cells provide the appropriate micro-architecture for the maturation of thymocytes, which "sense" the signaling environment via their randomly generated TCRs. Thymic development is characterized by (i) an extremely low success rate, and (ii) the selection of a functional and self-tolerant T cell repertoire. In this paper, we combine recent experimental data and mathematical modeling to study the selection events that take place in the thymus after the DN stage. The stable steady state of the model for the pre-DP, post-DP, and SP populations is identified with the experimentally measured cell counts from 5.5- to 17-week-old mice. We make use of residence times in the cortex and the medulla for the different populations, as well as recently reported asymmetric death rates for CD4 and CD8 SP thymocytes. We estimate that 65.8% of pre-DP thymocytes undergo death by neglect. In the post-DP compartment, 91.7% undergo death by negative selection, 4.7% become CD4 SP, and 3.6% become CD8 SP. Death by negative selection in the medulla removes 8.6% of CD4 SP and 32.1% of CD8 SP thymocytes. Approximately 46.3% of CD4 SP and 27% of CD8 SP thymocytes divide before dying or exiting the thymus. PMID:24592261

  20. Golden tracheal secretions and bronchoalveolar fluid during acute chest syndrome in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Contou, Damien; Mekontso Dessap, Armand; Carteaux, Guillaume; Brun-Buisson, Christian; Maitre, Bernard; de Prost, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    Acute chest syndrome (ACS) is the leading cause of ICU admission in patients with sickle cell disease and is characterized by golden sputum, which is commonly attributed to the presence of bilirubin. Three young consecutive patients with homozygous sickle cell disease were admitted for severe acute respiratory syndrome due to ACS. In all 3 patients, tracheal secretions and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) showed a yellowish plasma-like stain. After normalization for the plasma-to-BAL urea ratio, BALF protein and lactate dehydrogenase levels were consistent with an exudative process. BALF bilirubin concentrations were very low, implying that the yellowish stain was not related to bilirubin content. The yellowish coloration of tracheal secretions and BALF observed during ACS appears to be related to an intense exudative process rather than to the presence of bilirubin. PMID:25316891

  1. Design of an ultrashort optical transmission cell for vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy of supercritical fluids.

    PubMed

    Janik, Ireneusz; Marin, Timothy W

    2015-01-01

    We present the design and characteristics of an ultrathin flow cell optimized for vacuum ultraviolet transmission spectroscopy experiments on supercritical fluids. The cell operates satisfactorily at pressures up to 300 bar and temperatures up to 390?°C. The variable path length concept of the cell allows for optical transmission studies of analytes ranging from dense condensed-phase systems to gas-phase systems. The path length of the cell can be adjusted from hundreds of nanometers to hundreds of micrometers by an exchange of a variable thickness spacer sandwiched between two sapphire windows. In the path length range from nanometers to single micrometers, metal vapor deposited on one or both of the two sandwiched optical windows constitute the spacer. Spacers with thicknesses of 2 ?m and greater can be constructed from simple commercially available metal foils. The cell has been used to measure the lowest-lying absorption band of water in both the vapor and condensed phases from room temperature up to and above the critical point. It has also found application in the studies of aqueous ions and nonaqueous liquids including various common organic solvents and carbon dioxide. PMID:25638117

  2. Fluid Shear Stress-Induced JNK Activity Leads to Actin Remodeling for Cell Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Mengistu, Meron; Brotzman, Hannah; Ghadiali, Samir; Lowe-Krentz, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Fluid shear stress (FSS) exerted on endothelial cell surfaces induces actin cytoskeleton remodeling through mechanotransduction. This study was designed to determine whether FSS activates Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), to examine the spatial and temporal distribution of active JNK relative to the actin cytoskeleton in endothelial cells exposed to different FSS conditions, and to evaluate the effects of active JNK on actin realignment. Exposure to 15 and 20 dyn/cm2 FSS induced higher activity levels of JNK than the lower 2 and 4 dyn/cm2 flow conditions. At the higher FSS treatments, JNK activity increased with increasing exposure time, peaking 30 minutes after flow onset with an 8-fold activity increase compared to cells in static culture. FSS-induced phospho-JNK co-localized with actin filaments at cell peripheries, as well as with stress fibers. Pharmacologically blocking JNK activity altered FSS-induced actin structure and distribution as a response to FSS. Our results indicate that FSS-induced actin remodeling occurs in three phases, and that JNK plays a role in at least one, suggesting that this kinase activity is involved in mechanotransduction from the apical surface to the actin cytoskeleton in endothelial cells. PMID:20626006

  3. Three-Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells and Stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Hawkes; James O'Brien; Carl Stoots; Stephen Herring

    2008-07-01

    A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) electrochemical model has been created for detailed analysis of a high-temperature electrolysis stack (solid oxide fuel cells operated as electrolyzers). Inlet and outlet plenum flow distributions are discussed. Maldistribution of plena flow show deviations in per-cell operating conditions due to non-uniformity of species concentrations. Models have also been created to simulate experimental conditions and for code validation. Comparisons between model predictions and experimental results are discussed. Mass, momentum, energy, and species conservation and transport are provided via the core features of the commercial CFD code FLUENT. A solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) model adds the electrochemical reactions and loss mechanisms and computation of the electric field throughout the cell. The FLUENT SOFC user-defined subroutine was modified for this work to allow for operation in the electrolysis mode. Model results provide detailed profiles of temperature, Nernst potential, operating potential, activation over-potential, anode-side gas composition, cathode-side gas composition, current density and hydrogen production over a range of stack operating conditions. Variations in flow distribution, and species concentration are discussed. End effects of flow and per-cell voltage are also considered. Predicted mean outlet hydrogen and steam concentrations vary linearly with current density, as expected. Contour plots of local electrolyte temperature, current density, and Nernst potential indicate the effects of heat transfer, reaction cooling/heating, and change in local gas composition.

  4. Evaluation of Distinct Freezing Methods and Cryoprotectants for Human Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells Cryopreservation

    PubMed Central

    Janz, Felipe de Lara; Debes, Adriana de Aguiar; Cavaglieri, Rita de Cássia; Duarte, Sérgio Aloísio; Romão, Carolina Martinez; Morón, Antonio Fernandes; Zugaib, Marcelo; Bydlowski, Sérgio Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Amniotic fluid (AF) was described as a potential source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for biomedicine purposes. Therefore, evaluation of alternative cryoprotectants and freezing protocols capable to maintain the viability and stemness of these cells after cooling is still needed. AF stem cells (AFSCs) were tested for different freezing methods and cryoprotectants. Cell viability, gene expression, surface markers, and plasticity were evaluated after thawing. AFSCs expressed undifferentiated genes Oct4 and Nanog; presented typical markers (CD29, CD44, CD90, and CD105) and were able to differentiate into mesenchymal lineages. All tested cryoprotectants preserved the features of AFSCs however, variations in cell viability were observed. In this concern, dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO) showed the best results. The freezing protocols tested did not promote significant changes in the AFSCs viability. Time programmed and nonprogrammed freezing methods could be used for successful AFSCs cryopreservation for 6 months. Although tested cryoprotectants maintained undifferentiated gene expression, typical markers, and plasticity of AFSCs, only Me2SO and glycerol presented workable viability ratios. PMID:22665987

  5. Design of an ultrashort optical transmission cell for vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy of supercritical fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janik, Ireneusz; Marin, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    We present the design and characteristics of an ultrathin flow cell optimized for vacuum ultraviolet transmission spectroscopy experiments on supercritical fluids. The cell operates satisfactorily at pressures up to 300 bar and temperatures up to 390 °C. The variable path length concept of the cell allows for optical transmission studies of analytes ranging from dense condensed-phase systems to gas-phase systems. The path length of the cell can be adjusted from hundreds of nanometers to hundreds of micrometers by an exchange of a variable thickness spacer sandwiched between two sapphire windows. In the path length range from nanometers to single micrometers, metal vapor deposited on one or both of the two sandwiched optical windows constitute the spacer. Spacers with thicknesses of 2 ?m and greater can be constructed from simple commercially available metal foils. The cell has been used to measure the lowest-lying absorption band of water in both the vapor and condensed phases from room temperature up to and above the critical point. It has also found application in the studies of aqueous ions and nonaqueous liquids including various common organic solvents and carbon dioxide.

  6. Investigating the fluid mechanics behind red blood cell-induced lateral platelet motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowl Erickson, Lindsay; Fogelson, Aaron

    2009-11-01

    Platelets play an essential role in blood clotting; they adhere to damaged tissue and release chemicals that activate other platelets. Yet in order to adhere, platelets must first come into contact with the injured vessel wall. Under arterial flow conditions, platelets have an enhanced concentration near blood vessel walls. This non-uniform cell distribution depends on the fluid dynamics of blood as a heterogeneous medium. We use a parallelized lattice Boltzmann-immersed boundary method to solve the flow dynamics of red cells and platelets in a periodic 2D vessel with no-slip boundary conditions. Red cells are treated as biconcave immersed boundary objects with isotropic Skalak membrane tension and an internal viscosity five times that of the surrounding plasma. Using this method we analyze the influence of shear rate, hematocrit, and red cell membrane properties on lateral platelet motion. We find that the effective diffusion of platelets is significantly lower near the vessel wall compared to the center of the vessel. Insight gained from this work could lead to significant improvements to current models for platelet adhesion where the presence of red blood cells is neglected due to computational intensity.

  7. Prevention of Infection in Patients With Hematologic Cancer and Persistent Fever Caused by a Low White Blood Cell Count

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-09-20

    Bone Marrow Suppression; Fever, Sweats, and Hot Flashes; Infection; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  8. Native and rearranged ALK copy number and rearranged cell count in NSCLC: Implications for ALK inhibitor therapy

    PubMed Central

    Camidge, D. Ross; Skokan, Margaret; Kiatsimkul, Porntip; Helfrich, Barbara; Lu, Xian; Barón, Anna E.; Schulte, Nathan; Maxson, DeLee; Aisner, Dara L.; Franklin, Wilbur A.; Doebele, Robert C.; Varella-Garcia, Marileila

    2013-01-01

    Background Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase positive (ALK+) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) responds to ALK inhibitors. Clinically, ? 15% cells showing rearrangements by break-apart FISH classify tumors as positive. Increases in native and rearranged ALK copy number also occur. Methods 1426 NSCLC clinical specimens (174 ALK+ and 1252 ALK negative), and 24 ALK negative NSCLC cell lines were investigated. ALK copy number and genomic status were assessed by FISH. Results Clinical specimens with 0–9%, 10–15%, 16–30%, 31–50% and >50% of ALK+ cells were found in 79.3%, 8.5%, 1.4%, 2.7% and 8.1% of cases, respectively. Increased native ALK copy number (?3 copies/cell in ?40% cells) was detected in 19% of ALK+ and 62% of ALK negative tumors. In ALK negative tumors, abundant focal amplification of native ALK was rare (0.8%). Other atypical patterns occurred in ~6% of tumors. Mean native ALK copy number ranged from 2.1–6.9 in cell lines and was not correlated with crizotinib sensitivity (IC50s 0.34–2.8 uM) (r=0.279, p=0.1764). Neither native, nor rearranged ALK copy number, nor percentage cells positive correlated with extra-central nervous system progression free survivalin ALK+ patients on crizotinib. Conclusions 8.5% of cases are below the established positivity threshold by ?5%. Further investigation of ALK by other diagnostic techniques in such cases may be warranted. Native ALK copy number increases alone are not associated with sensitivity to ALK inhibition in vitro. However, rare complex patterns of increased native ALK in patients should be studied further as atypical rearrangements contained within these may otherwise be missed. PMID:24022839

  9. Induced sputum cell and fluid-phase indices of inflammation: comparison of treatment with dithiothreitol vs phosphate-buffered saline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Efthimiadis; M. M. M. Pizzichini; E. Pizzichini; J. Dolovich; F. E. Hargreave

    1997-01-01

    Induced sputum cell and fluid-phase indices of inflammation: comparison of treatment with dithiothreitol vs phosphate-buffered saline. A. Efthimiadis, M.M.M. Pizzichini, E. Pizzichini, J. Dolovich, F.E. Hargreave. ©ERS Journals Ltd 1997. ABSTRACT: Treatment of sputum with dithiothreitol (DTT) gives reliable mea- surements of cellular and fluid-phase markers of airway inflammation. We inves- tigated the extent to which DTT treatment influences these

  10. Effect of mucosal fluid from women with bacterial vaginosis on HIV trans-infection mediated by dendritic cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth P. St. John; M. Reza Zariffard; Jeffrey A. Martinson; Jose A. Simoes; Alan L. Landay; Gregory T. Spear

    2009-01-01

    Women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) have a higher risk of HIV transmission but the cause of risk is unknown. Dendritic cells (DC) are implicated in transmission of HIV and we previously observed that DC mature when exposed to mucosal fluid from women with BV. We hypothesized that maturation of DC by BV mucosal fluid would enhance DC-mediated trans-infection of HIV.Monocyte-derived

  11. Fluid shear promotes chondrosarcoma cell invasion by activating matrix metalloproteinase 12 via IGF-2 and VEGF signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, P; Chen, S-H; Hung, W-C; Paul, C; Zhu, F; Guan, P-P; Huso, D L; Kontrogianni-Konstantopoulos, A; Konstantopoulos, K

    2014-12-01

    Interstitial fluid flow in and around the tumor tissue is a physiologically relevant mechanical signal that regulates intracellular signaling pathways throughout the tumor. Yet, the effects of interstitial flow and associated fluid shear stress on the tumor cell function have been largely overlooked. Using in vitro bioengineering models in conjunction with molecular cell biology tools, we found that fluid shear (2?dyn/cm(2)) markedly upregulates matrix metalloproteinase 12 (MMP-12) expression and its activity in human chondrosarcoma cells. MMP-12 expression is induced in human chondrocytes during malignant transformation. However, the signaling pathway regulating MMP-12 expression and its potential role in human chondrosarcoma cell invasion and metastasis have yet to be delineated. We discovered that fluid shear stress induces the synthesis of insulin growth factor-2 (IGF-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) B and D, which in turn transactivate MMP-12 via PI3-K, p38 and JNK signaling pathways. IGF-2-, VEGF-B- or VEGF-D-stimulated chondrosarcoma cells display markedly higher migratory and invasive potentials in vitro, which are blocked by inhibiting MMP-12, PI3-K, p38 or JNK activity. Moreover, recombinant human MMP-12 or MMP-12 overexpression can potentiate chondrosarcoma cell invasion in vitro and the lung colonization in vivo. By reconstructing and delineating the signaling pathway regulating MMP-12 activation, potential therapeutic strategies that interfere with chondrosarcoma cell invasion may be identified.Oncogene advance online publication, 1 December 2014; doi:10.1038/onc.2014.397. PMID:25435370

  12. Characterization of enteric neurons in wild-type and mutant zebrafish using semi-automated cell counting and co-expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Simonson, Levi W; Ganz, Julia; Melancon, Ellie; Eisen, Judith S

    2013-06-01

    To characterize fluorescent enteric neurons labeled for expression of cytoplasmic markers in zebrafish mutants, we developed a new MATLAB-based program that can be trained by user input. We used the program to count enteric neurons and to analyze co-expression of the neuronal marker, Elavl, and the neuronal subtype marker, serotonin, in 3D confocal image stacks of dissected whole-mount zebrafish intestines. We quantified the entire population of enteric neurons and the serotonergic subpopulation in specific regions of the intestines of gutwrencher mutant and wild-type sibling larvae. We show a marked decrease in enteric neurons in gutwrencher mutants that is more severe at the caudal end of the intestine. We also show that gutwrencher mutants have the same number of serotonin-positive enteroendocrine cells in the intestine as wild types. PMID:23297729

  13. Microbial Metabolism in Serpentinite Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo-Medina, M.; Brazelton, W. J.; Twing, K. I.; Kubo, M.; Hoehler, T. M.; Schrenk, M. O.

    2013-12-01

    Serpentinization is the process in which ultramafic rocks, characteristic of the upper mantle, react with water liberating mantle carbon and reducing power to potenially support chemosynthetic microbial communities. These communities may be important mediators of carbon and energy exchange between the deep Earth and the surface biosphere. Our work focuses on the Coast Range Ophiolite Microbial Observatory (CROMO) in Northern California where subsurface fluids are accessible through a series of wells. Preliminary analyses indicate that the highly basic fluids (pH 9-12) have low microbial diversity, but there is limited knowledge about the metabolic capabilities of these communties. Metagenomic data from similar serpentine environments [1] have identified Betaproteobacteria belonging to the order Burkholderiales and Gram-positive bacteria from the order Clostridiales as key components of the serpentine microbiome. In an effort to better characterize the microbial community, metabolism, and geochemistry at CROMO, fluids from two representative wells (N08B and CSWold) were sampled during recent field campaigns. Geochemical characterization of the fluids includes measurements of dissolved gases (H2, CO, CH4), dissolved inorganic and organic carbon, volatile fatty acids, and nutrients. The wells selected can be differentiated in that N08B had higher pH (10-11), lower dissolved oxygen, and cell counts ranging from 105-106 cells mL-1 of fluid, with an abundance of the betaproteobacterium Hydrogenophaga. In contrast, fluids from CSWold have slightly lower pH (9-9.5), DO, and conductivity, as well as higher TDN and TDP. CSWold fluid is also characterized for having lower cell counts (~103 cells mL-1) and an abundance of Dethiobacter, a taxon within the phylum Clostridiales. Microcosm experiments were conducted with the purpose of monitoring carbon fixation, methanotrophy and metabolism of small organic compounds, such as acetate and formate, while tracing changes in fluid chemistry and microbial community composition. These experiments are expected to provide insight into the biogeochemical dynamics of the serpentinite subsurface at CROMO and represent a first step for developing metatranscriptomic and RNA-based Stable Isotope Probing (RNA-SIP) experiments to trace microbial activity at this site. [1] Brazelton et al. (2012) Frontiers in Microbiology 2:268

  14. Changes in the bacterial flora of the upper and lower respiratory tracts and bronchoalveolar lavage differential cell counts in feedlot calves treated for respiratory diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, J W; Viel, L; Bateman, K G; Rosendal, S

    1992-01-01

    Serial nasopharyngeal swab and bronchoalveolar lavage cultures were used to estimate changes in the bacterial flora of the respiratory tracts of calves during the first month after arrival in the feedlot. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) differential cell counts served to evaluate pulmonary inflammatory changes during this period. Two groups of calves were studied, one consisting of clinically normal controls (n = 60), the other, of cases (n = 59) which received treatment for respiratory disease (penicillin +/- trimethoprimsulfadoxine). A variety of organisms, including Pasteurella multocida, Pasteurella haemolytica, Haemophilus somnus, Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma bovirhinis, were present in the upper and lower airways of both groups during the postarrival period. With the exception of M. bovis, an overall decline in the prevalence of these organisms was observed during the course of the study. In cases, there was a marked decrease in the number of Pasteurella spp. and H. somnus isolates immediately following treatment. For the Pasteurella spp., however, this effect was shortlived as they often appeared to recolonize the respiratory tract within eight days of terminating antimicrobial therapy. Treatment did not appear to affect the frequency of isolating M. bovis. Its prevalence, in both groups of calves, increased to levels approaching 100% during the course of the study. All Pasteurella spp. isolates were tested for susceptibility to several commonly used antimicrobials. Resistance was only evident among P. haemolytica isolated from cases and in every instance this was to a combination of penicillin, ampicillin and tetracycline. Significantly more isolates were resistant after treatment than before. There were BAL differential cell count abnormalities indicative of inflammation in both cases and controls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1423052

  15. Successful fabrication of a convex platform PMMA cell-counting slide using a high-precision perpendicular dual-spindle CNC machine tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shun-Tong; Chang, Chih-Hsien

    2013-12-01

    This study presents a novel approach to the fabrication of a biomedical-mold for producing convex platform PMMA (poly-methyl-meth-acrylate) slides for counting cells. These slides allow for the microscopic examination of urine sediment cells. Manufacturing of such slides incorporates three important procedures: (1) the development of a tabletop high-precision dual-spindle CNC (computerized numerical control) machine tool; (2) the formation of a boron-doped polycrystalline composite diamond (BD-PCD) wheel-tool on the machine tool developed in procedure (1); and (3) the cutting of a multi-groove-biomedical-mold array using the formed diamond wheel-tool in situ on the developed machine. The machine incorporates a hybrid working platform providing wheel-tool thinning using spark erosion to cut, polish, and deburr microgrooves on NAK80 steel directly. With consideration given for the electrical conductive properties of BD-PCD, the diamond wheel-tool is thinned to a thickness of 5 µm by rotary wire electrical discharge machining. The thinned wheel-tool can grind microgrooves 10 µm wide. An embedded design, which inserts a close fitting precision core into the biomedical-mold to create step-difference (concave inward) of 50 µm in height between the core and the mold, is also proposed and realized. The perpendicular dual-spindles and precision rotary stage are features that allow for biomedical-mold machining without the necessity of uploading and repositioning materials until all tasks are completed. A PMMA biomedical-slide with a plurality of juxtaposed counting chambers is formed and its usefulness verified.

  16. The influence of cerebrospinal fluid on epidermal neural crest stem cells may pave the path for cell-based therapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Epidermal neural crest stem cells (EPI-NCSCs) in the bulge of hair follicles are a promising source for cell-replacement therapies in neurodegenerative diseases. A prominent factor in cell-based therapy is the practicalities of different routes of administration. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), owing to its adaptive library of secreted growth factors, can provide a trophic environment for transplanted cells. Thus, the effect of CSF on the behavior of EPI-NCSC was studied here. Methods In this study, the highly pure population of EPI-NCSCs was obtained from the bulge of mouse hair follicle. Migrated cells were characterized with real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunocytochemistry. Subsequently isolated stem cells were cultured in CSF, which was collected from the cisterna magna of the adult rat. The expression of pertinent markers was assessed at the gene and protein levels with RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry, respectively. Colorimetric immunoassay was used to quantify the rate of proliferation of EPI-NCSCs after cultivation in CSF. Results Isolated EPI-NCSCs could survive in the CSF, and they maintained the expression of nestin, ?–tubulin ??? (early neuronal marker), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, glia marker) in this environment. In addition, CSF decreased the proliferation rate of EPI-NCSCs significantly in comparison to primary and expansion culture medium. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that CSF as a cocktail of growth factors helps EPI-NCSCs to acquire some desirable traits, and because of its circulatory system that is in close contact with different parts of the central nervous system (CNS), can be a practical route of administration for delivery of injected stem cells. PMID:23867009

  17. Comprehensive immunophenotyping of cerebrospinal fluid cells in patients with neuroimmunological diseases.

    PubMed

    Han, Sungpil; Lin, Yen Chih; Wu, Tianxia; Salgado, Alan D; Mexhitaj, Ina; Wuest, Simone C; Romm, Elena; Ohayon, Joan; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela; Vanderver, Adeline; Marques, Adriana; Toro, Camilo; Williamson, Peter; Cortese, Irene; Bielekova, Bibiana

    2014-03-15

    We performed unbiased, comprehensive immunophenotyping of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood leukocytes in 221 subjects referred for the diagnostic work-up of neuroimmunological disorders to obtain insight about disease-specific phenotypes of intrathecal immune responses. Quantification of 14 different immune cell subsets, coupled with the assessment of their activation status, revealed physiological differences between intrathecal and systemic immunity, irrespective of final diagnosis. Our data are consistent with a model where the CNS shapes intrathecal immune responses to provide effective protection against persistent viral infections, especially by memory T cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and CD56(bright) NK cells. Our data also argue that CSF immune cells do not simply reflect cells recruited from the periphery. Instead, they represent a mixture of cells that are recruited from the blood, have been activated intrathecally and leave the CNS after performing effector functions. Diagnosis-specific differences provide mechanistic insight into the disease process in the defined subtypes of multiple sclerosis (MS), neonatal onset multisystem inflammatory disease, and Aicardi-Goutières syndrome. This analysis also determined that secondary-progressive MS patients are immunologically closer to relapsing-remitting patients as compared with patients with primary-progressive MS. Because CSF immunophenotyping captures the biology of the intrathecal inflammatory processes, it has the potential to guide optimal selection of immunomodulatory therapies in individual patients and monitor their efficacy. Our study adds to the increasing number of publications that demonstrate poor correlation between systemic and intrathecal inflammatory biomarkers in patients with neuroimmunological diseases and stresses the importance of studying immune responses directly in the intrathecal compartment. PMID:24510966

  18. Characterization of fluid dynamics and mass-transfer in an electrochemical oxidation cell by experimental and CFD studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. C. Santos; V. Geraldes; S. Velizarov; J. G. Crespo

    2010-01-01

    Flow and mass-transfer in a widely used commercial electrochemical flow cell (DiaCell®) were investigated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and validated by experimental measurements. Both qualitative and quantitative comparisons were made for distinct flow regimes in the Reynolds range between 25 and 2500 (based on the inter-electrode distance and on the superficial velocity in the cell middle cross-section area).

  19. Ship-in-a-bottle femtosecond laser integration of optofluidic microlens arrays with center-pass units enabling coupling-free parallel cell counting with a 100% success rate.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dong; Niu, Li-Gang; Wu, Si-Zhu; Xu, Jian; Midorikawa, Katsumi; Sugioka, Koji

    2015-03-01

    Optimal design and fabrication of novel devices for high-performance optofluidic applications is a key issue for the development of advanced lab-on-a-chip systems. Parallel cell counting with a high success rate and simple mode of operation is a challenging goal. Current cell-counting methods, using optical waveguides or flow cytometry, typically require a precise coupling of the probe light and involve complex operations. In the present paper, a novel multifunctional cell counting microdevice is designed. It uses a center-pass optofluidic microlens array (MLA) consisting of seven microlenses and an M-shaped confining wall with 9 ?m-diameter apertures. The device can be fabricated in a three-dimensional microchannel by ship-in-a-bottle femtosecond laser integration based on two-photon polymerization with optimized experimental parameters. Each microlens produces approximately the same intensity at the focal positions (within ±5%) under white-light illumination, while the confining wall restricts 6?8 ?m-width cells to passing through the edges of two adjacent microlenses because the aperture opens toward their centers. The device demonstrates coupling-free parallel cell counting with a 100% success rate by monitoring the optical intensity variations at each spot. As a result, this method features both easy operation and high performance. Furthermore, the confining wall can filter deformed cells having 15 ?m width. PMID:25622687

  20. Probing the mystery of Chinese medicine meridian channels with special emphasis on the connective tissue interstitial fluid system, mechanotransduction, cells durotaxis and mast cell degranulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Chin Wan Fung; Peter Chin; Wan Fung

    2009-01-01

    This article hypothesizes that the Chinese medicine meridian system is a special channel network comprising of skin with abundant nerves and nociceptive receptors of various types, and deeper connective tissues inside the body with the flowing interstitial fluid system. These meridian channels provide efficient migratory tracks mainly due to durotaxis (also including chemotaxis) for mast cells, fibroblasts and other cells

  1. The freezing point depression of mammalian tissues in relation to the question of osmotic activity of cell fluid.

    PubMed

    APPELBOOM, J W; BRODSKY, W A; DENNIS, W H; DIAMOND, I; MILEY, J F; REHM, W S

    1956-11-20

    The freezing point depression of freshly excised frozen tissues, pulverized in a hydraulic press or in a mortar, is greater than that of plasma. Even at 0 degrees C. the freezing point depression of such homogenates increases significantly with time. Dilution data indicate that such freezing point data are valid. The presence of intact cells has been shown in smears of tissues pulverized in a mortar, but not in smears of those crushed in a hydraulic press. The osmolarity of various diluent solutions affects the calculated osmotic activity of tissue homogenates presumably because of delayed diffusion between the diluent and cell fluid. With a hypertonic NaCl diluent, spuriously low values of tissue osmotic activity are found from calculations assuming instantaneous mixing between homogenates and diluents. The limitations of data from cryoscopic experiments and from tissue-swelling experiments are discussed in relation to the basic question of whether or not cell fluid is isotonic to extracellular fluid. PMID:13385447

  2. Ethanol alters the osteogenic differentiation of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Hipp, Jennifer A; Hipp, Jason D; Atala, Anthony; Soker, Shay

    2010-01-01

    Background Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is a set of developmental defects caused by prenatal alcohol exposure. Clinical manifestations of FASD are highly variable and include mental retardation and developmental defects of the heart, kidney, muscle, skeleton, and craniofacial structures. Specific effects of ethanol on fetal cells include induction of apoptosis as well as inhibition of proliferation, differentiation, and migration. This complex set of responses suggests that a bioinformatics approach could clarify some of the pathways involved in these responses. Methods In this study, the responses of fetal stem cells derived from the amniotic fluid (AFSCs) to treatment with ethanol have been examined. Large-scale transcriptome analysis of ethanol-treated AFSCs indicates that genes involved in skeletal development and ossification are up-regulated in these cells. Therefore, the effect of ethanol on osteogenic differentiation of AFSCs was studied. Results Exposure to ethanol during the first 48 hours of an osteogenic differentiation protocol increased in vitro calcium deposition by AFSCs and increased alkaline phosphatase activity. In contrast, ethanol treatment later in the differentiation protocol (day 8) had no significant effect on the activity of alkaline phosphatase. Conclusions These results suggest that transient exposure of AFSCs to ethanol during early differentiation enhances osteogenic differentiation of the cells. PMID:20608908

  3. Enhanced detection of CNS cell secretome in plasma protein-depleted cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Thouvenot, Eric; Urbach, Serge; Dantec, Christelle; Poncet, Joël; Séveno, Martial; Demettre, Edith; Jouin, Patrick; Touchon, Jacques; Bockaert, Joël; Marin, Philippe

    2008-10-01

    Human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteome is actively investigated to identify relevant biomarkers and therapeutic targets for neurological disorders. Approximately 80% of CSF proteome originate from plasma, yielding a high dynamic range in CSF protein concentration and precluding identification of potential biomarkers originating from CNS cells. Here, we have adapted the most complete multiaffinity depletion method available to remove 20 abundant plasma proteins from a CSF pool originating from patients with various cognitive disorders. We identified 622 unique CSF proteins in immunodepleted plus retained fractions versus 299 in native CSF, including 22 proteins hitherto not identified in CSF. Parallel analysis of neuronal secretome identified 34 major proteins secreted by cultured cortical neurons (cell adhesion molecules, proteins involved in neurite outgrowth and axonal guidance, modulators of synaptic transmission, proteases and protease inhibitors) of which 76% were detected with a high confidence in immunodepleted CSF versus 50% in native CSF. Moreover, a majority of proteins previously identified as secretory products of choroid plexus cells or astrocytes were detected in immunodepleted CSF. Hence, removal of 20 major plasma proteins from CSF improves detection of brain cell-derived proteins in CSF and should facilitate identification of relevant biomarkers in CSF proteome profiling analyses. PMID:18774838

  4. Clonally expanded plasma cells in the cerebrospinal fluid of MS patients produce myelin-specific antibodies.

    PubMed

    von Büdingen, Hans-Christian; Harrer, Melanie D; Kuenzle, Sandra; Meier, Mirjam; Goebels, Norbert

    2008-07-01

    Clonally expanded plasma cells (cePC) and their presumed products, oligoclonal immunoglobulin G bands (OCB), are characteristic findings in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). While cePC and OCB strongly suggest an involvement of B cell-dependent immune mechanisms in the pathogenesis of MS, their actual pathological relevance and target antigens remain unknown. To further understand the potential role played by cePC, we generated a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MS-mAb) from CSF-derived cePC from four patients with early or definite MS. Single-cell RT-PCR of correctly paired heavy and light chain immunoglobulin genes from individual cePC ensured the subsequent resurrection of their original antigen specificity. Immunofluorescence stainings of MS lesion tissue with MS-mAb revealed myelin reactivity in the cePC repertoire of all four patients and intracellular filament reactivity in one patient. While myelin staining by MS-mAb was only rarely detectable in non-MS CNS white matter tissue, it was greatly enhanced at the edge of demyelinating lesions in MS brain tissue. Our findings provide conclusive evidence for the presence of an antigen-driven B cell response in the CSF of MS patients directed against epitopes present in areas of myelin degradation. PMID:18521957

  5. Effects of Mistletoe Extract on Murine Thymocytes in vivo and on Glucocorticoid-Induced Cell Count Reduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tibor Hajtò; Timea Berki; László Pàlinkàs; Ferenc Boldizsàr; Péter Németh

    2006-01-01

    Background: Mistletoe extracts are widely used in cancer patients due to their cytostatic and immunomodulatory effects. Essential components include mistletoe lectins which act as biomodulators with proinflammatory and apoptosisinducing effects. This study investigates the acute and longterm effects of standardized mistletoe extract (Iscador® M spec 5 mg) on thymocyte subpopulations and peripheral T-cells using a murine (Balb\\/c) model. Materials and

  6. Comparison of Circulating Endothelial Cell/Platelet Count Ratio to Aspartate Transaminase/Platelet Ratio Index for Identifying Patients with Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Saurabh; Simonetto, Douglas A; Abdelmoneim, Soha S; Campion, Michael B; Kaloiani, Irakli; Clayton, Amy C; Kremers, Walter K; Halling, Kevin C; Kamath, Patrick S; Talwalkar, Jayant; Shah, Vijay H

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objectives Circulating endothelial cells (CECs) are indicative of vascular injury and correlate with severity of vascular diseases. A pilot study showed that the ratio of CEC to platelet count (CEC/PC) was effective in predicting cirrhosis. Therefore, we evaluated CEC/PC in a larger cohort of patients, correlated it with cirrhosis, and compared its operating characteristics with previously described biomarker for cirrhosis, the AST/platelet ratio index (APRI). Methods Fifty-three patients with cirrhosis, 20 matched healthy controls, and 9 patients with noncirrhotic liver disease were recruited. Peripheral blood sample was collected and analyzed to enumerate nucleated CEC CD146+, CD105+, CD45– using a commercial assay. Results Median CEC counts were significantly higher in patients with cirrhosis (62 cells/4 mL, interquartile range [IQR]: 43.5–121) as compared with controls (31 cells/4 mL, IQR: 22.2–40). The CEC/PC was also significantly elevated in cirrhotics (0.69, IQR: 0.39–1.48) compared with controls (0.12, IQR: 0.09–0.20) and noncirrhotics (0.21, IQR: 0.08–0.43). Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed that CEC cutoff value of ?37 cells/4 mL showed sensitivity of 81% and specificity of 75% for differentiating cirrhosis from controls (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.67–0.91). The CEC/PC ratio cutoff value of ?0.23 showed sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 82% (AUC: 0.92; 95% CI 0.83–0.99). The APRI cutoff value of ?0.4 showed sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 85% for differentiating cirrhosis from control patients (AUC: 0.96; 95% CI 0.90–1.0). A product of CEC and APRI, termed CAPRI (CEC-APRI), effectively distinguished patients with cirrhosis from controls; with cutoff value of ?12.7, showing higher sensitivity of 98% and specificity of 85% (AUC: 0.98; 95% CI 0.96–1.0). Conclusion The CEC/PC ratio is significantly elevated in patients with cirrhosis and demonstrates comparable operating characteristics to previously described APRI. Furthermore, CAPRI, compiled as product of CEC to APRI showed outstanding ability to distinguish patients with cirrhosis from controls, although larger studies are necessary for validation.

  7. Time-course Transcriptional Profiling of Human Amniotic Fluid-derived Stem Cells Using Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong Wook; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Bae, Su-Mi; Kim, Young Jae; Shin, Jong-Chul; Chun, Heung-Jae; Rhie, Jong-Won; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Haekwon

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To maintain the homeostasis of stem cells and prevent their ability to initiate tumorigenesis, it is important to identify and modify factors that prevent or accelerate stem cell senescence. We used microarrays to attempt to identify such factors in human amniotic fluid (HAF)-derived stem cells. Materials and Methods To identify gene expression changes over a time course, we compared gene expression profiles of HAF-derived stem cells in different passages (1st, 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, and 10th) using a Sentrix Human illumina microarray. Results Of the 25,804 genes in the microarray chip, 1,970 showed an over 2-fold change relative to the control (the 1st passage)-either upregulated or downregulated. Quantitative real-time PCR validated the microarray data for selected genes: markedly increased genes were CXCL12, cadherin 6 (CDH6), and folate receptor 3 (FOLR3). Downregulated genes included cyclin D2, keratin 8, insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), natriuretic peptide precursor B (NPPB) and cellular retinoic acid binding protein 2 (CRABP2). The expression pattern of the selected genes was consistent with the microarray data except for CXCL12 and IGF2. Interestingly, the expression of NPPB was dramatically downregulated along the time course; it was almost completely shut-down by the 10th passage. In contrast, FOLR3 mRNA expression was dramatically increased. Conclusion Taken together, although a function for NPPB and FOLR3 in stem cell senescence has not been reported, our results strongly suggest that NPPB and/or FOLR3 play a significant role in the regulation of stem cell senescence. PMID:20622962

  8. Inaccuracy and imprecision of reticulocyte counting.

    PubMed

    Tatsumi, N; Tsuda, I; Yokomatsu, Y; Im, T S; Niri, M; Furota, A

    1989-06-01

    Reticulocyte count is an essential clinical test to detect erythropoietic activity. The test has been done manually with the use of one of three dyes: new methylene blue, brilliant cresyl blue, and azure B. When reticulocyte counts with the different dyes were compared, correlation was good. When reticulocyte counts obtained by use of the dyes were compared with the count obtained by an automated counter, correlation was high. In a sampling study, the specimen prepared by a spinner method gave smaller variations than a wedge method. Intertechnologist bias was higher than inter-specimen or intra-specimen bias: The variation of the reticulocyte count was examined with from 200 to 2,000 cells; with 1,000 cells or more, variation was low. From these results, we concluded that more than 1,000 erythrocytes on one slide prepared by the spinner method should be analyzed. Clear standards for cell identification are also needed. PMID:2473434

  9. End plate assembly having a two-phase fluid-filled bladder and method for compressing a fuel cell stack

    DOEpatents

    Carlstrom, Jr., Charles M. (Clifton Park, NY)

    2001-01-01

    An end plate assembly is disclosed for use in a fuel cell assembly in which the end plate assembly includes a housing having a cavity, and a bladder receivable in the cavity and engageable with the fuel cell stack. The bladder includes a two-phase fluid having a liquid portion and a vapor portion. Desirably, the two-phase fluid has a vapor pressure between about 100 psi and about 600 psi at a temperature between about 70 degrees C. to about 110 degrees C.

  10. Mass spectrometric based analysis, characterization and applications of circulating cell free DNA isolated from human body fluids

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vaneet K; Vouros, Paul; Glick, James

    2010-01-01

    In the past decade, cell free DNA, or circulating cell free DNA, or cell free circulating DNA, isolated from body fluids such as plasma/serum/urine has emerged as an important tool for clinical diagnostics. The molecular biology of circulating cell free DNA is poorly understood but there is currently an increased effort to understand the origin, mechanism of its circulation, and sensitive characterization for the development of diagnostic applications. There has been considerable progress towards these goals using real time polymerase chain reaction technique (rt-PCR). More recently, new attempts to incorporate mass spectrometric techniques to develop accurate and highly sensitive high-throughput clinical diagnostic tests have been reported. This review focuses on the methods to isolate circulating cell free DNA from body fluids, their quantitative analysis and mass spectrometry based characterization in evolving applications as prenatal and cancer diagnostic tools. PMID:21765648

  11. The Big Pumpkin Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny

    1981-01-01

    Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)

  12. The influence of electrospun scaffold topography on endothelial cell morphology, alignment, and adhesion in response to fluid flow

    PubMed Central

    Whited, Bryce M.; Rylander, Marissa Nichole

    2013-01-01

    Bioengineered vascular grafts provide a promising alternative to autografts for replacing diseased or damaged arteries, but necessitate scaffold designs capable of supporting a confluent endothelium that resists endothelial cell (EC) detachment under fluid flow. To this end, we investigated whether tuning electrospun topography (i.e. fiber diameter and orientation) could impact EC morphology, alignment, and structural protein organization with the goal of forming a confluent and well-adhered endothelium under fluid flow. To test this, a composite polymer blend of Poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) and type I collagen was electrospun to form scaffolds with controlled fiber diameters ranging from approximately 100 nm to 1200 nm and with varying degrees of fiber alignment. ECs were seeded onto scaffolds, and cell morphology and degree of alignment were quantified using image analysis of fluorescently stained cells. Our results show that ECs form confluent monolayers on electrospun scaffolds, with cell alignment systematically increasing with a larger degree of fiber orientation. Additionally, cells on aligned electrospun scaffolds display thick F-actin bundles parallel to the direction of fiber alignment and strong VE-cadherin expression at cell-cell junctions. Under fluid flow, ECs on highly aligned scaffolds had greater resistance to detachment compared to cells cultured on randomly oriented and semi-aligned scaffolds. These results indicate that scaffolds with aligned topographies may be useful in forming a confluent endothelium with enhanced EC adhesion for vascular tissue engineering applications. PMID:23842728

  13. Effect of mucosal fluid from women with bacterial vaginosis on HIV trans-infection mediated by dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    St John, Elizabeth P; Zariffard, M Reza; Martinson, Jeffrey A; Simoes, Jose A; Landay, Alan L; Spear, Gregory T

    2009-03-01

    Women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) have a higher risk of HIV transmission but the cause of risk is unknown. Dendritic cells (DC) are implicated in transmission of HIV and we previously observed that DC mature when exposed to mucosal fluid from women with BV. We hypothesized that maturation of DC by BV mucosal fluid would enhance DC-mediated trans-infection of HIV. Monocyte-derived DC (MDDC) were treated with mucosal fluid, incubated with HIV(Bal), and HIV trans-infection was evaluated. While LPS-treated MDDC increased HIV(Bal)trans-infection, BV fluid reduced trans-infection. HIV(Bal) DNA levels in MDDC were not affected by BV fluid or LPS but productive infection of MDDC was decreased by LPS and BV fluid. Mucosal fluid from women with BV does not increase MDDC-mediated trans-infection suggesting that BV does not increase HIV susceptibility by increasing DC-mediated trans-infection. However, indirect effects of DC maturation on HIV transmission cannot be ruled out. PMID:19117586

  14. Morphological stability of an interface between two non-Newtonian fluids moving in a Hele-Shaw cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martyushev, L. M.; Birzina, A. I.

    2015-01-01

    The problem of the morphological stability of an interface in the case of the displacement of one non-Newtonian fluid by another non-Newtonian fluid in a radial Hele-Shaw cell has been considered. Both fluids have been described by the two-parameter Ostwald-de Waele power-law model. The nonzero viscosity of the displacing fluid has been taken into account. A generalized Darcy's law for the system under consideration, as well as an equation for the determination of the critical size of morphological stability with respect to harmonic perturbations (linear analysis), has been derived. Morphological phase diagrams have been constructed, and the region of the parameters in which nonequilibrium reentrant morphological transitions are possible has been revealed.

  15. Morphological stability of an interface between two non-Newtonian fluids moving in a Hele-Shaw cell.

    PubMed

    Martyushev, L M; Birzina, A I

    2015-01-01

    The problem of the morphological stability of an interface in the case of the displacement of one non-Newtonian fluid by another non-Newtonian fluid in a radial Hele-Shaw cell has been considered. Both fluids have been described by the two-parameter Ostwald-de Waele power-law model. The nonzero viscosity of the displacing fluid has been taken into account. A generalized Darcy's law for the system under consideration, as well as an equation for the determination of the critical size of morphological stability with respect to harmonic perturbations (linear analysis), has been derived. Morphological phase diagrams have been constructed, and the region of the parameters in which nonequilibrium reentrant morphological transitions are possible has been revealed. PMID:25679705

  16. A Springback Compensation Method for Complex-Shaped Flange Components in Fluid-Cell Forming Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoqiang; Li, Dongsheng; Yang, Weijun

    2011-08-01

    The fluid-cell forming process (FFP), one of the main forming technologies in aeronautical manufactories, suffers seriously from the product quality problem due to springback. A springback compensation method is proposed particularly for complex-shaped flange parts. This method is derived from the classic displacement adjustment method, but differs in the way to predict the springback amount and calculate the adjusting vectors. Based on discussion on the relationship between the springback angles and the geometrical parameters of flange parts, a springback distribution function (SDF) is proposed to predict springback angles of curved flanges. The springback angles are mapped to nodal adjusting vectors of the die mesh and then the optimized die is obtained. The above procedures are applied to two fuselage flange parts and the experimental result shows that this method is valid.

  17. Fluid preconditioning for Newton–Krylov-based, fully implicit, electrostatic particle-in-cell simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, G., E-mail: gchen@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Chacón, L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Leibs, C.A. [University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)] [University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Knoll, D.A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Taitano, W. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)] [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

    2014-02-01

    A recent proof-of-principle study proposes an energy- and charge-conserving, nonlinearly implicit electrostatic particle-in-cell (PIC) algorithm in one dimension [9]. The algorithm in the reference employs an unpreconditioned Jacobian-free Newton–Krylov method, which ensures nonlinear convergence at every timestep (resolving the dynamical timescale of interest). Kinetic enslavement, which is one key component of the algorithm, not only enables fully implicit PIC as a practical approach, but also allows preconditioning the kinetic solver with a fluid approximation. This study proposes such a preconditioner, in which the linearized moment equations are closed with moments computed from particles. Effective acceleration of the linear GMRES solve is demonstrated, on both uniform and non-uniform meshes. The algorithm performance is largely insensitive to the electron–ion mass ratio. Numerical experiments are performed on a 1D multi-scale ion acoustic wave test problem.

  18. Fluid preconditioning for Newton-Krylov-based, fully implicit, electrostatic particle-in-cell simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Chacón, L.; Leibs, C. A.; Knoll, D. A.; Taitano, W.

    2014-02-01

    A recent proof-of-principle study proposes an energy- and charge-conserving, nonlinearly implicit electrostatic particle-in-cell (PIC) algorithm in one dimension [9]. The algorithm in the reference employs an unpreconditioned Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov method, which ensures nonlinear convergence at every timestep (resolving the dynamical timescale of interest). Kinetic enslavement, which is one key component of the algorithm, not only enables fully implicit PIC as a practical approach, but also allows preconditioning the kinetic solver with a fluid approximation. This study proposes such a preconditioner, in which the linearized moment equations are closed with moments computed from particles. Effective acceleration of the linear GMRES solve is demonstrated, on both uniform and non-uniform meshes. The algorithm performance is largely insensitive to the electron-ion mass ratio. Numerical experiments are performed on a 1D multi-scale ion acoustic wave test problem.

  19. Enumeration of islets by nuclei counting and light microscopic analysis

    E-print Network

    Pisania, Anna

    Islet enumeration in impure preparations by conventional dithizone staining and visual counting is inaccurate and operator dependent. We examined nuclei counting for measuring the total number of cells in islet preparations, ...

  20. Labile iron in cells and body fluids: physiology, pathology, and pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Cabantchik, Zvi Ioav

    2014-01-01

    In living systems iron appears predominantly associated with proteins, but can also be detected in forms referred as labile iron, which denotes the combined redox properties of iron and its amenability to exchange between ligands, including chelators. The labile cell iron (LCI) composition varies with metal concentration and substances with chelating groups but also with pH and the medium redox potential. Although physiologically in the lower ?M range, LCI plays a key role in cell iron economy as cross-roads of metabolic pathways. LCI levels are continually regulated by an iron-responsive machinery that balances iron uptake versus deposition into ferritin. However, LCI rises aberrantly in some cell types due to faulty cell utilization pathways or infiltration by pathological iron forms that are found in hemosiderotic plasma. As LCI attains pathological levels, it can catalyze reactive O species (ROS) formation that, at particular threshold, can surpass cellular anti-oxidant capacities and seriously damage its constituents. While in normal plasma and interstitial fluids, virtually all iron is securely carried by circulating transferrin (Tf; that renders iron essentially non-labile), in systemic iron overload (IO), the total plasma iron binding capacity is often surpassed by a massive iron influx from hyperabsorptive gut or from erythrocyte overburdened spleen and/or liver. As plasma Tf approaches iron saturation, labile plasma iron (LPI) emerges in forms that can infiltrate cells by unregulated routes and raise LCI to toxic levels. Despite the limited knowledge available on LPI speciation in different types and degrees of IO, LPI measurements can be and are in fact used for identifying systemic IO and for initiating/adjusting chelation regimens to attain full-day LPI protection. A recent application of labile iron assay is the detection of labile components in intravenous iron formulations per se as well as in plasma (LPI) following parenteral iron administration. PMID:24659969

  1. The albumin fraction of rat testicular fluid stimulates steroid production by isolated Leydig cells.

    PubMed

    Melsert, R; Hoogerbrugge, J W; Rommerts, F F

    1988-10-01

    Rat testicular fluid (rTF), but not rat serum (rS) or plasma (rP) can further increase within 4 h maximally luteinizing hormone (LH)-stimulated or 22 R-hydroxycholesterol-supported pregnenolone production by immature rat Leydig cells in vitro. This effect of rTF is dose dependent (0.05-1.2% protein, w/v) with an increase up to 4-fold. The objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize the bioactive factor(s) in rTF. After sequential ammonium sulfate fractionation, gel filtration chromatography on Superose 12 and affinity chromatography on concanavalin A-Sepharose it was shown that the albumin fraction was a major biologically active fraction in rTF. The relative specific activity in these fractions was never greater than 1.3-1.4, which is in agreement with the purification factor required to obtain pure albumin from rTF. Commercially obtained albumin fractions from human, bovine and rat sera, up to 99% purity, also increased Leydig cell steroid production more than 3-fold when added in concentrations between 0.1 and 1% w/v in combination with LH or 22R-hydroxycholesterol. Other proteins such as hemoglobin and ovalbumin were not effective in stimulation of steroid production. Bovine serum albumin (bSA, fraction V) at concentrations of 0.25 and 1.0% (w/v), had no or minor effects on LH-stimulated steroid production by rat granulosa cells or adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-stimulated steroid production by rat adrenal cells. These findings indicate that albumin itself or minor compounds copurified with albumin represent the main biologically active component in rTF for short-term stimulation of Leydig cell steroid production. Since bioactivity could not be demonstrated in serum which contains similar amounts of albumin as rTF, inhibitory compounds may be present in rat serum. PMID:3181622

  2. Fluid shear stress on endothelial cells modulates mechanical tension across VE-cadherin and PECAM-1

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Daniel E; Breckenridge, Mark T; Hinde, Elizabeth; Gratton, Enrico; Chen, Christopher S; A Schwartz, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Summary Fluid shear stress (FSS) from blood flow acting on the endothelium critically regulates vascular morphogenesis, blood pressure and atherosclerosis [1]. FSS applied to endothelial cells (EC) triggers signaling events including opening of ion channels, activation of signaling pathways and changes in gene expression. Elucidating how ECs sense flow important for understanding both normal vascular function and disease. EC responses to FSS are mediated in part by a junctional mechanosensory complex consisting of VE-cadherin, PECAM-1, and VEGFR2 [2]. Previous work suggested that flow increases force on PECAM-1, which initiates signaling [2–4]. Deletion of PECAM-1 blocks responses to flow in vitro and flow-dependent vascular remodeling in vivo [2, 5]. To understand this process, we developed and validated FRET-based tension sensors for VE-cadherin and PECAM-1 using our previously developed FRET tension biosensor [6]. FRET measurements showed that in static culture, VE-cadherin in cell-cell junctions bears significant myosin-dependent tension, whereas there was no detectable tension on VE-cadherin outside of junctions. Onset of shear stress triggered a rapid (<30 sec) decrease in tension across VE-cadherin, which paralleled a decrease in total cell-cell junctional tension. Flow triggered a simultaneous increase in tension across junctional PECAM-1, while non-junctional PECAM-1 was unaffected. Tension on PECAM-1 was mediated by flow-stimulated association with vimentin. These data confirm the prediction that shear increases force on PECAM-1. However, they also argue against the current model of passive transfer of force through the cytoskeleton to the junctions [7], showing instead that flow triggers cytoskeletal remodeling, which alters forces across the junctional receptors. PMID:23684974

  3. Presence of Brome mosaic virus in Barley Guttation Fluid and Its Association with Localized Cell Death Response.

    PubMed

    Ding, X S; Boydston, C M; Nelson, R S

    2001-05-01

    ABSTRACT Water exits from inside the leaf through transpiration or guttation. Under conditions to promote guttation, surface fluid (guttation fluid) from Brome mosaic virus (BMV)-infected barley, wheat, and maize plants was analyzed for the presence of the virus by biological and serological assays. We also investigated the route by which BMV exited infected cells to the intercellular space of the barley leaf. BMV was detected in guttation fluid from systemically infected barley leaves when the initial viral symptoms were observed on these leaves. The virus was also detected in guttation fluid from systemically infected wheat leaves, but not in maize leaves showing either systemic necrosis or chlorotic streaks. Interestingly, in BMV-infected barley leaves, but not in maize leaves showing chlorotic streaks, cell death occurred within and adjacent to veins. Staining of xylem and phloem networks in infected barley leaves with fluorescent dyes showed that xylem, and to a lesser extent phloem, were severely damaged and thus became leaky for dye transport. No such damage was observed in BMV-infected maize leaves showing chlorotic streaks. We propose that in infected barley leaves, BMV exits from damaged vein cells (especially the xylem elements), accumulates in intercellular spaces, and then reaches the surface of the leaves through stomata during guttation or transpiration. In nature, BMV may be carried to adjacent plants and cause infection by movement of vertebrate and invertebrate vectors among infected plants exuding guttation fluid. PMID:18943588

  4. Microbial Diversity in Ultra-High-Pressure Rocks and Fluids from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gengxin Zhang; Hailiang Dong; Zhiqin Xu; Donggao Zhao; Chuanlun Zhang

    2005-01-01

    fatty acid analysis indicated that the total counts in the rocks and the fluids were 5.2 103 to 2.4 104 cells\\/g and 3.5 108 to 4.2 109 cells\\/g, respectively. Enrichment assays resulted in successful growth of thermophilic and alkaliphilic bacteria from the fluids, and some of these bacteria reduced Fe(III) to magnetite. 16S rRNA gene analyses indicated that the rocks

  5. Influence of subretinal fluid in advanced stage retinopathy of prematurity on proangiogenic response and cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jie; Mehta, Manisha; Lam, Godfrey; Cyr, Desireé; Ng, Tat Fong; Hirose, Tatsuo; Tawansy, Khaled A.; Taylor, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The clinical phenotype of advanced stage retinopathy of prematurity (ROP, stages 4 and 5) cannot be replicated in an animal model. To dissect the molecular events that can lead up to advanced ROP, we examined subretinal fluid (SRF) and surgically dissected retrolental membranes from patients with advanced ROP to evaluate its influences on cell proliferation, angiogenic properties, and macrophage polarity. Methods We compared our findings to SRF collected from patients with uncomplicated rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RD) without proliferative vitreoretinopathy and surgically dissected epiretinal membrane from eyes with macular pucker. All subretinal fluid samples were equalized for protein. The angiogenic potential of SRF from ROP eyes was measured using a combination of capillary cord formation in a fibrin clot assay, and its proliferative effect was tested with a DNA synthesis of human retinal microvascular endothelial cells. Findings were compared with SRF collected from participants with uncomplicated rhegmatogenous RD without proliferative vitreoretinopathy. The ability of SRF to induce nitric oxide production was measured in vitro using murine J774A.1 macrophages. Cytokine profiles of SRF from ROP and RD eyes were measured using a multienzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Fluorescent immunohistochemistry of retrolental membranes from ROP was performed to detect the presence of leukocytes and the composition of tissue macrophages using markers for M1 and M2 differentiation. Results The cytokine composition in SRF revealed that in ROP, not only were several proangiogenic factors were preferentially elevated but also the profile of proinflammatory factors was also increased compared to the RD eyes. SRF from ROP eyes supported cell proliferation and endothelial cord formation while SRF from RD eyes had inhibitory effects. SRF from eyes with ROP but not RD robustly induced nitric oxide production in macrophages. Furthermore, fluorescent immunostaining revealed a preponderance of M1 over M2 macrophages in retrolental fibrous membranes from ROP eyes. The cytokine profile and biologic properties of SRF in ROP promote a proangiogenic environment, which supports the maintenance and proliferation of fibrous membranes associated with advanced stages of ROP. In contrast, SRF from RD eyes exhibits a suppressive environment for endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Conclusions Our investigation demonstrates that the microenvironment in advanced ROP eyes is proangiogenic and proinflammatory. These findings suggest that management of advanced ROP should not be limited to the surgical removal of the fibrovascular membranes and antiangiogenic therapy but also directed to anti-inflammatory therapy and to promote M2 activation over M1 activity. PMID:24966660

  6. Diagnostic Accuracy of the Quantitative C-Reactive Protein, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate and White Blood Cell Count in Urinary Tract Infections among Infants and Children

    PubMed Central

    AYAZI, Parviz; MAHYAR, Abolfazl; DANESHI, Mohammad Mahdi; JAHANI HASHEMI, Hassan; PIROUZI, Mahdieh; ESMAILZADEHHA, Neda

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the quantitative C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and white blood cell (WBC) count in urinary tract infections (UTI) among hospitalised infants and children in Qazvin, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 127 hospitalised children ranging in age from 2 months to 12 years old 31.79 months (SD 30.73) who were suspected of having a UTI and who did not receive antibiotics prior to being seen at a Qazvin teaching children’s hospital between 2005 and 2006. A urine analysis (U/A) and urine culture (U/C) were performed. The blood was taken for CRP, ESR and WBC analyses. U/C has been considered the gold standard test for a UTI and dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy (DMSA) as the gold standard for an upper UTI (pyelonephritis). These tests were used to determine the diagnostic accuracy, which is represented as the percent of correct results. Results: Within the study population, 72 patients (56.7%) were younger than two years old 9.86 months (SD 4.56) and 55 (43.3%) were older than two years old 63.58 months (SD 30.96). One hundred and two patients (80.3%) were female. There were 100 cases that had a positive U/C. Of the patients with a positive U/C, 81 had pyuria (WBC more than 5/hpf), 71 had a peripheral WBC count of more than 10 000 /mL, 95 had a CRP of more than 10 mg/L and 82 had an ESR > 10 mm/h. The sensitivity and specificity as well as the positive and negative predictive values and the accuracy of CRP when using U/C as the gold standard were, respectively, 96%, 11.1%, 80.2%, 50%, and 78%; when using ESR as the gold standard were, respectively, 55%, 40%, 77.6%, 17.2%, and 52%; and when using WBC counts as the gold standard were, respectively, 69%, 52%, 86.6%, 35.6%, and 65%. The accuracy of CRP, ESR and WBC counts when considering the DMSA as the gold standard were 58.3%, 62.8%, and 64.5%, respectively. Conclusion: Although acute phase reactants can help in the diagnosis of a UTI, they are not pathognomonic. CRP, ESR and WBC were neither completely sensitive nor specific for detecting a UTI and its localisation site in Iranian children. Therefore, in a country where advanced clinical diagnostic tests are available, the advanced test should be used in conjunction with CRP, ESR and WBC analyses. Finally, a combination of laboratory tests along with history and exact clinical examination are needed for the diagnosis of a UTI and its localisation site. PMID:24643248

  7. Differences of size and shape of active and inactive X-chromosome domains in human amniotic fluid cell nuclei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bischoff; J. Albers; I. Kharboush; E. Stelzer; T. Cremer; C. Cremer

    1993-01-01

    It is a widely held belief that the inactive X-chromosome (Xi) in female cell nuclei is strongly condensed as compared to the largely decondensed active X-chromosome (Xa). We have reconsidered this problem and painted X-chromosome domains in nuclei of subconfluent, female and male human amniotic fluid cell cultures (46,XX and 46,XY) by chromosomal in situ suppres- sion (CISS) hybridization with

  8. Altered expression of inflammation-associated genes in oviductal cells following follicular fluid exposure: implications for ovarian carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lau, Angela; Kollara, Alexandra; St John, Elizabeth; Tone, Alicia A; Virtanen, Carl; Greenblatt, Ellen M; King, W Allan; Brown, Theodore J

    2014-01-01

    Evidence indicates that high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) may originate from lesions within the distal fallopian tube epithelium (FTE). Our previous studies indicate that fallopian tube epithelial cells from carriers of germline mutations in breast cancer susceptibility genes exhibit a pro-inflammatory gene expression signature during the luteal phase, suggesting that delayed resolution of postovulatory inflammatory signaling may contribute to predisposition to this ovarian cancer histotype. To determine whether exposure of tubal epithelial cells to periovulatory follicular fluid alters expression of inflammation-associated genes, we used an ex vivo culture system of bovine oviductal epithelial cells. Oviductal cells grown on collagen IV-coated transwell membranes assumed a cobblestone appearance and immunocytochemistry for FoxJ1 and Pax8 indicated that both ciliated and secretory epithelial cells were maintained in the cultures. Oviductal cells were exposed to human follicular fluid or culture medium for 24?h following which total cellular RNA was extracted at various time points. Expression of genes associated with inflammation was determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Exposure to follicular fluid transiently increased the transcript levels of interleukin 8 (IL8) and cyclooxygenase 2 (PTGS2), and decreased the expression of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD2), glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3), disabled homolog 2 (DAB2), and glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1). Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and IL6 levels were also decreased while those of nicotinomide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) were unaffected. This study demonstrates that periovulatory follicular fluid can act directly upon oviductal epithelial cells to alter gene expression that might contribute to early carcinogenic events. Furthermore, these findings illustrate the potential use of bovine oviductal cells to study signaling events implicated in ovarian carcinogenesis. PMID:24186266

  9. Effect of glucose and pyruvate in acidic and non-acidic peritoneal dialysis fluids on leukocytes cell functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arezki Mahiout; Bashir Mnene Matata; Reinhard Brunkhorst

    1997-01-01

    Effect of glucose and pyruvate in acidic and non-acidic peritoneal dialysis fluids on leukocytes cell functions. A new peritoneal dialysate containing pyruvate anions has been tested for its effects on cell functions and compared with conventional lactate and bicarbonate based solutions. The dialysate has a final pH of 5.4 to 5.6 and is composed of 1.36 to 3.86% glucose-monohydrate, 132

  10. In vitro and in vivo properties of distinct populations of amniotic fluid mesenchymal progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Roubelakis, Maria G; Bitsika, Vasiliki; Zagoura, Dimitra; Trohatou, Ourania; Pappa, Kalliopi I; Makridakis, Manousos; Antsaklis, Aristidis; Vlahou, Antonia; Anagnou, Nicholas P

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Human mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) are considered to be of great promise for use in tissue repair and regenerative medicine. MPCs represent multipotent adherent cells, able to give rise to multiple mesenchymal lineages such as osteoblasts, adipocytes or chondrocytes. Recently, we identified and characterized human second trimester amniotic fluid (AF) as a novel source of MPCs. Herein, we found that early colonies of AF-MPCs consisted of two morphologically distinct adherent cell types, termed as spindle-shaped (SS) and round-shaped (RS). A detailed analysis of these two populations showed that SS-AF-MPCs expressed CD90 antigen in a higher level and exhibited a greater proliferation and differentiation potential. To characterize better the molecular identity of these two populations, we have generated a comparative proteomic map of SS-AF-MPCs and RS-AF-MPCs, identifying 25 differentially expressed proteins and 10 proteins uniquely expressed in RS-AF-MPCs. Furthermore, SS-AF-MPCs exhibited significantly higher migration ability on extracellular matrices, such as fibronectin and laminin in vitro, compared to RS-AF-MPCs and thus we further evaluated SS-AF-MPCs for potential use as therapeutic tools in vivo. Therefore, we tested whether GFP-lentiviral transduced SS-AF-MPCs retained their stem cell identity, proliferation and differentiation potential. GFP-SS-AF-MPCs were then successfully delivered into immunosuppressed mice, distributed in different tissues and survived longterm in vivo. In summary, these results demonstrated that AF-MPCs consisted of at least two different MPC populations. In addition, SS-AF-MPCs, isolated based on their colony morphology and CD90 expression, represented the only MPC population that can be expanded easily in culture and used as an efficient tool for future in vivo therapeutic applications. PMID:21166769

  11. Mechanotransduction in bone: do bone cells act as sensors of fluid flow?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHARLES H. TURNER; MARK R. FORWOOD; MARK W. OTTER

    When compact bone is subjected to bend- ing loads, interstitial fluid in the bone matrix flows away from regions of high compressive stress. The amount of interstitial fluid flow is strongly influenced by the loading rate in a dose-dependent fashion. We hypothesize that in- terstitial fluid flow affects bone formation, and we tested this hypothesis indirectly by measuring the effect

  12. Novel Quantitative Biosystem for Modeling Physiological Fluid Shear Stress on Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric A. Nauman; C. Mark Ott; Ed Sander; Don L. Tucker; Duane Pierson; James W. Wilson; Cheryl A. Nickerson

    2007-01-01

    The response of microbes to changes in the mechanical force of fluid shear has important implications for pathogens, which experience wide fluctuations in fluid shear in vivo during infection. However, the majority of studies have not cultured microbes under physiological fluid shear conditions within a range commonly encountered by microbes during host-pathogen interactions. Here we describe a convenient batch culture

  13. Detection of soluble ST2 in human follicular fluid and luteinized granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Southcombe, Jennifer H; Lédée, Nathalie; Perrier d'Hauterive, Sophie; Turner, Karen; Child, Tim; Snider, James V; Redman, Christopher W G; Sargent, Ian L; Granne, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Follicular fluid (FF) contains various cytokines that are involved with folliculogenesis, some of which have been shown to be associated with oocyte quality and the implantation potential of a resulting embryo. Several IL-1 family members have previously been identified in FF. This study investigates a newly identified member of the family, IL-33, and its receptor ST2, comparing values to those of FF Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF)--a known predictor of Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) success. FF was collected from patients undergoing in vitro fertilisation/intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) at oocyte retrieval to analyse IL-33 and sST2 expression in human follicles. sST2, but not IL-33, is highly increased in the FF compared to plasma levels (up to 7.9-fold), with higher levels in larger follicles (p<0.05). Furthermore, we identify that human luteinised granulosa cells are one possible source of the FF sST2, as these cells express and secrete sST2 when cultured ex vivo. FF associated with oocytes which when fertilised develop into good quality embryos have higher sST2 levels than those which are graded average (p<0.01). These embryos were transferred to the patient and levels of FF sST2 compared between successful and unsuccessful ICSI cycles. However unlike G-CSF, sST2 levels cannot be used to predict cycle outcome. PMID:24040238

  14. Human mesenchymal stem cells in synovial fluid increase in the knee with degenerated cartilage and osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Sekiya, Ichiro; Ojima, Miyoko; Suzuki, Shiro; Yamaga, Mika; Horie, Masafumi; Koga, Hideyuki; Tsuji, Kunikazu; Miyaguchi, Ken; Ogishima, Soichi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Muneta, Takeshi

    2012-06-01

    We investigated whether mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in synovial fluid (SF) increased in the knee with degenerated cartilage and osteoarthritis. SF was obtained from the knee joints of 22 patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury during ACL reconstruction, and cartilage degeneration was evaluated arthroscopically. SF was also obtained from the knee joints of 6 healthy volunteers, 20 patients with mild osteoarthritis, and 26 patients with severe osteoarthritis, in which the grading was evaluated radiographically. The cell component in the SF was cultured for analyses. Synovium (SYN) and bone marrow (BM) were also harvested during total knee arthroplasties. The MSC number in SF was correlated with the cartilage degeneration score evaluated by arthroscopy. The MSC number in the SF was hardly noticed in normal volunteers, but it increased in accordance with the grading of osteoarthritis. Though no significant differences were observed regarding surface epitopes, or differentiation potentials, the morphology and gene profiles in SF MSCs were more similar to those in SYN MSCs than in BM MSCs. We listed 20 genes which were expressed higher in both SYN MSCs and SF MSCs than in BM MSCs, and 3 genes were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. MSCs in SF increased along with degenerated cartilage and osteoarthritis. PMID:22147634

  15. Seminal fluid regulates accumulation of FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in the preimplantation mouse uterus through expanding the FOXP3+ cell pool and CCL19-mediated recruitment.

    PubMed

    Guerin, Leigh R; Moldenhauer, Lachlan M; Prins, Jelmer R; Bromfield, John J; Hayball, John D; Robertson, Sarah A

    2011-08-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells facilitate maternal immune tolerance of the semiallogeneic conceptus in early pregnancy, but the origin and regulation of these cells at embryo implantation is unclear. During the preimplantation period, factors in the seminal fluid delivered at coitus cause expansion of a CD4(+)CD25(+) putative Treg cell population in the para-aortic lymph nodes draining the uterus. Using flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) for the signature Treg cell transcription factor FOXP3, we confirmed the identity of the expanded lymph node population as FOXP3(+) Treg cells and showed that this is accompanied by a comparable increase in the uterus of FOXP3(+) Treg cells and expression of Foxp3 mRNA by Day 3.5 postcoitum. Seminal plasma was necessary for uterine Treg cell accumulation, as mating with seminal vesicle-deficient males failed to elicit an increase in uterine Treg cells. Furthermore seminal fluid induced expression of mRNA encoding the Treg chemokine CCL19 (MIP3beta), which acts through the CCR7 receptor to regulate Treg cell recruitment and retention in peripheral tissues. Glandular and luminal epithelial cells were identified as the major cellular origins of uterine CCL19, and exposure to both seminal plasma and sperm was required for maximum expression. Together, these results indicate that Treg cells accumulate in the uterus prior to embryo implantation and that seminal fluid is a key regulator of the uterine Treg cell population, operating by both increasing the pool of available Treg cells and promoting their CCL19-mediated recruitment from the circulation into the implantation site. PMID:21389340

  16. Invitro toxicity test and searching the possibility of cancer cell line extermination by magnetic heating with using Fe3O4 magnetic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoai Linh, Pham; Thuan, Nguyen Chi; Tuan, Nguyen Anh; Van Thach, Pham; Cong Yen, Tran; Thi Quy, Nguyen; Nhung, Hoang Thi My; Thi Xuyen, Phi; Phuc, Nguyen Xuan; Van Hong, Le

    2009-09-01

    A Fe3O4 based magnetic fluid with different concentrations ranged between 0.15 ng/cell to 10 ng/cell (nano gram/cell) was used in the in vitro toxicity test on several cancer cell lines, Sarcoma 180, HeLa and H358. It shows that the fluid with a concentration of Fe3O4 below 1.2 ng/cell is completely non-toxic for these cell lines. Even through in the presence of the highest concentration of 10 ng/cell, the cell viability still reaches more than 60%. The magnetic fluid with Fe3O4 concentration of about 0.1 ng/cell was also used to search ex-vivo the possibility of Sarcoma 180 extermination by magnetic heating with an AC field of 120Oe and 184 KHz. The result shows that after a heat treatment for 30 min., 40% of Sarcoma 180 cells was killed.

  17. Absolute Lymphocyte Count Is Not a Suitable Alternative to CD4 Count for Determining Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy in Fiji

    PubMed Central

    Balak, Dashika A.; Ram, Sharan; Devi, Rachel R.; Graham, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. An absolute lymphocyte count is commonly used as an alternative to a CD4 count to determine initiation of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected individuals in Fiji when a CD4 count is unavailable. Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of laboratory results of HIV-infected individuals registered at all HIV clinics in Fiji. Results. Paired absolute lymphocyte and CD4 counts were available for 101 HIV-infected individuals, and 96% had a CD4 count of ?500?cells/mm3. Correlation between the counts in individuals was poor (Spearman rank correlation r = 0.5). No absolute lymphocyte count could be determined in this population as a suitable surrogate for a CD4 count of either 350?cells/mm3?or 500?cells/mm3. The currently used absolute lymphocyte count of ?2300?cells/?L had a positive predictive value of 87% but a negative predictive value of only 17% for a CD4 of ?350 cells/mm3 and if used as a surrogate for a CD4 of ?500?cells/mm3 it would result in all HIV-infected individuals receiving ART including those not yet eligible. Weight, CD4 count, and absolute lymphocyte count increased significantly at 3 months following ART initiation. Conclusions. Our findings do not support the use of absolute lymphocyte count to determine antiretroviral therapy initiation in Fiji. PMID:25400669

  18. Pathogen-specific effects of quantitative trait loci affecting clinical mastitis and somatic cell count in Danish Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, L P; Guldbrandtsen, B; Thomasen, J R; Lund, M S

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting the risk of clinical mastitis (CM) and QTL affecting somatic cell score (SCS) exhibit pathogen-specific effects on the incidence of mastitis. Bacteriological data on mastitis pathogens were used to investigate pathogen specificity of QTL affecting treatments of mastitis in first parity (CM1), second parity (CM2), and third parity (CM3), and QTL affecting SCS. The 5 most common mastitis pathogens in the Danish dairy population were analyzed: Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Escherichia coli, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus uberis. Data were analyzed using 2 approaches: an independence test and a generalized linear mixed model. Three different data sets were used to investigate the effect of data sampling: all samples, only samples that were followed by antibiotic treatment, and samples from first-crop daughters only. The results showed with high certainty that 2 QTL affecting SCS exhibited pathogen specificity against Staph. aureus and E. coli, respectively. The latter result might be explained by a pleiotropic QTL that also affects CM2 and CM3. Less certain results were found for QTL affecting CM. A QTL affecting CM1 was found to be specific against Strep. dysgalactiae and Staph. aureus, a QTL affecting CM2 was found to be specific against E. coli, and finally a QTL affecting CM3 was found to be specific against Staph. aureus. None of the QTL analyzed was found to be specific against coagulase-negative staphylococci and Strep. uberis. Our results show that particular mastitis QTL are highly likely to exhibit pathogen-specificity. However, the results should be interpreted carefully because the results are sensitive to the sampling method and method of analysis. Field data were used in this study. These kind of data may be heavily biased because there is no standard procedure for collecting milk samples for bacteriological analysis in Denmark. Furthermore, using only the mean SCS from d 10 to 180 after parturition may lead to truncated effects of SCS-QTL when samples collected after d 180 are used. Additionally, repeated samples were used, which could boost the difference in incidence of pathogens between daughters of sires inheriting the positive and negative QTL allele, respectively. However, the magnitude of these effects in this study is unclear. PMID:18487673

  19. Leydig cell steroid production in the presence of LH is further stimulated by rat testicular fluid, fetal calf serum and bovine follicular fluid, but not by rat and bovine serum.

    PubMed

    Melsert, R; Rommerts, F F

    1987-12-01

    LH-dependent steroid production by isolated rat Leydig cells is fourfold stimulated by the addition of charcoal-stripped rat testicular fluid. Fetal calf serum and bovine follicular fluid have similar stimulatory effects. In contrast, rat and bovine serum suppress steroid production in the presence of LH in a dose-dependent manner. The results show that stimulatory and inhibitory factors can modulate Leydig cell steroidogenesis and these factors appear not to be organ or species specific. PMID:3443799

  20. A detailed phenotypic analysis of immune cell populations in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of atopic asthmatics after segmental allergen challenge

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Atopic asthma is characterized by intermittent exacerbations triggered by exposure to allergen. Exacerbations are characterized by an acute inflammatory reaction in the airways, with recruitment of both innate and adaptive immune cells. These cell populations as well as soluble factors are critical for initiating and controlling the inflammatory processes in allergic asthma. Detailed data on the numbers and types of cells recruited following allergen challenge is lacking. In this paper we present an extensive phenotypic analysis of the inflammatory cell infiltrate present in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid following bronchoscopically directed allergen challenge in mild atopic asthmatics. Methods A re-analysis of pooled data obtained prior to intervention in our randomized, placebo controlled, double blinded study (costimulation inhibition in asthma trial [CIA]) was performed. Twenty-four subjects underwent bronchoscopically directed segmental allergen challenge followed by BAL collection 48 hours later. The BAL fluid was analyzed by multi-color flow cytometry for immune cell populations and multi-plex ELISA for cytokine detection. Results Allergen instillation induced pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6) and immune modulating cytokines (IL-2, IFN-?, and IL-10) along with an increase in lymphocytes and suppressor cells (Tregs and MDSC). Interestingly, membrane expression of CD30 was identified on lymphocytes, especially Tregs, but not eosinophils. Soluble CD30 was also detected in the BAL fluid after allergen challenge in adult atopic asthmatics. Conclusions After segmental allergen challenge of adult atopic asthmatics, cell types associated with a pro-inflammatory as well as an anti-inflammatory response are detected within the BAL fluid of the lung. PMID:24330650

  1. Fatty acid content, health and risk indices, physicochemical composition, and somatic cell counts of milk from organic and conventional farming systems in tropical south-eastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Delgadillo-Puga, Claudia; Sánchez-Muñoz, Bernardo; Nahed-Toral, José; Cuchillo-Hilario, Mario; Díaz-Martínez, Margarita; Solis-Zabaleta, Roman; Reyes-Hernández, Aurora; Castillo-Domíguez, Rosa Maria

    2014-06-01

    Organic agriculture and livestock farming is claimed to promote animal welfare and can offer animal products with better hygienic-sanitary quality, based on principles of health, ecology, fairness, and care. However, no clear advantages of organic milk (OM) versus conventional milk (CM) from tropical conditions are available. The aims of the study were to determine fatty acid profile, health-promoting (HPI) and thrombogenic (TI) indices, physicochemical composition, and somatic cell counts (SCC) of OM and CM in tropical south-eastern Mexico. Female cross-breed cows (400-600 kg) were employed. CM had larger values of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) (63.6 %; 4.57 %) than OM (61.48 %; 4.22 %), while OM resulted in a larger value of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) (34.3 %) than CM (31.7 %). HPI and TI showed that OM was more favorable than CM. Milk production and physicochemical composition (PC) as well as density had no significant difference, while SCC was significantly lower in OM than in CM on a monthly basis. These results showed that OM promotes a healthful and balanced diet, and is already produced by sustainable ecologic technologies employing traditional agrosilvopastoral management, which is more environmentally friendly and promotes ecological resilience. PMID:24715204

  2. Thermomechanical analysis of freezing-induced cell-fluid-matrix interactions in engineered tissues.

    PubMed

    Han, Bumsoo; Teo, Ka Yaw; Ghosh, Soham; Dutton, J Craig; Grinnell, Frederick

    2013-02-01

    Successful cryopreservation of functional engineered tissues (ETs) is significant to tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, but it is extremely challenging to develop a successful protocol because the effects of cryopreservation parameters on the post-thaw functionality of ETs are not well understood. Particularly, the effects on the microstructure of their extracellular matrix (ECM) have not been well studied, which determines many functional properties of the ETs. In this study, we investigated the effects of two key cryopreservation parameters--(i) freezing temperature and corresponding cooling rate; and (ii) the concentration of cryoprotective agent (CPA) on the ECM microstructure as well as the cellular viability. Using dermal equivalent as a model ET and DMSO as a model CPA, freezing-induced spatiotemporal deformation and post-thaw ECM microstructure of ETs was characterized while varying the freezing temperature and DMSO concentrations. The spatial distribution of cellular viability and the cellular actin cytoskeleton was also examined. The results showed that the tissue dilatation increased significantly with reduced freezing temperature (i.e., rapid freezing). A maximum limit of tissue deformation was observed for preservation of ECM microstructure, cell viability and cell-matrix adhesion. The dilatation decreased with the use of DMSO, and a freezing temperature dependent threshold concentration of DMSO was observed. The threshold DMSO concentration increased with lowering freezing temperature. In addition, an analysis was performed to delineate thermodynamic and mechanical components of freezing-induced tissue deformation. The results are discussed to establish a mechanistic understanding of freezing-induced cell-fluid-matrix interaction and phase change behavior within ETs in order to improve cryopreservation of ETs. PMID:23246556

  3. Chapter 7: The hydrothermal diamond anvil cell (HDAC) for Raman spectroscopic studies of geological fluids at high pressures and temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Christian; Chou, I-Ming

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe the hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell (HDAC), which is specifically designed for experiments on systems with aqueous fluids to temperatures up to ~1000ºC and pressures up to a few GPa to tens of GPa. This cell permits optical observation of the sample and the in situ determination of properties by ‘photon-in photon-out’ techniques such as Raman spectroscopy. Several methods for pressure measurement are discussed in detail including the Raman spectroscopic pressure sensors a-quartz, berlinite, zircon, cubic boron nitride (c-BN), and 13C-diamond, the fluorescence sensors ruby (?-Al2O3:Cr3+), Sm:YAG (Y3Al5O12:Sm3+) and SrB4O7:Sm2+, and measurements of phase-transition temperatures. Furthermore, we give an overview of published Raman spectroscopic studies of geological fluids to high pressures and temperatures, in which diamond anvil cells were applied.

  4. Evidence That HIV-1 CRF01_AE Is Associated with Low CD4+T Cell Count and CXCR4 Co-Receptor Usage in Recently Infected Young Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaolei; Wang, Xuqin; Zhen, Xiaohong; Zhang, Wei; Ning, Zhen; Yue, Qing; Fu, Jie; Shen, Fangwei; Gai, Jing; Xu, Yuqing; Mao, Jiawen; Gao, Xianming; Shen, Xiaopei; Kang, Laiyi; Vanham, Guido; Cheng, Hua; Wang, Ying; Zhuang, Minghua; Zhuang, Xun; Pan, Qichao; Zhong, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) have recently accounted for an alarmingly increasing proportion of HIV-1 transmission in China. In order to investigate the immune status as a result of CRF01_AE infection and CXCR4 co-receptor usage in a young Shanghai-based HIV-1-infected MSM population in Shanghai, 364 HIV-1-infected MSM with average age of 22.7 years old, newly diagnosed between Jan 2009 and Jul 2013 were analyzed for CD4+T cell count, subtyping using phylogenetic analysis, and viral co-receptor tropism using Geno2pheno and webPSSM in combination. A total of 276 individuals were identified as recently infected. Subtype assignment were as follows: 176 (63.8%) CRF01_AE, 77 (27.9%) CRF07_BC, and 23 (8.3%) subtype B. Besides, 24 second-generation recombinant strains were identified. A lower CD4+T cell count at baseline survey was observed among CRF01_AE strain-infected individuals, compared to those who were infected with CRF07_BC (P<0.01). The frequency of baseline CD4+T cell count <200 was higher and the frequency of CD4 T counts >500 lower in CRF01_AE infection than CRF07_BC infection. It is worth noting that 32.4%–40.9% of CRF01_AE strain-infected individuals were predicted to carry CXCR4-tropic viruses whereas none of CRF07_BC and subtype B were found to be as CXCR4-tropic viruses (P<0.001). As could be expected CXCR4 tropism was associated with lower CD4 T counts. This study revealed that CRF01_AE strains with high frequency of CXCR4 tropism are prevailing in the young MSM population in China and could potentially cause a severe loss of CD4+T cell count and rapid disease progression. A regular surveillance of HIV-1 subtypes, CD4+T cell count and viral co-receptor usage would be greatly beneficial for effectively monitoring disease progression, improvement of antiretroviral therapy strategy and prompt intervention of transmission. PMID:24586795

  5. Clipart ETC: Counting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Florida Center for Instructional Technology Clipart ETC

    2010-07-19

    This collection contains over 630 clipart images that can be used for counting. There are Florida-themed flash cards for numbers 0 - 10 offered in English, Spanish, and bilingual options. Illustrations of hands depicting finger counting in both American style (beginning with the index finger) and European style (beginning with the thumb) are available. There are also images of 3-dimensional designs made of cubes and illustrations of bundles of sticks and dominoes for teaching skip-counting, addition, and place value.

  6. CD90(+) Mesothelial-Like Cells in Peritoneal Fluid Promote Peritoneal Metastasis by Forming a Tumor Permissive Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Kitayama, Joji; Emoto, Shigenobu; Yamaguchi, Hironori; Ishigami, Hironori; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    The peritoneal cavity is a common target of metastatic gastrointestinal and ovarian cancer cells, but the mechanisms leading to peritoneal metastasis have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we examined the roles of cells in peritoneal fluids on the development of peritoneal metastasis. We found that a minor subset of human intraperitoneal cells with CD90(+)/CD45(?) phenotype vigorously grew in culture with mesothelial-like appearance. The mesothelial-like cells (MLC) displayed the characteristics of mesenchymal stem cell, such as differentiating into adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes, and suppressing T cell proliferation. These cells highly expressed type I collagen, vimentin, ?-smooth muscle actin and fibroblast activated protein-? by the stimulation with TGF-?, which is characteristic of activated myofibroblasts. Intraperitoneal co-injection of MLCs with the human gastric cancer cell line, MKN45, significantly enhanced the rate of metastatic formation in the peritoneum of nude mice. Histological examination revealed that many MLCs were engrafted in metastatic nodules and were mainly located at the fibrous area. Dasatinib, a potent tyrosine kinase inhibitor, strongly inhibited the proliferation of MLCs but not MKN45 in vitro. Nevertheless, oral administration of Dasatinib significantly inhibited the development of peritoneal metastasis of MKN45, and resulted in reduced fibrillar formation of metastatic nodules. These results suggest floating MLCs in the peritoneal fluids support the development of peritoneal metastasis possibly through the production of the permissive microenvironment, and thus the functional blockade of MLCs is a reasonable strategy to treat recurrent abdominal malignancies. PMID:24466130

  7. Intracellular [Na+], Na+ pathways, and fluid transport in cultured bovine corneal endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Kunyan; Li, Yansui; Yiming, Maimaiti; Sánchez, José M; Iserovich, Pavel; Cragoe, E J; Diecke, Friedrich P J; Fischbarg, Jorge

    2004-07-01

    The mechanism of fluid transport across corneal endothelium remains unclear. We examine here the relative contributions of cellular mechanisms of Na+ transport and the homeostasis of intracellular [Na+] in cultured bovine corneal endothelial cells, and the influence of ambient Na+ and HCO3- on the deturgescence of rabbit cornea. Bovine corneal endothelial cells plated on glass coverslips were incubated for 60 min with 10 microm of the fluorescent Na+ indicator SBFI precursor in HCO3- HEPES (BH) Ringer's solution. After loading, cells were placed in a perfusion chamber. Indicator fluorescence (490 nm) was determined with a Chance-Legallais time-sharing fluorometer. Its voltage output was the ratio of the emissions excited at 340 and 380 nm. For calibration, cells were treated with gramicidin D. For fluid transport measurements, rabbit corneas were mounted in a Dikstein-Maurice chamber, and stromal thickness was measured with a specular microscope. The steady-state [Na+]i in BH was 14.36+/-0.38 mM (n = mean+/-s.e.). Upon exposure to Na+ -free BH solution (choline substituted), [Na+]i decreased to 1.81+/-0.20mM (n = 19). When going from Na+ -free plus 100 microm ouabain to BH plus ouabain, [Na+]i increased to 46.17+/-2.50 (n = 6) with a half time of 1.26+/-0.04 min; if 0.1 microm phenamil plus ouabain were present, it reached only 21.78+/-1.50mm. The exponential time constants (min-1) were: 0.56+/-0.04 for the Na+ pump; 0.39+/-0.01 for the phenamil sensitive Na+ channel; and 0.17+/-0.02 for the ouabain-phenamil-insensitive pathways. In HCO3- free medium (gluconate substituted), [Na+]i was 14.03+/-0.11mM; upon changing to BH medium, it increased to 30.77+/-0.74 mm. This last [Na+]i increase was inhibited 66% by 100 microm DIDS. Using BH medium, corneal thickness remained nearly constant, increasing at a rate of only 2.9+/-0.9 microm hr-1 during 3 hr. However, stromal thickness increased drastically (swelling rate 36.1+/-2.6 microm hr-1) in corneas superfused with BH plus 100 microm ouabain. Na+ -free, HCO3- free solution and 100 microm DIDS also led to increased corneal swelling rates (17.7+/-3.6, 14.4+/-1.6 and 14.9+/-1.2 microm hr-1, respectively). The present results are explained by the presence of a DIDS-inhibitable Na+-HCO3- cotransporter and an epithelial Na+ channel, both previously found in these cells. On the other hand, the quantitative picture presented here appears a novelty. The changes we observe are consistent with pump-driven rapid exchange of intracellular Na+, and recirculation of fully 70% of the Na+ pump flux via apical Na+ channels. PMID:15183104

  8. Changes in milk L-lactate, lactate dehydrogenase, serum albumin, and IgG during milk ejection and their association with somatic cell count.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Mirjam; Wall, Samantha K; Wellnitz, Olga; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

    2015-05-01

    In both conventional and automatic milking systems (AMS), sensitive and reliable mastitis detection is important for profitable milk production. Mastitis detection parameters must be able to detect mastitis when the somatic cell count (SCC) is only slightly elevated. Owing to the pre-milking teat cleaning process in AMS, sampling cannot take place before the occurrence of alveolar milk ejection and importantly, this can affect the ability of parameters to detect mastitis. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of alveolar milk ejection on l-lactate, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum albumin (SA) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) compared with SCC, a commonly used indicator of mastitis. In this experiment, milk samples were collected every 20 s from one quarter during a 120-s manual teat stimulation in ten cows. Samples were analysed for SCC, l-lactate, LDH, SA and IgG. Quarters were grouped by low (<5·0 log10 cells/ml), mid (5·0-5·7 log10 cells/ml), and high (>5·7 log10 cells/ml) SCC using the sample at t=0 s. Neither l-lactate nor LDH could statistically differentiate between low and mid-SCC quarters, but there were a significant difference in levels between the high-SCC quarters and low and mid-SCC quarters. SA could not differentiate between the low and mid-SCC quarters, but the SA levels for the high SCC quarters remained statistically different compared with low and mid-SCC quarters throughout the experiment. IgG could statistically differentiate between low and mid-SCC, although the high-SCC quarters were not statistically different from the mid-SCC quarters after 60 s. In the high-SCC quarters, a decrease was shown in all parameters during milk ejection, after t=60 s. In conclusion, alveolar milk ejection reduces the effectiveness of detection parameters when compared with SCC. With the exception of IgG, the ability of other tested parameters was not satisfactory to differentiate between quarters with low to mid-SCC levels. PMID:25467384

  9. Can the Griess Nitrite Test and a Urinary Pus Cell Count of ?5 Cells Per Micro Litre of Urine in Pregnant Women be Used for the Screening or the Early Detection of Urinary Tract Infections in Rural India?

    PubMed Central

    Thakre, Sushama S.; Dhakne, Supriya S.; Thakre, Subhash B.; Thakre, Amol D.; Ughade, Suresh M.; Kale, Priya

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is a common problem in pregnancy due to the morphological and the physiological changes that take place in the genitourinary tract during pregnancy. Screening methods may be useful, because a full bacteriological analysis could be reserved for those patients who are symptomatic or those who have positive screening test results. The exact prevalence of UTI in rural, pregnant women is unknown. The present study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of UTI in pregnant women and for ascertaining the utility of the Griess Nitrite test and the Urinary Pus Cell Count of ?5 cells per micro litre test for the screening or the early detection of UTI in them at primary health care clinics. Occurrence of urinary complaints was compared in UTI and non UTI women. Method We conducted a study on 300 randomly selected, pregnant women from rural areas. Urine cultures, pus-cell counts and the Griess nitrite test were used for diagnosis of UTI. The screening tests for UTI were evaluated in terms of their sensitivity, specificity, Positive Predictive Value (PPV), Negative Predictive Value (NPV) and the percentage of correctly classified. Results In the present study, the prevalence of UTI was found to be 29/300 (9.6%, 95% confidence interval 9.57-9.63). The specificities of the two screening tests were comparable (97.05% and 94.47%). Also, the negative predictive values of the two tests were almost similar (97.77% and 96.96%). The percentage of correctly classified by the Griess nitrite test and the urine pus cell count were found to be 95.33% and 92.33% respectively. The proportion of the women with various urinary complaints was significantly higher (P<0.00) in the UTI subjects as compared to that in the non-UTI subjects. Conclusion Urine culture remains the gold standard for the detection of asymptomatic bacteriuria. The Nitrite test of uncentrifuged urine was observed to be the best among the screening tests which were evaluated in terms of their efficiency and validity. PMID:23285444

  10. Nitric oxide production by cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells: stimulation by fluid flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadaki, M.; Tilton, R. G.; Eskin, S. G.; McIntire, L. V.

    1998-01-01

    This study demonstrated that exposure of cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells (SMC) to fluid flow resulted in nitric oxide (NO) production, monitored by nitrite and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate production. A rapid burst in nitrite production rate was followed by a more gradual increase throughout the period of flow exposure. Neither the initial burst nor the prolonged nitrite production was dependent on the level of shear stress in the range of 1.1-25 dyn/cm2. Repeated exposure to shear stress after a 30-min static period restimulated nitrite production similar to the initial burst. Ca(2+)-calmodulin antagonists blocked the initial burst in nitrite release. An inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) blocked nitrite production, indicating that changes in nitrite reflect NO production. Treatment with dexamethasone or cycloheximide had no effect on nitrite production. Monoclonal antibodies directed against the inducible and endothelial NOS isoforms showed no immunoreactivity on Western blots, whereas monoclonal antibodies directed against the neuronal NOS gave specific products. These findings suggest that human aortic SMC express a constitutive neuronal NOS isoform, the enzymatic activity of which is modulated by flow.

  11. Actuation of flexoelectric membranes in viscoelastic fluids with applications to outer hair cells.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Valencia, E E; Rey, Alejandro D

    2014-11-28

    Liquid crystal flexoelectric actuation uses an imposed electric field to create membrane bending, and it is used by the outer hair cells (OHCs) located in the inner ear, whose role is to amplify sound through generation of mechanical power. Oscillations in the OHC membranes create periodic viscoelastic flows in the contacting fluid media. A key objective of this work on flexoelectric actuation relevant to OHCs is to find the relations and impact of the electromechanical properties of the membrane, the rheological properties of the viscoelastic media, and the frequency response of the generated mechanical power output. The model developed and used in this work is based on the integration of: (i) the flexoelectric membrane shape equation applied to a circular membrane attached to the inner surface of a circular capillary and (ii) the coupled capillary flow of contacting viscoelastic phases, such that the membrane flexoelectric oscillations drive periodic viscoelastic capillary flows, as in OHCs. By applying the Fourier transform formalism to the governing equation, analytical expressions for the transfer function associated with the curvature and electrical field and for the power dissipation of elastic storage energy were found. PMID:25332388

  12. Circulating Tumor Cell Counts Are Prognostic of Overall Survival in SWOG S0421: A Phase III Trial of Docetaxel With or Without Atrasentan for Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Goldkorn, Amir; Ely, Benjamin; Quinn, David I.; Tangen, Catherine M.; Fink, Louis M.; Xu, Tong; Twardowski, Przemyslaw; Van Veldhuizen, Peter J.; Agarwal, Neeraj; Carducci, Michael A.; Monk, J. Paul; Datar, Ram H.; Garzotto, Mark; Mack, Philip C.; Lara, Primo; Higano, Celestia S.; Hussain, Maha; Thompson, Ian Murchie; Cote, Richard J.; Vogelzang, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Circulating tumor cell (CTC) enumeration has not been prospectively validated in standard first-line docetaxel treatment for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. We assessed the prognostic value of CTCs for overall survival (OS) and disease response in S0421, a phase III trial of docetaxel plus prednisone with or without atrasentan. Patients and Methods CTCs were enumerated at baseline (day 0) and before cycle two (day 21) using CellSearch. Baseline counts and changes in counts from day 0 to 21 were evaluated for association with OS, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and RECIST response using Cox regression as well as receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves, integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) analysis, and regression trees. Results Median day-0 CTC count was five cells per 7.5 mL, and CTCs < versus ? five per 7.5 mL were significantly associated with baseline PSA, bone pain, liver disease, hemoglobin, alkaline phosphatase, and subsequent PSA and RECIST response. Median OS was 26 months for < five versus 13 months for ? five CTCs per 7.5 mL at day 0 (hazard ratio [HR], 2.74 [adjusting for covariates]). ROC curves had higher areas under the curve for day-0 CTCs than for PSA, and IDI analysis showed that adding day-0 CTCs to baseline PSA and other covariates increased predictive accuracy for survival by 8% to 10%. Regression trees yielded new prognostic subgroups, and rising CTC count from day 0 to 21 was associated with shorter OS (HR, 2.55). Conclusion These data validate the prognostic utility of CTC enumeration in a large docetaxel-based prospective cohort. Baseline CTC counts were prognostic, and rising CTCs at 3 weeks heralded significantly worse OS, potentially serving as an early metric to help redirect and optimize therapy in this clinical setting. PMID:24616308

  13. Strong vortical flows generated by the collective motion of magnetic particle chains rotating in a fluid cell.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yang; Beerens, Jasper; van Reenen, Alexander; Hulsen, Martien A; de Jong, Arthur M; Prins, Menno W J; den Toonder, Jaap M J

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic microparticles, assembled into chains that are actuated with rotating magnetic fields, can be used as microstirrers to promote fluid transport and biochemical reactions in microfluidic systems. We show that, within a certain range of magnetic field rotation frequency, the microstirrers exhibit a coherent collective motion: the rotating magnetic particle chains move throughout the volume of a flat fluid cell and generate very strong (~1 mm s(-1)) and global (9 mm) vortical fluid flows, with many eddy-type substructures that fluctuate continuously in time, resembling turbulent flow. The collective motion makes the microstirrers not only defy gravity, but also move against magnetic field gradients. The induced fluid flow is directly related to the stirring rate and the amount of magnetic particle chains. The observed behavior is caused by the magnetic and hydrodynamic interactions between the magnetic microparticles and the fluid. We utilized the phenomenon of swarming particles to enhance biochemical assays with magnetic capture particles (4000 ?L(-1)) and IgG targets (500 pM). When compared to a reference system of sedimented magnetic capture particles, magnetic actuation leads to both a ~9 times increase in the initial assay kinetics as well as a ~7 times increase of target capture signal after 30 minutes. PMID:25380482

  14. Counting Sheep in Basque

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Frank P.

    1975-01-01

    Demonstrates the interplay of a cognitive system, the Basque numerative system, and a behavioral one, counting sheep. The significant features of the Basque numerative system are analyzed; then it is shown how use of these features facilitates the counting of sheep on open ranges by Basque sheep farmers in California. (Author/RM)

  15. Counting coins and value

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Christian

    2007-03-21

    Students will identify and add up coins. Please complete the games in order. You must finish each game before going on to the next one. Game #1: Counting Money - Values of coins Game #2:Counting Money (harder) Game #3: Let s Compare (hardest) Game #4: Money Hard Game #5: Cash Out--Very Difficult Math Game ...

  16. Counting Your Lucky Stars

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Shannon Ricles

    2013-01-30

    In this activity, learners sample a star field to estimate the number of stars in the universe. This activity simulates how astronomers use sampling instead of census (counting) to more easily collect data in space. Learners predict, count, approximate, and average the number of stars in a Star Field Sheet.

  17. Response Of Mineralizing And Non-Mineralizing Bone Cells To Fluid Flow: An In Vitro Model For Mechanotransruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makuch, Lauren A.

    2004-01-01

    Humans reach peak bone mass at age 30. After this point, we lose 1 to 2 percent of bone mass each decade. In the microgravity environment of space, astronauts lose bone mass at an accelerated rate of 1 to 2 percent each month. When astronauts travel to Mars, they may be in space for as long as 3 years. During this time, they may lose about half of their bone mass from weight-bearing bones. This loss may be irreversible. The drastic loss in bone that astronauts experience in space makes them much more vulnerable to fractures. In addition, the corresponding removal of calcium from bone resu