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1

Counting cells in cerebrospinal fluid collected directly on membrane filters  

PubMed Central

Accurate enumeration of cells in the cerebrospinal fluid is not feasible with the current method of counting cells in the Fuchs Rosenthal or Neubauer chamber when the count is near normal since the volume of fluid examined is too small. A sample of adequate volume to permit such accurate assessment may be collected from the lumbar puncture needle into a syringe through a ruled membrane filter in a Swinney cartridge. A study of 291 samples shows that the upper limit of the normal cerebrospinal fluid count is 2000 cells/ml (2/cmm) and not 5000/ml (5/cmm) as is currently accepted. Images

Burechailo, F.; Cunningham, T. A.

1974-01-01

2

Automated counting of white blood cells in synovial fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results. The WBC count of the DIFF channel was highly correlated with the WBC count of the microscopic reference method (r ¼ 0.99; WBC analyser ¼ 0.870 ? WBC reference method ž 0.413). In contrast, no agreement existed between WBC counts generated by the WBC\\/BASO channel of the analyser and the reference method (r ¼ 0.52; WBC analyser ¼ 0.008

R. de Jonge; R. Brouwer; M. Smit; R. J. E. M. Dolhain; J. M. W. Hazes; A. W. van Toorenenbergen; J. Lindemans

2003-01-01

3

Traumatic Lumbar Punctures in Neonates: Test Performance of the Cerebrospinal Fluid White Blood Cell Count  

PubMed Central

Background Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings are often used to diagnose meningitis in neonates given antibiotics before the lumbar puncture is performed. Traumatic lumbar punctures are common and complicate interpretation of CSF white blood cell counts. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic utility of adjusting CSF white blood cell counts based on CSF and peripheral red blood cell counts. Methods Cohort study of lumbar punctures performed between 1997 and 2004 at 150 neonatal intensive care units managed by the Pediatrix Medical group. Traumatic lumbar punctures were defined as CSF specimens with ?500 red blood cells/mm3. CSF white blood cell counts were adjusted downward for traumatic lumbar punctures using several commonly used methods. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of unadjusted and adjusted CSF white blood cell counts for predicting meningitis in neonates with traumatic lumbar punctures. Results Of 6,374 lumbar punctures, 2,519 (39.5%) were traumatic. 114/6,374 (1.8%) were positive for meningitis; 50 neonates with traumatic lumbar punctures had meningitis. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for white blood cell count unadjusted and adjusted by all methods were similar. Conclusions Adjustment of CSF white blood cell counts to account for increased red cells does not improve diagnostic utility. Adjustment can result in loss of sensitivity with marginal gain in specificity. Adjustment of WBC counts in the setting of a traumatic lumbar puncture does not aid in the diagnosis of bacterial and fungal meningitis in neonates.

Greenberg, Rachel G.; Smith, P. Brian; Cotton, C. Michael; Moody, M. Anthony; Clark, Reese H.; Benjamin, Daniel K.

2009-01-01

4

White Blood Cell Counting System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter...

1972-01-01

5

Measurement of calprotectin in ascitic fluid to identify elevated polymorphonuclear cell count  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the diagnostic capability of calprotectin in ascitic fluid for detecting a polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell count > 250/?L ascites. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, a total of 130 ascites samples were analysed from 71 consecutive patients referred for paracentesis. Total and differential leukocyte cell counts were determined manually with a Neubauer chamber and gentian-violet stain. Calprotectin was measured in 1 mL ascetic fluid by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a point-of-care (POC) lateral flow assay with the Quantum Blue® Reader (Bühlmann Laboratories). All measurements were carried out in a central laboratory by senior personnel blinded to patient history. A PMN count > 250/?L was the primary endpoint of the study. The diagnostic value of ascitic calprotectin measurement was assessed by comparing to the final diagnosis of each patient that had been adjudicated by investigators blinded to calprotectin values. RESULTS: The PMN count was > 250/?L in 19 samples (14.6%) from 15 patients (21.1%) and varied widely among the study population (range 10-19?800/mL and 1-17?820/mL, respectively). Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) was the final diagnosis in four patients (5.6%). All patients with PMN ? 250/?L had negative bacterial culture. PMN count was elevated in five patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis, three with lymphoma, one with neuroendocrine carcinoma, and two with secondary peritonitis due to abdominal perforation. PMN cell counts correlated with ascitic calprotectin values (Spearman’s rho; r = 0.457 for ELISA, r = 0.473 for POC). A considerable range of ascitic calprotectin concentrations was detected by ELISA [median 0.43 ?g/mL, interquartile range (IQR) 0.23-1.23 (range 0.10-14.93)] and POC [median 0.38 ?g/mL, IQR 0.38-0.56 (range 0.38-13.31)]. Ascitic calprotectin levels were higher in samples with PMN > 250/?L, by both ELISA [median (IQR) 2.48 ?g/mL (1.61-3.65) vs 0.10 ?g/mL (0.10-0.36), P < 0.001] and POC [2.78 ?g/mL (2.05-5.37) vs 0.38 ?g/mL (0.38-0.41), P < 0.001]. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for identifying an elevated PMN count was 0.977 (95%CI: 0.933 to 0.995) for ELISA and 0.982 (95%CI: 0.942 to 0.997) for POC (P = 0.246 vs ELISA). Using the optimal cut-off value for ELISA (0.63 ?g/mL), ascitic calprotectin had 94.8% sensitivity, 89.2% specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios of 8.76 and 0.06 respectively, positive and negative predictive values of 60.0% and 99.0% respectively, and 90.0% overall accuracy. Using the optimal cut-off value for POC (0.51 ?g/mL), the respective values were 100.0%, 84.7%, 6.53, 0.00, 52.8%, 100% and 87.7%. Correlation between ELISA and POC was excellent (r = 0.873, P < 0.001). The mean ± SD of the difference was -0.11 ± 0.48 ?g/mL with limits of agreement of + 0.8 ?g/mL (95%CI: 0.69 to 0.98) and -1.1 ?g/mL (95%CI: -1.19 to -0.91). CONCLUSION: Ascitic calprotectin reliably predicts PMN count > 250/?L, which may prove useful in the diagnosis of SBP, especially with a readily available bedside testing device.

Burri, Emanuel; Schulte, Felix; Muser, Jurgen; Meier, Remy; Beglinger, Christoph

2013-01-01

6

White blood cell counting system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter. Preliminary test results show the sample collection and the dilution subsystems are functional and fulfill design goals. Results for the fluid containment subsystem show the handling bags cause counting errors due to: (1) adsorption of cells to the walls of the container, and (2) inadequate cleaning of the plastic bag material before fabrication. It was recommended that another bag material be selected.

1972-01-01

7

White blood cell count  

Microsoft Academic Search

An association between elevated white blood cell (WBC) count and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality has been previously observed. However, the relationship between WBC count and CHD mortality independent of cigarette smoking and the possible interaction between WBC count and smoking remains unclear. We examined the association between WBC count and CHD mortality with Cox regression analyses of data from

David W Brown; Wayne H Giles; Janet B Croft

2001-01-01

8

Evaluation of White Cell Count and Differential in Synovial Fluid for Diagnosing Infections after Total Hip or Knee Arthroplasty  

PubMed Central

Background The accuracy of synovial fluid (SF) white cell count (WCC) and polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell evaluation for predicting prosthetic joint infection (PJI) at the total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) site is unknown. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to summarize the diagnostic validity of SF-WCC and SF-PMN for diagnosing PJI. Methods The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and OVID databases were searched for studies that had evaluated the diagnostic validity of SF-WCC and SF-PMN between January 1990 and May 2013. Meta-analysis methods were used to pool sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odd ratios (DORs), the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC), positive likelihood ratios (PLR), negative likelihood ratios (NLR), and post-test probability. We also conducted heterogeneity, publication bias, subgroup, and meta-regression analyses. Results Fifteen articles (15 SF-WCC and 14 SF-PMN) that included a total of 2787 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were considered for analysis. The pooled sensitivity and specificity for PJI detection was 0.88 (95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.81–0.93) and 0.93 (95% CI, 0.88–0.96) for SF-WCC and 0.90 (95% CI, 0.84–0.93) and 0.88 (95% CI, 0.83–0.92) for SF-PMN, respectively. The AUC was 0.96 for SF-WCC and 0.95 for SF-PMN. PLR and NLR were 13.3 and 0.13 for SF-WCC, and 7.6 and 0.12 for SF-PMN, respectively. There was no evidence of publication bias. Low-clinical-scenario (pre-test probability, 20%) post-test probabilities were 3% for both negative SF-WCC and SF-PMN results. The subgroup analyses indicated that the sensitivity/specificity of THA were 0.73/0.96 for SF-WCC and 0.85/0.83 for SF-PMN, whereas those of TKA were 0.90/0.91 for SF-WCC and 0.90/0.88 for SF-PMN. We also found that collection of SF-WCC preoperatively had a higher sensitivity than that obtained intraoperatively (0.91 vs. 0.77). Conclusions SF-WCC and SF-PMN have an adequate and clinically acceptable diagnostic value for detecting PJI, particularly after TKA.

Li, Haowei; Wu, Chuanlong; Li, Yang; Li, Huiwu; Zhu, Zhenan; Qin, An; Dai, Kerong

2014-01-01

9

Low white blood cell count and cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... kill them. It is called a low white blood cell count, or neutropenia, when a person has too few ... a microliter of blood has a low white blood cell count. If the white blood cell count is very ...

10

Determination of leukocyte counts in cerebrospinal fluid with a disposable plastic hemocytometer.  

PubMed

Manual microscopic cell counting in a Fuchs-Rosenthal (FR) chamber has been the gold standard for quantification of leukocytes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, for accurate determination of the number and differentiation of cells by chamber counting, hemocytometers must be prepared carefully and kept clean. Improper fitting of the chamber and coverslip changes the volume of sample introduced into the chamber well. Moreover, because conventional hemocytometers are used repeatedly and are breakable, there is a risk of exposure to potentially infectious material. To address these issues, disposable plastic hemocytometers have been developed. However, the accuracy, precision, and clinical usefulness of disposable chambers for CSF cells counting have not been determined. In the present study, we evaluated use of a disposable plastic counting chamber (C-Chip DHC-F01) by comparing its performance with that of an FR chamber for counting of CSF specimens and cell suspensions. Within-run precision of C-Chip counting was comparable or superior to that of FR chamber counting, and excellent correlation between cell counts obtained with the C-Chip chamber and FR chamber was observed. However, C-Chip chambers that were kept at 4 degrees C yielded significantly low cell counts. The disposable hemocytometer will reduce the risk of exposure to potentially infectious material. However, use of C-Chip chambers should be avoided in cold environments. PMID:17847111

Yamanishi, Hachiro; Imai, Nobuko; Suehisa, Etsuji; Kanakura, Yuzuru; Iwatani, Yoshinori

2007-01-01

11

Method and Apparatus for Measuring White Blood Cell Count.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for quantitatively measuring white blood cell count involves capture of white blood cells from a fluid sample by a retainer, removal of the red blood cells and other interfering substances by a wash solution, and reading the result of a color rea...

I. Nikolyukin W. T. Law Y. Nikolyukin

2003-01-01

12

Somatic Cell Counts in Bovine Milk  

PubMed Central

Factors which influence somatic cell counts in bovine milk are reviewed and guidelines for their interpretation are presented. It is suggested that the thresholds of 300 000 and 250 000 cells/mL be used to identify infected quarters and cows respectively. However, it is stressed that somatic cell counts are general indicators of udder health which are subject to the influence of many factors. Therefore the evaluation of several successive counts is preferable to the interpretation of an individual count. Relationships between somatic cell counts and both milk production and milk composition are discussed. Subclinical mastitis reduces milk quality and decreases yield although the relationship between production loss and somatic cell count requires clarification. Finally the availability of somatic cell counting programs in Canada is presented.

Dohoo, I. R.; Meek, A. H.

1982-01-01

13

Attenuated cerebrospinal fluid leukocyte count and sepsis in adults with pneumococcal meningitis: a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) white-blood cell count (WBC) has been identified as an independent risk factor for adverse outcome in adults with bacterial meningitis. Whereas a low CSF WBC indicates the presence of sepsis with early meningitis in patients with meningococcal infections, the relation between CSF WBC and outcome in patients with pneumococcal meningitis is not understood. METHODS:

Martijn Weisfelt; Diederik van de Beek; Lodewijk Spanjaard; Johannes B Reitsma; Jan de Gans

2006-01-01

14

Induced Sputum Cell Counts in Healthy Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induced sputum cell counts provide a relatively noninvasive method to evaluate the presence, type, and degree of inflammation in the airways of the lungs. Their interpretation requires a knowledge of normal values from a healthy population. The objective was to examine the total and differential cell counts in induced sputum from a sample of healthy adults. A total of 118

JOSE BELDA; RICHARD LEIGH; KRISHNAN PARAMESWARAN; PAUL M. O'BYRNE; MALCOLM R. SEARS; FREDERICK E. HARGREAVE

2000-01-01

15

Counting white blood cells using morphological granulometries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a modification of the mixture proportion estimation algorithm based on the granulometric mixing theorem. The modified algorithm is applied to the problem of counting different types of white blood cells in bone marrow images. In principle, the algorithm can be used to count the proportion of cells in each class without explicitly segmenting and classifying them. The direct

Nipon Theera-Umpon; Paul D. Gader

2000-01-01

16

Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Practicing Counting Count the number of bunnies and match it to the correct number of characters on the right. Click on the correct one. Bunny Count Practice counting by 1 Countin by 1 Practice counting Sea Horses! Counting Sea Horses ...

Person, Ms.

2007-11-28

17

Dye free automated cell counting and analysis.  

PubMed

We have developed an automated cell counting method that uses images obtained at multiple focal heights to enumerate cells in confluent culture. By taking the derivative of image intensity with respect to focal height using two complementary images, we are able to count high-density monolayers of cells over a large image area. Our method resists errors arising from variability in the focal plane caused by flatness or tilt non-uniformities with a minimal amount of focal plane alignment, allowing the automated collection of images across a large area. PMID:23055412

Dehlinger, Dietrich; Suer, Lynn; Elsheikh, Maher; Peńa, José; Naraghi-Arani, Pejman

2013-03-01

18

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis with a very high leukocyte count in ascitic fluid caused by Haemophilus influenzae  

PubMed Central

We report on a case of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) due to Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) in an elderly patient with alcoholic cirrhosis. The patient presented with a 5 day history of fever, cough, and fatigue. Abdominal paracentesis revealed a very high neutrophil count (134,800 cells/?L). Secondary peritonitis and abdominal abscess were ruled out. Peritoneal fluid culture displayed the growth of H. influenzae. The patient was treated with ceftriaxone and showed signs of improvement. Eventually, the patient died due to septic shock caused by other organisms. H. influenzae is a very rare cause of SBP. This case report demonstrates that (1) H. influenzae should be considered a potential cause of SBP, and (2) a very high leukocyte count in ascitic fluid can be found in patients with SBP.

Saadi, Tarek; Khoury, Safie; Veitsman, Ella; Baruch, Yaacov; Raz-Pasteur, Ayelet

2013-01-01

19

Bacterial Cell Counts in Goat Milk and Their Correlations with Somatic Cell Counts, Percent Fat, and Protein1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Representative milk samples at morning and afternoon milking were collected periodically for 5 mo from 32 does in a Prairie View A&M University milking herd to test the concentrations of total bacterial, coliform, and staphylococcus counts and to determine the correlations among the bacterial cell counts, somatic cell counts, percent fat, and percent protein. Bacterial cell counts were assayed by

Y. W. Park; R. D. Humphrey

1986-01-01

20

Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will practice counting different objects. Have fun counting with this counting game. Play the game three times. Go under the sea with Fishy Count. Play the game three times. These spooky ghosts want you to practice counting by 2 s. ...

Beck, Mrs.

2006-12-08

21

Amniotic fluid lamellar body count: cost-effective screening for fetal lung maturity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To create a highly specific cascade testing scheme for fetal lung maturity using the lamellar body count, lecithin\\/sphingomyelin ratio (L\\/S), and phosphatidylglycerol.Methods: A nondedicated hematology analyzer (Sysmex NE 1500, Toa Medical Electronics, Los Angeles, CA) was used to determine the lamellar body counts of 209 unspun amniotic fluid specimens. Maximally specific lamellar body count cutoffs for biochemical maturity and

Pamela S Lewis; Michele R Lauria; Jeffery Dzieczkowski; Gregory O Utter; Mitchell P Dombrowski

1999-01-01

22

Photon Counts Statistics in Leukocyte Cell Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present experiment ultra-weak photon emission/ chemiluminescence from isolated neutrophils was recorded. It is associated with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the "respiratory burst" process which can be activated by PMA (Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate). Commonly, the reaction is demonstrated utilizing the enhancer luminol. However, with the use of highly sensitive photomultiplier equipment it is also recorded without enhancer. In that case, it can be hypothesized that photon count statistics may assist in understanding the underlying metabolic activity and cooperation of these cells. To study this hypothesis leukocytes were stimulated with PMA and increased photon signals were recorded in the quasi stable period utilizing Fano factor analysis at different window sizes. The Fano factor is defined by the variance over the mean of the number of photon within the observation time. The analysis demonstrated that the Fano factor of true signal and not of the surrogate signals obtained by random shuffling increases when the window size increased. It is concluded that photon count statistics, in particular Fano factor analysis, provides information regarding leukocyte interactions. It opens the perspective to utilize this analytical procedure in (in vivo) inflammation research. However, this needs further validation.

van Wijk, Eduard; van der Greef, Jan; van Wijk, Roeland

2011-12-01

23

Counting and Determining the Viability of Cultured Cells  

PubMed Central

Determining the number of cells in culture is important in standardization of culture conditions and in performing accurate quantitation experiments. A hemacytometer is a thick glass slide with a central area designed as a counting chamber. Cell suspension is applied to a defined area and counted so cell density can be calculated.

Ricardo, Richard; Phelan, Katy

2008-01-01

24

Differential leukocyte count method for bovine low somatic cell count milk.  

PubMed

Whereas many differential leukocyte count methods for high somatic cell count (SCC) milk from mastitic cows are available, only a few have been developed for low SCC milk. We have developed a flow cytometric differential leukocyte count method for low SCC milk. The procedure consists of 1) 1.5 ml of diluted milk sample (30%, vol/vol dilution with PBS), 2) centrifugation, 3) leukocyte labeling with SYTO 13 and 4) flow cytometric analysis. Four major leukocyte populations can be clearly identified in the green fluorescence-side scatter dot plot: lymphocytes and monocytes (LM), polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), mature macrophages (Mphi), and cells with apoptotic features based on chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation. The optimal processing temperature was 20 degrees C. Significant differences among samples with similar differential leukocyte counts were found. Storage of milk samples during 2 d at 7 degrees C had no effect on differential leukocyte count. Using the new method, differential leukocyte count was performed in low SCC milk samples from cows in early, mid, and late lactation. In accordance with previous studies, PMN and Mphi percentages were lower and LM percentages were higher in early lactation than in the other stages of lactation. The percentage of cells with apoptotic features was higher in early lactation than in mid and late lactation. In conclusion, a rapid, simple, accurate, and reproducible standard procedure was developed to determine the differential leukocyte count (Mphi, PMN, LM, and cells with apoptotic features) of bovine low SCC milk. PMID:12703619

Dosogne, H; Vangroenweghe, F; Mehrzad, J; Massart-Leėn, A M; Burvenich, C

2003-03-01

25

Method of detecting and counting bacteria in body fluids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel method is reported for determining bacterial levels in urine samples, which method depends on the quantitative determination of bacterial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the presence of non-bacterial ATP. After the removal of non-bacterial ATP, the bacterial ATP is released by cell rupture and is measured by an enzymatic bioluminescent assay using an enzyme obtained from the firefly.

Chappelle, E. W.; Picciolo, G. L. (inventors)

1973-01-01

26

Lamellar body counts in amniotic fluid for prediction of fetal lung maturity  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  \\u000a Objective: Comparison of three different methods of fetal lung maturity (FLM) testing in amniotic fluid (AF) to predict fetal respiratory\\u000a distress syndrome (RDS): phospholipid concentration, phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and lamellar body count (LBC). Study design: 315 amniotic fluid (AF) samples were tested, 291 by determination of phospholipid, 237 by PG and 68 by LBC. Eighty one patients\\u000a (26%) delivered within

A. Beinlich; C. Fischäß; M. Kaufmann; R. Schlößer; J. S. E. Dericks-Tan

1999-01-01

27

21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for red cell and white cell counting is a device that resembles red or white blood cells and that is used to set instruments intended to count red cells, white cells, or...

2009-04-01

28

21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for red cell and white cell counting is a device that resembles red or white blood cells and that is used to set instruments intended to count red cells, white cells, or...

2010-04-01

29

Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell Simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer simulation of atmospheric flow corresponds well to imges taken during the second Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (BFFC) mission. The top shows a view from the pole, while the bottom shows a view from the equator. Red corresponds to hot fluid rising while blue shows cold fluid falling. This simulation was developed by Anil Deane of the University of Maryland, College Park and Paul Fischer of Argorne National Laboratory. Credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

1998-01-01

30

Amniotic fluid lamellar body count and its sensitivity and specificity in evaluating of fetal lung maturity.  

PubMed

This prospective study was designed to perform lamellar body count of amniotic fluid to evaluate fetal lung maturity. Lamellar body counts of 80 amniotic fluid samples from 80 pregnant women (28-40 weeks of gestation) were evaluated. After delivery, each infant was evaluated for any evidence of respiratory distress syndrome. Standard clinical and radiographic criteria were used to diagnose respiratory distress syndrome, and the diagnosis was confirmed by reviewing newborn records. Twenty (25%) infants delivered within 24 hours of sample collection developed RDS. Lamellar body count more than 50,000/microl predicted pulmonary maturity. Seventeen out of 20 respiratory distress syndrome cases had been predicted correctly. The negative predictive value of lamellar body count>50,000/microl was 93% and positive predictive value was 48% and the sensitivity for prediction of RDS was 85% and specificity was 70%. Lamellar body count can be used as a favourable predictor of fetal lung maturity because it is quick, simple and universally available. Also it can be used as an extremely inexpensive, reliable screening test for evaluating fetal lung maturity. PMID:16147729

Khazardoost, S; Yahyazadeh, H; Borna, S; Sohrabvand, F; Yahyazadeh, N; Amini, E

2005-04-01

31

Lamellar body count in amniotic fluid as a rapid screening test for fetal lung maturity.  

PubMed

We conducted a 2-year prospective clinical outcome study to evaluate the usefulness of amniotic fluid lamellar body count (LBC) as a screening test for fetal lung maturity. During the interval under study, outcomes of 170 neonates were used to evaluate the test; 14 neonates had respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Both LBC and lecithin-sphingomyelin ratio (L/S ratio) test results were available in 129 cases. All the cases of RDS had LBC of 50,000/microliter or less and L/S ratio of 2.8 or less; 72.7% of cases with no RDS had LBC greater than 50,000/microliter, and 80.4% of normal cases had L/S ratio higher than 2.8. LBC test results showed good correlation with L/S ratio test results between 26 weeks and 33 weeks of gestation (r = 0.78, p < 0.0001). With the cutoff value of 50,000/microliter for LBC, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 80%, respectively. Determining LBC by cell counter is justified as a useful rapid initial screening test for the assessment of fetal lung maturity. PMID:8817425

Lee, I S; Cho, Y K; Kim, A; Min, W K; Kim, K S; Mok, J E

1996-01-01

32

White cell count and platelet count associate with histological alcoholic hepatitis in jaundiced harmful drinkers  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with suspected alcoholic hepatitis and a Discriminant Function ?32 underwent liver biopsy to confirm the diagnosis. Of these (n?=?58), 43 had histological features of alcoholic hepatitis and 15 (25%) did not. We aimed to determine the laboratory features that differentiated those patients with a histological diagnosis of alcoholic hepatitis from those without, and assess potential clinical utility. Methods Laboratory investigations at presentation for each of the histologically confirmed cases of alcoholic hepatitis (n?=?43) were compared to those without (n?=?15) to determine whether there were differences between the two groups. Univariate analysis was by Mann Whitney U Test and Multivariate analysis was by a stepwise approach. Results White cell count (16.2?±?10.5 v 6.9?±?3.5 (×?109/L); p?=?0.0001) and platelet count (178?±?81 v 98.4?±?43 (×?109/L); p?=?0.0005) were higher in the patients with histological features of alcoholic hepatitis than in those without. The area under the ROC curve for AH diagnosis was estimated to be 0.83 (0.73, 0.94) and 0.81 (0.69, 0.93) for white cell count and platelet count respectively. Conclusions Clinicians cannot accurately differentiate patients with or without alcoholic hepatitis without liver biopsy. This is critically important when deciding on specific therapies such as corticosteroids or when interpreting data from future trials in which biopsy is not mandated. In situations where liver biopsy is unsuitable or unavailable the white cell and platelet counts can be used to determine the likelihood of histological alcoholic hepatitis and guide treatment.

2013-01-01

33

WBC (White Blood Cell) Differential Count  

MedlinePLUS

... occur with bacterial infection, leukemia , myelodysplastic disorders, or myeloproliferative neoplasms , for example. Some immature cells that may be ... g., autoimmune disorders , immune deficiency) Leukemia Myelodysplastic syndrome Myeloproliferative neoplasms Some diseases trigger a response by the immune ...

34

The ways of amniotic fluid sampling and its influence on lamellar body count.  

PubMed

Even though artificial surfactant is now available, respiratory distress syndrome still remains a serious problem in neonatology. Prenatal analysis of the amniotic fluid can provide data giving insight into the fetal lung maturity, which enables planning of the further outcome of high-risk pregnancies. Surfactant prevents atelectasis by forming a layer rich in phospholipids between the air and liquid phase in alveoli thus leading to increased surface tension in them, which is a precondition for a good lung function after birth. Lamellar bodies are a form of stored surfactant, and their count in the amniotic fluid can be determined simply by a standard hematology analyzer. The method of determining lamellar body count has found an important place in prenatal diagnostics and is recommended as an initial method of a "cascade" procedure of testing fetal lung maturity. However, considering the importance of procedure of sample collection, storage and centrifugation, which can significantly affect the results obtained for the lung maturity, the amniotic fluid samples must be absolutely free of contamination with blood, meconium, mucus, bacteria and leucocytes. PMID:21443154

Visnjevac, Jovana; Novakov-Miki?, Aleksandra; Nikoli?, Aleksandra

2010-01-01

35

Dynamics and regulation of bulk milk somatic cell counts.  

PubMed Central

Somatic cell count (SCC) in milk is inversely related to dairy cow productivity and milk quality. In an effort to improve product quality, and indirectly farm productivity, regulatory limits on somatic cell counts have been established by many of the major dairy producing countries. The purpose of this paper was to assess the impact of regulations on bulk milk somatic cell counts in Ontario and to assist producers in meeting regulatory limits through development of prediction models. Through the use of a transfer function model, provincial SCC was found to have dropped by approximately 60,000 as a result of the reduction program. Limits of the regulatory program, seasonality and herd characteristics were found through time series cross-sectional models to have an impact on prediction of SCC at the farm level, but the major influence was historical SCC levels.

Schukken, Y H; Weersink, A; Leslie, K E; Martin, S W

1993-01-01

36

Neoplastic Meningitis: How MRI and CSF Cytology Are Influenced by CSF Cell Count and Tumor Type  

PubMed Central

Background. Although CSF cytology and MRI are standard methods to diagnose neoplastic meningitis (NM), this complication of neoplastic disease remains difficult to detect. We therefore reevaluated the sensitivity of gadolinium (GD)-enhanced MRI and cerebrospinal-fluid (CSF)-cytology and the relevance of tumor type and CSF cell count. Methods. We retrospectively identified 111 cases of NM diagnosed in our CSF laboratory since 1990 with complete documentation of both MRI and CSF cytology. 37 had haematological and 74 solid neoplasms. CSF cell counts were increased in 74 and normal in 37 patients. Results. In hematological neoplasms, MRI was positive in 49% and CSF cytology in 97%. In solid tumors, the sensitivity of MRI was 80% and of cytology 78%. With normal CSF cell counts, MRI was positive in 59% (50% hematological, 72% solid malignancies) and CSF cytology in 76% (92% in hematological, 68% in solid neoplasms). In cases of elevated cell counts, the sensitivity of MRI was 72% (50% for hematological, 83% for solid malignancies) and of CSF cytology 91% (100% for haematological and 85% for solid neoplasms). 91% of cytologically positive cases were diagnosed at first and another 7% at second lumbar puncture. Routine protein analyses had a low sensitivity in detecting NM. Conclusions. The high overall sensitivity of MRI was only confirmed for NM from solid tumors and for elevated CSF cell counts. With normal cell counts and haematological neoplasms, CSF-cytology was superior to MRI. None of the analysed routine CSF proteins had an acceptable sensitivity and specificity in detecting leptomeningeal disease.

Prommel, P.; Pilgram-Pastor, S.; Sitter, H.; Buhk, J.-H.; Strik, H.

2013-01-01

37

Interaural Comparison of Spiral Ganglion Cell Counts in Profound Deafness  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study is designed to measure the degree to which spiral ganglion cell (SGC) survival in the left and right ears is similar in profoundly hearing-impaired human patients with symmetric (right/left) etiology and sensitivity. This is of interest because a small difference between ears would imply that one ear could be used as a control ear in temporal bone studies evaluating the impact on SGC survival of a medical intervention in the other ear. Materials and Methods Forty-two temporal bones from 21 individuals with bilaterally symmetric profound hearing impairment were studied. Both ears in each individual were impaired by the same etiology. Rosenthal’s canal was reconstructed in two dimensions and segmental and total SGCs were counted. Correlation analysis and t-tests were used to compare segmental and total counts of left and right ears. Statistical power calculations illustrate how the results can be used to estimate the effect size (right/left difference in SGC count) that can be reliably identified as a function of sample size. Results Left counts (segmental and total) were significantly correlated with those in the right ears (p<0.01) and the coefficients of determination for segments 1 to 4 and total count were respectively 0.64, 0.91, 0.93, 0.91 and 0.98. The hypothesis that mean segmental and total counts of right and left are the same could not be rejected by paired t-test. Conclusion The variance in the between-ear difference across the temporal bones studied indicates that useful effect sizes can be reliably identified using subject numbers that are practical for temporal bone studies. For instance, there is 95% likelihood that an interaural difference in SGC count of approximately 1000 cells associated with a treatment/manipulation of one ear will be reliably detected in a bilaterally-symmetric profound hearing loss population of temporal bones from approximately 10 subjects.

Seyyedi, Mohammad; Eddington, Donald K; Nadol, Joseph B

2011-01-01

38

Interaction of somatic cell count and quarter milk flow patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Milk flow parameters at udder and quarter levels were studied in relation to somatic cell count (SCC) and other risk factors for mastitis (bimodality, duration of decline, and duration of overmilking phase). Thirty-eight Holstein cows in their first to sixth lactations were investigated during 10 mo of lactation. Monthly milk samples were collected for SCC during morning milking. Quarter and

V. Tancin; A. H. Ipema; P. H. Hogewerf

2007-01-01

39

Short communication: Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms, 3 bulk milk samples were collected at intervals of 2 wk. The samples were cultured for SPC, coliform count, and staphylococcal count and for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, SCC (Fossomatic 5000, Foss, Hillerųd, Denmark) and TBC (BactoScan FC 150, Foss) were measured. Staphylococcal count was correlated to SCC (r=0.40), TBC (r=0.51), and SPC (r=0.53). Coliform count was correlated to TBC (r=0.33), but not to any of the other variables. Staphylococcus aureus did not correlate to SCC. The contribution of the staphylococcal count to the SPC was 31%, whereas the coliform count comprised only 1% of the SPC. The agreement of the repeated measurements was low. This study indicates that staphylococci in goat bulk milk are related to SCC and make a significant contribution to SPC. Because of the high variation in bacterial counts, repeated sampling is necessary to draw valid conclusions from bulk milk culturing. PMID:20494165

Koop, G; Dik, N; Nielen, M; Lipman, L J A

2010-06-01

40

Correlation between standard plate count and somatic cell count milk quality results for Wisconsin dairy producers.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine if a correlation exists between standard plate count (SPC) and somatic cell count (SCC) monthly reported results for Wisconsin dairy producers. Such a correlation may indicate that Wisconsin producers effectively controlling sanitation and milk temperature (reflected in low SPC) also have implemented good herd health management practices (reflected in low SCC). The SPC and SCC results for all grade A and B dairy producers who submitted results to the Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade, and Consumer Protection, in each month of 2012 were analyzed. Grade A producer SPC results were less dispersed than grade B producer SPC results. Regression analysis showed a highly significant correlation between SPC and SCC, but the R(2) value was very small (0.02-0.03), suggesting that many other factors, besides SCC, influence SPC. Average SCC (across 12mo) for grade A and B producers decreased with an increase in the number of monthly SPC results (out of 12) that were ?25,000cfu/mL. A chi-squared test of independence showed that the proportion of monthly SCC results >250,000cells/mL varied significantly depending on whether the corresponding SPC result was ?25,000 or >25,000cfu/mL. This significant difference occurred in all months of 2012 for grade A and B producers. The results suggest that a generally consistent level of skill exists across dairy production practices affecting SPC and SCC. PMID:24630657

Borneman, Darand L; Ingham, Steve

2014-05-01

41

Laser rastering flow cytometry: fast cell counting and identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the concept of laser rastering flow cytometry, where a rapidly scanning laser beam allows counting and classification of cells at much higher rates than currently possible. Modifications to existing flow cytometers to implement the concept include an acousto-optic deflector, fast analog-to-digital conversion, and a two-step digital-signal-processing scheme that handles the high data rates and provides key assay information. Results are shown that prove the concept, demonstrating the ability to resolve closely spaced cells and to measure cells at rates more than an order of magnitude faster than on conventional flow-cytometer-based hematology analyzers.

Vacca, G.; Junnarkar, M. R.; Goldblatt, N. R.; Yee, M. W.; van Slyke, B. M.; Briese, T. C.

2009-02-01

42

Total and differential leucocyte counts in rat and mouse bronchoalveolar lavage fluids using the Sysmex XT-2000iV  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of the Sysmex XT-2000iV analyser now provides a haematology analyser with five-population differential leucocyte\\u000a counting for several laboratory animal species. In addition, there are options for counting total leucocytes in rat and mouse\\u000a bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF). In these studies, total leucocyte counts were made using the Sysmex XT-2000iV, the Sysmex\\u000a XT-2000i and the Bayer Advia 120™. The

R. A. Mathers; G. O. Evans; J. Bleby; T. Tornow

2007-01-01

43

Absolute lymphocyte count as a surrogate marker for CD4+ cell count in monitoring of antiretroviral therapy, Northwest Ethiopia: retrospective evaluation  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the use of total lymphocyte count as a surrogate marker for CD4+ cell count among HIV infected patients at the University of Gondar Hospital. Methods A retrospective cross sectional study was conducted at the University of Gondar Hospital antiretroviral therapy laboratory from December 2011 to May 2012. Data on CD4+ cell count, total lymphocyte count, sex, and age were collected from 2964 HIV infected patients and analyzed using SPSS version 16 computer software. Results Total lymphocyte count was significantly correlated with CD4+ cell count (P<0.001; r2=0.434). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value of total lymphocyte count<1?200 cells/mm3 to predict CD4+ cell count <200 cells/mm3 was 57.8%, 86.4%%, 34.1%, 86.39%, respectively. A total lymphocyte count<1?000cells/mm3 was found to have suboptimal sensitivity (69.0%), and specificity (85.0%) for predicting a CD4+ cell count <200 cells/mm3. Conclusions Total lymphocyte count and CD4+ cell count was positively correlated. Hence, lymphocyte count less than or equal to 1?000/mm3 can be used as a cutoff value in place where there is no CD4+ cell counting machine.

Gelaw, Aschalew; Shiferaw, Yitayal; Molla, Rahel; Felegetibeb, Nahom; Asefa, Mebratu; Birhan, Wubet; Gelaw, Baye

2013-01-01

44

Are Placental Chorionic Capillary Nucleated Red Blood Cell Counts Useful Compared to Umbilical Cord Blood Tests?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare measurement of fetal nucleated red blood cell (NRBC) counts in paired histologic samples of the placenta and umbilical cord bloods. Method: Forty-five randomly selected pregnancies had two determinations of the NRBC count. A sample of umbilical venous blood had a NRBC count measured and sections of the placenta were examined for their villous capillary NRBC counts. Results:

Joan M. McCarthy; Enid Gilbert-Barness; John C. M. Tsibris; William N. Spellacy

2007-01-01

45

Automated counting of nucleated red blood cells in blood samples of newborns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Nucleated red blood cells (NRBC) in blood samples interfere with the white blood cell (WBC) count on many types of automated haematology analysers. This makes it necessary to correct the WBC count by counting NRBC microscopically. This report describes the evaluation of two analysers, the Cell-Dyn 4000 and the Sysmex XE-2100, which use new techniques to recognize and enumerate

M. H. De Keijzer; W. Van Der Meer

2002-01-01

46

Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A steel hemisphere was at the core of the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) that flew on two Spacelab missions. It was capped by a sapphire dome. Silicone oil between the two played the part of a steller atmosphere. An electrostatic field pulled the oil inward to mimic gravity's effects during the experiments. The GFFC thus produced flow patterns that simulated conditions inside the atmospheres of Jupiter and the Sun and other stars. GFFC flew on Spacelab-3 in 1985 and U.S. Microgravity Laboratory-2 in 1995. The principal investigator was John Hart of the University of Colorado at Boulder. It was managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. (Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center)

1992-01-01

47

Mast cell count in oral reactive lesions: A histochemical study  

PubMed Central

Background: The aim of this study was to quantify the number of mast cells in focal reactive hyperplastic lesions of the oral cavity and to compare these two number of mast cells in normal gingival tissues and to correlate their presence with the state of connective tissue changes in reactive lesions and probably suggest a role for mast cells in these lesions. Materials and Methods: Patient records were retrieved during a 10 year period from 2001 to 2010. Data of all reactive hyperplasias namely focal fibrous hyperplasia, pyogenic granuloma (PG), peripheral ossifying fibroma (POF) and peripheral giant cell granuloma (PGCG) were reviewed and 10 cases seen in the gingiva were selected for each category and stained with 1% toluidine blue for mast cells. Statistical analysis was applied to see the significant differences between the groups and with the normal gingival tissue. One-way ANOVA-F and unpaired t-test was applied and significant differences were seen between the groups at 5% level of significance. Results: In this study, mast cell count was maximum in POF and fibrous hyperplasia (FH) followed by cases of PG and PGCG. Conclusion: The number of mast cells was more numerous in POF and FH suggesting that mast cell activation is a characteristic feature of chronic inflammation, a condition that may lead to fibrosis as a result of increased collagen synthesis by fibroblasts.

Reddy, Vandana; Bhagwath, Sundeep S.; Reddy, Munish

2014-01-01

48

Intracellular fluid flow in rapidly moving cells.  

PubMed

Cytosolic fluid dynamics have been implicated in cell motility because of the hydrodynamic forces they induce and because of their influence on transport of components of the actin machinery to the leading edge. To investigate the existence and the direction of fluid flow in rapidly moving cells, we introduced inert quantum dots into the lamellipodia of fish epithelial keratocytes and analysed their distribution and motion. Our results indicate that fluid flow is directed from the cell body towards the leading edge in the cell frame of reference, at about 40% of cell speed. We propose that this forward-directed flow is driven by increased hydrostatic pressure generated at the rear of the cell by myosin contraction, and show that inhibition of myosin II activity by blebbistatin reverses the direction of fluid flow and leads to a decrease in keratocyte speed. We present a physical model for fluid pressure and flow in moving cells that quantitatively accounts for our experimental data. PMID:19767741

Keren, Kinneret; Yam, Patricia T; Kinkhabwala, Anika; Mogilner, Alex; Theriot, Julie A

2009-10-01

49

Racial diversity with high nucleated cell counts and CD34 counts achieved in a national network of cord blood banks.  

PubMed

Banked, unrelated, partially HLA-matched, umbilical cord blood is an alternative stem cell source for patients in need of transplantation therapy who lack traditionally matched donors. A presumed advantage of cord blood is the ability to increase recruitment of donors of minority ethnic backgrounds. The American Red Cross Cord Blood Program was established in 1999 with 6 banks and 10 collection sites throughout the country. Cord blood donors self-report racial designations on questionnaires, and donor race was collected from each site. Postprocessing nucleated cell counts and CD34(+) counts were obtained on the cord blood units, and results from each racial group (white, black, Asian, Hispanic, and Native American) were compared in the natural logarithmic scale by using analysis of variance. A total of 18878 donors consented: 64% white, 16% black, 12% Hispanic, 4% Asian, 1% Native American, and 3% other. The Detroit area consented the highest percentage of black donors (87%), San Diego consented the highest percentage of Hispanic donors (59%), and Oakland consented the highest percentage of Asian donors (15%). Seven thousand eight hundred sixty-six cord blood units have been banked for transplantation. The mean preprocessing nucleated cell count was 1220 x 10(6) (range, 327-7300 x 10(6)). There was no difference among racial groups when controlled for site (P =.395). The mean CD34(+) count was 3.28 x 10(6). Blacks had a significantly lower CD34(+) count than the other racial/ethnic groups in the Midwest, Northwest, and North Carolina collection sites. A racially diverse cord blood bank can be achieved. Nucleated cell counts were similar among the different racial/ethnic groups. CD34(+) counts were lower for blacks in some collection sites. PMID:15077225

Ballen, Karen K; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Lane, Thomas A; Lindgren, Bruce R; Miller, John P; Nagan, Denis; Newman, Bruce; Rupp, Neil; Haley, N Rebecca

2004-04-01

50

CELLCOUNTER: Novel Open-Source Software for Counting Cell Migration and Invasion In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Transwell Boyden chamber based migration/invasion assay is a simple and extensively used approach for the characterization of cell motility in vitro. Cell motility is quantified by counting the number of cells that pass through the filter membrane. The counting is usually performed manually, which is laborious and error prone. We have therefore developed CELLCOUNTER, an application that is capable of recognizing and counting the total number of cells through an intuitive graphical user interface. The counting can be performed in batch, and the counting results can be visualized and further curated manually. CELLCOUNTER will be helpful in streamlining the experimental process and improving the reliability of the data acquisition.

Yang, Hongshun; Zhu, Tao

2014-01-01

51

Counting Legionella cells within single amoeba host cells.  

PubMed

Here we present the first attempt to quantify Legionella pneumophila cell numbers within individual amoeba hosts that may be released into engineered water systems. The maximum numbers of culturable L. pneumophila cells grown within Acanthamoeba polyphaga and Naegleria fowleri were 1,348 (mean, 329) and 385 (mean, 44) CFU trophozoite(-1), respectively. PMID:22226955

Buse, Helen Y; Ashbolt, Nicholas J

2012-03-01

52

Counting Legionella Cells within Single Amoeba Host Cells  

PubMed Central

Here we present the first attempt to quantify Legionella pneumophila cell numbers within individual amoeba hosts that may be released into engineered water systems. The maximum numbers of culturable L. pneumophila cells grown within Acanthamoeba polyphaga and Naegleria fowleri were 1,348 (mean, 329) and 385 (mean, 44) CFU trophozoite?1, respectively.

Ashbolt, Nicholas J.

2012-01-01

53

Relationships between somatic cell count and intramammary infection in buffaloes.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the presence of intramammary infections (IMI) in dairy buffaloes and to examine the relationships among IMI, somatic cell counts (SCC), and milk production traits. Two farms in northern Italy were visited monthly for a complete milking season. Quarter-based milk samples were collected at each visit from 46 buffaloes. A total of 1,912 samples were assessed in this experiment. Samples were cultured for bacterial presence and were tested for SCC and percentages of milk protein and fat. In addition, daily milk yield was recorded from each buffalo. Prevalence of IMI was large; 63% of quarters were infected. No buffalo remained free from IMI throughout the course of the study. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most common pathogen (66% of positive samples). The SCC was distinctly greater in infected quarters; 100% of quarters with SCC >200,000 cell/mL had IMI, whereas 98% of quarters with SCC below this threshold were uninfected. The somatic cell scores (SCS) in these buffaloes were much lower than those commonly observed in dairy cattle. The mean SCS from quarters with IMI was only 2.93. The highest SCS was observed in quarters infected by streptococci. No drastic decrease in milk yield was observed among infected buffaloes relative to healthy contemporaries. The relatively low SCS and lack of a strong effect on milk yield provide evidence to discourage antibiotic treatment of buffaloes for subclinical IMI during lactation. PMID:16507694

Moroni, P; Sgoifo Rossi, C; Pisoni, G; Bronzo, V; Castiglioni, B; Boettcher, P J

2006-03-01

54

Genome wide scan for somatic cell counts in holstein bulls  

PubMed Central

Background Mastitis is the most costly disease for dairy production, and control of the disease is often difficult, due to its multi-factorial nature. Susceptibility to mastitis is under partial genetic control and the industry uses indirect selection for decreased concentrations of somatic cells in milk to reduce mastitis. Methods A genome-wide scan was performed to identify genomic regions associated with deregressed estimated breeding values (EBVs) for somatic cell counts (SCC) in Holstein bulls. In total 1183 proven bulls of the Italian of Holstein population, were genotyped with the BovineSNP50 BeadChip (Illumina, San Diego, CA) and a whole genome association analysis was performed using the R package GenABEL. Results Two chromosomal regions showed association with SCC, a region on chromosome 14 with high significance (P < 5x10-6) and a region on chromosome 6 with moderate significance (P < 5x10-5). Conclusions Two regions with effects on SCC have been identified with good statistical support. A further study of these candidate regions will be performed to verify the results and identify the causal mutations.

2011-01-01

55

Counting human somatic cell replications: Methylation mirrors endometrial stem cell divisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell proliferation may be altered in many diseases, but it is uncertain exactly how to measure total numbers of divisions. Although it is impossible to count every division directly, potentially total numbers of stem cell divisions since birth may be inferred from numbers of somatic errors. The idea is that divisions are surreptitiously recorded by random errors that occur during

Jung Yeon Kim; Simon Tavaré; Darryl Shibata

2005-01-01

56

Significance of Maternal and Cord Blood Nucleated Red Blood Cell Count in Pregnancies Complicated by Preeclampsia  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To evaluate the effect of preeclampsia on the cord blood and maternal NRBC count and to correlate NRBC count and neonatal outcome in preeclampsia and control groups. Study Design. This is a prospective case control observational study. Patients and Methods. Maternal and cord blood NRBC counts were studied in 50 preeclamptic women and 50 healthy pregnant women. Using automated cell counter total leucocyte count was obtained and peripheral smear was prepared to obtain NRBC count. Corrected WBC count and NRBC count/100 leucocytes in maternal venous blood and in cord blood were compared between the 2 groups. Results. No significant differences were found in corrected WBC count in maternal and cord blood in cases and controls. Significant differences were found in mean cord blood NRBC count in preeclampsia and control groups (40.0 ± 85.1 and 5.9 ± 6.3, P = 0.006). The mean maternal NRBC count in two groups was 2.4 ± 9.0 and 0.8 ± 1.5, respectively (P = 0.214). Cord blood NRBC count cut off value ?13 could rule out adverse neonatal outcome with a sensitivity of 63% and specificity of 89%. Conclusion. Cord blood NRBC are significantly raised in preeclampsia. Neonates with elevated cord blood NRBC counts are more likely to have IUGR, low birth weight, neonatal ICU admission, respiratory distress syndrome, and assisted ventilation. Below the count of 13/100 leucocytes, adverse neonatal outcome is quite less likely.

Misha, Mehak; Rai, Lavanya

2014-01-01

57

Long-Term CD4+ Cell Count in Response to Combination Antiretroviral Therapy  

PubMed Central

Objective There is a continuous debate on how to adequately evaluate long-term CD4+ cell count in response to combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Our study evaluated the long-term CD4+ cell count response (up to ten years) after initiation of ART and described the differences in the CD4+ cell count response stratified by pretreatment CD4+ cell count, and other socio-demographic, behavioral, and clinical factors. Methods The study population included patients starting ART in the clinical cohorts of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and Baltimore, United States. Inverse probability of censoring weighting was used to estimate mean annual CD4+ cell counts while adjusting for choice of initial ART regimen, ART discontinuation and losses-to-follow-up. Results From 1997 to 2011, 3116 individuals started ART; preferred initial regimen was NNRTI-based (63%). The median follow-up time was 5 years, 10% of the individuals had nine or more years of follow-up. Observed CD4+ cell counts increased throughout the ten years of follow-up. Weighted results, in contrast, increased up to year four and plateaued thereafter with 50% of the population reaching CD4+ cell counts of 449/?L or more. Out of all stratification variables considered, only individuals with pre-treatment CD4+ cell counts ?350/?L showed increasing CD4+ cell counts over time with 76% surpassing the CD4+ cell count >500/?L threshold at year ten. Conclusion The present study corroborates the growing body of knowledge advocating early start of ART by showing that only patients who start ART early fully recover to normal CD4+ cell counts.

Luz, Paula M.; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Velasque, Luciane; Pacheco, Antonio G.; Veloso, Valdilea G.; Moore, Richard D.; Struchiner, Claudio J.

2014-01-01

58

Neonatal nucleated red blood cell counts in twins.  

PubMed

We counted nucleated red blood cells (NRBC) per 100 white blood cells (WBC) in the umbilical cord blood from 98 twins born to 49 women with uncomplicated twin pregnancies at > or = 34 weeks of gestation to better characterize NRBC in twins. Twelve women with monochorionic (MC) placentas and 37 with dichorionic (DC) placentas gave birth at 36.7 +/- .9 and 36.5 +/- 2 weeks of gestation, respectively. All twins were born with an Apgar score of > or = 7 at 1 min. Log10 (NRBC/100 BC) in 98 twins exhibited a nearly normal distribution, and was significantly associated with gestational age for both MC (r = -0.457, p = 0.025) and DC twins (r = - 0.275, p = 0.018), and with birth weight for both MC (r = -0.682, p < 0.001) and DC twins (r = -0.336, p = 0.003). Log10 (NRBC/100 WBC) tended to be larger in smaller twins than in larger twins in the MC group, and significantly larger in smaller twins than in larger twins in the DC group (p < 0.05). Intertwin difference in Log10 (NRBC/100 WBC) was defined as the value of Log10 (NRBC/100 WBC) of the smaller twin minus Log10 (NRBC/100 WBC) of the larger twin, and became greater with increasing intertwin difference in birth weight (r = 0.411, p = 0.003). These findings suggest that neonatal NRBC reflected gestational age and birth weight in twins. This preliminary observation using a small number of twins suggests that the smaller twin may have experienced a relative lack of oxygen compared with the larger twin in utero. PMID:11344673

Mori, H; Mori, K; Kojima, Y; Ohkuchi, A; Funamoto, H; Minakami, H; Sato, I; Nakano, T

2001-01-01

59

RBC count  

MedlinePLUS

... renal cell carcinoma) Low blood oxygen levels (hypoxia) Pulmonary fibrosis Polycythemia vera Your RBC count will increase for several weeks when you move to a higher altitude. Drugs that can increase the RBC count include: Gentamicin ...

60

Single cell analysis reveals oligoclonality among "low count" monoclonal B cell lymphocytosis  

PubMed Central

Monoclonal B cell lymphocytosis (MBL) is a pre-clinical hematologic syndrome characterized by small accumulations of CD5+ B lymphocytes. Most MBL share phenotypic characteristics with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). While some MBL progress to CLL, most MBL have apparently limited potential for progression to CLL, particularly those MBL with normal absolute B cell counts (“low count” MBL). Most CLL are monoclonal and it is not known whether MBL are monoclonal or oligoclonal; this is important because it is unclear whether MBL represent indolent CLL or represent a distinct pre-malignant precursor prior to the development of CLL. We used flow cytometry analysis and sorting to determine immunophenotypic characteristics, clonality, and molecular features of MBL from familial CLL kindreds. Single cell analysis indicated 4 of 6 low count MBL consisted of two or more unrelated clones; the other 2 MBL were monoclonal. 87% of low count MBL clones had mutated immunoglobulin genes, and no immunoglobulin heavy chain rearrangements of VH family 1 were observed. Some MBL were diversified, clonally related populations with evidence of antigen-drive. We conclude that while low count MBL share many phenotypic characteristics with CLL, many MBL are oligoclonal. This supports a model for step-wise development of MBL into CLL.

Lanasa, Mark C.; Allgood, Sallie D.; Volkheimer, Alicia D.; Gockerman, Jon P.; Whitesides, John F.; Goodman, Barbara K.; Moore, Joseph O.; Weinberg, J. Brice; Levesque, Marc C.

2009-01-01

61

Proliferating cell nuclear antigen counts as markers of cell proliferation in head and neck cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression was investigated immunhistochemically in 53 squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. PCNA is a 36-kDa nuclear protein associated with the cell cycle. Results were compared with Ki67 counts, with this latter marker used to demonstrate proliferative compartments. Overall, the PCNA and Ki67 labelling index showed a similar distribution pattern in normal and

M. Lörz; E. Meyer-Breiting; R. Bettinger

1994-01-01

62

Nucleated red blood cell count in term and preterm newborns: reference values at birth.  

PubMed

The prognostic value of nucleated red blood cell count at birth in relation to neonatal outcome has been established. However, reference values were needed to usefully interpret this variable. The normal range of reference values for absolute nucleated red blood cell count in 695 preterm and term newborns is reported. PMID:15724047

Perrone, S; Vezzosi, P; Longini, M; Marzocchi, B; Tanganelli, D; Testa, M; Santilli, T; Buonocore, G

2005-03-01

63

Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering  

DOEpatents

A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).

Jones, Daniel O. (Glenville, NY); Walsh, Michael M. (Fairfield, CT)

2003-01-01

64

Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering  

DOEpatents

A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel in order to mix its respective portion of liquid water with the corresponding portion of the stream. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).

Jones, Daniel O. (Glenville, NY); Walsh, Michael M. (Fairfield, CT)

1999-01-01

65

Effect of sex, age, number of bronchoalveolar lavages and quantitation methods on the bronchoalveolar cell counts in rats.  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of sex, age, number of bronchoalveolar lavages and method of quantitation on the number of bronchoalveolar cells in rats. Forty Long Evans rats were divided into four age-sex subgroups of ten animals each. Nine consecutive bronchoalveolar lavages were done in every rat and the number of bronchoalveolar cells/mL in lavages 1-3 (L1), 4-6 (L2) and 7-9 (L3) were determined by hemocytometer and electronic cell counts (Coulter Counter). The sex or age of the rats did not show a significant effect (p less than 0.05) in the number of bronchoalveolar cells recovered from the lungs; however, there was a significant difference (p less than 0.05) in the number of cells/mL among lavages 1-3, 4-6 and 7-9 (L1 approximately equal to L2 greater than L3). A discrepancy of approximately 8% in the counts of bronchoalveolar cells was found between the hemocytometer and the Coulter Counter; however, these two methods of cell quantitation showed a significant (p less than 0.01) positive correlation (r = 0.89). No significant (p greater than 0.05) differences were found in the percentage of fluid recovery (overall mean = 94.5%) among lavages L1, L2 and L3. It was concluded that the electronic cell counting of bronchoalveolar cells is as reliable as manual counting. Although sex or age did not significantly affect the number of cells recovered from the lung, caution should be used in the number of lavages done per rat since this variable may significantly affect the results.

Lopez, A; Yong, S; Sharma, A; Bailey, D

1986-01-01

66

A semiautomatic image analyzer for cell counts in monolayers. I. Construction, experimental procedure, and precision obtained.  

PubMed

A simple, flexible, low-cost image analyzer system is presented for determination of the total number of cells and the number of viable cells in monolayers of nonconfluent cells. Viable cells were identified and counted using an immunofluorescence method using fluorescein diacetate. Alveolar macrophages from rabbits were used. The different possible counting procedures that could be performed are analyzed. The precision of the method of estimating the cell numbers is indicated by a coefficient of variation of 5%. The experimental procedure is given for a short-term toxicological in vitro test in which the semiautomatic counting procedures can be performed within 1.5 h. PMID:2760937

Thorén, S A; Lanke, J

1989-01-01

67

Normal Range of CD4 Cell Counts and Temporal Changes in Two HIVNegative Malawian Populations  

PubMed Central

Longitudinal studies were carried out to determine trends in CD4 cell counts over a four year period in healthy HIV-negative adults in a rural (134 individuals) and an urban (80 individuals) site in Malawi, using TruCountTM and FACScountTM platforms. At baseline, median counts and 95% ranges were 890 (359-1954) cells per microlitre (?l) and 725 (114-1074) cells/?l respectively. 1.5% and 6% respectively had baseline counts below 350 cells/?l and 1.5% and 2.5% below 250 cells per ?l. Transient dips to below 250 cells/?l were observed in seven individuals, with two individuals having persistently low CD4 counts over more than one year. Women and individuals from the urban site were significantly more likely to have “low CD4 count” (< 500 cells/?l) even when adjusted for other factors. In common with neighbouring countries, HIV-negative populations in Malawi have CD4 counts considerably lower than European reference ranges, and healthy individuals may have persistently or transiently low counts. Within Malawi, ranges differ according to the selected population.

Crampin, A.C; Mwaungulu, F.D; Ambrose, L.R; Longwe, H; French, N

2011-01-01

68

Effect of Thyroid Dysfunctions on Blood Cell Count and Red Blood Cell Indice  

PubMed Central

Background Thyroid hormones have a crucial role in metabolism and proliferation of blood cells. Thyroid dysfunction induces different effects on blood cells such as anemia, erythrocytosis leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and in rare cases causes’ pancytopenia. It also alter RBC indices include MCV, MCH, MCHC and RDW. Thus this study attempted to evaluate effect of hypo & hyperthyroidism on blood cell count and RBC indices. Materials and Methods This study performed on 102 patients with hypothyroid (14.1 years), 84 with hyperthyroid (15.6 years) and 118 healthy individuals (15.2 years) as control group. Initially patients TSH level of patients was determined by ELISA method, and then according to TSH ranges (0.3-5.5µIU/mL) patients were divided into two Hyperthyroidism (TSH<0.3µIU/mL) and hypothyroidism (TSH>5.5µIU/mL) groups. Then, complete blood count was measured by cell counter. Finally, obtained results were analyzed by SPSS software. Results Analyzes of obtained data revealed statistically significant difference between two groups of patients in RBC count, MCH, MCHC, RDW, HB and HCT(P-value<0.05), but the difference was not significant for WBC and PLT counts and MCV (P-value>0.05). Conclusion In case of patients with unknown hematological dysfunctions, must be evaluated for thyroid hormones.

Dorgalaleh, A; Mahmoodi, M; Varmaghani, B; Kiani node, F; Saeeidi Kia, O; Alizadeh, Sh; Tabibian, Sh; Bamedi, T; Momeni, M; Abbasian, S; Kashani Khatib, Z

2013-01-01

69

B-cell count and survival: differentiating chronic lymphocytic leukemia from monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis based on clinical outcome.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in asymptomatic patients has historically been based on documenting a characteristic lymphocyte clone and the presence of lymphocytosis. There are minimal data regarding which lymphocyte parameter (absolute lymphocyte count [ALC] or B-cell count) and what threshold should be used for diagnosis. We analyzed the relationship of ALC and B-cell count with clinical outcome in 459 patients with a clonal population of CLL phenotype to determine (1) whether the CLL diagnosis should be based on ALC or B-cell count, (2) what lymphocyte threshold should be used for diagnosis, and (3) whether any lymphocyte count has independent prognostic value after accounting for biologic/molecular prognostic markers. B-cell count and ALC had similar value for predicting treatment-free survival (TFS) and overall survival as continuous variables, but as binary factors, a B-cell threshold of 11 x 10(9)/L best predicted survival. B-cell count remained an independent predictor of TFS after controlling for ZAP-70, IGHV, CD38, or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) results (all P < .001). These analyses support basing the diagnosis of CLL on B-cell count and retaining the size of the B-cell count in the diagnostic criteria. Using clinically relevant criteria to distinguish between monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) and CLL could minimize patient distress caused by labeling asymptomatic people at low risk for adverse clinical consequences as having CLL. PMID:19015397

Shanafelt, Tait D; Kay, Neil E; Jenkins, Greg; Call, Timothy G; Zent, Clive S; Jelinek, Diane F; Morice, William G; Boysen, Justin; Zakko, Liam; Schwager, Susan; Slager, Susan L; Hanson, Curtis A

2009-04-30

70

Micro-a-fluidics ELISA for Rapid CD4 Cell Count at the Point-of-Care  

PubMed Central

HIV has become one of the most devastating pathogens in human history. Despite fast progress in HIV-related basic research, antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains the most effective method to save AIDS patients' lives. Unfortunately, ART cannot be universally accessed, especially in developing countries, due to the lack of effective treatment monitoring diagnostics. Here, we present an inexpensive, rapid and portable micro-a-fluidic platform, which can streamline the process of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in a fully automated manner for CD4 cell count. The micro-a-fluidic CD4 cell count is achieved by eliminating operational fluid flow via “moving the substrate”, as opposed to “flowing liquid” in traditional ELISA or microfluidic methods. This is the first demonstration of capturing and detecting cells from unprocessed whole blood using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in a microfluidic channel. Combined with cell phone imaging, the presented micro-a-fluidic ELISA platform holds great promise for offering rapid CD4 cell count to scale up much needed ART in resource-constrained settings. The developed system can be extended to multiple areas for ELISA-related assays.

Wang, ShuQi; Tasoglu, Savas; Chen, Paul Z.; Chen, Michael; Akbas, Ragip; Wach, Sonya; Ozdemir, Cenk Ibrahim; Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Giguel, Francoise F.; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.; Demirci, Utkan

2014-01-01

71

Micro-a-fluidics ELISA for rapid CD4 cell count at the point-of-care.  

PubMed

HIV has become one of the most devastating pathogens in human history. Despite fast progress in HIV-related basic research, antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains the most effective method to save AIDS patients' lives. Unfortunately, ART cannot be universally accessed, especially in developing countries, due to the lack of effective treatment monitoring diagnostics. Here, we present an inexpensive, rapid and portable micro-a-fluidic platform, which can streamline the process of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in a fully automated manner for CD4 cell count. The micro-a-fluidic CD4 cell count is achieved by eliminating operational fluid flow via "moving the substrate", as opposed to "flowing liquid" in traditional ELISA or microfluidic methods. This is the first demonstration of capturing and detecting cells from unprocessed whole blood using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in a microfluidic channel. Combined with cell phone imaging, the presented micro-a-fluidic ELISA platform holds great promise for offering rapid CD4 cell count to scale up much needed ART in resource-constrained settings. The developed system can be extended to multiple areas for ELISA-related assays. PMID:24448112

Wang, ShuQi; Tasoglu, Savas; Chen, Paul Z; Chen, Michael; Akbas, Ragip; Wach, Sonya; Ozdemir, Cenk Ibrahim; Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Giguel, Francoise F; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Demirci, Utkan

2014-01-01

72

Preprocedural white blood cell count and death after percutaneous coronary intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundElevated inflammatory markers are associated with worse outcome after percutaneous coronary artery interventions (PCI). An elevation in the white blood cell (WBC) count is a nonspecific response to inflammation. We hypothesized that an elevated WBC count would be a predictor of death in patients undergoing PCI.

Hitinder S Gurm; Deepak L Bhatt; Ritesh Gupta; Stephen G Ellis; Eric J Topol; Michael S Lauer

2003-01-01

73

System-level training of neural networks for counting white blood cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural networks (NNs) that are trained to perform classification may not perform as well when used as a module in a larger system. We introduce a novel, system-level method for training NNs with application to counting white blood cells. The idea is to phrase the objective function in terms of total count error rather than the traditional class-coding approach because

Nipon Theera-umpon; Paul D. Gader

2002-01-01

74

Counting of apoptotic cells: a methodological study in invasive breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Aims—To arrive at a reproducible sampling technique for counting apoptotic cells in tissue sections of invasive breast cancer that can serve as a protocol for further clinical studies. Methods—In 4 ?m thick haematoxylin and eosin stained tissue sections of 12 breast cancers, apoptotic cells, recognised by strict morphological criteria, were counted in consecutive fields of vision at ×1000 magnification in a marked area in the most poorly differentiated region of tumour. These counts were regarded as the gold standard. Subsequently, in a systematic sampling experiment, the number of fields that had to be counted to derive an acceptable coefficient of variation (CV) was determined. To compare counts at different magnifications, all fields of vision were also counted at ×630 and ×400. The intra- and inter-observer reproducibility was tested by repeated measurements at these magnifications in 10 systematically selected fields of vision. Results—Apoptosis seemed to be a rare event, affecting, on average, about 1% of tumour cells. Noticeable clustering of apoptotic cells was observed. The systematic sampling experiment showed that at ×1000 magnification, the CV was improved by counting up to 20 fields. When comparing ×400 and ×630 magnifications with the ×1000 magnification, the correlation coefficients were 0.88 and 0.87, respectively. However, the lower magnifications yielded lower counts. With regard to reproducibility, the intra-observer correlation coefficient was 0.91 at ×630 and 0.76 at ×400. The inter-observer correlation coefficient was 0.77 at ×630 and 0.68 at ×400. Conclusions—Apoptotic cells can be counted readily in haematoxylin and eosin stained tissue sections. However, a systematic sampling protocol must be followed and cells should be counted at a relatively high magnification to obtain acceptable reproducibility. The suggested protocol will permit further correlative and prognostic studies and the monitoring of the effects of treatment. Images

van de Schepop, H Anna Maria; de Jong, Johannes S; van Diest, Paul J; Baak, Jan P A

1996-01-01

75

Accurate cell counts in live mouse embryos using optical quadrature and differential interference contrast microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present imaging techniques used in in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics are unable to produce accurate cell counts in developing embryos past the eight-cell stage. We have developed a method that has produced accurate cell counts in live mouse embryos ranging from 13-25 cells by combining Differential Interference Contrast (DIC) and Optical Quadrature Microscopy. Optical Quadrature Microscopy is an interferometric imaging modality that measures the amplitude and phase of the signal beam that travels through the embryo. The phase is transformed into an image of optical path length difference, which is used to determine the maximum optical path length deviation of a single cell. DIC microscopy gives distinct cell boundaries for cells within the focal plane when other cells do not lie in the path to the objective. Fitting an ellipse to the boundary of a single cell in the DIC image and combining it with the maximum optical path length deviation of a single cell creates an ellipsoidal model cell of optical path length deviation. Subtracting the model cell from the Optical Quadrature image will either show the optical path length deviation of the culture medium or reveal another cell underneath. Once all the boundaries are used in the DIC image, the subtracted Optical Quadrature image is analyzed to determine the cell boundaries of the remaining cells. The final cell count is produced when no more cells can be subtracted. We have produced exact cell counts on 5 samples, which have been validated by Epi-Fluorescence images of Hoechst stained nuclei.

Warger, William C., II; Newmark, Judith A.; Zhao, Bing; Warner, Carol M.; DiMarzio, Charles A.

2006-03-01

76

The amyloid-? oligomer count in cerebrospinal fluid is a biomarker for Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Recent studies indicate that small amyloid-? peptide (A?) oligomers are the major toxic species responsible for development and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, we suggest that the number of A? oligomers in body fluids is the most direct and relevant biomarker for AD. Determination of the A? oligomer content of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 14 AD patients and 12 age-matched controls revealed a clear distinction between both groups. All samples of the control group showed homogenously low numbers of A? oligomers, while the samples of the AD group exhibited significantly higher levels of A? oligomers. The A? oligomer numbers correlated with the patients' Mini-Mental State Examination scores. This indicates that the quantity of A? oligomers in CSF reflects the severity of the disease and that A? oligomers play a crucial role in AD pathology and in turn can be used as a diagnostic biomarker. PMID:23313925

Wang-Dietrich, Lei; Funke, Susanne Aileen; Kühbach, Katja; Wang, Kun; Besmehn, Astrid; Willbold, Sabine; Cinar, Yeliz; Bannach, Oliver; Birkmann, Eva; Willbold, Dieter

2013-01-01

77

Current automated 3D cell detection methods are not a suitable replacement for manual stereologic cell counting  

PubMed Central

Stereologic cell counting has had a major impact on the field of neuroscience. A major bottleneck in stereologic cell counting is that the user must manually decide whether or not each cell is counted according to three-dimensional (3D) stereologic counting rules by visual inspection within hundreds of microscopic fields-of-view per investigated brain or brain region. Reliance on visual inspection forces stereologic cell counting to be very labor-intensive and time-consuming, and is the main reason why biased, non-stereologic two-dimensional (2D) “cell counting” approaches have remained in widespread use. We present an evaluation of the performance of modern automated cell detection and segmentation algorithms as a potential alternative to the manual approach in stereologic cell counting. The image data used in this study were 3D microscopic images of thick brain tissue sections prepared with a variety of commonly used nuclear and cytoplasmic stains. The evaluation compared the numbers and locations of cells identified unambiguously and counted exhaustively by an expert observer with those found by three automated 3D cell detection algorithms: nuclei segmentation from the FARSIGHT toolkit, nuclei segmentation by 3D multiple level set methods, and the 3D object counter plug-in for ImageJ. Of these methods, FARSIGHT performed best, with true-positive detection rates between 38 and 99% and false-positive rates from 3.6 to 82%. The results demonstrate that the current automated methods suffer from lower detection rates and higher false-positive rates than are acceptable for obtaining valid estimates of cell numbers. Thus, at present, stereologic cell counting with manual decision for object inclusion according to unbiased stereologic counting rules remains the only adequate method for unbiased cell quantification in histologic tissue sections.

Schmitz, Christoph; Eastwood, Brian S.; Tappan, Susan J.; Glaser, Jack R.; Peterson, Daniel A.; Hof, Patrick R.

2014-01-01

78

Current automated 3D cell detection methods are not a suitable replacement for manual stereologic cell counting.  

PubMed

Stereologic cell counting has had a major impact on the field of neuroscience. A major bottleneck in stereologic cell counting is that the user must manually decide whether or not each cell is counted according to three-dimensional (3D) stereologic counting rules by visual inspection within hundreds of microscopic fields-of-view per investigated brain or brain region. Reliance on visual inspection forces stereologic cell counting to be very labor-intensive and time-consuming, and is the main reason why biased, non-stereologic two-dimensional (2D) "cell counting" approaches have remained in widespread use. We present an evaluation of the performance of modern automated cell detection and segmentation algorithms as a potential alternative to the manual approach in stereologic cell counting. The image data used in this study were 3D microscopic images of thick brain tissue sections prepared with a variety of commonly used nuclear and cytoplasmic stains. The evaluation compared the numbers and locations of cells identified unambiguously and counted exhaustively by an expert observer with those found by three automated 3D cell detection algorithms: nuclei segmentation from the FARSIGHT toolkit, nuclei segmentation by 3D multiple level set methods, and the 3D object counter plug-in for ImageJ. Of these methods, FARSIGHT performed best, with true-positive detection rates between 38 and 99% and false-positive rates from 3.6 to 82%. The results demonstrate that the current automated methods suffer from lower detection rates and higher false-positive rates than are acceptable for obtaining valid estimates of cell numbers. Thus, at present, stereologic cell counting with manual decision for object inclusion according to unbiased stereologic counting rules remains the only adequate method for unbiased cell quantification in histologic tissue sections. PMID:24847213

Schmitz, Christoph; Eastwood, Brian S; Tappan, Susan J; Glaser, Jack R; Peterson, Daniel A; Hof, Patrick R

2014-01-01

79

Umbilical cord nucleated red blood cell counts: normal values and the effect of labor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To determine the umbilical cord blood nucleated red blood cell (UC-nRBC) count in uncomplicated pregnancies delivered by elective cesarean section or delivered vaginally.Methods:A total of 57-term singleton pregnancies were studied: 33 with elective cesarean sections and 24 with vaginal deliveries. UC-nRBC was analyzed for its nucleated red blood cell counts. A logarithmic transformation of the data was used for statistical

J M McCarthy; T Capullari; Z Thompson; Y Zhu; W N Spellacy; Joan McCarthy

2006-01-01

80

Admixture Mapping of White Cell Count: Genetic Locus Responsible for Lower White Blood Cell Count in the Health ABC and Jackson Heart Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

White blood cell count (WBC) is an important clinical marker that varies among different ethnic groups. African Americans are known to have a lower WBC than European Americans. We surveyed the entire genome for loci underlying this difference in WBC by using admixture mapping. We analyzed data from African American participants in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study and

Michael A. Nalls; James G. Wilson; Nick J. Patterson; Arti Tandon; Joseph M. Zmuda; Scott Huntsman; Melissa Garcia; Donglei Hu; Rongling Li; Brock A. Beamer; Kushang V. Patel; Ermeg L. Akylbekova; Joe C. Files; Cheryl L. Hardy; Sarah G. Buxbaum; Herman A. Taylor; David Reich; Tamara B. Harris; Elad Ziv

2008-01-01

81

Mathematical modelling of adult hippocampal neurogenesis: effects of altered stem cell dynamics on cell counts and bromodeoxyuridine-labelled cells  

PubMed Central

In the adult hippocampus, neurogenesis—the process of generating mature granule cells from adult neural stem cells—occurs throughout the entire lifetime. In order to investigate the involved regulatory mechanisms, knockout (KO) experiments, which modify the dynamic behaviour of this process, were conducted in the past. Evaluating these KOs is a non-trivial task owing to the complicated nature of the hippocampal neurogenic niche. In this study, we model neurogenesis as a multicompartmental system of ordinary differential equations based on experimental data. To analyse the results of KO experiments, we investigate how changes of cell properties, reflected by model parameters, influence the dynamics of cell counts and of the experimentally observed counts of cells labelled by the cell division marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). We find that changing cell proliferation rates or the fraction of self-renewal, reflecting the balance between symmetric and asymmetric cell divisions, may result in multiple time phases in the response of the system, such as an initial increase in cell counts followed by a decrease. Furthermore, these phases may be qualitatively different in cells at different differentiation stages and even between mitotically labelled cells and all cells existing in the system.

Ziebell, Frederik; Martin-Villalba, Ana; Marciniak-Czochra, Anna

2014-01-01

82

Immunofluorescent Cell-Counting Assay of Rift Valley Fever Virus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus was quantitatively assayed by enumerating the cells containing fluorescent viral antigens after infection of L cell monolayers. Efficiency and speed of virus attachment were markedly enhanced when augmented by centrifugal for...

N. Hahon

1968-01-01

83

Spectral imaging detection and counting of microbial cells in marine sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semiautomated detection and counting techniques for microbial cells in soil and marine sediment using microscopic-spectral-imaging analysis were developed. Microbial cells in microscopic fields were selectively detected from other fluorescent particles by their fluorescent spectrum, based on the spectral shift between the conjunction and nonconjunction of DNA fluorochrome (SYBR Green II) with nucleic acids. Using this technique, microbial cells could be

Michinari Sunamura; Akihiko Maruyama; Takashi Tsuji; Ryuichiro Kurane

2003-01-01

84

A cell number-counting factor regulates the cytoskeleton and cell motility in Dictyostelium  

PubMed Central

Little is known about how a morphogenetic rearrangement of a tissue is affected by individual cells. Starving Dictyostelium discoideum cells aggregate to form dendritic streams, which then break up into groups of ?2 × 104 cells. Cell number is sensed at this developmental stage by using counting factor (CF), a secreted complex of polypeptides. A high extracellular concentration of CF indicates that there is a large number of cells, which then causes the aggregation stream to break up. Computer simulations indicated that stream breakup could be caused by CF decreasing cell–cell adhesion and/or increasing cell motility, and we observed that CF does indeed decrease cell–cell adhesion. We find here that CF increases cell motility. In Dictyostelium, motility is mediated by actin and myosin. CF increases the amounts of polymerized actin and the ABP-120 actin-crosslinking protein. Partially inhibiting motility by using drugs that interfere with actin polymerization reduces stream dissipation, resulting in fewer stream breaks and thus larger groups. CF also potentiates the phosphorylation and redistribution of myosin while repressing its basal level of assembly. The computer simulations indicated that a narrower distribution of group sizes results when a secreted factor modulates both adhesion and motility. CF thus seems to induce the morphogenesis of streams into evenly sized groups by increasing actin polymerization, ABP-120 levels, and myosin phosphorylation and decreasing adhesion and myosin polymerization.

Tang, Lei; Gao, Tong; McCollum, Catherine; Jang, Wonhee; Vicker, Michael G.; Ammann, Robin R.; Gomer, Richard H.

2002-01-01

85

Trends in asbestos body counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid over two decades.  

PubMed

As in most western countries, the use of asbestos has decreased in Belgium since the mid 1970's. Successive regulations have lowered the permissible levels of exposure and prohibited the use of various asbestos products. In order to assess the impact of these prevention measures on the pulmonary fibre burden of asbestos-exposed patients, the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) asbestos body (AB) analysis database of the authors' laboratory was reviewed for the period 1983-2000. A total of 4,772 cases were considered, of which 95% were males. AB concentration exceeded 1 AB x mL BALF(-1) in 36.1%. There was essentially no change in the mean concentration of AB over the period evaluated. However, the concentrations in individuals with very high levels decreased over time. This was associated with a shift in exposure categories from primary asbestos workers to those exposed during handling of asbestos-containing materials or to asbestos in place in buildings or industrial sites. This is consistent with epidemiological data indicating that the number of severe cases of asbestosis caused by very high cumulated doses decreases but that benign pleural diseases and mesothelioma remain the most frequent asbestos-related diseases. Past prevention measures are not expected to have a measurable influence on the incidence of mesothelioma in the near future. PMID:14516145

Dumortier, P; Thimpont, J; de Maertelaer, V; De Vuyst, P

2003-09-01

86

Nucleated Red Blood Cells Count in Pregnancies with Idiopathic Intra-Uterine Growth Restriction  

PubMed Central

Objective Elevated nucleated red blood cell (NRBC) count is introduced as a potential marker of intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR). To investigate the probable association regardless of any known underlying disease, we aimed to study disturbances in NRBC count in infants experiencing idiopathic IUGR. Materials and methods Twenty three infants regarded IUGR without any known cause were chosen to be compared to 48 normal neonates. Blood samples were collected instantly after birth and the same measurements were done in both groups. Results NRBC count/100 white blood cells was significantly higher in the IUGR group (P value < 0.001). pH measurements did not reveal any significant difference. Conclusion Increased NRBC count in cases of idiopathic IUGR in absence of chronic hypoxia could strengthen its predictive value suggested in previous studies. It could help early IUGR detection and beneficial intervention.

Kaveh, Mahbod; Nemati, Somayeh; Javadian, Pouya; Salmanian, Bahram

2014-01-01

87

Automatic counting of FISH spots in interphase cells for prenatal characterization of aneuploidies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescent In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) is becoming an accepted technique for identification of aneuploidies in interphase fetal cells obtained by either CVS (chorionic villus sampling) or amniocentesis. Currently the analysis is done manually by a skilled operator and is a lengthy and fatiguing process. Applied Imaging is developing an automated procedure for counting FISH spots in these samples. Spot counting involves slide preparation, probe hybridization, filter selection, FISH image acquisition, image analysis, operator verification, and analysis of count distributions. We concentrate on the tasks starting with image acquisition. The following topics are covered: selection of appropriate cells, acquisition and processing of Z-stacks of FISH images for presentation and spot counting, background removal, formation of segmentation tree and selection of spot markers, growing of spot markers by means of constrained watershed, detection of irregular spots and flagging them for the user, time and accuracy compared with manual method, and applicability to a clinical research setting.

Ravkin, Ilya; Temov, Vladimir

1999-06-01

88

Elevated White Blood Cell Count and Carotid Plaque Thickness The Northern Manhattan Stroke Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—Elevated leukocyte count has been associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease in several epidemiological studies. We sought to determine whether white blood cell count (WBC) is associated with carotid plaque thickness in a stroke-free, multiethnic cohort. Methods—For this cross-sectional analysis, WBC was measured in stroke-free community subjects undergoing carotid duplex Doppler ultrasound. Maximal internal carotid plaque thickness (MICPT)

Mitchell S. Elkind; Jianfeng Cheng; Bernadette Boden-Albala; Myunghee C. Paik; Ralph L. Sacco

89

Method validation of circulating tumour cell enumeration at low cell counts  

PubMed Central

Background Circulating tumour cells (CTC) are receiving increasing attention as prognostic, predictive and pharmacodynamic biomarkers in cancer patients. However, their clinical significance can be dependent on an accurate determination of CTC around cut-off values at low cell counts (<10 cells/7.5 ml). Consequently, we have conducted method validation of the CellSearch™ system focusing on clinical samples containing CTC in the cut-off region. Methods Analytical accuracy was first assessed employing quality controls (QC) and spiked healthy volunteer blood specimens. Results were analysed by ?-expectation tolerance intervals (BETI). Inter-operator error (6 different readers) was then characterised in 38 different patient samples, 68% of which had ?5 CTC and data were analysed by ?-content ?-confidence tolerance intervals (BCTI). Results Results from QCs and spiked blood confirmed a 3-4-fold higher degree of imprecision at the low (48 cells, BETI?=?+ 0.288/-0.345, ??=?95%) compared to the high QC (987 cells, BETI?=?+0.065/-0.140, ??=?95%). However, when data for individual analysts were interrogated characteristic systematic errors were detected. In the analysis of patient samples again individual analysts introduced a highly specific error into the interpretation of CTC images, which correlated to the level of training and experience. When readers were selected based on BETI and BCTI results, the high level of between-operator error (up to 170%) observed at CTC of???5 was reduced to?cell counts can be considerable, but is also potentially avoidable by following simple guidance steps.

2013-01-01

90

Correlations between hematopoietic progenitor cell counts as measured by Sysmex and CD34+ cell harvest yields following mobilization with different regimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. The Sysmex SE-9000 cell counter provides an estimate of immature cells referred to as hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC). HPC counts should correlate with CD34+ counts in mobilized peripheral blood and apheresis to allow optimization of apheresis timing. Methods. We correlated the HPC counts as measured in the immature information channel with CD34+ cell levels as determined by FACS (HPCA-2

W. Vogel; H. Kopp; L. Kanz; H. Einsele

2002-01-01

91

Skin Tags: A Link Between Lesional Mast Cell Count/Tryptase Expression and Obesity and Dyslipidemia  

PubMed Central

Background: The etiology of skin tags (STs) is not fully understood. A relation to diabetes mellitus and obesity was suggested. Few studies of possible mast cells (MCs) involvement were reported. Tyrptase is a mast cell mediator and a potent fibroblast growth factor. It may provide a molecular link between mast cell activation and fibrosis. Aims: The aim was to assess clinical and laboratory findings in patients with STs, and the possible link between obesity, dyslipidemia, and lesional MC count/tryptase expression. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 patients with STs were subjected to clinical examination, estimation of body mass index (BMI), fasting blood glucose (FBG), postprandial blood glucose (PPBG), serum cholesterol and triglycerides, abdominal ultrasound for fatty liver assessment, in addition to study of MCs through staining for MC tryptase in two skin biopsies; lesional and nonlesional (control). Results: All patients showed abnormally high BMI and hypertriglyceridemia, with abnormal sonographic pattern in 15 patients (75%). STs number positively correlated with the age of patients. STs showed significantly higher MC counts and tryptase expression, compared with control skin (P < 0.001), with no correlation of the STs number or MC count with BMI, FBG, PPBG or serum cholesterol. Obese patients showed a significantly higher MC count than overweight and there was a positive correlation between MC count and serum triglycerides. Axilla and under breast STs showed a higher MC count compared with other sites. Conclusions: STs seem to be related to obesity and hypertriglyceridemia. MCs with their tryptase are possibly involved in pathogenesis of STs. MC count is related to the associated factors; obesity and serum triglycerides. MC tryptase expression is a reliable method for accurate tissue MC counting.

Salem, Samar Abdallah M; Attia, Enas AS; Osman, Wesam M; El Gendy, Marwa A

2013-01-01

92

Predicting Progression in Glaucoma Suspects With Longitudinal Estimates of Retinal Ganglion Cell Counts  

PubMed Central

Purpose. We evaluated the ability of baseline and longitudinal estimates of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) counts in predicting progression in eyes suspected of having glaucoma. Methods. The study included 288 glaucoma suspect eyes of 288 patients followed for an average of 3.8 ± 1.0 years. Participants had normal standard automated perimetry (SAP) at baseline. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness assessment was performed with optical coherence tomography (OCT). Progression was defined as development of repeatable abnormal SAP or glaucomatous progressive optic disc changes. Estimates of RGC counts were obtained by combining data from SAP and OCT according to a previously described method. Joint longitudinal survival models were used to evaluate the ability of baseline and rates of change in estimated RGC counts for predicting progression over time, adjusting for confounding variables. Results. A total of 48 eyes (17%) showed progression during follow-up. The mean rate of change in estimated RGC counts was ?18,987 cells/y in progressors versus ?8,808 cells/y for nonprogressors (P < 0.001). Baseline RGC counts and slopes of RGC loss were significantly predictive of progression, with HRs of 1.56 per 100,000 cells lower (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18–2.08; P = 0.002) and 2.68 per 10,000 cells/y faster loss (95% CI, 1.22–5.90; P = 0.014), respectively. The longitudinal model including estimates of RGC counts performed significantly better than models including only structural or functional indexes separately. Conclusions. Baseline and longitudinal estimates of RGC counts may be helpful in predicting progression and performed significantly better than conventional approaches for risk stratification of glaucoma suspects.

Meira-Freitas, Daniel; Lisboa, Renato; Tatham, Andrew; Zangwill, Linda M.; Weinreb, Robert N.; Girkin, Christopher A.; Liebmann, Jeffrey M.; Medeiros, Felipe A.

2013-01-01

93

A semi-automated technique for labeling and counting of apoptosing retinal cells  

PubMed Central

Background Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss is one of the earliest and most important cellular changes in glaucoma. The DARC (Detection of Apoptosing Retinal Cells) technology enables in vivo real-time non-invasive imaging of single apoptosing retinal cells in animal models of glaucoma and Alzheimer’s disease. To date, apoptosing RGCs imaged using DARC have been counted manually. This is time-consuming, labour-intensive, vulnerable to bias, and has considerable inter- and intra-operator variability. Results A semi-automated algorithm was developed which enabled automated identification of apoptosing RGCs labeled with fluorescent Annexin-5 on DARC images. Automated analysis included a pre-processing stage involving local-luminance and local-contrast “gain control”, a “blob analysis” step to differentiate between cells, vessels and noise, and a method to exclude non-cell structures using specific combined ‘size’ and ‘aspect’ ratio criteria. Apoptosing retinal cells were counted by 3 masked operators, generating ‘Gold-standard’ mean manual cell counts, and were also counted using the newly developed automated algorithm. Comparison between automated cell counts and the mean manual cell counts on 66 DARC images showed significant correlation between the two methods (Pearson’s correlation coefficient 0.978 (p?cell counts of the two methods. Conclusions The novel automated algorithm enabled accurate quantification of apoptosing RGCs that is highly comparable to manual counting, and appears to minimise operator-bias, whilst being both fast and reproducible. This may prove to be a valuable method of quantifying apoptosing retinal cells, with particular relevance to translation in the clinic, where a Phase I clinical trial of DARC in glaucoma patients is due to start shortly.

2014-01-01

94

Note: Microelectromechanical systems Coulter counter for cell monitoring and counting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This note describes the design, fabrication, and testing of a novel microelectromechanical systems Coulter counter. The Coulter counter will be used to detect and monitor impedance changes of cells as a function of time in response to different experimental extracellular environments. The device consists of SU-8 (negative photoresist) microchannels, vertical electroplated electrodes, polydimethylsiloxane cover, and is divided into a passive mixing region, a focusing region using negative dielectrophoretic forces, and a measuring region defined by multiple electroplated electrode pairs. The devices were tested using both microbeads in saline water and fibroblast cells in phosphate buffered saline solution. The results show that the proposed microsystem is capable of monitoring impedance of cells at different positions along the Coulter microchannel.

Wu, Yifan; Benson, James D.; Critser, John K.; Almasri, Mahmoud

2010-07-01

95

Immune cell subset counts associated with graft-versus-host disease.  

PubMed

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major transplantation complication. The purpose of this study was to measure immune cell subsets by flow cytometry early after transplantation (before median day of GVHD onset) to identify subsets that may play a role in GVHD pathogenesis. We also measured the subsets later after transplantation to determine which subsets may be influenced by GVHD or its treatment. We studied 219 patients. We found that acute GVHD (aGVHD) was preceded by high counts of CD4 T cells and CD8 T cells. It was followed by low counts of total and naive B cells, total and cytolytic NK cells, and myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Chronic GVHD (cGVHD) was preceded by low counts of memory B cells. In conclusion, both CD4 and CD8 T cells appear to play a role in the pathogenesis of aGVHD. Generation of B cells, NK cells, and dendritic cells may be hampered by aGVHD and/or its treatment. Memory B cells may inhibit the development of cGVHD. PMID:24406506

Podgorny, Peter J; Liu, Yiping; Dharmani-Khan, Poonam; Pratt, Laura M; Jamani, Kareem; Luider, Joanne; Auer-Grzesiak, Iwona; Mansoor, Adnan; Williamson, Tyler S; Ugarte-Torres, Alejandra; Hoegh-Petersen, Mette; Stewart, Douglas A; Daly, Andrew; Khan, Faisal M; Russell, James A; Storek, Jan

2014-04-01

96

The influence of technical factors on differential cell count in milk.  

PubMed

Differential cell count of milk is a traditional parameter for the evaluation of udder health. The literature shows great variation in differential cell counts of the milk of healthy mammary glands: macrophages range from 0% to 80%, lymphocytes from 1.5% to 79.5%, polymorphonuclear neutrophils from 3% to 95%, and epithelial cells from 1% to 19%. We conducted three studies to seek explanations for such variation. In the first, we evaluated the impact of polyethylene and glass sampling bottles. The aim of the second study was to compare the results of differential cell counts performed by three different technicians. The third study evaluated two methods of smear preparation. When polyethylene plastic bottles were used, the macrophage population was minimized but lymphocytes remained unaffected. This was shown by an exemplary flow cytometric analysis using four monoclonal antibodies against three lymphocyte surface structures. There were significant differences in the differential cell counts of 40 smears made by three technicians despite identical operating procedures. For the sediment smear, milk was centrifuged once and the sediment spread by eye on a glass slide. For the "coffee grinder" smear method, the sample was subjected to four centrifugations and then placed on a cover glass in order to spread the sediment using centrifugal force. The coffee grinder procedure led to a reduction of lymphocytes and an enrichment of polymorphonuclear neutrophils without affecting the macrophage population. Both methods made it possible to distinguish different udder health classes. It can be concluded that differential cell counts are a useful tool for comparing and monitoring udder health only if: samples are taken in a glass bottle; smears are prepared with the identical technique; and the differential cell counts are performed by a single person. PMID:15909680

Schröder, Anke C; Hamann, Jörn

2005-05-01

97

Evaluation of the automated leucocyte count and differential from the Cell-Dyn 3500 in sickle cell disease.  

PubMed

Erythrocytes resistant to standard lysing reagents are known to occur in sickle cell disease. These lyse-resistant erythrocytes can cause aberrant automated leucocyte counts and differentials. The ability of the Cell-Dyn 3500 automated haematology analyser to eliminate resistant erythrocytes and accurately count and differentiate leucocytes was evaluated. Samples were obtained from paediatric patients with sickle cell disease or haemoglobin SC disease. The Cell-Dyn 3500, using impedance and optical counting with a hypotonic salt "extended lyse mode', was compared to the Cell-Dyn 3000, an optical analyser that also uses a hypotonic salt lyse, the Cell-Dyn 400, a "hard detergent lyse' impedance counter, and a reference 400-cell manual white cell differential (National committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards [NCCLS] Approved Guideline H20-A). Seventy-five samples from patients with sickle cell disease or haemoglobin SC disease were evaluated for total leucocyte count, percentage of lymphocytes, percentage of neutrophils, and nucleated red blood cells (NRBC) flags. The Cell-Dyn 3500 correlated well with Cell-Dyn 400 leucocyte counts, with a correlation coefficient of 0.95. When compared to the manual differential, the correlation coefficient for lymphocytes was 0.93 and for neutrophils 0.95. The Cell-Dyn 3500 NRBC flag had a sensitivity of 47.7% and a specificity of 80.6%. The predictive value of a positive flag was 77.7%. The Cell-Dyn 3500's extended lyse mode clearly enhances the accuracy of leucocyte counts and differentials in patients with sickle cell disease. PMID:8697728

Joyner, R E; Brooks, M J

1995-12-01

98

Antimicrobial susceptibility testing in 90 min by bacterial cell count monitoring  

PubMed Central

The rise in antimicrobial resistance has become a serious global health problem. Restrictive use of antibiotics seems the only option to temper this accession since research in new antibiotics has halted. Antimicrobial stewardship programmes rely on quick access to susceptibility data. This study evaluated the concept of bacterial cell count monitoring as a fast method to determine susceptibility. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus strains were tested for amoxicillin/piperacillin and gentamicin by three conventional methods (VITEK2®, Etest® and broth-macrodilution). Bacterial cell count monitoring reliably predicted susceptibility after 90 min for Escherichia coli and after 120 min for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus without any minor, major or very major discrepancies. Time-to-result was reduced by 74%, 83% and 76%, respectively. Bacterial cell count monitoring shows great potential for rapid susceptibility testing.

Broeren, M A C; Maas, Y; Retera, E; Arents, N L A

2013-01-01

99

White blood cell differential counts in severely leukopenic samples: a comparative analysis of different solutions available in modern laboratory hematology  

PubMed Central

Background We evaluated the efficacy of white blood cell (WBC) differential counts in severely leukopenic samples by the Hematoflow method and by automated hematology analyzers and compared the results with manual counts. Methods EDTA-anticoagulated blood samples (175 samples) with WBC counts of 40-990/µL were selected. Hematoflow differential counts were performed in duplicates employing flow cytometry using the CytoDiff reagent and analysis software. Differential counts were also performed using the DxH 800 (Beckman Coulter) and XE-2100 (Sysmex) automated hematology analyzers. The sum of the manual counts by a hematology technician and a resident were used as the manual counts. Results The total analysis time and hands-on time required by the Hematoflow method were shorter than those required by manual counting. Hematoflow counts were reproducible, showed a good correlation with automated analyzers, and also showed strong correlation with manual counts (r > 0.8) in neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes. None of the cases containing less than 4% blasts as analyzed by the Hematoflow method had blasts in the manual counts, but 8 cases of 21 cases (38.1%) with over 4% blasts by Hematoflow had blasts in manual counts. Conclusion Hematoflow counts of severely leukopenic samples were reproducible and showed a good correlation with manual counts in terms of neutrophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts. The Hematoflow method also detected the presence of blasts. Manual slide review is recommended when over 4% blasts are found by Hematoflow.

Kim, Ah Hyun; Lee, Wonbae; Kim, Myungshin; Kim, Yonggoo

2014-01-01

100

Treadmill gait speeds correlate with physical activity counts measured by cell phone accelerometers.  

PubMed

A number of important health-related outcomes are directly related to a person's ability to maintain normal gait speed. We hypothesize that cellular telephones may be repurposed to measure this important behavior in a noninvasive, continuous, precise, and inexpensive manner. The purpose of this study was to determine if physical activity (PA) counts collected by cell phone accelerometers could measure treadmill gait speeds. We also assessed how cell phone placement influenced treadmill gait speed measures. Participants included 55 young, middle-aged, and older community-dwelling men and women. We placed cell phones as a pendant around the neck, and on the left and right wrist, hip, and ankle. Subjects then completed an individualized treadmill protocol, alternating 1 min rest periods with 5 min of walking at different speeds (0.3-11.3 km/h; 0.2-7 mi/h). No persons were asked to walk at speeds faster than what they would achieve during day-to-day life. PA counts were calculated from all sensor locations. We built linear mixed statistical models of PA counts predicted by treadmill speeds ranging from 0.8 to 6.4 km/h (0.5-4 mi/h) while accounting for subject age, weight, and gender. We solved linear regression equations for treadmill gait speed, expressed as a function of PA counts, age, weight, and gender. At all locations, cell phone PA counts were strongly associated with treadmill gait speed. Cell phones worn at the hip yielded the best predictive model. We conclude that in both men and women, cell phone derived activity counts strongly correlate with treadmill gait speed over a wide range of subject ages and weights. PMID:22475727

Carlson, Richard H; Huebner, Derek R; Hoarty, Carrie A; Whittington, Jackie; Haynatzki, Gleb; Balas, Michele C; Schenk, Ana Katrin; Goulding, Evan H; Potter, Jane F; Bonasera, Stephen J

2012-06-01

101

Effect of parity on milk yield, composition, somatic cell count, renneting parameters and bacteria counts of Comisana ewes.  

PubMed

Twenty-four Comisana ewes, with no history of mastitis, were included in this study, with eight ewes each in parities 1, 2 and 3. Groups were separately penned on straw litter and ewes were individually checked for yield, composition, renneting properties and bacteriological characteristics of milk from January, when separated from their lambs (50+/-3 days after lambing), to May. Samples with more than 3.5x10(5) somatic cells/ml were cultured for mastitis related pathogens. Milk yield was not significantly affected by parity. The P3 ewes had significantly higher milk protein, casein and fat contents compared to the P1 and P2 ewes. The P3 ewes also had improved renneting ability of milk as compared to the P1 ewes. Quality of milk decreased with lower lactations. The milk of P1 ewes had significantly greater amounts of mesophilic bacteria than the P2 and P3 ewes, as well as higher concentrations of psychrotrophs and total coliforms in their milk with respect to the P3 ewes. Somatic cell counts in milk and the prevalence of subclinical mastitis were not changed by parity, although mastitis infection set in progressively earlier as the number of lactations decreased. These results suggest that ewes in first or second lactation have a less favourable milk secretion status in relation to mastitis than ewes with a higher number of lactations. Milk yield and quality of younger ewes may be improved by offering feed rations that take into account this reduced capacity to mobilise body reserves. Also, most scrupulous control of sanitation of housing, equipment and personnel is necessary. PMID:10818309

Sevi; Taibi; Albenzio; Muscio; Annicchiarico

2000-07-01

102

Reticulocyte count  

MedlinePLUS

A reticulocyte count measures the percentage of reticulocytes (slightly immature red blood cells) in the blood. ... marrow at an appropriate rate. The number of reticulocytes in the blood is a sign of how ...

103

Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) Cross Section  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This drawing shows a cross-section view of the test cell at the heart of the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) that flew on two Spacelab missions. The middle and lower drawings depict the volume of the silicone oil layer that served as the atmosphere as the steel ball rotated and an electrostatic field pulled the oil inward to mimic gravity's effects during the experiments. The GFFC thus produced flow patterns that simulated conditions inside the atmospheres of Jupiter and the Sun and other stars. The principal investigator was John Hart of the University of Colorado at Boulder. It was managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). An Acrobat PDF copy of this drawing is available at http://microgravity.nasa.gov/gallery. (Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center)

1995-01-01

104

White Blood Cells Count and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in Young Men  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Association between white blood cell (WBC) count and diabetes risk has been recently suggested. We assessed whether WBC count is an independent risk factor for diabetes incidence among young healthy adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS WBC count was measured in 24,897 young (mean age 30.8 ± 5.36 years), normoglycemic men with WBC range of 3,000 to 12,000 cells/mm3. Participants were periodically screened for diabetes during a mean follow-up of 7.5 years. RESULTS During 185,354 person-years of follow-up, diabetes was diagnosed in 447 subjects. A multivariate model adjusted for age, BMI, family history of diabetes, physical activity, and fasting glucose and triglyceride levels revealed a 7.6% increase in incident diabetes for every increment of 1,000 cells/mm3 (P = 0.046). When grouped in quintiles, a baseline WBC count above 6,900 cells/mm3 had an independent 52% increase in diabetes risk (hazard ratio 1.52 [95% CI 1.06–2.18]) compared with the lowest quintile (WBC <5,400 cells/mm3). Men at the lowest WBC quintile were protected from diabetes incidence even in the presence of overweight, family history of diabetes, or elevated triglyceride levels. After simultaneous control for risk factors, BMI was the primary contributor of the variation in multivariate models (P < 0.001), followed by age and WBC count (P < 0.001), and family history of diabetes and triglyceride levels (P = 0.12). CONCLUSIONS WBC count, a commonly used and widely available test, is an independent risk factor for diabetes in young men at values well within the normal range.

Twig, Gilad; Afek, Arnon; Shamiss, Ari; Derazne, Estela; Tzur, Dorit; Gordon, Barak; Tirosh, Amir

2013-01-01

105

The value of white blood cell counts before revision total knee arthroplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

A white blood cell count (WBC) of >50,000 cell\\/mm3 from a knee aspirate with ?80% polymorphonuclear cells (PMNCs) is suggestive of infection. This study sought to determine if these same criteria were applicable when interpreting aspirates from a total knee. Of 440 revision total knee arthroplasties, 86 patients had preoperative aspirations of the knee before revision. Fifty-five aspirates were from

J. Bohannon Mason; Thomas K Fehring; Susan M Odum; William L Griffin; Donna S Nussman

2003-01-01

106

Complete blood cell count in psittaciformes by using high-throughput image cytometry: a pilot study.  

PubMed

The avian hemogram is usually performed in veterinary diagnostic laboratories by using manual cell counting techniques and differential counts determined by light microscopy. There is no standard automated technique for avian blood cell count and differentiation to date. These shortcomings in birds are primarily because erythrocytes and thrombocytes are nucleated, which precludes the use of automated analyzers programmed to perform mammal complete blood cell counts. In addition, there is no standard avian antibody panel, which would allow cell differentiation by immunophenotyping across all commonly seen bird species. We report an alternative hematologic approach for quantification and differentiation of avian blood cells by using high-throughput image cytometry on blood smears in psittacine bird species. A pilot study was designed with 70 blood smears of different psittacine bird species stained with a Wright-Giemsa stain. The slides were scanned at 0.23 microm/pixel. The open-source softwares CellProfiler and CellProfiler Analyst were used for analyzing and sorting each cell by image cytometry. A "pipeline" was constructed in the CellProfiler by using different modules to identify and export hundreds of measures per cell for shape, intensity, and texture. Rules for classifying the different blood cell phenotypes were then determined based on these measurements by iterative feedback and machine learning by using CellProfiler Analyst. Although this approach shows promises, avian Leukopet results could not be duplicated when using this technique as is. Further studies and more standardized prospective investigations may be needed to refine the "pipeline" strategy and the machine learning algorithm. PMID:24344512

Beaufrčre, Hugues; Ammersbach, Mélanie; Tully, Thomas N

2013-09-01

107

Histopathological analysis of apoptotic cell count and its role in oral lichen planus  

PubMed Central

Aim of the Study: To identify and count the number of apoptotic cells in oral lichen planus (OLP) and correlate with the degree of keratinization, thickness of epithelium and thickness of lymphocytic infiltration of OLP. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 40 diagnosed cases of OLP. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin to identify and count the number of apoptotic cells. Measurement of other histopathological parameter of OLP such as degree of keratinization, thickness of epithelium and thickness of lymphocytic infiltration was done by using stage micrometer and eyepiece graticule. Statistical analysis was done to understand the correlation between apoptotic cells and histopathological features of OLP. Result: The result showed that the number of apoptotic cells increased, with an increase in thickness of lymphocytic infiltration and degree of keratinization, but there was a decrease in the epithelial thickness. Conclusion: Further immunological and molecular studies are required for a stronger evidence in correlating apoptotic cell and histological parameters of OLP.

Doddawad, Vidya G

2014-01-01

108

Raman-activated cell counting for profiling carbon dioxide fixing microorganisms.  

PubMed

Raman microspectroscopy is a label-free and nondestructive technique to measure the intrinsic chemical profile of single cells. The naturally weak Raman signals hampered the application of Raman spectroscopy for high-throughput measurements. Nearly all photosynthetic microorganisms contain carotenoids that are active molecules for resonance Raman at a 532 nm excitation wavelength. Hence, the acquisition time for a single photosynthetic microorganism can be as short as 1 ms. The carotenoid bands in Raman spectra of photosynthetic microorganisms utilizing (13)CO(2) shifted when compared to the spectra of cells utilizing (12)CO(2). Here, a mixture of (12)C- and (13)C-cyanobacterial cells were counted using a microfluidic-device-based Raman-activated cell counting procedure to prove the concept that Raman spectroscopy can be used as a high-throughput method to profile a cell population. PMID:22320431

Li, Mengqiu; Ashok, Praveen C; Dholakia, Kishan; Huang, Wei E

2012-06-28

109

Anaplastic large cell lymphoma in leukemic phase: extraordinarily high white blood cell count.  

PubMed

Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a distinct type of T/null-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma that commonly involves nodal and extranodal sites. The World Health Organization of lymphoid neoplasms recognizes two types: anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) positive or ALK negative, the former as a result of abnormalities involving the ALK gene at chromosome 2p23. Patients with ALCL rarely develop a leukemic phase of disease, either at the time of initial presentation or during the clinical course. Described herein is a patient with ALK+ ALCL, small cell variant, associated with the t(2;5)(p23;q35), who initially presented with leukemic involvement and an extraordinarily high leukocyte count of 529 x 10(9)/L, which subsequently peaked at 587 x 10(9)/L. Despite chemotherapy the patient died 2(1/2) months after diagnosis. In the literature review 20 well-documented cases are identified of ALCL in leukemic phase reported previously, with a WBC ranging from 15 to 151 x 10(9)/L. Leukemic phase of ALCL occurs almost exclusively in patients with ALK+ ALCL, most often associated with the small cell variant and the t(2;5)(p23;q35), similar to the present case. Patients with leukemic phase ALK+ ALCL appear to have a poorer prognosis than most patients with ALK+ ALCL. PMID:19432678

Nguyen, Jacqueline T; Condron, Michael R; Nguyen, Nghia D; De, Jitakshi; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Padula, Anthony

2009-05-01

110

Prognostic study of continuous variables (white blood cell count, peripheral blast cell count, haemoglobin level, platelet count and age) in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Analysis of a population of 1545 children treated by the French Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia Group (FRALLE)  

PubMed Central

Many cutpoints have been proposed to categorize continuous variables in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (white blood cell count, peripheral blast cell count, haemoglobin level, platelet count and age), and have been used to define therapeutic subgroups. This variation in the choice of cutpoints leads to a bias called the ‘Will Rogers phenomenon’. The aim of this study was to analyse variations in the relative risk of relapse or death as a function of continuous prognostic variables in childhood ALL and to discuss the choice of cutpoints. We studied a population of 1545 children with ALL enrolled in three consecutive protocols named FRALLE 83, FRALLE 87 and FRALLE 89. We estimated the risk of relapse or death associated with different values of each continuous prognostic variable by dividing the sample into quintiles of the distribution of the variables. As regards age, a category of children under 1 year of age was distinguished and the rest of the population was divided into quintiles. The floated variance method was used to calculate the confidence interval of each relative risk, including the reference category. The relation between the quantitative prognostic factors and the risk was monotonic for each variable, except for age. For the white blood cell count (WBC), the relation is log linear. The risk associated with WBC values in the upper quintile was 1.9 times higher than that in the lower quintile. The peripheral blast cell count correlated strongly with WBC (correlation coefficient: 0.99). The risk increased with the haemoglobin level, and the risk in the upper quintile was 1.3 times higher than that in the lower quintile. The risk decreased as the platelet count increased: the risk in the lower quintile was 1.2 times higher than that in the upper quintile. The risk increased gradually with increasing age above one year. The small subgroup of patients (2.5% of the population) under 1 year of age at diagnosis had a risk 2.6 times higher than the reference category of patients between 3 and 4.3 years of age. When the risk associated with a quantitative prognostic factor varies monotonously, the selection of a cutpoint is arbitrary and represents a loss of information. Despite this loss of information, such arbitrary categorization may be necessary to define therapeutic stratification. In that case, consensus cutpoints must be defined if one wants to avoid the Will Rogers phenomenon. The cutpoints proposed by the Rome workshop and the NCI are arbitrary, but may represent an acceptable convention. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com

Donadieu, J; Auclerc, M-F; Baruchel, A; Perel, Y; Bordigoni, P; Landman-Parker, J; Leblanc, T; Cornu, G; Sommelet, D; Leverger, G; Schaison, G; Hill, C

2000-01-01

111

Subjective Poor Sleep and White Blood Cell Count in Male Japanese Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep deprivation has been shown to be associated with an increase in inflammatory makers such as interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relation between subjective poor sleep and white blood cell (WBC) count, an inflammatory marker. The subjects were 208 male Japanese workers in a synthetic fiber- manufacturing plant, who responded to

Naoko NISHITANI; Hisataka SAKAKIBARA

2007-01-01

112

A semiautomatic image analyzer for cell counts in monolayers. III. Statistical considerations.  

PubMed

The image-analyzing system described in the companion paper (Thorén and Lanke, 1989) is considered from a statistical point of view. Special attention is given to the following applications: simple cell counts, viability estimation, and toxicity estimation. Different estimators are considered, their variances are discussed, and it is shown how to compute standard errors in different situations. PMID:2760939

Lanke, J; Thorén, S A

1989-01-01

113

Increased Mast Cell Counts in Benign and Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors  

PubMed Central

Background and aims. Mast cells are one of the characteristic factors in angiogenesis, growth, and metastatic spread of tumors. The distribution and significance of mast cells in many tumors have been demonstrated. However, few studies have evaluated mast cell infiltration in salivary gland tumors. In this study, mast cell counts were evaluated in benign and malig-nant salivary gland tumors. Materials and methods. This descriptive and cross-sectional study assessed 30 cases of pleomorphic adenoma, 13 cases of adenoid cystic carcinoma, 7 cases of mucoepidermoid carcinoma (diagnosed on the basis of 2005 WHO classifica-tion), with adequate stroma in peritumoral and intratumoral areas, and 10 cases of normal salivary glands. The samples were stained with 5% diluted Giemsa solution and the average stained cell counts were calculated in 10 random microscopic fields in peri- and intra-tumoral areas. Data were analyzed by t-test and Mann-Whitney and Krusskal-Wallis tests. Results. The average mast cell counts increased in the tumors compared to normal salivary glands. There was no signifi-cant difference between benign and malignant tumors and also between different malignant tumors. Infiltration was signifi-cantly denser in peri-tumoral stroma in both tumoral groups (P = 0.001). Minor salivary glands contained significantly more numerous mast cells. Conclusion. Although mast cell counts increased in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors, there were no signifi-cant differences between the tumoral groups. Further studies are suggested to determine the type of these cells which might be useful in the assessment of biological nature of the tumor and its future treatment modality.

Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Ashraf, Mohammad-Javad

2014-01-01

114

Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) Optical System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This drawing shows a cross-section view of the optical system for the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) experiment that flew on two Spacelab missions. Silicone oil served as the atmosphere around a rotating metal sphere and an electrostatic field pulled the oil inward to mimic gravity's effects during the experiments. The GFFC thus produced flow patterns that simulated conditions inside the atmospheres of Jupiter and the Sun and other stars. The principal investigator was John Hart of the University of Colorado at Boulder. It was managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. An Acrobat PDF copy of this drawing is available at http://microgravity.nasa.gov/gallery. (Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center)

1995-01-01

115

Fast automated yeast cell counting algorithm using bright-field and fluorescence microscopic images  

PubMed Central

Background The faithful determination of the concentration and viability of yeast cells is important for biological research as well as industry. To this end, it is important to develop an automated cell counting algorithm that can provide not only fast but also accurate and precise measurement of yeast cells. Results With the proposed method, we measured the precision of yeast cell measurements by using 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% viability samples. As a result, the actual viability measured with the proposed yeast cell counting algorithm is significantly correlated to the theoretical viability (R2?=?0.9991). Furthermore, we evaluated the performance of our algorithm in various computing platforms. The results showed that the proposed algorithm could be feasible to use with low-end computing platforms without loss of its performance. Conclusions Our yeast cell counting algorithm can rapidly provide the total number and the viability of yeast cells with exceptional accuracy and precision. Therefore, we believe that our method can become beneficial for a wide variety of academic field and industries such as biotechnology, pharmaceutical and alcohol production.

2013-01-01

116

White Blood Cell Count and the Risk for Coronary Artery Disease in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Background The association between white blood cell (WBC) count and coronary artery disease (CAD) is unknown in young adults. Our objective was to assess the association between WBC count and its changes over time with CAD incidence in the Metabolic, Life-style and Nutrition Assessment in Young adults (MELANY) study, a cohort of Israeli army personnel. Methods and Findings 29,120 apparently healthy young men (mean age; 31.2±5.5 years) with a normal baseline WBC count (3,000–12,000 cells/mm3) were followed during a mean follow up of 7.5±3.8 years for incidence of CAD. Participants were screened every 3–5 years using a stress test, and CAD was confirmed by coronary angiography. In a multivariate model adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI), LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, family history of CAD, physical activity, diabetes, triglycerides and smoking status, WBC levels (divided to quintiles) above 6,900 cells/mm3 (quintile 4) were associated with a 2.17-fold increase (95%CI?=?1.18–3.97) in the risk for CAD as compared with men in quintile 1 (WBC?5,400 cells/mm3). When modeled as a continuous variable, a WBC increment of 1000 cells/mm3 was associated with a 17.4% increase in CAD risk (HR 1.174; 95%CI?=?1.067–1.290, p?=?0.001). A decrease in the WBC level (within the normal range) during the follow-up period was associated with increased physical activity and decreased triglyceride levels as well as with reduced incidence of CAD. Conclusions WBC count is an independent risk factor for CAD in young adults at values well within the normal range. WBC count may assist in detecting subgroups of young men at either low or high risk for progression to CAD.

Twig, Gilad; Afek, Arnon; Shamiss, Ari; Derazne, Estela; Tzur, Dorit; Gordon, Barak; Tirosh, Amir

2012-01-01

117

Label-free Sorting and Counting of Yeast Cells for Viability Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the new combination of cell sorting and counting capabilities on a single device. Most state-of-the-art devices combining these technologies use optical techniques requiring complicate experimental setups and labeled samples. The use of a label-free, electrical device significantly decreases the system complexity and makes it more appropriate for use in point-of-care diagnostics.Living and dead yeast cells are separated

G. Mernier; N. Piacentini; R. Tornay; N. Buffi; P. Renaud

2009-01-01

118

CD4 Cell Counts at HIV Diagnosis among HIV Outpatient Study Participants, 2000-2009.  

PubMed

Background. It is unclear if CD4 cell counts at HIV diagnosis have improved over a 10-year period of expanded HIV testing in the USA. Methods. We studied HOPS participants diagnosed with HIV infection ?6 months prior to entry into care during 2000-2009. We assessed the correlates of CD4 count <200 cells/mm(3) at HIV diagnosis (late HIV diagnosis) by logistic regression. Results. Of 1,203 eligible patients, 936 (78%) had a CD4 count within 3 months after HIV diagnosis. Median CD4 count at HIV diagnosis was 299 cells/mm(3) and did not significantly improve over time (P = 0.13). Comparing periods 2000-2001 versus 2008-2009, respectively, 39% and 35% of patients had a late HIV diagnosis (P = 0.34). Independent correlates of late HIV diagnosis were having an HIV risk other than being MSM, age ?35 years at diagnosis, and being of nonwhite race/ethnicity. Conclusions. There is need for routine universal HIV testing to reduce the frequency of late HIV diagnosis and increase opportunity for patient- and potentially population-level benefits associated with early antiretroviral treatment. PMID:21941640

Buchacz, Kate; Armon, Carl; Palella, Frank J; Baker, Rose K; Tedaldi, Ellen; Durham, Marcus D; Brooks, John T

2012-01-01

119

CD4 Cell Counts at HIV Diagnosis among HIV Outpatient Study Participants, 2000-2009  

PubMed Central

Background. It is unclear if CD4 cell counts at HIV diagnosis have improved over a 10-year period of expanded HIV testing in the USA. Methods. We studied HOPS participants diagnosed with HIV infection ?6 months prior to entry into care during 2000–2009. We assessed the correlates of CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 at HIV diagnosis (late HIV diagnosis) by logistic regression. Results. Of 1,203 eligible patients, 936 (78%) had a CD4 count within 3 months after HIV diagnosis. Median CD4 count at HIV diagnosis was 299 cells/mm3 and did not significantly improve over time (P = 0.13). Comparing periods 2000-2001 versus 2008-2009, respectively, 39% and 35% of patients had a late HIV diagnosis (P = 0.34). Independent correlates of late HIV diagnosis were having an HIV risk other than being MSM, age ?35 years at diagnosis, and being of nonwhite race/ethnicity. Conclusions. There is need for routine universal HIV testing to reduce the frequency of late HIV diagnosis and increase opportunity for patient- and potentially population-level benefits associated with early antiretroviral treatment.

Buchacz, Kate; Armon, Carl; Palella, Frank J.; Baker, Rose K.; Tedaldi, Ellen; Durham, Marcus D.; Brooks, John T.

2012-01-01

120

Longitudinal trends of total white blood cell and differential white blood cell counts of atomic bomb survivors.  

PubMed

In studying the late health effects of atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, earlier findings were that white blood cell (WBC) count increased with radiation dose in cross-sectional studies. However, a persistent effect of radiation on WBC count and other risk factors has yet to be confirmed. The objectives of the present study were 1) to examine the longitudinal relationship between A-bomb radiation dose and WBC and differential WBC counts among A-bomb survivors and 2) to investigate the potential confounding risk factors (such as age at exposure and smoking status) as well as modification of the radiation dose-response. A total of 7,562 A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were included in this study from 1964-2004. A linear mixed model was applied using the repeated WBC measurements. During the study period, a secular downward trend of WBC count was observed. Radiation exposure was a significant risk factor for elevated WBC and differential WBC counts over time. A significant increase of WBC counts among survivors with high radiation dose (> 2 Gy) was detected in men exposed below the age of 20 and in women regardless of age at exposure. Effects on WBC of low dose radiation remain unclear, however. Cigarette smoking produced the most pronounced effect on WBC counts and its impact was much larger than that of radiation exposure. PMID:20543527

Hsu, Wan-Ling; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Yamada, Michiko; Cologne, John; Fujiwara, Saeko

2010-01-01

121

CD4+ T Lymphocytes count in sickle cell anaemia patients attending a tertiary hospital  

PubMed Central

Background: Sickle cell haemoglobin (HbS) is the commonest abnormal haemoglobin and it has a worldwide distribution. Reports have shown that patients with sickle cell anaemia (HbSS) have an increased susceptibility to infection leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Impaired leucocyte function and loss of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity are some of the mechanisms that have been reported to account for the immunocompromised state in patients with sickle cell disease. This study was carried out to determine the CD4+ T lymphocytes count in patients with sickle cell anaemia. Materials and Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study of 40 sickle cell anaemia patients in steady state (asymptomatic for at least 4 weeks) attending haematology clinic and 40 age and sex-matched healthy HbA control were recruited into the study. Both HbS patients and the controls were HIV negative. The blood samples obtained were analyzed for CD4+ T cell by Flow cytometry. Results: The study found that there was no significant difference in the number of CD4+ T lymphocyte count between individuals with sickle cell anaemia and HbA (1016 ± 513 cells/?L vs 920 ± 364cells/?L). Conclusion: It is recommended that the functionality of CD4+ T lymphocyte should be considered rather than the number in further attempt to elucidate the cellular immune dysfunction in patients with sickle cell anaemia.

Ojo, Omotola Toyin; Shokunbi, Wuraola Adebola

2014-01-01

122

On distinguishing cause and consequence: do high somatic cell counts lead to lower milk yield or does high milk yield lead to lower somatic cell count?  

PubMed

Researchers have reported that as milk yield increases composite milk somatic cell count (SCC) is diluted in cattle with no intramammary infection (IMI) and as a consequence, estimates of SCC from high yields are lower than estimates of SCC from low yields in dairy cows without an IMI. To date, estimates of reduced milk yield associated with high SCC because of intramammary infection have not been adjusted for any dilution of SCC. Ignoring dilution is therefore likely to lead to an overestimate of reduction in yield with increasing SCC. This paper investigates scenarios of the possible impact of dilution and inflammation on the association between somatic cell count and yield. The data used to investigate this relationship come from 8373 monthly records of milk yield and composite somatic cell count, together with incidence of clinical mastitis, which were recorded on 850 cows from five dairy cattle farms in Gloucestershire, UK. Two sets of models were used to investigate dilution and inflammation using two-level hierarchical models. The first set of models was used to estimate the linear (dilution) and log10-linear (inflammation) impact of SCC on the outcome variable milk yield. Five general linear models with increasing inclusion of higher test day SCC values were run. The cumulative categories were test day SCC values of up to and inclusive of 30, 50, 100, 200 and 400x10(3)cells/ml. Linear and log linear SCC influences on milk yield were estimated. At low SCC values the linear SCC predictor was dominant, while at higher values the log linear predictor was dominant. Up to 100x10(3)cells/ml there was mostly a slightly negative linear relationship between SCC and yield, potentially indicating a dilution effect. In the second set of models, three approaches to adjust milk loss for dilution were compared with an unadjusted model. In general, dilution-adjusted SCC values fitted the data better and resulted in a slightly lower milk loss per SCC category compared with unadjusted SCC. In all models with a dilution term there was a significant reduction in yield with SCC>200x10(3)cells/ml. PMID:16780974

Green, L E; Schukken, Y H; Green, M J

2006-09-15

123

Baseline CD4 Cell Counts of Newly Diagnosed HIV Cases in China: 2006-2012  

PubMed Central

Background Late diagnosis of HIV infection is common. We aim to assess the proportion of newly diagnosed HIV cases receiving timely baseline CD4 count testing and the associated factors in China. Methods Data were extracted from the Chinese HIV/AIDS Comprehensive Response Information Management System. Adult patients over 15 years old who had been newly diagnosed with HIV infection in China between 2006 and 2012 were identified. The study cohort comprised individuals who had a measured baseline CD4 count. Results Among 388,496 newly identified HIV cases, the median baseline CD4 count was 294 cells/µl (IQR: 130–454), and over half (N?=?130,442, 58.8%) were less than 350 cells/µl. The median baseline CD4 count increased from 221 (IQR: 63–410) in 2006 to 314 (IQR: 159–460) in 2012. A slight majority of patients (N?=?221,980, 57.1%) received baseline CD4 count testing within 6 months of diagnosis. The proportion of individuals who received timely baseline CD4 count testing increased significantly from 20.0% in 2006 to 76.9% in 2012. Factors associated with failing to receiving timely CD4 count testing were: being male (OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.15–1.19), age 55 years or older (OR:1.03, 95% CI: 1.00–1.06), educational attainment of primary school education or below (OR: 1.30, 95% CI: 1.28–1.32), infection with HIV through injection drug use (OR: 2.07, 95% CI: 2.02–2.12) or sexual contact and injection drug use (OR: 1.87, 95% CI: 1.76–1.99), diagnosis in a hospital (OR: 1.91, 95% CI: 1.88–1.95) or in a detention center (OR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.70–1.80), and employment as a migrant worker (OR:1.55, 95% CI:1.53–1.58). Conclusion The proportion of newly identified HIV patients receiving timely baseline CD4 testing has increased significantly in China from 2006–2012. Continued effort is needed for further promotion of early HIV diagnosis and timely baseline CD4 cell count testing.

Tang, Houlin; Mao, Yurong; Shi, Cynthia X.; Han, Jing; Wang, Liyan; Xu, Juan; Qin, Qianqian; Detels, Roger; Wu, Zunyou

2014-01-01

124

A method for high throughput determination of viable bacteria cell counts in 96-well plates  

PubMed Central

Background There are several methods for quantitating bacterial cells, each with advantages and disadvantages. The most common method is bacterial plating, which has the advantage of allowing live cell assessment through colony forming unit (CFU) counts but is not well suited for high throughput screening (HTS). On the other hand, spectrophotometry is adaptable to HTS applications but does not differentiate between dead and living bacteria and has low sensitivity. Results Here, we report a bacterial cell counting method termed Start Growth Time (SGT) that allows rapid and serial quantification of the absolute or relative number of live cells in a bacterial culture in a high throughput manner. We combined the methodology of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) calculations with a previously described qualitative method of bacterial growth determination to develop an improved quantitative method. We show that SGT detects only live bacteria and is sensitive enough to differentiate between 40 and 400 cells/mL. SGT is based on the re-growth time required by a growing cell culture to reach a threshold, and the notion that this time is proportional to the number of cells in the initial inoculum. We show several applications of SGT, including assessment of antibiotic effects on cell viability and determination of an antibiotic tolerant subpopulation fraction within a cell population. SGT results do not differ significantly from results obtained by CFU counts. Conclusion SGT is a relatively quick, highly sensitive, reproducible and non-laborious method that can be used in HTS settings to longitudinally assess live cells in bacterial cell cultures.

2012-01-01

125

Neonatal nucleated red blood cell counts in growth-restricted fetuses: Relationship to arterial and venous Doppler studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Elevated nucleated red blood cell count in neonatal blood and Doppler-detected circulatory decompensation in fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction are associated with hypoxemia. We sought to determine the relationship between the nucleated red blood cell count at birth and the circulatory status of fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction. Study Design: Eighty-four fetuses with elevated umbilical artery pulsatility index values

Ahmet A. Baschat; Ulrich Gembruch; Irwin Reiss; Ludwig Gortner; Chris R. Harman; Carl P. Weiner

1999-01-01

126

Epithelial cells in peritoneal fluid—of endometrial origin?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our purpose was to examine the immunohistochemical properties of epithelial cells in peritoneal fluid and to compare the staining characteristics with cells of endometrium, menstrual effluent, peritoneum, and endometriotic lesions.Study Design: Samples of menstrual effluent, endometrium, and peritoneal fluid and biopsy specimens of endometriotic lesions and peritoneum from 16 patients were examined. Monoclonal antibodies against vimentin, cytokeratin 18 and

Paul J. Q. van der Linder; Gerard A. J. Dunselman; Johannes L. H. Evers; Frans C. S. Ramaekers

1995-01-01

127

White Blood Cell Count and Risk of Incident Atrial Fibrillation (From the Framingham Heart Study)  

PubMed Central

Several studies have reported that inflammatory markers are associated with atrial fibrillation (AF). White blood cell (WBC) count is a widely available and broadly utilized marker of systemic inflammation. We sought to investigate the association between increased WBC count and incident AF, and whether this association is mediated by smoking, myocardial infarction and heart failure. We examined participants in the Framingham Heart Study Original Cohort. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to examine the relation between WBC count and incident AF over 5-year follow-up period. We adjusted for standard AF risk factors, and smoking, previous myocardial infarction, as well as interim myocardial infarction and heart failure prior to incident AF. Our sample consisted of 936 participants, mean age was 76±6 years and 61% were women. Median WBC count was 6.4*109/L (25th-75th percentile 5.6*109/L- 7.8*109/L). During a median follow-up of 5 years, 82 participants (9%) developed new-onset AF. After adjusting for standard risk factors for AF, increased WBC count was significantly associated with incident AF, with a hazard ratio per standard deviation (0.26*109/L) increase of 2.22, (95% confidence interval, 1.10–4.48; P=0.03). We found no substantive differences adjusting for smoking, previous myocardial infarction, interim myocardial infarction and heart failure. In conclusion, in our community-based sample, increased WBC count was associated with incident AF during 5-years of follow-up. Our findings provide additional evidence for the relation between systemic inflammation and AF.

Rienstra, Michiel; Sun, Jenny X.; Magnani, Jared W.; Sinner, Moritz F.; Lubitz, Steven A.; Sullivan, Lisa M.; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Benjamin, Emelia J.

2011-01-01

128

Evaluation of the Overall Accuracy of the DeLaval Cell Counter for Somatic Cell Counts in Ovine Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DeLaval cell counter (DCC) is a portable device designed for on-farm somatic cell count (SCC) analysis in bovine milk. This study evaluated the performance of the DCC when analyzing ovine milk. A total of 29 composite ovine milk samples, ranging between 20 × 103 and 2,200 × 103 cells\\/mL, were divided into 15 aliquots\\/ milk sample corresponding to 5

C. Gonzalo; B. Linage; J. A. Carriedo; F. de la Fuente; F. San Primitivo

2006-01-01

129

Assumed White Blood Cell Count of 8,000 Cells/?L Overestimates Malaria Parasite Density in the Brazilian Amazon  

PubMed Central

Quantification of parasite density is an important component in the diagnosis of malaria infection. The accuracy of this estimation varies according to the method used. The aim of this study was to assess the agreement between the parasite density values obtained with the assumed value of 8,000 cells/?L and the automated WBC count. Moreover, the same comparative analysis was carried out for other assumed values of WBCs. The study was carried out in Brazil with 403 malaria patients who were infected in different endemic areas of the Brazilian Amazon. The use of a fixed WBC count of 8,000 cells/?L to quantify parasite density in malaria patients led to overestimated parasitemia and resulted in low reliability when compared to the automated WBC count. Assumed values ranging between 5,000 and 6,000 cells/?L, and 5,500 cells/?L in particular, showed higher reliability and more similar values of parasite density when compared between the 2 methods. The findings show that assumed WBC count of 5,500 cells/?L could lead to a more accurate estimation of parasite density for malaria patients in this endemic region.

Alves-Junior, Eduardo R.; Gomes, Luciano T.; Ribatski-Silva, Daniele; Mendes, Clebson Rodrigues J.; Leal-Santos, Fabio A.; Simoes, Luciano R.; Mello, Marcia Beatriz C.; Fontes, Cor Jesus F.

2014-01-01

130

Use of hematopoietic progenitor cell count on the Sysmex XE-2100 for peripheral blood stem cell harvest monitoring.  

PubMed

Successful peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collection depends on the timing of apheresis based on CD34+ cell enumeration. Because this analysis is expensive and induces organization difficulties, we evaluated hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) quantification on the Sysmex XE-2100 as a surrogate analysis. We tested 157 blood samples for CD34+ cells and HPC counts. We found a good linear correlation between HPC and CD34+ and determined simple rules allowing to use HPC count in daily practice. We set a positive cut-off >30 HPC/mm(3) for allowing PBSC harvest and a negative cut-off at 0 HPC/mm(3) for which collection should be delayed. These two situations accounted for 62% of cases and CD34+ cell count by flow cytometry confirmed HPC result in 95% of cases. Between 0 and 30 HPC/mm3, CD34+ enumeration is required for decision-making. We conclude that HPC count may be a useful surrogate for CD34+ enumeration in PBSC harvest monitoring. PMID:17327950

Letestu, Rémi; Marzac, Christophe; Audat, Franēoise; Belhocine, Ramdane; Tondeur, Sylvie; Baccini, Véronique; Garēon, Loļc; Cortivo, Liliane Dal; Perrot, Jean-Yves; Lefrčre, Franēois; Valensi, Franēoise; Ajchenbaum-Cymbalista, Florence

2007-01-01

131

BAL fluid cells in newly diagnosed pulmonary sarcoidosis with different clinical activity  

PubMed Central

Background Sarcoidosis is associated with an increase in the number of alveolar T cells (CD3+ cells) and an increase of the CD3+CD4+ lymphocyte subset. However, the number of lymphocytes and the CD4/CD8 ratio in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid are highly variable in sarcoidosis. Comparative studies have demonstrated that geographic and ethnic factors are linked to the specific characteristics of patients with sarcoidosis. Aim of the study To investigate peculiarities of BAL fluid (BALF) cell patterns in different clinical activity of pulmonary sarcoidosis at the time of diagnosis. Material and methods A total of 308 non-treated patients (138 asymptomatic and 170 with sarcoidosis-related symptoms) and 40 previously empirically steroid-treated patients with newly diagnosed sarcoidosis have been prospectively examined. Results Significant BAL fluid lymphocytosis and increased CD4/CD8 ratio were characteristic for all three sarcoidosis patient groups. A total of 12% of asymptomatic patients, 3% of patients with sarcoidosis-related symptoms, and 5% of previously treated symptomatic patients had normal BALF cell counts. Non-treated patients with sarcoidosis-related symptoms had significantly higher lymphocytosis (45±19% versus 39±17%, P<0.01), CD4/CD8 ratio (9.3±5.0 versus 5.7±4.5, P<0.001), and total BALF cell count (411±322 106/mL versus 334±273 106/mL, P<0.05), compared with asymptomatic patients. However, previously treated symptomatic patients had lower lymphocytosis (39±15% versus 45±19%, P=0.058), and total BALF cell count (292±166 106/mL versus 411±322 106/mL, P<0.05) compared with non-treated symptomatic patients. The same trend was noticed for CD4/CD8 ratio (8.3±4.8), although a statistically significant difference was not achieved. Conclusions Independently of clinical symptoms at the time of diagnosis sarcoid patients have significantly different BAL fluid cell patterns compared to healthy persons. BAL fluid cell changes are more prominent in corticosteroid non-treated patients with clinically active sarcoidosis. Treatment with systemic corticosteroids may modify typical BALF cellular patterns of sarcoidosis.

Jurgauskiene, Laimute; Norkuniene, Jolita; Malickaite, Radvile

2009-01-01

132

An SU8 microlens array fabricated by soft replica molding for cell counting applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a new polymeric, aspheric SU-8 microlens array using a soft replica molding method and its application to cell counting. A bio-detection system comprising the SU-8 microlens array with its three-dimensional convex geometry, a micro flow cytometer chip and an optical detection module is demonstrated. A polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) template is first fabricated and then the SU-8 microlens

Ju-Nan Kuo; Chia-Chun Hsieh; Sung-Yi Yang; Gwo-Bin Lee

2007-01-01

133

Spurious platelet counts in acute leukaemia with DIC due to cell fragmentation.  

PubMed

Automated platelet counts in a patient with newly diagnosed AML M5 with extreme leukocytosis were reported as 129, 166 and 121 x 10(9)/1. Routine blood films showed a corresponding number of platelet-sized particles, judged to be platelets. The patient was treated for DIC with low-dose heparin infusion. Platelet transfusions were not given initially. The patient died 14 h after admission from intracerebral haematoma. The origin of the platelet-sized particles seen in routine stained blood films was examined by cytochemical and immunological staining for peroxidase, non-specific esterase, CD 13 and CD 33. About 1/3 of the fragments had the same staining characteristics as the leukaemia cells, indicating leukaemia cell origin. Staining for platelet-specific antigen GpIIIa was positive only in 4% of the platelet-sized fragments, with a calculated true platelet count of 4 x 10(9)/1. The presence of cell fragments masquerading as platelets should be suspected in leukaemia patients with bleeding symptoms and normal or near normal platelet counts. PMID:1451403

Hammerstrųm, J

1992-01-01

134

Experience with local lymph node assay performance standards using standard radioactivity and nonradioactive cell count measurements.  

PubMed

The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is the preferred test for identification of skin-sensitizing substances by measuring radioactive thymidine incorporation into the lymph node. To facilitate acceptance of nonradioactive variants, validation authorities have published harmonized minimum performance standards (PS) that the alternative endpoint assay must meet. In the present work, these standards were applied to a variant of the LLNA based on lymph node cell counts (LNCC) run in parallel as a control with the standard LLNA with radioactivity measurements, with threshold concentrations (EC3) being determined for the sensitizers. Of the 22 PS chemicals tested in this study, 21 yielded the same results from standard radioactivity and cell count measurements; only 2-mercaptobenzothiazole was positive by LLNA but negative by LNCC. Of the 16 PS positives, 15 were positive by LLNA and 14 by LNCC; methylmethacrylate was not identified as sensitizer by either of the measurements. Two of the six PS negatives tested negative in our study by both LLNA and LNCC. Of the four PS negatives which were positive in our study, chlorobenzene and methyl salicylate were tested at higher concentrations than the published PS, whereas the corresponding concentrations resulted in consistent negative results. Methylmethacrylate and nickel chloride tested positive within the concentration range used for the published PS. The results indicate cell counts and radioactive measurements are in good accordance within the same LLNA using the 22 PS test substances. Comparisons with the published PS results may, however, require balanced analysis rather than a simple checklist approach. PMID:21618258

Basketter, David; Kolle, Susanne N; Schrage, Arnhild; Honarvar, Naveed; Gamer, Armin O; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

2012-08-01

135

A model of oscillatory blood cell counts in chronic myelogenous leukaemia.  

PubMed

In certain blood diseases, oscillations are found in blood cell counts. Particularly, such oscillations are sometimes found in chronic myelogenous leukaemia, and then occur in all the derived blood cell types: red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. It has been suggested that such oscillations arise because of an instability in the pluri-potential stem cell population, associated with its regulatory control system. In this paper, we consider how such oscillations can arise in a model of competition between normal (S) and genetically altered abnormal (A) stem cells, as the latter population grows at the expense of the former. We use an analytic model of long period oscillations to describe regions of oscillatory behaviour in the S-A phase plane, and give parametric criteria to describe when such oscillations will occur. We also describe a mechanism which can explain dynamically how the transformation from chronic phase to acute phase and blast crisis can occur. PMID:21512833

Drobnjak, Ivana; Fowler, A C

2011-12-01

136

Toll-like receptor 2 gene polymorphisms, pulmonary tuberculosis, and natural killer cell counts  

PubMed Central

Background To investigate whether the toll-like receptor 2 polymorphisms could influence susceptibility to pulmonary TB, its phenotypes, and blood lymphocyte subsets. Methods A total of 368 subjects, including 184 patients with pulmonary TB and 184 healthy controls, were examined for TLR2 polymorphisms over locus -100 (microsatellite guanine-thymine repeats), -16934 (T>A), -15607 (A>G), -196 to -174 (insertion>deletion), and 1350 (T>C). Eighty-six TB patients were examined to determine the peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations. Results We newly identified an association between the haplotype [A-G-(insertion)-T] and susceptibility to pulmonary TB (p = 0.006, false discovery rate q = 0.072). TB patients with systemic symptoms had a lower -196 to -174 deletion/deletion genotype frequency than those without systemic symptoms (5.7% vs. 17.7%; p = 0.01). TB patients with the deletion/deletion genotype had higher blood NK cell counts than those carrying the insertion allele (526 vs. 243.5 cells/?l, p = 0.009). TB patients with pleuritis had a higher 1350 CC genotype frequency than those without pleuritis (12.5% vs. 2.1%; p = 0.004). TB patients with the 1350 CC genotype had higher blood NK cell counts than those carrying the T allele (641 vs. 250 cells/?l, p = 0.004). TB patients carrying homozygous short alleles for GT repeats had higher blood NK cell counts than those carrying one or no short allele (641 vs. 250 cells/?l, p = 0.004). Conclusions TLR2 genetic polymorphisms influence susceptibility to pulmonary TB. TLR2 variants play a role in the development of TB phenotypes, probably by controlling the expansion of NK cells.

2010-01-01

137

Neonatal nucleated red blood cell counts: relationship to abnormal fetoplacental circulation detected by Doppler studies.  

PubMed

Increased neonatal nucleated red blood cell counts are thought to be related to intrauterine hypoxemia. We sought to determine the effect of increasing circulatory impairment in fetuses on the neonatal nucleated red blood cell count. One hundred thirty-four singleton pregnancies were included in the study and were allocated to 4 study groups according to Doppler findings. The systolic-to-diastolic ratios of the umbilical artery, fetal aorta, middle cerebral artery, and uterine arteries were recorded. Fetuses were assigned to the following groups on the basis of the last Doppler examination before delivery: group 1, normal systolic-to-diastolic ratios in the examined vessels; group 2, a systolic-to-diastolic ratio greater than 2 SD above the mean for gestational age in the umbilical artery or fetal aorta and no abnormal Doppler findings in the uterine arteries; group 3, systolic-to-diastolic ratios greater than 2 SD above the mean for gestational age in all examined vessels; and group 4, absence of end-diastolic velocity in the umbilical artery or fetal aorta and systolic-to-diastolic ratios greater than 2 SD above the mean for gestational age in the uterine arteries. A blood sample from the umbilical artery was obtained within 1 minute after birth, and nucleated red blood cells per 100 white blood cells were counted by light microscopy. Nucleated red blood cell counts were higher in fetuses in group 4 (median, 72.0; range, 9-720; P < .001) and group 3 (median, 38.4; range, 7-201; P < .001) than in fetuses in group 1 (median, 5.1; range, 0-20). Neonates in group 4 had significantly lower birth weights (P < .001), lower arterial and venous pH values (P < .05), and lower Apgar scores after 5 minutes (P < .01) as well as an increased likelihood of cesarean delivery because of fetal distress (P < .001). The number of fetuses in group 4 with a cord blood base deficit of less than -8 mmol/L was increased. Nucleated red blood cell counts were comparable in fetuses in group 2 (median, 5.4; range, 0-37) and group 1. In groups 1 to 3 no brain-sparing effect occurred, whereas in 15 of 21 cases in group 4 a brain-sparing effect was present. Multivariate analysis revealed that Doppler results of the umbilical artery, fetal aorta, and uterine arteries were independent determinants of neonatal nucleated red blood cell count. Increasing abnormalities seen on fetoplacental Doppler studies are associated with increasing numbers of nucleated red blood cells at birth. Given the known relationship between abnormal Doppler flow and intrauterine hypoxemia, the neonatal nucleated red blood cell count might become an additional valuable tool in the surveillance of growth-restricted fetuses. PMID:11270521

Axt-Fliedner, R; Ertan, K; Hendrik, H J; Schmidt, W

2001-03-01

138

Fluid flow plate for decreased density of fuel cell assembly  

DOEpatents

A fluid flow plate includes first and second outward faces. Each of the outward faces has a flow channel thereon for carrying respective fluid. At least one of the fluids serves as reactant fluid for a fuel cell of a fuel cell assembly. One or more pockets are formed between the first and second outward faces for decreasing density of the fluid flow plate. A given flow channel can include one or more end sections and an intermediate section. An interposed member can be positioned between the outward faces at an interface between an intermediate section, of one of the outward faces, and an end section, of that outward face. The interposed member can serve to isolate the reactant fluid from the opposing outward face. The intermediate section(s) of flow channel(s) on an outward face are preferably formed as a folded expanse.

Vitale, Nicholas G. (Albany, NY)

1999-01-01

139

Time-Correlated, Single-Photon Counting Methods in Endothelial Cell Mechanobiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a While mechanical forces are known to guide the development of nearly all biological tissues including bone, cartilage, and\\u000a many soft tissues, much attention has focused on endothelial cell mechanobiology and the role of blood flow-induced forces\\u000a in regulating the health of blood vessels. It is now well accepted that modulation of endothelial cell physiology and pathophysiology\\u000a by fluid mechanical forces

Peter J. Butler; Ramachandra R. Gullapalli; Tristan Tabouillot; Michael C. Ferko

140

Effect of revascularization on mortality associated with an elevated white blood cell count in acute coronary syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inflammation is increasingly recognized as having an important role in patients with acute coronary syndromes. We sought to determine whether an elevated white blood cell (WBC) count would predict subsequent mortality and whether revascularization would have a protective effect. We analyzed data from 10,480 patients with acute coronary syndromes enrolled in the PURSUIT trial who had a WBC count measured

Deepak L Bhatt; Derek P Chew; A. Michael Lincoff; Maarten L Simoons; Robert A Harrington; Steve R Ommen; Gang Jia; Eric J Topol

2003-01-01

141

Clinical Value of the Total White Blood Cell Count and Temperature in the Evaluation of Patients with Suspected Appendicitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The total white blood cell (WBC) count and temperature are often expected to be elevated in patients with appendicitis. Clinicians often use the results of these parameters in making a judgment about the presence or absence of disease. The objective of this study was to assess the discriminatory value of the total WBC count and presenting body temperature in

Taylor Cardall; Judd Glasser; David A. Guss

2004-01-01

142

Bacteriology and somatic cell counts in milk samples from ewes on a Scottish farm.  

PubMed

Milk samples from 50 sheep on a single Scottish research farm were collected weekly for 10 wk postpartum. Samples were analyzed for somatic cell counts (SCC) each week and bacteriologic culture was done for 7 of the 10 wk. A total of 492 udder half samples were cultured, of which 467 had corresponding cell count data. Statistical analysis on complete SCC and culture data showed no association between SCC and bacterial isolation, even when more than 10 colonies of a single bacterial species were present. Only 3.6% of the samples were simultaneously positive for high count (> 10 colonies from 0.01 mL of milk) of any one bacterial species and high SCC (> 1 x 10(6)/mL). The bacteria recovered were: Staphylococcus equorum (19 times), S. xylosus (7 times), S. simulans (6 times), Streptococcus uberis (3 times) and other streptococci (4 times), Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica (2 times), Staphylococcus aureus (1 time), S. capitis (1 time), and Enterococcus faecium (1 time). There was an association between the test day and SCC, with higher SCC values in the first 2 wk. In addition, significantly higher SCC values were found in the oldest animals compared to the other age groups. PMID:15352543

Hariharan, Harry; Donachie, Willie; Macaldowie, Colin; Keefe, Greg

2004-07-01

143

Pyramidal neuron size in the hippocampus of schizophrenics correlates with total cell count and degree of cell disarray  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hippocampal pyramidal neuron size was determined in all Cornu Ammonis subregions – CA1–CA4 – in five chronic schizophrenic\\u000a men and compared with eight controls matched with respect to age and sex. Four out of five probands and the same eight controls\\u000a had been examined in a previous study showing a significantly lower cell count and disorientation of pyramidal cells in

Sven A. T. Jönsson; Anders Luts; Niels Guldberg-Kjaer; Rolf Öhman

1999-01-01

144

Analysis of white blood cell counts in mice after gamma- or proton-radiation exposure.  

PubMed

In the coming decades human space exploration is expected to move beyond low-Earth orbit. This transition involves increasing mission time and therefore an increased risk of radiation exposure from solar particle event (SPE) radiation. Acute radiation effects after exposure to SPE radiation are of prime importance due to potential mission-threatening consequences. The major objective of this study was to characterize the dose-response relationship for proton and ? radiation delivered at doses up to 2 Gy at high (0.5 Gy/min) and low (0.5 Gy/h) dose rates using white blood cell (WBC) counts as a biological end point. The results demonstrate a dose-dependent decrease in WBC counts in mice exposed to high- and low-dose-rate proton and ? radiation, suggesting that astronauts exposed to SPE-like radiation may experience a significant decrease in circulating leukocytes. PMID:21476859

Maks, Casey J; Wan, X Steven; Ware, Jeffrey H; Romero-Weaver, Ana L; Sanzari, Jenine K; Wilson, Jolaine M; Rightnar, Steve; Wroe, Andrew J; Koss, Peter; Gridley, Daila S; Slater, James M; Kennedy, Ann R

2011-08-01

145

Analysis of White Blood Cell Counts in Mice after Gamma- or Proton-Radiation Exposure  

PubMed Central

In the coming decades human space exploration is expected to move beyond low-Earth orbit. This transition involves increasing mission time and therefore an increased risk of radiation exposure from solar particle event (SPE) radiation. Acute radiation effects after exposure to SPE radiation are of prime importance due to potential mission-threatening consequences. The major objective of this study was to characterize the dose–response relationship for proton and ? radiation delivered at doses up to 2 Gy at high (0.5 Gy/min) and low (0.5 Gy/h) dose rates using white blood cell (WBC) counts as a biological end point. The results demonstrate a dose-dependent decrease in WBC counts in mice exposed to high- and low-dose-rate proton and ? radiation, suggesting that astronauts exposed to SPE-like radiation may experience a significant decrease in circulating leukocytes.

Maks, Casey J.; Wan, X. Steven; Ware, Jeffrey H.; Romero-Weaver, Ana L.; Sanzari, Jenine K.; Wilson, Jolaine M.; Rightnar, Steve; Wroe, Andrew J.; Koss, Peter; Gridley, Daila S.; Slater, James M.; Kennedy, Ann R.

2013-01-01

146

[Mast cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with interstitial lung diseases].  

PubMed

Mast cells play an important role in tissue inflammation, fibrosis and remodelling. They are found in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) of healthy persons only in small numbers. We investigated the number of mast cells in interstitial lung diseases and analysed our data for correlations with clinical parameters, cellular and non-cellular parameters of BAL. We found following counts of mast cells in % of total BAL cells: Sarcoidosis (n = 123); 0.22 +/- 0,04 %, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n = 35); 0.39 +/- 0.47 %, cryptogenic organising pneumonia (COP) (n = 27); 2.05 +/- 2.19 %, hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) (n = 24); 1.02 +/- 1.05 %, rheumatoid lung (n = 20); 0.21 +/- 0.21 %, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease (RBILD) (n = 11); 0.16 +/- 0.29 %) and control group (n = 16); 0.06 +/- 0.16 %. Compared to controls mast cells were increased in COP (p < 0.001) and HP (p < 0,01). Correlation analysis showed that an increased mast cell count correlated with: Higher age (sarcoidosis (p = 0.03); smaller vital capacity (sarcoidosis (p = 0.01)), smaller FEV 1 (sarcoidosis (p = 0.04), RBILD (p = 0.04)); higher alkaline phosphatase in BAL (sarcoidosis (p = 0.004), HP (p = 0.02), COP (p = 0.04); higher albumin level in BAL (sarcoidosis (p = 0.000), IPF (p = 0.003); higher cell counts in BAL (sarcoidosis (p = 0.013), COP (p = 0.04)); lower portion of macrophages in BAL cells (sarcoidosis (p = 0.001), HP (p = 0.02), COP (p = 0.02)); higher portion of lymphocytes in BAL cells (sarcoidosis (p = 0.03)); higher portion of neutrophils in BAL cells (sarcoidosis (p = 0.007)); higher portion of eosinophils in BAL cells (sarcoidosis (p = 0.001), HP (p = 0.006)). Correlations to smoking history in pack years and to lymphocyte surface markers CD3, CD4, CD8 were not found. In conclusion comparing different interstitial lung diseases we found significantly increased mast cell counts in COP and HP. Moreover there were correlations of increased mast cell counts with more intensive alveolitis and exudation. PMID:12690558

Schildge, J; Klar, B; Hardung-Backes, M

2003-04-01

147

Depression severity is associated with increased risk behaviors and decreased CD4 cell counts.  

PubMed

Depression is a common comorbidity among HIV-infected individuals. We studied the relationship between depressive symptoms, risk behaviors (risky-sexual behavior, tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drug use) and HIV outcomes. This cross-sectional study conducted in 2009 at the Washington University HIV Clinic included screening for depression with patient health questionnaire, survey of sexual behavior, illicit drug, alcohol, and tobacco use within 30 days. Sociodemographics, plasma HIV RNA levels, CD4 cell counts, and sexually transmitted disease test results were obtained from medical records. Multivariate logistic and linear regression models were used to assess the association between depressive symptoms severity and risk behaviors, HIV outcomes and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) adherence. A total of 624 persons completed the assessment of whom 432 (69%) were male and 426 (68%) African-American. The median CD4 cell count was 410 cells/mm(3) and 479 persons (77%) were on cART of whom 112 (23%) had HIV RNA level > 400 copies/mL. Overall, 96 (15%) had symptoms of major depressive disorder. Depressive symptom severity was associated with increased likelihood of high-risk drinking (odds ratio [OR], 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-5.1), current tobacco use (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1-2.9), illicit drug use (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-2.8), and risky-sexual behavior (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 0.8-2.7). Suboptimal cART adherence (visual analog scale < 95%) was also associated with depressive symptoms severity (p < 0.05). After adjustment for age, sex, race, receipt of cART, and cART adherence, depressive symptoms severity was independently associated with lower CD4 cell count (p < 0.05) but not with higher HIV RNA level (p = 0.39). Depression adversely affects HIV-infected individuals, requiring greater effort at utilizing multidisciplinary interventions. PMID:24479743

Taniguchi, Toshibumi; Shacham, Enbal; Onen, Nur Fiona; Grubb, Jessica Rosenbaum; Overton, Edgar Turner

2014-08-01

148

Three counting methods agree on cell and neuron number in chimpanzee primary visual cortex  

PubMed Central

Determining the cellular composition of specific brain regions is crucial to our understanding of the function of neurobiological systems. It is therefore useful to identify the extent to which different methods agree when estimating the same properties of brain circuitry. In this study, we estimated the number of neuronal and non-neuronal cells in the primary visual cortex (area 17 or V1) of both hemispheres from a single chimpanzee. Specifically, we processed samples distributed across V1 of the right hemisphere after cortex was flattened into a sheet using two variations of the isotropic fractionator cell and neuron counting method. We processed the left hemisphere as serial brain slices for stereological investigation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the agreement between these methods in the most direct manner possible by comparing estimates of cell density across one brain region of interest in a single individual. In our hands, these methods produced similar estimates of the total cellular population (approximately 1 billion) as well as the number of neurons (approximately 675 million) in chimpanzee V1, providing evidence that both techniques estimate the same parameters of interest. In addition, our results indicate the strengths of each distinct tissue preparation procedure, highlighting the importance of attention to anatomical detail. In summary, we found that the isotropic fractionator and the stereological optical fractionator produced concordant estimates of the cellular composition of V1, and that this result supports the conclusion that chimpanzees conform to the primate pattern of exceptionally high packing density in V1. Ultimately, our data suggest that investigators can optimize their experimental approach by using any of these counting methods to obtain reliable cell and neuron counts.

Miller, Daniel J.; Balaram, Pooja; Young, Nicole A.; Kaas, Jon H.

2014-01-01

149

Perinatal asphyxia is associated with the umbilical cord nucleated red blood cell count in pre-eclamptic pregnancies.  

PubMed

Nucleated red blood cells are commonly present in the blood of newborns. Our objective was to investigate the value of umbilical cord nucleated red blood cell (NRBC) count in predicting fetal asphyxia in pre-eclamptic women. NRBCs were counted in umbilical cord blood samples of neonates born to 43 pre-eclamptic and 25 healthy pregnant women. Pre-eclamptic women were further subgrouped based on the presence or absence of intrauterine growth restriction. The NRBC count differed significantly between pre-eclamptic women with and without intrauterine growth restriction, and controls (26.3 +/- 7.5; 17.1 +/- 6.8; and 9.9 +/- 2.7; p < 0.001). A NRBC count of 18.5 or above could predict fetal asphyxia with a sensitivity of 94.4% and a specificity of 80.0%. The umbilical cord NRBC count is effective in predicting fetal asphyxia in pre-eclamptic women. PMID:20455723

Bayram, F; Ozerkan, K; Cengiz, C; Develio?lu, O; Cetinkaya, M

2010-05-01

150

Oligonol supplementation affects leukocyte and immune cell counts after heat loading in humans.  

PubMed

Oligonol is a low-molecular-weight form of polyphenol and has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, making it a potential promoter of immunity. This study investigates the effects of oligonol supplementation on leukocyte and immune cell counts after heat loading in 19 healthy male volunteers. The participants took a daily dose of 200 mg oligonol or a placebo for 1 week. After a 2-week washout period, the subjects were switched to the other study arm. After each supplement, half-body immersion into hot water was made, and blood was collected. Then, complete and differential blood counts were performed. Flow cytometry was used to enumerate and phenotype lymphocyte subsets. Serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6 in blood samples were analyzed. Lymphocyte subpopulation variables included counts of total T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. Oligonol intake attenuated elevations in IL-1? (an 11.1-fold change vs. a 13.9-fold change immediately after heating; a 12.0-fold change vs. a 12.6-fold change 1h after heating) and IL-6 (an 8.6-fold change vs. a 9.9-fold change immediately after heating; a 9.1-fold change vs. a 10.5-fold change 1h after heating) immediately and 1 h after heating in comparison to those in the placebo group. Oligonol supplementation led to significantly higher numbers of leukocytes (a 30.0% change vs. a 21.5% change immediately after heating; a 13.5% change vs. a 3.5% change 1h after heating) and lymphocytes (a 47.3% change vs. a 39.3% change immediately after heating; a 19.08% change vs. a 2.1% change 1h after heating) relative to those in the placebo group. Oligonol intake led to larger increases in T cells, B cells, and NK cells at rest (p < 0.05, p < 0.05, and p < 0.001, respectively) and immediately after heating (p < 0.001) in comparison to those in the placebo group. In addition, levels of T cells (p < 0.001) and B cells (p < 0.001) were significantly higher 1 h after heating in comparison to those in the placebo group. These results demonstrate that supplementation with oligonol for 1 week may enhance the immune function under heat and suggest a potential useful adjunct to chemotherapy in malignant diseases. PMID:24962480

Lee, Jeong Beom; Shin, Young Oh

2014-01-01

151

Oligonol Supplementation Affects Leukocyte and Immune Cell Counts after Heat Loading in Humans  

PubMed Central

Oligonol is a low-molecular-weight form of polyphenol and has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, making it a potential promoter of immunity. This study investigates the effects of oligonol supplementation on leukocyte and immune cell counts after heat loading in 19 healthy male volunteers. The participants took a daily dose of 200 mg oligonol or a placebo for 1 week. After a 2-week washout period, the subjects were switched to the other study arm. After each supplement, half-body immersion into hot water was made, and blood was collected. Then, complete and differential blood counts were performed. Flow cytometry was used to enumerate and phenotype lymphocyte subsets. Serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6 in blood samples were analyzed. Lymphocyte subpopulation variables included counts of total T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. Oligonol intake attenuated elevations in IL-1? (an 11.1-fold change vs. a 13.9-fold change immediately after heating; a 12.0-fold change vs. a 12.6-fold change 1h after heating) and IL-6 (an 8.6-fold change vs. a 9.9-fold change immediately after heating; a 9.1-fold change vs. a 10.5-fold change 1h after heating) immediately and 1 h after heating in comparison to those in the placebo group. Oligonol supplementation led to significantly higher numbers of leukocytes (a 30.0% change vs. a 21.5% change immediately after heating; a 13.5% change vs. a 3.5% change 1h after heating) and lymphocytes (a 47.3% change vs. a 39.3% change immediately after heating; a 19.08% change vs. a 2.1% change 1h after heating) relative to those in the placebo group. Oligonol intake led to larger increases in T cells, B cells, and NK cells at rest (p < 0.05, p < 0.05, and p < 0.001, respectively) and immediately after heating (p < 0.001) in comparison to those in the placebo group. In addition, levels of T cells (p < 0.001) and B cells (p < 0.001) were significantly higher 1 h after heating in comparison to those in the placebo group. These results demonstrate that supplementation with oligonol for 1 week may enhance the immune function under heat and suggest a potential useful adjunct to chemotherapy in malignant diseases.

Lee, Jeong Beom; Shin, Young Oh

2014-01-01

152

Effects of season, milking routine and cow cleanliness on bacterial and somatic cell counts of bulk tank milk.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of season, cow cleanliness and milking routine on bacterial and somatic cell counts of bulk tank milk. A total of 22 dairy farms in Lombardy (Italy) were visited three times in a year in different seasons. During each visit, samples of bulk tank milk were taken for bacterial and somatic cell counts; swabs from the teat surface of a group of cows were collected after teat cleaning and before milking. Cow cleanliness was assessed by scoring udder, flanks and legs of all milking cows using a 4-point scale system. Season affected cow cleanliness with a significantly higher percentage of non-clean (NC) cows during Cold compared with Mild season. Standard plate count (SPC), laboratory pasteurization count (LPC), coliform count (CC) and somatic cell count, expressed as linear score (LS), in milk significantly increased in Hot compared with Cold season. Coagulase-positive staphylococci on teat swabs showed higher counts in Cold season in comparison with the other ones. The effect of cow cleanliness was significant for SPC, psychrotrophic bacterial count (PBC), CC and Escherichia coli in bulk tank milk. Somatic cell count showed a relationship with udder hygiene score. Milking operation routine strongly affected bacterial counts and LS of bulk tank milk: farms that accomplished a comprehensive milking scheme including two or more operations among forestripping, pre-dipping and post-dipping had lower teat contamination and lower milk SPC, PBC, LPC, CC and LS than farms that did not carry out any operation. PMID:21843397

Zucali, Maddalena; Bava, Luciana; Tamburini, Alberto; Brasca, Milena; Vanoni, Laura; Sandrucci, Anna

2011-11-01

153

A secreted cell number counting factor represses intracellular glucose levels to regulate group size in dictyostelium.  

PubMed

Developing Dictyostelium cells form evenly sized groups of approximately 2 x 10(4) cells. A secreted 450-kDa protein complex called counting factor (CF) regulates group size by repressing cell-cell adhesion and myosin polymerization and by increasing cAMP-stimulated cAMP production, actin polymerization, and cell motility. We find that CF regulates group size in part by repressing internal glucose levels. Transformants lacking bioactive CF and wild-type cells with extracellular CF depleted by antibodies have high glucose levels, whereas transformants oversecreting CF have low glucose levels. A component of CF, countin, affects group size in a manner similar to CF, and a 1-min exposure of cells to countin decreases glucose levels. Adding 1 mm exogenous glucose negates the effect of high levels of extracellular CF on group size and mimics the effect of depleting CF on glucose levels, cell-cell adhesion, cAMP pulse size, actin polymerization, myosin assembly, and motility. These results suggest that glucose is a downstream component in part of the CF signaling pathway and may be relevant to the observed role of the insulin pathway in tissue size regulation in higher eukaryotes. PMID:12161440

Jang, Wonhee; Chiem, Binh; Gomer, Richard H

2002-10-18

154

Comparison of Lamellar Body Counts Using Light Microscopy with Standard Coulter Counter Techniques to Assess Fetal Lung Maturity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine if lamellar body counts determined using light microscopy and a manual hemochromocytometer correlate with counts made on standard electronic cell counters. Methods: Aliquots of amniotic fluid samples obtained by amniocentesis to assess fetal lung maturity were divided into two sterile tubes. One tube was sent immediately to be counted in a cell counter by standard technique and

Laura A. Hunter; David S. McKenna; Matt A. Baptista

2006-01-01

155

Short Communication: Factors Influencing Time to CD4+ T Cell Counts >200 Cells/mm3 in HIV-Infected Individuals with CD4+ T Cell <50 Cells/mm3 at the Time of Starting Combination Antiretroviral Therapy  

PubMed Central

Abstract We evaluated factors influencing time to CD4+ T cell counts >200 cells/mm3 in HIV-infected individuals with CD4+ T cell <50 cells/mm3 starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). We included a total of 29 patients on successful cART for more than 1 year. In a logistic regression model, higher pre-cART CD4+ T cell counts were significantly associated with shorter time to CD4+ T cell counts >200cells/mm3 in HIV-infected individuals with baseline CD4+ T cell <50 cells/mm3. In survival analysis, patients having higher pre-cART CD4+ T cell counts, especially 40–49 cells/mm3, were at significantly higher risk of achieving CD4+ T cell counts >200 cells/mm3.

Ku, Nam Su; Song, Young Goo; Han, Sang Hoon; Kim, Sun Bean; Kim, Hye-won; Jeong, Su Jin; Kim, Chang Oh; Kim, June Myung

2012-01-01

156

Risk factors associated with clinical mastitis in low somatic cell count British dairy herds.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional survey of dairy farms with low bulk milk somatic cell counts was carried out to assess the level of clinical mastitis and to quantify risk factors associated with the incidence rate of clinical mastitis. Questionnaires were sent to 3009 milk operations with an annual mean bulk milk somatic cell count of less than 100,000 cells/ml during 1997. A response rate was 61%. The mean incidence of clinical mastitis reported was 22.8 cases per 100 cows/yr. Negative binomial regression models were used to assess statistically significant risk factors associated with the incidence of clinical mastitis. The incidence increased when farmers reported that they had straw yard housing for milking cows (compared with cubicle housing), mucked out the calving area less frequently than once per month, kept cows standing in a yard after milking, always practiced postmilking teat disinfection, had greater than 50% replacement rate, had some cows that leaked milk on entry to the parlor, had some cows that leaked milk at other times, and foremilked before cluster attachment. The incidence of clinical mastitis was lower on farms when the gathering yard used before milking was scraped at least twice a day, cows were offered feed after both milkings, rubber gloves were not worn during milking, teat liners were changed after 6000 milkings, and the average dry period was less than 40 d. The study has identified areas of the environment in which efforts to improve hygiene should be focused. PMID:11104265

Peeler, E J; Green, M J; Fitzpatrick, J L; Morgan, K L; Green, L E

2000-11-01

157

Telomere Length in Elderly Caucasians Weakly Correlates with Blood Cell Counts  

PubMed Central

Background. Age-related decrease in bone marrow erythropoietic capacity is often accompanied by the telomere length shortening in peripheral white blood cells. However, limited and conflicting data hamper the conclusive opinion regarding this relationship. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess an association between telomere length and peripheral blood cell count parameters in the Polish elderly population. Material and Methods. The substudy included 1573 of 4981 subjects aged 65 years or over, participants of the population-based PolSenior study. High-molecular-weight DNA was isolated from blood mononuclear cells. Telomere length (TL) was measured by QRT-PCR as abundance of telomere template versus a single gene copy encoding acidic ribosomal phosphoprotein P0. Results. Only white blood count (WBC) was significantly different in TL tertile subgroups in all subjects (P = 0.02) and in men (P = 0.01), but not in women. Merely in men significant but weak positive correlations were found between TL and WBC (r = 0.11, P < 0.05) and RBC (r = 0.08, P < 0.05). The multiple regression analysis models confirmed a weak, independent contribution of TL to both RBC and WBC. Conclusions. In the elderly, telomere shortening limits hematopoiesis capacity to a very limited extent.

Witecka, Joanna; Koscinska-Marczewska, Justyna; Szwed, Malgorzata; Owczarz, Magdalena; Mossakowska, Malgorzata; Milewicz, Andrzej; Zejda, Jan; Wiecek, Andrzej

2013-01-01

158

Systemic inflammation in 222.841 healthy employed smokers and nonsmokers: white blood cell count and relationship to spirometry  

PubMed Central

Background Smoking has been linked to low-grade systemic inflammation, a known risk factor for disease. This state is reflected in elevated white blood cell (WBC) count. Objective We analyzed the relationship between WBC count and smoking in healthy men and women across several age ranges who underwent preventive medical check-ups in the workplace. We also analysed the relationship between smoking and lung function. Methods Cross-sectional descriptive study in 163 459 men and 59 382 women aged between 16 and 70?years. Data analysed were smoking status, WBC count, and spirometry readings. Results Total WBC showed higher counts in both male and female smokers, around 1000 to 1300 cell/ml (t test, P?count. The relationship between WBC blood count and smoking status was confirmed after the sample was stratified for these variables. Smokers with airway obstruction measured by FEV1% were found to have higher WBC counts, in comparison to smokers with a normal FEV1% among similar age and BMI groups. Conclusions Smoking increases WBC count and affects lung function. The effects are evident across a wide age range, underlining the importance of initiating preventive measures as soon as an individual begins to smoke.

2012-01-01

159

Differences in estimates of cisplatin-induced cell kill in vitro between colorimetric and cell count\\/colony assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The aim of this study was to evaluate some bioassays that are different in principle: cell counting, colony forming assay,\\u000a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT), sulforhodamine B (SRB), crystal violet, and alamarBlue,\\u000a with respect to their ability to measure cisplatin-induced cell death of in vitro-cultivated squamous cell carcinoma of the\\u000a head and neck (SCCHN). Cisplatin was applied in concentrations of 1.0, 5.0,

Eva Henriksson; Elisabeth Kjellén; Peter Wahlberg; Johan Wennerberg; Johan H. Kjellström

2006-01-01

160

Differential cell count as an alternative method to diagnose dairy cow mastitis.  

PubMed

Changes in relative cell proportions occurring in diseased mammary glands of dairy cows can be determined using differential cell count (DCC). The present study was carried out in 2 consecutive trials, with 2 goals: (a) to test the consistency of DCC results on subsequent days, and (b) to establish an effective cutoff value for the diagnosis of mastitis. In the first trial, quarter milk and blood samples were taken from 8 healthy cows for 5 consecutive days. Milk samples were tested by somatic cell count (SCC) and bacteriological analysis, and DCC was performed on blood and milk samples by flow cytometer. In the second trial, 16 animals were randomly selected from a different herd and quarter milk samples taken on 3 consecutive milkings. All samples were cyto-bacteriologically analyzed and DCC was performed on the second sampling. In the first trial, mean SCC was 77,770 cells/mL and 4 samples were bacteriologically positive. No fixed or random effect had a significant influence on percentages of individual cell populations or ratios in blood or milk. A cutoff value of 0.495 for logarithmic polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocyte:lymphocyte ratio was established. Mean SCC of milk samples collected in the second trial was 543,230 cells/mL, and infection was detected in 53.1% of quarters, mostly caused by Staphylococcus aureus. When the cutoff value was applied to the data along with SCC, sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic method were 97.3 and 92.3%, respectively. PMID:23332851

Pilla, R; Malvisi, M; Snel, G G M; Schwarz, D; König, S; Czerny, C-P; Piccinini, R

2013-03-01

161

Method of detecting and counting bacteria  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved method is provided for determining bacterial levels, especially in samples of aqueous physiological fluids. The method depends on the quantitative determination of bacterial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the presence of nonbacterial ATP. The bacterial ATP is released by cell rupture and is measured by an enzymatic bioluminescent assay. A concentration technique is included to make the method more sensitive. It is particularly useful where the fluid to be measured contains an unknown or low bacteria count.

Picciolo, G. L.; Chappelle, E. W. (inventors)

1976-01-01

162

Comparison of Interlaboratory Variation in Absolute T-Cell Counts by Single-Platform and Optimized Dual-Platform Methods  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have reported that the adoption of a single-platform flow cytometry cell counting method resulted in lower interlaboratory variation in absolute T cell counts as compared to predicate dual-platform flow cytometry methods which incorporate independent automated lymphocyte counts (Schnizlein-Bick et al., Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2000;7:336–343; Reimann et al., Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2000;7:344–351). In the present study, we asked whether use of a single-platform method could reduce variation in absolute cell counts across the laboratories in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) (n = 4), as suggested by the studies cited. Methods Identical study samples were shipped overnight to the MACS laboratories either by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Division of AIDS Immunology Quality Assessment (NIAID-IQA) proficiency-testing program (n = 14), or by the Los Angeles site of the MACS (n = 10). For each sample, two tubes of blood were received; one was used for an automated complete blood count and differential, and the other for flow cytometry. The latter was performed using both our current dual-platform method (three-color CD45 gating and automated hematology) and the single-platform method (with TruCOUNT® beads to generate the absolute counts). Results The median percent coefficients of variation (%CVs) for the dual-platform and single-platform methods were 6.6 and 9.9, respectively, for CD4 T cell counts, and 5.9 and 8.5, respectively, for CD8 T cell counts (n = 24). These differences were not statistically significant. The differences in absolute T-cell counts between the MACS sites and the median of all laboratories participating in the NIAID-IQA were smaller for the dual-platform than for single-platform absolute count method. Conclusion In contrast to previous reports, we did not observe lower interlaboratory variation across the MACS sites for single-platform absolute lymphocyte subset counting relative to dual-platform methods. This result may be at least partly explained by the lower interlaboratory variation with the optimized dual-platform method in this study relative to the previous reports.

Hultin, Lance E.; Chow, Marianne; Jamieson, Beth D.; O'Gorman, Maurice R. G.; Menendez, Frederick A.; Borowski, Luann; Denny, Thomas N.; Margolick, Joseph B.

2011-01-01

163

TMARKER: A free software toolkit for histopathological cell counting and staining estimation  

PubMed Central

Background: Histological tissue analysis often involves manual cell counting and staining estimation of cancerous cells. These assessments are extremely time consuming, highly subjective and prone to error, since immunohistochemically stained cancer tissues usually show high variability in cell sizes, morphological structures and staining quality. To facilitate reproducible analysis in clinical practice as well as for cancer research, objective computer assisted staining estimation is highly desirable. Methods: We employ machine learning algorithms as randomized decision trees and support vector machines for nucleus detection and classification. Superpixels as segmentation over the tissue image are classified into foreground and background and thereafter into malignant and benign, learning from the user's feedback. As a fast alternative without nucleus classification, the existing color deconvolution method is incorporated. Results: Our program TMARKER connects already available workflows for computational pathology and immunohistochemical tissue rating with modern active learning algorithms from machine learning and computer vision. On a test dataset of human renal clear cell carcinoma and prostate carcinoma, the performance of the used algorithms is equivalent to two independent pathologists for nucleus detection and classification. Conclusion: We present a novel, free and operating system independent software package for computational cell counting and staining estimation, supporting IHC stained tissue analysis in clinic and for research. Proprietary toolboxes for similar tasks are expensive, bound to specific commercial hardware (e.g. a microscope) and mostly not quantitatively validated in terms of performance and reproducibility. We are confident that the presented software package will proof valuable for the scientific community and we anticipate a broader application domain due to the possibility to interactively learn models for new image types.

Schuffler, Peter J.; Fuchs, Thomas J.; Ong, Cheng Soon; Wild, Peter J.; Rupp, Niels J.; Buhmann, Joachim M.

2013-01-01

164

A rapid high-precision flow cytometry based technique for total white blood cell counting in chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The automated analysis of total white blood cell count and white blood cell differentials is routine in research and clinical diagnosis in mammalian species. In contrast, in avian haematology these parameters are still estimated by conventional microscopic procedures due to technical difficulties associated with the morphological peculiarities of avian erythrocytes and thrombocytes. Both cell types are nucleated and fairly resistant

Christian Seliger; Beatrice Schaerer; Marina Kohn; Helene Pendl; Steffen Weigend; Bernd Kaspers; Sonja Härtle

165

Low blood cell counts in wild Japanese monkeys after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.  

PubMed

In April 2012 we carried out a 1-year hematological study on a population of wild Japanese monkeys inhabiting the forest area of Fukushima City. This area is located 70?km from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), which released a large amount of radioactive material into the environment following the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011. For comparison, we examined monkeys inhabiting the Shimokita Peninsula in Aomori Prefecture, located approximately 400?km from the NPP. Total muscle cesium concentration in Fukushima monkeys was in the range of 78-1778?Bq/kg, whereas the level of cesium was below the detection limit in all Shimokita monkeys. Compared with Shimokita monkeys, Fukushima monkeys had significantly low white and red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, and the white blood cell count in immature monkeys showed a significant negative correlation with muscle cesium concentration. These results suggest that the exposure to some form of radioactive material contributed to hematological changes in Fukushima monkeys. PMID:25060710

Ochiai, Kazuhiko; Hayama, Shin-Ichi; Nakiri, Sachie; Nakanishi, Setsuko; Ishii, Naomi; Uno, Taiki; Kato, Takuya; Konno, Fumiharu; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Tsuchida, Shuichi; Omi, Toshinori

2014-01-01

166

Decreased laboratory testing for lecithin-to-sphingomyelin ratio and phosphatidylglycerol after fetal lung maturity assessment from lamellar body count in amniotic fluid.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to do inexpensive lamellar body count (LBC) in amniotic fluid, to do statistical analysis to evaluate cutoff values for fetal lung maturity (FLM) and fetal lung immaturity (FLI), to derive a threshold for obtaining a lecithin-to-sphingomyelin (L/S) ratio and phosphatidylglycerol percentage (%PG), and to determine the potential cost savings to the hospital if they use this new method. Testing (LBC, L/S ratio, and %PG) was done on 123 specimens of amniotic fluid. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, discriminant, linear regression, chi2, and cost analyses were used to evaluate the laboratory and financial parameters. Lamellar body counts of greater than 41,500 (Coulter MAXM: sensitivity, 90.5%; specificity, 87.7%; positive predictive value, 79.2%; negative predictive value, 94.7%) and greater than 32,000 (Coulter Gen.S: sensitivity, 90.5%; specificity, 85.2%; positive predictive value, 76.0%; negative predictive value, 94.5%) were the best threshold for biochemical FLM. Similarly, LBC of less than 24,000 (MAXM: sensitivity, 78.6%; specificity, 100%; positive predictive value, 100%; negative predictive value, 90.0%) and less than 21,000 (Gen.S: sensitivity, 71.4%; specificity, 100%; positive predictive value, 100%; negative predictive value, 87.1%) provided the best statistical cutoff for biochemical FLI from discriminant analysis. The authors concluded that FLM and FLI can be predicted with reasonable accuracy from LBC in amniotic fluid specimens. The expensive and not easily accessible L/S ratio and %PG can then be done only in cases in which LBC indicates transitional FLM. A cascade approach results in 86% savings to the hospital if the L/S ratio and %PG are not sent to a reference laboratory. PMID:12201546

Ross, Gary E; Bever, Frank N; Uddin, Zi; Hockman, Elaine M; Herman, Benjamin A

2002-08-01

167

Effect of Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells and Amniotic Fluid Cells on the Wound Healing Process in a White Rat Model  

PubMed Central

Background Amniotic-fluid-derived stem cells and amniocytes have recently been determined to have wound healing effects, but their mechanism is not yet clearly understood. In this study, the effects of amniotic fluid stem cells and amniocytes on wound healing were investigated through animal experiments. Methods On the back of Sprague-Dawley rats, four circular full-thickness skin wounds 2 cm in diameter were created. The wounds were classified into the following four types: a control group using Tegaderm disc wound dressings and experimental groups using collagen discs, amniotic fluid stem cell discs, and amniocyte discs. The wounds were assessed through macroscopic histological examination and immunohistochemistry over a period of time. Results The amniotic fluid stem cell and amniocyte groups showed higher wound healing rates compared with the control group; histologically, the inflammatory cell invasion disappeared more quickly in these groups, and there was more significant angiogenesis. In particular, these groups had significant promotion of epithelial cell reproduction, collagen fiber formation, and angiogenesis during the initial 10 days of the wound healing process. The potency of transforming growth factor-? and fibronectin in the experimental group was much greater than that in the control group in the early stage of the wound healing process. In later stages, however, no significant difference was observed. Conclusions The amniotic fluid stem cells and amniocytes were confirmed to have accelerated the inflammatory stage to contribute to an enhanced cure rate and shortened wound healing period. Therefore, they hold promise as wound treatment agents.

Choi, Dong Sik; Cho, Young Kyoo; Kim, Taek Kyun; Lee, Jeong Woo; Choi, Kang Young; Chung, Ho Yun; Cho, Byung Chae; Byun, Jin Suk

2013-01-01

168

Negative correlation between blood cell counts and serum neopterin concentration in patients with HIV-1 infection.  

PubMed

Hematopoietic disturbances are common in patients with HIV-1 infection. Recent studies on immune activation markers such as neopterin demonstrate that HIV-1 infection is associated with chronic immune activation. We investigated a possible association between serum neopterin concentrations and blood cell counts (CD4+ T cells, white blood cells, platelets, red blood cells) and hemoglobin and hematocrit in 94 HIV-1-seropositive individuals [52 Walter Reed (WR) stage 1, 31 WR2, one WR5, and 10 WR6]. There were significant negative correlations between neopterin concentrations and CD4+ T cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit and platelets. These correlations were also significant if either only WR1 and WR2 patients or the entire set of data were considered for calculations. Thus, hematological abnormalities are associated with chronic immune activation in patients with HIV-1 infection. Large amounts of neopterin are released by human macrophages on stimulation with interferon-gamma (IFN gamma), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) further enhances the effect of IFN gamma. Therefore, our data suggest that activated immune cells and specific cytokines such as IFN gamma and TNF alpha are involved inhibiting hematopoiesis. PMID:1674419

Fuchs, D; Shearer, G M; Boswell, R N; Lucey, D R; Clerici, M; Reibnegger, G; Werner, E R; Zajac, R A; Wachter, H

1991-02-01

169

Microscopic FTIR studies of lung cancer cells in pleural fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural changes associated with lung cancer and tuberculous cells in pleural fluid were studied by microscopic FTIR spectroscopy. Infrared spectra demonstrate significant spectral differences between normal, lung cancer and tuberculous cells. The ratio of the peak intensities of the 1030 and 1080 cm?1 bands (originated mainly in glycogen and phosphodiester groups of nucleic acids) differs greatly between normal and lung

H. P. Wang; H.-C. Wang; Y.-J. Huang

1997-01-01

170

A microfluidic device for practical label-free CD4+ T cell counting of HIV-infected subjects  

PubMed Central

Practical HIV diagnostics are urgently needed in resource-limited settings. While HIV infection can be diagnosed using simple, rapid, lateral flow immunoassays, HIV disease staging and treatment monitoring require accurate counting of a particular white blood cell subset, the CD4+ T lymphocyte. To address the limitations of current expensive, technically demanding and/or time-consuming approaches, we have developed a simple CD4 counting microfluidic device. This device uses cell affinity chromatography operated under differential shear flow to specifically isolate CD4+ T lymphocytes with high efficiency directly from 10 microlitres of unprocessed, unlabeled whole blood. CD4 counts are obtained under an optical microscope in a rapid, simple and label-free fashion. CD4 counts determined in our device matched measurements by conventional flow cytometry among HIV-positive subjects over a wide range of absolute CD4 counts (R2 = 0.93). This CD4 counting microdevice can be used for simple, rapid and affordable CD4 counting in point-of-care and resource-limited settings.

Cheng, Xuanhong; Irimia, Daniel; Dixon, Meredith; Sekine, Kazuhiko; Demirci, Utkan; Zamir, Lee; Tompkins, Ronald G.

2013-01-01

171

Raised white cell count in renal colic: Is there a role for antibiotics?  

PubMed Central

Aims: To determine the use of antibiotics in patients with renal colic and an elevated white cell count (WCC) in the absence of other features of infection. Materials and Methods: A retrospective audit of patients presenting to an emergency department with renal colic caused by a solitary ureteric stone over a 6 month period. Statistical Analysis Used: Student's t-test. Results: Fifty patients met the inclusion criteria for this study. In 42 patients (84%) the urinalysis showed hematuria only and all urine culture results were negative for microbial growth. The mean WCC was 11.5 × 109 (4-22.1) and was raised in 34 patients (80.9%). The mean neutrophil count was 8.75 × 109/L (2.3-18.6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) 15.9 (1-192). Antibiotics were commenced in 34 patients (80.9%) based solely on the raised WCC. In eight patients (16%) there were leucocytes and/or nitrites on urinalysis and all urine cultures were positive for growth (coliforms in five, streptococcus in two and candida in one specimen). The mean WCC was 10.5 × 109/L (7.7-16.5) and was raised in four patients. The mean neutrophil count was 8.4 × 109/L (4.9-15.2) and CRP 40.79 (3-86). One patient had pyrexia. All eight patients were commenced on antibiotics based on the WCC and/or urinalysis result. Conclusions: Over three-quarters of the patients (80.9%) in this study who presented with renal colic were unjustifiably commenced on antibiotics based solely on an elevated WCC. Antibiotic use in renal colic should be reserved for when there are features of sepsis or the urinalysis is positive. Further work is required to determine the significance of the observed results and the threshold for starting antibiotics.

Alleemudder, Adam; Tai, Xin-You; Goyal, Anuj; Pati, Jhumur

2014-01-01

172

Evaluation of an easy and affordable flow cytometer for volumetric haematopoietic stem cell counting  

PubMed Central

Background Accurate estimation of haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) counts by flow cytometry may be difficult in laboratories in which sophisticated equipment and staff with specific expertise are not available. Affordable flow cytometers that can perform basic functions may help to overcome these difficulties. In this study we compared HSC and leucocyte counts determined by volumetric and bead-based protocols performed with the small, low-cost Accuri® C6, with those obtained with two gold-standard instruments, the four-colour FACSCalibur® and the eight-colour FACSCantoII®, our reference flow cytometers. Materials and methods With the three cytometers we tested, in parallel, 111 consecutive samples from cord blood, peripheral blood from patients with myelofibrosis and myeloproliferative syndromes, fresh and thawed HSC collected by apheresis and bone marrow products. The findings were compared with one-way ANOVA, Bland-Altman analysis and linear regression. Results The results of HSC and leucocyte enumeration by the three devices were strongly correlated (r2>0.99; p<0.0001). ANOVA performed on different subgroups of samples did not reveal significant differences between HSC count determined by the C6 bead-based and reference flow cytometers in any of the subgroups. Regarding the C6 volumetric protocol, a statistically significant difference was observed only in the cord blood subgroup. Time for instrument set-up, calibration and analysis was slightly longer with Accuri® C6 (40 min) than with FACSCantoII® (30 min). Discussion Accuri® C6 is a reliable instrument for HSC enumeration in fresh samples, using both volumetric and bead-based approaches, although the volumetric protocol on cord blood samples needs to be improved. The Accuri® C6 is easy to use, does not require profound knowledge of flow cytometry and could be employed in an urgent setting. Its performance may be improved by more efficient calibration and shorter analysis time.

Mariani, Mariagabriella; Colombo, Federico; Assennato, Sonny M.; Frugoni, Cecilia; Cattaneo, Alessandra; Trombetta, Elena; Rebulla, Paolo; Porretti, Laura

2014-01-01

173

Accurate measurement of peripheral blood mononuclear cell concentration using image cytometry to eliminate RBC-induced counting error.  

PubMed

Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) have been widely researched in the fields of immunology, infectious disease, oncology, transplantation, hematological malignancy, and vaccine development. Specifically, in immunology research, PBMCs have been utilized to monitor concentration, viability, proliferation, and cytokine production from immune cells, which are critical for both clinical trials and biomedical research. The viability and concentration of isolated PBMCs are traditionally measured by manual counting with trypan blue (TB) using a hemacytometer. One of the common issues of PBMC isolation is red blood cell (RBC) contamination. The RBC contamination can be dependent on the donor sample and/or technical skill level of the operator. RBC contamination in a PBMC sample can introduce error to the measured concentration, which can pass down to future experimental assays performed on these cells. To resolve this issue, RBC lysing protocol can be used to eliminate potential error caused by RBC contamination. In the recent years, a rapid fluorescence-based image cytometry system has been utilized for bright-field and fluorescence imaging analysis of cellular characteristics (Nexcelom Bioscience LLC, Lawrence, MA). The Cellometer image cytometry system has demonstrated the capability of automated concentration and viability detection in disposable counting chambers of unpurified mouse splenocytes and PBMCs stained with acridine orange (AO) and propidium iodide (PI) under fluorescence detection. In this work, we demonstrate the ability of Cellometer image cytometry system to accurately measure PBMC concentration, despite RBC contamination, by comparison of five different total PBMC counting methods: (1) manual counting of trypan blue-stained PBMCs in hemacytometer, (2) manual counting of PBMCs in bright-field images, (3) manual counting of acetic acid lysing of RBCs with TB-stained PBMCs, (4) automated counting of acetic acid lysing of RBCs with PI-stained PBMCs, and (5) AO/PI dual staining method. The results show comparable total PBMC counting among all five methods, which validate the AO/PI staining method for PBMC measurement in the image cytometry method. PMID:23201386

Chan, Leo Li-Ying; Laverty, Daniel J; Smith, Tim; Nejad, Parham; Hei, Hillary; Gandhi, Roopali; Kuksin, Dmitry; Qiu, Jean

2013-02-28

174

Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) with normal lymphocyte counts is associated with decreased numbers of normal circulating B-cell subsets.  

PubMed

Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) with normal lymphocyte counts is associated with decreased numbers of normal circulating B-cell subsets.Little is known about the distribution of normal lymphoid cells and their subsets in the peripheral blood (PB) of subjects with monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL). In our study, we compared the absolute number of PB lymphoid cells and their subpopulations in 95 MBL cases with normal lymphocyte counts vs. 617 age-/sex-matched non-MBL healthy subjects (controls), using highly sensitive flow cytometry. MBL cases showed significantly reduced numbers of normal circulating B-cells, at the expense of immature and naive B-cells; in addition, CD4+CD8+ double-positive T-cells and CD8+ T-cells were significantly lower and higher vs. controls, respectively. Moreover, most normal B-cell subsets were significantly decreased in PB at >1% MBL-counts, vs. "low-count" MBL cases, and lower amounts of immature/naive B-cells were detected in biclonal (particularly in cases with coexisting CLL-like- and non-CLL-like B-cell clones) vs. monoclonal MBL subjects. In summary, our results show imbalanced (reduced) absolute numbers of recently produced normal circulating B-cells (e.g., immature and na?ve B-cells) in MBL, which becomes more pronounced as the MBL cell count increases. PMID:22685020

Hauswirth, Alexander W; Almeida, Julia; Nieto, Wendy G; Teodosio, Cristina; Rodriguez-Caballero, Arancha; Romero, Alfonso; López, Antonio; Fernandez-Navarro, Paulino; Vega, Tomas; Perez-Andres, Martin; Valent, Peter; Jäger, Ulrich; Orfao, Alberto

2012-07-01

175

Design of an Automated-Counting System of Cell Micronuclei in Micrographs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed and tested a system for the automatic analysis of cell images in order to identify and count micronuclei configurations in digital images from a microscope. The presence of micronuclei has been used as an indicator of DNA damage, and a fast automated analysis may be suitable for early cancer detection, for example. We describe in this work the image-processing protocol and system comprising: acquisition, color normalization, contrast enhancement, color-background removing, color segmentation, mathematical-morphology filtering and restoration, morphometry, feature extraction and analysis, and counting. Among the morphological features used for discriminating micronuclei configurations, we tested compactness, area ratios and separation of selected features (ideally, a nucleus and one or more micronuclei). Among the mathematical-morphology techniques, we used for instance a modified watershed segmentation algorithm for separating touching features. We present our results on several images, the evaluation and performance of each step, and the main problems we solved by using several techniques from mathematical morphology and color-image processing.

Lozano, A. V.; Mįrquez, J. A.; Buenfil, A. E.; Gonsebatt, M. E.

2004-09-01

176

Evaluation of the use of dry cow antibiotics in low somatic cell count cows.  

PubMed

The goal of dry cow therapy (DCT) is to reduce the prevalence of intramammary infections (IMI) by eliminating existing IMI at drying off and preventing new IMI from occurring during the dry period. Due to public health concerns, however, preventive use of antibiotics has become questionable. This study evaluated selective DCT in 1,657 cows with low somatic cell count (SCC) at the last milk recording before drying off in 97 Dutch dairy herds. Low SCC was defined as <150,000 cells/mL for primiparous and <250,000 cells/mL for multiparous cows. A split-udder design was used in which 2 quarters of each cow were treated with dry cow antibiotics and the other 2 quarters remained as untreated controls. The effect of DCT on clinical mastitis (CM), bacteriological status, SCC, and antibiotic use were determined at the quarter level using logistic regression and chi-squared tests. The incidence rate of CM was found to be 1.7 times (95% confidence interval=1.4-2.1) higher in quarters dried off without antibiotics as compared with quarters dried off with antibiotics. Streptococcus uberis was the predominant organism causing CM in both groups. Somatic cell count at calving and 14 d in milk was significantly higher in quarters dried off without antibiotics (772,000 and 46,000 cells/mL, respectively) as compared with the quarters dried off with antibiotics (578,000 and 30,000 cells/mL, respectively). Quarters with an elevated SCC at drying off and quarters with a positive culture for major pathogens at drying off had a higher risk for an SCC above 200,000 cells/mL at 14 d in milk as compared with quarters with a low SCC at drying off and quarters with a negative culture for major pathogens at drying off. For quarters that were culture-positive for major pathogens at drying off, a trend for a higher risk on CM was also found. Selective DCT, not using DCT in cows that had a low SCC at the last milk recording before drying off, significantly increased the incidence rate of CM and SCC. The decrease in antibiotic use by drying off quarters without DCT was not compensated by an increase in antibiotic use for treating CM. Total antibiotic use related to mastitis was reduced by 85% in these quarters. PMID:24746132

Scherpenzeel, C G M; den Uijl, I E M; van Schaik, G; Olde Riekerink, R G M; Keurentjes, J M; Lam, T J G M

2014-06-01

177

Mechanotransduction of fluid stresses governs 3D cell migration.  

PubMed

Solid tumors are characterized by high interstitial fluid pressure, which drives fluid efflux from the tumor core. Tumor-associated interstitial flow (IF) at a rate of ?3 µm/s has been shown to induce cell migration in the upstream direction (rheotaxis). However, the molecular biophysical mechanism that underlies upstream cell polarization and rheotaxis remains unclear. We developed a microfluidic platform to investigate the effects of IF fluid stresses imparted on cells embedded within a collagen type I hydrogel, and we demonstrate that IF stresses result in a transcellular gradient in ?1-integrin activation with vinculin, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), FAK(PY397), F actin, and paxillin-dependent protrusion formation localizing to the upstream side of the cell, where matrix adhesions are under maximum tension. This previously unknown mechanism is the result of a force balance between fluid drag on the cell and matrix adhesion tension and is therefore a fundamental, but previously unknown, stimulus for directing cell movement within porous extracellular matrix. PMID:24550267

Polacheck, William J; German, Alexandra E; Mammoto, Akiko; Ingber, Donald E; Kamm, Roger D

2014-02-18

178

First comparative evaluation of leucocyte differential and reticulocyte count between Abbott Cell DYN 3700 and Beckman-Coulter Gen S  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The Cell-Dyn 3700 has been launched with the same CBC and flagging per- formance specifications as the Cell-Dyn 3500. The primary goal of our evaluation was to evaluate the new algorithms of its reticulocyte method and the performance capabilities in comparison to our rou- tine analyser (Coulter Gen S). Methods: The WBC differential and reticulocyte counts were evaluated on

H. Vandeputte; D. Darre; F. Leroy; J. Nemmiche; C. Pucalowski

2003-01-01

179

Association between somatic cell count after first parturition and cumulative milk yield in dairy cows  

PubMed Central

The aim was to assess the association between the somatic cell count of parity 1 cows between 5 and 30?days in milk (SCC1), and subsequent cumulative milk yield over approximately two years for cows in English and Welsh dairy herds. The dataset included records from 43,461 cows in 2111 herds, from 2004 to 2006. Cumulative milk yield was the model outcome, and a random effect was included to account for variation between herds. The model fitted the data well and was used to make predictions of cumulative milk yield, based on SCC1. A unit increase in the natural logarithm of SCC1/1000 was associated with a median decrease in cumulative milk yield of 482?kg, over a median study period of 868?days.

Archer, S. C.; Mc Coy, F.; Wapenaar, W.; Green, M. J.

2013-01-01

180

Laboratory adverse events and discontinuation of therapy according to CD4+ cell count at the start of antiretroviral therapy  

PubMed Central

Objective: Few data describe antiretroviral treatment (ART)-related adverse events when treatment is initiated at CD4+ cell counts more than 350?cells/?l. We compared rates of laboratory-defined adverse events (LDAEs) according to CD4+ cell count at ART initiation. Design: Analysis of on-going cohort study. Methods: ART-naive persons initiating ART from 2000 to 2010 were included. Chi-square, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Kruskal–Wallis tests compared characteristics among those starting ART with a CD4+ cell count of 350 or less, 351–499 and at least 500?cells/?l. Time-updated Poisson regression compared rates of LDAE in the three CD4+ cell strata. Cox proportional hazard models compared risk of ART discontinuation. Results: Nine thousand, four hundred and six individuals were included: median age 37 years, 61% white, 80% men, median viral load 4.8?log copies/ml. Four hundred and forty-seven (4.9%) and 1099 (11.7%) started ART with a CD4+ cell count at least 500 and 351–499?cells/?l, respectively. One thousand, two hundred and eighty-three (13.6%) patients experienced at least one LDAE. The rate of LDAE did not differ between those starting ART with a CD4+ cell count 351–499 and less than 350?cells/?l [relative rate 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74–1.09)], but an increased risk of ART discontinuation was observed (hazard ratio 1.58, 95% CI 1.10–2.27). Those starting ART at CD4+ cell count at least 500?cells/?l had an increased rate of LDAE (relative rate 1.44, 95% CI 1.13–1.82) but were not more likely to discontinue ART (hazard ratio 1.15, 95% CI 0.64–2.09). Conclusion: This study demonstrates the need to consider ART-related toxicities when initiating therapy at CD4+ cell counts at least 500?cells/?l. Whilst evidence from randomized controlled trials is awaited, the timing of ART initiation in terms of benefits and risks of ART remains an important question.

Jose, Sophie; Quinn, Killian; Hill, Teresa; Leen, Clifford; Walsh, John; Hay, Phillip; Fisher, Martin; Post, Frank; Nelson, Mark; Gompels, Mark; Johnson, Margaret; Chadwick, David; Gilson, Richard; Sabin, Caroline; Fidler, Sarah

2014-01-01

181

Proteomic analysis of bovine blastocoel fluid and blastocyst cells.  

PubMed

Abstract The understanding of the early mammalian development is a prerequisite for the advancement of in vitro fertilization and improvement of derivation and culturing of embryonic stem cells. While, whole genome transcriptomic analysis on bovine blastocysts has identified genes active in early development, little information is available about the protein complement of early embryos. Modern, sensitive proteomic technology (nano HPLC tandem mass spectrometry) allowed us to describe the proteome of the scarce blastocoel fluid and cell material of expanded bovine blastocysts isolated by micromanipulation. From two independent replicates, 23 proteins were identified in the blastocoel fluid while 803 proteins were identified in the remaining cell material. The proteins were grouped into categories according to their gene ontology (GO) terms by which proteins involved in cell differentiation, cell proliferation, development, and reproduction could be derived. Proteins classified in these categories could be candidates for further functional studies to understand pluripotency and early mammalian development. PMID:24568550

Jensen, Pernille Linnert; Grųndahl, Marie Louise; Beck, Hans Christian; Petersen, Jųrgen; Stroebech, Lotte; Christensen, Sųren Tvorup; Yding Andersen, Claus

2014-06-01

182

Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling  

SciTech Connect

The effects of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling was studied. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased in erythrocyte count (r=0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. It was concluded that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume.

Konstom, M.A. (New England Medical Center, Boston, MA); Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

1982-09-01

183

Elevated white blood cell count and outcome in cancer patients with venous thromboembolism. Findings from the RIETE Registry.  

PubMed

A significant association between elevated white blood cell (WBC) count and mortality in patients with cancer has been reported, but the predictive value of elevated WBC on mortality in cancer patients with acute venous thromboembolism (VTE) has not been explored. RIETE is an ongoing registry of consecutive patients with acute VTE. We compared the three-month outcome of cancer patients with acute VTE according to their WBC count at baseline. As of May 2007, 3805 patients with active cancer and acute VTE had been enrolled in RIETE. Of them, 215 (5.7%) had low- (<4,000 cells/microl), 2,403 (63%) normal- (4,000-11,000 cells/microl), 1,187 (31%) elevated (>11,000 cells/microl) WBC count. During the study period 190 patients (5.0%) had recurrent VTE, 156 (4.1%) major bleeding, 889 (23%) died (399 of disseminated cancer, 113 of PE, 46 of bleeding. Patients with elevated WBC count at baseline had an increased incidence of recurrent VTE (odds ratio [OR]: 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-2.2), major bleeding (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.1) or death (OR: 2.7; 95% CI: 2.3-3.2). Most of the reported causes of death were significantly more frequent in patients with elevated WBC count. Multivariate analysis confirmed that elevated WBC count was independently associated with an increased incidence of all three complications. In conclusion, cancer patients with acute VTE and elevated WBC count had an increased incidence of VTE recurrences, major bleeding or death. This worse outcome was consistent among all subgroups and persisted after multivariate adjustment. PMID:18989537

Trujillo-Santos, Javier; Di Micco, Pierpaolo; Iannuzzo, Mariateresa; Lecumberri, Ramón; Guijarro, Ricardo; Madridano, Olga; Monreal, Manuel

2008-11-01

184

Favorable outcomes in patients with high donor-derived T cell count after in vivo T cell-depleted reduced-intensity allogeneic stem cell transplantation.  

PubMed

Patients with hematologic malignancies were conditioned using a rabbit antithymocyte globulin-based reduced-intensity conditioning regimen for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Donor-derived CD3(+) cell count (ddCD3), a product of CD3(+) cell chimerism and absolute CD3(+) cell count, when <110/?L at 8 weeks post-stem cell transplantation predicted a high risk of sustained mixed chimerism and relapse. Alternatively, patients with a higher ddCD3 developed graft-versus-host disease more frequently, and when partially chimeric, had higher rates of conversion to full donor chimerism after withdrawal of immunosuppression. Early data from our small cohort of patients indicate that ddCD3 at 8 weeks may be used to guide decisions regarding withdrawal of immunosuppression and administration of donor lymphocyte infusion in partially T cell-depleted reduced-intensity regimens. PMID:22005648

Toor, Amir A; Sabo, Roy T; Chung, Harold M; Roberts, Catherine; Manjili, Rose H; Song, Shiyu; Williams, David C; Edmiston, Wendy; Gatesman, Mandy L; Edwards, Richard W; Ferreira-Gonzalez, Andrea; Clark, William B; Neale, Michael C; McCarty, John M; Manjili, Masoud H

2012-05-01

185

Factors determining milk quality and implications for production structure under somatic cell count standard modification.  

PubMed

Consumer and processor demand for high-quality milk has placed increasing pressure on US milk producers to achieve higher product standards. International standards for somatic cell count (SCC) are becoming more stringent, but in May 2011, the United States National Conference on Interstate Milk Shipments chose to retain the 750,000 cells/mL standard. Using ordinary least squares and quantile regressions on US Department of Agriculture Agricultural Resource Management Survey Dairy Costs and Returns Report data for 2005, we model producer and farm-level characteristics associated with SCC. Quantile regression analysis allows for a more parsed inquiry into statistical associations. Dairy Costs and Returns Report data provide cross-sectional information on the physical structure, input expenses, demographics, and outputs for farms in selected states. Location outside the Southeast, lower herd age, full-time farming status, use of biosecurity guidelines, good milking facilities and operations management, and application of related quality tests are all associated with lower SCC levels. Size of operation had little effect on SCC levels after controlling for other factors. Many of the operations that did not attain a more demanding SCC standard of 400,000 cells/mL had older operators, operators who expressed intention to exit within 10 yr, smaller size, and location in the Southeast when compared with those meeting the tighter standard. The results suggest that the stricter scheme favors larger farms that are more committed to production and are less likely to be sole or family proprietorships. PMID:22981577

Dong, F; Hennessy, D A; Jensen, H H

2012-11-01

186

Prevalence of isosporiasis in relation to CD4 cell counts among HIV-infected patients with diarrhea in Odisha, India  

PubMed Central

Background: To determine the prevalence of Isospora belli and its correlation with CD4+ cell counts in HIV-positive patients with diarrhea in this region. Materials and Methods: Stool samples from 250 HIV-positive patients, including 200 with diarrhea and 50 without diarrhea included in the study were examined for the presence of enteric parasites under microscopy. Prevalence of the enteric parasites with special reference to I. belli in HIV-positive patients with and without diarrhea were calculated and correlated with their CD4+ cell counts. Results: Enteric parasites were detected in 39% of the HIV patients with diarrhea compared to 30% without diarrhea. I. belli was detected in 22% of the patients with diarrhea and in 4% without diarrhea (P = 0.0019). I. belli was the most common parasite, followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (8%) and Cryptosporidium parvum (5%) in HIV-positive patients with diarrhea. In HIV-positive patients without diarrhea, the most common parasite detected was E. histolytica/dispar (12%) followed by C. parvum (6%) and I. belli (4%). The mean CD4 cell count of HIV-positive patients with diarrhea suffering from isosporiasis was 138.35 ± 70.71. In patients with CD4 cell counts <200/?l, I. belli was seen in 36/123 stool samples and 2/27 stool samples which was statistically significant (P = 0.0157). Conclusion: I. belli was the predominant parasite with a prevalence of 22% among HIV-positive patients with diarrhea, majority having CD4 cell count <200/?l. This study highlights the importance of routine screening for coccidian parasites in HIV-positive patients with and without diarrhea especially in those with low CD4 cell counts.

Mohanty, Indrani; Panda, Pritilata; Sahu, Susmita; Dash, Mutikesh; Narasimham, Moningi Venkat; Padhi, Sanghamitra; Parida, Banojini

2013-01-01

187

Shape Dynamics of Nearly Spherical Membrane Bounded Fluid Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the hydrodynamics of low Reynolds number shape fluctuations of incompressible fluid cells with incompressible membrane boundaries. It is assumed that the membrane can be characterized by a shear modulus ?, a bending modulus kc, an intrinsic mean curvature Co, and a surface viscosity ?M. The problem is formulated for the general case, and is solved analytically in

Mark A. Peterson

1985-01-01

188

Fluid dynamics and noise in bacterial cell-cell and cell-surface scattering  

PubMed Central

Bacterial processes ranging from gene expression to motility and biofilm formation are constantly challenged by internal and external noise. While the importance of stochastic fluctuations has been appreciated for chemotaxis, it is currently believed that deterministic long-range fluid dynamical effects govern cell–cell and cell–surface scattering—the elementary events that lead to swarming and collective swimming in active suspensions and to the formation of biofilms. Here, we report direct measurements of the bacterial flow field generated by individual swimming Escherichia coli both far from and near to a solid surface. These experiments allowed us to examine the relative importance of fluid dynamics and rotational diffusion for bacteria. For cell–cell interactions it is shown that thermal and intrinsic stochasticity drown the effects of long-range fluid dynamics, implying that physical interactions between bacteria are determined by steric collisions and near-field lubrication forces. This dominance of short-range forces closely links collective motion in bacterial suspensions to self-organization in driven granular systems, assemblages of biofilaments, and animal flocks. For the scattering of bacteria with surfaces, long-range fluid dynamical interactions are also shown to be negligible before collisions; however, once the bacterium swims along the surface within a few microns after an aligning collision, hydrodynamic effects can contribute to the experimentally observed, long residence times. Because these results are based on purely mechanical properties, they apply to a wide range of microorganisms.

Drescher, Knut; Dunkel, Jorn; Cisneros, Luis H.; Ganguly, Sujoy; Goldstein, Raymond E.

2011-01-01

189

Time-course analysis of counts and degranulation of mast cells during early intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice.  

PubMed

Findings of previous studies have revealed that intestinal mucosal mast cells (IMMCs) are involved in small intestinal ischemia?reperfusion injury (IIRI). However, time-course changes of mast cell counts and mast cell function in this process remain unclear. The present study aimed to observe the number of IMMCs and to investigate the correlation between their activation and small intestine injury at various time points during the period of small intestinal ischemia reperfusion (IIR). Healthy male Kunming mice were randomly divided into five groups, and were subjected to occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) for 30 min and followed by reperfusion for 1, 3, 6 and 12 h. By contrast, the SMA was isolated but not clamped in the baseline group. Chiu's scores were assessed by light microscopy, tryptase protein and MCP7 protein expression in the intestine were quantified, and mast cell counts and levels of histamine and TNF-? in the intestine were measured. The results showed that IIR induced severe intestine injury within 12 h as demonstrated by Chiu's scores that was greatly increased as compared to the baseline group, accompanied by increased mast cell counts, histamine and TNF-? levels. However, the Chiu's scores were reduced in the IIR 12 h group compared with the IIR 1 h, IIR 3 h and IIR 6 h groups, with concomitant decreased mast cell counts, histamine and TNF-? levels. The tryptase and MCP7 protein expression was markedly increased in the IIR 1 h and IIR 3 h groups as compared with the baseline group, whereas this expression was gradually decreased at 6 and 12 h after reperfusion. The results of the present study suggest that IIR results in severe mucosal destruction within 6 h after reperfusion, associated with mast cell activation and substantial increases in the mast cell counts. PMID:23779090

Ge, Mian; Gan, Xiaoliang; Liu, Dezhao; Zhang, Wenhua; Gao, Wanling; Huang, Pinjie; Hei, Ziqing

2013-08-01

190

Possible Prognostic and Therapeutic Significance of c-Kit Expression, Mast Cell Count and Microvessel Density in Renal Cell Carcinoma.  

PubMed

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most frequent renal tumor and its incidence is increasing worldwide. Tumor angiogenesis is known to play a crucial role in the etiopathogenesis of RCC and over the last few years an even deeper knowledge of its contribution in metastatic RCC development has led to the development of numerous molecular targeting agents (such as sunitinib, sorafenib, pazopanib, axitinib, tivozanib, and dovitinib). The above agents are principally directed against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) members and also against c-Kit receptor (c-KitR). The role of c-kitR inhibition on clear cell RCC (ccRCC), the main RCC subtype, is less well established. Whether c-kitR activation through its ligand, stem cell factor (SCF) contributes significantly to the effects of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) treatment remains to be established. It is important to underscore that the c-KitR is expressed on mast cells (MCs) and cancer cells. After an examination of the c-KitR/SCF pathway, we review here the principal studies that have evaluated c-Kit expression in RCC. Moreover, we summarize some investigations that have observed the distribution of MCs in primary renal cancer and in adjacent normal tissue with appropriate histological immunohistochemical techniques. We also focus on few studies that have evaluated the correlation between RCC proliferation, MC count and microvessel density (MVD), as hallmarks of tumor angiogenesis. Thus, the aim of this review of the literature is to clarify if c-KitR expression, MC count and MVD could have prognostic significance and the possible predictive therapeutic implications in RCC. PMID:25056544

Marech, Ilaria; Gadaleta, Cosmo Damiano; Ranieri, Girolamo

2014-01-01

191

A simple clinical and paraclinical score predictive of CD4 cell counts below 400\\/mm 3 in HIV-infected adults in Dakar University Hospital, Senegal  

Microsoft Academic Search

In industrialized countries the decision to start co-trimoxazole (CMX) prophylaxis of HIV-related opportunistic infections is based on the CD4+ cell count. The value of CMX prophylaxis has also been demonstrated in Africa, where CD4+ cell counts are rarely available. We therefore developed a simple score predictive of a threshold CD4+ cell count (400\\/mm3) below which CMX prophylaxis is indicated. In

T. Pistone; S. Kony; M. A. Faye-Niang; C. T. Ndour; P. M. Gueye; D. Henzel; E. Delaporte; S. Badiane; I. N'Doye; J. P. Coulaud; B. Larouzé; O. Bouchaud

2002-01-01

192

Automated screening for myelodysplastic syndromes through analysis of complete blood count and cell population data parameters.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) requires a high clinical index of suspicion to prompt bone marrow studies as well as subjective assessment of dysplastic morphology. We sought to determine if data collected by automated hematology analyzers during complete blood count (CBC) analysis might help to identify MDS in a routine clinical setting. We collected CBC parameters (including those for research use only and cell population data) and demographic information in a large (>5,000), unselected sequential cohort of outpatients. The cohort was divided into independent training and test groups to develop and validate a random forest classifier that identifies MDS. The classifier effectively identified MDS and had a receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (AUC) of 0.942. Platelet distribution width and the standard deviation of red blood cell distribution width were the most discriminating variables within the classifier. Additionally, a similar classifier was validated with an additional, independent set of >200 patients from a second institution with an AUC of 0.93. This retrospective study demonstrates the feasibility of identifying MDS in an unselected outpatient population using data routinely collected during CBC analysis with a classifier that has been validated using two independent data sets from different institutions. PMID:24276948

Raess, Philipp W; van de Geijn, Gert-Jan M; Njo, Tjin L; Klop, Boudewijn; Sukhachev, Dmitry; Wertheim, Gerald; McAleer, Tom; Master, Stephen R; Bagg, Adam

2014-04-01

193

Hematologic variables and venous thrombosis: red cell distribution width and blood monocyte count are associated with an increased risk  

PubMed Central

Recent studies suggest that leukocytes and erythrocytes play a role in coagulation. However, whether leukocytes, erythrocytes and other hematologic variables are associated with risk of venous thrombosis is not well known. To study this, we used data from 2473 patients with venous thrombosis and 2935 controls. The variables assessed were: total leukocytes, granulocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, hematocrit, hemoglobin, erythrocytes and red cell indices (mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and red cell distribution width). We found a strong dose-response relation for higher red cell distribution width and monocyte count with risk of venous thrombosis, with odds ratios of 3.1 (95% confidence interval, 2.0–4.8) and 2.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.3–5.8), respectively, after adjustment for age, sex, C-reactive protein level, malignancy and co-morbidities. Monocyte count and red cell distribution width were associated with venous thrombosis even within reference ranges. A low monocyte count (<0.12×109/L) was associated with a lower risk of venous thrombosis after full adjustment (odds ratios 0.6; 95% confidence interval, 0.4–0.8). In summary, high red cell distribution width and blood monocyte count, two parameters that are inexpensive and easily obtainable, were clearly associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis. Future studies should evaluate the underlying mechanism and the use of these variables in prediction models for first and recurrent thrombosis.

Rezende, Suely Meireles; Lijfering, Willem M.; Rosendaal, Frits R.; Cannegieter, Suzanne C.

2014-01-01

194

Fluid-phase uptake and transit in axenic Dictyostelium cells.  

PubMed

The main route for fluid-phase uptake in Dictyostelium is macropinocytosis, a process powered by the actin cytoskeleton. Nutrients within the endocytosed fluid are digested and resorbed, disposal of remnants follows by exocytosis. Along the endocytic pathway, membrane fusion and fission events take place at multiple steps. The regulator and effector molecules involved in uptake and transit are largely conserved between higher and lower eukaryotes. This feature, together with its accessibility by molecular genetics, recommend Dictyostelium as a valuable model system for mammalian cells. PMID:11257433

Maniak, M

2001-03-15

195

A robust cell counting approach based on a normalized 2D cross-correlation scheme for in-line holographic images.  

PubMed

To achieve the important aims of identifying and marking disease progression, cell counting is crucial for various biological and medical procedures, especially in a Point-Of-Care (POC) setting. In contrast to the conventional manual method of counting cells, a software-based approach provides improved reliability, faster speeds, and greater ease of use. We present a novel software-based approach to count in-line holographic cell images using the calculation of a normalized 2D cross-correlation. This enables fast, computationally-efficient pattern matching between a set of cell library images and the test image. Our evaluation results show that the proposed system is capable of quickly counting cells whilst reliably and accurately following human counting capability. Our novel approach is 5760 times faster than manual counting and provides at least 68% improved accuracy compared to other image processing algorithms. PMID:23839256

Ra, Ho-Kyeong; Kim, Hyungseok; Yoon, Hee Jung; Son, Sang Hyuk; Park, Taejoon; Moon, Sangjun

2013-09-01

196

Amniotic fluid stem cells are cardioprotective following acute myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

In recent years, various types of stem cells have been characterized and their potential for cardiac regeneration has been investigated. We have previously described the isolation of broadly multipotent cells from amniotic fluid, defined as amniotic fluid stem (AFS) cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic potential of human AFS cells (hAFS) in a model of acute myocardial infarction. Wistar rats underwent 30?min of ischemia by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery, followed by administration of hAFS cells and 2?h of reperfusion. Infarct size was assessed by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining and planimetry. hAFS cells were also analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect secretion of putative paracrine factors, such as the actin monomer-binding protein thymosin ?4 (T?4). The systemic injection of hAFS cells and their conditioned medium (hAFS-CM) was cardioprotective, improving myocardial cell survival and decreasing the infarct size from 53.9%±2.3% (control animals receiving phosphate-buffered saline injection) to 40.0%±3.0% (hAFS cells) and 39.7%±2.5% (hAFS-CM, P<0.01). In addition, hAFS cells were demonstrated to secrete T?4, previously shown to be both cardioprotective and proangiogenic. Our results suggest that AFS cells have therapeutic potential in the setting of acute myocardial infarction, which may be mediated through paracrine effectors such as T?4. Therefore, AFS cells might represent a novel source for cell therapy and cell transplantation strategies in repair following ischemic heart disease, with a possible paracrine mechanism of action and a potential molecular candidate for acute cardioprotection. PMID:21534857

Bollini, Sveva; Cheung, King K; Riegler, Johannes; Dong, Xuebin; Smart, Nicola; Ghionzoli, Marco; Loukogeorgakis, Stavros P; Maghsoudlou, Panagiotis; Dubé, Karina N; Riley, Paul R; Lythgoe, Mark F; De Coppi, Paolo

2011-11-01

197

Effect of mastitis treatment and somatic cell counts on milk yield in Danish organic dairy cows.  

PubMed

Production and disease data from 17,488 lactations in 48 Danish organic dairy herds from 1997 to 2001 were analyzed to obtain estimates on the effect of somatic cell counts (SCC) and mastitis treatment on milk production. A multilevel three-parameter piecewise random coefficients linear model with energy-corrected milk (ECM) as dependent variable and herd, lactation, and test days as levels, was used to model the lactation curve. Covariates related to production, SCC, veterinary treatments, and reproductive performance in the previous lactation as well as information on other diseases in the current lactation were included to describe the production capacity of the individual cow. The average daily milk production at herd level was 20.8, 24.2, and 25.8 kg of ECM/d in first, second, and third or later lactation. The estimates for production losses were on average 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 kg of ECM/d in first, second, and third or later lactation with each twofold increase in SCC between 100,000 and 1,500,000 cells/ml. The effect varied with the stage of lactation and was nonsignificant around 60 d postpartum and highest at the end of the lactation. The production losses in cows treated for mastitis varied with parity and stage of lactation and were modified by the SCC after treatment. For a cow in third lactation with a SCC below 100,000 cells/ ml before treatment at days in milk = 15, the predicted loss was 435 kg of ECM, including a loss of 135 kg of ECM because of higher SCC compared with the level before treatment. Most of the variation in production related to SCC and mastitis was at the lactation level, and no significant differences were found between herds grouped according to milk production level, SCC, or prevalence of mastitis treatment. PMID:14594237

Bennedsgaard, T W; Enevoldsen, C; Thamsborg, S M; Vaarst, M

2003-10-01

198

Improved soil dispersion procedures for total bacterial counts, extraction of indigenous bacteria and cell survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of different soil dispersion procedures for enumeration and extraction of indigenous soil bacteria were investigated. Increased counts and extraction efficiency were obtained with pyrophosphate instead of water as dispersion liquid. When physical dispersion was conducted in the Waring blender, the effect of container volume and number of dispersions on extraction efficiency and bacterial counts was shown. An extraction

Viggo Lindahl

1996-01-01

199

Bulk Tank Somatic Cell Counts Analyzed by Statistical Process Control Tools to Identify and Monitor Subclinical Mastitis Incidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to examine the rela- tionship between monthly Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) subclinical mastitis and new infection rate esti- mates and daily bulk tank somatic cell count (SCC) summarized by statistical process control tools. Dairy Herd Improvement Association test-day subclinical mastitis and new infection rate estimates along with daily or every other day bulk tank

J. M. Lukas; D. M. Hawkins; M. L. Kinsel; J. K. Reneau

2005-01-01

200

The Relationship of Preventable Opportunistic Infections, HIV1 RNA, and CD4 Cell Counts to Chronic Mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Both HIV-1 RNA and absolute CD4 cell counts have been identified as important predictors of HIV-1 disease progression and mortality. The independent impact of opportunistic infections on the risk of chronic mortality, defined as death beyond 30 days of an opportunistic infection, has not been studied when controlling for HIV-1 RNA. Our objective was to determine the relationship between

George R. Seage; Elena Losina; Sue J. Goldie; A. David Paltiel; April D. Kimmel; Kenneth A. Freedberg

201

Parallel-plate fluid flow systems for bone cell stimulation.  

PubMed

Bone responds to changes in its mechanical environment, but the mechanisms by which it does so are poorly understood. One hypothesis of mechanosensing in bone states that osteocytes can sense the flow of fluid through the canalicular system. To study this in vitro a number of fluid flow devices have been designed in which cells are placed between parallel plates in sealed chambers. Fluid flows through the chambers at controlled rates, most commonly driven by a peristaltic pump. In addition to fluid flow, high pressures have been observed in these chambers, but the effect of this on the cellular responses has generally been ignored or considered irrelevant, something challenged by recent cellular experiments using pressure only. We have, therefore, devised a system in which we can considerably reduce the pressure while maintaining the flow rate to enable study of their effects individually and in combination. As reducing pressure also reduces the risk of leaks in flow chambers, our system is suitable for real-time microscopical experiments. We present details of the new systems and of experiments with osteoblasts to illustrate the effects of fluid flow with and without additional pressure on the translocation of beta-catenin to the nucleus. PMID:20031135

Huesa, Carmen; Helfrich, Miep H; Aspden, Richard M

2010-04-19

202

Nonspecific particle-based method with two-photon excitation detection for sensitive protein quantification and cell counting.  

PubMed

A novel easy-to-use homogeneous method utilizing two-photon excitation (TPX) for quantification of proteins or counting of eukaryotic cells in solution has been developed. This highly sensitive technique is based on the adsorption competition between the sample and fluorescently labeled protein to micrometer-sized carboxylate modified polystyrene particles and detection of two-photon excited fluorescence. The adsorption of the labeled protein to the particles was detected as a distinct fluorescence on individual microparticles. Analyte protein or eukaryotic cells interacted with particle surface and reduced the adsorption of labeled protein to the particles resulting in a decrease of the fluorescence. The optimizations of assay conditions were performed separately for protein quantification and cell counting, and the principle of the method was confirmed with the fluorescence microscopy imaging. The protein quantification assay allowed the determination of picogram quantities (1.2 ?g/L) of protein, and the cell counting assay allowed three cells in the sample with an average variation of approximately 10% in the signal. The protein assay sensitivity was more than 500-fold improved from the common most sensitive commercial methods. Moreover, the dynamic range of the assay was broad, approximately 4 orders of magnitude. The cell assay has sensitivity comparable to the most sensitive commercial method. The developed method tolerates interfering agents such as neutral detergents found in cell lysate samples even at high concentrations. The method is experimentally fairly simple and allows the expansion for the use of the TPX technology. PMID:23384281

Pihlasalo, Sari; Engbert, Anke; Martikkala, Eija; Ylander, Pilvi; Hänninen, Pekka; Härmä, Harri

2013-03-01

203

Influence of genetic merit and environment on somatic cell counts of Holstein-Friesian cows.  

PubMed

Financially, mastitis is one of the most important diseases affecting dairy cattle in the United Kingdom. Seven commercial farms were monitored over a 2.5 year period and data from 1040 cows were included in a study that examined both straw yard and cubicle housing systems. The influence of genetic merit for milk production (PIN(95) and PTA(f+p)) on somatic cell counts (SCC) as an indicator of mastitis under commercial farm conditions was assessed. The mean genetic potential ( poundPIN(95)) was 39.0 (+/-0.80) and the mean 305-day milk yield (kg) was 7980 (+/-54.2). In all, 5618 monthly records of SCC and 1040 records of 305-day SCC were included in the analysis. A multiple regression model was used to assess the influence of genetic merit and the level of concentrate intake on SCC (the log(10) transformation was used) under the two housing systems. Significant interactions between genetic merit and housing system, and concentrate intake and housing system were found. Log(10) SCC increased with genetic merit when cows were housed in straw yard accommodation, but decreased when cows were housed in cubicle accommodation. The increase in SCC with concentrate feeding was higher for straw yards. For parity 2 animals, there was a significant positive correlation between PIN(95) and SCC (r(p)=0.184, P=0.003) but the correlations between 305-day milk production and SCC were negative for animals greater than parity 2. PMID:16772131

Wicks, H C F; Leaver, J D

2006-07-01

204

Fluid Flow Induced Calcium Response in Bone Cell Network  

PubMed Central

In our previous work, bone cell networks with controlled spacing and functional intercellular gap junctions had been successfully established by using microcontact printing and self assembled monolayers technologies [Guo, X. E., E. Takai, X. Jiang, Q. Xu, G. M. Whitesides, J. T. Yardley, C. T. Hung, E. M. Chow, T. Hantschel, and K. D. Costa. Mol. Cell. Biomech. 3:95–107, 2006]. The present study investigated the calcium response and the underlying signaling pathways in patterned bone cell networks exposed to a steady fluid flow. The glass slides with cell networks were separated into eight groups for treatment with specific pharmacological agents that inhibit pathways significant in bone cell calcium signaling. The calcium transients of the network were recorded and quantitatively evaluated with a set of network parameters. The results showed that 18?-GA (gap junction blocker), suramin (ATP inhibitor), and thapsigargin (depleting intracellular calcium stores) significantly reduced the occurrence of multiple calcium peaks, which were visually obvious in the untreated group. The number of responsive peaks also decreased slightly yet significantly when either the COX-2/PGE2 or the NOS/nitric oxide pathway was disrupted. Different from all other groups, cells treated with 18?-GA maintained a high concentration of intracellular calcium following the first peak. In the absence of calcium in the culture medium, the intracellular calcium concentration decreased slowly with fluid flow without any calcium transients observed. These findings have identified important factors in the flow mediated calcium signaling of bone cells within a patterned network.

Huo, Bo; Lu, Xin L.; Hung, Clark T.; Costa, Kevin D.; Xu, Qiaobing; Whitesides, George M.; Guo, X. Edward

2010-01-01

205

Enumeration of CD4+ T-Cells Using a Portable Microchip Count Platform in Tanzanian HIV-Infected Patients  

PubMed Central

Background CD4+ T-lymphocyte count (CD4 count) is a standard method used to monitor HIV-infected patients during anti-retroviral therapy (ART). The World Health Organization (WHO) has pointed out or recommended that a handheld, point-of-care, reliable, and affordable CD4 count platform is urgently needed in resource-scarce settings. Methods HIV-infected patient blood samples were tested at the point-of-care using a portable and label-free microchip CD4 count platform that we have developed. A total of 130 HIV-infected patient samples were collected that included 16 de-identified left over blood samples from Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH), and 114 left over samples from Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS) enrolled in the HIV and AIDS care and treatment centers in the City of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The two data groups from BWH and MUHAS were analyzed and compared to the commonly accepted CD4 count reference method (FACSCalibur system). Results The portable, battery operated and microscope-free microchip platform developed in our laboratory (BWH) showed significant correlation in CD4 counts compared with FACSCalibur system both at BWH (r?=?0.94, p<0.01) and MUHAS (r?=?0.49, p<0.01), which was supported by the Bland-Altman methods comparison analysis. The device rapidly produced CD4 count within 10 minutes using an in-house developed automated cell counting program. Conclusions We obtained CD4 counts of HIV-infected patients using a portable platform which is an inexpensive (<$1 material cost) and disposable microchip that uses whole blood sample (<10 µl) without any pre-processing. The system operates without the need for antibody-based fluorescent labeling and expensive fluorescent illumination and microscope setup. This portable CD4 count platform displays agreement with the FACSCalibur results and has the potential to expand access to HIV and AIDS monitoring using fingerprick volume of whole blood and helping people who suffer from HIV and AIDS in resource-limited settings.

Moon, SangJun; Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Blander, Jeffrey; Fawzi, Wafaie W.; Aboud, Said; Mugusi, Ferdinand; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.; Demirci, Utkan

2011-01-01

206

HIV1\\/HSV2 Co-Infected Adults in Early HIV1 Infection Have Elevated CD4+ T Cell Counts  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionHIV-1 is often acquired in the presence of pre-existing co-infections, such as Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (HSV-2). We examined the impact of HSV-2 status at the time of HIV-1 acquisition for its impact on subsequent clinical course, and total CD4+ T cell phenotypes.MethodsWe assessed the relationship of HSV-1\\/HSV-2 co-infection status on CD4+ T cell counts and HIV-1 RNA levels over

Jason D. Barbour; Mariana M. Sauer; Elizabeth R. Sharp; Keith E. Garrison; Brian R. Long; Helena Tomiyama; Katia C. Bassichetto; Solange M. Oliveira; Maria C. Abbate; Douglas F. Nixon; Esper G. Kallas; Derya Unutmaz

2007-01-01

207

An Interleaved Reduced-Component-Count Multivoltage Bus DC\\/DC Converter for Fuel Cell Powered Electric Vehicle Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interleaved reduced-component-count dc\\/dc converter is proposed for power management in fuel cell powered vehicles with a multivoltage electric net. The converter is based on a simplified topology and can handle more power with less ripple current, therefore reducing the capacitor requirements, making it more suited for fuel cell powered vehicles in the near future. A prototype rated at 4.3

Lixin Tang; Gui-Jia Su

2008-01-01

208

Estimating malaria parasite density among pregnant women at central Sudan using actual and assumed white blood cell count  

PubMed Central

Background Microscopic examination using Giemsa-stained thick blood films remains the reference standard for detection of malaria parasites and it is the only method that is widely and practically available for quantifying malaria parasite density. There are few published data (there was no study during pregnancy) investigating the parasite density (ratio of counted parasites within a given number of microscopic fields against counted white blood cells (WBCs) using actual number of WBCs. Methods Parasitaemia was estimated using assumed WBCs (8,000), which was compared to parasitaemia calculated based on each woman’s WBCs in 98 pregnant women with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria at Medani Maternity Hospital, Central Sudan. Results The geometric mean (SD) of the parasite count was 12,014.6 (9,766.5) and 7,870.8 (19,168.8) ring trophozoites /?l, P <0.001 using the actual and assumed (8,000) WBC count, respectively. The median (range) of the ratio between the two parasitaemias (using assumed/actual WBCs) was 1.5 (0.6-5), i e, parasitaemia calculated assuming WBCs equal to median (range) 1.5 (0.6-5) times higher than parasitaemia calculated using actual WBCs. There were 52 out of 98 patients (53%) with ratio between 0.5 and 1.5. For 21 patients (21%) this ratio was higher than 2, and for five patients (5%) it was higher than 3. Conclusion The estimated parasite density using actual WBC counts was significantly lower than the parasite density estimated using assumed WBC counts. Therefore, it is recommended to use the patient`s actual WBC count in the estimation of the parasite density.

2014-01-01

209

Phenotypic and genetic characterization of novel somatic cell count traits from weekly or monthly observations.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were (1) to explore traits that better capture weekly or monthly changes in somatic cell counts (SCC) than does the commonly used lactation-average SCC, (2) to estimate their heritabilities and relationships to clinical mastitis (CM), and (3) to determine if these traits are feasible for use in monthly testing schemes. Clinical mastitis and weekly test-day (TD) records of SCC and milk production traits from 1,006 lactations of Swedish Red and Holstein cows collected from 1989 to 2004 were used (data set W). A data subset was also created to mimic monthly recording (data set M, 980 lactations). Twenty SCC traits were defined, taking into account SCC general levels and variation along the lactation curve, time and level of infection, and time of recovery. To reduce dimensionality, cluster and stepwise logistic regression procedures were applied. In data set W, 3 traits, "standard deviation of SCC over the lactation," a discrete (0/1) indicator of "at least one TD with SCC >500,000 cells/mL", and "number of days sick in the widest SCC peak" (DWidest) were the variables kept both with cluster procedures and a stepwise logistic regression with the logit of CM as dependent variable. In data set M, DWidest was replaced by "number of SCC peaks" and "average number of days sick per peak" (ADSick). Lactation-average SCC (in the first 150 d or between 150 and 305 d) did not enter into the logistic regression. Heritability estimates obtained for these new traits under a Bayesian setting and a Gibbs sampling approach were 10 to 16% (except for ADSick: 5%). Heritabilities were at least as high in the monthly data set as in the weekly data set. Thus, these SCC traits seem promising for use in breeding programs based on monthly milk recording. PMID:21094767

Urioste, J I; Franzén, J; Strandberg, E

2010-12-01

210

Prolonged effect of fluid flow stress on the proliferative activity of mesothelial cells after abrupt discontinuation of fluid streaming  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Late-onset peritoneal fibrosis leading to EPS remains to be elucidated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fluid streaming is a potent factor for peritoneal fibrosis in PD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We focused on the prolonged effect of fluid streaming on mesothelial cell kinetics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A history of fluid streaming exposure promoted mesothelial proliferative activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have thus identified a potent new factor for late-onset peritoneal fibrosis. -- Abstract: Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) often develops after transfer to hemodialysis and transplantation. Both termination of peritoneal dialysis (PD) and transplantation-related factors are risks implicated in post-PD development of EPS, but the precise mechanism of this late-onset peritoneal fibrosis remains to be elucidated. We previously demonstrated that fluid flow stress induced mesothelial proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition via mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Therefore, we speculated that the prolonged bioactive effect of fluid flow stress may affect mesothelial cell kinetics after cessation of fluid streaming. To investigate how long mesothelial cells stay under the bioactive effect brought on by fluid flow stress after removal of the stress, we initially cultured mesothelial cells under fluid flow stress and then cultured the cells under static conditions. Mesothelial cells exposed to fluid flow stress for a certain time showed significantly high proliferative activity compared with static conditions after stoppage of fluid streaming. The expression levels of protein phosphatase 2A, which dephosphorylates MAPK, in mesothelial cells changed with time and showed a biphasic pattern that was dependent on the duration of exposure to fluid flow stress. There were no differences in the fluid flow stress-related bioactive effects on mesothelial cells once a certain time had passed. The present findings show that fluid flow stress exerts a prolonged bioactive effect on mesothelial cells after termination of fluid streaming. These findings support the hypothesis that a history of PD for a certain period could serve as a trigger of EPS after stoppage of PD.

Aoki, Shigehisa, E-mail: aokis@cc.saga-u.ac.jp [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Saga (Japan)] [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Saga (Japan); Ikeda, Satoshi [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Saga (Japan)] [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Saga (Japan); Takezawa, Toshiaki [Transgenic Animal Research Center, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Ibaraki (Japan)] [Transgenic Animal Research Center, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Ibaraki (Japan); Kishi, Tomoya [Department of Internal Medicine, Saga University, Saga (Japan)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Saga University, Saga (Japan); Makino, Junichi [Makino Clinic, Saga (Japan)] [Makino Clinic, Saga (Japan); Uchihashi, Kazuyoshi; Matsunobu, Aki [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Saga (Japan)] [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Saga (Japan); Noguchi, Mitsuru [Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Saga (Japan)] [Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Saga (Japan); Sugihara, Hajime [Department of Physical Therapy, International University of Health and Welfare, Fukuoka (Japan)] [Department of Physical Therapy, International University of Health and Welfare, Fukuoka (Japan); Toda, Shuji [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Saga (Japan)] [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Saga (Japan)

2011-12-16

211

The severity, extent and recurrence of necrotizing periodontal disease in relation to HIV status and CD4+ T cell count.  

PubMed

South Africa ranks among the three countries with the highest prevalence of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa, with an estimated 29.5% of women attending antenatal clinics being infected. Necrotizing periodontal disease is a well recognized HIV-associated oral condition. The objective of this investigation was to determine a possible correlation between the extent, severity and treatment outcome of necrotizing periodontal disease in relation to a person's HIV status and CD4+ T cell count. Data from 105 consecutive patients presenting with necrotizing periodontal disease at an academic oral health centre in South Africa were analysed. All patients were provided with an opportunity to undergo voluntary counseling and testing for HIV infection, were treated for necrotizing periodontal disease and followed over a period of nine months. The mean age of the cohort was 28 years old (range 12 - 52). Of 98 (93.3%) patients unaware of their HIV serostatus at the initial visit, 59 (56.2%) consented to testing. In total 45 (42.9%) were HIV-seropositive with a mean CD4+ T cell count of 222.7 cells/microl and 14 (13.3%) were HIV-seronegative, with a significantly higher mean CD4+ T cell count of 830 cells/microl (Fisher's exact test, p < 0.001), while the status of 46 (43.8%) remained unknown. In 101 (96.2%) patients, > or = 5 tooth sites were affected, and in 27 (26%) > or = 4 mm of gingival tissue were affected. This study, which included HIV-seropositive, HIV-seronegative and persons of unknown HIV status, revealed no statistical evidence that HIV infection was associated with the extent, severity or relapse of necrotizing periodontal disease. No statistically significant association could be demonstrated between the extent, severity and recurrence of necrotizing periodontal disease and a CD4+ T cell count < or = 200 cells/microl among HIV-seropositive patients. PMID:21128527

Phiri, Reality; Feller, Liviu; Blignaut, Elaine

2010-10-01

212

Fluids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth explores the Web's offerings on the physics of fluids. By an educational Web site called School for Champions, the first site is the Fluids lesson plan (1). Here, students or anyone interested can read about the basics of fluids and then take a short interactive quiz on the topic. The second site is maintained by Steve Lower of the Department of Chemistry at Simon Fraser University called Liquids and their Vapors (2). This Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) file contains an eighteen-page document that covers topics such as properties of liquids and changes of state. The next site contains an interactive multimedia activity presented by explorescience.com called Floating Log (3). The site allows users to explore how a fluid can affect buoyancy by letting them change the mass of the log and the fluid's density. The next site from Purdue University's Chemical Education Web site is called Liquids (4). This page describes the structure of liquids, what kinds of materials form liquids, vapor pressure, and more. The fifth site, offered by Professor M.S. Cramer at the College of Engineering at Virginia Tech, is entitled Gallery of Fluid Dynamics (5). It contains movies, animations, photographs, and descriptions of various fluid mechanics topics such as condensation, shock waves, and supersonic cars. Next comes the Innovative Technology Solutions Corporation's Fundamental Fluid Mechanics Movies Web site (6). Over thirty short films show how fluids move in various conditions including gravity waves, fire, material transport, and hydraulics. From the University of Waterloo's Department of Mechanical Engineering-Microelectronics Heat Transfer Laboratory comes the next site, called the Fluid Properties Calculator (7). This online tool allows users to select a fluid and enter a temperature to calculate various parameters such as density, viscosity, specific heat, and thermal diffusivity. The last site is the online journal Physics of Fluids (8), which is published monthly by the American Institute of Physics with the cooperation of The American Physical Society Division of Fluid Dynamics. The journal is "devoted to the publication of original theoretical, computational, and experimental contributions to the dynamics of gases, liquids, and complex or multiphase fluids" and provides free full-text articles for online viewing.

Brieske, Joel A.

2002-01-01

213

Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells and Their Application in Cell-Based Tissue Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Advances in stem cell biotechnology hold great promise in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Of interest are marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), embryonic stem cells (ESCs), and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). In addition, amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs) have attracted attention as a viable choice following the search for an alternative stem cell source. Investigators are interested in these cells because they come from the amniotic fluid that is routinely discarded after birth. There have been multiple investigations conducted worldwide in an attempt to better understand AF-SCs in terms of their potential use in regenerative medicine. In this review we give a brief introduction of amniotic fluid followed by a description of the cells present within this fluid. Their history related to stem cell discovery in the amniotic fluid as well as the main characteristics of AF-SCs are discussed. Finally, we elaborate on the potential for these cells to promote regeneration of various tissue defects, including fetal tissue, the nervous system, heart, lungs, kidneys, bones, and cartilage.

Baghaban Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza; Jahangir, Shahrbanoo

2012-01-01

214

The value of serum bilirubin level and of white blood cell count as severity markers for acute appendicitis.  

PubMed

Discussions regarding the correlations between elevated white blood cell levels and clinical and pathological stages of acute appendicitis are well known. Recent studies show that a high level of serum bilirubin could emerge as a prognostic marker for gangrenous or perforated stages of acute appendicitis. We studied the correlations between anatomical and pathological stages of acute appendicitis and white blood cell count, serum total bilirubin, and indirect serum bilirubin on a large series of cases, in the course of one year, in our department. Although there being a correlation between severe forms of acute appendicitis (gangrenous, perforated), elevated white blood cell count, elevated serum bilirubin (mostly the indirect fraction), none of the indicators proved to have a definitive diagnostic value. Cases with perforation and localized generalized peritonitis are more frequently associated with elevated bilirubin levels. PMID:24331322

Socea, B; Carāp, A; Rac-Albu, M; Constantin, V

2013-01-01

215

Let's Count!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Let's practice our counting skills with these fun games! Let's soar into the sky and practice Counting on a Cloud! The ants need lining up, let's Count the Ants! Help Rabbit eat his carrots by dropping the correct number of food into the basket! ...

Popwell, Ms.

2010-09-20

216

Counting Books  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The web site provides instructions for making counting books. Suggestions for using the completed books for counting one at a time, skip-counting, fractions and introducing addition and subtraction are given. Children should be able to write the numbers from 1 to 10 before beginning this activity.

2010-01-01

217

Relationship between somatic cell count and milk yield in different stages of lactation.  

PubMed

The association between somatic cell count (SCC) and daily milk yield in different stages of lactation was investigated in cows free of clinical mastitis (CM). Data were recorded between 1989 and 2004 in a research herd, and consisted of weekly test-day (TD) records from 1,155 lactations of Swedish Holstein and Swedish Red cows. The main data set (data set A) containing 36,117 records excluded TD affected by CM. In this data set, the geometric mean SCC was 55,000 and 95,000 cells/mL in primiparous and multiparous cows, respectively. A subset of data set A (data set B), containing 27,753 records excluding all TD sampled in lactations affected by CM, was created to investigate the effect of subclinical mastitis (SCM) in lactations free of CM. Daily milk yields were analyzed using a mixed linear model with lactation stage; linear, quadratic and cubic regressions of log(2)-transformed and centered SCC nested within lactation stage; weeks in lactation; TD season; parity; breed; pregnancy status; year-season of calving; calving, reproductive, metabolic and claw disorders; and housing system as fixed effects. A random regression was included to further improve the modeling of the lactation curve. Primiparous and multiparous cows were analyzed separately. The magnitude of daily milk loss associated with increased SCC depended on stage of lactation and parity, and was most extensive in late lactation irrespective of parity. In data set A, daily milk loss at an SCC of 500,000 cells/mL ranged from 0.7 to 2.0 kg (3 to 9%) in primiparous cows, depending on stage of lactation. In multiparous cows, corresponding loss was 1.1 to 3.7 kg (4 to 18%). Regression coefficients of primiparous cows estimated from data set B were consistent with those obtained from data set A, whereas data set B generated more negative regression coefficients of multiparous cows suggesting a higher milk loss associated with increased SCC in lactations in which the cow did not develop CM. The 305-d milk loss in the average lactation affected with SCM was 155 kg of milk (2%) in primiparous cows and 445 kg of milk (5%) in multiparous cows. It was concluded that multiparous cows in late lactation can be expected to be responsible for the majority of the herd-level production loss caused by SCM, and that preventive measures need to focus on reducing the incidence of SCM in such cows. PMID:19528590

Hagnestam-Nielsen, C; Emanuelson, U; Berglund, B; Strandberg, E

2009-07-01

218

Probing the Nanoscale Viscoelasticity of Intracellular Fluids in Living Cells  

PubMed Central

We have used fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to determine the anomalous diffusion properties of fluorescently tagged gold beads in the cytoplasm and the nucleus of living cells. From the extracted mean-square displacement v(?) ? ??, we have determined the complex shear modulus G(?) ? ?? for both compartments. Without treatment, all tested cell lines showed a strong viscoelastic behavior of the cytoplasm and the nucleoplasm, highlighting the crowdedness of these intracellular fluids. We also found a similar viscoelastic response in frog egg extract, which tended toward a solely viscous behavior upon dilution. When cells were osmotically stressed, the diffusion became less anomalous and the viscoelastic response changed. In particular, the anomality changed from ? ? 0.55 to ? ? 0.66, which indicates that the Zimm model for polymer solutions under varying solvent conditions is a good empirical description of the material properties of the cytoplasm and the nucleoplasm. Since osmotic stress may eventually trigger cell death, we propose, on the basis of our observations, that intracellular fluids are maintained in a state similar to crowded polymer solutions under good solvent conditions to keep the cell viable.

Guigas, Gernot; Kalla, Claudia; Weiss, Matthias

2007-01-01

219

Multilineage Potential Research of Bovine Amniotic Fluid Mesenchymal Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

The use of amnion and amniotic fluid (AF) are abundant sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that can be harvested at low cost and do not pose ethical conflicts. In human and veterinary research, stem cells derived from these tissues are promising candidates for disease treatment, specifically for their plasticity, their reduced immunogenicity, and high anti-inflammatory potential. This work aimed to obtain and characterize bovine amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSC). The bovine AF from the amniotic cavity of pregnant gilts in the early stages of gestation (3- and 4-m-old bovine embryos) was collected. AFMSCs exhibit a fibroblastic-like morphology only starting from the fourth passage, being heterogeneous during the primary culture. Immunofluorescence results showed that AFMSCs were positive for ?-integrin, CD44, CD73 and CD166, but negative for CD34, CD45. Meanwhile, AFMSCs expressed ES cell markers, such as Oct4, and when appropriately induced, are capable of differentiating into ectodermal and mesodermal lineages. This study reinforces the emerging importance of these cells as ideal tools in veterinary medicine; future studies aimed at a deeper evaluation of their immunological properties will allow a better understanding of their role in cellular therapy.

Gao, Yuhua; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Yuhua; Hua, Jinlian; Ma, Yuehui; Guan, Weijun

2014-01-01

220

Donor lymphocyte count and thymic activity predict lymphocyte recovery and outcomes after matched-sibling hematopoietic stem cell transplant.  

PubMed

Delayed immune recovery is a characteristic feature of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in adult recipients. Although recipient thymic T-cell neogenesis contributes to T-cell regeneration after transplantation, thymic recovery in the transplant recipient decreases with increasing age, and is diminished by intensive preconditioning regimens and graft-versus-host disease. In adult recipients, most events that determine transplant success or failure occur during the period when the majority of circulating T cells is derived from the donor's post thymic T-cell repertoire. As a result, the make-up of the donor lymphocyte compartment may strongly influence immune recovery and transplant outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine donor lymphocyte counts in a series of patients undergoing an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant to identify the potential contribution of donor regulatory and conventional T lymphocyte populations to immune recovery and transplant outcomes. We examined donor lymphocyte subset counts in relation to post-transplant lymphocyte recovery and transplant events in 220 consecutive myeloablative, T-cell-depleted, HLA-identical sibling hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with hematologic malignancies. In a multivariate analysis, absolute numbers of donor CD4(+) recent thymic emigrants were associated with overall survival (P=0.032). The donors' absolute lymphocyte count and thymic production of regulatory T cells were both associated with extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease (P=0.002 and P=0.022, respectively). In conclusion, these results identify donor immune characteristics that are associated with lymphocyte recovery, extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease, and survival in the recipient following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The study reported here was performed using peripheral blood samples drawn from donors and patients enrolled in the ClinicalTrials.gov-registered trials NCT00001623, NCT00001873, NCT00353860, NCT00066300, NCT00079391, and NCT00398346. PMID:23065508

McIver, Zachariah; Melenhorst, Jan Joseph; Wu, Colin; Grim, Andrew; Ito, Sawa; Cho, Irene; Hensel, Nancy; Battiwalla, Minoo; Barrett, Austin John

2013-03-01

221

Abnormal Glucose Tolerance, White Blood Cell Count, and Telomere Length in Newly Diagnosed, Antidepressant-Na?ve Patients with Depression  

PubMed Central

Chronic mood disorders have been associated with a shortened telomere, a marker of increased mortality rate and ageing, and impaired cellular immunity. However, treatment may confound these relationships. We examined the relationship of glucose tolerance, white blood cell count and telomere length to depression in newly diagnosed, antidepressant-naļve patients. Subjects with major depression (n=15), and matched healthy control subjects (n=70) underwent a two-hour oral glucose tolerance test and evaluation of blood cell count and telomere content. The depression group had significantly higher two-hour glucose concentrations and a lower lymphocyte count than control subjects (respective means [SD] for two-hour glucose were 125.0 mg/dL [67.9] vs 84.6 [25.6] (p<.001); for lymphocyte count 2.1 × 109/L [0.6] vs. 2.5 ×109/L [0.7] p=.028).Telomere content was significantly shortened in the depression group (87.9 [7.6]) compared to control subjects (101.0 [14.3]; p<0.01). Abnormal glucose tolerance, lymphopenia and a shortened telomere are present early in the course of depression independently of the confounding effect of antidepressant treatment, supporting the concept of major depression as an accelerated ageing disease.

Garcia-Rizo, Clemente; Fernandez-Egea, Emilio; Miller, Brian J.; Oliveira, Cristina; Justicia, Azucena; Griffith, Jeffrey K.; Heaphy, Christopher M.; Bernardo, Miguel; Kirkpatrick, Brian

2012-01-01

222

The effect of pathogen-specific clinical mastitis on the lactation curve for somatic cell count.  

PubMed

Data from 274 Dutch herds recording clinical mastitis (CM) over an 18-mo period were used to investigate the effect of pathogen-specific CM on the lactation curve for somatic cell count (SCC). Analyzed pathogens were Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, other streptococci, and the culture-negative samples. The dataset contained 178,754 test-day records on SCC, recorded in 26,411 lactations of 21,525 cows of different parities. In lactations without both clinical and subclinical mastitis, SCC was high shortly after parturition, decreased to a minimum at 50 days in milk (DIM), and increased slowly toward the end of the lactation. Effects of CM on lactation curves for SCC differed among the pathogens isolated. Before a case of clinical E. coli mastitis occurred, SCC was close to the SCC of lactations without both clinical and subclinical mastitis, and after the case of CM had occurred, SCC returned rather quickly to a low level again. Similar curves were found for lactations with cases of CM associated with culture-negative samples. Before a case of clinical Staph. aureus mastitis occurred, average SCC was already high, and it remained high after the occurrence. Effects of CM associated with Strep. dysgalactiae, Strep. uberis, and other streptococci on the lactation curve for SCC were comparable. They showed a continuous increase in SCC until the case of pathogen-specific CM occurred, and afterwards SCC stayed at a higher level. Using SCC test-day records, these typical characteristics of each pathogen may be used to find more effective indicators of CM. PMID:12086069

de Haas, Y; Barkema, H W; Veerkamp, R F

2002-05-01

223

Count Around  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners explore their surroundings while reasoning about categories and counting. Pose a question that involves locating items in the room or building, and have learners count how many they can findāand figure out "what counts." Itās easy to vary the question for different levels of challenge. For instance, for less challenge, ask: How many light switches are in the room? For more, ask: How many light sources are in the room? Once everyone has counted, engage the group in discussing findings: Why might the answers differ even if everyone counted correctly? Available as a web page or downloadable pdf. Students should be able to write the numbers to 12.

2010-01-01

224

Preoperative lymphocyte count is a favorable prognostic factor of disease-free survival in non-small-cell lung cancer.  

PubMed

Recently, the prognostic value of cancer-related inflammatory response has been revealed. Previous studies showed that peripheral neutrophils and lymphocytes had significant impact on the prognosis of advanced and early-node-negative non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of preoperative lymphocyte and neutrophil counts in patients with NSCLC who underwent lobectomy and lymph node dissection and adjuvant chemotherapy. Retrospective analyses were performed to examine the impact of preoperative peripheral lymphocyte and neutrophil counts on disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) and to analyze the relationships of these factors to clinicopathological factors. A total of 142 patients with NSCLC were evaluated of which 57 (40.1 %) patients had local recurrence or metastasis. Multivariate analyses revealed that peripheral lymphocyte count was an independent favorable prognostic factor of DFS (hazard ratio 0.548; 95 % confidence interval 0.351-0.857; P = 0.008) but not OS (P = 0.164). The maximum logrank statistical value was 9.504 (P = 0.002) when the cutoff value of lymphocyte was 1,800 mm(-3). The median DFS was 318.0 days (95 % confidence interval 226.0-410.0) for lymphocyte ?1,800 mm(-3) group and 669.0 days (95 % confidence interval 0.0-1,431.0) for lymphocyte >1,800 mm(-3) group. Low lymphocyte count was related with lymphatic invasion (P = 0.012) and recurrence of NSCLC (P = 0.022). Peripheral neutrophil count had no impact on DFS or OS when analysis included all the 142 patients. Preoperative peripheral lymphocyte count, which is related with lymphatic invasion, is an independent favorable prognostic factor of DFS in patients with NSCLC who underwent lobectomy and lymph node dissection and adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:23275140

Zhang, Jian; Huang, Shao-Hong; Li, Hui; Li, Yun; Chen, Xiu-Ling; Zhang, Wei-Qing; Chen, Hui-Guo; Gu, Li-Jia

2013-03-01

225

Clinical utility of circulating tumor cell counting through CellSearch®: the dilemma of a concept suspended in Limbo  

PubMed Central

To date, 10 years after the first demonstration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), prognostic significance in metastatic breast cancer using the US Food and Drug Administration–cleared system CellSearch®, the potential utility of CTCs in early clinical development of drugs, their role as a surrogate marker of response to therapy, and their molecular analysis for patient stratification for targeted therapies are still major unsolved questions. Great expectations are pinned on the ongoing interventional trials aimed to demonstrate that CTCs might be of value for guiding treatment of patients and predicting cancer progression. To fill the gap between theory and practice with regard to the clinical utility of CTCs, a bridge is needed, taking into account innovative design for clinical trials, a revised definition of traditional CTCs, next-generation CTC technology, the potential clinical application of CTC analysis in non-validated settings of disease, and finally, expanding the number of patients enrolled in the studies. In this regard, the results of the first European pooled analysis definitely validated the independent prognostic value of CTC counting in metastatic breast cancer patients.

Raimondi, Cristina; Gradilone, Angela; Naso, Giuseppe; Cortesi, Enrico; Gazzaniga, Paola

2014-01-01

226

Clinical utility of circulating tumor cell counting through CellSearch(®): the dilemma of a concept suspended in Limbo.  

PubMed

To date, 10 years after the first demonstration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), prognostic significance in metastatic breast cancer using the US Food and Drug Administration-cleared system CellSearch(®), the potential utility of CTCs in early clinical development of drugs, their role as a surrogate marker of response to therapy, and their molecular analysis for patient stratification for targeted therapies are still major unsolved questions. Great expectations are pinned on the ongoing interventional trials aimed to demonstrate that CTCs might be of value for guiding treatment of patients and predicting cancer progression. To fill the gap between theory and practice with regard to the clinical utility of CTCs, a bridge is needed, taking into account innovative design for clinical trials, a revised definition of traditional CTCs, next-generation CTC technology, the potential clinical application of CTC analysis in non-validated settings of disease, and finally, expanding the number of patients enrolled in the studies. In this regard, the results of the first European pooled analysis definitely validated the independent prognostic value of CTC counting in metastatic breast cancer patients. PMID:24790460

Raimondi, Cristina; Gradilone, Angela; Naso, Giuseppe; Cortesi, Enrico; Gazzaniga, Paola

2014-01-01

227

Fluid models and simulations of biological cell phenomena  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dynamics of coated droplets are examined within the context of biofluids. Of specific interest is the manner in which the shape of a droplet, the motion within it as well as that of aggregates of droplets can be controlled by the modulation of surface properties and the extent to which such fluid phenomena are an intrinsic part of cellular processes. From the standpoint of biology, an objective is to elucidate some of the general dynamical features that affect the disposition of an entire cell, cell colonies and tissues. Conventionally averaged field variables of continuum mechanics are used to describe the overall global effects which result from the myriad of small scale molecular interactions. An attempt is made to establish cause and effect relationships from correct dynamical laws of motion rather than by what may have been unnecessary invocation of metabolic or life processes. Several topics are discussed where there are strong analogies droplets and cells including: encapsulated droplets/cell membranes; droplet shape/cell shape; adhesion and spread of a droplet/cell motility and adhesion; and oams and multiphase flows/cell aggregates and tissues. Evidence is presented to show that certain concepts of continuum theory such as suface tension, surface free energy, contact angle, bending moments, etc. are relevant and applicable to the study of cell biology.

Greenspan, H. P.

1982-01-01

228

White Blood Cell Counts as Risk Markers of Developing Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in the Predimed Study  

PubMed Central

Background The Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that includes hyperglucemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia and central obesity, conferring an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The white blood cell (WBC) count has been proposed as a marker for predicting cardiovascular risk. However, few prospective studies have evaluated the relationship between WBC subtypes and risk of MetS. Methods Participants were recruited from seven PREDIMED study centers. Both a baseline cross-sectional (n?=?4,377) and a prospective assessment (n?=?1,637) were performed. Participants with MetS at baseline were excluded from the longitudinal analysis. The median follow-up was 3.9 years. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, fasting glucose, lipid profile and WBC counts were assessed at baseline and yearly during the follow-up. Participants were categorized by baseline WBC and its subtype count quartiles. Adjusted logistic regression models were fitted to assess the risk of MetS and its components. Results Of the 4,377 participants, 62.6% had MetS at baseline. Compared to the participants in the lowest baseline sex-adjusted quartile of WBC counts, those in the upper quartile showed an increased risk of having MetS (OR, 2.47; 95%CI, 2.03–2.99; P-trend<0.001). This association was also observed for all WBC subtypes, except for basophils. Compared to participants in the lowest quartile, those in the top quartile of leukocyte, neutrophil and lymphocyte count had an increased risk of MetS incidence. Leukocyte and neutrophil count were found to be strongly associated with the MetS components hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol. Likewise, lymphocyte counts were found to be associated with the incidence of the MetS components low HDL-cholesterol and high fasting glucose. An increase in the total WBC during the follow-up was also associated with an increased risk of MetS. Conclusions Total WBC counts, and some subtypes, were positively associated with MetS as well as hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-cholesterol and high fasting glucose, all components of MetS. Trial registration Controlled-Trials.comISRCTN35739639.

Babio, Nancy; Ibarrola-Jurado, Nuria; Bullo, Monica; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Warnberg, Julia; Salaverria, Itziar; Ortega-Calvo, Manuel; Estruch, Ramon; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Covas, Maria Isabel; Sorli, Jose Vicente; Salas-Salvado, Jordi

2013-01-01

229

Syphilis increases HIV viral load and decreases CD4 cell counts in HIV-infected patients with new syphilis infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Syphilitic ulcers are known to facilitate the transmission of HIV infec- tion, but the effect of syphilis infection on HIV viral loads and CD4 cell counts is poorly understood. Methods: We abstracted medical records for HIV-infected male syphilis patients seen at three clinics in San Francisco and Los Angeles from January 2001 to April 2003. We compared plasma HIV-RNA

Kate Buchacz; Pragna Patel; Melanie Taylor; Peter R. Kerndt; Robert H. Byers; Scott D. Holmberg; Jeffrey D. Klausnere

2004-01-01

230

Marginal Structural Models for Estimating the Effect of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation on CD4 Cell Count  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the evolution of CD4-positive T-lymphocyte (CD4 cell) count among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive participants was estimated using inverse probability-of-treatment-and-censoring (IPTC)-weighted estimation of a marginal structural model. Of 1,763 eligible participants from two US cohort studies followed between 1996 and 2002, 60 percent initiated HAART. The IPTC- weighted estimate of the difference

Stephen R. Cole; Miguel A. Hernan; Joseph B. Margolick; Mardge H. Cohen

2005-01-01

231

Surgical influence of pancreatectomy on the function and count of circulating dendritic cells in patients with pancreatic cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Dendritic cells (DCs) are important for an immune surveillance. Myeloid DCs (DC1) are important for an effective antitumor\\u000a immune system. The function and count of circulating DC1 (cDC1) in hosts with a malignant tumor would be defective. This study\\u000a focused on analyzing the immunological features of cDC1 in patients with pancreatic cancer during the perioperative period.\\u000a Materials and methods:

Kanji Takahashi; Hideyoshi Toyokawa; Soichiro Takai; Sohei Satoi; Hiroaki Yanagimoto; Naoyoshi Terakawa; Hiroshi Araki; A-Hon Kwon; Yasuo Kamiyama

2006-01-01

232

The association between white blood cell count and acute myocardial infarction mortality in patients ?65 years of age: findings from the cooperative cardiovascular project  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESThe purpose of the study was to examine the association between white blood cell (WBC) count on admission and 30-day mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).BACKGROUNDElevations in WBC count have been associated with the development of AMI and with long-term mortality in patients with coronary artery disease. However, the relationship between WBC count and prognosis following AMI is

Hal V. Barron; Steven D. Harr; Martha J. Radford; Yongfei Wang; Harlan M. Krumholz

2001-01-01

233

Cluster of differentiation 4+ cell count mean value, reference range and its influencing factors in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-seronegative pregnant women in Lagos  

PubMed Central

Background: Immunity in pregnancy is physiologically compromised and this may affect cluster of differentiation four (CD4) count levels. It is well established that several factors affect CD4 count level in pregnancy. This study aims to determine the effects of maternal age, gestational age, parity and level of education as they influence CD4 count in pregnancy and also to determine the mean and reference range of CD4 count in pregnancy in Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at Ante-natal clinics in Lagos State, Nigeria. About 5 mls of blood was collected into Ethylene Diamine Tetracetic Acid (EDTA) bottles from HIV-negative pregnant women in various gestational ages of pregnancy. CD4+ cell count and full blood count of all samples were done within 3 hours of collection. The descriptive data was given as means ± standard deviation (SD). Pearson's chi-squared test and correlation were used for analytical assessment. Results: A total of 74 pregnant women were recruited. The age range was 19–41 years and a mean age of 30.42 ± 5.34 years. The CD4+ cell count was not statistically significant when compared with participants ages P = 0.417, neither with gestational ages P = 0.323, nor with parity P = 0.247 nor level of education P = 0.96. An overall mean CD4+ cell count was 771.96 ± 250 cells/?l and the range was 193–1370 cells/?l. Conclusion: Maternal age, gestational age, parity and level of education had no significant effects on CD4+ cell count levels in pregnancy. The mean CD4+ cell count of HIV-negative pregnant women in Lagos is 771.96 ± 250 cells/?l.

Akinbami, A. A.; Dosunmu, A. O.; Adediran, A.; Adewunmi, A. A.; Rabiu, K. A.; Osunkalu, V.; Ajibola, S.; Uche, E. I.; Adelekan, A.

2014-01-01

234

Coupling EELS/EFTEM Imaging with Environmental Fluid Cell Microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Insight into dynamically evolving electrochemical reactions and mechanisms encountered in electrical energy storage (EES) and conversion technologies (batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors), materials science (corrosion and oxidation), and materials synthesis (electrodeposition) remains limited due to the present lack of in situ high-resolution characterization methodologies. Electrochemical fluid cell microscopy is an emerging in-situ method that allows for the direct, real-time imaging of electrochemical processes within a fluid environment. This technique is facilitated by the use of MEMS-based biasing microchip platforms that serve the purpose of sealing the highly volatile electrolyte between two electron transparent SiNx membranes and interfacing electrodes to an external potentiostat for controlled nanoscale electrochemislly experiments [!]. In order to elucidate both stmctural and chemical changes during such in situ electrochemical experiments, it is impmtant to first improve upon the spatial resolution by utilizing energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) (to minimize chromatic aben ation), then to detennine the chemical changes via electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). This presents a formidable challenge since the overall thickness through which electrons are scattered through the multiple layers of the cell can be on the order of hundreds of nanometers to microns, scattering through which has the deleterious effect of degrading image resolution and decreasing signal-to noise for spectroscopy [2].

Unocic, Raymond R [ORNL; Baggetto, Loic [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL

2012-01-01

235

Predictive value of CD4 cell count nadir on long-term mortality in HIV-positive patients in Uganda  

PubMed Central

Objective Although international guidelines recommend initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) when a patient’s CD4 cell count is ?350 cells/?L, most patients in resource-limited settings present with much lower CD4 cell counts. The lowest level that their CD4 cell count reaches, the nadir, may have long-term consequences in terms of mortality. We examined this health state in a large cohort of HIV+ patients in Uganda. Design This was an observational study of HIV patients in Uganda aged 14 years or older, who were enrolled in 10 major clinics across Uganda. Methods We assessed the CD4 nadir of patients, using their CD4 cell count at initiation of ART, stratified into categories (,50, 50–99, 100–149, 150–249, 250+ cells/?L). We constructed Kaplan–Meier curves to assess the differences in survivorship for patients left-censored at 1 year and 2 years after treatment initiation. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to model the associations between CD4 nadir and mortality. We adjusted mortality for loss-to-follow-up. Results Of 22,315 patients, 20,129 patients had greater than 1 year of treatment follow-up. Among these patients, 327 (1.6%) died and 444 (2.2%) were lost to follow-up. After left-censoring at one year, relative to lowest CD4 strata, patients with higher CD4 counts had significantly lower rates of mortality (CD4 150–249, hazard ratio [HR] 0.60, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.45–0.82, P = 0.001; 250+, HR 0.66, 95% CI, 0.44–1.00, P = ?0.05). Male sex, older age, and duration of time on ART were independently associated with mortality. When left-censoring at 2 years, CD4 nadir was no longer statistically significantly associated with mortality. Conclusion After surviving for 1 year on ART, a CD4 nadir was strongly predictive of longer-term mortality among patients in Uganda. This should argue for efforts to increase engagement with patients to ensure a higher CD4 nadir at initiation of treatment.

Bray, Sarah; Gedeon, Jillian; Hadi, Ahsan; Kotb, Ahmed; Rahman, Tarun; Sarwar, Elaha; Savelyeva, Anna; Sevigny, Marika; Bakanda, Celestin; Birungi, Josephine; Chan, Keith; Yaya, Sanni; Deonandan, Raywat; Mills, Edward J

2012-01-01

236

MEASUREMENT OF RADIONUCLIDES USING ION CHROMATOGRAPHY AND FLOW-CELL SCINTILLATION COUNTING WITH PULSE SHAPE DISCRIMINATION  

SciTech Connect

Radiological characterization and monitoring is an important component of environmental management activities throughout the Department of Energy complex. Gamma-ray spectroscopy is the technology most often used for the detection of radionuclides. However, radionuclides which cannot easily be detected by gamma-ray spectroscopy, such as pure beta emitters and transuranics, pose special problems because their quantification generally requires labor intensive radiochemical separations procedures that are time consuming and impractical for field applications. This project focused on a technology for measuring transuranics and pure beta emitters relatively quickly and has the potential of being field deployable. The technology combines ion exchange liquid chromatography and on-line alpha/beta pulse shape discriminating scintillation counting to produce simultaneous alpha and beta chromatograms. The basic instrumentation upon which the project was based was purchased in the early 1990's. In its original commercial form, the instrumentation was capable of separating select activation/fission products in ionic forms from relatively pure aqueous samples. We subsequently developed the capability of separating and detecting actinides (thorium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium) in less than 30 minutes (Reboul, 1993) and realized that the potential time savings over traditional radiochemical methods for isolating some of these radionuclides was significant. However, at that time, the technique had only been used for radionuclide concentrations that were considerably above environmental levels and for aqueous samples of relatively high chemical purity. For the technique to be useful in environmental applications, development work was needed in lowering detection limits; to be useful in applications involving non-aqueous matrices such as soils and sludges or complex aqueous matrices such as those encountered in waste samples, development work was needed in sample preparation and processing. The general goal of this project was to address the issues mentioned above, and in so doing transform an interesting laboratory technique of limited applicability into a robust field instrument suitable for environmental restoration and waste management applications. The project consisted of the following tasks: (1) development of a low background, flow-cell detector, (2) identification of sample chemical and radiological interferences, (3) development of protocols for processing waste and/or environmental samples, and (4) integration and testing of the prototype system. The scope of work associated with these tasks has been completed and the report for Tasks 1-3 was submitted previously. Presented here are the results for Task 4.

R. A. Fjeld; T.A. DeVol; J.D. Leyba

2000-03-30

237

Analysis of low level radioactive metabolites in biological fluids using high-performance liquid chromatography with microplate scintillation counting: Method validation and application  

Microsoft Academic Search

TopCount, a microplate scintillation counter (MSC), has been recently employed as an off-line liquid radiochromatographic detector for radioactive metabolite profile analysis. The present study was undertaken to validate TopCount for metabolite profiling with respect to sensitivity, accuracy, precision and radioactivity recovery. Matrix effects of various human samples on TopCount performance and capability of MSC for volatile metabolite analysis were also

Mingshe Zhu; Weiping Zhao; Natasha Vazquez; James G. Mitroka

2005-01-01

238

CD4 cell count and viral load monitoring in patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy in Uganda: cost effectiveness study  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the cost and cost effectiveness of quarterly CD4 cell count and viral load monitoring among patients taking antiretroviral therapy (ART). Design Cost effectiveness study. Setting A randomised trial in a home based ART programme in Tororo, Uganda. Participants People with HIV who were members of the AIDS Support Organisation and had CD4 cell counts <250 ×106 cells/L or World Health Organization stage 3 or 4 disease. Main outcome measures Outcomes calculated for the study period and projected 15 years into the future included costs, disability adjusted life years (DALYs), and incremental cost effectiveness ratios (ICER; $ per DALY averted). Cost inputs were based on the trial and other sources. Clinical inputs derived from the trial; in the base case, we assumed that point estimates reflected true differences even if non-significant. We conducted univariate and multivariate sensitivity analyses. Interventions Three monitoring strategies: clinical monitoring with quarterly CD4 cell counts and viral load measurement (clinical/CD4/viral load); clinical monitoring and quarterly CD4 counts (clinical/CD4); and clinical monitoring alone. Results With the intention to treat (ITT) results per 100 individuals starting ART, we found that clinical/CD4 monitoring compared with clinical monitoring alone increases costs by $20?458 (£12?780, €14?707) and averts 117.3 DALYs (ICER=$174 per DALY). Clinical/CD4/viral load monitoring compared with clinical/CD4 monitoring adds $142?458, and averts 27.5 DALYs ($5181 per DALY). The superior ICER for clinical/CD4 monitoring is robust to uncertainties in input values, and that strategy is dominant (less expensive and more effective) compared with clinical/CD4/viral load monitoring in one quarter of simulations. If clinical inputs are based on the as treated analysis starting at 90 days (after laboratory monitoring was initiated), then clinical/CD4/viral load monitoring is dominated by other strategies. Conclusions Based on this trial, compared with clinical monitoring alone, monitoring of routine CD4 cell count is considerably more cost effective than additionally including routine viral load testing in the monitoring strategy and is more cost effective than ART.

2011-01-01

239

Characteristics of Normal Equine Tarsal Synovial Fluid  

PubMed Central

Physical, biochemical, and cytologic properties of synovial fluid from normal equine tarsal joints were investigated. Tarsal synovial fluid was pale yellow, clear, free of flocculent material, and did not clot. Volume varied in direct proportion to individual tarsal joint size. Relative viscosity was related to volume, polymerization and quantity of hyaluronic acid, and protein concentration. Mucinous precipitate quality (hyaluronic acid polymerization) was uniformly high. Results of certain analyses of serum were compared with those of tarsal synovial fluid. Tarsal synovial fluid protein concentration was low in conjunction with a high A:G ratio. Serum: synovial fluid sugar ratio was 1.24:1. Serum ALP, ACP, LDH, GOT, and GPT activity levels were higher than their corresponding levels of activity in tarsal synovial fluid. Serum ALD activity level was slightly lower than its tarsal synovial fluid counterpart. Total erythrocyte counts ranged markedly, while total leukocyte counts were uniform and low. Lymphocytes were the predominant synovial fluid cell type. ImagesFig. 1.

Pelt, R. W. Van

1967-01-01

240

Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells from EGFP Transgenic Mice Attenuate Hyperoxia-Induced Acute Lung Injury  

PubMed Central

High concentrations of oxygen aggravate the severity of lung injury in patients requiring mechanical ventilation. Although mesenchymal stem cells have been shown to effectively attenuate various injured tissues, there is limited information regarding a role for amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs) in treating acute lung injury. We hypothesized that intravenous delivery of AFSCs would attenuate lung injury in an experimental model of hyperoxia-induced lung injury. AFSCs were isolated from EGFP transgenic mice. The in vitro differentiation, surface markers, and migration of the AFSCs were assessed by specific staining, flow cytometry, and a co-culture system, respectively. The in vivo therapeutic potential of AFSCs was evaluated in a model of acute hyperoxia-induced lung injury in mice. The administration of AFSCs significantly reduced the hyperoxia-induced pulmonary inflammation, as reflected by significant reductions in lung wet/dry ratio, neutrophil counts, and the level of apoptosis, as well as reducing the levels of inflammatory cytokine (IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-?) and early-stage fibrosis in lung tissues. Moreover, EGFP-expressing AFSCs were detected and engrafted into a peripheral lung epithelial cell lineage by fluorescence microscopy and DAPI stain. Intravenous administration of AFSCs may offer a new therapeutic strategy for acute lung injury (ALI), for which efficient treatments are currently unavailable.

Lai, Cheng-Wei; Yen, Chih-Ching; Lee, Kun-Hsiung; Wu, Shinn-Chih; Chen, Chuan-Mu

2013-01-01

241

White Blood Cell Count in Women: Relation to Inflammatory Biomarkers, Haematological Profiles, Visceral Adiposity, and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors  

PubMed Central

The role of white blood cell (WBC) count in pathogenesis of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and obesity-related disorders has been reported earlier. Recent studies revealed that higher WBC contributes to atherosclerotic progression and impaired fasting glucose. However, it is unknown whether variations in WBC and haematologic profiles can occur in healthy obese individuals. The aim of this study is to further evaluate the influence of obesity on WBC count, inflammatory biomarkers, and metabolic risk factors in healthy women to establish a relationship among variables analyzed. The sample of the present study consisted of 84 healthy women with mean age of 35.56±6.83 years. They were categorized into two groups based on their body mass index (BMI): obese group with BMI >30 kg/m2 and non-obese group with BMI <30 kg/m2. We evaluated the relationship between WBC and platelet count (PLT) with serum interleukin 6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), angiotensin ? (Ang ?), body fat percentage (BF %), waist-circumference (WC), and lipid profile. WBC, PLT, CRP, and IL-6 in obese subjects were significantly higher than in non-obese subjects (p< 0.05). The mean WBC count in obese subjects was 6.4±0.3 (×109/L) compared to 4.4±0.3 (×109/L) in non-obese subjects (p=0.035). WBC correlated with BF% (r=0.31, p=0.004), CRP (r=0.25, P=0.03), WC (r=0.22, p=0.04), angiotensin ? (r=0.24, p=0.03), triglyceride (r=0.24, p=0.03), and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) levels (r=0.3, p=0.028) but not with IL-6. Platelet count was also associated with WC and waist-to-hip ratio (p<0.05). Haemoglobin and haematocrit were in consistent relationship with LDL-cholesterol (p<0.05). In conclusion, obesity was associated with higher WBC count and inflammatory parameters. There was also a positive relationship between WBC count and several inflammatory and metabolic risk factors in healthy women.

Farhangi, Mahdieh Abbasalizad; Keshavarz, Seyyed-Ali; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Ostadrahimi, Alireza

2013-01-01

242

White blood cell count in women: relation to inflammatory biomarkers, haematological profiles, visceral adiposity, and other cardiovascular risk factors.  

PubMed

The role of white blood cell (WBC) count in pathogenesis of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and obesity-related disorders has been reported earlier. Recent studies revealed that higher WBC contributes to atherosclerotic progression and impaired fasting glucose. However, it is unknown whether variations in WBC and haematologic profiles can occur in healthy obese individuals. The aim of this study is to further evaluate the influence of obesity on WBC count, inflammatory biomarkers, and metabolic risk factors in healthy women to establish a relationship among variables analyzed. The sample of the present study consisted of 84 healthy women with mean age of 35.56 +/- 6.83 years. They were categorized into two groups based on their body mass index (BMI): obese group with BMI > 30 kg/m2 and non-obese group with BMI < 30 kg/m2. We evaluated the relationship between WBC and platelet count (PLT) with serum interleukin 6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), angiotensin pi (Ang pi), body fat percentage (BF %), waist-circumference (WC), and lipid profile. WBC, PLT, CRP, and IL-6 in obese subjects were significantly higher than in non-obese subjects (p < 0.05). The mean WBC count in obese subjects was 6.4 +/- 0.3 (x10(9)/L) compared to 4.4 +/- 0.3 (x10(9)/L) in non-obese subjects (p = 0.035). WBC correlated with BF% (r = 0.31, p = 0.004), CRP (r = 0.25, P = 0.03), WC (r = 0.22, p = 0.04), angiotensin 11 (r = 0.24, p = 0.03), triglyceride (r = 0.24, p = 0.03), and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) levels (r = 0.3, p = 0.028) but not with IL-6. Platelet count was also associated with WC and waist-to-hip ratio (p < 0.05). Haemoglobin and haematocrit were in consistent relationship with LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.05). In conclusion, obesity was associated with higher WBC count and inflammatory parameters. There was also a positive relationship between WBC count and several inflammatory and metabolic risk factors in healthy women. PMID:23617205

Farhangi, Mahdieh Abbasalizad; Keshavarz, Seyyed-Ali; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Saboor-Yaraghi, Ali-Akbar

2013-03-01

243

White Blood Cell Counts in Persons Aged 65 Years or More from the Cardiovascular Health Study Correlations with Baseline Clinical and Demographic Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A higher white blood cell (WBC) count has been shown to be a risk factor for myocardial infarction and stroke in middle-aged populations. This study evaluated the relation between baseline WBC count and other risk factors, as well as subclinical and prevalent disease, in the Cardiovascular Health Study, an epidemiologic study of coronary heart disease and stroke in 5,201 persons

Edwin G. Bovill; Diane E. Bild; Gerardo Heiss; Lewis H. Kuller; Marshall H. Lee; Robert Rock; Patricia W. Wahl

244

Relationship between baseline white blood cell count and degree of coronary artery disease and mortality in patients with acute coronary syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThis study was designed to determine the relationship between baseline white blood cell (WBC) count and angiographic and clinical outcomes in patients with unstable angina (UA)\\/non–ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and to see if WBC count was a significant predictor of outcomes independent of other biomarkers.

Marc S Sabatine; David A Morrow; Christopher P Cannon; Sabina A Murphy; Laura A Demopoulos; Peter M DiBattiste; Carolyn H McCabe; Eugene Braunwald; C. Michael Gibson

2002-01-01

245

[Laparoscopic left partial nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma associated with ITP with platelet count of 10,000/?L].  

PubMed

A 58-year-old man from Brazil was followed as an outpatient with asymptomatic macroglobulinemia and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). Abdominal enhanced computed tomographic (CT) scan for elevated liver enzymes revealed a left renal tumor. The tumor was in the middle outer left kidney, measured 18 mm in diameter, was discovered in its early phase, and appeared half exophytic. After investigations, the patient was diagnosed with left renal cell carcinoma associated with ITP. His preoperative platelet count was 10,000/?l ; five days of intravenous gamma globulin therapy with high-dose dexamethasone increased the platelet count to 76,000/?l just before operation. Laparoscopic left partial nephrectomy was performed successfully using the retroperitoneal approach. The renal artery was clamped and the tumor excised with an adequate margin. Renal parenchymal repair was completed using running sutures. Ischemia time was 16 minutes. There was no severe oozing of blood intraoperatively. The platelet count decreased to 15,000/?l on postoperative day three (POD 3), and there was oozing of blood around the retroperitoneal drain tube. The bleeding stopped after administration of platelet transfusion. The patient was discharged on POD 9. The histopathological diagnosis was clear cell carcinoma, and surgical margins were negative. PMID:24419010

Kubota, Yasuaki; Horie, Kengo; Nagai, Shingo; Maeda, Shinichi; Ogawa, Mika

2013-12-01

246

Reduction in Preterm Delivery and Neonatal Mortality after the Introduction of Antenatal Cotrimoxazole Prophylaxis among HIV-Infected Women with Low CD4 Cell Counts  

PubMed Central

Background. Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis is recommended for subgroups of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults and children to reduce all-cause morbidity and mortality. We investigated whether antenatal cotrimoxazole prophylaxis begun during pregnancy for HIV-infected pregnant women with low CD4 cell counts would affect birth outcomes. Methods. Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis was introduced as a routine component of antenatal care for HIV-infected women with CD4 cell counts <200 cells/?L during the course of a trial of mother-to-child HIV transmission in Lusaka, Zambia. Rates of preterm delivery, low birth weight, and neonatal mortality were compared for women with low CD4 cell counts before and after its introduction. Results. Among 255 women with CD4 cell counts <200 cells/?L, the percentage of preterm births (?34 weeks of gestation) was lower (odds ratio [OR], 0.49 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.24-0.98]) after cotrimoxazole prophylaxis was introduced than before; there was a significant decrease in neonatal mortality (9% to 0%; P = .01) and a trend toward increased birth weight (? = 114 g [95% CI, -42 to 271 g]). In contrast, there were no significant changes in these parameters over the same time interval among women with CD4 cell counts ?200 cells/?L. Conclusion. Antenatal provision of cotrimoxazole for HIV-infected pregnant women with low CD4 cell counts may have indirect benefits for neonatal health.

Walter, Jan; Mwiya, Mwiya; Scott, Nancy; Kasonde, Prisca; Sinkala, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Kauchali, Shuaib; Aldrovandi, Grace M.; Thea, Donald M.; Kuhn, Louise

2006-01-01

247

Cell morphology in long-term cultures of normal and abnormal amniotic fluids.  

PubMed

The cell morphology of long-term cultures of amniotic fluid cells from 10 fetuses with a neural tube defect (NTD) and three with omphalocele was examined and compared to 30 long-term cultures of normal amniotic fluids as well as a long-term culture of human fetal brain. Cultures from the amniotic fluids of the fetuses with NTD and omphalocele showed cells with the same general characteristics as normal amniotic fluid cells. However, the cultures of amniotic fluid cells from NTD pregnancies had an additional cell type also seen in fetal brain culture. This was a neuroblast-like cell, with small rounded refractile morphology and long branching processes forming clusters of varying sizes which lay on top of large flat cells. These neuroblast-like cells diminished in number with time in culture and were not present in subcultures. Their possible neuronal origin is discussed. PMID:6179850

Medina-Gómez, P; Johnston, T H

1982-01-01

248

Development of cloned embryos from porcine neural stem cells and amniotic fluid-derived stem cells.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the developmental ability of cloned embryos derived from porcine neural stem (NS) cells, amniotic fluid-derived stem (AFS) cells, differentiated cells from NS and AFS cells, fetal fibroblast (FF) cells, adult fibroblast (AF) cells and mammary gland epithelial (MGE) cells. NS, AFS and FF cells were isolated from embryonic day 30 porcine fetus, AF and MGE cells were isolated from adult pig. NS and AFS cells were induced to differentiate into different cell types, respectively. Stem cells and their differentiated cells were harvested for analysis of the markers using reverse transcription PCR. NS and AFS cells, their differentiated cells, FF, AF and MGE cells were used for nuclear transfer, respectively. A total of 100 two-cell stage cloned embryos derived from each cell line were transferred into the oviducts of surrogate mothers. The results showed that the neurospheres were positive for the undifferentiated neural cell marker, Nestin and NS cells widely expressed NogoA, DCX, CyclinD2, CD133, Hes1, Oct4, Desmin, CD-90, Nanog and Sox2. AFS cells widely expressed NogoA, DCX, CyclinD2, CD133, Hes1, Nanog, Sox2, Oct4, Desmin and CD-90. Both NS and AFS cells were differentiated into astrocyte (GFAP+), oligodendrocyte (GalC+), neuron (NF+, NSE+ and MAP2+), adipocyte (LPL+ and PPAR?-D+), osteoblast (Osteonectin+ and Osteocalcin+), myocyte (myf-6+ and myoD+) and endothelium (CD31+, CD34+, CD144+ and eNOS+). Four cloned fetuses (28 and 32 days) derived from NS and AFS cells were obtained. The developmental potential of the cloned embryos derived from stem cells (NS and AFS cells) were higher (P < 0.05) than that of the cloned embryos derived from somatic cells (the differentiated cells from NS and AFS cells, FF cells, AF cells and MGE cells), which suggests that the undifferentiated state of the donor cells increases cloning efficiency. PMID:22444263

Zhao, X E; Zheng, Y M

2010-06-01

249

CD4 T Cell Survival Following Intermittent IL-2 Therapy is Predictive of Increase in CD4 T Cell Count in HIV-Infected Patients  

PubMed Central

Administration of IL-2 to HIV-infected patients leads to significant increases in CD4 T cell counts. Previously we have shown that IL-2 induces increased proliferation and survival of CD4 T cells. Deuterium labeling studies were undertaken to study the relationship between IL-2 induced increases in CD4 T cell numbers and IL-2 effects on cell proliferation and survival. A strong inverse correlation was seen between the decay rate of label in CD4 cells and increases in CD4 cell numbers (R= -0.67; p<0.001). This correlation was not seen with the level of proliferating cells. Although the baseline CD4 cell count and number of CD4 cells expressing CD25 were also predictive of CD4 cell increases, the decay rate remained the most statistically significant predictor in multivariate regression models. Thus, increase in survival of CD4 T cells appears to be the critical mechanism leading to sustained CD4 cell increases in HIV-infected patients receiving intermittent IL-2 therapy.

Read, Sarah W.; Lempicki, Richard A.; Di Mascio, Michele; Srinivasula, Sharat; Burke, Rosanne; Sachau, William; Bosche, Marjorie; Adelsberger, Joseph W.; Sereti, Irini; Davey, Richard T.; Tavel, Jorge A.; Huang, Chiung-Yu; Issaq, Haleem J.; Fox, Stephen D.; Clifford Lane, H.; Kovacs, Joseph A.

2009-01-01

250

Highly Sensitive Automated Method for DNA Damage Assessment: Gamma-H2AX Foci Counting and Cell Cycle Sorting  

PubMed Central

Phosphorylation of the H2AX protein is an early step in the double strand break (DSB) repair pathway; therefore, phosphorylated histone (?H2AX) foci scoring is widely used as a measure for DSBs. Foci scoring is performed either manually or semi-automatically using hand-operated capturing and image analysis software. In general, both techniques are laborious and prone to artifacts associated with manual scoring. While a few fully automated methods have been described in the literature, none of them have been used to quantify ?H2AX foci in combination with a cell cycle phase analysis. Adding this feature to a rapid automated ?H2AX foci quantification method would reduce the scoring uncertainty that arises from the variations in the background level of the ?H2AX signal throughout the cell cycle. The method was set up to measure DNA damage induced in human mammary epithelial cells by irradiation under a mammogram device. We adapted a FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization) Spot-counting system, which has a slide loader with automatic scanning and cell capture system throughout the thickness of each cell (z-stack), to meet our assay requirements. While scanning the sample, the system classifies the selected nuclei according to the signal patterns previously described by the user. For our purposes, a double staining immunofluorescence was carried out with antibodies to detect ?H2AX and pericentrin, an integral component of the centrosome. We could thus distinguish both the number of ?H2AX foci per cell and the cell cycle phase. Furthermore, restrictive settings of the program classifier reduced the “touching nuclei” problem described in other image analysis software. The automated scoring was faster than and as sensitive as its manually performed counterpart. This system is a reliable tool for ?H2AX radio-induced foci counting and provides essential information about the cell cycle stage. It thus offers a more complete and rapid assessment of DNA damage.

Hernandez, Laia; Terradas, Mariona; Martin, Marta; Tusell, Laura; Genesca, Anna

2013-01-01

251

Discontinuation of Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia Prophylaxis with CD4 Count <200 Cells/uL and Virologic Suppression: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background HIV viral load (VL) is currently not part of the criteria for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) prophylaxis discontinuation, but suppression of plasma viremia with antiretroviral therapy may allow for discontinuation of PCP prophylaxis even with CD4 count <200 cells/µL. Methods A systematic review was performed to determine the incidence of PCP in HIV-infected individuals with CD4 count <200 cells/µL and fully suppressed VL on antiretroviral therapy but not receiving PCP prophylaxis. Results Four articles examined individuals who discontinued PCP prophylaxis with CD4 count <200 cells/µL in the context of fully suppressed VL on antiretroviral therapy. The overall incidence of PCP was 0.48 cases per 100 person-years (PY) (95% confidence interval (CI) (0.06–0.89). This was lower than the incidence of PCP in untreated HIV infection (5.30 cases/100 PY, 95% CI 4.1–6.8) and lower than the incidence in persons with CD4 count <200 cells/µL, before the availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), who continued prophylaxis (4.85/100 PY, 95% CI 0.92–8.78). In one study in which individuals were stratified according to CD4 count <200 cells/µL, there was a greater risk of PCP with CD4 count ?100 cells/µL compared to 101–200 cells/µL. Conclusion Primary PCP prophylaxis may be safely discontinued in HIV-infected individuals with CD4 count between 101–200 cells/µL provided the VL is fully suppressed on antiretroviral therapy. However, there are inadequate data available to make this recommendation when the CD4 count is ?100 cells/µL. A revision of guidelines on primary PCP prophylaxis to include consideration of the VL is merited.

Costiniuk, Cecilia T.; Fergusson, Dean A.; Doucette, Steve; Angel, Jonathan B.

2011-01-01

252

Counting Coins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We are learning about money and how to count coins. We need to learn about coins so we can pay for things we need to buy. These activities will help you practice counting money. Remember to record your learning as you work! Coin Paper We have been learning about coins. Listen to the coin song to remember the names of U.S. coins. U.S. Coin Song Before we can count coins, we need to know the names of the different coins and how much each coin is worth. Click the link below to review ...

Thorsen

2012-11-24

253

EQUIVALENCE OF MICROBIAL BIOMASS MEASURES BASED ON MEMBRANE LIPID AND CELL WALL COMPONENTS, ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE, AND DIRECT COUNTS IN SUBSURFACE AQUIFER SEDIMENTS (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

An uncontaminated subsurface aquifer sediment contains a sparse microbial community consisting primarily of coccobacillary bacteria of relatively uniform size which can be counted directly with appropriate straining. The morphological simplicity and the relatively decreased cell ...

254

Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid IFN-?+ Th17 Cells and Regulatory T Cells in Pulmonary Sarcoidosis  

PubMed Central

In sarcoidosis, increased Th17 cell fractions have been reported in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and elevated numbers of Th17 cells producing IFN-? have been observed in peripheral blood. The balance between Th1, Th17, and FoxP3+ CD4+ T cell subsets in sarcoidosis remains unclear. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells, from 30 patients with sarcoidosis, 18 patients with other diffuse parenchymal lung diseases, and 15 healthy controls, were investigated with flow cytometry for intracellular expression of FoxP3. In a subset of the patients, expression of the cytokines IL17A and IFN-? was investigated. The fractions of FoxP3+ CD4+ T cells and Th17 cells were both lower in sarcoidosis compared to controls (P = 0.017 and P = 0.011, resp.). The proportion of Th17 cells positive for IFN-? was greater in sarcoidosis than controls (median 72.4% versus 31%, P = 0.0005) and increased with radiologic stage (N = 23, rho = 0.45, and P = 0.03). IFN-?+ Th17 cells were highly correlated with Th1 cells (N = 23, rho = 0.64, and P = 0.001), and the ratio of IFN-?+ Th17/FoxP3+ CD4+ T cells was prominently increased in sarcoidosis. IFN-?+ Th17 cells may represent a pathogenic subset of Th17 cells, yet their expression of IFN-? could be a consequence of a Th1-polarized cytokine milieu. Our results indicate a possible immune cell imbalance in sarcoidosis.

T?ndell, Anders; Moen, Torolf; B?rset, Magne; Salvesen, ?yvind; R?, Anne Dorthea; Sue-Chu, Malcolm

2014-01-01

255

Human red blood cells deformed under thermal fluid flow.  

PubMed

The flow-induced mechanical deformation of a human red blood cell (RBC) during thermal transition between room temperature and 42.0 degrees C is interrogated by laser tweezer experiments. Based on the experimental geometry of the deformed RBC, the surface stresses are determined with the aid of computational fluid dynamics simulation. It is found that the RBC is more deformable while heating through 37.0 degrees C to 42.0 degrees C, especially at a higher flow velocity due to a thermal-fluid effect. More importantly, the degree of RBC deformation is irreversible and becomes softer, and finally reaches a plateau (at a uniform flow velocity U > 60 microm s(-1)) after the heat treatment, which is similar to a strain-hardening dominated process. In addition, computational simulated stress is found to be dependent on the progression of thermotropic phase transition. Overall, the current study provides new insights into the highly coupled temperature and hydrodynamic effects on the biomechanical properties of human erythrocyte in a model hydrodynamic flow system. PMID:18458379

Foo, Ji-Jinn; Chan, Vincent; Feng, Zhi-Qin; Liu, Kuo-Kang

2006-03-01

256

Somatostatin Inhibits Cell Migration and Reduces Cell Counts of Human Keratinocytes and Delays Epidermal Wound Healing in an Ex Vivo Wound Model  

PubMed Central

The peptide hormone somatostatin (SST) and its five G protein-coupled receptors (SSTR1-5) were described to be present in the skin, but their cutaneous function(s) and skin-specific signalling mechanisms are widely unknown. By using receptor specific agonists we show here that the SSTRs expressed in keratinocytes are functionally coupled to the inhibition of adenylate cyclase. In addition, treatment with SSTR4 and SSTR5/1 specific agonists significantly influences the MAP kinase signalling pathway. As epidermal hormone receptors in general are known to regulate re-epithelialization following skin injury, we investigated the effect of SST on cell counts and migration of human keratinocytes. Our results demonstrate a significant inhibition of cell migration and reduction of cell counts by SST. We do not observe an effect on apoptosis and necrosis. Analysis of signalling pathways showed that somatostatin inhibits cell migration independent of its effect on cAMP. Migrating keratinocytes treated with SST show altered cytoskeleton dynamics with delayed lamellipodia formation. Furthermore, the activity of the small GTPase Rac1 is diminished, providing evidence for the control of the actin cytoskeleton by somatostatin receptors in keratinocytes. While activation of all receptors leads to redundant effects on cell migration, only treatment with a SSTR5/1 specific agonist resulted in decreased cell counts. In accordance with reduced cell counts and impaired migration we observe delayed re-epithelialization in an ex vivo wound healing model. Consequently, our experiments suggest SST as a negative regulator of epidermal wound healing.

Breitenbach, Ute; Ridderbusch, Ina; Kreienkamp, Hans-Jurgen; Brandner, Johanna M.

2011-01-01

257

Clock Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will practice telling time. Review clock counting with the interactive clock. Now match the clocks. Move over the hour clock to see if you chose correctly. Click the arrows to match the dragon clock to the written time. ...

Mcduffee, Ms.

2008-11-12

258

Counting carbohydrates  

MedlinePLUS

Carbohydrates are found in fruit, cereal, bread, pasta, and rice. They are quickly turned into a sugar ... sugar better if they can count how many carbohydrates they eat. Your dietitian will teach you a ...

259

OpenCFU, a new free and open-source software to count cell colonies and other circular objects.  

PubMed

Counting circular objects such as cell colonies is an important source of information for biologists. Although this task is often time-consuming and subjective, it is still predominantly performed manually. The aim of the present work is to provide a new tool to enumerate circular objects from digital pictures and video streams. Here, I demonstrate that the created program, OpenCFU, is very robust, accurate and fast. In addition, it provides control over the processing parameters and is implemented in an intuitive and modern interface. OpenCFU is a cross-platform and open-source software freely available at http://opencfu.sourceforge.net. PMID:23457446

Geissmann, Quentin

2013-01-01

260

OpenCFU, a New Free and Open-Source Software to Count Cell Colonies and Other Circular Objects  

PubMed Central

Counting circular objects such as cell colonies is an important source of information for biologists. Although this task is often time-consuming and subjective, it is still predominantly performed manually. The aim of the present work is to provide a new tool to enumerate circular objects from digital pictures and video streams. Here, I demonstrate that the created program, OpenCFU, is very robust, accurate and fast. In addition, it provides control over the processing parameters and is implemented in an intuitive and modern interface. OpenCFU is a cross-platform and open-source software freely available at http://opencfu.sourceforge.net.

Geissmann, Quentin

2013-01-01

261

Cerenkov counting.  

PubMed

When auditing research laboratories, health physics personnel are often alarmed to find liquid scintillation vials that only contain filters and no cocktail. They are then surprised when lab personnel state that they don't need cocktail to count their samples. While not frequently used by the health physicist, counting of samples by using Cerenkov radiation is valid and advantageous when correctly used. PMID:11045514

BenZikri, A

2000-11-01

262

Choral Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a whole group, have students chant the counting sequence starting with one to thirty, using the pointer to follow the number sequence. Over time, increase the range to one to fifty and then one to one hundred. Eventually have a student take over the job of pointing out the numbers in the sequence. Highlight the multiples of ten using a marker or a colored screen and have students chant the counting sequence by 10s. This should be done daily.

Mathematics, Illustrative

2012-07-31

263

Ageing & long-term CD4 cell count trends in HIV-positive patients with 5 years or more combination antiretroviral therapy experience  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this analysis is to describe the long-term changes in CD4 cell counts beyond 5 years of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). If natural ageing leads to a long-term decline in the immune system via low-grade chronic immune activation/inflammation, then one might expect to see a greater or earlier decline in CD4 counts in older HIV-positive patients with increasing duration of cART. Methods Retrospective and prospective data were examined from long-term virologically stable HIV-positive adults from the Australian HIV Observational Database. We estimated mean CD4 cell counts changes following the completion of 5 years of cART using linear mixed models. Results A total of 37,916 CD4 measurements were observed for 892 patients over a combined total of 9,753 patient years. Older patients (>50 years) at cART initiation had estimated mean(95% confidence interval) change in CD4 counts by Year-5 CD4 count strata (<500, 501–750 and >750 cells/?L) of 14(7 to 21), 3(?5 to 11) and ?6(?17 to 4) cells/?L/year. Of the CD4 cell count rates of change estimated, none were indicative of long-term declines in CD4 cell counts. Conclusions Our results suggest that duration of cART and increasing age does not result in decreasing mean changes in CD4 cell counts for long-term virologically suppressed patients. Indicating that level of immune recovery achieved during the first 5 years of treatment are sustained through long-term cART.

WRIGHT, ST; PETOUMENOS, K; BOYD, M; CARR, A; DOWNING, S; O'CONNOR, CC; GROTOWSKI, M; LAW, MG

2012-01-01

264

Comparison of automated differential blood cell counts from Abbott Sapphire, Siemens Advia 120, Beckman Coulter DxH 800, and Sysmex XE-2100 in normal and pathologic samples.  

PubMed

Reliable automated blood cell characterization and quantification remain challenging in pathologic samples, whereas slide reviews due to unnecessary flagging should be avoided. We compared 4 modern hematology analyzers-Abbott Sapphire, Siemens Advia 120, Sysmex XE-2100, and Beckman Coulter DxH 800-regarding complete blood cell count (CBC), leukocyte differential count, and flagging efficacy in a total of 202 samples from hematology patients and normal controls. Manual differential count was used as reference. The analyzers exhibited very good correlation for CBC parameters. Neutrophils and eosinophils also showed very good correlations, whereas lymphocytes and monocytes correlated fairly. The Advia 120 displayed notably lower measurements for both parameters, which is attributable to classification of some events as large unstained cells. Basophil counts were unreliable with all analyzers. Flagging for blasts and immature granulocytes showed moderate sensitivity and specificity. Operators must not rely on blast flagging alone to detect leukemic samples with any analyzer. PMID:23596116

Meintker, Lisa; Ringwald, Jürgen; Rauh, Manfred; Krause, Stefan W

2013-05-01

265

Factors associated with short-term changes in HIV viral load and CD4+ cell count in antiretroviral-naive individuals  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Among antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive individuals, viral load levels tend to increase and CD4+ cell counts decline over time. We sought to explore the rate of change and influence of other factors associated with these markers of HIV progression. Design: An observational cohort collaboration study. Methods: A total of 158?385 pairs of consecutive viral load and CD4+ cell count simultaneously measured from 34?384 ART-naive individuals in the COHERE database were analysed. Annual changes and factors associated with these changes were estimated using generalized estimating equations. Results: Viral load continued to rise at a mean [95% confidence interval (CI)] rate of 0.091 (0.086–0.096) log10?copies/ml per year. A faster rise in viral load was significantly associated with older age, such that for every 10 years older, it was a mean 0.022 log10?copies/ml per year greater. The mean (95% CI) CD4+ cell count change was ?78.0 (?80.1 to ?76.0) cell/?l per year and it was strongly associated with a higher current viral load: for every 1 log10?copies/ml higher, CD4+ cell count declined by an additional 37.6?cells/?l per year (P?cell count depletion than baseline viral load. Neither sex, race nor transmission by injecting drug use was associated with change in either the viral load or CD4+ cell count. Discussion: We found that in ART-naive individuals, viral load continues to increase over time and more sharply in those who are older. Our results also suggest that higher current viral load is strongly associated with ongoing rate of CD4+ cell count depletion.

2014-01-01

266

Micro Total Analysis System (?TAS) for Stem Cells separation and counting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hematopoietic stem\\/progenitor cells (HSC) have vast potential for use in medical applications (such as bone marrow transplantations) and the separation of these cells from blood has an important role in the stem cells research (1). However, the most usual techniques, (MACS TM ) and (FACS), have some drawbacks like being cell-loosing or very time-consuming. This works is in the area

J. Loureiro; S. Cardoso; C. L. Silva; J. M. Cabral; P. P. Freitas; Rua Alves Redol

2008-01-01

267

CD34 counts to predict the adequate collection of peripheral blood progenitor cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

An essential prerequisite for successful procurement of sufficient autologous peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) for engraftment is the optimal timing of collection. A number of surrogate markers of peripheral blood progenitor cells were analysed to identify a single test which could predict the optimum time to harvest, providing at least 2 × 106 CD34+ cells\\/kg patient body weight. The study

S Armitage; R Hargreaves; D Samson; M Brennan; E Kanfer; C Navarrete

1997-01-01

268

Cell separation and transportation between two miscible fluid streams using ultrasound  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a two-stream microfluidic system for transporting cells or micro-sized particles from one fluid stream to another by acoustophoresis. The two fluid streams, one being the original suspension and the other being the destination fluid, flow parallel to each other in a microchannel. Using a half-wave acoustic standing wave across the channel width, cells or particles with positive acoustic contrast factors are moved to the destination fluid where the pressure nodal line lies. By controlling the relative flow rate of the two fluid streams, the pressure nodal line can be maintained at a specific offset from the fluid interface within the destination fluid. Using this transportation method, particles or cells of different sizes and mechanical properties can be separated. The cells experiencing a larger acoustic radiation force are separated and transported from the original suspension to the destination fluid stream. The other particles or cells experiencing a smaller acoustic radiation force continue flowing in the original solution. Experiments were conducted to demonstrate the effective separation of polystyrene microbeads of different sizes (3??m and 10??m) and waterborne parasites (Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum). Diffusion occurs between the two miscible fluids, but it was found to have little effects on the transport and separation process, even when the two fluids have different density and speed of sound.

Liu, Yang; Hartono, Deny; Lim, Kian-Meng

2012-01-01

269

The effect of opportunistic illness on HIV RNA viral load and CD4+ T cell count among HIV-positive adults taking antiretroviral therapy  

PubMed Central

Introduction HIV RNA viral load (VL) has been shown to increase during opportunistic illnesses (OIs), suggesting active HIV replication in response to infection among patients not taking antiretroviral therapy (ART). We assessed the effects of OIs on HIV RNA VL and CD4+ T cell counts among patients on ART with initially suppressed VL. Methods Between 2003 and 2007, we enrolled and followed 1094 HIV-1-infected adults who initiated ART and had quarterly blood draws for VL and CD4+ T cell count. In VL/CD4+ T cell measurement intervals following undetectable VL, we compared the elevation in VL to detectable levels and CD4+ T cell count changes between intervals when participants had episodes of OIs and intervals when they did not have OIs. Results VL was more likely to be detectable if participants had OIs in the prior three months compared to when they did not (OR=4.0 (95% CI=1.9–8.6)). The CD4+ T cell counts declined 24.1 cells/µL per three months in intervals where the participants had OIs compared to an increase of 21.3 cells/µL per three months in intervals where they did not have OIs (adjusted difference in the rate of CD4+ T cell count change of 61.7 cells/µL per three months (95% CI=13.7–109.7), P value=0.012). The rate of CD4+ T cell count increase was 25.6 cells/µL per three months (95% CI=11.6–39.6) higher for females compared to males (p value=<0.001), 1.4 cells/µL per three months lower per one year increase in age (p value=0.046) and 4 cells/µL per three months lower per 10 cells/µL increase in the starting CD4+ T cell count value (p value=<0.001). Conclusion Episodes of opportunistic infections among patients taking ART with undetectable VL were associated with elevation of HIV RNA VL to detectable levels and decline in CD4+ T cell counts. Clinical Trial Number: NCT00119093.

Ekwaru, John P; Campbell, James; Malamba, Samuel; Moore, David M; Were, Willy; Mermin, Jonathan

2013-01-01

270

Complete blood count - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... of blood cells. It can reflect acute or chronic infection, allergies, and problems with clotting. The CBC test isolates and counts the 7 types of cells found in the blood: neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil, red blood cell, lymphocyte, monocyte, and platelet.

271

Short and Long-Term Incidence of Tuberculosis and CD4-Cell Count Dynamic on HAART in Senegal  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Estimate tuberculosis (TB) incidence among patients receiving HAART. Compare the dynamic of the CD4-cell count and viral load before notification of the TB with the dynamic among patients remaining free of TB. Design: Prospective cohort with ascertainment of TB cases from medical records. Methods: The first 404 adults HIV-1 infected patients enrolled in the Senegalese antiretroviral drug access initiative were eligible. CD4-cell and viral load were assessed at baseline and every 6 months. Patients receiving an antituberculosis treatment at HAART initiation were excluded from analysis. Any TB case notified after the first month of HAART was considered as an incident case. Follow-up was censored at death or at the last visit before March 31, 2008. CD4-cell trajectories until TB notification were compared to non-TB developers within two distinct periods: from HAART initiation to 24 months and after. Results: Over 404 eligible patients, 352 were included in this analysis. Median follow-up reached 73 months and 1821 person-years were accrued. Half of the 42 incident cases were notified before month 19 of HAART yielding to an overall incident rate of 2.3/100 PY [1.7-3.1]. Annual incidence decreased with duration of HAART (trend in incidence: RR=0.26, p<10-4). During the first period, CD4-cell count dynamic of most TB patients was identical to the dynamic among patients remaining free of TB. Most cases of the second period occurred in a context of an immunological failure. Conclusions: This study provides an estimate of TB incidence among patients on HAART in Senegal and supports two underlying mechanisms.

Etard, Jean-Francois; Diouf, Assane; De Beaudrap, Pierre; Akoi, Koivugui; Ngom-Gueye, Ndeye Fatou; Ndiaye, Ibrahima; Ecochard, Rene; Sow, Papa Salif; Eric, Delaporte

2009-01-01

272

Detection of maternal cell contamination in amniotic fluid cell cultures using fluorescent labelled microsatellites.  

PubMed

A rapid PCR based assay was used to ascertain the presence of maternal cell contamination (MCC) in amniotic fluid cell cultures and to exclude MCC in cases where cytogenetic analysis was possible only from one primary cell culture. Six 6-carboxyfluorescein (FAM) and three 6-carboxyfluorescein hexachloride (HEX) labelled primer sets were used to amplify two tetra- and seven dinucleotide repeat polymorphisms. The PCR amplifications were multiplexed in (three) three primer set reactions and visualised on an Applied Biosystems 373A sequencer running Genescan 672 software. The microsatellite products obtained from 200 amniotic fluid cell cultures where the karyotype was female were compared against corresponding maternal blood PCR products. A single case of MCC was detected indicating the usefulness of such assays. We suggest that screening for MCC should be considered in instances where the amniotic fluid sample is bloodstained or was obtained with difficulty, or where the karyotype is female and chromosome analysis is not possible from more than one primary cell culture. PMID:7897630

Smith, G W; Graham, C A; Nevin, J; Nevin, N C

1995-01-01

273

Single molecule transcript counting of stem cell markers in the mouse intestine  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Determining the molecular identities of adult stem cells requires novel technologies for sensitive transcript detection in tissues. In mouse intestinal crypts, lineage-tracing studies suggested that different genes uniquely mark spatially distinct stem-cell populations, residing either at crypt bases or at position +4, but a detailed analysis of their spatial co-expression has not been feasible. Here we apply three-color single molecule fluorescence in-situ hybridization to study a comprehensive panel of intestinal stem-cell markers during homeostasis, aging and regeneration. We find that the expression of all markers overlap at crypt-base-cells. This co-expression includes Lgr5, Bmi1 and mTert, genes previously suggested to mark distinct stem cells. Strikingly, Dcamkl-1 tuft cells, distributed throughout the crypt axis, co-express Lgr5 and other stem cell markers that are otherwise confined to crypt bases. We also detect significant changes in the expression of some of the markers following irradiation, suggesting their potential role in the regeneration process. Our approach can enable the sensitive detection of putative stem cells in other tissues and in tumours, guiding complementary functional studies to evaluate their stem-cell properties.

Itzkovitz, Shalev; Lyubimova, Anna; Blat, Irene; Maynard, Mindy; van Es, Johan; Lees, Jacqueline; Jacks, Tyler; Clevers, Hans; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

2012-01-01

274

Counting Coins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this iOS app students practice counting U.S. coins by matching the value, making the total, telling how much, and creating their own values. Students drag coins onto a digital mat or enter values with a keypad to complete the tasks, and then receive feedback.

K12, Inc.

2011-03-23

275

Biodiversity Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this class exercise, students count the number of species they can find in a five minute block of time in both an urban lawn and natural, remnant forest area. The students are introduced to the concept of low and high biodiversity areas and engage in a discussion about biodiversity loss.

Suzanne Savanick, Science Education Resource Center, Carleton College, ssavanic@carleton.edu

276

Shared Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you're interested in checking out the social media shares for various websites, the Shared Count tool is a nice find. Visitors just need to enter the URL in question and then can find out how often the site has been shared on a range of social media platforms. This version is compatible with all operating systems.

Kumar, Neeraj

2014-03-27

277

Counting Circles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have students stand and form a circle facing in toward each other. Select a counting sequence to be practiced with no more than 8-10 numbers in the sequence. Have the students start counting around the circle one by one until the last number in the sequence is reached. When the last number is reached all students clap and that student is out and sits down on the floor in the middle of the circle. Start the counting sequence over again until another student reaches the number at the end of the sequence; everyone claps and that student sits in the center with the first student. Continue repeating the sequence until only one child is left standing and the rest are seated in the center of the circle. For example: for the counting sequence 1-10: the first student says "one," the next student says "two" and so on until the 10th students gets to "ten" at this point everyone claps and the tenth child sits in the center of the circle. The eleventh student starts over with "one" and so on.

Mathematics, Illustrative

2012-07-31

278

White blood cell count and mortality in patients with ischemic and nonischemic left ventricular systolic dysfunction (an analysis of the studies of left ventricular dysfunction [SOLVD])  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a retrospective analysis of the Studies Of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) trials to assess the predictive value of the baseline white blood cell (WBC) count on mortality. Mortality was higher in participants with a baseline WBC count >7,000 compared to those with a baseline WBC ?7,000 (27% vs 21%, p <0.0001). After controlling for important covariates, each increase

Howard A Cooper; Derek V Exner; Myron A Waclawiw; Michael J Domanski

1999-01-01

279

Pretreatment neutrophil count as an independent prognostic factor in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: An analysis of Japan Multinational Trial Organisation LC00-03  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the impact of pretreatment neutrophil count on survival in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A total of 388 chemo-naļve patients with stage IIIB or IV NSCLC from a randomised controlled trial were evaluated. The effects of pretreatment peripheral blood neutrophil, lymphocyte and monocyte counts and neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio on survival were examined using the proportional hazards regression

Satoshi Teramukai; Toshiyuki Kitano; Yusuke Kishida; Masaaki Kawahara; Kaoru Kubota; Kiyoshi Komuta; Koichi Minato; Tadashi Mio; Yuka Fujita; Toshiro Yonei; Kikuo Nakano; Masahiro Tsuboi; Kazuhiko Shibata; Kiyoyuki Furuse; Masanori Fukushima

2009-01-01

280

Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid IFN-? (+) Th17 Cells and Regulatory T Cells in Pulmonary Sarcoidosis.  

PubMed

In sarcoidosis, increased Th17 cell fractions have been reported in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and elevated numbers of Th17 cells producing IFN- ? have been observed in peripheral blood. The balance between Th1, Th17, and FoxP3(+) CD4(+) T cell subsets in sarcoidosis remains unclear. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells, from 30 patients with sarcoidosis, 18 patients with other diffuse parenchymal lung diseases, and 15 healthy controls, were investigated with flow cytometry for intracellular expression of FoxP3. In a subset of the patients, expression of the cytokines IL17A and IFN- ? was investigated. The fractions of FoxP3(+) CD4(+) T cells and Th17 cells were both lower in sarcoidosis compared to controls (P = 0.017 and P = 0.011, resp.). The proportion of Th17 cells positive for IFN- ? was greater in sarcoidosis than controls (median 72.4% versus 31%, P = 0.0005) and increased with radiologic stage (N = 23, rho = 0.45, and P = 0.03). IFN- ? (+) Th17 cells were highly correlated with Th1 cells (N = 23, rho = 0.64, and P = 0.001), and the ratio of IFN- ? (+) Th17/FoxP3(+) CD4(+) T cells was prominently increased in sarcoidosis. IFN- ? (+) Th17 cells may represent a pathogenic subset of Th17 cells, yet their expression of IFN- ? could be a consequence of a Th1-polarized cytokine milieu. Our results indicate a possible immune cell imbalance in sarcoidosis. PMID:24882950

Tųndell, Anders; Moen, Torolf; Bųrset, Magne; Salvesen, Oyvind; Rų, Anne Dorthea; Sue-Chu, Malcolm

2014-01-01

281

Nucleated red blood cell counts in term neonates with umbilical artery pH < or = 7.00.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine whether nucleated red blood cell (NRBC) counts are elevated in term neonates who have severe fetal acidemia at birth. The neonatal NRBC counts of term (gestational age > or = 37 weeks) neonates with pathological acidemia were compared with those from control neonates who met the following criteria: gestational age > or = 37 weeks, birth weight > or = 2800 g, umbilical artery pH > or = 7.25, and a 5-minute APGAR > 7. Pathological acidemia was defined as an umbilical artery pH < or = 7.0 and a base excess > -12 mEq/L. Twenty-six neonates met all inclusion criteria and were compared to 78 controls. The mean NRBC/100 WBC was 11.9 +/- 13.5 (range 0 to 45) for acidemic neonates compared to 3.9 +/- 2.9 NRBC/100 WBC (range 0 to 11) for control neonates [p <0.001]. Our findings suggest that the onset of hypoxia-ischemia in pregnancies complicated by severe fetal acidemia often begins prior to the intrapartum period. PMID:11383706

Blackwell, S C; Refuerzo, J S; Hassan, S S; Wolfe, H M; Berry, S M; Sorokin, Y

2001-01-01

282

Deferoxamine Compensates for Decreases in B Cell Counts and Reduces Mortality in Enterovirus 71-Infected Mice  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 is one of the major causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease in children under six years of age. No vaccine or antiviral therapy is currently available. In this work, we found that the number of B cells was reduced in enterovirus 71-infected mice. Deferoxamine, a marine microbial natural product, compensated for the decreased levels of B cells caused by enterovirus 71 infection. The neutralizing antibody titer was also improved after deferoxamine treatment. Furthermore, deferoxamine relieved symptoms and reduced mortality and muscle damage caused by enterovirus 71 infection. This work suggested that deferoxamine has the potential for further development as a B cell-immunomodulator against enterovirus 71.

Yang, Yajun; Ma, Jing; Xiu, Jinghui; Bai, Lin; Guan, Feifei; Zhang, Li; Liu, Jiangning; Zhang, Lianfeng

2014-01-01

283

Computational fluid dynamics modeling of proton exchange membrane fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

A transient, multi-dimensional model has been developed to simulate proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. The model accounts simultaneously for electrochemical kinetics, current distribution, hydrodynamics and multi-component transport. A single set of conservation equations valid for flow channels, gas-diffusion electrodes, catalyst layers and the membrane region are developed and numerically solved using a finite-volume-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. The numerical model is validated against published experimental data with good agreement. Subsequently, the model is applied to explore hydrogen dilution effects in the anode feed. The predicted polarization cubes under hydrogen dilution conditions are found to be in qualitative agreement with recent experiments reported in the literature. The detailed two-dimensional electrochemical and flow/transport simulations further reveal that in the presence of hydrogen dilution in the fuel stream, hydrogen is depleted at the reaction surface resulting in substantial kinetic polarization and hence a lower current density that is limited by hydrogen transport from the fuel stream to the reaction site.

UM,SUKKEE; WANG,C.Y.; CHEN,KEN S.

2000-02-11

284

Impact on life expectancy of HIV-1 positive individuals of CD4+ cell count and viral load response to antiretroviral therapy  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objective of this study is to estimate life expectancies of HIV-positive patients conditional on response to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods: Patients aged more than 20 years who started ART during 2000–2010 (excluding IDU) in HIV clinics contributing to the UK CHIC Study were followed for mortality until 2012. We determined the latest CD4+ cell count and viral load before ART and in each of years 1–5 of ART. For each duration of ART, life tables based on estimated mortality rates by sex, age, latest CD4+ cell count and viral suppression (HIV-1 RNA <400?copies/ml), were used to estimate expected age at death for ages 20–85 years. Results: Of 21?388 patients who started ART, 961 (4.5%) died during 110?697 person-years. At start of ART, expected age at death [95% confidence interval (CI)] of 35-year-old men with CD4+ cell count less than 200, 200–349, at least 350?cells/?l was 71 (68–73), 78 (74–82) and 77 (72–81) years, respectively, compared with 78 years for men in the general UK population. Thirty-five-year-old men who increased their CD4+ cell count in the first year of ART from less than 200 to 200–349 or at least 350?cells/?l and achieved viral suppression gained 7 and 10 years, respectively. After 5 years on ART, expected age at death of 35-year-old men varied from 54 (48–61) (CD4+ cell count <200?cells/?l and no viral suppression) to 80 (76–83) years (CD4+ cell count ?350?cells/?l and viral suppression). Conclusion: Successfully treated HIV-positive individuals have a normal life expectancy. Patients who started ART with a low CD4+ cell count significantly improve their life expectancy if they have a good CD4+ cell count response and undetectable viral load.

May, Margaret T.; Gompels, Mark; Delpech, Valerie; Porter, Kholoud; Orkin, Chloe; Kegg, Stephen; Hay, Phillip; Johnson, Margaret; Palfreeman, Adrian; Gilson, Richard; Chadwick, David; Martin, Fabiola; Hill, Teresa; Walsh, John; Post, Frank; Fisher, Martin; Ainsworth, Jonathan; Jose, Sophie; Leen, Clifford; Nelson, Mark; Anderson, Jane; Sabin, Caroline

2014-01-01

285

Home-based versus clinic-based care for patients starting antiretroviral therapy with low CD4+ cell counts: findings from a cluster-randomized trial  

PubMed Central

Objectives: African health services have shortages of clinical staff. We showed previously, in a cluster-randomized trial, that a home-based strategy using trained lay-workers is as effective as a clinic-based strategy. It is not known whether home-based care is suitable for patients with advanced HIV disease. Methods: The trial was conducted in Jinja, Uganda. One thousand, four hundred and fifty-three adults initiating ART between February 2005 and January 2009 were randomized to receive either home-based care or routine clinic-based care, and followed up for about 3 years. Trained lay workers, supervised by clinical staff based in a clinic, delivered the home-based care. In this sub-analysis, we compared survival between the two strategies for those who presented with CD4+ cell count less than 50 cells/?l and those who presented with higher CD4+ cell counts. We used Kaplan–Meier methods and Poisson regression. Results: Four hundred and forty four of 1453 (31%) participants had baseline CD4+ cell count less than 50?cells/?l. Overall, 110 (25%) deaths occurred among participants with baseline CD4+ cell count less than 50?cells/?l and 87 (9%) in those with higher CD4+ cell count. Among participants with CD4+ cell count less than 50?cells/?l, mortality rates were similar for the home and facility-based arms; adjusted mortality rate ratio 0.80 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53–1.18] compared with 1.22 (95% CI 0.78–1.89) for those who presented with higher CD4+ cell count. Conclusion: HIV home-based care, with lay workers playing a major role in the delivery of care including providing monthly adherence support, leads to similar survival rates as clinic-based care even among patients who present with very low CD4+ cell count. This emphasises the critical role of adherence to antiretroviral therapy.

Woodd, Susannah L.; Grosskurth, Heiner; Levin, Jonathan; Amuron, Barbara; Namara, Geoffrey; Birunghi, Josephine; Coutinho, Alex; Jaffar, Shabbar

2014-01-01

286

Baseline CD4 Cell Count and Outcome of Pegylated Interferon Plus Ribavirin Therapy in HIV/Hepatitis C Virus-Coinfected Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective When to start hepatitis C treatment in HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)–coinfected patients remains unresolved. Our objective was to determine if a baseline CD4 count ?350 cells/mm3 predicts a sustained HCV response to pegylated interferon plus ribavirin. Methods We conducted a multicenter cohort study of HIV/HCV-coinfected patients treated for HIV in hospitals in Nice, Tourcoing, and Marseille (France). Sustained viral response (SVR) was defined as undetectable HCV RNA 24 weeks after treatment. The relation between CD4 cell count and SVR was examined separately for patients with HCV genotype 1 or non-1. Results One hundred seventy-five patients were included. In patients with HCV genotype 1, the rate of SVR was 13% and was not related to baseline CD4 cell count (odds ratio [OR] = 1.0, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.1 to 9.3). In patients with HCV genotype non-1, the rate of SVR was 46% and was not significantly increased by a baseline CD4 count ?350 cells/mm3 (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 0.6 to 5.9). Conclusions Higher CD4 cell count at treatment initiation with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin did not improve treatment success probability, regardless of HCV genotype.

Valerio, Laure; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Poizot-Martin, Isabelle; Rosenthal, Eric; Marimoutou, Catherine; Gastaut, Jean-Albert; Tran, Albert; Dellamonica, Pierre; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Pradier, Christian

2008-01-01

287

BANA-Positive Plaque Samples Are Associated with Oral Hygiene Practices and Not CD4+ T Cell Counts in HIV-Positive Patients  

PubMed Central

Background. The “red complex” microorganisms, namely, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia are considered as potential pathogens causing HIV-associated periodontal diseases. Moreover, it has been recognized that an association exists between CD4+ T cell counts and periodontal disease progression. Objective. To establish whether CD4+ T cell counts or oral hygiene plays a greater role in producing BANA-positive results in HIV-associated periodontal disease. Materials and Methods. One hundred and twenty HIV-positive patients participated in the study, and their CD4+ T cell counts were obtained from their medical records. The six Ramfjord teeth were used for evaluating periodontal clinical indices and subgingival plaque sampling. BANA test was used for the detection and prevalence of the “red complex” bacteria in plaque samples. Results. A majority of 69.17% HIV-positive patients were BANA-positive. No significant associations were found between BANA and CD4+ T cell counts. A highly significant association was found between BANA with probing depth and clinical attachment level (P ? 0.0001) and between BANA and the use of interdental aids (P = 0.0168). Conclusion. HIV-associated periodontal diseases are strongly related to oral hygiene practices rather than the effect of CD4+ T cell counts, and the use of interdental aids was marked as a significant predictor of BANA-negative plaque samples.

John, Cathy Nisha; Xavier Graham Stephen, Lawrence; Wilma Joyce Africa, Charlene

2012-01-01

288

Influence of Fluid Cell Design on the Frequency Response of AFM Microcantilevers in Liquid Media  

PubMed Central

A study of the frequency response of AFM microcantilevers in liquid media contained in a commercial fluid cell is presented. Such systems exhibit complicated dynamics which are often not well described by available theories. Their dynamic behavior has a direct effect on the use of the AFM in dynamic mode while imaging in liquid or while extracting the rheological properties of the fluid. We explore the issues related to the design of the cantilever holder/fluid cell and propose an approach for evaluating, minimizing and recognizing the ultimate limitations of commercial cantilever holders. A technique for estimating the frequency response spectrum of the fluid cell itself from experimental data is presented. This spectrum can then be used to evaluate whether or not the fluid cell is suited for the desired purpose.

Motamedi, Ramin; Wood-Adams, Paula M.

2008-01-01

289

Fluid-phase uptake and transit in axenic Dictyostelium cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main route for fluid-phase uptake in Dictyostelium is macropinocytosis, a process powered by the actin cytoskeleton. Nutrients within the endocytosed fluid are digested and resorbed, disposal of remnants follows by exocytosis. Along the endocytic pathway, membrane fusion and fission events take place at multiple steps. The regulator and effector molecules involved in uptake and transit are largely conserved between

Markus Maniak

2001-01-01

290

Elevated White Blood Cell Count Is Associated with Higher Risk of Glucose Metabolism Disorders in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese People  

PubMed Central

White blood cell (WBC) count has been associated with diabetic risk, but whether the correlation is independent of other risk factors has hardly been studied. Moreover, very few such studies with large sample sizes have been conducted in Chinese. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between WBC count and glucose metabolism in china. We also examined the relevant variables of WBC count. A total of 9,697 subjects (mean age, 58.0 ± 9.1 years) were recruited. The subjects were classified into four groups, including subjects with normal glucose tolerance, isolated impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We found that WBC count increased as glucose metabolism disorders exacerbated. WBC count was also positively correlated with waist hip ratio, body mass index, smoking, triglycerides, glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and 2-h postprandial glucose. In addition, high density lipoprotein and the female gender were inversely correlated with WBC levels. In patients with previously diagnosed T2DM, the course of T2DM was not correlated with WBC count. Our findings indicate that elevated WBC count is independently associated with worsening of glucose metabolism in middle-aged and elderly Chinese. In addition, loss of weight, smoking cessation, lipid-modifying therapies, and control of postprandial plasma glucose and HbA1c may ameliorate the chronic low-grade inflammation.

Jiang, Hua; Yan, Wen-Hua; Li, Chan-Juan; Wang, An-Ping; Dou, Jing-Tao; Mu, Yi-Ming

2014-01-01

291

Elevated white blood cell count is associated with higher risk of glucose metabolism disorders in middle-aged and elderly Chinese people.  

PubMed

White blood cell (WBC) count has been associated with diabetic risk, but whether the correlation is independent of other risk factors has hardly been studied. Moreover, very few such studies with large sample sizes have been conducted in Chinese. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between WBC count and glucose metabolism in china. We also examined the relevant variables of WBC count. A total of 9,697 subjects (mean age, 58.0 ± 9.1 years) were recruited. The subjects were classified into four groups, including subjects with normal glucose tolerance, isolated impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We found that WBC count increased as glucose metabolism disorders exacerbated. WBC count was also positively correlated with waist hip ratio, body mass index, smoking, triglycerides, glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and 2-h postprandial glucose. In addition, high density lipoprotein and the female gender were inversely correlated with WBC levels. In patients with previously diagnosed T2DM, the course of T2DM was not correlated with WBC count. Our findings indicate that elevated WBC count is independently associated with worsening of glucose metabolism in middle-aged and elderly Chinese. In addition, loss of weight, smoking cessation, lipid-modifying therapies, and control of postprandial plasma glucose and HbA1c may ameliorate the chronic low-grade inflammation. PMID:24852600

Jiang, Hua; Yan, Wen-Hua; Li, Chan-Juan; Wang, An-Ping; Dou, Jing-Tao; Mu, Yi-Ming

2014-05-01

292

Response of Listeria monocytogenes to Disinfection Stress at the Single-Cell and Population Levels as Monitored by Intracellular pH Measurements and Viable-Cell Counts?  

PubMed Central

Listeria monocytogenes has a remarkable ability to survive and persist in food production environments. The purpose of the present study was to determine if cells in a population of L. monocytogenes differ in sensitivity to disinfection agents as this could be a factor explaining persistence of the bacterium. In situ analyses of Listeria monocytogenes single cells were performed during exposure to different concentrations of the disinfectant Incimaxx DES to study a possible population subdivision. Bacterial survival was quantified with plate counting and disinfection stress at the single-cell level by measuring intracellular pH (pHi) over time by fluorescence ratio imaging microscopy. pHi values were initially 7 to 7.5 and decreased in both attached and planktonic L. monocytogenes cells during exposure to sublethal and lethal concentrations of Incimaxx DES. The response of the bacterial population was homogenous; hence, subpopulations were not detected. However, pregrowth with NaCl protected the planktonic bacterial cells during disinfection with Incimaxx (0.0015%) since pHi was higher (6 to 6.5) for the bacterial population pregrown with NaCl than for cells grown without NaCl (pHi 5 to 5.5) (P < 0.05). The protective effect of NaCl was reflected by viable-cell counts at a higher concentration of Incimaxx (0.0031%), where the salt-grown population survived better than the population grown without NaCl (P < 0.05). NaCl protected attached cells through drying but not during disinfection. This study indicates that a population of L. monocytogenes cells, whether planktonic or attached, is homogenous with respect to sensitivity to an acidic disinfectant studied on the single-cell level. Hence a major subpopulation more tolerant to disinfectants, and hence more persistent, does not appear to be present.

Kastbjerg, Vicky G.; Nielsen, Dennis S.; Arneborg, Nils; Gram, Lone

2009-01-01

293

Effect of cooling rate on eutectic cell count, grain size, microstructure, and ultimate tensile strength of hypoeutectic cast iron  

SciTech Connect

This article describes a series of microstructural and strength studies performed on hypoeutectic cast iron, which was sand cast using a variety of end chills (metallic, nonmetallic, water-cooled, and subzero, respectively). The effects of cooling rate on the eutectic cell count (ECC), grain size, and the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) were evaluated. Attempts were also made to explain these effects and to correlate the UTS with ECC. It was found that subzero chilled and water-cool, chilled cast iron exhibit severe undercooling compared to normal sand cast iron. It was concluded from this investigation that nucleation conditions are completely altered but growth conditions prevail as usual. Therefore, undercooling during solidification is considered to be responsible for variation in ECC, grain size, and microstructure, and tensile strength.

Hemanth, J.; Rao, K.V.S. (Siddaganga Inst. of Tech., Karnataka (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1999-08-01

294

Automated Analysis of Bone Marrow Fluid with the Sysmex XE2100TM Blood Cell Counter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background: Until recently, automated analysis of the cellular composition of bone marrow has not been possible, owing to problems in erythroblast identification, contamination by fat particles, and the heterogeneity of cell types. The XE-2100 automated blood cell counter can effectively count erythroblasts and granulocytes using laser light flow cytometry and DNA fluorochromes. In this study we have evaluated the

G. Zini; G. Mistretta; G. Giordano; L. Laurenti; G. dOnofrio

2001-01-01

295

The Fluid-Kinetic Particle-in-Cell method for plasma simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method that solves concurrently the multi-fluid and Maxwell's equations has been developed for plasma simulations. By calculating the stress tensor in the multi-fluid momentum equation by means of computational particles moving in a self-consistent electromagnetic field, the kinetic effects are retained while solving the multi-fluid equations. The Maxwell's and multi-fluid equations are discretized implicitly in time enabling kinetic simulations over time scales typical of the fluid simulations. The Fluid-Kinetic Particle-in-Cell method has been implemented in a three-dimensional electromagnetic code, and tested against the two-stream instability, the Weibel instability, the ion cyclotron resonance and magnetic reconnection problems. The method is a promising approach for coupling fluid and kinetic methods in a unified framework.

Markidis, Stefano; Henri, Pierre; Lapenta, Giovanni; Rönnmark, Kjell; Hamrin, Maria; Meliani, Zakaria; Laure, Erwin

2014-08-01

296

Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid cells by flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry in inflammatory central nervous system diseases: comparison of low- and high-density cell surface antigen expression.  

PubMed

The examination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) continues to play an important role in the diagnosis of inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). Immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry are the most commonly used methods for analysis of surface markers on CSF cells. We here compared these methods in the examination of CSF cells from a total of 68 patients with acute and chronic inflammatory CNS diseases. Expression of costimulatory molecules CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2) as activation markers that are present at low density on the cell surface was analyzed in comparison to CD22 (B-cells) and CD4 (T-cell subset), that show high staining intensities. For CD22 and CD4, the results obtained with both methods were similar and reliable. Using flow cytometry, CD80 expression was detected in 6% of CSF cells in patients with chronic inflammatory CNS disease, as compared to 2% using immunocytochemistry, where the reliability of the data was found to be higher. We conclude that for examination of low-density surface markers on CSF cells, particularly with low cell counts, immunocytochemistry may be more reliable. PMID:10527476

Windhagen, A; Maniak, S; Heidenreich, F

1999-11-01

297

Counting Money  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Today you are going to practice counting money. We will be reviewing the penny, nickel, and dime, and quarter. The coin with the lowest value is the penny. Here is a picture of a penny. A penny is worth one cent or $0.01picture of a penny The next coin of the lowest value is the nickel. Here is a picture of a nickel. picture of a nickel A nickel is worth five cents or $0.05 The next coin ...

Areese

2008-09-25

298

Murine amniotic fluid stem cells contribute mesenchymal but not epithelial components to reconstituted mammary ducts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Amniotic fluid harbors cells indicative of all three germ layers, and pluripotent fetal amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSs) are\\u000a considered potentially valuable for applications in cellular therapy and tissue engineering. We investigated whether it is\\u000a possible to direct the cell fate of AFSs in vivo by transplantation experiments into a particular microenvironment, the mammary fat pad. This microenvironment provides the

Petra AB Klemmt; Vida Vafaizadeh; Bernd Groner

2010-01-01

299

Amniotic fluid stem cells: a promising therapeutic resource for cell-based regenerative therapy.  

PubMed

Stem cells have been proposed as a powerful tool in the treatment of several human diseases, both for their ability to represent a source of new cells to replace those lost due to tissue injuries or degenerative diseases, and for the ability of produce trophic molecules able to minimize damage and promote recovery in the injured tissue. Different cell types, such as embryonic, fetal or adult stem cells, human fetal tissues and genetically engineered cell lines, have been tested for their ability to replace damaged cells and to restore the tissue function after transplantation. Amniotic fluid -derived Stem cells (AFS) are considered a novel resource for cell transplantation therapy, due to their high renewal capacity, the "in vitro" expression of embryonic cell lineage markers, and the ability to differentiate in tissues derived from all the three embryonic layers. Moreover, AFS do not produce teratomas when transplanted into animals and are characterized by a low antigenicity, which could represent an advantage for cell transplantation or cell replacement therapy. The present review focuses on the biological features of AFS, and on their potential use in the treatment of pathological conditions such as ischemic brain injury and bone damages. PMID:22352751

Antonucci, Ivana; Pantalone, Andrea; Tete, Stefano; Salini, Vincenzo; Borlongan, Cesar V; Hess, David; Stuppia, Liborio

2012-01-01

300

Blood sample stability at room temperature for counting red and white blood cells and platelets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood handling required for different cellular variables is different. In a practical setting of blood sampling approximately 4 h separated from the first analysis, we compared the analysis of blood cell variables at this 4-h point with analysis of blood stored for ?48 h (over the weekend) at room temperature.Blood was collected from 304 apparently healthy individuals aged between 17

S. A. Vogelaar; D. Posthuma; D. I. Boomsma; C. Kluft

2002-01-01

301

Predictive value of white blood cell count and C-reactive protein in children with appendicitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/PurposeFew studies have addressed the predictive value of white blood cells (WBCs) and C-reactive protein (CRP) at different cutoff values in appendicitis. Our purpose was to determine the cutoff values for WBC and CRP at different periods during clinical evolution of appendicitis and to establish their use for the diagnosis of appendicitis and differentiation of simple from perforated appendicitis.

Marcelo A. Beltrįn; Jorge Almonacid; Alfonso Vicencio; Jorge Gutiérrez; Karina S. Cruces; Miguel A. Cumsille

2007-01-01

302

Circulating Tumor Cells Detection and Counting in Uveal Melanomas by a Filtration-Based Method  

PubMed Central

Uveal melanoma is one of the most deadly diseases in ophthalmology for which markers able to predict the appearance of metastasis are needed. The study investigates the role of circulating tumor cells (CTC) as a prognostic factor in this disease. We report the detection of circulating tumor cells by Isolation by Size of Epithelial Tumor cells (ISET) in a cohort of 31 uveal melanoma patients: we identified single CTCs or clusters of cells in 17 patients, while the control population, subjects with choroidal nevi, showed no CTC in peripheral blood. The presence of CTCs did not correlate with any clinical and pathological parameter, such as tumor larger basal diameter (LBD), tumor height and TNM. By stratifying patients in groups on the basis of the number of CTC (lower or higher than 10 CTC per 10 mL blood) and the presence of CTC clusters we found a significant difference in LBD (p = 0.019), Tumor height (p = 0.048), disease-free and overall survival (p < 0.05). In conclusion, we confirm the role of CTC as a negative prognostic marker in uveal melanoma patients after a long follow-up period. Further characterization of CTC will help understanding uveal melanoma metastasization and improve patient management.

Mazzini, Cinzia; Pinzani, Pamela; Salvianti, Francesca; Scatena, Cristian; Paglierani, Milena; Ucci, Francesca; Pazzagli, Mario; Massi, Daniela

2014-01-01

303

Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after /sup 99m/Tc in vivo red blood cell labeling  

SciTech Connect

We studied the effect of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after /sup 99m/Tc in vivo red blood cell labeling. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased during exercise in all 13 subjects. Percent increase in activity correlated with percent increase in erythrocyte count (r . -0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. We conclude that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume.

Konstam, M.A.; Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

1982-09-01

304

Efficient siRNA-mediated prolonged gene silencing in human amniotic fluid stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFSCs) are a very promising new type of fetal stem cells with numerous applications for basic science and cell-based therapies. They harbor a high differentiation potential and a low risk for tumor development, can be grown in large quantities and do not raise the ethical concerns associated with embryonic stem cells. RNA interference (RNAi) is

Margit Rosner; Nicol Siegel; Christiane Fuchs; Nina Slabina; Helmut Dolznig; Markus Hengstschläger

2010-01-01

305

Transcript counting in single cells reveals dynamics of rDNA transcription  

PubMed Central

Most eukaryotes contain many tandem repeats of ribosomal RNA genes of which only a subset is transcribed at any given time. Current biochemical methods allow for the determination of the fraction of transcribing repeats (ON) versus non-transcribing repeats (OFF) but do not provide any dynamical information and obscure any transcription activity at the single-cell level. Here, we use a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique that allows the detection of single-RNA molecules in individual yeast cells. We use this method complemented with theoretical modeling to determine the rate of switching from OFF to ON (activation rate) and the average number of RNA molecules produced during each transcriptional burst (burst size). We explore how these two variables change in mutants and different growth conditions, and show that this method resolves changes in these two variables even when the average rDNA expression is unaltered. These phenotypic changes could not have been detected by traditional biochemical assays.

Tan, Rui Zhen; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

2010-01-01

306

Extracting, Recognizing, and Counting White Blood Cells from Microscopic Images by Using Complex-valued Neural Networks.  

PubMed

In this paper a method related to extracting white blood cells (WBCs) from blood microscopic images and recognizing them and counting each kind of WBCs is presented. In medical science diagnosis by check the number of WBCs and compared with normal number of them is a new challenge and in this context has been discussed it. After reviewing the methods of extracting WBCs from hematology images, because of high applicability of artificial neural networks (ANNs) in classification we decided to use this effective method to classify WBCs, and because of high speed and stable convergence of complex-valued neural networks (CVNNs) compare to the real one, we used them to classification purpose. In the method that will be introduced, first the white blood cells are extracted by RGB color system's help. In continuance, by using the features of each kind of globules and their color scheme, a normalized feature vector is extracted, and for classifying, it is sent to a complex-valued back-propagation neural network. And at last, the results are sent to the output in the shape of the quantity of each of white blood cells. Despite the low quality of the used images, our method has high accuracy in extracting and recognizing WBCs by CVNNs, and because of this, certainly its result on high quality images will be acceptable. Learning time of complex-valued neural networks, that are used here, was significantly less than real-valued neural networks. PMID:23717809

Akramifard, Hamid; Firouzmand, Mohammad; Moghadam, Reza Askari

2012-07-01

307

Estimating the impact of somatic cell count on the value of milk utilising parameters obtained from the published literature.  

PubMed

The impact of mastitis on milk value per litre independent of the effect of mastitis on milk volume, was quantified for Ireland using a meta-analysis and a processing sector model. Changes in raw milk composition, cheese processing and composition associated with increased bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) were incorporated into the model. Processing costs and market values were representative of current industry values. It was assumed that as BMSCC increased (i) milk fat and milk protein increased and milk lactose decreased, (ii) fat and protein recoveries decreased, (iii) cheese protein decreased and cheese moisture increased. Five BMSCC categories were examined from ?100 000 to >400 000 cells/ml. The analysis showed that as BMSCC increased the production quantities reduced. An increase in BMSCC from 100 000 to >400 000 cells/ml saw a reduction in net revenue of 3·2% per annum (€51·3 million) which corresponded to a reduction in the value of raw milk of €0·0096 cents/l. PMID:24666778

Geary, Una; Lopez-Villalobos, Nicolas; O'Brien, Bernadette; Garrick, Dorian J; Shalloo, Laurence

2014-05-01

308

Prognostic significance of platelet and microvessel counts in operable non-small cell lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Microvessel density, an indirect measure of angiogenesis, has been shown to be an independent prognostic marker in many solid tumours including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Platelets transport and release angiogenic growth factors. Platelets are increasingly likely to adhere to tumour microvessels due to raised expression of platelet-binding proteins and stasis in blood-flow. Increased vascular permeability in tumour microvessels

G Cox; R. A Walker; A Andi; W. P Steward; K. J O'Byrne

2000-01-01

309

Four-Parameter white blood cell differential counting based on light scattering measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of the depolarized orthogonal light scattering in flow cytometry enables one to discriminate human eosinephilic granulocytes from neutrophilic granulocytes. We use this method to perform a four-parameter differential white blood cell analysis. \\u000aA simple flow cytometer was built equipped with a 5-mW helium neon laser that measures simultaneously four light scattering parameters. Lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes were identified by

L. W. M. M. Terstappen; Grooth de B. G; K. Visscher; F. A. Kouterik; J. Greve

1988-01-01

310

Studies on the origin of human amniotic fluid cells by immunofluorescent staining of keratin filaments.  

PubMed

Cultivated cells obtained by amniocentesis for antenatal diagnosis were examined for the presence of keratin filaments by immunofluorescent staining techniques. In primary cultures, cells in fibroblast type colonies do not possess keratin filaments whereas cells in epithelial type colonies show positive staining of keratin fibres. The majority of cells in amniotic fluid type colonies also stain positively with antikeratin antibody. After the primary cells have been subcultured, most of them appear fibroblastic yet stain positively with antikeratin antibody. The patterns formed by these stained fibres resemble those seen in primary cultures of amniotic fluid type cells. These results indicate that the amniotic fluid type cells (which predominate in primary cultures) and the majority of cells in subcultures (routinely used for antenatal diagnosis of genetic metabolic disorders) are epithelial in origin. PMID:6185680

Chen, W W

1982-12-01

311

Amniotic fluid as a rich source of mesenchymal stromal cells for transplantation therapy.  

PubMed

Stem cells isolated from amniotic fluid are known to be able to differentiate into different cells types, thus being considered as a powerful tool for cellular therapy of different human diseases. In the last 4 years, amniotic fluid-derived stem (AFS) cells have been shown to express embryonic and adult stem cell markers. These cells can be considered an intermediate stage between embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. AFS cells can give rise to adipogenic, osteogenic, myogenic, endothelial, neurogenic, and hepatic lineages, inclusive of all embryonic germ layers. AFS cells have a high renewal capacity and can be expanded for over 250 doublings without any detectable loss of chromosomal telomere length. Taken together, all these data provide evidence that amniotic fluid represents a new and very promising source of stem cells for research, as well as clinical applications. Certainly stem cells from amniotic fluid will be useful both for a customized cell supply for newly born children and for banking cells to be used for therapeutic cell transplantation in immunogically matched recipients. Further investigations are also warranted to fully explore the amniotic cells' potential for adult human disorders. PMID:21054947

Antonucci, Ivana; Stuppia, Liborio; Kaneko, Yuji; Yu, Seongjin; Tajiri, Naoki; Bae, Eunkyung C; Chheda, Sonia H; Weinbren, Nathan L; Borlongan, Cesar V

2011-01-01

312

Prenatally fabricated autologous human living heart valves based on amniotic fluid-derived progenitor cells as single cell source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—A novel concept providing prenatally tissue engineered human autologous heart valves based on routinely obtained fetal amniotic fluid progenitors as single cell source is introduced. Methods and Results—Fetal human amniotic progenitors were isolated from routinely sampled amniotic fluid and sorted using CD133 magnetic beads. After expansion and differentiation, cell phenotypes of CD133 and CD133 cells were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and

Dorthe Schmidt; Josef Achermann; Bernhard Odermatt; Christian Breymann; A Driessen-Mol; Michele Genoni; Gregor Zund; Simon P. Hoerstrup

2007-01-01

313

Reduction in Early Mortality on Antiretroviral Therapy for Adults in Rural South Africa Since Change in CD4+ Cell Count Eligibility Criteria  

PubMed Central

Objective: To explore the impact of expanded eligibility criteria for antiretroviral therapy (ART) on median CD4+ cell count at ART initiation and early mortality on ART. Methods: Analyses included all adults (?16 years) initiated on first-line ART between August 2004 and July 2012. CD4+ cell count threshold 350 cells per microliter for all adults was implemented in August 2011. Early mortality was defined as any death within 91 days of ART initiation. Trends in baseline CD4+ cell count and early mortality were examined by year (August to July) of ART initiation. Competing risks analysis was used to examine early mortality. Results: A total of 19,080 adults (67.6% female) initiated ART. Median CD4+ cell count at ART initiation was 110–120 cells per microliter over the first 6 years, increasing marginally to 145 cells per microliter in 2010–2011 and more significantly to 199 cells per microliter in 2011–2012. Overall, there were 875 deaths within 91 days of ART initiation; early mortality rate was 19.4 per 100 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI) 18.2 to 20.7]. After adjustment for sex, age, baseline CD4+ cell count, and concurrent tuberculosis (TB), there was a 46% decrease in early mortality for those who initiated ART in 2011–2012 compared with the reference period 2008–2009 (subhazard ratio, 0.54; 95% CI: 0.41 to 0.71). Conclusions: Since the expansion of eligibility criteria, there is evidence of earlier access to ART and a significant reduction in early mortality rate in this primary health care programme. These findings provide strong support for national ART policies and highlight the importance of earlier ART initiation for achieving reductions in HIV-related mortality.

Mutevedzi, Portia C.; Iwuji, Collins C.; Newell, Marie-Louise

2014-01-01

314

Fluid shear stress sensitizes cancer cells to receptor-mediated apoptosis via trimeric death receptors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cancer metastasis, the process of cancer cell migration from a primary to distal location, typically leads to a poor patient prognosis. Hematogenous metastasis is initiated by intravasation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) into the bloodstream, which are then believed to adhere to the luminal surface of the endothelium and extravasate into distal locations. Apoptotic agents such as tumor necrosis factor apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), whether in soluble ligand form or expressed on the surface of natural killer cells, have shown promise in treating CTCs to reduce the probability of metastasis. The role of hemodynamic shear forces in altering the cancer cell response to apoptotic agents has not been previously investigated. Here, we report that human colon cancer COLO 205 and prostate cancer PC-3 cells exposed to a uniform fluid shear stress in a cone-and-plate viscometer become sensitized to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Shear-induced sensitization directly correlates with the application of fluid shear stress, and TRAIL-induced apoptosis increases in a fluid shear stress force- and time-dependent manner. In contrast, TRAIL-induced necrosis is not affected by the application fluid shear stress. Interestingly, fluid shear stress does not sensitize cancer cells to apoptosis when treated with doxorubicin, which also induces apoptosis in cancer cells. Caspase inhibition experiments reveal that shear stress-induced sensitization to TRAIL occurs via caspase-dependent apoptosis. These results suggest that physiological fluid shear forces can modulate receptor-mediated apoptosis of cancer cells in the presence of apoptotic agents.

Mitchell, Michael J.; King, Michael R.

2013-01-01

315

The importance of endometrial nerve fibers and macrophage cell count in the diagnosis of endometriosis  

PubMed Central

Background: Endometriosis is a disease that is hard to diagnose without the gold standard method, laparoscopy. An easier diagnostic method is needed. Objective: The aim of the study is to determine whether the number of macrophage cells in the endometrium and/or the detection of nerve fibers can be used in the diagnosis of endometriosis. Materials and Methods: Endometrial sampling was done to 31 patients prior to laparoscopy (L/S) or laparotomy (L/T) at Istanbul University Istanbul School of Medicine Hospital between January 2010 February 2011. Also 34 patients who were retrospectively chosen from their files were added to the study. 5 patients were excluded from the study. Totally, 31 patients were placed in the endometriosis and 29 patients in the control group. Endometrial samples were evaluated immunohistochemically with the markers protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) and neurofilament (NF) for nerve fibers and CD68 for macrophages. Results: None of the samples were stained with PGP 9.5 and NF. As for CD68+cells, no statistically significant difference was observed between groups (endometriosis: 216.10±104.41; control: 175.93±43.05, p=0.06). Results were also evaluated in the subgroups of menstruel phases and disease stages. Only in the proliferative phase there was a significant increase in the endometriosis group (p=0.03). No significant difference was observed between the stages. Conclusion: The detection of nerve fibers in the eutopic endometrium with the markers of PGP 9.5 and NF is not found to be helpful in the diagnosis of endometriosis. Macrophage cells may be helpful in the diagnosis only in the proliferative phase.

Cetin, Cihan; Serdaroglu, Hasan; Tuzlali, Sitki

2013-01-01

316

CD4+-T-cell counts, spontaneous apoptosis, and Fas expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected subjects.  

PubMed Central

We examined the relationships among CD4+-T-cell counts, spontaneous apoptosis, and Fas expression among peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients. After 2 days of incubation, propidium iodide DNA staining and flow cytometry revealed that peripheral blood mononuclear cells from subjects with the lowest CD4+-cell numbers (0 to 99/microl; n = 20) showed the highest frequency of apoptosis: 22.4% +/- 2.7% (mean +/- standard error) versus 13.8% +/- 1.2% and 12.7% +/- 1.4% among peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from patients with 100 to 499 CD4+ cells/microl (n = 19) and >500 CD4+ cells/microl (n = 17), respectively. Each of these means differed significantly from the mean frequency of apoptosis (6.3% +/- 0.7%) of peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from HIV-1-seronegative controls (P < 0.001, Student's t test). After incubation, the percentage of peripheral blood mononuclear cells expressing Fas antigen was increased for the HIV-1-infected subjects, and this was most evident for patients with more advanced disease. Among patients with fewer than 100 CD4+ cells/microl, 64.4% +/- 5.4% of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were Fas+, as opposed to 25.8% +/- 3.0% and 14.5% +/- 1.7% Fas+ cells among patients with more than 100 CD4+ cells/microl and healthy controls, respectively (P < 0.05 for each group comparison). Interestingly, in all populations, most apoptotic cells did not express Fas. Thus, apoptosis and Fas expression are increased in incubated peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from HIV-1-infected patients and these phenomena are enhanced as disease progresses.

Patki, A H; Georges, D L; Lederman, M M

1997-01-01

317

Measurement of radionuclides using ion chromatography and flow-cell scintillation counting with pulse shape discrimination  

SciTech Connect

Principal conclusions are: CsI(Tl) provides sufficient pulse shape discrimination for use in the flow-cell detector. However, an improved method of coating is needed to extend the useful life of a detection cell. Of the activation/fission products investigated, only the co-elution of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 63}Ni produced a radiological interference. Tritium (and presumably other non-ionic radioisotopes) can be separated during the loading of the solution onto the pre- concentration column. Natural U (and/or decay products) produced a radiological interference with {sup 90}Sr. This is a potential problem. No potential radiological interferences were observed with {sup 223}Th. Chemical interferences were observed to some degree for all the chemicals tested except for the chloride solutions, NaCl and KCl, and the sulfate solution, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The specific interference effects were decreased detection efficiencies and changes in peak elution times. The NEL`s (non-observable effects loadings) are tentative targets for development of sample processing protocols, which is the next phase of the work.

DeVol, T.A.; Fjeld, R.A.; Roane, J.E. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Dept. of Environmental Systems Engineering; Leyba, J.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Branton, S.D. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-12-31

318

Relapse in acute lymphoblastic leukemia as a function of white blood cell and absolute neutrophil counts during maintenance chemotherapy.  

PubMed

Several reports document an inverse correlation between bioavailability of maintenance chemotherapeutic agents and the likelihood of relapse in childhood. White blood cell counts (WBC) and absolute neutrophil counts (ANC) are easily ascertainable parameters which might be expected to reflect plasma levels of chemotherapy. To determine whether WBC and ANC predict outcome of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), we did a multivariate analysis of means of these values during maintenance therapy in patients with ALL treated on a single protocol. Of the 52 patients, 15 (29%) relapsed. For those still disease-free, minimum time of follow-up is 7-8/12 years. During the first year of maintenance therapy, mean WBC (x 10(3)/mm3) in the relapsed and nonrelapsed groups were 4.5 +/- 0.9 and 3.9 +/- 0.7, respectively (p = 0.03); mean ANC (x 10(3)/mm3) were 3.0 +/- 0.9 and 2.5 +/- 0.6 (p = 0.05). However, the range of values was large with considerable overlap between the two groups. There was no obvious difference in distribution of values when confounding prognostic features were adjusted for in the analysis. No significant differences were seen between WBC or ANC during the second year of therapy. Larger numbers of patients will be needed to ascertain whether specific guidelines for dosage modifications can be made on the basis of serial WBC. Future pharmacokinetic studies should look at possible correlations with mean WBC and ANC. PMID:1524994

Lucas, K; Gula, M J; Blatt, J

1992-01-01

319

Biodiversity Counts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This extensive collection of activities from the American Museum of Natural History offers middle school students an exciting and creative context for involving students in the scientific process while introducing them to the rich diversity and beauty of their local ecosystem. Lesson plans, Web-based interactive activities, useful Web links, profiles of AMNH scientists and staff, and other features help students inventory and analyze the plants and arthropods found in their own neighborhoods. All activities address national science standards, and have been field tested in schools around the nation. Biodiversity Counts even has students develop their own exhibitions for their findings -- a great way to build science communication skills.

1998-01-01

320

Phytoplankton community dynamics assessed by ships-of-opportunity sampling in the northern Baltic Sea: A comparison of HPLC pigment analysis and cell counts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of phytoplankton diversity constitute crucial data in environmental monitoring, food-web studies and ecosystem modeling. Proper assessment of phytoplankton community composition requires large investments in offshore sampling and taxonomic competence because these communities can change fundamentally on a weekly scale. Cheap and high-frequent offshore phytoplankton sampling can be achieved by using ships-of-opportunity, and in the present study we used the Alg@line facilities onboard a passenger ferry during its regular route between Finland and Sweden in the northern Baltic Sea. The first aim was to test if pigment analysis, as a cheaper alternative to cell counts, can be used to detect environment-correlated variation in phytoplankton communities. It has been shown that spatial variation (salinity differences) and variation throughout one annual cycle (changes in temperature and nutrients) were strongly reflected by pigment composition. The second aim was to test if pigment analyses and cell counts detect environment-correlated variation in phytoplankton communities equally well. It has been shown that spatial and seasonal variations were reflected by pigment composition while cell counts reflected seasonal variation only. This suggests that the pigment analyses detected aspects of the phytoplankton that were neglected or misinterpreted by cell counts. It is advocated that available resources of long-term studies, such as environmental monitoring, can be used more efficiently by utilizing the high ecological resolution of pigment composition in combination with high-frequent ships-of-opportunity sampling. To assess heterotrophic and/or toxic species, such programs could also include sampling for cell counts in a complementary manner, with actually performing counts only for crucial samples (e.g. between large community changes) as indicated by multivariate statistical analysis of pigment composition. Some aspects of analyzing phytoplankton data with multivariate statistics are also discussed.

Wänstrand, Ingrid; Snoeijs, Pauli

2006-01-01

321

Evaluation of the T helper 17 cell specific genes and the innate lymphoid cells counts in the peripheral blood of patients with the common variable immunodeficiency  

PubMed Central

Background: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is characterized by a deficiency in the immune system with a heterogeneous collection of disorders resulting in antibody deficiency and recurrent infections. T helper 17 (Th17) cells promote B-cell survival and synergize with the B-cell activating factor to induce their differentiation into the plasma cells. A sub-population of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) also produces interleukin 17 (IL-17). This study aimed to measure the Th17 specific genes and ILCs counts in the CVID patients in comparison with control subjects. Materials and Methods: Total messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) was extracted from the whole blood samples of 10 CVID patients and 10 healthy individuals. IL-17, retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor C2 (RORC2), IL-23R, and IL-9 gene expression were measured using the quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Count of lineage negative/CD127+/CD90+ ILCs in the blood samples was performed by the flow cytometry method. Results: The transcript levels of IL-17 and RORC2 in CVID patients was strongly lower than control subjects (P = 0.049 and P = 0.046, respectively), but slight reduction in the IL-23R expression (P = 0.252) have seen in the CVID patients. Accordingly, the number of ILCs decreased significantly (P = 0.04). Interestingly, IL-9 mRNA level was more significantly in the CVID patients (P = 0.001). Conclusion: The results presented in this study show that the Th17 cell specific genes expression (as the determiner Th17 cells) and ILCs (another lymphoid source of IL-17) are decreased in patients with CVID and this could be an explanation for the defect of their humoral immune response. In addition, elevation of the IL-9 gene expression may shed a new light into the way toward the understanding of the mechanism of autoimmunity in the CVID patients.

Ganjalikhani-Hakemi, Mazdak; Yazdani, Reza; Sherkat, Roya; Homayouni, Vida; Masjedi, Mohsen; Hosseini, Mohsen

2014-01-01

322

Flow manipulation and cell immobilization for biochemical applications using thermally responsive fluids.  

PubMed

A flow redirection and single cell immobilization method in a microfluidic chip is presented. Microheaters generated localized heating and induced poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) phase transition, creating a hydrogel that blocked a channel or immobilized a single cell. The heaters were activated in sets to redirect flow and exchange the fluid in which an immobilized cell was immersed. A yeast cell was immobilized in hydrogel and a 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) fluorescent stain was introduced using flow redirection. DAPI diffused through the hydrogel and fluorescently labelled the yeast DNA, demonstrating in situ single cell biochemistry by means of immobilization and fluid exchange. PMID:24285990

Haraksingh Thilsted, Anil; Bazargan, Vahid; Piggott, Nina; Measday, Vivien; Stoeber, Boris

2012-01-01

323

Investigation of risk factors for clinical mastitis in British dairy herds with bulk milk somatic cell counts less than 150,000 cells/ml.  

PubMed

A sample of dairy farms in Great Britain with a monthly bulk milk somatic cell count of less than 150,000 cells/ml was enrolled into a 12-month prospective study. At the end of the study, a questionnaire on milking practice and other farm management practices was sent to the 482 farmers who had collected data on the occurrence of mastitis throughout the 12 months. The response rate was 93 per cent. The reported mean incidence of clinical mastitis was 36.9 cases per 100 cow-years. Factors associated with an increase in the incidence of clinical mastitis were cleaning out the straw yard less frequently than every six weeks, more than 5 per cent of cows leaking milk outside the parlour, checking the foremilk, wearing gloves during milking, an average annual milk yield of more than 7000 litres per cow, dipping or spraying teats before milking and keeping milk with a high somatic cell count out of the bulk tank. Factors associated with a decrease in the incidence of clinical mastitis were using a cloth to dry the teats after washing them as part of premilking preparation, using calving boxes for less than 40 per cent of calvings, and using both cubicles and straw yards to house dry cows, as opposed to other housing. PMID:16699133

O'Reilly, K M; Green, M J; Peeler, E J; Fitzpatrick, J L; Green, L E

2006-05-13

324

CD4+ Cell Count and HIV Load as Predictors of Size of Anal Warts Over Time in HIV-Infected Women  

PubMed Central

Background.?Little is known about the associations between CD4+ cell counts, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) load, and human papillomavirus “low-risk” types in noncancerous clinical outcomes. This study examined whether CD4+ count and HIV load predict the size of the largest anal warts in 976 HIV-infected women in an ongoing cohort. Methods.?A linear mixed model was used to determine the association between size of anal wart and CD4+ count and HIV load. Results.?The incidence of anal warts was 4.15 cases per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.83–4.77) and 1.30 cases per 100 person-years (95% CI, 1.00–1.58) in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women, respectively. There appeared to be an inverse association between size of the largest anal warts and CD4+ count at baseline; however, this was not statistically significant. There was no association between size of the largest anal warts and CD4+ count or HIV load over time. Conclusions.?There was no evidence for an association between size of the largest anal warts and CD4+ count or HIV load over time. Further exploration on the role of immune response on the development of anal warts is warranted in a larger study.

Luu, Hung N.; Amirian, E. Susan; Chan, Wenyaw; Beasley, R. Palmer; Piller, Linda B.

2012-01-01

325

Single cell impedance cytometry for identification and counting of CD4 T-cells in human blood using impedance labels.  

PubMed

Single cell microfluidic impedance cytometry has been used to identify cells at high speed, on the basis of their dielectric properties. However, there is no electrical analogue to a fluorescent label, meaning that it is not possible to identify subpopulations of cells. We demonstrate discrimination and enumeration of antigenically defined cell subpopulations using an alternating current (AC) impedance labeling method. Small antibody conjugated beads are mixed with cells and bind to the target population, changing the electrical properties of the target subset of cells. The principle of the technique is demonstrated by identifying and enumerating the CD4 T-lymphocyte subpopulation in human whole blood. The technique represents a simple method for detecting a subpopulation of cells within a heterogeneous mix. The impedance-based antibody identification method could form the basis of simple low-cost point of care diagnostic technologies. PMID:20104894

Holmes, David; Morgan, Hywel

2010-02-15

326

Sex and species differences in plasma testosterone and in counts of androgen receptor-positive cells in key brain regions of Sceloporus lizard species that differ in aggression  

PubMed Central

We studied neuroendocrine correlates of aggression differences in adults of two Sceloporus lizard species. These species differ in the degree of sex difference in aggressive color signals (belly patches) and in aggression: S. undulatus (males blue, high aggression; females white, low aggression) and S. virgatus (both sexes white, lower aggression). We measured plasma testosterone and counted cells expressing androgen receptor-like immunoreactivity to the affinity-purified polyclonal AR antibody, PG-21, in three brain regions of breeding season adults. Male S. undulatus had the highest mean plasma testosterone and differed significantly from conspecific females. In contrast, there was no sex difference in plasma testosterone concentrations in S. virgatus. Male S. undulatus also had the highest mean number of AR-positive cells in the preoptic area: the sexes differed in S. undulatus but not in S. virgatus, and females of the two species did not differ. In the ventral medial hypothalamus, S. undulatus males had higher mean AR cell counts compared to females, but again there was no sex difference in S. virgatus. In the habenula, a control brain region, the sexes did not differ, and although the sex by species interaction significant was not significant, there was a trend (p = 0.050) for S. virgatus to have higher mean AR cell counts than S. undulatus. Thus hypothalamic AR cell counts paralleled sex and species differences in aggression, as did mean plasma testosterone levels in these breeding-season animals.

Hews, Diana K.; Hara, Erina; Anderson, Maurice C.

2012-01-01

327

[White blood cells counts and parasite density in malaria in children aged 6 to 60 months in urban areas of Togo].  

PubMed

Rational use of the artemisinin-based combination therapies in Togo requires laboratory parasitemia values to confirm suspected malaria. This study was conducted to determine the impact of the measured white blood cell (WBC) count on the determination of malaria parasite density among children younger than 5 years old infected with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum in Togo. This cross-sectional study of 267 children from four pediatric centers diagnosed malaria with both thick and thin blood smears and counted WBCs with a hematology analyzer. The parasite densities, calculated with the number of WBCs and estimated with an assumed count of 8,000/?L, were compared with the Wilcoxon matched pairs signed-rank test. The children's median age was 35 months (interquartile range [24-48]), with a sex ratio of 1.32. The median WBC value was 8,300 cells/?L (range: 1,300-24,900 cells/?L). The median parasitemia value calculated with the absolute WBC count was 35,714 (range: 139-48,860 parasites/?L) was not statistically different from that estimated with the assumed value of 8,000 cells/?L - 33 125 parasites/?L (p = 0.564). This study shows that malaria parasite density obtained by assuming 8000 cells/?L does not result in overestimations for children aged 6-59 months. PMID:24480599

Dorkenoo, A M; Layibo, Y; Agbo, Y M; Morgah, K; Agbčrč, D

2013-01-01

328

Biocompatibility and buffers: Effect of bicarbonate-buffered peritoneal dialysis fluids on peritoneal cell function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biocompatibility and buffers: Effect of bicarbonate-buffered peritoneal dialysis fluids on peritoneal cell function.BackgroundConventional peritoneal dialysis fluids (PDF) have been shown to compromise the function of both leukocytes and human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMC). Various in vitro studies have identified the low initial pH in combination with high lactate content, as well as the hyperosmolality and high glucose concentration present in

Achim Jörres; Thorsten O Bender; André Finn; Janusz Witowski; Sibylle Fröhlich; Gerhard M Gahl; Ulrich Frei; Heiko Keck; Jutta Passlick-Deetjen

1998-01-01

329

A computational fluid dynamics analysis of a PEM fuel cell system for power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to present a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model that simulates the fluid flow, species transport and electric current flow in PEM fuel cells. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The model makes use of a general-purpose CFD software as a basic tool incorporating fuel cell specific submodels for multi-component species transport, electrochemical kinetics, water management and electric phase

Elena Carcadea; H. Ene; D. B. Ingham; R. Lazar; L. Ma; M. Pourkashanian; I. Stefanescu

2007-01-01

330

Prenatal determination of human platelet antigen type 4 by DNA amplification of amniotic fluid cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

To predict a fetus at risk for neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NATP) caused by human platelet antigen (HPA)-4 incompatibility, we applied a sequence-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR-SSP). We were able to determine the HPA-4 genotype of three infants at risk using amniotic fluid cells without the need for fetal blood sampling. The HPA-4 genotypes of amniotic fluid cells determined in this

Hitoshi Ohto; Kumiko Kato; Yuriko Tohyama; Mitsuo Okubo; Shouji Morita; Masao Hattori; Katsunori Takasaki; Mituru Sugafuzi; Shinya Imamura; Akira Sato; Ryoichi Motoki

1997-01-01

331

Enhanced generation of retinal progenitor cells from human retinal pigment epithelial cells induced by amniotic fluid  

PubMed Central

Background Retinal progenitor cells are a convenient source of cell replacement therapy in retinal degenerative disorders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression patterns of the homeobox genes PAX6 and CHX10 (retinal progenitor markers) during treatment of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells with amniotic fluid (AF), RPE cells harvested from neonatal cadaver globes were cultured in a mixture of DMEM and Ham's F12 supplemented with 10% FBS. At different passages, cells were trypsinized and co-cultured with 30% AF obtained from normal fetuses of 1416 weeks gestational age. Results Compared to FBS-treated controls, AF-treated cultures exhibited special morphological changes in culture, including appearance of spheroid colonies, improved initial cell adhesion and ordered cell alignment. Cell proliferation assays indicated a remarkable increase in the proliferation rate of RPE cells cultivated in 30% AF-supplemented medium, compared with those grown in the absence of AF. Immunocytochemical analyses exhibited nuclear localization of retinal progenitor markers at a ratio of 33% and 27% for CHX10 and PAX6, respectively. This indicated a 3-fold increase in retinal progenitor markers in AF-treated cultures compared to FBS-treated controls. Real-time PCR data of retinal progenitor genes (PAX6, CHX10 and VSX-1) confirmed these results and demonstrated AF's capacity for promoting retinal progenitor cell generation. Conclusion Taken together, the results suggest that AF significantly promotes the rate of retinal progenitor cell generation, indicating that AF can be used as an enriched supplement for serum-free media used for the in vitro propagation of human progenitor cells.

2012-01-01

332

Cloned, CD117 Selected Human Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells Are Capable of Modulating the Immune Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amniotic fluid stem (AFS) cells are broadly multipotent, can be expanded extensively in culture, are not tumorigenic and can be readily cryopreserved for cell banking. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) show immunomodulatory activity and secrete a wide spectrum of cytokines and chemokines that suppress inflammatory responses, block mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLR) and other immune reactions, and have proven therapeutic against conditions

Emily C. Moorefield; Elizabeth E. McKee; Luis Solchaga; Guisseppe Orlando; James J. Yoo; Steve Walker; Mark E. Furth; Colin E. Bishop

2011-01-01

333

Non-Newtonian fluid effects on surface reactions in a microfluidic flow cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mass transfer over a reactive surface in microfluidic flow cells plays a key role in understanding biomoleculer interactions and diagnosis of small molecules for biomedical and environmental applications. The effects of Non-Newtonian power law fluid on the binding reaction kinetic of immunoglobulin G in a flow cell are analyzed in this study. Governing equations for the fluid flow, mass transport and surface reaction are derived. The finite element method is employed to solve resulting equations. In addition, the effects of volumetric flow rate, fluid behavior index and reaction constants on the surface reaction are analyzed and presented graphically.

Akgül, M. Bahattin; Sar?, Gözde; Pakdemirli, Mehmet

2012-11-01

334

Three-dimensional Cell Culture Model for Measuring the Effects of Interstitial Fluid Flow on Tumor Cell Invasion  

PubMed Central

The growth and progression of most solid tumors depend on the initial transformation of the cancer cells and their response to stroma-associated signaling in the tumor microenvironment 1. Previously, research on the tumor microenvironment has focused primarily on tumor-stromal interactions 1-2. However, the tumor microenvironment also includes a variety of biophysical forces, whose effects remain poorly understood. These forces are biomechanical consequences of tumor growth that lead to changes in gene expression, cell division, differentiation and invasion3. Matrix density 4, stiffness 5-6, and structure 6-7, interstitial fluid pressure 8, and interstitial fluid flow 8 are all altered during cancer progression. Interstitial fluid flow in particular is higher in tumors compared to normal tissues 8-10. The estimated interstitial fluid flow velocities were measured and found to be in the range of 0.1-3 ?m s-1, depending on tumor size and differentiation 9, 11. This is due to elevated interstitial fluid pressure caused by tumor-induced angiogenesis and increased vascular permeability 12. Interstitial fluid flow has been shown to increase invasion of cancer cells 13-14, vascular fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells 15. This invasion may be due to autologous chemotactic gradients created around cells in 3-D 16 or increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression 15, chemokine secretion and cell adhesion molecule expression 17. However, the mechanism by which cells sense fluid flow is not well understood. In addition to altering tumor cell behavior, interstitial fluid flow modulates the activity of other cells in the tumor microenvironment. It is associated with (a) driving differentiation of fibroblasts into tumor-promoting myofibroblasts 18, (b) transporting of antigens and other soluble factors to lymph nodes 19, and (c) modulating lymphatic endothelial cell morphogenesis 20. The technique presented here imposes interstitial fluid flow on cells in vitro and quantifies its effects on invasion (Figure 1). This method has been published in multiple studies to measure the effects of fluid flow on stromal and cancer cell invasion 13-15, 17. By changing the matrix composition, cell type, and cell concentration, this method can be applied to other diseases and physiological systems to study the effects of interstitial flow on cellular processes such as invasion, differentiation, proliferation, and gene expression.

Tchafa, Alimatou M.; Shah, Arpit D.; Wang, Shafei; Duong, Melissa T.; Shieh, Adrian C.

2012-01-01

335

Induction of E-cadherin+ human amniotic fluid cell differentiation into oocyte-like cells via culture in medium supplemented with follicular fluid.  

PubMed

Pluripotent human amniotic fluid cells (HuAFCs) can differentiate into various types of somatic cell in vitro. However, their differentiation into oocyte-like cells has never been described to the best of our knowledge. In the present study, differentiation of E-cadherin+ and E-cadherin- HuAFC sub-populations into oocyte-like cells was induced via culture in medium containing bovine follicular fluid and ?-mercaptoethanol. The E-cadherin+ HuAFCs expressed DAZL highly. Post-induction, cells with an oocyte-like phenotype were found among the E-cadherin+ HuAFCs, expressing markers specific to germ cells and oocytes (VASA, ZP3 and GDF9) and meiosis (DMC1 and SCP3). When specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to suppress E-cadherin in the E-cadherin+ HuAFCs, the levels of DAZL expression were reduced. Post-induction, the morphology of the siRNA?E?cadherin HuAFCs was poorer and the expression levels of germ cell-specific markers were lower compared with those of the siRNA-mock HuAFCs. Therefore, E-cadherin+ HuAFCs could be more easily induced to differentiate into oocyte-like cells by bovine follicular fluid and ?-mercaptoethanol. In addition, the E-cadherin+ HuAFCs exhibited potential characteristics of DAZL protein expression, and thus it was conjectured that bovine follicular fluid acts on DAZL protein and promotes E-cadherin+ HuAFC differentiation into oocyte-like cells. PMID:24788191

Liu, Te; Huang, Yongyi; Bu, Yanzhen; Zhao, Yanhui; Zou, Gang; Liu, Zhixue

2014-07-01

336

Induction of E-cadherin+ human amniotic fluid cell differentiation into oocyte-like cells via culture in medium supplemented with follicular fluid  

PubMed Central

Pluripotent human amniotic fluid cells (HuAFCs) can differentiate into various types of somatic cell in vitro. However, their differentiation into oocyte-like cells has never been described to the best of our knowledge. In the present study, differentiation of E-cadherin+ and E-cadherin? HuAFC sub-populations into oocyte-like cells was induced via culture in medium containing bovine follicular fluid and ?-mercaptoethanol. The E-cadherin+ HuAFCs expressed DAZL highly. Post-induction, cells with an oocyte-like phenotype were found among the E-cadherin+ HuAFCs, expressing markers specific to germ cells and oocytes (VASA, ZP3 and GDF9) and meiosis (DMC1 and SCP3). When specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to suppress E-cadherin in the E-cadherin+ HuAFCs, the levels of DAZL expression were reduced. Post-induction, the morphology of the siRNA-E-cadherin HuAFCs was poorer and the expression levels of germ cell-specific markers were lower compared with those of the siRNA-mock HuAFCs. Therefore, E-cadherin+ HuAFCs could be more easily induced to differentiate into oocyte-like cells by bovine follicular fluid and ?-mercaptoethanol. In addition, the E-cadherin+ HuAFCs exhibited potential characteristics of DAZL protein expression, and thus it was conjectured that bovine follicular fluid acts on DAZL protein and promotes E-cadherin+ HuAFC differentiation into oocyte-like cells.

LIU, TE; HUANG, YONGYI; BU, YANZHEN; ZHAO, YANHUI; ZOU, GANG; LIU, ZHIXUE

2014-01-01

337

Manual and automated leukocyte differentiation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from rodent models of pulmonary inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manual total and differential leukocyte counting in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) by visual microscopy is a standard\\u000a means of evaluating airway inflammation and the anti-inflammatory properties of therapeutics in various animal models of lung\\u000a disease. The manual cell counting method derives total leukocyte counts from BALF with a hemocytometer, and cell differentials\\u000a (mononuclear, neutrophil, eosinophil) are calculated from the percentage

Michelle Natiello; George Kelly; James Lamca; David Zelmanovic; Richard W. Chapman; Jonathan E. Phillips

2009-01-01

338

Gallium-67 activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in sarcoidosis  

SciTech Connect

Roentgenograms and gallium-67 scans and gallium-67 counts of BAL fluid samples, together with differential cell counts, have proved to be useful in assessing activity and lung involvement in sarcoidosis. In active pulmonary sarcoidosis gallium-67 scans are usually positive. Quantitation of gallium-67 uptake in lung scans, however, may be difficult. Because gallium-67 uptake and cell counts in BAL fluid may be correlated, we set out to investigate gallium-67 activity in BAL fluid recovered from patient of different groups. Sixteen patients with recently diagnosed and untreated sarcoidosis, nine patients with healthy lungs, and five patients with CFA were studied. Gallium-67 uptake of the lung, gallium-67 activity in the lavage fluid, SACE and LACE levels, and alpha 1-AT activity were measured. Significantly more gallium-67 activity was found in BAL fluid from sarcoidosis patients than in that from CFA patients (alpha = .001) or patients with healthy lungs (alpha = .001). Gallium-67 activity in BAL fluid could be well correlated with the number of lymphocytes in BAL fluid, but poorly with the number of macrophages. Subjects with increased levels of SACE or serum alpha 1-AT showed higher lavage gallium-67 activity than did normals, but no correlation could be established. High gallium-67 activity in lavage fluid may be correlated with acute sarcoidosis or physiological deterioration; low activity denotes change for the better. The results show that gallium-67 counts in BAL fluid reflects the intensity of gallium-67 uptake and thus of activity of pulmonary sarcoidosis.

Trauth, H.A.; Heimes, K.; Schubotz, R.; von Wichert, P.

1986-01-01

339

Herd-level and territorial-level factors influencing average herd somatic cell count in France in 2005 and 2006.  

PubMed

Mastitis is a multifactorial disease and the most costly dairy production issue. In spite of extensive literature on udder-health risk factors, effects of metabolic diseases, farmers' competencies and livestock farming system on somatic cells count (SCC) are sparsely described. Herd-level or territorial-level factors affecting monthly composite milk weighted mean cow SCC (CMSCC) were analysed with a linear mixed effect model. The average CMSCC was 266,000 cells/ml. Half of the herds had CMSCC >300,000 cells/ml for 2-6 months a year, and 15% of herds for more than 7 months a year. CMSCC was positively associated with the number of cows, having a beef or fattening herd in addition to the dairy herd, the monthly average days in milk, the yearly age at first calving, the yearly proportion of purchased cows and the yearly culling rate. Moreover, a positive association is reported between CMSCC and the monthly proportion of cows probably with subacute ruminal acidosis (fat percentage minus protein percentage ?0·30%, for Holstein) and negative energy balance (protein to fat ratio ?0·66, for Holstein), the yearly average calving interval, having at least one dead cow and the mean monthly temperature. The association was negative for a predominant breed other than Holstein, the monthly milk production, the yearly dry-off period length, the monthly first calving cow proportion, having an autumn calving peak, being a Good Breeding Practices member, the monthly number of days with rain, the altitude and the territorial cattle density. CMSCC varied widely among the 11 dairy production areas. In conclusion, this study showed the average CMSCC for the French dairy cows, compared with international results. Moreover, it quantified the contribution of several factors to CMSCC, in particular metabolic diseases and the farm environment. PMID:22687283

Raboisson, Didier; Dervillé, Marie; Herman, Nicolas; Cahuzac, Eric; Sans, Pierre; Allaire, Gilles

2012-08-01

340

Somatic Cells Count and Its Genetic Association with Milk Yield in Dairy Cattle Raised under Thai Tropical Environmental Conditions  

PubMed Central

Somatic cells count (SCC), milk yield (MY) and pedigree information of 2,791 first lactation cows that calved between 1990 and 2010 on 259 Thai farms were used to estimate genetic parameters and trends for SCC and its genetic association with MY. The SCC were log-transformed (lnSCC) to make them normally distributed. An average information-restricted maximum likelihood procedure was used to estimate variance components. A bivariate animal model that considered herd-yr-season, calving age, and regression additive genetic group as fixed effects, and animal and residual as random effects was used for genetic evaluation. Heritability estimates were 0.12 (SE = 0.19) for lnSCC, and 0.31 (SE = 0.06) for MY. The genetic correlation estimate between lnSCC and MY was 0.26 (SE = 0.59). Mean yearly estimated breeding values during the last 20 years increased for SCC (49.02 cells/ml/yr, SE = 26.81 cells/ml/yr; p = 0.08), but not for MY (0.37 kg/yr, SE = 0.87 kg/yr; p = 0.68). Sire average breeding values for SCC and MY were higher than those of cows and dams (p<0.01). Heritability estimates for lnSCC and MY and their low but positive genetic correlation suggested that selection for low SCC may be feasible in this population as it is in other populations of dairy cows. Thus, selection for high MY and low SCC should be encouraged in Thai dairy improvement programs to increase profitability by improving both cow health and milk yield.

Jattawa, D.; Koonawootrittriron, S.; Elzo, M. A.; Suwanasopee, T.

2012-01-01

341

Cytolytic activity in T cell clones derived from human synovial rheumatoid membrane: inhibition by synovial fluid.  

PubMed Central

A panel of T cell clones was derived from the synovial membrane of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We investigated whether T cell clones with cytolytic properties were present and whether T cell cytotoxicity was influenced by the presence of synovial fluid. These issues were studied using anti-CD3 and lectin-induced cytotoxicity assays. The majority of the T cell clones derived from the synovial membrane showed cytotoxic properties although non-cytotoxic clones were also found. Three clones (N11, N6 and N15) showed strong cytotoxicity (more than 40% lysis at an effector-to-target cell ratio of 10:1) whereas three clones (N16, N4 and N14) were non-cytotoxic (less than 20% lysis at an effector-to-target cell ratio of 10:1). The induction of cytotoxicity in the anti-CD3-driven system was shown to be dependent on the dose of anti-CD3 present. When synovial fluid was added to these assays a strong inhibition of cytotoxicity was found. This inhibition of cytotoxicity was found with synovial fluid samples of RA patients, as well as with non-RA synovial fluids. Both anti-CD3 and lectin-dependent cytotoxicity assays were strongly inhibited. In conclusion, T cell clones with cytotoxic activity can be isolated from rheumatoid synovial membrane. In the presence of synovial fluid these cytotoxic cells are inhibited to exert their cytotoxic function.

Miltenburg, A M; Van Laar, J M; De Kuiper, P; Daha, M R; Breedveld, F C

1990-01-01

342

Increases in platelet and red cell counts, blood viscosity, and arterial pressure during mild surface cooling: factors in mortality from coronary and cerebral thrombosis in winter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six hours of mild surface cooling in moving air at 24 degrees C with little fall in core temperature (0.4 degree C) increased the packed cell volume by 7% and increased the platelet count and usually the mean platelet volume to produce a 15% increase in the fraction of plasma volume occupied by platelets. Little of these increases occurred in

W R Keatinge; S R Coleshaw; F Cotter; M Mattock; M Murphy; R Chelliah

1984-01-01

343

Equivalence of microbial biomass measures based on membrane lipid and cell wall components, adenosine triphosphate, and direct counts in subsurface aquifer sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

An uncontaminated subsurface aquifer sediment contains a sparse microbial community consisting primarily of coccobacillary bacteria of relatively uniform size which can be counted directly with appropriate staining. The morphological simplicity and the relatively decreased cell numbers, when compared with surface soils and sediments, make the subsurface an ideal natural community with which to compare the utility of chemical measures of

David L. Balkwill; Franklin R. Leach; John T. Wilson; James F. McNabb; David C. White

1988-01-01

344

Ca(2+) signaling and fluid secretion by secretory cells of the airway epithelium.  

PubMed

Cytoplasmic Ca(2+) is a master regulator of airway physiology; it controls fluid, mucus, and antimicrobial peptide secretion, ciliary beating, and smooth muscle contraction. The focus of this review is on the role of cytoplasmic Ca(2+) in fluid secretion by airway exocrine secretory cells. Airway submucosal gland serous acinar cells are the primary fluid secreting cell type of the cartilaginous conducting airways, and this review summarizes the current state of knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of serous cell ion transport, with an emphasis on their regulation by intracellular Ca(2+). Many neurotransmitters that regulate secretion from serous acinar cells utilize Ca(2+) as a second messenger. Changes in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration regulate the activities of ion transporters and channels involved in transepithelial ion transport and fluid secretion, including Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels and Cl(-) channels. We also review evidence of interactions of Ca(2+) signaling with other signaling pathways (cAMP, NO) that impinge upon different ion transport pathways, including the cAMP/PKA-activated cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) anion channel. A better understanding of Ca(2+) signaling and its targets in airway fluid secretion may identify novel strategies to intervene in airway diseases, for example to enhance fluid secretion in CF airways. PMID:24703093

Lee, Robert J; Foskett, J Kevin

2014-06-01

345

Lingual antimicrobial peptide and lactoferrin concentrations and lactoperoxidase activity in bovine colostrum are associated with subsequent somatic cell count.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to examine whether potential levels of innate immune factors (lingual antimicrobial peptide (LAP), lactoferrin (LF) and lactoperoxidase (LPO)) in colostrum are associated with subsequent milk somatic cell count (SCC) in dairy cows. Quarter milk samples were collected daily for 1 week postpartum to measure LAP and LF concentrations and LPO activity. SCC in milk was determined weekly for 2 months postpartum and its correlations to concentrations of LAP and LF and LPO activity were examined. Only small variations of all immune factors were found among four udders in each individual cow, whereas there were great differences in these factors among cows. Negative correlation was detected only between LPO activity and mean and maximum SCC, whereas its relationship was not significant. LAP and LF concentrations were significantly correlated positively to mean, maximum and minimum SCC. These results suggest that the great difference in innate immune factors among animals and high LAP and LF concentrations in colostrum may be associated with subsequent high incidence of SCC increase. PMID:24001397

Isobe, Naoki; Shibata, Ayumi; Kubota, Hirokazu; Yoshimura, Yukinori

2013-11-01

346

Effect of estrus synchronization on daily somatic cell count variation in goats according to lactation number and udder health status.  

PubMed

Two repeated experiments were carried out in 2 different years to study the effect of estrus on somatic cell count (SCC) in dairy goats. In the first year, 36 Murciano-Granadina goats were used [12 primiparous and 24 multiparous; 22 healthy and 14 with an intramammary infection (IMI)] and, after a 6-d pre-experimental period, were divided into 2 groups according to lactation number, udder health status, SCC, and milk production. One group was kept as a control, whereas the other received an estrus synchronization hormonal treatment lasting 11d. At 24, 48, and 72h after cessation of the hormone treatment, goats were placed in contact with a buck to confirm that they were in estrus. For 32 consecutive days (6 pre-experimental, 11 in hormone treatment, and 15 post-treatment) the SCC per gland and udder were monitored in all animals. In the second year, we repeated the same experimental design using a total of 38 Murciano-Granadina breed goats (12 primiparous and 26 multiparous; 26 healthy and 12 with IMI). Throughout this experiment, milk yield and composition were also recorded daily for each goat. Upon termination of the hormonal treatment, the SCC in udder milk increased significantly in the treatment group compared with the control group over 3 consecutive days. This increase was observed for year (1 and 2), parity (primiparous and multiparous), and udder health status (healthy and IMI). The log10 SCC (cells/mL) increased from 5.5±0.09 before estrus to 6.04±0.09 during treatment; therefore, the geometric mean of the SCC increased 3.5 times during treatment. The maximum values obtained in healthy glands of primiparous goats (geometric mean=0.37 million cells/mL) were lower than in healthy glands (1.1 million cells/mL) or infected glands (1.7 million cells/mL) of multiparous goats. The increase in SCC observed during estrus (200% increase in geometric means) could not be explained by the changes in milk production, which only fell by 13%. During estrus, the percentage of protein and dry matter in the milk also increased significantly. We concluded that it is necessary to consider the presence of estrus to correctly interpret milk SCC, as an indirect method for detecting IMI or as a commercial milk quality parameter. PMID:23664342

Mehdid, A; Dķaz, J R; Martķ, A; Vidal, G; Peris, C

2013-07-01

347

Method for filling the cavities of cells with a chromogenic fluid  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are disclosed for filling a cell cavity positioned between a first substrate and a second substrate with a cell filling liquid. The method entails forming at least one evacuation cavity encompassing at least a portion of an outer surface of each of the first and second substrates of a cell containing a cell cavity and isolating the cell cavity from the evacuation cavity; reducing a pressure in each of the evacuation cavity and the cell cavity; and dispensing the cell filling fluid into the cell cavity. The application is to the fabrication of electrochromic windows. 22 figs.

Tonazzi, J.C.L.; Kucharczyk, J.E. Jr.; Agrawal, A.

1999-01-05

348

Apparatus for filling the cavities of cells and laminated substrates with a fluid  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are disclosed for filling a cell cavity positioned between a first substrate and a second substrate with a cell filling liquid. The method entails forming at least one evacuation cavity encompassing at least a portion of an outer surface of each of the first and second substrates of a cell containing a cell cavity and isolating the cell cavity from the evacuation cavity; reducing a pressure in each of the evacuation cavity and the cell cavity; and dispensing the cell filling fluid into the cell cavity.

Lopez Tonazzi, Juan C. (Tucson, AZ); Kucharczyk, Jr., Joseph E. (Tucson, AZ); Agrawal, Anoop (Tucson, AZ)

2001-01-01

349

Method for filling the cavities of cells with a chromogenic fluid  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are disclosed for filling a cell cavity positioned between a first substrate and a second substrate with a cell filling liquid. The method entails forming at least one evacuation cavity encompassing at least a portion of an outer surface of each of the first and second substrates of a cell containing a cell cavity and isolating the cell cavity from the evacuation cavity; reducing a pressure in each of the evacuation cavity and the cell cavity; and dispensing the cell filling fluid into the cell cavity.

Tonazzi, Juan C. Lopez (Tucson, AZ); Kucharczyk, Jr., Joseph E. (Tucson, AZ); Agrawal, Anoop (Tucson, AZ)

1999-01-01

350

Isolation, culture and characterization of caprine mesenchymal stem cells derived from amniotic fluid.  

PubMed

Amniotic fluid (AF) represents heterologous cell types and a specific group of these cells show high growth rate and multipotent characteristics. The aim of the present study was to culture and fully characterize the putative stem cell population isolated from caprine mesenchymal stem cells. Plastic adherent fibroblastoid cell population could be successfully isolated from the caprine amniotic fluid. In vitro expanded caprine amniotic fluid derived mesenchymal stem cells (cAF-MSCs) showed high proliferation ratio with a doubling time of 33.1h and stained positive for alkaline phosphatase. Relative transcript abundance of CD-73, CD-90 and CD-105 surface markers were analyzed by SYBR green based real time PCR and their respective proteins were localized through immunocytochemistry, however cAF-MSCs were found negative for haematopoietic marker CD-34. When exposed to corresponding induction condition, cAF-MSCs differentiated into osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic lineages which was confirmed through von Kossa, Oil Red O and Alcian blue staining respectively. Furthermore, these cells were found positive for undifferentiated embryonic stem cell markers like Oct-4, Nanog, Sox-2, SSEA-1 and SSEA-4 which accentuate their pluripotent property. In conclusion, caprine amniotic fluid represents a promising source of mesenchymal stem cells with high proliferative and differentiation potential and these cells offer their scope for multiple regenerative therapies. PMID:23017255

Pratheesh, M D; Gade, Nitin E; Katiyar, Amar Nath; Dubey, Pawan K; Sharma, Bhaskar; Saikumar, G; Amarpal; Sharma, G T

2013-04-01

351

Lack of dietary calcium effect on chlordecone increased white blood cell count, total iron, and iron-binding capacity in serum of rat.  

PubMed

Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 0, 1, 10, 50, and 100 ppm of chlordecone (Cd) mixed in calcium-sufficient (Ca-S) or calcium-deficient (Ca-D) diet for 15 days. The control rats fed with Ca-D diet exhibited a significant increase in white blood cell (WBC) counts compared to the rats fed with Ca-S diet. Dietary calcium (Ca), however, did not elicit any significant effect on total iron content and iron-binding capacity (transferrin) of control rats, whereas Cd at higher concentrations significantly increased WBC counts, total iron, and iron-binding capacity in serum of both Ca-S and Ca-D rats. The data suggest that dietary Ca did not alter Cd-increased WBC count, total iron, and iron-binding capacity in serum of rat. PMID:8727520

Chetty, K N; Fantroy, L; Landau, G; Ivie, G W

1996-04-01

352

T-cell count  

MedlinePLUS

... drawn are slight: Excessive bleeding Fainting or feeling light-headed Hematoma (blood accumulating under the skin) Infection (a slight risk any time the skin is broken) Multiple punctures to locate veins This test is often performed on people with ...

353

Photoacoustic and photothermal detection of circulating tumor cells, bacteria and nanoparticles in cerebrospinal fluid in vivo and ex vivo.  

PubMed

Circulating cells, bacteria, proteins, microparticles, and DNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are excellent biomarkers of many diseases, including cancer and infections. However, the sensitivity of existing methods is limited in their ability to detect rare CSF biomarkers at the treatable, early-stage of diseases. Here, we introduce novel CSF tests based on in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry (PAFC) and ex vivo photothermal scanning cytometry. In the CSF of tumor-bearing mice, we molecularly detected in vivo circulating tumor cells (CTCs) before the development of breast cancer brain metastasis with 20-times higher sensitivity than with current assays. For the first time, we demonstrated assessing three pathways (i.e., blood, lymphatic, and CSF) of CTC dissemination, tracking nanoparticles in CSF in vivo and their imaging ex vivo. In label-free CSF samples, we counted leukocytes, erythrocytes, melanoma cells, and bacteria and imaged intracellular cytochromes, hemoglobin, melanin, and carotenoids, respectively. Taking into account the safety of PAFC, its translation for use in humans is expected to improve disease diagnosis beyond conventional detection limits. PMID:23681943

Nedosekin, Dmitry A; Juratli, Mazen A; Sarimollaoglu, Mustafa; Moore, Christopher L; Rusch, Nancy J; Smeltzer, Mark S; Zharov, Vladimir P; Galanzha, Ekaterina I

2013-06-01

354

Photoacoustic and photothermal detection of circulating tumor cells, bacteria and nanoparticles in cerebrospinal fluid in vivo and ex vivo  

PubMed Central

Circulating cells, proteins, microparticles, and DNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are excellent biomarkers of many diseases, including cancer and infections. However, the sensitivity of existing methods is limited in their ability to detect rare CSF biomarkers at the treatable, early-stage of diseases. Here, we introduce novel CSF tests based on in vivo multicolor photoacoustic flow cytometry (PAFC) and ex vivo photothermal scanning cytometry. In the CSF of tumor-bearing mice, we molecularly detected in vivo circulating tumor cells (CTCs) before the development of breast cancer brain metastasis with 20-times higher sensitivity than with current assays. For the first time, we demonstrated assessing three pathways (i.e., blood, lymphatic, and CSF) of CTC dissemination, tracking nanoparticles in CSF in vivo and their imaging ex vivo. In label-free CSF samples, we counted leukocytes, erythrocytes, melanoma cells, and bacteria and imaged intracellular cytochromes, hemoglobin, melanin, and carotenoids, respectively. Taking into account the safety of PAFC, its translation for use in humans is expected to improve disease diagnosis beyond conventional detection limits.

Nedosekin, Dmitry A.; Juratli, Mazen A.; Sarimollaoglu, Mustafa; Moore, Christopher L.; Rusch, Nancy J.; Smeltzer, Mark S.; Zharov, Vladimir P.; Galanzha, Ekaterina I.

2014-01-01

355

Human Amniotic Fluid Stem Cell-derived Muscle Progenitor Cell Therapy for Stress Urinary Incontinence  

PubMed Central

The most promising treatment for stress urinary incontinence can be a cell therapy. We suggest human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFSCs) as an alternative cell source. We established the optimum in vitro protocol for the differentiation from hAFSCs into muscle progenitors. These progenitors were transplanted into the injured urethral sphincter and their therapeutic effect was analyzed. For the development of an efficient differentiation system in vitro, we examined a commercial medium, co-culture and conditioned medium (CM) systems. After being treated with CM, hAFSCs were effectively developed into a muscle lineage. The progenitors were integrated into the host urethral sphincter and the host cell differentiation was stimulated in vivo. Urodynamic analysis showed significant increase of leak point pressure and closing pressure. Immunohistochemistry revealed the regeneration of circular muscle mass with normal appearance. Molecular analysis observed the expression of a larger number of target markers. In the immunogenicity analysis, the progenitor group had a scant CD8 lymphocyte. In tumorigenicity, the progenitors showed no teratoma formation. These results suggest that hAFSCs can effectively be differentiated into muscle progenitors in CM and that the hAFSC-derived muscle progenitors are an accessible cell source for the regeneration of injured urethral sphincter.

Chun, So Young; Cho, Deok Hyun; Chae, Seon Yeong; Choi, Kyung Hee; Lim, Hyun Ju; Yoon, Ghil Suk; Kim, Bum Soo; Kim, Bup Wan; Yoo, James J

2012-01-01

356

Environmental Enrichment Increases Progenitor Cell Survival in the Dentate Gyrus following Lateral Fluid Percussion Injury  

PubMed Central

Neurons in the hilus of the dentate gyrus are lost following a lateral fluid percussion injury. Environmental enrichment is known to increase neurogenesis in the dentate in intact rats, suggesting that it might also do so following fluid percussion injury, and potentially provide replacements for lost neurons. We report that 1 hour of daily environmental enrichment for 3 weeks increased the number of progenitor cells in the dentate following fluid percussion injury, but only on the ipsilesional side. In the dentate granule cell layer, but not the hilus, most progenitors had a neuronal phenotype. The rate of on going cell proliferation was similar across groups. Collectively these results suggest that the beneficial effects of environmental enrichment on behavioral recovery following FP injury are not attributable to neuronal replacement in the hilus, but may be related to increased neurogenesis in the granule cell layer.

Gaulke, Lindsey J.; Horner, Philip J.; Fink, Andrew J.; McNamara, Courtney L.; Hicks, Ramona R.

2006-01-01

357

Effects of N,N?-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) on mouse germ cells — sperm count and morphology, and testicular pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sperm count and morphology, and testicular histopathology were studied in mice over a period of 75 days following a single oral administration of 50, 100, and 200 mg\\/kg N.N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA). With a 50 and 100 mg\\/kg dose, the sperm abnormality reached a maximum at 30 days, whereas the sperm count reached a minimum at 35 days. The abnormality and

Junko Sakamoto; Kazuo Hashimoto

1988-01-01

358

Computational fluid dynamics study of phosphotungstic acid electrolyte-based fuel cell (PWAFC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study of the mass and heat transfer in the phosphotungstic acid electrolyte-based fuel cell (PWAFC) was performed in order to elucidate the cause of irregular fuel cell work failures at high current densities, which manifested through partial melting of the matrix and electrodes and crossover effect. It was established that the reason for these difficulties

Igor Lavri?; Pietro Staiti; Peter Novak; Stanko Ho?evar

2001-01-01

359

Computational Fluid Dynamic Simulation of Aggregation of Deformable Cells in a Shear Flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation of aggregation of two deform- able cells in a shear flow. This work is motivated by an attempt to develop computational models of aggregation of red blood cells (RBCs). Aggregation of RBCs is a major deter- minant of blood viscosity in microcirculation under physiological and pathological con- ditions. Deformability of the RBCs plays

Prosenjit Bagchi; Paul C. Johnson; Aleksander S. Popel

2005-01-01

360

Regulation of bronchoalveolar lavage fluids cell function by the immunomodulatory agents from Cordyceps sinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) is one of the well known fungi used in traditional Chinese medicine for treatment asthma and bronchial and lung inflammation. In this study, effects of C. sinensis methanolic extracts on bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) cells proliferation, inflammatory cytokines production, and genes expression were evaluated. The proliferative response of BALF cells to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was determined by

Yuh-Chi Kuo; Wei-Jern Tsai; Jir-Yenn Wang; Shi-Chung Chang; Ching-Yuang Lin; Ming-Shi Shiao

2001-01-01

361

Variability of acid hydrolase activities in cultured skin fibroblasts and amniotic fluid cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specific activities of lysosomal hydrolases in cultured skin fibroblasts and amniotic fluid cells showed wide and unpredictable variations between cultures, which may lead to difficulty in differentiating normal, heterozygous, and homozygous cells. However, the variability for a given culture was similar for all enzymes assayed, so that a clearer differentiation of a relative deficiency of a given enzyme could

E Young; P Willcox; A E Whitfield; A D Patrick

1975-01-01

362

Computational fluid dynamics simulations for hydrogen dispersion and exhaust in residential fuel cell systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accidental leakage of hydrogen in residential fuel cell systems can be dangerous because hydrogen has a high risk of inflammation or explosion when stagnant in a space. Thus, ventilation of residential fuel cell systems should be properly designed to reduce the hydrogen stagnation inside the system enclosure and thus to enhance the safety. In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD)

Youngdoo Kim; Jin Hyun Nam; Donghoon Shin; Tae-Yong Chung; Young-Gyu Kim

2010-01-01

363

Resistance to Fluid Shear Stress Is a Conserved Biophysical Property of Malignant Cells  

PubMed Central

During metastasis, cancer cells enter the circulation in order to gain access to distant tissues, but how this fluid microenvironment influences cancer cell biology is poorly understood. A longstanding view is that circulating cancer cells derived from solid tissues may be susceptible to damage from hemodynamic shear forces, contributing to metastatic inefficiency. Here we report that compared to non-transformed epithelial cells, transformed cells are remarkably resistant to fluid shear stress (FSS) in a microfluidic protocol, exhibiting a biphasic decrease in viability when subjected to a series of millisecond pulses of high FSS. We show that magnitude of FSS resistance is influenced by several oncogenes, is an adaptive and transient response triggered by plasma membrane damage and requires extracellular calcium and actin cytoskeletal dynamics. This novel property of malignant cancer cells may facilitate hematogenous metastasis and indicates, contrary to expectations, that cancer cells are quite resistant to destruction by hemodynamic shear forces.

Henry, Michael D.

2012-01-01

364

Electrokinetic Focusing and Separation of Mammalian Cells in Conductive Biological Fluids  

PubMed Central

Active manipulation of cells, such as trapping, focusing, and isolation, is essential for various bioanalytical applications. Herein, we report a hybrid electrokinetic technique for manipulating mammalian cells in physiological fluids. This technique applies a combination of negative dielectrophoretic force and hydrodynamic drag force induced by electrohydrodynamics, which is effective in conductive biological fluids. With a three-electrode configuration, the stable equilibrium positions of cells can be adjusted for separation and focusing applications. Cancer cells and white blood cells can be positioned and isolated into specific locations in the microchannel under both static and dynamic flow conditions. To investigate the sensitivity of the hybrid electrokinetic process, AC voltage, frequency, and bias dependences of the cell velocity were studied systematically. The applicability of the hybrid electrokinetic technique for manipulating cells in physiological samples is demonstrated by continuous focusing human breast adenocarcinoma spiked in urine, buffy coats, and processed blood samples with 98% capture efficiency.

Gao, Jian Gao; Riahi, Reza; Sin, Mandy L. Y.; Zhang, Shufeng; Wong, Pak Kin

2014-01-01

365

KSHV DNA viremia correlates with low CD4+ cell count in Italian males at the time of diagnosis of HIV infection.  

PubMed

To evaluate the relevance and the virological and immunological markers of Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus 8 (KSHV) viremia in Italian male patients at the time of diagnosis of infection with HIV-1, 481 men infected with HIV were recruited consecutively. The presence of KSHV DNA was evaluated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and in plasma and correlated with demographic and viro-immunological parameters. Seventy-four patients had KSHV DNA detected in PBMCs. By univariate analysis, the presence of KSHV DNA was associated significantly with unprotected homosexual relationships (P=0.003) and it was significantly higher in patients with CD4+ cell <350 (P=0.025). By multivariate analysis, homosexual relationships were associated independently with KSHV DNA in PBMCs (OR: 3.25; 95% CI: 1.1-9.7; P=0.035). Among the 74 patients with KSHV DNA detected in PBMCs, plasma samples from 60 were analyzed and 33 were positive for KSHV DNA. The CD4+ cell counts and percentages were significantly lower in patients with KSHV DNA in both PBMCs and plasma as compared to patients with only KSHV DNA in PBMCs (P=0.006 and P=0.019, respectively). Among the patients with KSHV DNA detected in PBMCs, all 13 patients with CD4+ cells count <200 had detectable levels of KSHV in their plasma. By multivariate analysis adjusted for the epidemiologic and virological parameters, low CD4+ cell count was the only independent variable associated with the presence of KSHV DNA in plasma (OR, 0.001; 95% CI: <0.001-0.001; P=0.03). In HIV-positive antiretroviral therapy-naļve males, KSHV active replication as detected by KSHV DNA in plasma was associated significantly with low CD4+ cell count. PMID:21264857

Parisi, Saverio G; Boldrin, Caterina; Andreis, Samantha; Ferretto, Roberto; Fuser, Rodolfo; Malena, Marina; Manfrin, Vinicio; Panese, Sandro; Scaggiante, Renzo; Dori, Luca; Sarmati, Loredana; Biasolo, Maria A; Nicastri, Emanuele; Andreoni, Massimo; Cruciani, Mario; Palł, Giorgio

2011-03-01

366

Nadir CD4 count and monthly income predict cervical squamous cell abnormalities in HIV-positive women in a resource-limited setting.  

PubMed

We conducted a cross-sectional study with 385 HIV-positive women in Bangkok to assess the prevalence and predictors of cervical abnormalities on Papanicolaou (Pap) smear. Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), high-grade SIL (HSIL) and invasive cervical cell cancer (ICC) were assessed by cytological examination after Pap smear and logistic regression models were used to assess associations with patient characteristics. Overall prevalence of LSIL, HSIL and ICC were 11.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.2-14.7%), 4.7% (95%CI 2.8-7.3%) and 0.5% (95%CI 0.06-1.9%), respectively. In multivariate models, only the nadir CD4 count and income remained significantly associated with cytological abnormalities, whereas smoking, hormonal contraceptive or antiretroviral use, condom use, parity and number of lifetime sexual partners were not associated. The odds ratio for having cytological abnormalities was 2.6 (95% CI 1.24-5.34) in those with a nadir CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 compared with those with a higher nadir CD4 count, and 1.99 (1.11-3.57) in those with an income of <125 US dollars/month compared with those with higher incomes. In settings where access to affordable treatment is improving, this study reinforces the importance of regular Pap smear screening in HIV-positive women, particularly those with low nadir CD4 counts and lower incomes. PMID:18663038

Mangclaviraj, Somsamorn; Kerr, Stephen J; Chaithongwongwatthana, Surasith; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Hirschel, Bernard; Emery, Sean; Cooper, David A; Chotnopparatpattara, Pichai; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Phanuphak, Praphan

2008-08-01

367

Isolation, culture, and identification of amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells.  

PubMed

Amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AF-MSC) are newly described, excellent seed cells that have good differentiation capability and are convenient to obtain. However, it is important to develop a method to isolate and culture AF-MSC efficiently. Amniotic fluid samples were obtained from rabbits and the adherence method was used for AF-MSC culture. Flow cytometry, western blot, and immunofluorescence studies were used to analyze the phenotypic characteristics of the cultured AF-MSC. Amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells were successfully isolated and cultured from amniotic fluid. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that these cells expressed CD29 and CD44, while they did not express CD34. The expression of transcription factor Oct-4 was confirmed by western blot and immunofluorescence analysis. Using the adherence method, we developed a successful, reproducible protocol for the isolation of AF-MSC from amniotic fluid. The results of our phenotypic analysis revealed that the AF-MSC isolated in the present study were multipotent cells. PMID:23508888

Fei, Xuetao; Jiang, Shan; Zhang, Song; Li, Yigang; Ge, Junbo; He, Ben; Goldstein, Steven; Ruiz, George

2013-11-01

368

LIQUID SCINTILLATION COUNTING WITH GLASS FIBER PAPER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of counting CĀ¹ā“ on cellulose paper was compared ; with that of glass fiber paper. It was observed that cellulose paper is only ; about 60% as efficient as glass fiber paper. Identical amounts of fucose-1-C\\/sup ; 14\\/ were placed on each type of paper and the disks were counted in a nonpolar ; scintillation fluid. The proportionality

K. G. Pinter; J. G. Hamilton; O. N. Miller

1963-01-01

369

Utility of routine viral load, CD4 cell count, and clinical monitoring among adults with HIV receiving antiretroviral therapy in Uganda: randomised trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the use of routine laboratory monitoring in terms of clinical outcomes among patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Uganda. Design Randomised clinical trial Setting A home based ART programme in rural Uganda. Participants All participants were people with HIV who were members of the AIDS Support Organisation. Participants had CD4 cell counts <250 cells × 106/L or World Health Organization stage 3 or 4 disease. Interventions Participants were randomised to one of three different monitoring arms: a viral load arm (clinical monitoring, quarterly CD4 counts, and viral load measurements), CD4 arm (clinical monitoring and CD4 counts), or clinical arm (clinical monitoring alone). Main outcome measures Serious morbidity (newly diagnosed AIDS defining illness) and mortality. Results 1094 participants started ART; median CD4 count at baseline was 129 cells × 106/L. Median follow-up was three years. In total, 126 participants died (12%), 148 (14%) experienced new AIDS defining illnesses, and 61(6%) experienced virological failure, defined as two consecutive viral loads >500 copies/mL occurring more than three months after the start of ART. After adjustment for age, sex, baseline CD4 count, viral load, and body mass index, the rate of new AIDS defining events or death was higher in the clinical arm than the viral load arm (adjusted hazard ratio 1.83, P=0.002) or the CD4 arm (1.49, P=0.032). There was no significant difference between the CD4 arm and the viral load arm (1.23, P=0.31). Conclusion In patients receiving ART for HIV infection in Uganda, routine laboratory monitoring is associated with improved health and survival compared with clinical monitoring alone. Trial registration Clinical Trials NCT00119093.

2011-01-01

370

Rate and predictors of non-AIDS events in a cohort of HIV-infected patients with a CD4 T cell count above 500 cells/mm³.  

PubMed

The reduction of risk of non-AIDS events after combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiation and the crude incidence rate (CIR) of these events in patients who control the viral load without cART (controllers) in a cohort of 574 antiretroviral-naive patients with a baseline CD4 T cell count above 500 cells/mm³ were assessed. Non-AIDS severe events were defined as a first admission to the hospital due to non-AIDS-defining malignancies, cardiovascular, neuropsychiatric, liver-related, or end-stage renal disease events. Potential determinants of non-AIDS/death events were studied using Cox regression models. Eighty-five non-AIDS/death events occurred during 6,062 persons-years of follow-up (PYFU) with a CIR of 1.4 per 100 PYFU. Factors associated with non-AIDS/death event were age (HR 3.4; 95% CI: 1.6-6.9), nadir CD4 below 350 cells/mm³ (HR 2.5; 95% CI: 1.4-4.6), and a last determination of viral load above the median (HR 1.9; 95% CI: 1.0-3.3). The CIR of non-AIDS/death events was 2.1 and 1.8 per 100 PYFU before and after cART in patients who started cART (n=446). A reduction of CIR of non-AIDS events after cART initiation was observed only in patients with a nadir of CD4 above 350 cells/mm³ (2.5 vs. 0.6 per 100 PYFU, p=0.004, and remained stable after cART in patients with a median nadir of CD4 below 350 cells/mm³. CIR was similar in elite, viremic, and noncontrollers (1.1, 1.0, and 1.5 per 100 PYFU, respectively, p=0.25). Reduction of CIR of non-AIDS events after cART initiation depends on nadir CD4 T cell count. Most of the controllers patients had a CIR similar to noncontrollers. These data support the early initiation of cART in HIV-infected patients. PMID:23530980

Lucero, Constanza; Torres, Berta; León, Agathe; Calvo, Marta; Leal, Lorna; Pérez, Ińaki; Plana, Montserrat; Arnedo, Mireia; Mallolas, Josep; Gatell, Josep M; Garcķa, Felipe

2013-08-01

371

The effect of estrus synchronization treatments on somatic cell count of transitional-anestrus Awassi ewes' milk.  

PubMed

Fifty-three transitional-anestrus Awassi ewes, randomly assigned to three groups: fluorogestone acetate (FGA, n = 18), FGA-Prostaglandin (FGA-PGF, n = 18) and control (n = 17), were used to examine the effect of estrus synchronization protocols and steroid hormones concentrations on milk somatic cell count (SCC). Intravaginal FGA sponge was inserted for 13 days and 600 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin was administered for ewes of FGA and FGA-PGF groups at the time of sponge removal (day 0). In addition, 10 mg was administered to ewes of FGA-PGF group on day 0. Blood and milk samples were collected from all ewes on days -13, -6, 0, 1, 2, 7 and 14. Estradiol had significant positive correlation with the SCC during the periods of sponge insertion (P = 0.015, r = 0.235) and within two days (P = 0.063 r = 0.23) after sponge removal with no correlation with SCC of both udder halves during the luteal phase. Progesterone concentrations, on the other hand, had a significant positive correlation (P < 0.001; r = 0.420) with the SCC of both udder halves during the luteal phase of the experiment, but not during the periods of sponge insertion and expected estrus. SCC returned under the influence of endogenous progesterone on days 7 and 14 to pre-synchronization values. In conclusion, sheep milk SCC is affected significantly with induction of estrus and steroid hormones concentrations. However, peak SCC recorded during estrus was far below the upper limit of the current standard for normal milk. With the current standards for SCC of 1,000,000/ml as legal limit for abnormal milk control programs in sheep, estrus synchronization programs and the estrus status should not be considered when bulk-tank milk SCC is being investigated, but should be considered during the process of setting new standards. PMID:19216098

Talafha, A Q; Lafi, S Q; Ababneh, M M

2009-02-01

372

Fluid biopsy for circulating tumor cell identification in patients with early-and late-stage non-small cell lung cancer: a glimpse into lung cancer biology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Circulating tumor cell (CTC) counts are an established prognostic marker in metastatic prostate, breast and colorectal cancer, and recent data suggest a similar role in late stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, due to sensitivity constraints in current enrichment-based CTC detection technologies, there are few published data about CTC prevalence rates and morphologic heterogeneity in early-stage NSCLC, or the correlation of CTCs with disease progression and their usability for clinical staging. We investigated CTC counts, morphology and aggregation in early stage, locally advanced and metastatic NSCLC patients by using a fluid-phase biopsy approach that identifies CTCs without relying on surface-receptor-based enrichment and presents them in sufficiently high definition (HD) to satisfy diagnostic pathology image quality requirements. HD-CTCs were analyzed in blood samples from 78 chemotherapy-naļve NSCLC patients. 73% of the total population had a positive HD-CTC count (>0 CTC in 1 mL of blood) with a median of 4.4 HD-CTCs mL-1 (range 0-515.6) and a mean of 44.7 (±95.2) HD-CTCs mL-1. No significant difference in the medians of HD-CTC counts was detected between stage IV (n = 31, range 0-178.2), stage III (n = 34, range 0-515.6) and stages I/II (n = 13, range 0-442.3). Furthermore, HD-CTCs exhibited a uniformity in terms of molecular and physical characteristics such as fluorescent cytokeratin intensity, nuclear size, frequency of apoptosis and aggregate formation across the spectrum of staging. Our results demonstrate that despite stringent morphologic inclusion criteria for the definition of HD-CTCs, the HD-CTC assay shows high sensitivity in the detection and characterization of both early- and late-stage lung cancer CTCs. Extensive studies are warranted to investigate the prognostic value of CTC profiling in early-stage lung cancer. This finding has implications for the design of extensive studies examining screening, therapy and surveillance in lung cancer patients.

Wendel, Marco; Bazhenova, Lyudmila; Boshuizen, Rogier; Kolatkar, Anand; Honnatti, Meghana; Cho, Edward H.; Marrinucci, Dena; Sandhu, Ajay; Perricone, Anthony; Thistlethwaite, Patricia; Bethel, Kelly; Nieva, Jorge; van den Heuvel, Michel; Kuhn, Peter

2012-02-01

373

CD8+ T-cell counts: an early predictor of risk and mortality in critically ill immunocompromised patients with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Critically ill immunocompromised (CIIC) patients with pulmonary infection are a population at high risk for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). The host defenses are important factors to consider in determining the risk and outcome of infection. Quantification of changes in the status of host immunity could be valuable for clinical diagnosis and outcome prediction. Methods We evaluated the quantitative changes in key humoral and cellular parameters in CIIC patients with pulmonary infection and their potential influence on the risk and prognosis of IPA. We monitored the evolution of these parameters in 150 CIIC patients with pulmonary infection on days 1, 3 and 10 (D1, D3 and D10) following ICU admission. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. Follow-up included 60- and 90-day mortality. Results Among the 150 CIIC patients included in this study, 62 (41.3%) had microbiological evidence of IPA. Compared with patients without IPA, CD3+, CD8+, CD28+CD4+ and CD28+CD8+ CD28+CD8+ T-cell counts (D1, D3 and D10) and B-cell counts (D1 and D3) were significantly reduced in patients with IPA (P?cell counts were independent predictors of IPA in CIIC patients. Receiver operating characteristic analysis of immune parameters predicting 28-day mortality revealed area under the curve values of 0.82 (95% CI 0.71 to 0.92), 0.94 (95% CI 0.87 to 0.99), and 0.94 (95% CI 0.85 to 0.99) for CD8+ T-cell counts (D1, D3 and D10, respectively) and 0.84 (95% CI 0.75 to 0.94), 0.92 (95% CI 0.85 to 0.99) and 0.90 (95% CI 0.79 to 0.99) for CD28+CD8+ T-cell counts (D1, D3 and D10, respectively). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis provided evidence that CD8+ and CD28+CD8+ T-cell counts (<149.5 cells/mm3 and <75 cells/mm3, respectively) were associated with early mortality in CIIC patients with IPA (logrank test; P?cell counts were significantly lower in CIIC patients with IPA than in non-IPA patients. Lower CD8+ and CD28+CD8+ T-cell counts in CIIC patients with pulmonary infection were associated with higher risk and early mortality in IPA and may be valuable for clinical diagnosis and outcome prediction.

2013-01-01

374

Natural killer cell function is well preserved in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infection but similar to that of HIV-1 infection when CD4 T-cell counts fall.  

PubMed

Natural killer (NK) cells are potent effectors of natural immunity and their activity prevents human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viral entry and viral replication. We sought to determine whether NK immune responses are associated with different clinical course of HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections. A cross-sectional analysis of NK cell responses was undertaken in 30 HIV-1 and 30 HIV-2 subjects in each of three categories of CD4(+)-T-cell counts (>500, 200 to 500, and <200 cells/microl) and in 50 HIV-uninfected control subjects. Lytic activity and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) secretion were measured by chromium release and enzyme-linked immunospot assays, respectively. Flow cytometry was used to assess intracellular cytokines and chemokines. Levels of NK cytotoxicity were significantly higher in HIV-2 than in HIV-1 infections in subjects with high CD4(+)-T-cell counts and were similar to that of the healthy controls. In these HIV-2 subjects, cytolytic activity was positively correlated to NK cell count and inversely related to plasma viremia. Levels of intracellular MIP-1beta, RANTES, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and IFN-gamma produced by NK CD56(bright) cells were significantly higher in HIV-2- than HIV-1-infected subjects with high CD4(+)-T-cell counts but fell to similar levels as CD4 counts dropped. The data suggest efficient cytolytic and chemokine-suppressive activity of NK cells early in HIV-2 infection, which is associated with high CD4(+) T-cell counts. Enhancement of these functions may be important in immune-based therapy to control HIV disease. PMID:16474159

Nuvor, Samuel Victor; van der Sande, Marianne; Rowland-Jones, Sarah; Whittle, Hilton; Jaye, Assan

2006-03-01

375

Interstitial Fluid Flow: The Mechanical Environment of Cells and Foundation of Meridians  

PubMed Central

Using information from the deep dissection, microobservation, and measurement of acupoints in the upper and lower limbs of the human body, we developed a three-dimensional porous medium model to simulate the flow field using FLUENT software and to study the shear stress on the surface of interstitial cells (mast cells) caused by interstitial fluid flow. The numerical simulation results show the following: (i) the parallel nature of capillaries will lead to directional interstitial fluid flow, which may explain the long interstitial tissue channels or meridians observed in some experiments; (ii) when the distribution of capillaries is staggered, increases in the velocity alternate, and the velocity tends to be uniform, which is beneficial for substance exchange; (iii) interstitial fluid flow induces a shear stress, with magnitude of several Pa, on interstitial cell membranes, which will activate cells and lead to a biological response; (iv) capillary and interstitial parameters, such as capillary density, blood pressure, capillary permeability, interstitial pressure, and interstitial porosity, affect the shear stress on cell surfaces. The numerical simulation results suggest that in vivo interstitial fluid flow constitutes the mechanical environment of cells and plays a key role in guiding cell activities, which may explain the meridian phenomena and the acupuncture effects observed in experiments.

Yao, Wei; Ding, Guanghong

2012-01-01

376

Interstitial fluid flow: the mechanical environment of cells and foundation of meridians.  

PubMed

Using information from the deep dissection, microobservation, and measurement of acupoints in the upper and lower limbs of the human body, we developed a three-dimensional porous medium model to simulate the flow field using FLUENT software and to study the shear stress on the surface of interstitial cells (mast cells) caused by interstitial fluid flow. The numerical simulation results show the following: (i) the parallel nature of capillaries will lead to directional interstitial fluid flow, which may explain the long interstitial tissue channels or meridians observed in some experiments; (ii) when the distribution of capillaries is staggered, increases in the velocity alternate, and the velocity tends to be uniform, which is beneficial for substance exchange; (iii) interstitial fluid flow induces a shear stress, with magnitude of several Pa, on interstitial cell membranes, which will activate cells and lead to a biological response; (iv) capillary and interstitial parameters, such as capillary density, blood pressure, capillary permeability, interstitial pressure, and interstitial porosity, affect the shear stress on cell surfaces. The numerical simulation results suggest that in vivo interstitial fluid flow constitutes the mechanical environment of cells and plays a key role in guiding cell activities, which may explain the meridian phenomena and the acupuncture effects observed in experiments. PMID:23365601

Yao, Wei; Li, Yabei; Ding, Guanghong

2012-01-01

377

High-pressure cell for neutron reflectometry of supercritical and subcritical fluids at solid interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new high-pressure cell design for use in neutron reflectometry (NR) for pressures up to 50 MPa and a temperature range of 300-473 K is described. The cell design guides the neutron beam through the working crystal without passing through additional windows or the bulk fluid, which provides for a high neutron transmission, low scattering background, and low beam distortion. The o-ring seal is suitable for a wide range of subcritical and supercritical fluids and ensures high chemical and pressure stability. Wafers with a diameter of 5.08 cm (2 in.) and 5 mm or 10 mm thickness can be used with the cells, depending on the required pressure and momentum transfer range. The fluid volume in the sample cell is very small at about 0.1 ml, which minimizes scattering background and stored energy. The cell design and pressure setup for measurements with supercritical fluids are described. NR data are shown for silicon/silicon oxide and quartz wafers measured against air and subsequently within the high-pressure cell to demonstrate the neutron characteristics of the high-pressure cell. Neutron reflectivity data for supercritical CO2 in contact with quartz and Si/SiO2 wafers are also shown.

Carmichael, Justin R.; Rother, Gernot; Browning, James F.; Ankner, John F.; Banuelos, Jose L.; Anovitz, Lawrence M.; Wesolowski, David J.; Cole, David R.

2012-04-01

378

Ca(2+) signaling and regulation of fluid secretion in salivary gland acinar cells.  

PubMed

Neurotransmitter stimulation of plasma membrane receptors stimulates salivary gland fluid secretion via a complex process that is determined by coordinated temporal and spatial regulation of several Ca(2+) signaling processes as well as ion flux systems. Studies over the past four decades have demonstrated that Ca(2+) is a critical factor in the control of salivary gland function. Importantly, critical components of this process have now been identified, including plasma membrane receptors, calcium channels, and regulatory proteins. The key event in activation of fluid secretion is an increase in intracellular [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)]i) triggered by IP3-induced release of Ca(2+) from ER via the IP3R. This increase regulates the ion fluxes required to drive vectorial fluid secretion. IP3Rs determine the site of initiation and the pattern of [Ca(2+)]i signal in the cell. However, Ca(2+) entry into the cell is required to sustain the elevation of [Ca(2+)]i and fluid secretion. This Ca(2+) influx pathway, store-operated calcium influx pathway (SOCE), has been studied in great detail and the regulatory mechanisms as well as key molecular components have now been identified. Orai1, TRPC1, and STIM1 are critical components of SOCE and among these, Ca(2+) entry via TRPC1 is a major determinant of fluid secretion. The receptor-evoked Ca(2+) signal in salivary gland acinar cells is unique in that it starts at the apical pole and then rapidly increases across the cell. The basis for the polarized Ca(2+) signal can be ascribed to the polarized arrangement of the Ca(2+) channels, transporters, and signaling proteins. Distinct localization of these proteins in the cell suggests compartmentalization of Ca(2+) signals during regulation of fluid secretion. This chapter will discuss new concepts and findings regarding the polarization and control of Ca(2+) signals in the regulation of fluid secretion. PMID:24646566

Ambudkar, Indu S

2014-06-01

379

Impact of Baseline HIV-1 Tropism on Viral Response and CD4 Cell Count Gains in HIV-Infected Patients Receiving First-line Antiretroviral Therapy  

PubMed Central

Background.?Viral tropism influences the natural history of human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) disease: X4 viruses are associated with faster decreases in CD4 cell count. There is scarce information about the influence of viral tropism on treatment outcomes. Methods.?Baseline plasma samples from patients recruited to the ArTEN (Atazanavir/ritnoavir vs. Nevirapine on a background of Tenofovir and Emtricitabine) trial were retrospectively tested for HIV-1 tropism using the genotypic tool geno2phenoFPR=5.75%. ArTEN compared nevirapine with atazanavir-ritonavir, both along with tenofovir-emtricitabine, in drug-naļve patients. Results.?Of 569 ArTEN patients, 428 completed 48 weeks of therapy; 282 of these received nevirapine and 146 of these received atazanavir-ritonavir. Overall, non-B subtypes of HIV-1 were recognized in 96 patients (22%) and X4 viruses were detected in 55 patients (14%). At baseline, patients with X4 viruses had higher plasma HIV RNA levels (5.4 vs 5.2 log copies/mL, respectively; P = .044) and lower CD4 cell counts (145 vs 188 cells/?L, respectively; P < .001) than those with R5 strains. At week 48, virologic responses were lower in patients with X4 viruses than in patients with R5 viruses (77% vs 92%, respectively; P = .009). Multivariate analysis confirmed HIV-1 tropism as an independent predictor of virologic response at week 24 (P = .012). This association was extended to week 48 (P = .007) in clade B viruses. Conversely, CD4 cell count recovery was not influenced by baseline HIV-1 tropism. Conclusions.?HIV-1 tropism is an independent predictor of virologic response to first-line antiretroviral therapy. In contrast, it does not seem to influence CD4 cell count recovery. Clinical Trials Registration.?NCT00389207.

Seclen, Eduardo; Soriano, Vicente; Gonzalez, M