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White Blood Cell Counting System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter...



Measurement of calprotectin in ascitic fluid to identify elevated polymorphonuclear cell count  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the diagnostic capability of calprotectin in ascitic fluid for detecting a polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell count > 250/?L ascites. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, a total of 130 ascites samples were analysed from 71 consecutive patients referred for paracentesis. Total and differential leukocyte cell counts were determined manually with a Neubauer chamber and gentian-violet stain. Calprotectin was measured in 1 mL ascetic fluid by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a point-of-care (POC) lateral flow assay with the Quantum Blue® Reader (Bühlmann Laboratories). All measurements were carried out in a central laboratory by senior personnel blinded to patient history. A PMN count > 250/?L was the primary endpoint of the study. The diagnostic value of ascitic calprotectin measurement was assessed by comparing to the final diagnosis of each patient that had been adjudicated by investigators blinded to calprotectin values. RESULTS: The PMN count was > 250/?L in 19 samples (14.6%) from 15 patients (21.1%) and varied widely among the study population (range 10-19?800/mL and 1-17?820/mL, respectively). Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) was the final diagnosis in four patients (5.6%). All patients with PMN ? 250/?L had negative bacterial culture. PMN count was elevated in five patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis, three with lymphoma, one with neuroendocrine carcinoma, and two with secondary peritonitis due to abdominal perforation. PMN cell counts correlated with ascitic calprotectin values (Spearman’s rho; r = 0.457 for ELISA, r = 0.473 for POC). A considerable range of ascitic calprotectin concentrations was detected by ELISA [median 0.43 ?g/mL, interquartile range (IQR) 0.23-1.23 (range 0.10-14.93)] and POC [median 0.38 ?g/mL, IQR 0.38-0.56 (range 0.38-13.31)]. Ascitic calprotectin levels were higher in samples with PMN > 250/?L, by both ELISA [median (IQR) 2.48 ?g/mL (1.61-3.65) vs 0.10 ?g/mL (0.10-0.36), P < 0.001] and POC [2.78 ?g/mL (2.05-5.37) vs 0.38 ?g/mL (0.38-0.41), P < 0.001]. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for identifying an elevated PMN count was 0.977 (95%CI: 0.933 to 0.995) for ELISA and 0.982 (95%CI: 0.942 to 0.997) for POC (P = 0.246 vs ELISA). Using the optimal cut-off value for ELISA (0.63 ?g/mL), ascitic calprotectin had 94.8% sensitivity, 89.2% specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios of 8.76 and 0.06 respectively, positive and negative predictive values of 60.0% and 99.0% respectively, and 90.0% overall accuracy. Using the optimal cut-off value for POC (0.51 ?g/mL), the respective values were 100.0%, 84.7%, 6.53, 0.00, 52.8%, 100% and 87.7%. Correlation between ELISA and POC was excellent (r = 0.873, P < 0.001). The mean ± SD of the difference was -0.11 ± 0.48 ?g/mL with limits of agreement of + 0.8 ?g/mL (95%CI: 0.69 to 0.98) and -1.1 ?g/mL (95%CI: -1.19 to -0.91). CONCLUSION: Ascitic calprotectin reliably predicts PMN count > 250/?L, which may prove useful in the diagnosis of SBP, especially with a readily available bedside testing device.

Burri, Emanuel; Schulte, Felix; Muser, Jurgen; Meier, Remy; Beglinger, Christoph



Cell counting of body fluids: comparison between three automated haematology analysers and the manual microscope method.  


INTRODUCTION: Haematological analysis of body fluids (BF) specimens can provide clinicians with valuable diagnostic information because it can indicate one of several serious medical conditions. Although up to now the microscopic counting and the differentiation of WBC in a BF smear have been used as a reference. The introduction of semiautomated and automated methods of analysis has reduced interoperator variability and improved turnaround time and precision. The aim of our study was to evaluate the accuracy and the correlation between the three methods and with the reference method. METHODS: We examined 110 body fluid samples. Total counting of each sample has been conducted with all systems: Pentra DX120, ADVIA 2120 and XE-2100 and the manual method. RESULTS: We found statistically significant correlation between the data obtained in the ascitic and pleuric liquid but not in the cerebrospinal fluid. CONCLUSION: The introduction of automated method for BF analysis is more and more useful in the routine job of a laboratory analysis. It is therefore very important to evaluate the performance of the different automated haematology technologies, because there is a lack of literature in this field. The comparison between the Pentra DX 120, the other technologies and the manual counting showed instrumental overlapping capabilities. PMID:23647736

Danise, P; Maconi, M; Rovetti, A; Avino, D; Di Palma, A; Gerardo Pirofalo, M; Esposito, C



Automated cerebrospinal fluid cell counts using the Sysmex XE-5000: is it time for new reference ranges?  


The main objectives of the study were to compare manual and automated WBC counts on clear cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. Clear CSF samples from 200 adults and children were studied. Cell counts were performed manually using a hemocytometer and then analyzed on the Sysmex XE-5000. Descriptive statistics and Spearman correlation for nonparametric data were used for method comparison. Manual WBC counts ranged from 0 to 702 cells/?L, and Sysmex counts ranged from 0 to 629 cells/?L. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient for the entire range of data was 0.77 (P < .001); however, the correlation was weaker at the low end of the data spectrum. For manual WBC ranges of 0 to 5 cells/?L and 0 to 10 cells/?L, the corresponding Sysmex 0 to 95th percentile ranges were 0 to 23 cells/?L and 0 to 27 cells/?L, respectively. The results suggest that larger studies are necessary to determine new reference ranges for automated CSF WBC counts. PMID:20959656

Sandhaus, Linda M; Ciarlini, Pedro; Kidric, Diane; Dillman, Christine; O'Riordan, Maryann



White blood cell count  

Microsoft Academic Search

An association between elevated white blood cell (WBC) count and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality has been previously observed. However, the relationship between WBC count and CHD mortality independent of cigarette smoking and the possible interaction between WBC count and smoking remains unclear. We examined the association between WBC count and CHD mortality with Cox regression analyses of data from

David W Brown; Wayne H Giles; Janet B Croft



Markedly raised synovial fluid leucocyte counts not associated with infectious arthritis in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synovial fluid leucocyte counts greater than 50 000 cells\\/mm3 (50 X 10(9)\\/1) are usually associated with infectious arthritis. Six children, 3 of whom meet the criteria for juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), are described with synovial fluid white blood cell counts greater than 88 000 cells\\/mm3 (88 X 10(9)\\/1). Two had synovial fluid leucocyte counts greater than 100 000 cells\\/mm3 (100

A R Baldassare; F Chang; J Zuckner



Modifications of haematology analyzers to improve cell counting and leukocyte differentiating in cerebrospinal fluid controls of the Joint German Society for Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine.  


Flow cytometry (FCM) is used with haematology analyzers (HAs) to count cells and differentiate leukocytes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). To evaluate the FCM techniques of HAs, 10 external DGKL trials with CSF controls were carried out in 2004 to 2008. Eight single platform HAs with and without CSF equipment were evaluated with living blood leukocytes and erythrocytes in CSF like DGKL controls: Coulter (LH750,755), Abbott CD3200, CD3500, CD3700, CD4000, Sapphire, ADVIA 120(R) CSF assay, and Sysmex XE-2100(R). Results were compared with visual counting of native cells in Fuchs-Rosenthal chamber, unstained, and absolute values of leukocyte differentiation, assayed by dual platform analysis with immune-FCM (FACSCalibur, CD45, CD14) and the chamber counts. Reference values X were compared with HA values Y by statistical evaluation with Passing/Bablock (P/B) linear regression analysis to reveal conformity of both methods. The HAs, studied, produced no valid results with DGKL CSF controls, because P/B regression revealed no conformity with the reference values due to:-blank problems with impedance analysis,-leukocyte loss with preanalytical erythrocyte lysis procedures, especially of monocytes,-inaccurate results with ADVIA cell sphering and cell differentiation with algorithms and enzyme activities (e.g., peroxidase). HA techniques have to be improved, e.g., using no erythrocyte lysis and CSF adequate techniques, to examine CSF samples precise and accurate. PMID:19526484

Kleine, Tilmann O; Nebe, C Thomas; Löwer, Christa; Lehmitz, Reinhard; Kruse, Rolf; Geilenkeuser, Wolf-Jochen; Dorn-Beineke, Alexandra



An alternative method for cell counting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell counts and classification of the cells play an important role in the field of microbiology and cell biology. Although there exists many counting processes for cells of interest in suspension, the most basic cell counting process is performed by a person via the microscope. For counting cells the simplest, widely used and the most economic method is the use

Akin Ozkan; S. Belgin Isgor; Hakan Tora; Pembegul Uyar; Mesude Iscan



An evaluation of the utility of performing body fluid counts on the coulter LH 750.  


Performing a manual body fluid count is a tedious, time-consuming, and frequently imprecise process for any clinical laboratory. The ability to perform many of these counts with an automated hematology analyzer has the real potential of making a major impact on laboratory precision and productivity. The manual chamber count is fraught with many variables and is often very technologist/technique dependent, often leading to inaccuracies in test results. Our laboratory undertook a series of studies designed to evaluate the capability of the Coulter LH 750 hematology analyzer to supplement our current manual method in the performance of body fluid analysis. First, we established the performance of our current manual counting method, the gold standard against which LH 750 performance would be judged. We looked at the precision of manual cell counting by having 4 technologists perform manual counts on each of 35 spinal, synovial, peritoneal, and other fluids with white blood cell (WBC) and/or red blood cell (RBC) counts of greater than 0.3 x 10(9) /L and 0.03 x 10(12) /L, respectively. Our results support earlier reports that the variability in counts among technologists using the manual chamber cell count methods is often very significant. After each sample was manually counted, it was analyzed on the Coulter LH 750, and the results were compared with those of our current manual method. Results showed good correlation between the manual and LH 750 methods. Next, we conducted a series of separate tests to evaluate the stability of different cellular elements (WBCs and RBCs) in each of these body fluid types. The study consisted of 2 sets of 4--3-mL samples of each fluid type--which were analyzed on the LH 750 immediately on receipt and after 1 hour, 4 hours, 8 hours, 16 hours, and 24 hours. The findings suggested varying degrees of stability that were dependent on fluid type and initial cell concentration. Finally, we looked at whether it is necessary to perform background counts before analyzing each body fluid sample and the impact of automating body fluid counts on our workload. PMID:15479646

Barnes, P W; Eby, C S; Shimer, G



VersaCount: customizable manual tally software for cell counting  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The manual counting of cells by microscopy is a commonly used technique across biological disciplines. Traditionally, hand tally counters have been used to track event counts. Although this method is adequate, there are a number of inefficiencies which arise when managing large numbers of samples or large sample sizes. RESULTS: We describe software that mimics a traditional multi-register tally

Charles C Kim; Joseph L DeRisi



Method and Apparatus for Measuring White Blood Cell Count.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for quantitatively measuring white blood cell count involves capture of white blood cells from a fluid sample by a retainer, removal of the red blood cells and other interfering substances by a wash solution, and reading the result of a color rea...

I. Nikolyukin W. T. Law Y. Nikolyukin



Prediction of Transmitting Abilities for Productive Life and Lifetime Profitability from Production, Somatic Cell Count, and Type Traits in Milk Markets for Fluid Milk and Cheese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two net income functions were constructed to reflect differences in value of carrier, protein, and somatic cell score (SCS) between milk markets for fluid milk and those for cheese. Individual costs were for production of carrier (water, lactose, and miner- als), fat, and protein. Totals for net income from a lactation were adjusted for the opportunity cost of postponed replacement

D. J. Weigel; B. G. Cassell; R. E. Pearson



Induced Sputum Cell Counts in Healthy Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induced sputum cell counts provide a relatively noninvasive method to evaluate the presence, type, and degree of inflammation in the airways of the lungs. Their interpretation requires a knowledge of normal values from a healthy population. The objective was to examine the total and differential cell counts in induced sputum from a sample of healthy adults. A total of 118




Counting white blood cells using morphological granulometries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a modification of the mixture proportion estimation algorithm based on the granulometric mixing theorem. The modified algorithm is applied to the problem of counting different types of white blood cells in bone marrow images. In principle, the algorithm can be used to count the proportion of cells in each class without explicitly segmenting and classifying them. The direct

Nipon Theera-Umpon; Paul D. Gader



Photoelectric Counting of Individual Microscopic Plant and Animal Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A PHOTO-ELECTRIC apparatus for counting individual microscopic cells in fluid suspension has been constructed in this laboratory. A sufficiently large signal-to-noise ratio from a single cell or a part of it has been obtained by the use of a specially designed dark-field system and an RCA 931-A multiplier phototube. The phototube is followed by an amplifier which operates a mechanical

Carl Lagercrantz



21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). This device is exempt...



21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). This device is exempt...



Electronic Counting of Somatic Cells in Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several procedures were developed and evaluated to find a satisfactory method for electronic counting of somatic cells in milk. Best results were obtained when milk was prepared for counting by a) diluting 1:50 with 0.85% saline, b) eentrifuging 10 ml of the diluted milk at a relative centrifugal force (RCF) of 1,020 for 15 nlin at 4 C, c) discarding

R. B. Read Jr.; A. L. Reyes; J. G. Bradshaw; J. T. Peeler



Why Count Types of White Blood Cells?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How can we make use of complex cellular level responses in the human body to microbial infections and other disorders? Why is it important to differentiate between white blood cells in a blood sample and keep a record of their numbers? Improve skills at cell identification and explore these questions with the program Cell Differentials. * identify lymphocytes in a clinical laboratory simulation of blood cell counts

Ethel D. Stanley (Beloit College;Biology); Donald Buckley (Quinnipiac University;Biology)




NSDL National Science Digital Library

Practice matching number objects to numerals To play a game counting fish in the sea, click Fishy Count. Count the fish and click the right number! To play a game counting shapes, click Counting Game. Count the number of shapes and click the right number! Practice numbers 1-10! Click How Many? (0-10). Count the objects and choose the ...

Draper, Ms.



Differential white cell count by centrifugal microfluidics.  

SciTech Connect

We present a method for counting white blood cells that is uniquely compatible with centrifugation based microfluidics. Blood is deposited on top of one or more layers of density media within a microfluidic disk. Spinning the disk causes the cell populations within whole blood to settle through the media, reaching an equilibrium based on the density of each cell type. Separation and fluorescence measurement of cell types stained with a DNA dye is demonstrated using this technique. The integrated signal from bands of fluorescent microspheres is shown to be proportional to their initial concentration in suspension. Among the current generation of medical diagnostics are devices based on the principle of centrifuging a CD sized disk functionalized with microfluidics. These portable 'lab on a disk' devices are capable of conducting multiple assays directly from a blood sample, embodied by platforms developed by Gyros, Samsung, and Abaxis. [1,2] However, no centrifugal platform to date includes a differential white blood cell count, which is an important metric complimentary to diagnostic assays. Measuring the differential white blood cell count (the relative fraction of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) is a standard medical diagnostic technique useful for identifying sepsis, leukemia, AIDS, radiation exposure, and a host of other conditions that affect the immune system. Several methods exist for measuring the relative white blood cell count including flow cytometry, electrical impedance, and visual identification from a stained drop of blood under a microscope. However, none of these methods is easily incorporated into a centrifugal microfluidic diagnostic platform.

Sommer, Gregory Jon; Tentori, Augusto M.; Schaff, Ulrich Y.



Optical planar waveguide for cell counting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low cost counting of cells has medical applications in screening, military medicine, disaster medicine, and rural healthcare. In this report, we present a shallow, buried, planar waveguide fabricated by potassium ion exchange in glass that enables low-cost and rapid counting of metal-tagged objects that lie in the evanescent field of the waveguide. Laser light transmitted through the waveguide was attenuated proportionately to the presence of metal-coated microstructures fabricated from photoresist. This technology enables the low-cost enumeration of cells from blood, urine, or other biofluids.

Leblanc, John; Mueller, Andrew J.; Prinz, Adrian; Butte, Manish J.



White Blood Cell Counts and Malaria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

White blood cells (WBCs) were counted in 4697 individuals who presented to outpatient malaria clinics in Maesod, Tak Province, Thailand, and Iquitos, Peru, between 28 May and 28 August 1998 and between 17 May and 9 July 1999. At each site and in each year...

A. J. Magill B. Permpanich F. E. McKenzie J. R. Forney W. A. Prudhomme



Comparison of Methods for Counting Cells in the Mouse Glomerulus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Researchers have long been interested in counting the number of cells within the glomerulus. Investigators using different techniques have yielded conflicting results. The most direct method is to count the cells in serial sections from the entire glomerulus. This Exhaustive Count method is not usually practical. The disector\\/fractionator method counts the number of cells in a fraction of sections.

John M. Basgen; Susanne B. Nicholas; Michael Mauer; Silvia Rozen; Jens R. Nyengaard



Animal Cell Tissue Fluid Biomolecule  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Animal Cell Tissue Fluid Biomolecule. FDA Data Element Number. ... 002. Data Element Name. Animal Cell-Tissue-Fluid-Biomolecule. Description. ... More results from


The variance of quasar counts in cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From three quasar samples with a total of 1038 objects in the redshift range 1.0 to 2.2 we measure the variance sigma squared of counts in cells of volume Vu. By a maximum-likelihood analysis applied separately on these samples we obtain estimates of sigma squared (l), with l identically equal to Vu1/3. The analysis from a single catalog for l = 40/h Mpc and from a suitable average over the three catalogs for l = 60, 80, and 100/h Mpc, gives sigma squared (l) = 0.46 + or - 0.27, 0.18 + 0.14 or - 0.15, 0.05 + 0.14 or - 0.05, and 0.12 + 0.13 or - 0.12, respectively, where the 70% confidence ranges account for both sampling errors and statistical fluctuations in the counts. This allows a comparison of Quasar (QSO) clustering on large scales with analogous data recently obtained both for optical and Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) galaxies: QSOs seem to be more clustered than these galaxies by a biasing factor bQSO/bgal approximately 1.4 to 2.3.

Andreani, Paola; Cristiani, Stefano; Lucchin, Francesco; Matarrese, Sabino; Moscardini, Lauro



Somatic cell count during and between milkings.  


The objectives of the study were to determine 1) how sampling time between milkings affects the sensitivity and specificity of somatic cell count (SCC) as an indicator for intramammary infection (IMI) status, and 2) which cells are responsible for the diurnal variation in SCC. Six Prince Edward Island, Canada, dairy herds were selected. Quarter samples for SCC were collected immediately before the a.m. milking (pre-a.m.), halfway through the a.m. milking, immediately after the a.m. milking, every 60 min after detachment of the milking unit, and immediately before the p.m. milking (pre-p.m.). Compared with the geometric mean SCC at the pre-a.m. milking, SCC of quarters with no IMI between milkings was higher up to 7 h after milking. The pre-p.m. SCC was significantly lower than the pre-a.m. SCC in quarters with no IMI. Specificity of SCC at a cutoff of 200,000 or 500,000 cells/mL as an indicator for IMI status declined substantially after the a.m. milking. In quarters with elevated SCC, the proportion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes was larger immediately after milking. For accurate interpretations of SCC tests--whether by a laboratory, portable SCC device, or the California Mastitis Test--veterinarians, researchers, and udder health advisors should take milk samples immediately before milking. PMID:17638984

Olde Riekerink, R G M; Barkema, H W; Veenstra, W; Berg, F E; Stryhn, H; Zadoks, R N



21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Identification. A calibrator for red cell and white cell counting is a device that resembles red or white blood cells and that is used to set instruments intended to count red cells, white cells, or both. It is a...



Amniotic Fluid Gram Stain and Leukocyte Count in the Prediction of Intrauterine Infection in Preterm Prelabour Amniorrhexis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to examine the sensitivity and specificity of the amniotic fluid Gram stain and leukocyte count in the prediction of positive fetal blood and amniotic fluid cultures in 80 patients with preterm prelabour amniorrhexis. Amniocentesis and cordocentesis were performed and amniotic fluid and fetal blood were cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Amniotic fluid was

S. G. Carroll; J. Philpott-Howard; K. H. Nicolaides



Cell Counts in Cerebral Cortex of an Autistic Patient.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Numbers of neurons and glia were counted in the cerebral cortex of one case of autism and two age- and sex-matched controls. Cell counts were made in primary auditory cortex, Broca's speech area, and auditory association cortex. No consistent differences in cell density were found between brains of autistic and control patients. (Author/CL)|

Coleman, Paul D.; And Others



Cell counts in cerebral cortex of an autistic patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numbers of neurons and glia were counted in the cerebral cortex of one well-documented case of autism and two age and sexmatched controls. Areas in which cell counts were made were primary auditory cortex, Broca's speech area, and auditory association cortex. No consistent differences in cell density were found between the brains of the autistic patient and the control patients.

Paul D. Coleman; John Romano; Lowell Lapham; William Simon



Somatic cell counts: associated factors and relationship to production.  

PubMed Central

Factors affecting somatic cell counts and the association between somatic cell counts and milk production were evaluated. Data were collected from 748 Ontario Dairy Herd Improvement Corporation supervised herds that were on production and somatic cell count programs between April 1981 and March 1983. Two data files were created; one, the lactation summary file, contained one record per cow on each of 9406 Holsteins and the other, the test day file, included results of all tests during the complete lactation on each of the above cows. The latter file contained 85,236 records. Multiple curvilinear least squares regression was used to create five separate models. The dependent variables used in the models were natural logarithms (Loge) of the geometric mean of the somatic cell count for the lactation, 305 day milk production and breed class average for milk from the lactation summary file, and loge of the 24 hour somatic cell count and 24 hour milk production from the test day file. The somatic cell count at both the lactation and test day level increased with age up to approximately ten years and thereafter slowly decreased. The variable "days in milk" was not significantly associated with the lactation average somatic cell count. A curvilinear relationship was found between days in lactation at the time of test and the somatic cell count of 24 hour milk production. The somatic cell count increased until approximately 250 days in lactation and thereafter slowly decreased. It was found that the highest cell counts occurred in summer and the lowest in winter.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Salsberg, E; Meek, A H; Martin, S W



21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for red cell and white cell counting is a device that resembles red or white blood cells and that is used to set instruments intended to count red cells, white cells, or...



21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for red cell and white cell counting is a device that resembles red or white blood cells and that is used to set instruments intended to count red cells, white cells, or...



Uncertainty analysis of cell counting by metabolic assays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cell counting is a fundamental procedure in living cell culture-based experiments and protocols in which the cell number quantification is required. The number of cells is one of the parameters necessary to investigate several cell culture features requiring to be monitored as function of time, such as cell viability, proliferation, growth, fitness and metabolism. Aim of this paper is contributing to declare a comprehensive uncertainty budget for cell counting through metabolic assays according to the EURACHEM/CITAC Guide Quantifying Uncertainty in Analytical Measurement.

Divieto, C.; Revel, L.; Sassi, G.; Sassi, M. P.



Differential Blood Cell Counts of Atlantic Herring, 'Clupea harengus harengus'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In differential blood counts of 200 herring, Clupea harengus harengus, the percentages of white cell types and immature erythrocytes in the blood were found to be different from those previously reported in the literature. Herring were sampled from Februa...

S. W. Sherburne



Relationship between white blood cell count and incident hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundElevated white blood cell (WBC) count is considered to be prospectively associated with cardiovascular disease. However, its relationship to hypertension, independent of smoking and other established cardiovascular risk factors, is not clear, especially among women.

Anoop Shankar; Barbara E. K Klein; Ronald Klein



Mast cell and histamine content of human bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.  

PubMed Central

Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed in 97 patients including control patients with bronchial carcinoma (24) and patients with sarcoidosis (20), cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (9), and asthma (4), and others. Cytocentrifuged slides were stained by two methods: May-Grünwald Giemsa and toluidine blue. In the last 32 subjects the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was separated into supernatant and cell pellet for the subsequent assay of the performed mast cell mediator, histamine. Comparison of the two methods of staining showed a bias towards toluidine blue. Controls had a differential mean (SE) mast cell count of 0.07% (0.01%). Higher counts were noted in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis--0.61% (0.15%) (p less than 0.001)--and in sarcoidosis--0.14% (0.02%) (p less than 0.05). There was a strong correlation between absolute mast cell counts and cell lysate histamine concentration (r = 0.78, p less than 0.001). Less strong, significant, correlations between supernatant histamine concentration and absolute mast cell counts (r = 0.48, p less than 0.01) or cell lysate histamine concentration (r = 0.72, p less than 0.01) were also found. Derived mean values of histamine per mast cell ranged from 3.7 to 10.9 picograms. The mean histamine content of lavage fluid supernatant as a percentage of the total lavage fluid histamine was 24.9% (3.3%). The possible clinical significance of these findings is discussed. Images

Agius, R M; Godfrey, R C; Holgate, S T



White cell count and platelet count associate with histological alcoholic hepatitis in jaundiced harmful drinkers  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with suspected alcoholic hepatitis and a Discriminant Function ?32 underwent liver biopsy to confirm the diagnosis. Of these (n?=?58), 43 had histological features of alcoholic hepatitis and 15 (25%) did not. We aimed to determine the laboratory features that differentiated those patients with a histological diagnosis of alcoholic hepatitis from those without, and assess potential clinical utility. Methods Laboratory investigations at presentation for each of the histologically confirmed cases of alcoholic hepatitis (n?=?43) were compared to those without (n?=?15) to determine whether there were differences between the two groups. Univariate analysis was by Mann Whitney U Test and Multivariate analysis was by a stepwise approach. Results White cell count (16.2?±?10.5 v 6.9?±?3.5 (×?109/L); p?=?0.0001) and platelet count (178?±?81 v 98.4?±?43 (×?109/L); p?=?0.0005) were higher in the patients with histological features of alcoholic hepatitis than in those without. The area under the ROC curve for AH diagnosis was estimated to be 0.83 (0.73, 0.94) and 0.81 (0.69, 0.93) for white cell count and platelet count respectively. Conclusions Clinicians cannot accurately differentiate patients with or without alcoholic hepatitis without liver biopsy. This is critically important when deciding on specific therapies such as corticosteroids or when interpreting data from future trials in which biopsy is not mandated. In situations where liver biopsy is unsuitable or unavailable the white cell and platelet counts can be used to determine the likelihood of histological alcoholic hepatitis and guide treatment.



Development of a stained cell nuclei counting system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel cell counting system which exploits the Fast Radial Symmetry Transformation (FRST) algorithm [1]. The driving force behind our system is a research on neurogenesis in the intact nervous system of Manduca Sexta or the Tobacco Hornworm, which was being studied to assess the impact of age, food and environment on neurogenesis. The varying thickness of the intact nervous system in this species often yields images with inhomogeneous background and inconsistencies such as varying illumination, variable contrast, and irregular cell size. For automated counting, such inhomogeneity and inconsistencies must be addressed, which no existing work has done successfully. Thus, our goal is to devise a new cell counting algorithm for the images with non-uniform background. Our solution adapts FRST: a computer vision algorithm which is designed to detect points of interest on circular regions such as human eyes. This algorithm enhances the occurrences of the stained-cell nuclei in 2D digital images and negates the problems caused by their inhomogeneity. Besides FRST, our algorithm employs standard image processing methods, such as mathematical morphology and connected component analysis. We have evaluated the developed cell counting system with fourteen digital images of Tobacco Hornworm's nervous system collected for this study with ground-truth cell counts by biology experts. Experimental results show that our system has a minimum error of 1.41% and mean error of 16.68% which is at least forty-four percent better than the algorithm without FRST.

Timilsina, Niranjan; Moffatt, Christopher; Okada, Kazunori



Automating Single Subunit Counting of Membrane Proteins in Mammalian Cells*  

PubMed Central

Elucidating subunit stoichiometry of neurotransmitter receptors is preferably carried out in a mammalian expression system where the rules of native protein assembly are strictly obeyed. Although successful in Xenopus oocytes, single subunit counting, manually counting photobleaching steps of GFP-tagged subunits, has been hindered in mammalian cells by high background fluorescence, poor control of expression, and low GFP maturation efficiency. Here, we present a fully automated single-molecule fluorescence counting method that separates tagged proteins on the plasma membrane from background fluorescence and contaminant proteins in the cytosol or the endoplasmic reticulum and determines the protein stoichiometry. Lower GFP maturation rates observed in cells cultured at 37 °C were partly offset using a monomeric version of superfolder GFP. We were able to correctly identify the stoichiometry of GluK2 and ?1 glycine receptors. Our approach permits the elucidation of stoichiometry for a wide variety of plasma membrane proteins in mammalian cells with any commercially available TIRF microscope.

McGuire, Hugo; Aurousseau, Mark R. P.; Bowie, Derek; Blunck, Rikard



A cell-counting factor regulating structure size in Dictyostelium  

PubMed Central

Developing Dictyostelium cells form large aggregation streams that break up into groups of 0.2?×?105 to 1?×?105 cells. Each group then becomes a fruiting body. smlA cells oversecrete an unknown factor that causes aggregation streams to break up into groups of ?5?×?103 cells and thus form very small fruiting bodies. We have purified the counting factor and find that it behaves as a complex of polypeptides with an effective molecular mass of 450 kD. One of the polypeptides is a 40-kD hydrophilic protein we have named countin. In transformants with a disrupted countin gene, there is no detectable secretion of counting factor, and the aggregation streams do not break up, resulting in huge (up to 2?×?105 cell) fruiting bodies.

Brock, Debra A.; Gomer, Richard H.




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The milk somatic cell count (MSCC) forms the basis of abnormal milk control programs world wide for goats, cows and sheep. To better understand factors that contribute to elevations in MSCC, the effects of stage of lactation, parity, breed and state/area in the United States (US) on MSCC were exami...


Pericardial Fluid Analysis  


... main reasons for fluid accumulation, and an initial set of tests (fluid protein or albumin level, cell count, and appearance) is ... diagnose the cause of fluid accumulation. The initial set of tests performed on a sample of ... appears clear Protein or albumin level—low Cell count—few cells ...


Chronic pulmonary sarcoidosis: relationship between lung lavage cell counts, chest radiograph, and results of standard lung function tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty three consecutive untreated patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis, confirmed histologically or by Kveim test, were investigated to correlate cell counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid with clinical features, the chest radiograph, and results of lung function tests. A persistently abnormal radiograph had been observed for one year or more in 26 (79%) and for two years or more in 20 (61%),

Y H Lin; P L Haslam; M Turner-Warwick



Laser rastering flow cytometry: fast cell counting and identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the concept of laser rastering flow cytometry, where a rapidly scanning laser beam allows counting and classification of cells at much higher rates than currently possible. Modifications to existing flow cytometers to implement the concept include an acousto-optic deflector, fast analog-to-digital conversion, and a two-step digital-signal-processing scheme that handles the high data rates and provides key assay information. Results are shown that prove the concept, demonstrating the ability to resolve closely spaced cells and to measure cells at rates more than an order of magnitude faster than on conventional flow-cytometer-based hematology analyzers.

Vacca, G.; Junnarkar, M. R.; Goldblatt, N. R.; Yee, M. W.; van Slyke, B. M.; Briese, T. C.



PCS System I: point counting stereology programs for cell biology.  


PCS System I (PCS) is a set of four software modules designed to simplify the application of stereology to problems in cell biology. It is written in BASIC for the Tektronix 4052A microcomputer (Beaverton, OR). A Counting Module collects raw data counts in either a Density Mode (points, intersections, transections, profiles) or a Boundary Mode (intersections with complete nuclear profiles). This information is stored on tape or disk data files and can also be printed. Three analysis modules use data files created with the Counting Module. The Density Module uses Density Mode data files to calculate volume, surface, length, and numerical densities. The B Numerical Density Module uses both Boundary Mode and Density Mode data to calculate the means for the boundary, diameter, and surface area of a nuclear compartment. The mean nuclear surface area is then used with the nuclear surface density to estimate the nuclear numerical density, which, in turn, is used to calculate surface areas of membrane compartments in average cells and in 10(6) cells. The Format Module reformats raw data files for analysis with Tektronix statistical software. PMID:3848367

Pentcheff, N D; Bolender, R P



Therapeutic potential of amniotic fluid stem cells.  


Human amniotic fluid cells have been used traditionally as a diagnostic tool for genetic anomalies. More recently it has been recognized that amniotic fluid contains populations of stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSC) were first to be described. These cells are able to differentiate towards mesodermal lineages. More recently cells with broader potential, defined as amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSC), were also isolated. They have intermediate characteristics between embryonic and adult stem cells and are able to differentiate into lineages representative of all three germ layers but unlike ES cells they do not form tumours in vivo. Furthermore, AFSC have been reverted to functional pluripotency in a transgene-free approach using an epigenetics modifier. These characteristics, together with absence of ethical issues concerning their employment, have made stem cells from amniotic fluid a promising candidate for cell therapy and tissue engineering. PMID:23157178

Abdulrazzak, Hassan; De Coppi, Paolo; Guillot, Pascale V



An efficient cell count method using a lattice molded on indents of a culture dish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell count is an important task for obtaining biological and medical information. In this paper, a novel cell count method is presented for improving the efficiency of the procedure as well as reducing microbial contamination compared to the conventional cell count method using a hemocytometer. The proposed method involves a lattice array consisting of a 50?m×50?m square with lines of

Sang Uk Son; Yo Han Choi; Seung S. Lee



Racial diversity with high nucleated cell counts and CD34 counts achieved in a national network of cord blood banks.  


Banked, unrelated, partially HLA-matched, umbilical cord blood is an alternative stem cell source for patients in need of transplantation therapy who lack traditionally matched donors. A presumed advantage of cord blood is the ability to increase recruitment of donors of minority ethnic backgrounds. The American Red Cross Cord Blood Program was established in 1999 with 6 banks and 10 collection sites throughout the country. Cord blood donors self-report racial designations on questionnaires, and donor race was collected from each site. Postprocessing nucleated cell counts and CD34(+) counts were obtained on the cord blood units, and results from each racial group (white, black, Asian, Hispanic, and Native American) were compared in the natural logarithmic scale by using analysis of variance. A total of 18878 donors consented: 64% white, 16% black, 12% Hispanic, 4% Asian, 1% Native American, and 3% other. The Detroit area consented the highest percentage of black donors (87%), San Diego consented the highest percentage of Hispanic donors (59%), and Oakland consented the highest percentage of Asian donors (15%). Seven thousand eight hundred sixty-six cord blood units have been banked for transplantation. The mean preprocessing nucleated cell count was 1220 x 10(6) (range, 327-7300 x 10(6)). There was no difference among racial groups when controlled for site (P =.395). The mean CD34(+) count was 3.28 x 10(6). Blacks had a significantly lower CD34(+) count than the other racial/ethnic groups in the Midwest, Northwest, and North Carolina collection sites. A racially diverse cord blood bank can be achieved. Nucleated cell counts were similar among the different racial/ethnic groups. CD34(+) counts were lower for blacks in some collection sites. PMID:15077225

Ballen, Karen K; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Lane, Thomas A; Lindgren, Bruce R; Miller, John P; Nagan, Denis; Newman, Bruce; Rupp, Neil; Haley, N Rebecca



Controversies in circulating tumor cell count during therapy.  


Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are a potential biomarker for prognosis and predictor for therapeutic response. Besides enumeration, the molecular portrait of CTCs holds promise to reveal new insights into the biology of cancer. Although CTCs may represent a liquid biopsy useful for selection of personalized treatments, to date, inconclusive clinical data support the utility of such information in terms of measurable benefit for the individual cancer patient. To finally move CTCs from translational research to the clinical setting and incorporate CTC count/characterization in routine oncological practice, we still need a definitive validation. This is a goal that will be hard to achieve, since tracing a molecular profile of CTCs is hampered by the extremely high heterogeneity of these cells. PMID:23782256

Raimondi, Cristina; Gradilone, Angela; Gazzaniga, Paola



A cell number-counting factor regulates the cytoskeleton and cell motility in Dictyostelium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about how a morphogenetic rearrangement of a tissue is affected by individual cells. Starving Dictyostelium discoideum cells aggregate to form dendritic streams, which then break up into groups of 2 × 104 cells. Cell number is sensed at this developmental stage by using counting factor (CF), a secreted complex of polypeptides. A high extracellular concentration of CF

Lei Tang; Tong Gao; Catherine McCollum; Wonhee Jang; Michael G. Vicker; Robin R. Ammann; Richard H. Gomer



Bronchoalveolar lavage total cell count in interstitial lung diseases--does it matter?  


Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a useful technique for differential diagnosis of various interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) and is usually realized by analysis of the differential cell count. This study was conducted to estimate the value of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) total cell count (TCC) in the diagnosis of ILD. We analyzed 237 BAL samples from patients with ILD: sarcoidosis (SA), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP), and smoking-related ILD (sr-ILD). The control group consisted of 30 healthy volunteers. The statistical analysis revealed significant differences in the BALF TCC between healthy controls and patients with SA, IPF, HP, COP, sr-ILD, and eosinophilic disorders (mean values 6.9 vs. 14.5, 22.5, 22.8, 20.7, 64.5, and 27.3?×?10(6), respectively). Logistic regression revealed a significant relation between the TCC and ILD diagnosis. We conclude that the TCC, as well as the value of total number of inflammatory cells, should be reported in the description of BAL. PMID:21882075

Domaga?a-Kulawik, Joanna; Skirecki, Tomasz; Maskey-Warzechowska, Marta; Grubek-Jaworska, Hanna; Chazan, Ryszarda



Effect of Streess on Blood Leucocyte and Milk Somatic Cell Counts in Dairy Cows1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood and milk samples from Holstein cows were examined for total blood leucocyte count, differential blood leuco- cyte count, milk quality test, and somatic cell count in milk while the cows were stressed by corticotropin injection, con- finement in a heat-humidity chamber, or environmental-heat stress by exposure during the hot summer months of June through November in southern Arizona. All

T. N. Wegner; J. D. Schuh; F. E. Nelson; G. H. Stott



Intracellular fluid flow in rapidly moving cells  

PubMed Central

Cytosolic fluid dynamics have been implicated in cell motility1–5 because of the hydrodynamic forces they induce and because of their influence on transport of components of the actin machinery to the leading edge. To investigate the existence and the direction of fluid flow in rapidly moving cells, we introduced inert quantum dots into the lamellipodia of fish epithelial keratocytes and analysed their distribution and motion. Our results indicate that fluid flow is directed from the cell body towards the leading edge in the cell frame of reference, at about 40% of cell speed. We propose that this forward-directed flow is driven by increased hydrostatic pressure generated at the rear of the cell by myosin contraction, and show that inhibition of myosin II activity by blebbistatin reverses the direction of fluid flow and leads to a decrease in keratocyte speed. We present a physical model for fluid pressure and flow in moving cells that quantitatively accounts for our experimental data.

Keren, Kinneret; Yam, Patricia T.; Kinkhabwala, Anika; Mogilner, Alex; Theriot, Julie A.



Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering  


A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel in order to mix its respective portion of liquid water with the corresponding portion of the stream. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).

Jones, Daniel O. (Glenville, NY); Walsh, Michael M. (Fairfield, CT)



Decreased blood dendritic cell counts in type 1 diabetic children.  


In this study DC numbers, phenotype and DC responses to the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-3 ligand, poly I:C, were examined in new-onset Type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients (ND) and in established T1D patients (ED). Absolute blood myeloid DC (MDC) and plasmacytoid DC (PDC) numbers were decreased in ND and ED patients compared to age-matched controls. The decrease in MDC and PDC counts was less evident in patients with a combination of T1D and coeliac disease (CD) or CD alone. The age-dependent decline in blood DC numbers, found in control children, was not evident in ND patients, such that 2-10 years old ND children had similar MDC and PDC numbers to 15-17 years old controls. In ED patients the t-score of MDC and PDC numbers related to the age of diagnosis but not to disease duration. Blood DC in T1D patients were not distinguished from those of controls by the levels of HLA-DR, CD40 and CD86 expression or the percentage of DC expressing cytokines, IL-12, IL-10, IL-6 and TNF-alpha, in responses to poly I:C. If low DC numbers are shown to contribute to the autoimmunity in T1D, interventions aimed to increase DC numbers may mitigate against beta-cell loss. PMID:17462956

Vuckovic, Slavica; Withers, Geoff; Harris, Mark; Khalil, Dalia; Gardiner, Damien; Flesch, Inge; Tepes, Sonia; Greer, Ristan; Cowley, David; Cotterill, Andrew; Hart, Derek N J



Robotic milking and its effect on fertility and cell counts.  


The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of robotic milking (RM) on fertility and somatic cell counts (SCC) among dairy herds participating in the national Dutch milk recording system. It was hypothesized that RM, and a higher milking frequency in general, would have negative effects on fertility, due to expected and supposed deeper negative energy balance (NEB). Herds increasing milking frequency from two to three times daily consistently had increased production. Milk production during RM was intermediate between the amounts obtained by milking twice versus three times a day. Milking three times a day and the associated higher production had no significant effect on reproductive measures such as nonreturn rate at 56 d post insemination (NR56) or days to first service. Although RM did not affect NR56, use of the robot was associated with an increase in days to first service. An increase in milking frequency from two to three times daily did not affect SCC, but SCC were significantly increased after milking with the robot. Robotic milking has a significant positive effect on production and no negative effect on fertility as measured by NR56. The effect of RM in increasing days to first service appears due to reasons other than increased production and a more NEB. Increased SCC during RM is potentially of concern. From the data available, the relationship of RM to clinical mastitis could not be determined but this aspect needs further attention. PMID:12416810

Kruip, T A M; Morice, H; Robert, M; Ouweltjes, W



Use of the Complete Blood Cell Count in Late-Onset Neonatal Sepsis  

PubMed Central

Background Late-onset sepsis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. Diagnosis of late-onset sepsis can be challenging. The complete blood cell count and differential have been previously evaluated as diagnostic tools for late-onset sepsis in small, single-center reports. Objective We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the complete blood count and differential in late-onset sepsis in a large multicenter population. Study design Using a cohort of all infants with cultures and complete blood cell count data from a large administrative database, we calculated odds ratios for infection, as well as sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and likelihood ratios for various commonly used cut-off values. Results High and low white blood cell counts, high absolute neutrophil counts, high immature-to-total neutrophil ratios, and low platelet counts were associated with late-onset sepsis. Associations were weaker with increasing postnatal age at the time of the culture. Specificity was highest for white blood cell counts <1000/mm3 and >50,000/mm3 (>99%). Positive likelihood ratios were highest for white blood cell counts <1000/mm3 (4.1) and platelet counts <50,000/mm3 (3.5). Conclusion No complete blood count index possessed adequate sensitivity to reliably rule out late-onset sepsis in this population.

Hornik, Christoph P.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Becker, Kristian C.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Li, Jennifer; Clark, Reese H.; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Smith, P. Brian



Lower white blood cell counts in elite athletes training for highly aerobic sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

White cell counts at rest might be lower in athletes participating in selected endurance-type sports. Here, we analysed blood\\u000a tests of elite athletes collected over a 10-year period. Reference ranges were established for 14 female and 14 male sports\\u000a involving 3,679 samples from 937 females and 4,654 samples from 1,310 males. Total white blood cell counts and counts of neutrophils,

P. L. Horn; D. B. Pyne; W. G. Hopkins; C. J. Barnes



Single cell analysis reveals oligoclonality among "low count" monoclonal B cell lymphocytosis  

PubMed Central

Monoclonal B cell lymphocytosis (MBL) is a pre-clinical hematologic syndrome characterized by small accumulations of CD5+ B lymphocytes. Most MBL share phenotypic characteristics with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). While some MBL progress to CLL, most MBL have apparently limited potential for progression to CLL, particularly those MBL with normal absolute B cell counts (“low count” MBL). Most CLL are monoclonal and it is not known whether MBL are monoclonal or oligoclonal; this is important because it is unclear whether MBL represent indolent CLL or represent a distinct pre-malignant precursor prior to the development of CLL. We used flow cytometry analysis and sorting to determine immunophenotypic characteristics, clonality, and molecular features of MBL from familial CLL kindreds. Single cell analysis indicated 4 of 6 low count MBL consisted of two or more unrelated clones; the other 2 MBL were monoclonal. 87% of low count MBL clones had mutated immunoglobulin genes, and no immunoglobulin heavy chain rearrangements of VH family 1 were observed. Some MBL were diversified, clonally related populations with evidence of antigen-drive. We conclude that while low count MBL share many phenotypic characteristics with CLL, many MBL are oligoclonal. This supports a model for step-wise development of MBL into CLL.

Lanasa, Mark C.; Allgood, Sallie D.; Volkheimer, Alicia D.; Gockerman, Jon P.; Whitesides, John F.; Goodman, Barbara K.; Moore, Joseph O.; Weinberg, J. Brice; Levesque, Marc C.



The relationship of white cell count, platelet count, and hematocrit to cigarette smoking in adolescents: the Oslo Youth Study.  


This article reports on the relationship between cigarette smoking, white blood cell count (WBC), platelet count (PC), and hematocrit in a Norwegian adolescent population. Data were obtained on 439 youths, 14 to 16 years old, as part of the Oslo Youth Study, an investigation of risk factors and behaviors for cardiovascular disease and cancer among adolescents. Analyses of covariance, controlling for height, weight, age, sexual maturation, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and hematocrit revealed that both male and female regular smokers (those reporting smoking at least once a week) had significantly higher mean WBCs. Male regular smokers also had significantly higher PCs than nonsmokers, and female regular smokers had higher PCs than young women who smoked less often than once a month. Hematocrit, after adjustment for height, weight, age, sexual maturation, and HDL cholesterol, was significantly lower in male regular smokers, while female regular smokers had higher hematocrit values than nonsmokers or occasional smokers. Results of this study show that WBC and PC were increased in adolescents who started smoking relatively recently. This indicates that the increase in white cell count observed in smokers is unlikely to be due to a longstanding smoking-induced chronic disease condition. PMID:4042305

Tell, G S; Grimm, R H; Vellar, O D; Theodorsen, L



Effect of freezing on Fossomatic cell counting in ewe milk.  


Using the Fossomatic method, a total of 10,072 analytical somatic cell count (SCC) observations were carried out on 4760 aliquots taken from 70 individual ewe milk samples with the objective of studying whether freezing showed significant differences of SCC in comparison with refrigeration, according to different analytical conditions. These conditions were four preservation procedures (without preservation, potassium dichromate, azidiol, and bronopol), two storage temperatures (refrigeration and freezing), five milk ages within storage (24 h postcollection in refrigeration, and 24 h, 15, 30, and 60 d postcollection in freezing), two thawing types (rapid and slow), and two analytical temperatures (40 and 60 degrees C). Preservation, storage, and analytical temperature, type of thawing and milk age within storage, and most of the interactions showed a significant effect on the SCC variation. On average, the SCC was lower after freezing than in refrigeration. This effect depended specifically on type of preservation and analytical temperature of milk. The SCC of milk unpreserved or preserved with bronopol or potassium dichromate, and analyzed at 40 degrees C, was not affected by freezing; however, use of azidiol as a preservative before freezing, and heating the milk to 60 degrees C following thawing resulted in significantly decreased SCC. Milk age had little quantitative influence on SCC of thawed milk. The type of thawing (rapid and slow) did not significantly influence SCC of milk analyzed at 40 degrees C. As a result, when using properly handled samples, the Fossomatic method could be used to enumerate SCC in samples frozen over the 60 d. PMID:12939082

Martínez, J R; Gonzalo, C; Carriedo, J A; San Primitivo, F



Determination of mammalian cell counts, cell size and cell health using the Moxi Z mini automated cell counter.  


Particle and cell counting is used for a variety of applications including routine cell culture, hematological analysis, and industrial controls(1-5). A critical breakthrough in cell/particle counting technologies was the development of the Coulter technique by Wallace Coulter over 50 years ago. The technique involves the application of an electric field across a micron-sized aperture and hydrodynamically focusing single particles through the aperture. The resulting occlusion of the aperture by the particles yields a measurable change in electric impedance that can be directly and precisely correlated to cell size/volume. The recognition of the approach as the benchmark in cell/particle counting stems from the extraordinary precision and accuracy of its particle sizing and counts, particularly as compared to manual and imaging based technologies (accuracies on the order of 98% for Coulter counters versus 75-80% for manual and vision-based systems). This can be attributed to the fact that, unlike imaging-based approaches to cell counting, the Coulter Technique makes a true three-dimensional (3-D) measurement of cells/particles which dramatically reduces count interference from debris and clustering by calculating precise volumetric information about the cells/particles. Overall this provides a means for enumerating and sizing cells in a more accurate, less tedious, less time-consuming, and less subjective means than other counting techniques(6). Despite the prominence of the Coulter technique in cell counting, its widespread use in routine biological studies has been prohibitive due to the cost and size of traditional instruments. Although a less expensive Coulter-based instrument has been produced, it has limitations as compared to its more expensive counterparts in the correction for "coincidence events" in which two or more cells pass through the aperture and are measured simultaneously. Another limitation with existing Coulter technologies is the lack of metrics on the overall health of cell samples. Consequently, additional techniques must often be used in conjunction with Coulter counting to assess cell viability. This extends experimental setup time and cost since the traditional methods of viability assessment require cell staining and/or use of expensive and cumbersome equipment such as a flow cytometer. The Moxi Z mini automated cell counter, described here, is an ultra-small benchtop instrument that combines the accuracy of the Coulter Principle with a thin-film sensor technology to enable precise sizing and counting of particles ranging from 3-25 microns, depending on the cell counting cassette used. The M type cassette can be used to count particles from with average diameters of 4 - 25 microns (dynamic range 2 - 34 microns), and the Type S cassette can be used to count particles with and average diameter of 3 - 20 microns (dynamic range 2 - 26 microns). Since the system uses a volumetric measurement method, the 4-25 microns corresponds to a cell volume range of 34 - 8,180 fL and the 3 - 20 microns corresponds to a cell volume range of 14 - 4200 fL, which is relevant when non-spherical particles are being measured. To perform mammalian cell counts using the Moxi Z, the cells to be counted are first diluted with ORFLO or similar diluent. A cell counting cassette is inserted into the instrument, and the sample is loaded into the port of the cassette. Thousands of cells are pulled, single-file through a "Cell Sensing Zone" (CSZ) in the thin-film membrane over 8-15 seconds. Following the run, the instrument uses proprietary curve-fitting in conjunction with a proprietary software algorithm to provide coincidence event correction along with an assessment of overall culture health by determining the ratio of the number of cells in the population of interest to the total number of particles. The total particle counts include shrunken and broken down dead cells, as well as other debris and contaminants. The results are presented in histogram format with an automatic curve fit, with gates that can

Dittami, Gregory M; Sethi, Manju; Rabbitt, Richard D; Ayliffe, H Edward



Quantitative sputum cell counts to monitor bronchitis: a qualitative study of physician and patient perspectives.  


Many common diseases affecting the airways are characterized by airway inflammation. The measurement of this inflammation has a significant role in the management of these diseases. Quantitative sputum cell counts provide a measurement of the type and severity of inflammation present. Sputum cell counts are used in routine clinical practice in some centres but their use is not widespread. The present study used a standardized questionnaire to determine both patients' and physicians' attitudes toward the use of sputum cell counts. The use of sputum cell counts was well accepted by patients and physicians. Ninety per cent of patients were satisfied with the test. Sixty per cent of family physicians were satisfied with the test and 80% were in favour of it being funded by the government. The authors recommend more widespread use of sputum cell counts to guide the management of airway diseases. PMID:23457675

D'silva, Liesel; Neighbour, Helen; Gafni, Amiram; Radford, Katherine; Hargreave, Freddy; Nair, Parameswaran


Neurogenic differentiation of amniotic fluid stem cells.  


In 2003, human amniotic fluid has been shown to contain stem cells expressing Oct-4, a marker for pluripotency. This finding initiated a rapidly growing and very promising new stem cell research field. Since then, amniotic fluid stem (AFS) cells have been demonstrated to harbour the potential to differentiate into any of the three germ layers and to form three-dimensional aggregates, so-called embryoid bodies, known as the principal step in the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells. Marker selection and minimal dilution approaches allow the establishment of monoclonal AFS cell lineages with high proliferation potential. AFS cells have a lower risk for tumour development and do not raise the ethical issues of embryonic stem cells. Compared to induced pluripotent stem cells, AFS cells do not need exogenic treatment to induce pluripotency, are chromosomal stable and do not harbour the epigenetic memory and accumulated somatic mutations of specific differentiated source cells. Compared to adult stem cells, AFS can be grown in larger quantities and show higher differentiation potential. Accordingly, in the recent past, AFS became increasingly accepted as an optimal tool for basic research and probably also for specific cell-based therapies. Here, we review the current knowledge on the neurogenic differentiation potential of AFS cells. PMID:21573873

Rosner, M; Mikula, M; Preitschopf, A; Feichtinger, M; Schipany, K; Hengstschläger, M



Enhancing the performance of a point-of-care CD4+ T-cell counting microchip through monocyte depletion for HIV/AIDS diagnostics.  


CD4+ T cell counts are important tests used to stage HIV-positive patients, enabling clinicians to make informed antiretroviral treatment decisions and to monitor the therapeutic outcomes. However, state-of-the-art CD4 counting methods based on flow cytometry are not applicable in resource-limited settings, due to their high cost and technical requirements. In previous work, we reported the development of a cell isolation microchip that can be used at the point of care for CD4 counts. In that microfluidic chip, CD4+ T cells were separated from 10 microL of whole blood, and enumerated via either light microscopy or impedance sensing. The microchip counts matched flow cytometry results in the intermediate CD4 count range, between 200-800 cells/microL, but displayed a positive bias at absolute CD4 counts below 200 cells/microL, due largely to monocyte contamination. To enhance the performance in the low CD4 count range, we report here an improved design of a two-stage microfluidic device to deplete monocytes from whole blood, followed by CD4+ T cell capture. Using the double-stage device combined with a high viscosity rinsing solution, we obtained microchip CD4 counts comparable to flow cytometry results in the full clinically relevant range. In addition to CD4 counting, the strategy of contaminant depletion prior to target cell isolation can be easily adapted to immunoaffinity capture of other cell types that lack a unique surface marker from a complex biological fluid. PMID:19417901

Cheng, Xuanhong; Gupta, Amit; Chen, Chihchen; Tompkins, Ronald G; Rodriguez, William; Toner, Mehmet



Reproducibility, validity, and responsiveness of cell counts in blown nasal secretions  

PubMed Central

Cell counts in nasal secretions are not used in routine clinical practice to decide on anti-inflammatory or antimicrobial therapy. This study investigated the reproducibility, reliability (validity), and responsiveness of cell counts in blown nasal secretions with a view to implementing this in routine clinical practice. Nasal secretions were obtained from 19 subjects with allergic rhinitis on 3 days in random order (each separated by 1–2 days) by spontaneously blowing their noses (on 2 days) and by a nasal lavage by the modified Grunberg method on the 3rd day. Total and differential cell counts were performed after dispersing the solutions with dithiothreitol as described previously. At the end of the study, subjects had 1 week of open label treatment with nasal corticosteroids if they had nasal eosinophilia or an antibiotic if they had nasal neutrophilia. If the cell counts were normal, they were not treated. The proportion of eosinophil (%) was highly reproducible (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC], 0.93), and the total cell count (×106/g) and the proportion of neutrophil (%) were modestly reproducible in blown nasal secretions (ICC, 0.46 and 0.55, respectively). The total cell count was consistently and significantly higher in the blown nasal secretions. The proportion of eosinophils (Rs = 0.4; p < 0.05) and neutrophils (Rs = 0.6; p < 0.05) showed modest correlation in the two types of samples. The responsiveness index for eosinophil count was 4.0 and for neutrophil count was 1.5. Total and differential cell counts can be reliably and reproducibly obtained from spontaneously blown nasal secretions. The cell counts are responsive to treatment and can help identify allergic and infective rhinosinusitis and guide therapy and are easy to implement in routine clinical practice.

Goodwin, Sarah; Hargreave, Frederick E.



Amniotic fluid stem cells: future perspectives.  


The existence of stem cells in human amniotic fluid was reported for the first time almost ten years ago. Since this discovery, the knowledge about these cells has increased dramatically. Today, amniotic fluid stem (AFS) cells are widely accepted as a new powerful tool for basic research as well as for the establishment of new stem-cell-based therapy concepts. It is possible to generate monoclonal genomically stable AFS cell lines harboring high proliferative potential without raising ethical issues. Many different groups have demonstrated that AFS cells can be differentiated into all three germ layer lineages, what is of relevance for both, the scientific and therapeutical usage of these cells. Of special importance for the latter is the fact that AFS cells are less tumorigenic than other pluripotent stem cell types. In this paper, we have summarized the current knowledge about this relatively young scientific field. Furthermore, we discuss the relevant future perspectives of this promising area of stem cell research focusing on the next important questions, which need to be answered. PMID:22719774

Rosner, Margit; Schipany, Katharina; Shanmugasundaram, Bharanidharan; Lubec, Gert; Hengstschläger, Markus



Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells: Future Perspectives  

PubMed Central

The existence of stem cells in human amniotic fluid was reported for the first time almost ten years ago. Since this discovery, the knowledge about these cells has increased dramatically. Today, amniotic fluid stem (AFS) cells are widely accepted as a new powerful tool for basic research as well as for the establishment of new stem-cell-based therapy concepts. It is possible to generate monoclonal genomically stable AFS cell lines harboring high proliferative potential without raising ethical issues. Many different groups have demonstrated that AFS cells can be differentiated into all three germ layer lineages, what is of relevance for both, the scientific and therapeutical usage of these cells. Of special importance for the latter is the fact that AFS cells are less tumorigenic than other pluripotent stem cell types. In this paper, we have summarized the current knowledge about this relatively young scientific field. Furthermore, we discuss the relevant future perspectives of this promising area of stem cell research focusing on the next important questions, which need to be answered.

Rosner, Margit; Schipany, Katharina; Shanmugasundaram, Bharanidharan; Lubec, Gert; Hengstschlager, Markus



RBC count  


... Dehydration (such as from severe diarrhea) Kidney tumor (renal cell carcinoma) Low blood oxygen levels (hypoxia) Pulmonary fibrosis Polycythemia vera Your RBC count will increase for several weeks ...


Use of the Complete Blood Cell Count in Early-Onset Neonatal Sepsis  

PubMed Central

Background Early-onset sepsis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates, and its diagnosis remains challenging. The complete blood cell count and differential have been previously evaluated as diagnostic tools for early-onset sepsis in small, single-center reports. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the complete blood count and differential in early-onset sepsis in a large, multicenter population of neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. Methods Using a cohort of 166,092 neonates with suspected early-onset sepsis with cultures admitted to 293 neonatal intensive care units, we calculated odds ratios and receiver operating characteristic curves for complete blood cell count indices and prediction of a positive culture. We determined sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios for various commonly used cut-off values from the complete blood cell count. Results Low white blood cell counts, low absolute neutrophil counts, and high immature-to-total neutrophil ratios were associated with increasing odds of infection (highest odds ratios: 5.38, 6.84, and 7.97, respectively). Specificity and negative predictive values were high (73.7–99.9% and >99.8%). However, sensitivities were low (0.3–54.5%) for all complete blood cell count indices analyzed. Conclusion Low white blood cell count, absolute neutrophil count, and high immature-to-total neutrophil ratio were associated with increasing odds of infection, but no complete blood cell count-derived index possesses the sensitivity to rule out reliably early-onset sepsis in neonates.

Hornik, Christoph P.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Becker, Kristian C.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Li, Jennifer; Clark, Reese H.; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Smith, P. Brian



Photoreceptor cell counting in adaptive optics retinal images using content-adaptive filtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automated counting of photoreceptor cells in high-resolution retinal images generated by adaptive optics (AO) imaging systems is important due to its potential for screening and diagnosis of diseases that affect human vision. A drawback in recently reported photoreceptor cell counting methods is that they require user input of cell structure parameters. This paper introduces a method that overcomes this shortcoming by using content-adaptive filtering (CAF). In this method, image frequency content is initially analyzed to design a customized filter with a passband to emphasize cell structures suitable for subsequent processing. The McClellan transform is used to design a bandpass filter with a circularly symmetric frequency response since retinal cells have no preferred orientation. The automated filter design eliminates the need for manual determination of cell structure parameters, such as cell spacing. Following the preprocessing step, cell counting is performed on the binarized filtered image by finding regional points of high intensity. Photoreceptor cell count estimates using this automated procedure were found to be comparable to manual counts (gold standard). The new counting method when applied to test images showed overall improved performance compared with previously reported methods requiring user-supplied input. The performance of the method was also examined with retinal images with variable cell spacing.

Mohammad, Fatimah; Ansari, Rashid; Wanek, Justin; Shahidi, Mahnaz



Evaluation of a Method for Counting Absolute Numbers of Cells with a Flow Cytometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated a method for performing absolute cell counts of lymphocyte populations with a flow cytometer. In this method, TruCount, test tubes that contain a known number of brightly fluorescent polystyrene beads are provided by the manufacturer. Whole anticoagulated blood is accurately pipetted into the tubes and mixed with fluorochrome-labeled monoclonal antibodies, the erythrocytes are lysed, and this mixture is




System-level training of neural networks for counting white blood cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural networks (NNs) that are trained to perform classification may not perform as well when used as a module in a larger system. We introduce a novel, system-level method for training NNs with application to counting white blood cells. The idea is to phrase the objective function in terms of total count error rather than the traditional class-coding approach because

Nipon Theera-umpon; Paul D. Gader



Preprocedural white blood cell count and death after percutaneous coronary intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundElevated inflammatory markers are associated with worse outcome after percutaneous coronary artery interventions (PCI). An elevation in the white blood cell (WBC) count is a nonspecific response to inflammation. We hypothesized that an elevated WBC count would be a predictor of death in patients undergoing PCI.

Hitinder S Gurm; Deepak L Bhatt; Ritesh Gupta; Stephen G Ellis; Eric J Topol; Michael S Lauer



Obesity among HIV-Infected Persons: Impact of Weight on CD4 Cell Count  

PubMed Central

Summary To assess the effect of obesity on CD4 counts, we estimated the association of time-updated BMI categories with CD4 changes among 1,001 documented HIV seroconverters. During the pre-HAART era, a higher BMI was associated with less reduction in CD4 counts over time. However during the HAART era, obese versus normal weight patients had smaller increases in CD4 counts (+69 v. +116 cells, p=0.01). Lower CD4 counts may now be another adverse consequence of obesity.

Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F.; Roediger, Mollie; Eberly, Lynn E.; Vyas, Kurt; Landrum, Mike L.; Ganesan, Anuradha; Weintrob, Amy C.; Vincent Barthel, R.; Agan, Brian K.



Complete blood cell count as a surrogate CD4 cell marker for HIV monitoring in resource-limited settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A total lymphocyte count (TLC) of 1200 cells\\/mL has been used as a surrogate for a CD4 count of 200 cells\\/microL in resource-limited settings with varying results. We developed a more effective method based on a decision tree algorithm to classify subjects.\\u000aMETHODS: A decision tree was used to develop models with the variables TLC, hemoglobin, platelet count, gender,

Ray Y. Chen; Andrew O. Westfall; J. Michael Hardin; Cassandra Miller-Hardwick; Jeffrey S. A. Stringer; James L. Raper; Sten H. Vermund; Eduardo Gotuzzo; Jeroan J. Allison; Michael S. Saag



Biphasic decline of CD4 cell count during scheduled treatment interruptions.  


In 115 patients whose scheduled treatment interruptions (STI) lasted 24 weeks, the CD4 cell count declined by a median of 30 cells/ml/week during the first 4 weeks, compared with 3 cells/ml/week during the next 20 weeks. In multivariate regression, a pronounced early fall in CD4 cells correlated with a higher CD4 cell count at the start of STI, with more gain in CD4 cells during antiretroviral treatment preceding STI, and with a higher viral load at week 4. PMID:15750398

Fagard, Catherine; Bandelier, Cédric Y; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Le Braz, Michelle; Günthard, Huldrych; Perneger, Thomas; García, Felipe; Hirschel, Bernard



Smoking and the Differential White Blood Cell Count as Determined on a Technicon H6000 (trademark) Automated Blood Cell Analyzer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Technicon H6000(TM) automated blood cell analyzer was used to determine the effect of smoking on the differential white blood cell count and on platelet count. Approximately 3,000 apparently healthy individuals gave blood samples as part of an ongoing o...

F. C. Garland M. R. White G. M. Seal



DeadEasy Mito-Glia: Automatic Counting of Mitotic Cells and Glial Cells in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Cell number changes during normal development, and in disease (e.g., neurodegeneration, cancer). Many genes affect cell number, thus functional genetic analysis frequently requires analysis of cell number alterations upon loss of function mutations or in gain of function experiments. Drosophila is a most powerful model organism to investigate the function of genes involved in development or disease in vivo. Image processing and pattern recognition techniques can be used to extract information from microscopy images to quantify automatically distinct cellular features, but these methods are still not very extended in this model organism. Thus cellular quantification is often carried out manually, which is laborious, tedious, error prone or humanly unfeasible. Here, we present DeadEasy Mito-Glia, an image processing method to count automatically the number of mitotic cells labelled with anti-phospho-histone H3 and of glial cells labelled with anti-Repo in Drosophila embryos. This programme belongs to the DeadEasy suite of which we have previously developed versions to count apoptotic cells and neuronal nuclei. Having separate programmes is paramount for accuracy. DeadEasy Mito-Glia is very easy to use, fast, objective and very accurate when counting dividing cells and glial cells labelled with a nuclear marker. Although this method has been validated for Drosophila embryos, we provide an interactive window for biologists to easily extend its application to other nuclear markers and other sample types. DeadEasy MitoGlia is freely available as an ImageJ plug-in, it increases the repertoire of tools for in vivo genetic analysis, and it will be of interest to a broad community of developmental, cancer and neuro-biologists.

Forero, Manuel Guillermo; Learte, Anabel R.; Cartwright, Stephanie; Hidalgo, Alicia



Elevated white cell count at commencement of peritoneal dialysis predicts overall and cardiac mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated white cell count at commencement of peritoneal dialysis predicts overall and cardiac mortality.BackgroundHigher total white blood cell counts (WCC) have been shown in the general population to be strongly and independently predictive of coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic value of WCC in patients commencing peritoneal dialysis (PD).MethodsA




Control of Intramammary Infections in Goats: Impact on Somatic Cell Counts1,2,3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Udder-half infections were recorded throughout a lactation for 1,060 goats belonging to eight commercial herds. Bacteriological examination from aseptic milk samples and somatic cell counts (SCC) determined by Fossomatic cell counting were performed at the beginning, the middle, and the end of lactation. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were the prevalent microorganisms isolated. Geomet- ric means of SCC for uninfected halves or

B. Poutrel; R. de Cremoux; M. Ducelliez; D. Verneau



Admixture Mapping of White Cell Count: Genetic Locus Responsible for Lower White Blood Cell Count in the Health ABC and Jackson Heart Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

White blood cell count (WBC) is an important clinical marker that varies among different ethnic groups. African Americans are known to have a lower WBC than European Americans. We surveyed the entire genome for loci underlying this difference in WBC by using admixture mapping. We analyzed data from African American participants in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study and

Michael A. Nalls; James G. Wilson; Nick J. Patterson; Arti Tandon; Joseph M. Zmuda; Scott Huntsman; Melissa Garcia; Donglei Hu; Rongling Li; Brock A. Beamer; Kushang V. Patel; Ermeg L. Akylbekova; Joe C. Files; Cheryl L. Hardy; Sarah G. Buxbaum; Herman A. Taylor; David Reich; Tamara B. Harris; Elad Ziv



Consequence for dairy herds in the United States of imposing different standards for somatic cell count  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

New European Union (E.U.) regulations may require that a somatic cell count (SCC) limit of 400,000 cells/mL for milk be met by every farm that contributes to pooled milk exported to Europe. In the United States, the standard is 750,000 cells/mL. Because bulk tank SCC is not readily available through...


Human amniotic fluid stem cells: a new perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  The discovery of amniotic fluid stem cells initiated a new and very promising field in stem cell research. In the last four\\u000a years amniotic fluid stem cells have been shown to express markers specific to pluripotent stem cells, such as Oct-4. Due\\u000a to their high proliferation potential, amniotic fluid stem cell lineages can be established. Meanwhile, they have been shown

N. Siegel; M. Rosner; M. Hanneder; A. Freilinger; M. Hengstschläger



White Blood Cell Count and Mortality in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging  

PubMed Central

Objectives We investigated the secular trend in white blood cell (WBC) count and the relationship between WBC count and mortality between 1958 and 2002. Background The WBC count is a clinical marker of inflammation and a strong predictor of mortality. Limited data exist on the WBC count secular trend and the relationship between WBC and mortality. Methods One thousand eighty-three women and 1,720 men were evaluated longitudinally in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Blood samples and medical information were collected at the study entry and every 2 years during follow-up visits. The WBC count and all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality were assessed. Results A downward trend in WBC count was observed from 1958 to 2002. The secular downward trend was independent of age, gender, race, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity. The WBC count was nonlinearly associated with all-cause mortality and almost linearly associated with cardiovascular mortality. Participants with baseline WBC <3,500 cells/mm3 and WBC >6,000 cells/mm3 had higher mortality than those with 3,500 to 6,000 WBC/mm3. Within each WBC group, age-adjusted mortality rates declined in successive cohorts from the 1960s to the 1990s. Participants who died had higher WBC than those who survived, and the difference was statistically significant within 5 years before death. Conclusions Our study provides evidence for a secular downward trend in WBC count over the period from 1958 to 2002. Higher WBC counts are associated with higher mortality in successive cohorts. We found no evidence that the decline of age-specific mortality rates that occurred from 1960 to 2000 was attributable to a secular downward trend in WBC.

Ruggiero, Carmelinda; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Cherubini, Antonio; Maggio, Marcello; Sen, Ranjan; Najjar, Samer S.; Windham, Gwen B.; Ble, Alessandro; Senin, Umberto; Ferrucci, Luigi



Automation of fluorescent dot counting in cell nuclei  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a completely automated fluorescence microscope system that can examine 500 cells in approximately 20 minutes to determine the number of labeled chromosomes (seen as dots) in each cell nucleus. This system works with two fluorescent dyes-one for the DNA hybridization dots (e.g. FITC) and one for the cell nucleus (e.g. DAPI). After the stage has moved to

Hans Nettenl; Ian T. Young; Michele Prinsl; Lucas J. van Vlietl; Hans Tanke; Hans Vrolijk; Willem Sloos



Circulating Progenitor Cell Count for Cardiovascular Risk Stratification: A Pooled Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundCirculating progenitor cells (CPC) contribute to the homeostasis of the vessel wall, and a reduced CPC count predicts cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We tested the hypothesis that CPC count improves cardiovascular risk stratification and that this is modulated by low-grade inflammation.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe pooled data from 4 longitudinal studies, including a total of 1,057 patients having CPC determined and major adverse

Gian Paolo Fadini; Shoichi Maruyama; Takenori Ozaki; Akihiko Taguchi; James Meigs; Stefanie Dimmeler; Andreas M. Zeiher; Saula de Kreutzenberg; Angelo Avogaro; Georg Nickenig; Caroline Schmidt-Lucke; Nikos Werner; Stefan Kiechl



Elevated White Blood Cell Count and Carotid Plaque Thickness The Northern Manhattan Stroke Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—Elevated leukocyte count has been associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease in several epidemiological studies. We sought to determine whether white blood cell count (WBC) is associated with carotid plaque thickness in a stroke-free, multiethnic cohort. Methods—For this cross-sectional analysis, WBC was measured in stroke-free community subjects undergoing carotid duplex Doppler ultrasound. Maximal internal carotid plaque thickness (MICPT)

Mitchell S. Elkind; Jianfeng Cheng; Bernadette Boden-Albala; Myunghee C. Paik; Ralph L. Sacco


An integrated microfluidic system for isolation, counting, and sorting of hematopoietic stem cells  

PubMed Central

This study reports an integrated microfluidic system capable of isolation, counting, and sorting of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from cord blood in an automatic format by utilizing a magnetic-bead-based immunoassay. Three functional modules, including cell isolation, cell counting, and cell sorting modules are integrated on a single chip by using microfluidic technology. The cell isolation module is comprised of a four-membrane-type micromixer for binding of target stem cells and magnetic beads, two pneumatic micropumps for sample transport, and an S-shaped channel for isolation of HSCs using a permanent magnet underneath. The counting and sorting of HSCs are performed by utilizing the cell counting and sorting modules. Experimental results show that a separation efficiency as high as 88% for HSCs from cord blood is achieved within 40 min for a sample volume of 100 ?l. Therefore, the development of this integrated microfluidic system may be promising for various applications such as stem cell research and cell therapy.

Wu, Huei-Wen; Hsu, Ruo-Chi; Lin, Chun-Che; Hwang, Shiaw-Min; Lee, Gwo-Bin



Response of sheep lymphocytes to PHA: quantitation by nuclear volume measurement and cell counts (40764)  

SciTech Connect

Phytohemagglutinin response of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of sheep was studied. Assessment of proliferative response was performed by determination of nuclear volumes and cell counts in cultures from 14 sheep and by incorporation of tritiated thymidine in cultures in four additional sheep. PBL of sheep were found to transform and proliferate with PHA similarly to human peripheral blood lymphocytes with minor differences. Quantitation of the proliferative response by determining the cell count and nuclear volumes provided more information on cell kinetics in culture than the commonly used isotope-labeled thymidine incorporation method.

Chandra, P.; Chanana, A.D.; Joel, D.D.



White blood cell count and endothelin-1 vasoconstrictor tone in middle-aged and older adults  

PubMed Central

Background Higher white blood cell (WBC) count is associated with impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation. However, the influence of higher WBC count on endothelin (ET)-1 vasoconstrictor activity is currently unknown. We tested the hypothesis that adults with elevated WBC count demonstrate enhanced ET-1 system activity. Methods Thirty-four healthy adults were studied: 17 with WBC count < 5.0 × 109 cells/L (lower WBC; 9M/8F; age: 53 ± 2 yr) and 17 with WBC count > 5.0 × 109 cells/L (higher WBC; 10M/7F; 54 ± 3 yr). Forearm blood flow (FBF) responses to intra-brachial infusion of ET-1 (5 pmol/min for 20 min) and selective ETA receptor blockade (BQ-123; 100 nmol/min for 60 min) were measured by venous occlusion plethysmography. Results The vasoconstrictor response to ET-1 was significantly blunted (?60%) in the higher WBC group versus the lower WBC group. The FBF responses to selective ETA receptor blockade were also significantly different (P < 0.05) between the groups. In the lower WBC group, resting FBF increased marginally (?5%) to BQ-123, whereas the increase in FBF to BQ-123 was significantly greater (?15%) in higher WBC group. Furthermore, there was a significant relation between WBC count and FBF response to ET-1 (r = ?0.43) and BQ-123 (r = 0.41). Conclusions Relative elevations in WBC count in middle-aged and older adults, independent of adiposity and other cardiometabolic risk factors, are associated with enhanced ET-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone. Elevated ET-1 system activity may be a mechanism linking higher WBC count with increased cardiovascular risk.

Diehl, Kyle J.; Weil, Brian R.; Greiner, Jared J.; Stauffer, Brian L.; DeSouza, Christopher A.



Skin Tags: A Link Between Lesional Mast Cell Count/Tryptase Expression and Obesity and Dyslipidemia  

PubMed Central

Background: The etiology of skin tags (STs) is not fully understood. A relation to diabetes mellitus and obesity was suggested. Few studies of possible mast cells (MCs) involvement were reported. Tyrptase is a mast cell mediator and a potent fibroblast growth factor. It may provide a molecular link between mast cell activation and fibrosis. Aims: The aim was to assess clinical and laboratory findings in patients with STs, and the possible link between obesity, dyslipidemia, and lesional MC count/tryptase expression. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 patients with STs were subjected to clinical examination, estimation of body mass index (BMI), fasting blood glucose (FBG), postprandial blood glucose (PPBG), serum cholesterol and triglycerides, abdominal ultrasound for fatty liver assessment, in addition to study of MCs through staining for MC tryptase in two skin biopsies; lesional and nonlesional (control). Results: All patients showed abnormally high BMI and hypertriglyceridemia, with abnormal sonographic pattern in 15 patients (75%). STs number positively correlated with the age of patients. STs showed significantly higher MC counts and tryptase expression, compared with control skin (P < 0.001), with no correlation of the STs number or MC count with BMI, FBG, PPBG or serum cholesterol. Obese patients showed a significantly higher MC count than overweight and there was a positive correlation between MC count and serum triglycerides. Axilla and under breast STs showed a higher MC count compared with other sites. Conclusions: STs seem to be related to obesity and hypertriglyceridemia. MCs with their tryptase are possibly involved in pathogenesis of STs. MC count is related to the associated factors; obesity and serum triglycerides. MC tryptase expression is a reliable method for accurate tissue MC counting.

Salem, Samar Abdallah M; Attia, Enas AS; Osman, Wesam M; El Gendy, Marwa A



Preoperative White Blood Cell Count and Risk of 30-Day Readmission after Cardiac Surgery  

PubMed Central

Approximately 1 in 5 patients undergoing cardiac surgery are readmitted within 30 days of discharge. Among the primary causes of readmission are infection and disease states susceptible to the inflammatory cascade, such as diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and gastrointestinal complications. Currently, it is not known if a patient's baseline inflammatory state measured by crude white blood cell (WBC) counts could predict 30-day readmission. We collected data from 2,176 consecutive patients who underwent cardiac surgery at seven hospitals. Patient readmission data was abstracted from each hospital. The independent association with preoperative WBC count was determined using logistic regression. There were 259 patients readmitted within 30 days, with a median time of readmission of 9 days (IQR 4–16). Patients with elevated WBC count at baseline (10,000–12,000 and >12,000?mm3) had higher 30-day readmission than those with lower levels of WBC count prior to surgery (15% and 18% compared to 10%–12%, P = 0.037). Adjusted odds ratios were 1.42 (0.86, 2.34) for WBC counts 10,000–12,000 and 1.81 (1.03, 3.17) for WBC count?>?12,000. We conclude that WBC count measured prior to cardiac surgery as a measure of the patient's inflammatory state could aid clinicians and continuity of care management teams in identifying patients at heightened risk of 30-day readmission after discharge from cardiac surgery.

Brown, Jeremiah R.; Landis, R. Clive; Chaisson, Kristine; Ross, Cathy S.; Dacey, Lawrence J.; Boss, Richard A.; Helm, Robert E.; Horton, Susan R.; Westbrook, Benjamin M.; LeBlond, Kelly; Quinn, Reed D.; Magnus, Patrick C.; Malenka, David J.; DiScipio, Anthony W.



The association of fetal heart rate patterns with nucleated red blood cell counts at birth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between fetal heart rate patterns and fetal nucleated red blood cell counts. Study Design: Data were collected prospectively from March through September 2000. Umbilical cord blood was used for nucleated red blood cell analysis. The fetal heart rate pattern was analyzed for reactivity; presence, duration, and type of decelerations;

Asaf Ferber; Armando Grassi; Didem Akyol; Christopher O'Reilly-Green; Michael Y. Divon



Consequence of changing standards for somatic cell count on US Dairy Herd Improvement herds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Consequence of noncompliance with European Union (EU) and current US standards for somatic cell count (SCC) as well as SCC standards proposed by the National Milk Producers Federation was examined for US herds. Somatic cell scores (SCS) from 14,854 Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) herds were analyzed. H...


Effects of increased white blood cell count on endothelin-induced vasoconstriction in healthy subjects.  


It is known that administration of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor is followed by an increase of white blood cell count. There is evidence from other vascular beds that an increase in white blood cell count impairs blood flow regulation especially in the microcirculation. Whether this also holds true for the ocular circulation is unknown. In the following study we investigated whether an increase in white blood cell count alters the endothelin-1 induced vasoconstriction in humans. Neither granulocyte-colony stimulating factor nor endothelin-1 had any consistent effect on blood pressure, pulse rate or intraocular pressure. Administration of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor induced a pronounced increase in retinal white blood cell density (p < 0.01). Administration of endothelin-1 decreased choroidal (p < 0.01) and retinal blood flow (p < 0.01). The change in choroidal blood flow in response to endothelin-1 was not altered by pre-treatment with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor. By contrast, the decrease in retinal blood flow was more pronounced during an increase in white blood cell count (p = 0.02) when compared to placebo. Our data indicates that during pronounced vasoconstriction, as induced by administration of endothelin-1, vascular regulation can be altered by the number of circulating white blood cells. Whether this effect is caused by an interaction of red and white blood cells in the microcirculation or a yet unknown mechanism needs further investigation. PMID:22309805

Told, Reinhard; Fuchsjäger-Mayrl, Gabriele; Wolzt, Michael; Schmetterer, Leopold; Garhöfer, Gerhard



Antimicrobial susceptibility testing in 90 min by bacterial cell count monitoring  

PubMed Central

The rise in antimicrobial resistance has become a serious global health problem. Restrictive use of antibiotics seems the only option to temper this accession since research in new antibiotics has halted. Antimicrobial stewardship programmes rely on quick access to susceptibility data. This study evaluated the concept of bacterial cell count monitoring as a fast method to determine susceptibility. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus strains were tested for amoxicillin/piperacillin and gentamicin by three conventional methods (VITEK2®, Etest® and broth-macrodilution). Bacterial cell count monitoring reliably predicted susceptibility after 90 min for Escherichia coli and after 120 min for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus without any minor, major or very major discrepancies. Time-to-result was reduced by 74%, 83% and 76%, respectively. Bacterial cell count monitoring shows great potential for rapid susceptibility testing.

Broeren, M A C; Maas, Y; Retera, E; Arents, N L A



Infrared cell for supercritical fluid–polymer interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel high pressure cell for Fourier transform infrared studies of extraction, impregnation, partitioning, and interactions between supercritical fluids and polymers is presented. Two parallel optical paths through the cell permit the measurement of IR spectra of the supercritical fluid and the polymer sample under the same conditions without essential overlapping of the absorption bands studied. This cell has been

Sergei G. Kazarian; Michael F. Vincent; Charles A. Eckert



[Modeling of antiretroviral response from taxonomy of CD4 cells count trajectories in profound immunodeficiency setting].  


Modeling of CD4 cells counts response was performed through a Non-Hierarchical-descendant process with profoundly immunocompromised symptomatic patients under nevirapine or efavirenz-based antiretroviral regimen in Abidjan. Similar CD4 cells count trajectories have been modelled in meta-trajectories linked to patients' classes. Global immunological response is similar between "nevirapine group" and "efavirenz group" but the model showed an internal variation of this response in each group. In the both groups, some variables presented a significant variation between classes: average CD4, CD4 Nadir, CD4 peak and average gain of CD4. In "nevirapine group", these following parameters vary significantly between classes: mean weight, mean haemoglobin count and mean increase in haemoglobin count and sex. It's also important to note that, all meta-trajectories began with distinctive categories of baseline CD4 cells counts. Other explanatory factors must be sought because the characteristics we have chosen to describe patients'classes, are not exhaustive. PMID:21819809

Abrogoua, Danho Pascal; Kablan, Brou Jérôme; Aulagner, Gilles; Petit, Claude



A simple method for separating cells of Microcystis aeruginosa for counting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat was used to break up the mucilage-bound colonies of the blue-green alga, Microcystis aeruginosa Kütz. emend. Elenkin, for cell counting. Samples were heated in a water bath at 80°C for 5–10 min, then agitated in a Vortex mixer for 30–60 s. The treatment separated cells completely and reaggregation of cells did not occur. There was no evidence that heating

S. E. Humphries; F. Widjaja



The value of white blood cell counts before revision total knee arthroplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

A white blood cell count (WBC) of >50,000 cell\\/mm3 from a knee aspirate with ?80% polymorphonuclear cells (PMNCs) is suggestive of infection. This study sought to determine if these same criteria were applicable when interpreting aspirates from a total knee. Of 440 revision total knee arthroplasties, 86 patients had preoperative aspirations of the knee before revision. Fifty-five aspirates were from

J. Bohannon Mason; Thomas K Fehring; Susan M Odum; William L Griffin; Donna S Nussman



Evaluation of white blood cell count as a possible prognostic marker for oral cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction There seems to be increasing evidence that inflammation leads to cancer. For several cancers, an association with white blood cell (WBC) count has been reported. So far, no studies have been performed for cancer of the oral cavity and WBC. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to look at whether WBC count can be used as a prognostic marker for recurrence or metastases for oral cancer. Material and methods For 278 patients with oral cancer, the preoperative WBC count was compared with the clinicopathological information: age, gender, T-status, N-status, recurrence, metastases, follow-up time, and time till recurrence or metastases appeared. Results Out of 278 patients, 48 developed recurrence, 24 second tumors, 46 cervical metastases, and 14 distant metastases. The mean follow-up time was 35.97 months (range: 12-107 months). Significant Pearson correlation at the 0.05 level could be found for the T-status (0.046), but not for the N status (0.121). No significant correlation could be found between WBC count and the development of recurrence or metastases. Conclusion In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that elevated WBC count does not seem to be a predictor for recurrence or for further metastases. Further research is recommended to investigate the WBC count in precancerous lesions and in HPV positive patients with oral SCC.



Enhanced Beta-Gamma Coincidence Counting Gas Cell  

SciTech Connect

The Automated Radioxenon Sampler/Analyzer (ARSA) uses a highly compact, high efficiency beta-gamma coincidence detector to detect 133Xe, 131mXe, 133mXe and 135Xe for treaty monitoring and environmental sampling. This system has shown itself to be reliable and robust in several field exercises [1, 2]. However, from a maintenance and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) standpoint it suffers from a very detailed photo-multiplier-tube gain matching regime. In an effort to upgrade and simplify the current beta-gamma coincident detector, PNNL has developed a simplified but equally effective well-type detector. Initial comparison between three different well detectors has been performed. Along with the well gamma-ray detectors, a new plastic scintillation gas cell was constructed. The spectral resolution and efficiency obtained from this new design has been demonstrated to be as good as or better than the original ARSA design with greatly improved calibration and maintenance characteristics. The ARSA detector and the well-detector design and effectiveness for xenon detection will be discussed.

McIntyre, Justin I.; Carman, April J.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Hayes, James C.; Heimbigner, Tom R.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Hubbard, Charles W.; Litke, Kevin E.; Miley, Harry S.; Morris, Scott J.; Ripplinger, Michael D.; Suarez, Reynold



Elevation of white blood cells and platelet counts in patients having chronic periodontitis  

PubMed Central

Background and aim Many risk factors that might contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis have been proposed, including chronic inflammation and infection. Furthermore, systemic inflammatory responses to periodontal bacteria have been suggested as a pathogenetic link between periodontal disease and atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to estimate the white blood cell (WBC) and platelet counts in chronic periodontitis patients. Materials and methods Fifty patients with chronic periodontitis and 50 patients with healthy periodontium were included in this study. Oral hygiene status, pocket probing depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) were measured. During clinical evaluation, venous blood samples were taken to analyze the WBC and platelet counts. Statistical analysis was utilized to compare differences across groups. Results Periodontitis patients demonstrated a significantly higher WBC count (7.22 ± 1.42 × 109 cells/L) than that of control patients (5.64 ± 1.56 × 109 cells/L; P < 0.001). The platelet count of patients with chronic periodontitis (290.73 ± 56.56 × 109 cells/L) was also significantly higher compared to the healthy group (223.37 ± 50.27 × 109 cells/L; P < 0.001). Conclusion Levels of WBCs and platelets are elevated in periodontitis patients compared to healthy controls.

Al-Rasheed, Abdulaziz



CMVR diagnoses and progression of CD4 cell counts and HIV viral load measurements in HIV patients on HAART  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMTo assess the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the prevalence and progression of CMV retinitis (CMVR) among AIDS patients with baseline CD4 cell counts <100 cells × 106\\/l.METHODSA longitudinal cohort study of 1292 patients. CD4 cell counts and HIV viral load measurements were obtained before commencing therapy, at 3 months, 1 year, 2 years, and at last

Hadi J Zambarakji; Roger B Newson; Suzanne M Mitchell



Somatic cell count assessment at the quarter or cow milking level  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim was to investigate whether on-line somatic cell count (SCC) assessment, when combined with electrical conductivity (EC), should be implemented at the udder quarter or at the cow level. Data were collected from 3 farms with automatic milking systems, resulting in 3,191 quarter milkings used in the analyses. Visual observations of foremilk and quarter milk samples for laboratory SCC

H. Mollenhorst; P. P. J. van der Tol; H. Hogeveen



Subjective Poor Sleep and White Blood Cell Count in Male Japanese Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep deprivation has been shown to be associated with an increase in inflammatory makers such as interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relation between subjective poor sleep and white blood cell (WBC) count, an inflammatory marker. The subjects were 208 male Japanese workers in a synthetic fiber- manufacturing plant, who responded to




Modifications of some acute phase proteins and the white blood cell count in thoroughbreds during training  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of plasma fibrinogen and serum haptoglobin and the white blood cell count (WBC) were assessed in 17 thoroughbreds. All horses were trained for 80 days, six days a week, with one day of rest per week. Blood samples were collected from each animal by jugular venepuncture, at 06.00, every 20 days for a period of 80 days, and

F. Fazio; A. Assenza; F. Tosto; S. Casella; G. Piccione; G. Caola



[Changes in blood cell counts and coagulation factors during labor and after delivery (author's transl)].  


Hemostasis and blood cell counts were studied during pregnancy, during labor, and after delivery in 76 women. Results were compared with data from a control group of 24 women. Previously published data are reviewed and the variations of studied factors are discussed. No reliable biologic test is available at present for assessing the risk of puerperal thromboembolism. PMID:6275526

Georges, A J; Georges, M C; Servantie, B; Le Brozec, M; Limouzin-Lamothe, M A


Somatic cell count as a selection criterion for mastitis resistance in dairy cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether it is possible to increase the resistance to clinical mastitis by selecting for bulls siring daughters whose milk has a low somatic cell count. Data from the animal disease recording scheme, including all veterinary treatments for clinical mastitis, were used in the analysis. A total of 1462 progeny tested Swedish Red

J. Philipsson; G. Ral; B. Berglund



Somatic Cell Count in Milk of Goats Enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement Program in 2007  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effects of breed, parity, stage of lactation (month), herd size, and regions/states on somatic cell count (SCC) and production of milk from dairy goats enrolled in the Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) program in the United States in 2007 were investigated to monitor the current status of SCC and to ...


Importance of the Sampled Milk Fraction for the Prediction of Total Quarter Somatic Cell Count  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the changes in somatic cell counts (SCC) in different fractions of milk, with special emphasis on the foremilk and cisternal milk fractions. Therefore, in Experiment 1, quarter milk samples were defined as strict foremilk (F), cisternal milk (C), first 400 g of alveolar milk (A1), and the remaining alveolar milk (A2). Experiment 2 included 6 foremilk fractions

H. Sarikaya; R. M. Bruckmaier



Comparison of Two Methods for the Determination of the Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Blood Cell Counts in Mice  

PubMed Central

A reliable technique is needed to determine the effect of ionizing radiation on white blood cell (WBC) counts. Facilities that utilize automated methods can provide this service. However, utilizing external facilities can introduce additional variables, such as differences between time of sample collection and time of sample processing, which may affect the results. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether an automated method at an external facility can accurately determine radiation-induced changes in total WBC, lymphocyte and granulocyte counts when samples are analyzed at periods of time up to 24 hours after collection and stored either at room temperature or at 4°C. To accomplish this, we compared automated blood cell counts determined at an external facility with our manual blood cell counts processed immediately after sample collection or 24 h after sample collection and stored either at room temperature or 4°C from mice exposed to 2 Gy proton or 2 Gy gamma radiation. Our results show a close correlation and good agreement between the two methods, indicating that neither a delay of 24 hours in sample processing nor storage temperature affected white blood cell counts. Analysis of the effects of radiation on blood cell counts by either manual or automated cell counts revealed a statistically significant decrease in lymphocyte and granulocyte counts at different days post-irradiation, with no statistically significant difference between the methods employed; therefore both manual and automated blood cell counts are reliable methods to determine the effects of ionizing radiation in blood cells.

Romero-Weaver, Ana L.; Kennedy, Ann R.



Long-term increase in CD4+ T-cell counts during combination antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1 infection  

PubMed Central

Objective To inform guidelines concerning when to initiate combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), we investigated whether CD4+ T-cell counts (CD4 counts) continue to increase over long periods of time on ART. Losses-to-follow-up and some patients discontinuing ART at higher CD4 counts hamper such evaluation, but novel statistical methods can help address these issues. We estimated the long-term CD4 count trajectory accounting for losses-to-follow-up and treatment discontinuations. Design The study population included 898 U.S. patients first initiating ART in a randomized trial (ACTG 384); 575 were subsequently prospectively followed in an observational study (ALLRT). Methods Inverse probability of censoring weighting statistical methods were used to estimate the CD4 count trajectory accounting for losses-to-follow-up and ART-discontinuations, overall and for pre-treatment CD4 count categories ? 200, 201–350, 351–500, and >500 cells/mm3. Results Median CD4 count increased from 270 cells/mm3 pre-ART to an estimated 556 at three and 532 cells/mm3 at seven years after starting ART in analyses ignoring treatment discontinuations; and to 570 and 640 cells/mm3, respectively, had all patients continued ART. However, even had ART been continued, an estimated 25%, 9%, 3% and 2% of patients with pre-treatment CD4 counts of ? 200, 201–350, 351–500, and >500 cells/mm3 would have had CD4 counts ?350 cells/mm3 after seven years. Conclusions If patients remain on ART, CD4 counts increase in most patients for at least seven years. However, the substantial percentage of patients starting therapy at low CD4 counts who still had low CD4 counts after seven years provides support for ART initiation at higher CD4 counts.

Lok, Judith J; Bosch, Ronald J; Benson, Constance A; Collier, Ann C; Robbins, Gregory K; Shafer, Robert W; Hughes, Michael D



Total white blood cell count or neutrophil count predict ischemic stroke events among adult Taiwanese: report from a community-based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence about whether white blood cell (WBC) or its subtypes can act as a biomarker to predict the ischemic stroke events in the general population is scanty, particularly in Asian populations. The aim of this study is to establish the predictive ability of total WBC count or subtypes for long-term ischemic stroke events in the cohort population in Taiwan. Methods The Chin-Shan Community Cohort Study began from 1990 to 2007 by recruiting 1782 men and 1814 women of Chinese ethnicity. Following a total of 3416 participants free from ischemic stroke events at baseline for a median of 15.9?years; we documented 187 new incident cases. Results The multivariate relative risk for the comparison of the participants in the fifth and first WBC count quintiles was 1.67 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02–2.73; P for trend=0.03), and the corresponding relative risk for neutrophil count was 1.93 (95% CI, 1.13–3.29; P for trend=0.02). The discriminative ability by WBC and neutrophil counts were similar (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.600 for adding WBC, 0.610 for adding neutrophils, 0.595 for traditional risk factor model). In addition, the net reclassification improvement (NRI) values between the neutrophil and white blood cell count models were not significant (NRI, =-2.60%, P=0.35), indicating the similar discrimination performance for both WBC and neutrophil counts. Conclusions WBC and neutrophil count had a similar ability to predict the long-term ischemic stroke events among Taiwanese.



Changes in CD34+ cell count in peripheral blood after whole blood donation.  


AIM: We aimed to investigate the change in the number of stem cells and white cells in the early period following blood donation. PATIENTS AND METHOD: 22 male (71%) and 9 female (29%), 31 volunteers in total were included in the study. 450ml of whole blood were collected from each of the volunteers for the donation. Complete blood counts were performed on the volunteers before and at 6 and 24h after the donation and CD34+ cell counts per ml of peripheral blood were measured by flow cytometry technique. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant increase in the number of CD34+ cells in the peripheral blood at 6h following blood donation (p<0.001). At 24h, however, there was a statistically significant decrease in the number of CD34+ cells, compared to 6h (p<0.001). There was a statistically significant increase in the number of leukocytes in the peripheral blood at 6h following blood donation (p<0.001). At 24h, there was a decrease in the number of leukocytes, which was statistically significant compared to 6h (p<0.001). When the difference in CD34+ cell and leukocytes counts before blood donation and at 24h after blood donation were compared, the results were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: As the result of this study, a transient increase in the number of CD34+ cells in the peripheral blood after blood donation was demonstrated, with a decline in CD34+ cell counts back to levels prior to donation at 24h. PMID:23683897

Pala, Cigdem; Mumcuoglu, Haluk; Kurnaz, Fatih; Sivgin, Serdar; Kaynar, Leylagul; Keklik, Muzaffer; Akyol, Gulsah; Koker, Yavuz; Eser, Bulent



Correlations Between Somatic Cells Count and Milk Composition with Regard to the Season  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY On four farms with 1100 cows of Black-and-White breed the correlations between somatic cell count (SCC) in milk and milk composition in different seasons of the year were studied. Three-year data from AP milk recording were analysed (years 2000 to 2002), which meant 29,298 samples of milk. Milk fat, proteins and lactose were determined using Milco-Scan while somatic cells



Measurement of radionuclides using ion chromatography and flow-cell scintillation counting with pulse shape discrimination  

Microsoft Academic Search

A project has been initiated at Clemson Univ. to develop a HPLC\\/flow- cell system for analysis of non-gamma emitting radionuclides in environmental samples; an important component is development of a low background flow-cell detector that counts alpha and beta particles separately through pulse shape discrimination. Objective of the work presented here is to provide preliminary results of an evaluation of

T. A. DeVol; R. A. Fjeld



Impulsivity-related Traits Are Associated with Higher White Blood Cell Counts  

PubMed Central

A chronically elevated white blood cell (WBC) count is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality. The present research tests whether facets of impulsivity – impulsiveness, excitement-seeking, self-discipline, and deliberation – are associated with chronically elevated WBC counts. Community-dwelling participants (N=5,652) from Sardinia, Italy, completed a standard personality questionnaire and provided blood samples concurrently and again three years later. Higher scores on impulsivity, in particular impulsiveness and excitement-seeking, were related to higher total WBC counts and higher lymphocyte counts at both time points. Impulsiveness was a predictor of chronic inflammation: For every standard deviation difference in this trait, there was an almost 25% higher risk of elevated WBC counts at both time points (OR=1.23, 95% CI=1.10–1.38). These associations were mediated, in part, by smoking and body mass index. The findings demonstrate that links between psychological processes and immunity are not limited to acute stressors; stable personality dispositions are associated with a chronic inflammatory state.

Sutin, Angelina R.; Milaneschi, Yuri; Cannas, Alessandra; Ferrucci, Luigi; Uda, Manuela; Schlessinger, David; Zonderman, Alan B.; Terracciano, Antonio



Finite Element Analyses of Fluid Flow Conditions in Cell Culture  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies in tissue engineering and biomechanics use fluid flow stimulation, both unidirectional and oscillatory, to analyze the effects of shear stresses on cell behavior. However, it has typically been assumed that these shear stresses are uniform and that cell and substrate properties do not adversely affect these assumptions. With the increasing utilization of fluid flow in cell biology, it would be beneficial to determine the validity of various experimental protocols. Because it is difficult to determine the velocity profiles and shear stresses empirically, we used the finite element method (FEM). Using FEM, we determined the effects of cell confluence on fluid flow, the effects of cell height on the uniformity of shear stresses, apparent shear stresses exhibited by cells cultured on various substrates, and the effects of oscillatory fluid flow relative to the unidirectional flow. FEM analyses could successfully analyze flow patterns over cells for various cell confluence and shape and substrate characteristics. Our data suggest the benefits of the utilization of oscillatory fluid flow and the use of substrates that stimulate cell spreading in the distribution of more uniform shear stresses across the surface of cells. Also we demonstrated that the cells cultured on nanotopographies were exposed to greater apparent shear stresses than cells on flat controls when using the same fluid flow conditions. FEM thus provides an excellent tool for the development of experimental protocols and the design of bioreactor systems.

Salvi, Joshua D.; Lim, Jung Yul



Automated imaging, identification, and counting of similar cells from digital hologram reconstructions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents our method, which simultaneously combines automatic imaging, identification, and counting with the acquisition of morphological information for at least 1000 blood cells from several three-dimensional images of the same sample. We started with seeking parameters to differentiate between red blood cells that are similar but different with respect to their development stage, i.e., mature or immature. We highlight that these cells have different diffractive patterns with complementary central intensity distribution in a given plane along the propagation axis. We use the Fresnel approximation to simulate propagation through cells modeled as spheroid-shaped phase objects and to find the cell property that has the dominant influence on this behavior. Starting with images obtained in the reconstruction step of the digital holographic microscopy technique, we developed a code for automated simultaneous individual cell image separation, identification, and counting, even when the cells are partially overlapped on a slide, and accurate measuring of their morphological features. To find the centroids of each cell, we propose a method based on analytical functions applied at threshold intervals. Our procedure separates the mature from the immature red blood cells and from the white blood cells through a decision based on gradient and radius values.

Mihailescu, Mona; Scarlat, Mihaela; Gheorghiu, Alexandru; Costescu, Julia; Kusko, Mihai; Paun, Irina Alexandra; Scarlat, Eugen



Neonatal nucleated red blood cell counts in growth-restricted fetuses: Relationship to arterial and venous Doppler studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Elevated nucleated red blood cell count in neonatal blood and Doppler-detected circulatory decompensation in fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction are associated with hypoxemia. We sought to determine the relationship between the nucleated red blood cell count at birth and the circulatory status of fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction. Study Design: Eighty-four fetuses with elevated umbilical artery pulsatility index values

Ahmet A. Baschat; Ulrich Gembruch; Irwin Reiss; Ludwig Gortner; Chris R. Harman; Carl P. Weiner



Comparison of C-reactive protein and white blood cell count with differential in neonates at risk for septicaemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prospectively compared the diagnostic value of C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell counts for detection of neonatal septicaemia. Sensitivity and specifity in receiver operating characteristics, and positive and negative predictive value of CRP and white blood cell count were compared in 195 critically ill preterm and term newborns clinically suspected of infection. Blood cultures were positive in 33

Christoph Berger; Judith Uehlinger; Daniela Ghelfi; N. Blau; Sergio Fanconi



A comparative study of white blood cell counts and disease risk in carnivores.  

PubMed Central

In primates, baseline levels of white blood cell (WBC) counts are related to mating promiscuity. It was hypothesized that differences in the primate immune system reflect pathogen risks from sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Here, we test for the generality of this result by examining hypotheses involving behavioural, ecological and life-history factors in carnivores. Again, we find a significant correlation in carnivores between mating promiscuity and elevated levels of WBC counts. In addition, we find relationships with measures of sociality, substrate use and life-history parameters. These comparative results across independent taxonomic orders indicate that the evolution of the immune system, as represented by phylogenetic differences in basal levels of blood cell counts, is closely linked to disease risk involved with promiscuous mating and associated variables. We found only limited support for an association between the percentage of meat in the diet and WBC counts, which is consistent with the behavioural and physiological mechanisms that carnivores use to avoid parasite transmission from their prey. We discuss additional comparative questions related to taxonomic differences in disease risk, modes of parasite transmission and implications for conservation biology.

Nunn, Charles L; Gittleman, John L; Antonovics, Janis



Is frequent CD4+ T-lymphocyte count monitoring necessary for persons with counts >=300 cells/?L and HIV-1 suppression?  


Among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), those with HIV-1 RNA <200 copies/mL and CD4 counts ?300 cells/µL had a 97.1% probability of maintaining durable CD4 ?200 cells/µL for 4 years. When non-HIV causes of CD4 lymphopenia were excluded, the probability rose to 99.2%. Our data support less frequent CD4 monitoring during viral suppression. PMID:23315315

Gale, Howard B; Gitterman, Steven R; Hoffman, Heather J; Gordin, Fred M; Benator, Debra A; Labriola, Ann M; Kan, Virginia L



Handheld 2-channel impedimetric cell counting system with embedded real-time processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lab-on-a-chip systems have been attracting a growing attention for the perspective of miniaturization and portability of bio-chemical assays. Here we present a the design and characterization of a miniaturized, USB-powered, self-contained, 2-channel instrument for impedance sensing, suitable for label-free tracking and real-time detection of cells flowing in microfluidic channels. This original circuit features a signal generator based on a direct digital synthesizer, a transimpedance amplifier, an integrated square-wave lock-in coupled to a ?? ADC converter, and a digital processing platform. Real-time automatic peak detection on two channels is implemented in a FPGA. System functionality has been tested with an electronic resistance modulator to simulate 1% impedance variation produced by cells, reaching a time resolution of 50?s (enabling a count rate of 2000 events/s) with an applied voltage as low as 200mV. Biological experiments have been carried out counting yeast cells. Statistical analysis of events is in agreement with the expected amplitude and time distributions. 2-channel yeast counting has been performed with concomitant dielectrophoretic cell separation, showing that this novel and ultra compact sensing system, thanks to the selectivity of the lock-in detector, is compatible with other AC electrical fields applied to the device.

Rottigni, A.; Carminati, M.; Ferrari, G.; Vahey, M. D.; Voldman, J.; Sampietro, M.



Fluid mechanics of method of separating motile cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If the Reynolds number is small enough (Re<<1), then two fluids can flow in parallel in direct contact, exchanging momentum and species only by diffusion. If the interface is stable, then this system can be used as a filter. In this problem, the flow fields in both fluids are found. The system here has a diffusing species which is motile cells with a random behavior relative to the flowing fluid.

Krane, Matthew J.; Martinez, Carlos



Scale-invariant matter distribution in the universe. I - Counts in cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The galaxy count or matter content within a randomly placed cell is determined under the assumption of scale-invariance of the many-body correlation function. The probability of finding N objects at a given volume is found to decrease exponentially with N at small scales and to behave as a power law with an upper, and possibly a lower, exponential cut-off at larger scales. It is demonstrated that the large-scale void probability is a scale-free extrapolation of its small-scale behavior, and that as long as the correlation functions are power laws, this void distribution is not compatible with the linear theory. It is noted that counts in cells are approximately Gaussian at large scales, provided that the density fluctuations are less than 10 percent of the mean.

Balian, R.; Schaeffer, R.



Variation in blood leucocytes, somatic cell count, yield and composition of milk of crossbred goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten multiparous crossbred goats, five each of alpine×beetal (AB) and saanen×beetal (SB) were selected from the National Dairy Research Institute goat herd immediately after parturition. These were managed as per the practices followed in the institute’s goatherd. Blood and milk samples were collected at biweekly intervals from day 14 post-kidding for 22 weeks (154 days). Somatic cell count, electrical conductivity,

Mainak Das; Mahendra Singh



Near-infrared spectroscopy for biomonitoring: influence of somatic cell count on cow's milk composition analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of milk with high somatic cell count on the accuracy of near-infrared spectroscopic determination of fat, protein and lactose content of non-homogenized milk was investigated. Transmittance spectra of 258 milk samples were obtained by the NIRSystem 6500 spectrophotometer in the 700–1100nm region. The best accuracy for fat, protein and lactose content determination was found for calibration equations, derived

R Tsenkova; S Atanassova; Y Ozaki; K Toyoda; K Itoh



Assessment of Aerosol Stability of Yellow Fever Virus by Fluorescent-Cell Counting  

PubMed Central

The effects of three temperatures [30, 50, and 80 F (-1.11, 10, and 26.67 C)] and three relative humidities (30, 50, and 80%) on biological and physical decay rates of aerosols of yellow fever virus were investigated. Neither temperature nor relative humidity, independently or jointly, significantly affected biological or physical decay rates. The advantages of assaying yellow fever virus by the fluorescent-cell counting technique are discussed.

Mayhew, Charles J.; Zimmerman, W. Douglas; Hahon, Nicholas



Accelerating a Particle-in-Cell Simulation Using a Hybrid Counting Sort  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, performance limitations of the particle advance in a particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation are discussed. It is shown that the memory subsystem and cache-thrashing severely limit the speed of such simulations. Methods to implement a PIC simulation under such conditions are explored. An algorithm based on a counting sort is developed which effectively eliminates PIC simulation cache thrashing. Sustained

K. J. Bowers



Automated recognition and counting of the immunoreactive neuroendocrine cells in chronic gastritis (the preliminary study).  


The paper presents the designed software CAMI (Computerized Analysis of Microscopic Images) for a digital reconstruction of the diversiform glands seen in chronic inflammatory gastric mucosa, and for automated recognition and quantization of the immunoreactive neuroendocrine (NE) cells appearing within mucosal glands. Digital reconstruction of the individual gastric gland is difficult due to variable shapes of the glandular cross-sections. Fifteen gastric biopsy specimens representing chronic gastritis were stained routinely with H+E and immunohistochemically with 3 NE markers: Chromogranin A, Somatostatin and Serotonin. Two expert pathologists counted manually the NE cells with the light microscope in 4 types of glandular cross-sections: round, short- oblique, long- oblique and longitudinal. The automated counting of the NE cells was performed on the digital images presenting the same microscopic areas which were selected for the manual reading. The first step of image analysis was concerned to the cell extraction and recognition of the cytoplasmic immunoreactivity. The unstained nuclei of the NE cells were spotted by the sequential thresholding algorithm combined with the artificial neural network of Support\\Vector Machine (SVM) type. The second step of image analysis comprised reconstruction of the glands. The presumed shape of each gastric gland was defined by the cellular lining of viewed glandular cross-section. The designed algorithm for gland reconstruction was based on the cell masks. The third step of analysis dealt the cell counting. Every recognized gland with the face cells was used for the NE cell evaluation. The results of the automated quantization compared with manual counting results for the number of NE cells showed high concordance in 3 types of glandular cross-sections: round, short- and long- oblique. A difference noticed in the results of the longitudinal glands should be verified in the extended study. The designed software CAMI is more adequate for the gland recognition with an discontinuous gland face seen in the immunohistochemical digital images, which appear to be a difficult problem for the accurate automated analysis of the cellular component of glands. PMID:20430739

Markiewicz, Tomasz; Jochymski, Cezary; Slodkowska, Janina; Kozlowski, Wojciech



Blood cell counting and classification by nonflowing laser light scattering method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new non-flowing laser light scattering method for counting and classifying blood cells is presented. A linear charge- coupled device with 1024 elements is used to detect the scattered light intensity distribution of the blood cells. A pinhole plate is combined with the CCD to compete the focusing of the measurement system. An isotropic sphere is used to simulate the blood cell. Mie theory is used to describe the scattering of blood cells. In order to inverse the size distribution of blood cells from their scattered light intensity distribution, Powell method combined with precision punishment method is used as a dependent model method for measurement red blood cells and blood plates. Non-negative constraint least square method combined with Powell method and precision punishment method is used as an independent model for measuring white blood cells. The size distributions of white blood cells and red blood cells, and the mean diameter of red blood cells are measured by this method. White blood cells can be divided into three classes: lymphocytes, middle-sized cells and neutrocytes according to their sizes. And the number of blood cells in unit volume can also be measured by the linear dependence of blood cells concentration on scattered light intensity.

Yang, Ye; Zhang, Zhenxi; Yang, Xinhui; Jiang, Dazong; Yeo, Joon Hock



Viscosity of Fluids in the Diamond-Anvil Cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement and modeling of the viscosity of fluids under high pressures is necessary to an understanding of fluid processes within the Earth and other planets. Areas of interest include terrestrial vulcanism, the flow of supercritical fluids which may induce metasomatism over large regions of Earth's upper mantle, and the dynamics of the fluid envelopes of the larger planets. We report here the application of rolling ball viscometry to supercritical fluids within the diamond-anvil cell. Recent results and the accuracies and potentials of the technique are discussed. For many fluids, viscosity as a function of pressure seems to follow Doolittle's empirical equation, roughly justified on the basis of free-volume theory. However, based on a survey of published data it has also been hypothesized that above twice the critical density the viscosities of simple, supercritical fluids are linear functions of pressure to a very high accuracy. These two functional forms are mutually exclusive and may diverge by an order of magnitude over the pressure-temperature regime of mantle fluids. Here we show that over the extended range of densities and pressures available to the diamond-anvil cell supercritical fluids are, in fact, better fit by the Doolittle equation. We show also that the law of corresponding states may still be of reasonable accuracy even at large compressions where the differences among intermolecular potentials might be supposed to preclude such scaling.

Abramson, E. H.; Brown, J. M.



Time-Correlated, Single-Photon Counting Methods in Endothelial Cell Mechanobiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a While mechanical forces are known to guide the development of nearly all biological tissues including bone, cartilage, and\\u000a many soft tissues, much attention has focused on endothelial cell mechanobiology and the role of blood flow-induced forces\\u000a in regulating the health of blood vessels. It is now well accepted that modulation of endothelial cell physiology and pathophysiology\\u000a by fluid mechanical forces

Peter J. Butler; Ramachandra R. Gullapalli; Tristan Tabouillot; Michael C. Ferko


A Comparison of Pyronin Y-Methyl Green Stain and Methylene Blue Stain for Somatic Cell Count in Sheep Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic cell count is a key method used to evaluate the quality of milk in today’s growing dairy sheep industry. Somatic cells are body cells, primarily the white blood cells, found in a milk sample. If an infection such as mastitis is present, the number of somatic cells in the milk increases (Gonzalo, et al. 1992). Producers routinely perform somatic

Emily Mirek; Stacey O’Donnell



Correlation of Circulating MMP-9 with White Blood Cell Count in Humans: Effect of Smoking  

PubMed Central

Background Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is an emerging biomarker for several disease conditions, where white blood cell (WBC) count is also elevated. In this study, we examined the relationship between MMP-9 and WBC levels in apparently healthy smoking and non-smoking human subjects. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the relationship of serum MMP-9 with WBC in 383 men and 356 women. Next, we divided the male population (women do not smoke in this population) into three groups: never (n?=?243), current (n?=?76) and former (n?=?64) smokers and compared the group differences in MMP-9 and WBC levels and their correlations within each group. Results Circulating MMP-9 and WBC count are significantly correlated in men (R2?=?0.13, p<0.001) and women (R2?=?0.19, p<0.001). After stratification by smoking status, MMP-9 level was significantly higher in current smokers (mean ± SE; 663.3±43.4 ng/ml), compared to never (529.7±20.6) and former smokers (568±39.3). WBC count was changed in a similar pattern. Meanwhile, the relationship became stronger in current smokers with increased correlation coefficient of r?=?0.45 or R2?=?0.21 (p<0.001) and steeper slope of ß?=?1.16±0.30 (p<0.001) in current smokers, compared to r?=?0.26 or R2?=?0.07 (p<0.001) and ß?=?0.34±0.10 (p<0.001) in never smokers. Conclusions WBC count accounts for 13% and 19% of MMP-9 variance in men and women, respectively. In non-smoking men, WBC count accounts for 7% of MMP-9 variance, but in smoking subjects, it accounts for up to 21% of MMP-9 variance. Thus, we have discovered a previously unrecognized correlation between the circulating MMP-9 and WBC levels in humans.

Ryan, Kathleen A.; Yu, Daozhan; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Gong, Da-Wei



White blood cell count and mortality in patients with acute pulmonary embolism.  


Although associated with adverse outcomes in other cardiovascular diseases, the prognostic value of an elevated white blood cell (WBC) count, a marker of inflammation and hypercoagulability, is uncertain in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE). We therefore sought to assess the prognostic impact of the WBC in a large, state-wide retrospective cohort of patients with PE. We evaluated 14,228 patient discharges with a primary diagnosis of PE from 186 hospitals in Pennsylvania. We used random-intercept logistic regression to assess the independent association between WBC count levels at the time of presentation and mortality and hospital readmission within 30 days, adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics. Patients with an admission WBC count <5.0, 5.0-7.8, 7.9-9.8, 9.9-12.6, and >12.6 × 10(9) /L had a cumulative 30-day mortality of 10.9%, 6.2%, 5.4%, 8.3%, and 16.3% (P < 0.001), and a readmission rate of 17.6%, 11.9%, 10.9%, 11.5%, and 15.0%, respectively (P < 0.001). Compared with patients with a WBC count 7.9-9.8 × 10(9) /L, adjusted odds of 30-day mortality were significantly greater for patients with a WBC count <5.0 × 10(9) /L (odds ratio [OR] 1.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-2.03), 9.9-12.6 × 10(9) /L (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.26-1.91), or >12.6 × 10(9) /L (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.83-2.69), respectively. The adjusted odds of readmission were also significantly increased for patients with a WBC count <5.0 × 10(9) /L (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.07-1.68) or >12.6 × 10(9) /L (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.10-1.51). In patients presenting with PE, WBC count is an independent predictor of short-term mortality and hospital readmission. PMID:23674436

Venetz, Carmen; Labarère, José; Jiménez, David; Aujesky, Drahomir



Effects of low-dose ?-irradiation on the counts of immunocompetent cells in a model experiment on primates.  


Cellular immunity was studied by flow cytometry with Becton Dickinson monoclonal antibodies in clinically healthy Macaca mulatta males before and after low-dose exposure to ionizing radiation. It was shown that T and B cells are radiosensitive, B cells being more sensitive, which is seen from a significant drop of their count. Natural killers are radioresistant. The count of immunocompetent cells recovers sooner after single compared to fractionated irradiation in the same summary dose. PMID:21161058

Ignatova, I E; Agrba, V Z; Lapin, B A



Epidemiology of White Blood Cell Counts at the Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, California 1982-1983.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, conducted an NWC-wide surveillance program to determine the prevalence in the NWC work force of low white blood cell (WBC) counts during 1982-83. A complete WBC count was performed on 3,012 NWC employees. If a person ...

F. C. Garland M. R. White G. M. Seal G. A. Luiken



Clinical Value of the Total White Blood Cell Count and Temperature in the Evaluation of Patients with Suspected Appendicitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The total white blood cell (WBC) count and temperature are often expected to be elevated in patients with appendicitis. Clinicians often use the results of these parameters in making a judgment about the presence or absence of disease. The objective of this study was to assess the discriminatory value of the total WBC count and presenting body temperature in

Taylor Cardall; Judd Glasser; David A. Guss



Effect of revascularization on mortality associated with an elevated white blood cell count in acute coronary syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inflammation is increasingly recognized as having an important role in patients with acute coronary syndromes. We sought to determine whether an elevated white blood cell (WBC) count would predict subsequent mortality and whether revascularization would have a protective effect. We analyzed data from 10,480 patients with acute coronary syndromes enrolled in the PURSUIT trial who had a WBC count measured

Deepak L Bhatt; Derek P Chew; A. Michael Lincoff; Maarten L Simoons; Robert A Harrington; Steve R Ommen; Gang Jia; Eric J Topol



Ultrastructure of human preovulatory granulosa cells in follicular fluid aspirates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultrastructure of preovulatory granulosa cells may be distinct in follicles containing competent as opposed to non-competent oocytes. To test this assumption, granulosa cells were looked for in 36 follicular fluid aspirates from 8 patients taking part in an in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer program. Granulosa cells were absent from 16 aspirates and present in 20. Both aspirate types

Katharina Spanel-Borowski I; Karl Sterzik



HIV-specific regulatory T cells are associated with higher CD4 cell counts in primary infection  

PubMed Central

Objective Expansion of Regulatory T (Treg) cells has been described in chronically HIV-infected subjects. We investigated whether HIV-suppressive Treg could be detected during primary HIV infection (PHI). Methods Seventeen patients diagnosed early after PHI (median: 13 days; 1–55) were studied. Median CD4 cell count was 480 cells/?l (33–1306) and plasma HIV RNA levels ranged between 3.3 to 5.7 log10 cp/mL. Suppressive capacity of blood purified CD4+CD25+ was evaluated in a co-culture assay. Fox-p3, IL-2 and IL-10 were quantified by RT-PCR and intra-cellular staining of ex vivo and activated CD4+CD25high T cells. Results The frequency of CD4+CD127lowCD25high T cells among CD4 T cells was lower in PHI compared to chronic patients (n=19). They exhibited a phenotype of memory T cells and expressed constitutively FoxP3. Similarly to chronic patients, Treg from PHI patients inhibited the proliferation of PPD and HIV p24 activated CD4+CD25? T cells. CD4+CD25high T cells from PHI patients responded specifically to p24 stimulation by expressing IL-10. In untreated PHI patients, the frequency, as well as HIV-specific activity of Treg decreased during a 24-month follow up. A positive correlation between percentages of Treg and both CD4 cell counts and the magnitude of p24-specific suppressive activity at diagnosis of PHI was found. Conclusions Our data showed that HIV drives Treg since PHI and that these cells persist throughout the course of the infection. A correlation between the frequency of Treg and CD4 T cell counts suggest that these cells may impact on the immune activation set point at PHI diagnosis.

Kared, Hassen; Lelievre, Jean-Daniel; Donkova-Petrini, Vladimira; Aouba, Albertine; Melica, Giovanna; Balbo, Michele; Weiss, Laurence; Levy, Yves



Evaluating Total Lymphocyte Count as a Surrogate Marker for CD4 Cell Count in the Management of HIV-Infected Patients in Resource-Limited Settings: A Study from China  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the correlation of total lymphocyte count (TLC) and CD4 cell count and the suitability of TLC as a surrogate marker for CD4 cell count of HIV-infected patients in China. Methods Usefulness of TLC as a surrogate marker for a CD4 cell count <350 cells/mm3 for HIV-positive patients in China was evaluated by 977 pairs of TLC and CD4 cell count from 977 outpatients. The result was then validated by a literature review which was conducted on 9 relevant articles. Further investigation using the 977 pairs of TLC and CD4 cell count data was done to determine a TLC threshold for predicting a CD4 cell count <500 cells/mm3. Correlation and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were performed for both CD4 cell counts, and the sensitivity and specificity were computed. Results Good correlation was noted between TLC and CD4 count (r?=?0.60, 95% CI, 0.56–0.64). TLC obtained a relatively high diagnostic performance (area under ROC curve, 0.80) for predicting a CD4 cell count <350 cells/mm3, with a sensitivity of 0.65 (95% CI, 0.61–0.68) and a specificity of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.75–0.85) at the TLC threshold of 1570 cells/mm3. The literature review suggested that for a CD4 cell count <350 cells/mm3, the optimal TLC threshold was 1500 cells/mm3, which was similar to the figure presented in this observational study. As for predicting a CD4 cell count <500 cells/mm3, TLC obtained a high diagnostic performance (area under ROC curve, 0.82) as well with a sensitivity of 0.70 (95% CI, 0.67–0.73) and a specificity of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.73–0.87). Conclusions When considering the antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected Chinese individuals, total lymphocyte count can be considered as an inexpensive and easily available surrogate marker for predicting two clinically important thresholds of CD4 count of 350 cells/mm3 and 500 cells/mm3.

Zou, Ran; Yang, Qiuying; Zhang, Hongwei; Zhang, Tong; Chen, Hui; Wu, Hao



Crazy Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Let's count shapes and animals! Let's go to the farm to do some Apple Counting. Then let's have some Counting Fun with shapes and animals. Afterward let's grab a fishing pole and do some Fishy Counting! ...

Terch, Ms.



Carbohydrate Counting  


... Food and Fitness > Food > Planning Meals > Carb Counting Carbohydrate Counting Listen Carbohydrate counting, or " carb counting ," is ... the portion size to match. What Foods Have Carbohydrate? Foods that contain carbohydrate are: starchy foods like ...


Neonatal nucleated red blood cell counts in small-for-gestational age fetuses with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The presence of elevated nucleated red blood cell counts in neonatal blood has been associated with fetal hypoxia. We sought to determine whether small-for-gestational-age fetuses with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler velocity waveforms have elevated nucleated red blood cell counts. Study Design: Hospital charts of neonates with the discharge diagnosis of small for gestational age (birth weight <10th percentile) who

Peter S. Bernstein; Victoria K. Minior; Michael Y. Divon



Circulating tumor cells count and characterization in a male breast cancer patient.  


A 64-y-old man presented to Medical Oncology Department a metastatic invasive ductal breast carcinoma, positive for estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR) and Her2/neu negative. The patient was treated with different lines of therapy, with rapid radiological progression of disease. After four courses of a third-line chemotherapy, a radiological stable disease was maintained. The patient was followed by serial blood drawings for the characterization and count of circulating tumor cells (CTC). This is the first report concerning the predictive and prognostic value of CTC in a male breast cancer patient. PMID:21725206

Gazzaniga, Paola; Naso, Giuseppe; Raimondi, Cristina; Gradilone, Angela; Palazzo, Antonella; Gandini, Orietta; Petracca, Arianna; Nicolazzo, Chiara; Cortesi, Enrico; Frati, Luigi



Accelerating a Particle-in-Cell Simulation Using a Hybrid Counting Sort  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, performance limitations of the particle advance in a particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation are discussed. It is shown that the memory subsystem and cache-thrashing severely limit the speed of such simulations. Methods to implement a PIC simulation under such conditions are explored. An algorithm based on a counting sort is developed which effectively eliminates PIC simulation cache thrashing. Sustained performance gains of 40 to 70 percent are measured on commodity workstations for a minimal 2d2v electrostatic PIC simulation. More complete simulations are expected to have even better results as larger simulations are usually even more memory subsystem limited.

Bowers, K. J.



Effect of Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells and Amniotic Fluid Cells on the Wound Healing Process in a White Rat Model  

PubMed Central

Background Amniotic-fluid-derived stem cells and amniocytes have recently been determined to have wound healing effects, but their mechanism is not yet clearly understood. In this study, the effects of amniotic fluid stem cells and amniocytes on wound healing were investigated through animal experiments. Methods On the back of Sprague-Dawley rats, four circular full-thickness skin wounds 2 cm in diameter were created. The wounds were classified into the following four types: a control group using Tegaderm disc wound dressings and experimental groups using collagen discs, amniotic fluid stem cell discs, and amniocyte discs. The wounds were assessed through macroscopic histological examination and immunohistochemistry over a period of time. Results The amniotic fluid stem cell and amniocyte groups showed higher wound healing rates compared with the control group; histologically, the inflammatory cell invasion disappeared more quickly in these groups, and there was more significant angiogenesis. In particular, these groups had significant promotion of epithelial cell reproduction, collagen fiber formation, and angiogenesis during the initial 10 days of the wound healing process. The potency of transforming growth factor-? and fibronectin in the experimental group was much greater than that in the control group in the early stage of the wound healing process. In later stages, however, no significant difference was observed. Conclusions The amniotic fluid stem cells and amniocytes were confirmed to have accelerated the inflammatory stage to contribute to an enhanced cure rate and shortened wound healing period. Therefore, they hold promise as wound treatment agents.

Choi, Dong Sik; Cho, Young Kyoo; Kim, Taek Kyun; Lee, Jeong Woo; Choi, Kang Young; Chung, Ho Yun; Cho, Byung Chae; Byun, Jin Suk



Admixture Mapping of White Cell Count: Genetic Locus Responsible for Lower White Blood Cell Count in the Health ABC and Jackson Heart Studies  

PubMed Central

White blood cell count (WBC) is an important clinical marker that varies among different ethnic groups. African Americans are known to have a lower WBC than European Americans. We surveyed the entire genome for loci underlying this difference in WBC by using admixture mapping. We analyzed data from African American participants in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study and the Jackson Heart Study. Participants of both studies were genotyped across ? 1322 single nucleotide polymorphisms that were pre-selected to be informative for African versus European ancestry and span the entire genome. We used these markers to estimate genetic ancestry in each chromosomal region and then tested the association between WBC and genetic ancestry at each locus. We found a locus on chromosome 1q strongly associated with WBC (p < 10?12). The strongest association was with a marker known to affect the expression of the Duffy blood group antigen. Participants who had both copies of the common West African allele had a mean WBC of 4.9 (SD 1.3); participants who had both common European alleles had a mean WBC of 7.1 (SD 1.3). This variant explained ?20% of population variation in WBC. We used admixture mapping, a novel method for conducting genetic-association studies, to find a region that was significantly associated with WBC on chromosome 1q. Additional studies are needed to determine the biological mechanism for this effect and its clinical implications.

Nalls, Michael A.; Wilson, James G.; Patterson, Nick J.; Tandon, Arti; Zmuda, Joseph M.; Huntsman, Scott; Garcia, Melissa; Hu, Donglei; Li, Rongling; Beamer, Brock A.; Patel, Kushang V.; Akylbekova, Ermeg L.; Files, Joe C.; Hardy, Cheryl L.; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Taylor, Herman A.; Reich, David; Harris, Tamara B.; Ziv, Elad



Short communication: contribution of vibration and noise during milking to the somatic cell count of milk.  


We investigated the hypothesis that somatic cell counts (SCC) in milk are influenced by the vibration and noise experienced by dairy cows during milking. We therefore measured vibration and noise on 50 Swiss dairy farms (with herringbone, autotandem, side-by-side, or carousel parlors), where we also collected bulk tank SCC. Somatic cell counts increased with an increasing intensity of vibration but not with acoustic noise. Cows milked in autotandem and side-by-side parlors had lower SCC than those in the other 2 types of milking parlors. On 12 farms where the milking system was modified to reduce vibration and noise, SCC also dropped. In addition, the relative improvement in SCC seemed to be correlated with the relative improvement in the reduction of vibration but not with the improvement in acoustic noise. A reduction in vibration (structure-borne sonic waves) seemed to improve udder health, which may have been mediated by the increased well-being and reduced stress of cows during milking. PMID:16772567

Gygax, L; Nosal, D



Blood cell counts and their correlation with creatine kinase and C-reactive protein in patients with acute myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

This study reports differential blood cells counts and their correlations with creatine kinase (CK) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients and normal subjects. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from all 39 AMI patients and 35 controls for blood cell counts and CK and CRP analyses. Total WBC, WBC fractions, RBC and platelets were measured with an automated hematology analyzer. The results showed a significant increase in total WBC (8.688 × 109/L versus 6.148 × 109/L), monocytes (1.271 versus 0.497 × 109/L), and neutrophils (8.367 versus 3.223 × 109/L) counts in AMI patients than controls. The RBC count was significantly less in AMI patients (4.638 × 1012/L) as compared to controls (5.105 × 1012/L). However, there was no significant difference in lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils and platelet counts between AMI patients and controls. Both, serum CK (215.38 ± 43.15 versus 100.82 ± 8.86 U/L) and CRP (29.49 ± 7.61 versus 3.48 ± 0.60 mg/L) were significantly higher in AMI patients as compared to controls. Age of the subjects was neither correlated with blood cell counts nor CK indicating the validity of these markers irrespective of patient age. A significant correlation was observed between WBC counts and CK (R = 0.242, P = 0.041) as well as CRP (R = 0.416, P = 0.000). In conclusion, this study clearly showed significant increase in total and differential leukocyte counts indicating a pro-inflammatory cascade in AMI patients. A significant correlation between WBC counts and CK or CRP levels suggest a possible biomarker value of WBC for a quick prediction of both myocardial necrosis and inflammation in AMI patients.

Khan, Haseeb A; Alhomida, Abdullah S; Sobki, Samia H; Moghairi, Abdulrahman Al; Koronki, Hatim EL



CD4 cell count recovery among HIV-infected patients with very advanced immunodeficiency commencing antiretroviral treatment in sub-Saharan Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Patients accessing antiretroviral treatment (ART) programmes in sub-Saharan Africa frequently have very advanced immunodeficiency. Previous data suggest that such patients may have diminished capacity for CD4 cell count recovery. Methods Rates of CD4 cell increase were determined over 48 weeks among ART-naïve individuals (n = 596) commencing ART in a South African community-based ART programme. Results The CD4 cell count increased from a median of 97 cells/?l at baseline to 261 cells/?l at 48 weeks and the proportion of patients with a CD4 cell count <100 cells/?l decreased from 51% at baseline to just 4% at 48 weeks. A rapid first phase of recovery (0–16 weeks, median rate = 25.5 cells/?l/month) was followed by a slower second phase (16–48 weeks, median rate = 7.7 cells/?l/month). Compared to patients with higher baseline counts, multivariate analysis showed that those with baseline CD4 counts <50 cells/?l had similar rates of phase 1 CD4 cell recovery (P = 0.42), greater rates of phase 2 recovery (P = 0.007) and a lower risk of immunological non-response (P = 0.016). Among those that achieved a CD4 cell count >500 cells/?l at 48 weeks, 19% had baseline CD4 cell counts <50 cells/?l. However, the proportion of these patients that attained a CD4 count 200 cells/?l at 48 weeks was lower than those with higher baseline CD4 cell counts. Conclusion Patients in this cohort with baseline CD4 cell counts <50 cells/?l have equivalent or greater capacity for immunological recovery during 48 weeks of ART compared to those with higher baseline CD4 cell counts. However, their CD4 counts remain <200 cells/?l for a longer period, potentially increasing their risk of morbidity and mortality in the first year of ART.

Lawn, Stephen D; Myer, Landon; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Wood, Robin



A label-free DC impedance-based microcytometer for circulating rare cancer cell counting.  


Quantification of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in blood samples is believed to provide valuable evidence of cancer progression, cancer activity status, response to therapy in patients with metastatic cancer, and possible cancer diagnosis. Recently, a number of researchers reported that CTCs tend to lose their epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) by an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). As such, label-free CTC detection methods are attracting worldwide attention. Here, we describe a label-free DC impedance-based microcytometer for CTCs by exploiting the difference in size between CTCs and blood cells. This system detects changes in DC impedance between two polyelectrolytic gel electrodes (PGEs) under low DC voltages. Using spiked ovarian cancer cell lines (OVCAR-3) in blood as a model system, we were able to count the cells using a microcytometer with 88% efficiency with a flow rate of 13 ?l min(-1) without a dilution process. Furthermore, we examined blood samples from breast cancer patients using the cytometer, and detected CTCs in 24 out of 24 patient samples. Thus, the proposed DC impedance-based microcytometer presents a facile and fast way of CTC evaluation regardless of their biomarkers. PMID:23340965

Choi, Hyoungseon; Kim, Kwang Bok; Jeon, Chang Su; Hwang, Inseong; Lee, Saram; Kim, Hark Kyun; Kim, Hee Chan; Chung, Taek Dong



Analysis of the Optimal Blood Sampling Conditions for Estimation of Hematopoietic Progenitor Cell Count by the SE9000 Automated Hematolyzer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the optimal conditions for blood sampling for hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) as estimated by the immature information program of the SE-9000 automated hematology analyzer. The HPC count was most stable when the blood samples were incubated at room temperature with ethylene-diaminetetraacetic acid dipotassium (EDTA-2K) as an anticoagulant. The HPC count should, however, be measured within 4 h after

Tsutomu Nomura; Yoshitsugu Kubota; Natsumi Baba; Katsuyasu Saigo; Hiroaki Ohnishi; Akira Kitanaka; Tomohiko Taminato



Validation of analytical methods in GMP: the disposable Fast Read 102(R) device, an alternative practical approach for cell counting  

PubMed Central

Background The quality and safety of advanced therapy products must be maintained throughout their production and quality control cycle to ensure their final use in patients. We validated the cell count method according to the International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use and European Pharmacopoeia, considering the tests’ accuracy, precision, repeatability, linearity and range. Methods As the cell count is a potency test, we checked accuracy, precision, and linearity, according to ICH Q2. Briefly our experimental approach was first to evaluate the accuracy of Fast Read 102® compared to the Bürker chamber. Once the accuracy of the alternative method was demonstrated, we checked the precision and linearity test only using Fast Read 102®. The data were statistically analyzed by average, standard deviation and coefficient of variation percentages inter and intra operator. Results All the tests performed met the established acceptance criteria of a coefficient of variation of less than ten percent. For the cell count, the precision reached by each operator had a coefficient of variation of less than ten percent (total cells) and under five percent (viable cells). The best range of dilution, to obtain a slope line value very similar to 1, was between 1:8 and 1:128. Conclusions Our data demonstrated that the Fast Read 102® count method is accurate, precise and ensures the linearity of the results obtained in a range of cell dilution. Under our standard method procedures, this assay may thus be considered a good quality control method for the cell count as a batch release quality control test. Moreover, the Fast Read 102® chamber is a plastic, disposable device that allows a number of samples to be counted in the same chamber. Last but not least, it overcomes the problem of chamber washing after use and so allows a cell count in a clean environment such as that in a Cell Factory. In a good manufacturing practice setting the disposable cell counting devices will allow a single use of the count chamber they can then be thrown away, thus avoiding the waste disposal of vital dye (e.g. Trypan Blue) or lysing solution (e.g. Tuerk solution).



Direct and indirect measurement of somatic cell count as indicator of intramammary infection in dairy goats  

PubMed Central

Background Mastitis is the most important and costly disease in dairy goat production. Subclinical mastitis is common in goats and is mainly caused by contagious bacteria. Several methods to diagnose subclinical mastitis are available. In this study indirect measurement of somatic cell count (SCC) by California Mastitis Test (CMT) and direct measurement of SCC using a portable deLaval cell counter (DCC) are evaluated. Swedish goat farmers would primarily benefit from diagnostic methods that can be used at the farm. The purpose of the study was to evaluate SCC measured by CMT and DCC as possible markers for intramammary infection (IMI) in goats without clinical symptoms of mastitis. Moreover to see how well indirect measurement of SCC (CMT) corresponded to direct measurement of SCC (DCC). Method Udder half milk samples were collected once from dairy goats (n = 111), in five different farms in Northern and Central Sweden. Only clinically healthy animals were included in the study. All goats were in mid to late lactation at sampling. Milk samples were analyzed for SCC by CMT and DCC at the farm, and for bacterial growth at the laboratory. Results Intramammary infection, defined as growth of udder pathogens, was found in 39 (18%) of the milk samples. No growth was found in 180 (81%) samples while 3 (1%) samples were contaminated. The most frequently isolated bacterial species was coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) (72% of all isolates), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (23% of all isolates). Somatic cell count measured by DCC was strongly (p = 0.000) associated with bacterial growth. There was also a very strong association between CMT and bacterial growth. CMT 1 was associated with freedom of IMI while CMT ?2 was associated with IMI. Indirect measurement of SCC by CMT was well correlated with SCC measured by DCC. Conclusions According to the results, SCC measured with CMT or DCC can predict udder infection in goats, and CMT can be used as a predictor of the SCC.



Combining white blood cell count and thrombosis for predicting in-hospital outcomes after acute myocardial infraction  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Admission white blood cell (WBC) count and thrombosis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) risk score have been associated with adverse outcomes after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This study investigated the joint effect of WBC count and TIMI risk score on predicting in-hospital outcomes in patients with AMI. Materials and Methods: WBC count and TIMI risk score were measured at the time of hospital admission in 70 patients with AMI. Echocardiogram was done on prior to discharge by a cardiologist and ejection fraction (EF) was determined according to the Simpson formula. Patients were stratified into tertiles (low and high) based on WBC count and TIMI risk score. Results: Patients with a high WBC count had a 5.0-fold increase in-hospital congestive heart failure and 2.2 increases in mortality compared with those with a low WBC count. Patients with a high TIMI risk score had a 10-fold increase in congestive heart failure presentation and mortality compared with those with a low TIMI risk score. When a combination of different strata for each variable was analyzed, a stepwise increase in mortality was seen. There were a few number of patients with a high WBC count and low TIMI risk score or with a low WBC count and high TIMI risk score. These patients had an intermediate risk, whereas those with a high WBC count and TIMI risk score had the highest risk. Conclusion: These findings suggested that a simple combination of WBC count and TIMI risk score might provide further information for predicting outcomes in patients with AMI.

Rohani, Atooshe; Akbari, Vahid; Moradian, Karim; Malekzade, Janmohammad



Design of an Automated-Counting System of Cell Micronuclei in Micrographs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed and tested a system for the automatic analysis of cell images in order to identify and count micronuclei configurations in digital images from a microscope. The presence of micronuclei has been used as an indicator of DNA damage, and a fast automated analysis may be suitable for early cancer detection, for example. We describe in this work the image-processing protocol and system comprising: acquisition, color normalization, contrast enhancement, color-background removing, color segmentation, mathematical-morphology filtering and restoration, morphometry, feature extraction and analysis, and counting. Among the morphological features used for discriminating micronuclei configurations, we tested compactness, area ratios and separation of selected features (ideally, a nucleus and one or more micronuclei). Among the mathematical-morphology techniques, we used for instance a modified watershed segmentation algorithm for separating touching features. We present our results on several images, the evaluation and performance of each step, and the main problems we solved by using several techniques from mathematical morphology and color-image processing.

Lozano, A. V.; Márquez, J. A.; Buenfil, A. E.; Gonsebatt, M. E.



Silica-exposed lung fluids have a proliferative activity for type II epithelial cells: a study on human and sheep alveolar fluids.  


The type II pneumocyte changes in silicosis are characterized by hyperplasic and hypertrophic epithelial cells, and increased surfactant phospholipids in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF). To assess the proliferative activity of alveolar lining fluids, BALF were applied on type II cell cultures. The growth-promoting activity was studied by tritiated thymidine incorporation for 24 h, and the cell number was measured by an electronic counting after a 48-h exposure time. Human BALF from 3 subsets of workers exposed to silica, staged according to ILO classification (silica exposed-workers without disease: hSWD n = 6; workers with simple silicosis: hSS n = 7; workers with confluent silicosis: hCS n = 5), were compared to healthy volunteers (hC n = 6). Sheep BALF from our model of silicosis and control animals (sS and sC) were studied at months 0, 6, and 24 of exposure. A clear enhancement was found in type II cell DNA synthesis under the effect of either normal and silicotic human or sheep BALF, in comparison to the negative control (p less than .05). In addition hSWD and hSS BALF as sS BALF at 20% dilution (peak activity) were significantly more stimulating than the normal alveolar fluids from the same species (p less than .05). The highest sheep BALF stimulatory activity was found at month 6 (170% of increase vs control, p less than .05) and clearly correlated with the high cellularity of BALF. The thymidine incorporation was supported by changes in cell counts. Sheep silicotic BALF run through G50 columns identified at least 3 molecular weight (MW) areas of mitogenic activity between 30 and 5 kDa. Biochemical characteristics of growth factors in the above MW range (PDGF, FGF, TGF alpha, EGF) were tested. Increased mitogenic activity of type II cells eluted from heparin sepharose columns loaded with silicotic sheep BALF, at 0.5 and 1 M NaCl, corresponded to the removal areas of PDGF- and acidic FGF-like heparin-binding molecules. The high proliferative activity on type II cells of the latter two molecules, alone or in combination with other growth factors, was demonstrated in vitro (greater than 9 x control). In conclusion, a stimulatory activity for type II cell growth was found in the normal human and sheep alveolar lining fluid. This activity was clearly enhanced in the early stages of human and sheep silicosis. The BALF type II cell growth factors had biochemical characteristics consistent with the PDGF- and FGF-like molecules. PMID:1327731

Lesur, O; Melloni, B; Cantin, A M; Bégin, R


Amniotic fluid stem cells increase embryo survival following injury.  


Although amniotic fluid cells can differentiate into several mesenchymal lineages and have been proposed as a valuable therapeutic cell source, their ability to undergo terminal neuronal differentiation remains a cause of controversy. The aim of this study was to investigate the neuronal differentiation ability of the c-Kit-positive population from GFP-transgenic rat amniotic fluid, amniotic fluid stem (AFS) cells, and to assess how they affected injury response in avian embryos. AFS cells were found to express several neural stem/progenitor cell markers. However, no overt neuronal differentiation was apparent after either treatment with small molecules known to stimulate neuronal differentiation, attempts to differentiate AFS cell-derived embryoid body-like structures, or grafting AFS cells into environments known to support neuronal differentiation (organotypic rat hippocampal cultures, embryonic chick nervous system). Nonetheless, AFS cells significantly reduced hemorrhage and increased survival when grafted at the site of an extensive thoracic crush injury in E2.5 chick embryos. Increased embryo survival was induced neither by desmopressin treatment, which also reduced hemorrhage, nor by grafting other mesenchymal or neural cells, indicating a specific effect of AFS cells. This was found to be mediated by soluble factors in a transwell coculture model. Altogether, this study shows that AFS cells reduce tissue damage and increase survival in injured embryos, providing a potentially valuable tool as therapeutic agents for tissue repair, particularly prenatal/perinatal repair of defects diagnosed during gestation, but this effect is mediated via paracrine mechanisms rather than the ability of AFS cells to fully differentiate into neuronal cells. PMID:21905920

Prasongchean, Weerapong; Bagni, Marinella; Calzarossa, Cinzia; De Coppi, Paolo; Ferretti, Patrizia



Counting Craze  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners practice counting objects found on patterned wrapping paper or fabric. Repeated experiences with counting will help young learners understand that the last number they say when counting objects tells them "how many" objects in all.

Houston, Children'S M.



Total and differential bulk cow milk somatic cell counts and their relation with antioxidant factors.  


In the present study, the relationship between total bulk milk somatic cell counts (BMSCC), differential BMSCC (macrophage, lymphocyte, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes), and antioxidant enzymes was investigated. Forty-three samples of bulk milk were selected randomly from eight dairy farms in the region of Sfax (Tunisia) in winter, from November 2005 to February 2006. Bulk milk samples were analyzed for antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, SOD and GSHPx activity and differential SCC. After that, milks were allotted according to their total SCC to: group 1, bulk milk with SCC below 1000x10(3) ml(-1); group 2, bulk milk with SCC from 1000x10(3) to 1500x10(3) ml(-1); group 3, bulk milk with SCC above 1500x10(3) ml(-1). BMSCC levels ranged from 400x10(3) to nearly 4000x10(3) ml(-1). Lymphocytes were the predominant cell type in all groups, but their proportion declined with the total BMSCC. Catalase and GSHPx activities were found to be significantly (P<0.001) correlated with total BMSCC and with the PMN population. In contrast, a weak correlation between the activity of the SOD and total or differential bulk milk somatic cells was observed. It has been suggested that milk cells, especially PMN, could generate a situation of oxidative stress in the mammary gland. Specifically, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals were probably the most important reactive oxygen metabolites released by PMN. PMID:18241807

Hamed, Houda; El Feki, Abdelfettah; Gargouri, Ahmed



The effects of biofeedback-assisted relaxation on cell-mediated immunity, cortisol, and white blood cell count in healthy adult subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of biofeedback-assisted relaxation on cell-mediated immunity, cortisol, and white blood cell count was investigated in healthy adults under low-stress conditions. Fourteen subjects were trained with biofeedback-assisted relaxation for 4 weeks, while 17 subjects were controls. The group trained in relaxation techniques showed increased blastogenesis, decreased white blood cell count, due to decreased neutrophils, and no change in cortisol

Angele McGrady; Philip Conran; Douglas Dickey; Daniel Garman; Edmund Farris; Cathleen Schumann-Brzezinski



Counts-in-cells analysis of the statistical distribution in an N-body simulated universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evolution of the statistical distribution of the density field is investigated by means of a counts-in-cells method in a low-density cold dark matter (CDM) simulated universe. Four model distributions, namely the negative binomial distribution, the lognormal distribution, the Edgeworth series and the skewed lognormal distribution, are tested to fit the calculated distribution function, and it is shown that only the skewed lognormal distribution of second- and third-order can describe the evolution of the statistical distribution perfectly well from the initially Gaussian regime to the present stage. The effect of sparse sampling is also investigated, and we conclude that in order to reconstruct the underlying density distribution we should use a sample with a galaxy number density larger than ~0.01h^3 Mpc^-3.

Ueda, Haruhiko; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi



Herd level approach to high bulk milk somatic cell count problems in dairy cattle.  


Since the introduction of the standard mastitis prevention program in the late 1960s, enormous progress has been made in decreasing the average bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC). In many countries, reduction of BMSCC has been encouraged through premium payments or penalty systems. However, the success of the program depends heavily on consistent implementation of management practices. The approach to problem solving in a herd with high BMSCC must include the following elements: (1) problem definition using primary udder health parameters; (2) detection of cows causing the problem; (3) definition of short- and long-term goals; (4) formulation and implementation of a herd management plan; and (5) evaluation of the results. Findings and plans are recorded for use at follow-up visits. Every high BMSCC problem can be solved if farmers are sufficiently motivated, if farm advisors are sufficiently knowledgeable, and if farmer and advisors work together according to a jointly determined plan. PMID:23706026

Barkema, Herman W; De Vliegher, Sarne; Piepers, Sofie; Zadoks, Ruth N



Standard Microlithographic Mosaics to Assess Endothelial Cell Counting Methods by Light Microscopy in Eye Banks Using Organ Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. To develop standard microscopic hexagonal mosaics mimicking the human corneal endothelium for quality control of endothelial cell density (ECD) measurement and verification of cell counting strategy by light microscopy in eye banks using organ culture. METHODS. A standard slide, the Keratotest, was developed with 10 laser-engraved mosaics and different predetermined \\

Nilanjana Deb-Joardar; Gilles Thuret; David Pons; Gerald Brun; Olivier Parriaux; Sophie Acquart


Recruitment of host’s progenitor cells to sites of human amniotic fluid stem cells implantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amniotic fluid is a new source of multipotent stem cells with a therapeutic potential for human diseases. Cultured at low cell density, human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFSCs) were still able to generate colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F) after 60 doublings, thus confirming their staminal nature. Moreover, after extensive in vitro cell expansion hAFSCs maintained a stable karyotype. The expression of

Teodelinda Mirebella; Alessandro Poggi; Monica Scaranari; Massimo Mogni; Mario Lituania; Chiara Baldo; Ranieri Cancedda; Chiara Gentili



Sleep restriction increases white blood cells, mainly neutrophil count, in young healthy men: A pilot study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study examines the effects of sleep restricted to four hours for three consecutive nights on blood parameters, known to be associated with cardiovascular risk, in young healthy men. Material and methods: Eight young healthy men (age 24.5 ± 3.3 years) were studied in the sleep restricted group. Nine young healthy men (age 24 ± 2 years) were included in the control group and spent the days and nights in the sleep lab, while sleeping eight hours/night. One baseline night was followed by three nights of sleep restriction to four hours and by one recovery night of eight hours. Blood samplings were performed after the baseline night and after the third night of sleep restriction or without restriction for the control group. Results: A significant increase in white blood cells (WBC) (5.79 ± 1.05 vs. 6.89 ± 1.31 103 cell/?l, p = 0.03), and neutrophils (3.17 ± 0.69 vs 4.24 ± 0.97 103 cell/?l, p = 0.01) was observed after the third night of sleep restriction. Other blood parameters were not affected. No significant variation was observed in the control group. Conclusion: Sleep restriction affected WBC count, mainly neutrophils, considered as risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Stress induced by the short term sleep restriction could be involved in this observation.

Boudjeltia, Karim Zouaoui; Faraut, Brice; Stenuit, Patricia; Esposito, Maria Jose; Dyzma, Michal; Brohee, Dany; Ducobu, Jean; Vanhaeverbeek, Michel; Kerkhofs, Myriam



Factors determining milk quality and implications for production structure under somatic cell count standard modification.  


Consumer and processor demand for high-quality milk has placed increasing pressure on US milk producers to achieve higher product standards. International standards for somatic cell count (SCC) are becoming more stringent, but in May 2011, the United States National Conference on Interstate Milk Shipments chose to retain the 750,000 cells/mL standard. Using ordinary least squares and quantile regressions on US Department of Agriculture Agricultural Resource Management Survey Dairy Costs and Returns Report data for 2005, we model producer and farm-level characteristics associated with SCC. Quantile regression analysis allows for a more parsed inquiry into statistical associations. Dairy Costs and Returns Report data provide cross-sectional information on the physical structure, input expenses, demographics, and outputs for farms in selected states. Location outside the Southeast, lower herd age, full-time farming status, use of biosecurity guidelines, good milking facilities and operations management, and application of related quality tests are all associated with lower SCC levels. Size of operation had little effect on SCC levels after controlling for other factors. Many of the operations that did not attain a more demanding SCC standard of 400,000 cells/mL had older operators, operators who expressed intention to exit within 10 yr, smaller size, and location in the Southeast when compared with those meeting the tighter standard. The results suggest that the stricter scheme favors larger farms that are more committed to production and are less likely to be sole or family proprietorships. PMID:22981577

Dong, F; Hennessy, D A; Jensen, H H



Prolonged effect of fluid flow stress on the proliferative activity of mesothelial cells after abrupt discontinuation of fluid streaming.  


Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) often develops after transfer to hemodialysis and transplantation. Both termination of peritoneal dialysis (PD) and transplantation-related factors are risks implicated in post-PD development of EPS, but the precise mechanism of this late-onset peritoneal fibrosis remains to be elucidated. We previously demonstrated that fluid flow stress induced mesothelial proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition via mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Therefore, we speculated that the prolonged bioactive effect of fluid flow stress may affect mesothelial cell kinetics after cessation of fluid streaming. To investigate how long mesothelial cells stay under the bioactive effect brought on by fluid flow stress after removal of the stress, we initially cultured mesothelial cells under fluid flow stress and then cultured the cells under static conditions. Mesothelial cells exposed to fluid flow stress for a certain time showed significantly high proliferative activity compared with static conditions after stoppage of fluid streaming. The expression levels of protein phosphatase 2A, which dephosphorylates MAPK, in mesothelial cells changed with time and showed a biphasic pattern that was dependent on the duration of exposure to fluid flow stress. There were no differences in the fluid flow stress-related bioactive effects on mesothelial cells once a certain time had passed. The present findings show that fluid flow stress exerts a prolonged bioactive effect on mesothelial cells after termination of fluid streaming. These findings support the hypothesis that a history of PD for a certain period could serve as a trigger of EPS after stoppage of PD. PMID:22120632

Aoki, Shigehisa; Ikeda, Satoshi; Takezawa, Toshiaki; Kishi, Tomoya; Makino, Junichi; Uchihashi, Kazuyoshi; Matsunobu, Aki; Noguchi, Mitsuru; Sugihara, Hajime; Toda, Shuji



Codon pairs of the HIV-1 vif gene correlate with CD4+ T cell count  

PubMed Central

Background The human APOBEC3G (A3G) protein activity is associated with innate immunity against HIV-1 by inducing high rates of guanosines to adenosines (G-to-A) mutations (viz., hypermutation) in the viral DNA. If hypermutation is not enough to disrupt the reading frames of viral genes, it may likely increase the HIV-1 diversity. To counteract host innate immunity HIV-1 encodes the Vif protein that binds A3G protein and form complexes to be degraded by cellular proteolysis. Methods Here we studied the pattern of substitutions in the vif gene and its association with clinical status of HIV-1 infected individuals. To perform the study, unique vif gene sequences were generated from 400 antiretroviral-naïve individuals. Results The codon pairs: 78–154, 85–154, 101–157, 105–157, and 105–176 of vif gene were associated with CD4+ T cell count lower than 500 cells per mm3. Some of these codons were located in the 81LGQGVSIEW89 region and within the BC-Box. We also identified codons under positive selection clustered in the N-terminal region of Vif protein, between 21WKSLVK26 and 40YRHHY44 regions (i.e., 31, 33, 37, 39), within the BC-Box (i.e., 155, 159) and the Cullin5-Box (i.e., 168) of vif gene. All these regions are involved in the Vif-induced degradation of A3G/F complexes and the N-terminal of Vif protein binds to viral and cellular RNA. Conclusions Adaptive evolution of vif gene was mostly to optimize viral RNA binding and A3G/F recognition. Additionally, since there is not a fully resolved structure of the Vif protein, codon pairs associated with CD4+ T cell count may elucidate key regions that interact with host cell factors. Here we identified and discriminated codons under positive selection and codons under functional constraint in the vif gene of HIV-1.



Imaging cytometry for counting circulating tumor cells: comparative analysis of the CellSearch vs ImageStream systems.  


Circulating tumor cell (CTC) enumeration is important clinically for identifying prognostic and predictive factors in patients with solid cancers. The CellSearch device (Veridex) is an immunomagnetic CTC selection and enumeration system used in clinical practice. The ImageStream (Amnis) combines the strengths of flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy in a single platform and has potential application for CTC counting. The performance in CTC enumeration was compared between the ImageStream and CellSearch systems. Various numbers of PANC-1 tumor cells were spiked into 7.5 mL of peripheral blood from a healthy donor. Before cell analysis by the ImageStream, tumor cell enrichment was performed by immunomagnetic selection with anti-EpPCAM. Anti-CD45 and anti-CK markers were used to discriminate between tumor cells and leukocytes. The ratios of tumor cells recovered from each dilution were calculated for both methods. The Wilcoxon rank test was applied to compare the results of the two methods and the reference value. The results of the two tested methods differed significantly from the reference value, but did not differ between them. Nevertheless, lower level of trueness and precision was observed in ImageStream when fewer numbers of CTCs were analyzed. Our results suggest that ImageStream platform for CTC enumeration has a potential value for the early diagnosis of disseminated disease, but needs an improvement of precision for the enumeration of low number of CTC. PMID:23510386

López-Riquelme, Natividad; Minguela, Alfredo; Villar-Permuy, Flori; Ciprian, Daniel; Castillejo, Adela; Alvarez-López, María-Rocio; Soto, José-Luis



Influence of storage and preservation on fossomatic cell count and composition of goat milk.  


This study was designed to evaluate the effects of different test conditions on the somatic cell count (SCC) and composition of goat milk. To this end, 3600 tests were performed on 1800 aliquots taken from 40 goat milk samples using a combined instrument set-up based on flow cytometry for SCC and Fourier transform infrared analysis for fat, total protein, lactose, total solids, and freezing point determinations. The conditions tested were storage temperature (refrigeration and freezing), use of a preservative [no preservative (NP), azidiol (AZ), and bronopol (BR)], and age of the milk samples at each storage temperature (24 h to 42 d at refrigeration temperature and 21 to 105 d at freezing temperature). Significant effects on logSCC variation were shown by the storage temperature, the preservation treatment, the interaction of storage temperature x preservation treatment, and milk age within the interaction of storage temperature x preservative. Highest counts were recorded in the BR-preserved milk samples (logSCC = 5.877), and lowest counts were recorded in milk samples preserved using AZ (logSCC = 5.803). The use of frozen/thawed samples led to a significantly decreased logSCC for the treatments AZ and NP; the logSCC was not modified when BR-preserved frozen/thawed samples were analyzed. During storage, variations in the SCC observed for BR-preserved samples stored at refrigeration temperature for up to 25 d and at freezing temperature for all times tested were always < 10%. The preservation treatment was the main factor affecting the milk composition variables examined. Highest values of most variables were obtained in the BR-preserved samples, and the lowest values were obtained in the AZ-preserved samples. The freezing point was lower in the preserved samples than in the NP samples. The levels of milk constituents recorded in the BR-preserved samples were independent of both the storage temperature and age of milk sample. Our findings indicate that the freezing point of goat milk must be interpreted according to the preservative used. PMID:16107398

Sánchez, A; Sierra, D; Luengo, C; Corrales, J C; Morales, C T; Contreras, A; Gonzalo, C



Imiquimod-induced clearance of HPV is associated with normalization of immune cell counts in usual type vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia.  


Recently, we reported on the efficacy of imiquimod for treatment of usual type vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (uVIN). A histologic regression of uVIN to normal tissue was observed in 58% of patients. As success of treatment is related to clearance of high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV), the aim of our study was to assess differences in immune cell counts and in the expression of p16(INK4a) in VIN tissue before and after imiquimod treatment, in relation to HPV clearance and clinical response. Vulvar tissue samples taken prior to imiquimod treatment and 4 weeks after treatment were tested for the presence of HPV. Previously determined immune cell counts (CD1a, CD207, CD208, CD123/CD11c, CD94, CD4, CD8 and CD25/HLA-DR) in epidermis and dermis of 25 VIN patients and 19 healthy controls were completed with the counts for CD14 and CD68. The expression of p16(INK4a) was investigated by immunohistochemistry in 15 patients. Before imiquimod treatment, both HPV cleared and HPV noncleared patients showed mainly in the dermis significantly upregulated immune cell counts compared to healthy controls. However, in patients that cleared HPV and showed histologic regression already 4 weeks after imiquimod treatment, immune cell counts and p16(INK4a) expression were normalized. In conclusion, our data indicate that imiquimod-induced clearance of HPV results in normalization of counts for certain immune cells and is strongly correlated with histologic regression of the disease. PMID:21351262

Terlou, Annelinde; van Seters, Manon; Kleinjan, Alex; Heijmans-Antonissen, Claudia; Santegoets, Lindy A M; Beckmann, Ilse; van Beurden, Marc; Helmerhorst, Theo J M; Blok, Leen J



White Blood Cell Count Measured Prior to Cancer Development Is Associated with Future Risk of Venous Thromboembolism - The Troms? Study  

PubMed Central

Background Elevated white blood cell (WBC) count is associated with risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in cancer patients initiating chemotherapy. It is not known whether the risk of VTE by WBC count in cancer patients is causal or merely a consequence of the malignant disease. To address this question, we studied the association between WBC count, measured prior to cancer development, and risk of VTE in subjects who did and did not develop cancer during follow-up in a prospective population-based study. Methods Baseline characteristics, including WBC and neutrophil counts, were measured in 24304 initially cancer-free subjects who participated in the Tromsø Study in 1994-1995. Incident cancer diagnosis and VTE events were registered up to September 1, 2007. In the cancer cohort, WBC and neutrophil counts were measured in average 7.1 years before cancer development. Cox-regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for VTE by WBC and neutrophil counts as categorized variables (<40th, 40-80th, and >80th percentile) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results During follow-up, 1720 subjects developed cancer and there were 388 VTE events, of which 116 occurred in the cancer-group (6.9 per 1000 person-years) and 272 in the cancer-free group (1.1 per 1000 person-years). In those who developed cancer, WBC count above the 80th percentile (?8.6x109 cells/L) was associated with a 2.4-fold higher risk (HR 2.36, 95% CI: 1.44-3.87) of VTE compared to WBC count below the 40th percentile (<6.4x109 cells/L). No association was found between WBC count and VTE in those who stayed cancer-free (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.65-1.36). Similar findings were observed for neutrophils. Comment Pre-cancer WBC count was associated with risk of VTE in cancer patients, but not in cancer-free subjects. Our findings suggest that leukocytes may play a causal role in cancer-related VTE rather than only reflecting the low-grade inflammation associated with cancer.

Blix, Kristine; Jensvoll, Hilde; Braekkan, Sigrid K.; Hansen, John-Bjarne



Contamination of salvaged maternal blood by amniotic fluid and fetal red cells during elective Caesarean section  

PubMed Central

Background Cell salvage in obstetrics is still a controversial subject and has yet to be fully embraced. The aim of this exploratory study was to measure amniotic fluid (AF), heparin, and fetal red cell contamination of washed filtered salvaged maternal blood and to investigate differences based on the number of suction devices used. Methods Patients undergoing elective Caesarean section were assigned alternately to one of two groups. In Group 1, all blood and AF was collected with one suction. In Group 2, AF was aspirated to waste with a second separate suction device before collection of any blood. Results In both groups, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), squames cells, and heparin were significantly reduced (P<0.001) by the washing and filtering process. Mean AFP levels post-filtration were 2.58 IU ml?1 in Group 1 and 3.53 IU ml?1 in Group 2. Squames cells were completely removed in all but two cases. Fetal red blood cells were still present in the final product, range 0.13–4.35%. In Group 1, haemoglobin and haematocrit were higher than in Group 2, with lower white blood cell, AFP, and fetal red cell counts. Conclusions This study adds to the growing body of evidence that there is little or no possibility for AF contamination to enter the re-infusion system when used in conjunction with a leucodepletion filter.

Sullivan, I.; Faulds, J.; Ralph, C.




NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth explores the Web's offerings on the physics of fluids. By an educational Web site called School for Champions, the first site is the Fluids lesson plan (1). Here, students or anyone interested can read about the basics of fluids and then take a short interactive quiz on the topic. The second site is maintained by Steve Lower of the Department of Chemistry at Simon Fraser University called Liquids and their Vapors (2). This Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) file contains an eighteen-page document that covers topics such as properties of liquids and changes of state. The next site contains an interactive multimedia activity presented by called Floating Log (3). The site allows users to explore how a fluid can affect buoyancy by letting them change the mass of the log and the fluid's density. The next site from Purdue University's Chemical Education Web site is called Liquids (4). This page describes the structure of liquids, what kinds of materials form liquids, vapor pressure, and more. The fifth site, offered by Professor M.S. Cramer at the College of Engineering at Virginia Tech, is entitled Gallery of Fluid Dynamics (5). It contains movies, animations, photographs, and descriptions of various fluid mechanics topics such as condensation, shock waves, and supersonic cars. Next comes the Innovative Technology Solutions Corporation's Fundamental Fluid Mechanics Movies Web site (6). Over thirty short films show how fluids move in various conditions including gravity waves, fire, material transport, and hydraulics. From the University of Waterloo's Department of Mechanical Engineering-Microelectronics Heat Transfer Laboratory comes the next site, called the Fluid Properties Calculator (7). This online tool allows users to select a fluid and enter a temperature to calculate various parameters such as density, viscosity, specific heat, and thermal diffusivity. The last site is the online journal Physics of Fluids (8), which is published monthly by the American Institute of Physics with the cooperation of The American Physical Society Division of Fluid Dynamics. The journal is "devoted to the publication of original theoretical, computational, and experimental contributions to the dynamics of gases, liquids, and complex or multiphase fluids" and provides free full-text articles for online viewing.

Brieske, Joel A.



Endothelial cell counts after Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty versus penetrating keratoplasty in Asian eyes  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to compare endothelial cell counts after Descemet’s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) and penetrating keratoplasty in Asian eyes. Methods This was a retrospective study of patients from our prospective Singapore Corneal Transplant Study cohort who received corneal transplantation in 2006–2008. We compared eyes that underwent DSAEK or penetrating keratoplasty for Fuchs’ endothelial dystrophy or pseudophakic and aphakic bullous keratopathy. Clinical data, and donor and recipient characteristics were recorded. Of 241 patients who met our inclusion criteria, 68 underwent DSAEK and 173 underwent penetrating keratoplasty. The main outcome measure was endothelial cell loss at 1 year. Secondary outcome measures were graft survival and visual outcomes at 1-year follow-up. Results There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics of patients between the treatment groups. Percent endothelial cell loss at 1-year follow-up was greater in penetrating keratoplasty eyes (40.9% ± 2.9%) compared with DSAEK eyes (22.4% ± 2.3%; P < 0.001). DSAEK-treated eyes had significantly superior uncorrected visual acuity (mean difference = 0.42 ± 0.0059; P < 0.001) and best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (mean difference = 0.14 ± 0.032; P < 0.001) as compared with penetrating keratoplasty-treated eyes. Penetrating keratoplasty-treated eyes had worse astigmatism as compared with DSAEK-treated eyes (?3.0 ± 2.1 versus ?1.7 ± 0.8; P < 0.001). Graft survival at 1 year was comparable in both groups, ie, 66/68 (97.0%) DSAEK-treated eyes versus 158/173 (92.0%) of penetrating keratoplasty-treated eyes had clear grafts (P = 0.479). Conclusion We report lower percent endothelial cell loss comparing DSAEK and penetrating keratoplasty at 1-year follow-up in Asian eyes, with comparable graft survival rates in both groups.

Ang, Marcus; Mehta, Jodhbir S; Anshu, Arundhati; Wong, Hon Kiat; Htoon, Hla M; Tan, Donald



Counts of Stromal Precursor Cells in the Bone Marrow and Heterotopic Bone Marrow Transplants from Mice Immunized with Group A Streptococcus Antigens during Different Periods after Immunization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The counts of stromal precursor cells in bone marrow transplants obtained from animals 2 months after their immunization with\\u000a killed type 5 group A streptococcus vaccine drop almost 3-fold in comparison with transplants from normal donors. Six months\\u000a after donor immunization, the count of stromal precursor cells in the transplants reaches the normal level. The count of stromal\\u000a precursor cells

U. F. Gorskaya; T. A. Danilova; V. G. Nesterenko



Serum white blood cell count and differential do not have a role in the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection.  


Serum white blood cell (WBC) count and neutrophil differential are frequently ordered during preoperative workup of suspected cases of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). However, their roles in diagnosis of PJI have remained unclear despite previous studies. In this study, preoperative serum WBC and neutrophil percentages were retrieved from hospital charts. The diagnostic cutoff point determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was 7800 cells/?L with 55% sensitivity and 66% specificity for WBC count, whereas the cutoff value for neutrophil percentage was 68% with 52% sensitivity and 75% specificity. Our study confirms the long-held belief that serum WBC count and differential has minimal role in routine workup of patients with suspected PJI. PMID:22608690

Toossi, Nader; Adeli, Bahar; Rasouli, Mohammad R; Huang, Ronald; Parvizi, Javad




Microsoft Academic Search

A cytofluorometric method, based on berberine staining of mast cell heparmn, was used for flow cytofluorometric counting and heparin quantitation of mast cells in crude peritoneal suspensions of growing rats. The automatic flow cytofluorometric counting of mast cells correlated well with hemocytometer cell counts. The mean mast cell heparin content obtained by flow cytofluorometry showed good agreement with such obtained




Acute appendicitis: relationships between CT-determined severities and serum white blood cell counts and C-reactive protein levels  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between the severity of appendicitis as depicted on CT and blood inflammatory markers of serum white blood cell (WBC) count and C-reactive protein (CRP). Methods CT images in 128 patients (109 surgically proven and 19 with clinically excluded appendicitis) were retrospectively reviewed. Two radiologists by consensus evaluated and scored (using a 0, 1 or 2 point scale) severities based on CT-determined appendiceal diameters, appendiceal wall changes, caecal changes, periappendiceal inflammatory stranding and phlegmon or abscess formation. We investigated whether CT findings were significantly related to elevated WBC counts or CRP levels and performed the correlations of WBC counts and CRP levels with CT severity scores. Patients were also subjectively classified using four grades from normal (Grade I) to perforated appendicitis (Grade IV) on the basis of CT findings to evaluate differences in WBC counts and CRP levels between grades. Results Only appendiceal wall changes and the phlegmon or abscess formation were related to elevated WBC counts and CRP levels, respectively (p<0.05). CT severity scores were found to be more strongly correlated with CRP levels (r = 0.669) than with WBC counts (r = 0.222). On the basis of CT grades, the WBC counts in Grade I were significantly lower than in other grades (p<0.001), whereas CRP levels in Grade IV were significantly higher than in other grades (p<0.001). Conclusion CRP levels were found to correlate with CT-determined acute appendicitis severity and could be a useful predictor for perforated appendicitis, whereas WBC counts might be useful to detect early acute appendicitis.

Kim, H C; Yang, D M; Lee, C M; Jin, W; Nam, D H; Song, J Y; Kim, J Y



CD4+ T-cell counts and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels beyond 5 years of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)  

PubMed Central

Background The heterogeneity of CD4+ T-cell counts and HIV-1 RNA at 5-12 years after the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) remains largely uncharacterized. Methods In the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, 614 men who initiated HAART contributed data 5-12 years subsequently. Multivariate regression was used to evaluate the predictors of CD4+ counts and HIV-1 RNA levels. Results At 5-12 years post-HAART, the median CD4+ T-cell count was 586 (inter quartile range (IQR): 421-791) cells/?l and 78% of the HIV-1 RNA measurements were undetectable. Higher CD4+ T-cell counts 5-12 years post-HAART were predicted by higher CD4+ T-cell counts and higher total lymphocyte count pre-HAART, lack of hepatitis B or C virus co-infections, and greater CD4+ T-cell change as well as suppressed HIV-1 RNA in the first 5 years after starting HAART. Older men (?50 years) with 351-500 CD4+ cells/?l at HAART initiation had adjusted mean CD4+ T-cell count of 643 cells/?l at 10-12 years post-HAART, which was similar to the adjusted mean CD4+ T-cell count (670 cells/?l, p=0.45) in this period for younger men starting HAART with lower CD4+ T-cell counts. HIV-1 RNA suppression in the first 5 years post-HAART predicted subsequent viral suppression. Conclusion Immunological and virological responses in the first five years post-HAART predicted subsequent CD4+ T-cell counts and HIV-1 RNA levels. The association between age and subsequent CD4+ T-cell count supports incorporating age in guidelines for use of HAART.

Li, Xiuhong; Margolick, Joseph; Jamieson, Beth; Rinaldo, Charles; Phair, John; Jacobson, Lisa



Improved soil dispersion procedures for total bacterial counts, extraction of indigenous bacteria and cell survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of different soil dispersion procedures for enumeration and extraction of indigenous soil bacteria were investigated. Increased counts and extraction efficiency were obtained with pyrophosphate instead of water as dispersion liquid. When physical dispersion was conducted in the Waring blender, the effect of container volume and number of dispersions on extraction efficiency and bacterial counts was shown. An extraction

Viggo Lindahl



Electrophysiological correlates of fluid transport in cultured porcine thyroid cells.  


Confluent monolayers of cultured porcine thyroid cells transport fluid from the apical to the basal surface, forming circumscribed zones of detachment from the culture dish substrate (domes). The transepithelial potential (TEP), positive on the basal side, was 12.9 +/- 0.4 (S.E.M.) mV (n = 93) under control conditions, increasing to 38.9 +/- 0.3 mV (n = 281) when fluid transport was stimulated by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2; 1 mumol/l). Forskolin (1 mumol/l) and 8-(4-chlorophenylthio) adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (0.5 mmol/l) were also effective in increasing TEP. Addition of amiloride in concentrations sufficient to block fluid transport (100 mumol/l) reduced the TEP to 5.8 +/- 0.3 mV (n = 76). Substitution of N-methyl-D-glucamine for sodium in the medium reduced the PGE2-stimulated TEP to 13.4 +/- 0.8 mV (n = 32). Substitution of gluconate for chloride increased the TEP to 40.3 +/- 0.4 mV (n = 160). Removal of bicarbonate or potassium from the medium, or addition of ouabain (200 mumol/l) were also effective in reducing the TEP. In media of low bicarbonate concentration (1 mmol NaHCO3/l), acetazolamide (1 mmol/l) reduced the TEP. Fluid transport by the monolayer as measured by the change in height of domes was increased by PGE2 (1 mumol/l). PGE2-stimulated fluid transport was inhibited by sodium or chloride ion substitution, bicarbonate removal or the addition of ouabain (200 mumol/l) or amiloride (100 mumol/l). It was concluded that fluid transport in thyroid monolayers is mediated by rheogenic sodium transport with chloride transport being passive, electrogenically coupled to sodium transport.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2462003

Pearson, J; Bourke, J R; Manley, S W; Huxham, G J; Matainaho, T; Gerard, C; Verrier, B; Mauchamp, J



Lactoperoxidase activity in milk is correlated with somatic cell count in dairy cows.  


Lactoperoxidase (LPO) is a milk protein with antimicrobial function. The present study was undertaken to examine the correlation between LPO activity and somatic cell count (SCC) in milk to use LPO activity as an indicator of mastitis. Composite milk of 36 cows and quarter milk of 3 cows were collected once per week from 0 to 300 d postpartum and twice per day for 1 wk, respectively. For the measurement of LPO activity, milk was mixed with tetramethylbenzidine solution and incubated at 37°C for 30 min, followed by the measurement of optical density. When only milk with low SCC (132±12×10(3) cells/mL) was used, a significant decrease in LPO activity was detected in primiparous cows from 0 to 4 mo postpartum. Lactoperoxidase activities of primiparous cows in mo 1, 2, and 3 postpartum were significantly higher than those in multiparous cows. When composite milk was divided based on LPO activity, the SCC was significantly higher in the groups with LPO activity >5 and from 3 to 3.9 U/mL in the second- and fourth-parity cows, respectively, compared with the group with LPO activity <2U/mL. Extremely high SCC were found in the ?fifth-parity cows, even in low-LPO activity groups. In the case of quarter milk, higher LPO activity was associated with increased SCC in all 3 cows. The percentage of quarter milk samples with high SCC (4,062±415×10(3) cells/mL) increased with an increase in the LPO activity. The percentage of quarter milk samples with high SCC was 50.0 to 100% in the milk with LPO activity ?5 U/mL. These results indicate that the correlation of LPO activity to the SCC in bovine milk may point to the potential use of the former as an indicator of SCC. PMID:21787923

Isobe, N; Kubota, H; Yamasaki, A; Yoshimura, Y



Computational fluid dynamics modeling of proton exchange membrane fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transient, multi-dimensional model has been developed to simulate proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. The model accounts simultaneously for electrochemical kinetics, current distribution, hydrodynamics and multi-component transport. A single set of conservation equations valid for flow channels, gas-diffusion electrodes, catalyst layers and the membrane region are developed and numerically solved using a finite-volume-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. The




Estimating test characteristics of somatic cell count to detect Staphylococcus aureus-infected dairy goats using latent class analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to estimate test properties of composite somatic cell count (cSCC) to detect subclinically Staphylococcus aureus-infected dairy goats. Staphylococcus aureus is the most prevalent major pathogen in goats, and responsible for the majority of clinical mastitis cases. Therefore, a diagnostic tool that detects subclinical Staph. aureus infections may be useful in decreasing the number of

G. Koop; T. van Werven; N. Toft; M. Nielen



Bulk Tank Somatic Cell Counts Analyzed by Statistical Process Control Tools to Identify and Monitor Subclinical Mastitis Incidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to examine the rela- tionship between monthly Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) subclinical mastitis and new infection rate esti- mates and daily bulk tank somatic cell count (SCC) summarized by statistical process control tools. Dairy Herd Improvement Association test-day subclinical mastitis and new infection rate estimates along with daily or every other day bulk tank

J. M. Lukas; D. M. Hawkins; M. L. Kinsel; J. K. Reneau



Lymphocyte sub-population cell counts are associated with the metabolic syndrome and its components in the Vietnam Experience Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe metabolic syndrome (MetS) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. MetS is also associated with increases in the number of circulating white blood cells. Lymphocyte sub-population counts have also been implicated in cardiovascular disease; this analysis will examine whether or not they are associated with MetS.

Anna C. Phillips; Douglas Carroll; Catharine R. Gale; Mark Drayson; G. Neil Thomas; G. David Batty



Presence of viral and bacterial organisms in milk and their association with somatic cell counts.  


About 20 to 35% of milk samples from cows with intramammary infection or high somatic cell count (SCC) are negative on bacteriological culture analysis. However, little is known about SCC in milk of cows infected with viruses. In the first part of our study, we developed a real-time PCR assay for detection of bovine herpesvirus (BHV) 1, BHV2, and BHV4, and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in composite quarter milk samples. A total of 1,479 lactating cows of 1,964 cows in the dairy herd were initially selected because these cows had complete SCC data for at least 3 consecutive test results, of which 139 lactating cows from different lactation age groups were selected randomly and studied extensively. Composite quarter milk samples were collected on 3 alternate days and examined for viruses, SCC, and bacteriological analysis. In total, 10, 28, and 0.7% of the composite quarter milk samples from cows were positive for BHV1, BHV2, and BHV4, respectively; BVDV was not detected in composite quarter milk samples. Bovine herpesvirus was not associated with a particular bacterial species. Our study results indicate that cows positive for BHV in composite quarter milk samples alone are less likely to have elevated SCC compared with cows with bacterial intramammary infection; BHV1, BHV2, and BHV4 are probably not major udder pathogens. PMID:23972495

Herlekar, D A; Shashikant, C S; Gurjar, A A; Jayarao, B M



Influence of genetic merit and environment on somatic cell counts of Holstein-Friesian cows.  


Financially, mastitis is one of the most important diseases affecting dairy cattle in the United Kingdom. Seven commercial farms were monitored over a 2.5 year period and data from 1040 cows were included in a study that examined both straw yard and cubicle housing systems. The influence of genetic merit for milk production (PIN(95) and PTA(f+p)) on somatic cell counts (SCC) as an indicator of mastitis under commercial farm conditions was assessed. The mean genetic potential ( poundPIN(95)) was 39.0 (+/-0.80) and the mean 305-day milk yield (kg) was 7980 (+/-54.2). In all, 5618 monthly records of SCC and 1040 records of 305-day SCC were included in the analysis. A multiple regression model was used to assess the influence of genetic merit and the level of concentrate intake on SCC (the log(10) transformation was used) under the two housing systems. Significant interactions between genetic merit and housing system, and concentrate intake and housing system were found. Log(10) SCC increased with genetic merit when cows were housed in straw yard accommodation, but decreased when cows were housed in cubicle accommodation. The increase in SCC with concentrate feeding was higher for straw yards. For parity 2 animals, there was a significant positive correlation between PIN(95) and SCC (r(p)=0.184, P=0.003) but the correlations between 305-day milk production and SCC were negative for animals greater than parity 2. PMID:16772131

Wicks, H C F; Leaver, J D



Effect of interval training program on white blood cell count in the management of hypertension: A randomized controlled study  

PubMed Central

Objective: Elevated white blood cell (WBC) count is considered to be prospectively and positively associated with cardiovascular diseases, particularly hypertension. Also, the positive role of exercise in the management of hypertension has been well and long established. However the relationship between WBC count and hypertensive management particularly in the nonpharmacological technique is ambiguous and unclear. Therefore the purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of interval training program on WBC count and cardiovascular parameters in male hypertensive patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 245 male patients with mild to moderate (systolic blood pressure (SBP) between 140 mmHg and 179 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) between 90 mmHg and 109 mmHg) essential hypertension were age matched and grouped into experimental and control groups. The experimental (n=140; 58.90±7.35 years) group involved in an 8-week interval training (60-79% HR max reserve) program of between 45 minutes to 60 minutes, while the age-matched controls hypertensive (n=105; 58.27±6.24 years) group remain sedentary during this period. Cardiovascular parameters (SBP, DBP, and VO2 max) and WBC count were assessed. Student's t and Pearson correlation tests were used in data analysis. Results: Findings of the study revealed a significant effect of the interval training program on VO2max, SBP, and DBP and WBC count at P<0.05 and VO2max is negatively related to the WBC count (r=–0.339) at P<0.01. Conclusions: It was concluded that the interval training program is an effective adjunct nonpharmacological management of hypertension and the therapeutic effect of exercise programs may be mediated through suppression of inflammatory (WBC count) reaction.

Lamina, S.; Okoye, C. G.



Quantification of fluorescence intensity of labeled human mesenchymal stem cells and cell counting of unlabeled cells in phase-contrast imaging: an open-source-based algorithm.  


Assessment of cell fate is indispensable to evaluate cell-based therapies in regenerative medicine. Therefore, a widely used technique is fluorescence labeling. A major problem still is the standardized, noninvasive, and reliable quantification of fluorescence intensity of adherent cell populations on single-cell level, since total fluorescence intensity must be correlated to the cell number. Consequently, the aim of the present study was to produce and validate an open-source-based algorithm, capable of measuring the total fluorescence intensity of cell populations and assessing the total cell number in phase-contrast images. To verify the algorithms' capacity to assess fluorescence intensity, human mesenchymal stem cells were transduced to stably express enhanced green fluorescent protein and results produced by the algorithm were compared to flow cytometry analysis. No significant differences could be observed at any time (p ? 0.443). For validation of the algorithm for cell counting in phase-contrast images, adherent human mesenchymal stem cells were manually counted and compared to results produced by the algorithm (correlation coefficient [CC] r = 0.975), nuclei staining (CC r = 0.997), and hemocytometer (CC r = 0.629). We conclude that applying the developed algorithm in routine practice allows robust, fast, and reproducible assessment of fluorescence intensity and cell numbers in simple large-scale microscopy. The method is easy to perform and open source based. PMID:20218817

Polzer, Hans; Haasters, Florian; Prall, Wolf Christian; Saller, Maximilian Michael; Volkmer, Elias; Drosse, Inga; Mutschler, Wolf; Schieker, Matthias



An Interleaved Reduced-Component-Count Multivoltage Bus DC/DC Converter for Fuel Cell Powered Electric Vehicle Applications  

SciTech Connect

An interleaved reduced-component-count dc/dc converter is proposed for power management in fuel cell powered vehicles with a multivoltage electric net. The converter is based on a simplified topology and can handle more power with less ripple current, therefore reducing the capacitor requirements, making it more suited for fuel cell powered vehicles in the near future. A prototype rated at 4.3 kW was built and tested to verify the proposed topology.

Tang, Lixin [ORNL; Su, Gui-Jia [ORNL



An enzymatic cow immunity-targeted approach to reducing milk somatic cell count: 2. A study using lysozyme  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the enzymatic approach to reducing the milk somatic cell count (SCC) have been examined. Bacterial lysozyme, a lytic carbohydrase, was used in this experiment as a model enzyme preparation. Twenty 2nd–3rd lactation Lithuanian black and white cows with a similar milk SCC [(600±150)×10 cells ml] and of a similar weight (550±50 kg) were involved in the study

Antanas Sederevi?ius; Jurgita Ramanauskien?; Kazimieras Lukauskas; Jurgita Kazlauskait?; Gediminas A. Biziulevi?ius



Incidence of Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Herds Grouped in Three Categories by Bulk Milk Somatic Cell Counts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incidence of clinical mastitis was studied in 274 herds grouped in three categories by bulk milk so- matic cell count (SCC). Mean incidence rate of clini- cal mastitis was 0.278, 0.257, and 0.252 cases per 365 cow-days at risk in herds with low ( ?150,000), medium (150,000 to 250,000), and high (250,000 to 400,000 cells\\/ml) bulk milk SCC, respectively. The

H. W. Barkema; Y. H. Schukken; T. J. G. M. Lam; M. L. Beiboer; H. Wilmink; G. Benedictus; A. Brand



Probing the Nanoscale Viscoelasticity of Intracellular Fluids in Living Cells  

PubMed Central

We have used fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to determine the anomalous diffusion properties of fluorescently tagged gold beads in the cytoplasm and the nucleus of living cells. From the extracted mean-square displacement v(?) ? ??, we have determined the complex shear modulus G(?) ? ?? for both compartments. Without treatment, all tested cell lines showed a strong viscoelastic behavior of the cytoplasm and the nucleoplasm, highlighting the crowdedness of these intracellular fluids. We also found a similar viscoelastic response in frog egg extract, which tended toward a solely viscous behavior upon dilution. When cells were osmotically stressed, the diffusion became less anomalous and the viscoelastic response changed. In particular, the anomality changed from ? ? 0.55 to ? ? 0.66, which indicates that the Zimm model for polymer solutions under varying solvent conditions is a good empirical description of the material properties of the cytoplasm and the nucleoplasm. Since osmotic stress may eventually trigger cell death, we propose, on the basis of our observations, that intracellular fluids are maintained in a state similar to crowded polymer solutions under good solvent conditions to keep the cell viable.

Guigas, Gernot; Kalla, Claudia; Weiss, Matthias



Counting Collections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article explores how counting collections of objects helps elementary-age children develop number sense and number relations. The authors provide evidence that counting collections offers multiple entry points for children at different places on the counting trajectory. It is suggested that the teacher's role is one of noticing, questioning,…

Schwerdtfeger, Julie Kern; Chan, Angela



Effects of Exercise in Polluted Air on the Aerobic Power, Serum Lactate Level and Cell Blood Count of Active Individuals  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of exercise on the aerobic power, serum lactate level, and cell blood count among active individuals in the environments with similar climatic characteristics differing in their level of air pollution. Methods: This trial comprised 20 volunteer students of Physical education in The University of Isfahan, Iran. Two places with the same climate (altitude, temperature, and humidity), but low and high level of air pollutants air were selected in Isfahan, Iran. Participants underwent a field Cooper test with a 12-minute run for fitness assessment. Then the aerobic power, serum lactate, and cell blood counts were measured and compared between the two areas. Results: The study participants had a mean (SD) age of 21.70 (2.10) years and body mass index (BMI) of 24.44 (2.32) Kg/m2. We found a significant decrease in mean Vo2 max, red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, as well as significant increase in mean lactate level, white blood cell count and mean corpuscular volume in the higher-polluted than in the lower-polluted area. No significant difference was documented for other parameters as platelet counts or maximum heart rate. Conclusions: Exercise in high-polluted air resulted in a significant reduction in the performance at submaximal levels of physical exertion. Therefore, the acute exposure to polluted air may cause a significant reduction in the performance of active individuals. The clinical importance of these findings should be assessed in longitudinal studies.

Kargarfard, Mehdi; Poursafa, Parinaz; Rezanejad, Saber; Mousavinasab, Firouzeh



Isolation of canine mesenchymal stem cells from amniotic fluid and differentiation into hepatocyte-like cells.  


Recent findings have demonstrated that amniotic fluid cells are an interesting and potential source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In this study, we isolated MSCs from canine amniotic fluid and then characterized their multilineage differentiation ability. Canine amniotic fluid stem (cAFS) cells at passage 5 had a fibroblast-like morphology instead of forming colonies and were positive for pluripotent stem cell markers such as OCT4, NANOG, and SOX2. Flow cytometry analysis showed the expression of MSC surface markers CD44, CD29, and CD90 on the cAFS cells. In addition, these cells were cultured under conditions favorable for adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic induction. The results of this experiment confirmed the mesenchymal nature of cAFS cells and their multipotent potential. Interestingly, although the cells exhibited a fibroblast-like morphology after hepatogenic induction, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that the expression of several hepatic genes, such as albumin, tyrosine aminotransferase, and alpha-1 antiproteinase, increased following maturation and differentiation. These findings indicated that cAFS cells have functional properties similar to those of hepatocytes. Taken together, the results of our study demonstrated that cAFS cells with mesenchymal characteristics can be successfully isolated from canine amniotic fluid and possess functional properties characteristic of hepatocytes. The findings of our work suggest that cAFS cells have the potential to be a resource for cell-based therapies in a canine model of hepatic disease. PMID:23242927

Choi, Seon-A; Choi, Hoon-Sung; Kim, Keun Jung; Lee, Dong-Soo; Lee, Ji Hey; Park, Jie Yeun; Kim, Eun Young; Li, Xiaoxia; Oh, Hyun-Yang; Lee, Dong-Seok; Kim, Min Kyu



The cleavage pattern of the axolotl egg studied by cinematography and cell counting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temporal pattern of cleavage in the egg of the axolotl,Ambystoma mexicanum, was studied 1. by time-lapse microcinematography, and 2. by counting the total number of blastomeres dissociated at successive stages.

K. Hara



Mechanical properties of human amniotic fluid stem cells using nanoindentation.  


The aim of this study was to obtain nanomechanical properties of living cells focusing on human amniotic fluid stem (hAFS) cell using nanoindentation techniques. We modified the conventional method of atomic force microscopy (AFM) in aqueous environment for cell imaging and indentation to avoid inherent difficulties. Moreover, we determined the elastic modulus of murine osteoblast (OB6) cells and hAFS cells at the nucleus and cytoskeleton using force-displacement curves and Hertz theory. Since OB6 cell line has been widely used, it was selected to validate and compare the obtained results with the previous research studies. As a result, we were able to capture high resolution images through utilization of the tapping mode without adding protein or using fixation methods. The maximum depth of indentation was kept below 15% of the cell thickness to minimize the effect of substrate hardness. Nanostructural details on the surface of cells were visualized by AFM and fluorescence microscopy. The cytoskeletal fibers presented remarkable increase in elastic modulus as compared with the nucleus. Furthermore, our results showed that the elastic modulus of hAFS cell edge (31.6 kPa) was lower than that of OB6 cell edge (42.2 kPa). In addition, the elastic modulus of nucleus was 13.9 kPa for hAFS cell and 26.9 kPa for OB6 cells. Differences in cell elastic modulus possibly resulted from the type and number of actin cytoskeleton organization in these two cell types. PMID:23628151

Aryaei, Ashkan; Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C



Count Around  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners explore their surroundings while reasoning about categories and counting. Pose a question that involves locating items in the room or building, and have learners count how many they can findâand figure out "what counts." Itâs easy to vary the question for different levels of challenge. For instance, for less challenge, ask: How many light switches are in the room? For more, ask: How many light sources are in the room? Once everyone has counted, engage the group in discussing findings: Why might the answers differ even if everyone counted correctly? Available as a web page or downloadable pdf. Students should be able to write the numbers to 12.



Utility of CD4 cell counts for early prediction of virological failure during antiretroviral therapy in a resource-limited setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Viral load monitoring is not available for the vast majority of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings. However, the practical utility of CD4 cell count measurements as an alternative monitoring strategy has not been rigorously assessed. METHODS: In this study, we used a novel modelling approach that accounted for all CD4 cell count and VL values measured during

Motasim Badri; Stephen D Lawn; Robin Wood



Relationship between T Cell Activation and CD4+ T Cell Count in HIV-Seropositive Individuals with Undetectable Plasma HIV RNA Levels in the Absence of Therapy  

PubMed Central

Background Although untreated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected patients maintaining undetectable plasma HIV RNA levels (elite controllers) have high HIV-specific immune responses, it is unclear whether they experience abnormal levels of T cell activation, potentially contributing to immunodeficiency. Methods We compared percentages of activated (CD38+HLA-DR+) T cells between 30 elite controllers, 47 HIV-uninfected individuals, 187 HIV-infected individuals with undetectable viremia receiving antiretroviral therapy (antiretroviral therapy suppressed), and 66 untreated HIV-infected individuals with detectable viremia. Because mucosal translocation of bacterial products may contribute to T cell activation in HIV infection, we also measured plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels. Results Although the median CD4+ cell count in controllers was 727 cells/mm3, 3 (10%) had CD4+ cell counts <350 cells/mm3 and 2 (7%) had acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Controllers had higher CD4+ and CD8+ cell activation levels (P < .001 for both) than HIV-negative subjects and higher CD8+ cell activation levels than the antiretroviral therapy suppressed (P = .048). In controllers, higher CD4+ and CD8+ T cell activation was associated with lower CD4+ cell counts (P = .009 and P = .047). Controllers had higher LPS levels than HIV-negative subjects (P < .001), and in controllers higher LPS level was associated with higher CD8+ T cell activation (P = .039). Conclusion HIV controllers have abnormally high T cell activation levels, which may contribute to progressive CD4+ T cell loss even without measurable viremia.

Hunt, Peter W.; Brenchley, Jason; Sinclair, Elizabeth; McCune, Joseph M.; Roland, Michelle; Page-Shafer, Kimberly; Hsue, Priscilla; Emu, Brinda; Krone, Melissa; Lampiris, Harry; Douek, Daniel; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Deeks, Steven G.



The effect of pathogen-specific clinical mastitis on the lactation curve for somatic cell count.  


Data from 274 Dutch herds recording clinical mastitis (CM) over an 18-mo period were used to investigate the effect of pathogen-specific CM on the lactation curve for somatic cell count (SCC). Analyzed pathogens were Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, other streptococci, and the culture-negative samples. The dataset contained 178,754 test-day records on SCC, recorded in 26,411 lactations of 21,525 cows of different parities. In lactations without both clinical and subclinical mastitis, SCC was high shortly after parturition, decreased to a minimum at 50 days in milk (DIM), and increased slowly toward the end of the lactation. Effects of CM on lactation curves for SCC differed among the pathogens isolated. Before a case of clinical E. coli mastitis occurred, SCC was close to the SCC of lactations without both clinical and subclinical mastitis, and after the case of CM had occurred, SCC returned rather quickly to a low level again. Similar curves were found for lactations with cases of CM associated with culture-negative samples. Before a case of clinical Staph. aureus mastitis occurred, average SCC was already high, and it remained high after the occurrence. Effects of CM associated with Strep. dysgalactiae, Strep. uberis, and other streptococci on the lactation curve for SCC were comparable. They showed a continuous increase in SCC until the case of pathogen-specific CM occurred, and afterwards SCC stayed at a higher level. Using SCC test-day records, these typical characteristics of each pathogen may be used to find more effective indicators of CM. PMID:12086069

de Haas, Y; Barkema, H W; Veerkamp, R F



Validation of a single-platform, volumetric, flow cytometry for CD4 T cell count monitoring in therapeutic mobile unit  

PubMed Central

Background A mobile health unit may be useful to follow up adult and pediatric patients on antiretroviral treatment and living in remote areas devoid of laboratory facilities. The study evaluated the use of the simplified, robust, single-plateform, volumetric, pan-leucogating Auto40 flow cytometer (Apogee Flow Systems Ltd, Hemel Hempstead, UK) for CD4 T cell numeration in a mobile unit, compared against a reference flow cytometry method. Methods The therapeutic mobile unit of the Laboratoire National de Santé Hygiène Mobile, Yaoundé, Cameroon, was equipped with the Auto40. A FACSCalibur flow cytometer (Becton Dickinson Immuno-cytometry System, San Jose, CA, USA) was used as reference method. EDTA-blood samples from volunteers were first subjected to CD4 T cell count in the mobile unit, and an aliquot was sent within 4 hours to Centre International de Référence Chantal Biya, Yaoundé, for FACSCalibur assay. Results Two HIV screening campaigns with the mobile unit were organised in December 2009 and January 2010. The campaign in the suburb of Yaoundé which was 20 km from the reference laboratory included 188 volunteers comprising 93 children less than 5 years old. The campaign in Ambang Bikok (53 km far from Yaoundé) included 69 adult volunteers. In Yaoundé suburb, mean ± standard deviation (SD) CD4 T cell count was 996 ± 874 cells/?l by Auto40, and 989 ± 883 cells/?l by FACSCalibur; in Ambang Bikok, mean ± SD CD4 T cell count was 1041 ± 317 cells/?l by Auto40, and 1032 ± 294 cells/?l by FACSCalibur. Results by Auto40 and FACSCalibur were highly correlated in Yaoundé (r2 = 0.982) as in Ambang Bikok (r2 = 0.921). Bland-Altman analysis showed a close agreement between Auto40 and FACSCalibur results expressed in absolute count as in percentage in Yaoundé and Ambang Bikok. When pooling the 257 CD4 T cell count measurements, the Auto40 yielded a mean difference of +7.6 CD4 T cells/?l higher than by reference flow cytometry; and the sensitivity and specificity of Auto40 in enumerating absolute CD4 T cell counts of less than 200 cells/?l were 87% and 99%, respectively, and in enumerating absolute CD4 T cell counts of less than 350 cells/?l were 87% and 98%, respectively. The intrarun and interun precisions of the Auto40 assay assessed in the mobile unit were 5.5% and 7.9%, respectively. Conclusions The Auto40 flow cytometer installed in a therapeutic mobile unit and operated far from its reference laboratory gave a perfect correlation with the reference method, and could be useful in carrying out immunological monitoring of HIV-infected patients living in areas without access to laboratory facilities.



Preoperative lymphocyte count is a favorable prognostic factor of disease-free survival in non-small-cell lung cancer.  


Recently, the prognostic value of cancer-related inflammatory response has been revealed. Previous studies showed that peripheral neutrophils and lymphocytes had significant impact on the prognosis of advanced and early-node-negative non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of preoperative lymphocyte and neutrophil counts in patients with NSCLC who underwent lobectomy and lymph node dissection and adjuvant chemotherapy. Retrospective analyses were performed to examine the impact of preoperative peripheral lymphocyte and neutrophil counts on disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) and to analyze the relationships of these factors to clinicopathological factors. A total of 142 patients with NSCLC were evaluated of which 57 (40.1 %) patients had local recurrence or metastasis. Multivariate analyses revealed that peripheral lymphocyte count was an independent favorable prognostic factor of DFS (hazard ratio 0.548; 95 % confidence interval 0.351-0.857; P = 0.008) but not OS (P = 0.164). The maximum logrank statistical value was 9.504 (P = 0.002) when the cutoff value of lymphocyte was 1,800 mm(-3). The median DFS was 318.0 days (95 % confidence interval 226.0-410.0) for lymphocyte ?1,800 mm(-3) group and 669.0 days (95 % confidence interval 0.0-1,431.0) for lymphocyte >1,800 mm(-3) group. Low lymphocyte count was related with lymphatic invasion (P = 0.012) and recurrence of NSCLC (P = 0.022). Peripheral neutrophil count had no impact on DFS or OS when analysis included all the 142 patients. Preoperative peripheral lymphocyte count, which is related with lymphatic invasion, is an independent favorable prognostic factor of DFS in patients with NSCLC who underwent lobectomy and lymph node dissection and adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:23275140

Zhang, Jian; Huang, Shao-Hong; Li, Hui; Li, Yun; Chen, Xiu-Ling; Zhang, Wei-Qing; Chen, Hui-Guo; Gu, Li-Jia



Decrease in white blood cell counts after thiopentone barbiturate therapy for refractory intracranial hypertension: A common complication  

PubMed Central

Background: Leucopenia has been reported after induction of thiopentone barbiturate therapy for refractory intracranial hypertension. However, the incidence and characterisitics are not well described. Aims: We performed a retrospective review to describe the incidence and characteristics of leucopenia after induction of thiopentone barbiturate therapy. Setting and Design: Our centre is a national referral centre for neurotrauma and surgery in a tertiary medical institution. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective review of all patients who received thiopentone barbiturate therapy for refractory intracranial hypertension during an 18 month period from January 2004 to June 2005 in our neurosurgical intensive care unit. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 15.0. All data are reported as mean ± standard deviation or median (interquartile range). The Chi square test was used to analyze categorical data and student t test done for comparison of means. For paired data, the paired t-test was used. Results: Thirty eight (80.9%) out of 47 patients developed a decrease in white blood cell (WBC) count after induction of thiopentone barbiturate coma. The mean decrease in WBC from baseline to the nadir was 6.4 × 109/L (P < 0.001) and occurred 57 (3-147) h after induction. The mean nadir WBC was 8.6 ± 3.6 × 109/L. Three (6.4%) patients were leucopenic, with a WBC count of 2.8, 3.1, and 3.6 × 109/L. None of them were neutropenic. We did not find an association between decrease in WBC count and clinical diagnosis of infection. We did not find any association between possible risk factors such as admission GCS, maximum ICP prior to induction of barbiturate coma, APACHE II score, total duration and dose of thiopentone given, and decrease in WBC count. Conclusions: Decrease in WBC count is common, while development of leucopenia is rare after thiopentone barbiturate coma. Regular monitoring of WBC counts is recommended.

Ng, Shin Yi; Chin, Ki Jinn; Kwek, Tong Kiat



Finger-prick blood samples can be used interchangeably with venous samples for CD4 cell counting indicating their potential for use in CD4 rapid tests  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to investigate the utility of finger-prick blood samples for CD4 counting. We estimated agreement between CD4 counts in paired finger-prick and venous samples from 110 HIV-infected Malawian adults. Bias was 6.6 cells/ul (limits of agreement ?50.7 and 63.7 cells/ul) for absolute counts and 0.71% (limits of agreement ?2.07% and 3.48%) for %CD4/lymphocyte suggesting that finger-prick blood samples can be used interchangeably with venous samples for CD4 counting.

MacLennan, Calman A.; van Oosterhout, Joep J. G.; White, Sarah A.; Drayson, Mark T.; Zijlstra, Eduard E; Molyneux, Malcolm E.



Coupling EELS/EFTEM Imaging with Environmental Fluid Cell Microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Insight into dynamically evolving electrochemical reactions and mechanisms encountered in electrical energy storage (EES) and conversion technologies (batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors), materials science (corrosion and oxidation), and materials synthesis (electrodeposition) remains limited due to the present lack of in situ high-resolution characterization methodologies. Electrochemical fluid cell microscopy is an emerging in-situ method that allows for the direct, real-time imaging of electrochemical processes within a fluid environment. This technique is facilitated by the use of MEMS-based biasing microchip platforms that serve the purpose of sealing the highly volatile electrolyte between two electron transparent SiNx membranes and interfacing electrodes to an external potentiostat for controlled nanoscale electrochemislly experiments [!]. In order to elucidate both stmctural and chemical changes during such in situ electrochemical experiments, it is impmtant to first improve upon the spatial resolution by utilizing energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) (to minimize chromatic aben ation), then to detennine the chemical changes via electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). This presents a formidable challenge since the overall thickness through which electrons are scattered through the multiple layers of the cell can be on the order of hundreds of nanometers to microns, scattering through which has the deleterious effect of degrading image resolution and decreasing signal-to noise for spectroscopy [2].

Unocic, Raymond R [ORNL; Baggetto, Loic [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL



Evaluation of the veterinary application of a point-of-care device measuring white blood cell counts.  


A point-of-care device (POCD) for measuring total white blood cell count was evaluated for feline, canine, equine and bovine blood samples collected into EDTA. Mean biases were -9.2% (range, -12% to -6.3%) for feline samples, 20.2% (range, 15.3-25.1%) for canine samples, -7.1% (range, -8.3% to -5.9%) for equine samples, and 0.7% (range, -1.1% to 2.5%) for bovine samples. The results were influenced by the presence of nucleated red blood cells. The POCD provided precise, reliable data for feline, equine and bovine samples but the values obtained for the canine counts were overestimations. PMID:22503717

Riond, Barbara; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Lutz, Hans



White Blood Cell Counts as Risk Markers of Developing Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in the Predimed Study  

PubMed Central

Background The Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that includes hyperglucemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia and central obesity, conferring an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The white blood cell (WBC) count has been proposed as a marker for predicting cardiovascular risk. However, few prospective studies have evaluated the relationship between WBC subtypes and risk of MetS. Methods Participants were recruited from seven PREDIMED study centers. Both a baseline cross-sectional (n?=?4,377) and a prospective assessment (n?=?1,637) were performed. Participants with MetS at baseline were excluded from the longitudinal analysis. The median follow-up was 3.9 years. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, fasting glucose, lipid profile and WBC counts were assessed at baseline and yearly during the follow-up. Participants were categorized by baseline WBC and its subtype count quartiles. Adjusted logistic regression models were fitted to assess the risk of MetS and its components. Results Of the 4,377 participants, 62.6% had MetS at baseline. Compared to the participants in the lowest baseline sex-adjusted quartile of WBC counts, those in the upper quartile showed an increased risk of having MetS (OR, 2.47; 95%CI, 2.03–2.99; P-trend<0.001). This association was also observed for all WBC subtypes, except for basophils. Compared to participants in the lowest quartile, those in the top quartile of leukocyte, neutrophil and lymphocyte count had an increased risk of MetS incidence. Leukocyte and neutrophil count were found to be strongly associated with the MetS components hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol. Likewise, lymphocyte counts were found to be associated with the incidence of the MetS components low HDL-cholesterol and high fasting glucose. An increase in the total WBC during the follow-up was also associated with an increased risk of MetS. Conclusions Total WBC counts, and some subtypes, were positively associated with MetS as well as hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-cholesterol and high fasting glucose, all components of MetS. Trial registration Controlled-Trials.comISRCTN35739639.

Babio, Nancy; Ibarrola-Jurado, Nuria; Bullo, Monica; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Warnberg, Julia; Salaverria, Itziar; Ortega-Calvo, Manuel; Estruch, Ramon; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Covas, Maria Isabel; Sorli, Jose Vicente; Salas-Salvado, Jordi



Interleukin 10 Responses Are Associated With Sustained CD4 T-Cell Counts in Treated HIV Infection  

PubMed Central

Background.Inflammation persists in treated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and may contribute to an increased risk for non–AIDS-related pathologies. We investigated the correlation of cytokine responses with changes in CD4 T-cell levels and coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) during highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). Methods.A total of 383 participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (212 with HIV monoinfection, 56 with HCV monoinfection, and 115 with HIV/HCV coinfection) were studied. HIV-infected women had <1000 HIV RNA copies/mL, 99.7% had >200 CD4 T cells/?L; 98% were receiving HAART at baseline. Changes in CD4 T-cell count between baseline and 2–4 years later were calculated. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained at baseline were used to measure interleukin 1? (IL-1?), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), interleukin 12 (IL-12), and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) responses to Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 and TLR4 stimulation. Results.Undetectable HIV RNA (<80 copies/mL) at baseline and secretion of IL-10 by PBMCs were positively associated with gains in CD4 T-cell counts at follow-up. Inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, IL-12, and TNF-?) were also produced in TLR-stimulated cultures, but only IL-10 was significantly associated with sustained increases in CD4 T-cell levels. This association was significant only in women with HIV monoinfection, indicating that HCV coinfection is an important factor limiting gains in CD4 T-cell counts, possibly by contributing to unbalanced persistent inflammation. Conclusions.Secreted IL-10 from PBMCs may balance the inflammatory environment of HIV, resulting in CD4 T-cell stability.

Villacres, Maria C.; Kono, Naoko; Mack, Wendy J.; Nowicki, Marek J.; Anastos, Kathryn; Augenbraun, Michael; Liu, Chenglong; Landay, Alan; Greenblatt, Ruth M.; Gange, Stephen J.; Levine, Alexandra M.



Low CD4 T cell counts before HIV1 seroconversion do not affect disease progression in Ethiopian factory workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-uninfected Ethiopians have lower CD4 T cell counts than do other populations in Africa and industrialized countries. We studied whether this unique immunological profile results in shorter survival times in HIV-1-infected Ethiopians. METHODS: Data from an open cohort study of 149 HIV-1-infected factory workers in Ethiopia for 1997-2002 were used. To estimate survival times,

Yared Mekonnen; Tsehaynesh Messele; Jose Borghans; Frank Miedema; Dawit Wolday



Treatment-Mediated Alterations in HIV Fitness Preserve CD4+ T Cell Counts but Have Minimal Effects on Viral Load  

Microsoft Academic Search

For most HIV-infected patients, antiretroviral therapy controls viral replication. However, in some patients drug resistance can cause therapy to fail. Nonetheless, continued therapy with a failing regimen can preserve or even lead to increases in CD4+ T cell counts. To understand the biological basis of these observations, we used mathematical models to explain observations made in patients with drug-resistant HIV

Naveen K. Vaidya; Libin Rong; Vincent C. Marconi; Daniel R. Kuritzkes; Steven G. Deeks; Alan S. Perelson; Christophe Fraser



The association between white blood cell count and acute myocardial infarction mortality in patients ?65 years of age: findings from the cooperative cardiovascular project  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESThe purpose of the study was to examine the association between white blood cell (WBC) count on admission and 30-day mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).BACKGROUNDElevations in WBC count have been associated with the development of AMI and with long-term mortality in patients with coronary artery disease. However, the relationship between WBC count and prognosis following AMI is

Hal V. Barron; Steven D. Harr; Martha J. Radford; Yongfei Wang; Harlan M. Krumholz



Stem Cells Derived from Human Amniotic Fluid Contribute to Acute Kidney Injury Recovery  

PubMed Central

Stem cells isolated from human amniotic fluid are gaining attention with regard to their therapeutic potential. In this work, we investigated whether these cells contribute to tubular regeneration after experimental acute kidney injury. Cells expressing stem cell markers with multidifferentiative potential were isolated from human amniotic fluid. The regenerative potential of human amniotic fluid stem cells was compared with that of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells. We found that the intravenous injection of 3.5 × 105 human amniotic fluid stem cells into nonimmune-competent mice with glycerol-induced acute kidney injury was followed by rapid normalization of renal function compared with injection of mesenchymal stem cells. Both stem cell types showed enhanced tubular cell proliferation and reduced apoptosis. Mesenchymal stem cells were more efficient in inducing proliferation than amniotic fluid-derived stem cells, which, in contrast, were more antiapoptotic. Both cell types were found to accumulate within the peritubular capillaries and the interstitium, but amniotic fluid stem cells were more persistent than mesenchymal stem cells. In vitro experiments demonstrated that the two cell types produced different cytokines and growth factors, suggesting that a combination of different mediators is involved in their biological actions. These results suggest that the amniotic fluid-derived stem cells may improve renal regeneration in acute kidney injury, but they are not more effective than mesenchymal stem cells.

Hauser, Peter V.; Fazio, Roberta De; Bruno, Stefania; Sdei, Simona; Grange, Cristina; Bussolati, Benedetta; Benedetto, Chiara; Camussi, Giovanni



Stem cells derived from human amniotic fluid contribute to acute kidney injury recovery.  


Stem cells isolated from human amniotic fluid are gaining attention with regard to their therapeutic potential. In this work, we investigated whether these cells contribute to tubular regeneration after experimental acute kidney injury. Cells expressing stem cell markers with multidifferentiative potential were isolated from human amniotic fluid. The regenerative potential of human amniotic fluid stem cells was compared with that of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells. We found that the intravenous injection of 3.5 × 10(5) human amniotic fluid stem cells into nonimmune-competent mice with glycerol-induced acute kidney injury was followed by rapid normalization of renal function compared with injection of mesenchymal stem cells. Both stem cell types showed enhanced tubular cell proliferation and reduced apoptosis. Mesenchymal stem cells were more efficient in inducing proliferation than amniotic fluid-derived stem cells, which, in contrast, were more antiapoptotic. Both cell types were found to accumulate within the peritubular capillaries and the interstitium, but amniotic fluid stem cells were more persistent than mesenchymal stem cells. In vitro experiments demonstrated that the two cell types produced different cytokines and growth factors, suggesting that a combination of different mediators is involved in their biological actions. These results suggest that the amniotic fluid-derived stem cells may improve renal regeneration in acute kidney injury, but they are not more effective than mesenchymal stem cells. PMID:20724594

Hauser, Peter V; De Fazio, Roberta; Bruno, Stefania; Sdei, Simona; Grange, Cristina; Bussolati, Benedetta; Benedetto, Chiara; Camussi, Giovanni



Cell-free fetal nucleic acids in amniotic fluid  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Research into cell-free fetal (cff) nucleic acids has primarily focused on maternal plasma; however, cff DNA and RNA are also detectable in other body fluids such as amniotic fluid (AF). In AF, cff DNA is present in much greater concentrations than in maternal plasma and represents a pure fetal sample uncontaminated by maternal- and trophoblast-derived nucleic acids. The aim of this review was to summarize the current knowledge on cff nucleic acids in AF and to outline future research directions. METHODS MEDLINE and PREMEDLINE were searched up to August 2010 for original investigations of cell-free RNA or DNA in AF. Sixteen studies were included in the review. RESULTS AF cff DNA represents a physiologically separate pool from cff DNA in maternal plasma. The placenta is not a major source of nucleic acids in AF. It is feasible to isolate cff nucleic acids from small volumes of discarded AF supernatant in sufficient quality and quantity to perform microarray studies and downstream applications such as pathway analysis. This ‘discovery-driven approach’ has resulted in new information on the pathogenesis of Down syndrome and polyhydramnios. There is otherwise a paucity of information relating to the basic biology and clinical applications of cff nucleic acids in AF. CONCLUSIONS AF supernatant is a valuable and widely available but under-utilized biological resource. Further studies of cff nucleic acids in AF may lead to new insights into human fetal development and ultimately new approaches to antenatal treatment of human disease.

Hui, L.; Bianchi, D.W.



Spiral Phyllotaxis Pattern in an Animal Cell: A Fluid Driven Mechanism for Red Cell Echinocytosis and Programmed Cell Death  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates that the pattern of lipid spiculesthat emerge on the surface of red blood cells in the classic 'Discocyte to Echinocyte' shape change is a generative spiral, and presents a qualitative, fluid- driven mechanism for their production, compatible with the work of Douady and Couder. Implications for the dynamics of cell growth, plant cell phyllotaxy, programmed cell death

J T Lofthouse



Halo abundances and counts-in-cells: the excursion set approach with correlated steps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The excursion set approach has been used to make predictions for a number of interesting quantities in studies of non-linear hierarchical clustering. These include the halo mass function, halo merger rates, halo formation times and masses, halo clustering, analogous quantities for voids and the distribution of dark matter counts in randomly placed cells. The approach assumes that all these quantities can be mapped to problems involving the first-crossing distribution of a suitably chosen barrier by random walks. Most analytic expressions for these distributions ignore the fact that, although different k-modes in the initial Gaussian field are uncorrelated, this is not true in real space: the values of the density field at a given spatial position, when smoothed on different real-space scales, are correlated in a non-trivial way. As a result, the problem is to estimate first crossing distribution by random walks having correlated rather than uncorrelated steps. In 1990, Peacock & Heavens presented a simple approximation for the first crossing distribution of a single barrier of constant height by walks with correlated steps. We show that their approximation can be thought of as a correction to the distribution associated with what we call smooth completely correlated walks. We then use this insight to extend their approach to treat moving barriers, as well as walks that are constrained to pass through a certain point before crossing the barrier. For the latter, we show that a simple rescaling, inspired by bivariate Gaussian statistics, of the unconditional first crossing distribution, accurately describes the conditional distribution, independent of the choice of analytical prescription for the former. In all cases, comparison with Monte Carlo solutions of the problem shows reasonably good agreement. This represents the first explicit demonstration of the accuracy of an analytic treatment of all these aspects of the correlated steps problem. While our main focus is on first crossing distributions of deterministic barriers by random walks, in Appendices we also discuss several issues that arise upon introducing a stochasticity in the barrier height, a topic which has gained interest recently with regard to the mapping between first crossing distributions and halo mass functions.

Paranjape, Aseem; Lam, Tsz Yan; Sheth, Ravi K.



Associations of dairy cow behavior, barn hygiene, cow hygiene, and risk of elevated somatic cell count.  


Poor dairy cow hygiene has been consistently associated with elevated somatic cell count (SCC) and the risk of subclinical mastitis. The objective of this study was to determine the associations between dairy cow standing and lying behavior, barn hygiene, cow hygiene, and the risk of experiencing elevated SCC. Lactating Holstein dairy cows (n=69; 86 ± 51 DIM; parity: 2.0 ± 1.2; means ± SD), kept in 1 of 2 groups, were monitored over a 4-mo period. Each group contained 61 ± 1 (mean ± SD) cows over the study period; complete data were obtained from 37 and 32 animals within each respective group. Cows were housed in a sand-bedded, freestall barn with 2 symmetrical pens, each with a free cow traffic automatic milking system. To vary barn hygiene, in 4 consecutive 28-d periods, alley manure scrapers in each of the 2 pens were randomly assigned to frequencies of operation of 3, 6, 12, and 24 times per day. During the last 7 d of each period, cow hygiene (upper leg/flank, lower legs, and udder; scale of 1 = very clean to 4 = very dirty) and stall hygiene (number of 0.15×0.15-m squares contaminated with manure in a 1.20×1.65-m grid) were recorded. Standing and lying behavior of the cows were collected during those days using data loggers. Individual-cow SCC was recorded at the beginning and end of each 28-d period. Elevated SCC was used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis; incidence of elevated SCC was defined as having a SCC >200,000 cells/mL at the end of each 28-d period, when SCC was <100,000 cells/mL at the beginning of the period. Less frequent scraping of the barn alleys was associated with cows having poorer hygiene. Poor udder hygiene was associated with poor stall hygiene. Longer lying duration was associated with poor hygiene of the upper legs/flank and udder. Greater premilking standing duration was associated with poor udder hygiene and decreased frequency of lying bouts was associated with poor hygiene of the lower legs. Higher milk yield was associated with poor hygiene of the udder and lower legs; multiparous cows had poorer hygiene of the upper legs/flank and udder. Over the study period, 24 new cases of elevated SCC were detected. No associations existed for the risk of experiencing an elevated SCC with alley scraping frequency or cow behavior patterns. However, increased odds of occurrence of elevated SCC were noted for cows of lower milk yield as well as for multiparous cows. In summary, these results show that cow hygiene is affected by the standing and lying behavior of cows and by the cleanliness of the cow's environment. These findings emphasize the need for cows to be provided clean standing and lying environments. The results also show that frequent cleaning of barn alley floors will help improve cow hygiene. PMID:22884345

Devries, T J; Aarnoudse, M G; Barkema, H W; Leslie, K E; von Keyserlingk, M A G



Variables associated with the platelet count 6 weeks after autologous peripheral blood progenitor cell transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

While abundant data exist documenting variables associated with early platelet engraftment after autologous PBPC transplantation, data concerning later sustained platelet engraftment is sparse. We retrospectively examined a series of 80 patients undergoing autologous PBPC transplantation with respect to their platelet count 6 weeks after transplant. Underlying diagnoses included breast cancer (n = 33), non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (n = 32), Hodgkin’s disease

B Bolwell; M Goormastic; S Andresen; A Koo; K Wise; B Overmoyer; B Pohlman; M Kalaycio



Purkinje cell complements in mammalian cerebella and the biases incurred by counting nucleoli.  

PubMed Central

An unbiased stereological counting device (the fractionator) was used to count Purkinje neurons in mammalian cerebella of known weights in order to define the relationship between weight and number. Nucleoli were chosen as the counting unit and numbers were estimated from uniform random samples of wax-embedded tissue sections. For the cerebella of rat, rabbit, cat, dog, goat, sheep, pig, ox, horse and human, there was a significant linear relationship between log number and log weight. The allometric relationship took the form N = 748,500 x W0.627. The relative bias associated with using nucleoli as counting units was assessed separately on disector pairs of sections and amounted to roughly -5% but varied between species. When the brains of females and males were analysed separately (cat, goat, pig, ox, horse, human), there were no significant differences between the regression lines. These results are consistent with earlier findings. They imply that Purkinje neuron packing densities decrease as brain size increases. Moreover, our preliminary findings appear to indicate that, for any given cerebellar weight, females and males have similar numbers of neurons.

Mwamengele, G L; Mayhew, T M; Dantzer, V



Why translation counts for mitochondria - retrograde signalling links mitochondrial protein synthesis to mitochondrial biogenesis and cell proliferation.  


Organelle biosynthesis is a key requirement for cell growth and division. The regulation of mitochondrial biosynthesis exhibits additional layers of complexity compared with that of other organelles because they contain their own genome and dedicated ribosomes. Maintaining these components requires gene expression to be coordinated between the nucleo-cytoplasmic compartment and mitochondria in order to monitor organelle homeostasis and to integrate the responses to the physiological and developmental demands of the cell. Surprisingly, the parameters that are used to monitor or count mitochondrial abundance are not known, nor are the signalling pathways. Inhibiting the translation on mito-ribosomes genetically or with antibiotics can impair cell proliferation and has been attributed to defects in aerobic energy metabolism, even though proliferating cells rely primarily on glycolysis to fuel their metabolic demands. However, a recent study indicates that mitochondrial translational stress and the rescue mechanisms that relieve this stress cause the defect in cell proliferation and occur before any impairment of oxidative phosphorylation. Therefore, the process of mitochondrial translation in itself appears to be an important checkpoint for the monitoring of mitochondrial homeostasis and might have a role in establishing mitochondrial abundance within a cell. This hypothesis article will explore the evidence supporting a role for mito-ribosomes and translation in a mitochondria-counting mechanism. PMID:24013545

Battersby, Brendan J; Richter, Uwe



B Cell Depletion in HIV1 Subtype A Infected Ugandan Adults: Relationship to CD4 T Cell Count, Viral Load and Humoral Immune Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand the nature of B cell dysfunctions in subjects infected with HIV-1 subtype A, a rural cohort of 50 treatment-naïve Ugandan patients chronically infected with HIV-1 subtype A was studied, and the relationship between B cell depletion and HIV disease was assessed. B cell absolute counts were found to be significantly lower in HIV-1+ patients, when compared to

Peter Oballah; Britta Flach; Leigh A. Eller; Michael A. Eller; Benson Ouma; Mark de Souza; Hannah N. Kibuuka; Fred Wabwire-Mangen; Bruce K. Brown; Nelson L. Michael; Merlin L. Robb; David Montefiori; Victoria R. Polonis



Counting Money  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will reinforce the idea of counting coins as well as adding different amounts of coins. First, play Shoot your fruit! to identify your numbers! Then, dive into Underwater Counting!! Ms. Eppes Class: First, visit farm stand to figure out how much it will cost to buy eggs and apples. Once you have completed the farm stand go on a spending spree! ...

Bunn, Ms.



White blood cell count in women: relation to inflammatory biomarkers, haematological profiles, visceral adiposity, and other cardiovascular risk factors.  


The role of white blood cell (WBC) count in pathogenesis of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and obesity-related disorders has been reported earlier. Recent studies revealed that higher WBC contributes to atherosclerotic progression and impaired fasting glucose. However, it is unknown whether variations in WBC and haematologic profiles can occur in healthy obese individuals. The aim of this study is to further evaluate the influence of obesity on WBC count, inflammatory biomarkers, and metabolic risk factors in healthy women to establish a relationship among variables analyzed. The sample of the present study consisted of 84 healthy women with mean age of 35.56 +/- 6.83 years. They were categorized into two groups based on their body mass index (BMI): obese group with BMI > 30 kg/m2 and non-obese group with BMI < 30 kg/m2. We evaluated the relationship between WBC and platelet count (PLT) with serum interleukin 6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), angiotensin pi (Ang pi), body fat percentage (BF %), waist-circumference (WC), and lipid profile. WBC, PLT, CRP, and IL-6 in obese subjects were significantly higher than in non-obese subjects (p < 0.05). The mean WBC count in obese subjects was 6.4 +/- 0.3 (x10(9)/L) compared to 4.4 +/- 0.3 (x10(9)/L) in non-obese subjects (p = 0.035). WBC correlated with BF% (r = 0.31, p = 0.004), CRP (r = 0.25, P = 0.03), WC (r = 0.22, p = 0.04), angiotensin 11 (r = 0.24, p = 0.03), triglyceride (r = 0.24, p = 0.03), and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) levels (r = 0.3, p = 0.028) but not with IL-6. Platelet count was also associated with WC and waist-to-hip ratio (p < 0.05). Haemoglobin and haematocrit were in consistent relationship with LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.05). In conclusion, obesity was associated with higher WBC count and inflammatory parameters. There was also a positive relationship between WBC count and several inflammatory and metabolic risk factors in healthy women. PMID:23617205

Farhangi, Mahdieh Abbasalizad; Keshavarz, Seyyed-Ali; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Saboor-Yaraghi, Ali-Akbar



White Blood Cell Count in Women: Relation to Inflammatory Biomarkers, Haematological Profiles, Visceral Adiposity, and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors  

PubMed Central

The role of white blood cell (WBC) count in pathogenesis of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and obesity-related disorders has been reported earlier. Recent studies revealed that higher WBC contributes to atherosclerotic progression and impaired fasting glucose. However, it is unknown whether variations in WBC and haematologic profiles can occur in healthy obese individuals. The aim of this study is to further evaluate the influence of obesity on WBC count, inflammatory biomarkers, and metabolic risk factors in healthy women to establish a relationship among variables analyzed. The sample of the present study consisted of 84 healthy women with mean age of 35.56±6.83 years. They were categorized into two groups based on their body mass index (BMI): obese group with BMI >30 kg/m2 and non-obese group with BMI <30 kg/m2. We evaluated the relationship between WBC and platelet count (PLT) with serum interleukin 6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), angiotensin ? (Ang ?), body fat percentage (BF %), waist-circumference (WC), and lipid profile. WBC, PLT, CRP, and IL-6 in obese subjects were significantly higher than in non-obese subjects (p< 0.05). The mean WBC count in obese subjects was 6.4±0.3 (×109/L) compared to 4.4±0.3 (×109/L) in non-obese subjects (p=0.035). WBC correlated with BF% (r=0.31, p=0.004), CRP (r=0.25, P=0.03), WC (r=0.22, p=0.04), angiotensin ? (r=0.24, p=0.03), triglyceride (r=0.24, p=0.03), and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) levels (r=0.3, p=0.028) but not with IL-6. Platelet count was also associated with WC and waist-to-hip ratio (p<0.05). Haemoglobin and haematocrit were in consistent relationship with LDL-cholesterol (p<0.05). In conclusion, obesity was associated with higher WBC count and inflammatory parameters. There was also a positive relationship between WBC count and several inflammatory and metabolic risk factors in healthy women.

Farhangi, Mahdieh Abbasalizad; Keshavarz, Seyyed-Ali; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Ostadrahimi, Alireza



Evaluation of the overall accuracy of the DeLaval cell counter for somatic cell counts in ovine milk.  


The DeLaval cell counter (DCC) is a portable device designed for on-farm somatic cell count (SCC) analysis in bovine milk. This study evaluated the performance of the DCC when analyzing ovine milk. A total of 29 composite ovine milk samples, ranging between 20 x 10(3) and 2,200 x 10(3) cells/mL, were divided into 15 aliquots/milk sample corresponding to 5 SCC methods using 3 types of preservation (unpreserved, azidiol, and bronopol). The SCC methods were the Fossomatic (FSCC), the DCC in undiluted samples, and the DCC in samples diluted 1:1 in 3 different types of diluents (PBS + Triton X-100, PBS + ethidium bromide + Triton X-100, and PBS + propidium iodide + Triton X-100). All analyses were carried out in duplicate. In addition, each sample was analyzed in quadruplicate by the direct microscopic method (DMSCC) using Pyronin Y-methyl green as a stain. Comparison of methods was based on overall accuracy studies (means comparison, repeatability, and regression studies vs. DMSCC and FSCC as reference methods). The DCC methods used to analyze milk samples diluted in staining solution (with ethidium bromide or propidium iodide) showed large coefficients of regression (b = 0.91 to 1.01) and correlation (r > 0.99) when compared with the DMSCC and FSCC methods. In these samples the DCC gave repeatability values (s(r) = 33 to 48 x 10(3) cells/mL) similar to the DMSCC (s(r) = 36 x 10(3) cells/mL), and their log SCC means (5.52 to 5.54) did not differ from the reference value (5.54). However, undiluted samples analyzed by the DCC method showed large standard deviations of repeatability and SCC values lower than those by the DMSCC or FSCC methods, probably because of the high solids content in ovine milk. The type of preservation did not affect the outcomes. Consequently, the DCC was determined to be accurate when analyzing diluted ovine milk based on comparison with the SCC reference methods. PMID:17106093

Gonzalo, C; Linage, B; Carriedo, J A; de la Fuente, F; Primitivo, F San



White Blood Cell Counts in Persons Aged 65 Years or More from the Cardiovascular Health Study Correlations with Baseline Clinical and Demographic Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A higher white blood cell (WBC) count has been shown to be a risk factor for myocardial infarction and stroke in middle-aged populations. This study evaluated the relation between baseline WBC count and other risk factors, as well as subclinical and prevalent disease, in the Cardiovascular Health Study, an epidemiologic study of coronary heart disease and stroke in 5,201 persons

Edwin G. Bovill; Diane E. Bild; Gerardo Heiss; Lewis H. Kuller; Marshall H. Lee; Robert Rock; Patricia W. Wahl


Relationship between baseline white blood cell count and degree of coronary artery disease and mortality in patients with acute coronary syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThis study was designed to determine the relationship between baseline white blood cell (WBC) count and angiographic and clinical outcomes in patients with unstable angina (UA)\\/non–ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and to see if WBC count was a significant predictor of outcomes independent of other biomarkers.

Marc S Sabatine; David A Morrow; Christopher P Cannon; Sabina A Murphy; Laura A Demopoulos; Peter M DiBattiste; Carolyn H McCabe; Eugene Braunwald; C. Michael Gibson



Baculovirus-transduced mouse amniotic fluid-derived stem cells maintain differentiation potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amniotic fluid-derived stem cells have attracted considerable attention in the field of regenerative medicine. Approach of\\u000a genetic modification probably enhances their regenerative potential. In this work, we wanted to determine whether baculovirus\\u000a as a new gene vector could efficiently and safely transduce mouse amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (mAFSs). Cells were isolated\\u000a from mouse amniotic fluid and cultured in vitro. These

Zheng-Shan Liu; Yong-Feng Xu; Shan-Wei Feng; Yong Li; Xiao-Li Yao; Xi-Lin Lu; Cheng Zhang



A study of irrigation fluids for neurosurgery on brain primary cell cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Primary cell cultures from newborn rat brain hemispheres were exposed to different irrigation fluids used in neurosurgery. The cells died after incubation for 5 min with hydrogen peroxide, and the number of cells was drastically decreased after 10 sec of incubation. They shrank after incubation in Elliott's artificial cerebrospinal fluid for 3 h, but the viability as determined by

Elisabeth Hansson; B. Vällfors



Fatigue, serum cytokine levels, and blood cell counts during radiotherapy of patients with breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To assess the level of fatigue during the course of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) of breast cancer patients and its relation to anxiety, depression, serum cytokines, and blood count levels.Methods and Materials: Forty-one patients who received adjuvant RT after breast-conserving surgery were prospectively studied. All patients underwent RT without concomitant chemotherapy. Patients rated their fatigue with two standardized self-assessment instruments,

Hans Geinitz; Frank B Zimmermann; Peter Stoll; Reinhard Thamm; Walter Kaffenberger; Kai Ansorg; Monika Keller; Raymonde Busch; Dirk van Beuningen; Michael Molls



HIV Patients Developing Primary CNS Lymphoma Lack EBV-Specific CD4+ T Cell Function Irrespective of Absolute CD4+ T Cell Counts  

PubMed Central

Background In chronic HIV infection, antiretroviral therapy–induced normalization of CD4+ T cell counts (immune reconstitution [IR]) is associated with a decreased incidence of opportunistic diseases. However, some individuals remain at risk for opportunistic diseases despite prolonged normalization of CD4+ T cell counts. Deficient Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific CD4+ T cell function may explain the occurrence of EBV-associated opportunistic malignancy—such as primary central nervous system (PCNS) lymphoma—despite recovery of absolute CD4+ T cell counts. Methods and Findings Absolute CD4+ T cell counts and EBV-specific CD4+ T cell-dependent interferon-? production were assessed in six HIV-positive individuals prior to development of PCNS lymphoma (“cases”), and these values were compared with those in 16 HIV-infected matched participants with no sign of EBV-associated pathology (“matched controls”) and 11 nonmatched HIV-negative blood donors. Half of the PCNS lymphoma patients fulfilled IR criteria (defined here as CD4+ T cell counts ?500/?l blood). EBV-specific CD4+ T cells were assessed 0.5–4.7 y prior to diagnosis of lymphoma. In 0/6 cases versus 13/16 matched controls an EBV-specific CD4+ T cell response was detected (p = 0.007; confidence interval for odds ratio [0–0.40]). PCNS lymphoma patients also differed with regards to this response significantly from HIV-negative blood donors (p < 0.001, confidence interval for odds ratio [0–0.14]), but there was no evidence for a difference between HIV-negative participants and the HIV-positive matched controls (p = 0.47). Conclusions Irrespective of absolute CD4+ T cell counts, HIV-positive patients who subsequently developed PCNS lymphoma lacked EBV-specific CD4+ T cell function. Larger, ideally prospective studies are needed to confirm these preliminary data, and clarify the impact of pathogen-specific versus surrogate marker-based assessment of IR on clinical outcome.

Gasser, Olivier; Bihl, Florian K; Wolbers, Marcel; Loggi, Elisabetta; Steffen, Ingrid; Hirsch, Hans H; Gunthard, Huldrych F; Walker, Bruce D; Brander, Christian; Battegay, Manuel; Hess, Christoph



Utility of CD4 cell counts for early prediction of virological failure during antiretroviral therapy in a resource-limited setting  

PubMed Central

Background Viral load monitoring is not available for the vast majority of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings. However, the practical utility of CD4 cell count measurements as an alternative monitoring strategy has not been rigorously assessed. Methods In this study, we used a novel modelling approach that accounted for all CD4 cell count and VL values measured during follow-up from the first date that VL suppression was achieved. We determined the associations between CD4 counts (absolute values and changes during ART), VL measurements and risk of virological failure (VL > 1,000 copies/ml) following initial VL suppression in 330 patients in South Africa. CD4 count changes were modelled both as the difference from baseline (?CD4 count) and the difference between consecutive values (CD4 count slope) using all 3-monthly CD4 count measurements during follow-up. Results During 7093.2 patient-months of observation 3756 paired CD4 count and VL measurements were made. In patients who developed virological failure (n = 179), VL correlated significantly with absolute CD4 counts (r = - 0.08, P = 0.003), ?CD4 counts (r = - 0.11, P < 0.01), and most strongly with CD4 count slopes (r = - 0.30, P < 0.001). However, the distributions of the absolute CD4 counts, ?CD4 counts and CD4 count slopes at the time of virological failure did not differ significantly from the corresponding distributions in those without virological failure (P = 0.99, P = 0.92 and P = 0.75, respectively). Moreover, in a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the association between a negative CD4 count slope and virological failure was poor (area under the curve = 0.59; sensitivity = 53.0%; specificity = 63.6%; positive predictive value = 10.9%). Conclusion CD4 count changes correlated significantly with VL at group level but had very limited utility in identifying virological failure in individual patients. CD4 count is an inadequate alternative to VL measurement for early detection of virological failure.

Badri, Motasim; Lawn, Stephen D; Wood, Robin



Flow-cytometric total bacterial cell counts as a descriptive microbiological parameter for drinking water treatment processes.  


There are significantly more microbial cells in drinking water than what can be cultured on synthetic growth media. Nonetheless, cultivation-based heterotrophic plate counts (HPCs) are used worldwide as a general microbial quality parameter in drinking water treatment and distribution. Total bacterial cell concentrations are normally not considered during drinking water treatment as a design, operative or legislative parameters. This is mainly because easy and rapid methods for quantification of total bacterial cell concentrations have, up to now, not been available. As a consequence, the existing lack of data does not allow demonstrating the practical value of this parameter. In this study, we have used fluorescence staining of microbial cells with the nucleic acid stain SYBR((R)) Green I together with quantitative flow cytometry (FCM) to analyse total cell concentrations in water samples from a drinking water pilot plant. The plant treats surface water (Lake Zürich) through sequential ozonation, granular active carbon (GAC) filtration and membrane ultrafiltration (UF). The data were compared with adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) measurements and conventional HPCs performed on the same water samples. We demonstrated that the impact of all three major treatment steps on the microbiology in the system could accurately be described with total cell counting: (1) ozonation caused chemical destruction of the bacterial cells; (2) GAC filtration facilitated significant regrowth of the microbial community; and (3) membrane UF physically removed the bacterial cells from the water. FCM typically detected 1-2 log units more than HPC, while ATP measurements were prone to interference from extracellular ATP released during the ozonation step in the treatment train. We have shown that total cell concentration measured with FCM is a rapid, easy, sensitive and importantly, a descriptive parameter of several widely applied drinking water treatment processes. PMID:17659762

Hammes, Frederik; Berney, Michael; Wang, Yingying; Vital, Marius; Köster, Oliver; Egli, Thomas



White blood cell count, sex and age are major determinants of heterogeneity of platelet indices in an adult general population: results from the MOLI-SANI project  

PubMed Central

Background The understanding of non-genetic regulation of platelet indices - platelet count, plateletcrit, mean platelet volume, and platelet distribution width - is limited. The association of these platelet indices with a number of biochemical, environmental and clinical variables was studied in a large cohort of the general population. Design and Methods Men and women (n=18,097, 52% women, 56±12 years) were randomly recruited from various villages in Molise (Italy) in the framework of the population-based cohort study “Moli-sani”. Hemochromocytometric analyses were performed using an automatic analyzer (Beckman Coulter, IL, Milan, Italy). Associations of platelet indices with dependent variables were investigated by multivariable linear regression analysis. Results Full models including age, sex, body mass index, blood pressure, smoking, menopause, white and red blood cell counts, mean corpuscular volume, D-dimers, C-reactive protein, high-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, triglycerides, glucose, and drug use explained 16%, 21%, 1.9% and 4.7% of platelet count, plateletcrit, mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width variability, respectively; variables that appeared to be most strongly associated were white blood cell count, age, and sex. Platelet count, mean platelet volume and plateletcrit were positively associated with white blood cell count, while platelet distribution width was negatively associated with white blood cell count. Platelet count and plateletcrit were also positively associated with C-reactive protein and D-dimers (P<0.0001). Each of the other variables, although associated with platelet indices in a statistically significant manner, only explained less than 0.5% of their variability. Platelet indices varied across Molise villages, independently of any other platelet count determinant or characteristics of the villages. Conclusions The association of platelet indices with white blood cell count, C-reactive protein and D-dimers in a general population underline the relation between platelets and inflammation.

Santimone, Iolanda; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; De Curtis, Amalia; Spinelli, Maria; Cugino, Daniela; Gianfagna, Francesco; Zito, Francesco; Donati, Maria Benedetta; Cerletti, Chiara; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Iacoviello, Licia



Modeling centrifugal cell washers using computational fluid dynamics.  


Reinfusion of shed blood during surgery could avoid the need for blood transfusions. Prior to reinfusion of the red blood cells, the shed blood must be washed in order to remove leukocytes, platelets, and other contaminants. Further, the hematocrit of the washed blood must be increased. The feasibility of using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to guide the design of better centrifuges for processing shed blood is explored here. The velocity field within a centrifuge bowl and the rate of protein removal from the shed blood has been studied. The results obtained indicate that CFD could help screen preliminary centrifuge bowl designs, thus reducing the number of initial experimental tests required when developing new centrifuge bowls. Although the focus of this work is on washing shed blood, the methods developed here are applicable to the design of centrifuge bowls for other blood-processing applications. PMID:15504118

Kellet, Beth E; Han, Binbing; Dandy, David S; Wickramasinghe, S Ranil



Meningothelial cells participate in immunological processes in the cerebrospinal fluid.  


Meningothelial cells (MECs) form the innermost layer of the meningeal sheath and as such are in direct contact with the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) likely influencing CSF composition. The CSF space is a site of active immunological processes. To investigate an immunological role of MECs, cytokine and chemokine secretion, phagocytotic and pinocytotic activity by MECs was analyzed following stimulation with lipopolysaccharide, phorbol ester or rotenone. Secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 by MECs increased in a dose dependent manner after stimulation concomitant with NF-?B activation. In addition, phagocytotic clearance by MECs was enhanced suggesting an immunological role for MECs in the CSF compartment and pointing to a possible connection to neurodegenerative processes. PMID:22261544

Fan, Bin; Bordigari, Giovanna; Flammer, Josef; Killer, Hanspeter E; Meyer, Peter; Neutzner, Albert



Region-Based PDEs for Cells Counting and Segmentation in 3D+Time Images of Vertebrate Early Embryogenesis  

PubMed Central

This paper is devoted to the segmentation of cell nuclei from time lapse confocal microscopy images, taken throughout early Zebrafish embryogenesis. The segmentation allows to identify and quantify the number of cells in the animal model. This kind of information is relevant to estimate important biological parameters such as the cell proliferation rate in time and space. Our approach is based on the active contour model without edges. We compare two different formulations of the model equation and evaluate their performances in segmenting nuclei of different shapes and sizes. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons are performed on both synthetic and real data, by means of suitable gold standard. The best approach is then applied on a number of time lapses for the segmentation and counting of cells during the development of a zebrafish embryo between the sphere and the shield stage.

Rizzi, Barbara; Sarti, Alessandro



Evaluation of Endothelial Cells Differentiated from Amniotic Fluid-Derived Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Amniotic fluid holds great promise as a stem cell source, especially in neonatal applications where autologous cells can be isolated and used. This study examined chemical-mediated differentiation of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (AFSC) into endothelial cells and verified the function of AFSC-derived endothelial cells (AFSC-EC). AFSC were isolated from amniotic fluid obtained from second trimester amnioreduction as part of therapeutic intervention from pregnancies affected with twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Undifferentiated AFSC were of normal karyotype with a subpopulation of cells positive for the embryonic stem cell marker SSEA4, hematopoietic stem cell marker c-kit, and mesenchymal stem cell markers CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90, and CD105. Additionally, these cells were negative for the endothelial marker CD31 and hematopoietic differentiation marker CD45. AFSC were cultured in endothelial growth media with concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) ranging from 1 to 100?ng/mL. After 2 weeks, AFSC-EC expressed von Willebrand factor, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, CD31, VE-cadherin, and VEGF receptor 2. Additionally, the percentage of cells expressing CD31 was positively correlated with VEGF concentration up to 50?ng/mL, with no increase at higher concentrations. AFSC-EC showed a decrease in stem cells markers c-kit and SSEA4 and were morphologically similar to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). In functional assays, AFSC-EC formed networks and metabolized acetylated low-density lipoprotein, also characteristic of HUVEC. Nitrate levels for AFSC-EC, an indirect measure of nitric oxide synthesis, were significantly higher than undifferentiated controls and significantly lower than HUVEC. These results indicate that AFSC can differentiate into functional endothelial-like cells and may have the potential to provide vascularization for constructs used in regenerative medicine strategies.

Benavides, Omar M.; Petsche, Jennifer J.; Moise, Kenneth J.; Johnson, Anthony



Characterization of human afferent lymph dendritic cells from seroma fluids.  


Dendritic cells (DCs) migrate from peripheral tissues to secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) through the afferent lymph. Owing to limitations in investigating human lymph, DCs flowing in afferent lymph have not been properly characterized in humans until now. In this study, DCs present in seroma, an accrual of human afferent lymph occurring after lymph node surgical dissection, were isolated and analyzed in detail. Two main DC subsets were identified in seroma that corresponded to the migratory DC subsets present in lymph nodes, that is, CD14(+) and CD1a(+). The latter also included CD1a(bright) Langerhans cells. The two DC subsets appeared to share the same monocytic precursor and to be developmentally related; both of them spontaneously released high levels of TGF-? and displayed similar T cell-activating and -polarizing properties. In contrast, they differed in the expression of surface molecules, including TLRs; in their phagocytic activity; and in the expression of proteins involved in Ag processing and presentation. It is worth noting that although both subsets were detected in seroma in the postsurgical inflammatory phase, only CD1a(+) DCs migrated via afferent lymph under steady-state conditions. In conclusion, the high numbers of DCs contained in seroma fluids allowed a proper characterization of human DCs migrating via afferent lymph, revealing a continuous stream of DCs from peripheral regions toward SLOs under normal conditions. Moreover, we showed that, in inflammatory conditions, distinct subsets of DCs can migrate to SLOs via afferent lymph. PMID:24078697

Morandi, Barbara; Bonaccorsi, Irene; Mesiti, Mario; Conte, Romana; Carrega, Paolo; Costa, Gregorio; Iemmo, Raffaella; Martini, Stefania; Ferrone, Soldano; Cantoni, Claudia; Mingari, Maria Cristina; Moretta, Lorenzo; Ferlazzo, Guido



IVIg Immune Reconstitution Treatment Alleviates the State of Persistent Immune Activation and Suppressed CD4 T Cell Counts in CVID.  


Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is characterized by defective B cell function, impaired antibody production, and increased susceptibility to bacterial infections. Here, we addressed the hypothesis that poor antibody-mediated immune control of infections may result in substantial perturbations in the T cell compartment. Newly diagnosed CVID patients were sampled before, and 6-12 months after, initiation of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy. Treatment-naïve CVID patients displayed suppressed CD4 T cell counts and myeloid dendritic cell (mDC) levels, as well as high levels of immune activation in CD8 T cells, CD4 T cells, and invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells. Expression of co-stimulatory receptors CD80 and CD83 was elevated in mDCs and correlated with T cell activation. Levels of both FoxP3+ T regulatory (Treg) cells and iNKT cells were low, whereas soluble CD14 (sCD14), indicative of monocyte activation, was elevated. Importantly, immune reconstitution treatment with IVIg partially restored the CD4 T cell and mDC compartments. Treatment furthermore reduced the levels of CD8 T cell activation and mDC activation, whereas levels of Treg cells and iNKT cells remained low. Thus, primary deficiency in humoral immunity with impaired control of microbial infections is associated with significant pathological changes in cell-mediated immunity. Furthermore, therapeutic enhancement of humoral immunity with IVIg infusions alleviates several of these defects, indicating a relationship between poor antibody-mediated immune control of infections and the occurrence of abnormalities in the T cell and mDC compartments. These findings help our understanding of the immunopathogenesis of primary immunodeficiency, as well as acquired immunodeficiency caused by HIV-1 infection. PMID:24130688

Paquin-Proulx, Dominic; Santos, Bianca A N; Carvalho, Karina I; Toledo-Barros, Myrthes; Barreto de Oliveira, Ana Karolina; Kokron, Cristina M; Kalil, Jorge; Moll, Markus; Kallas, Esper G; Sandberg, Johan K



IVIg Immune Reconstitution Treatment Alleviates the State of Persistent Immune Activation and Suppressed CD4 T Cell Counts in CVID  

PubMed Central

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is characterized by defective B cell function, impaired antibody production, and increased susceptibility to bacterial infections. Here, we addressed the hypothesis that poor antibody-mediated immune control of infections may result in substantial perturbations in the T cell compartment. Newly diagnosed CVID patients were sampled before, and 6–12 months after, initiation of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy. Treatment-naïve CVID patients displayed suppressed CD4 T cell counts and myeloid dendritic cell (mDC) levels, as well as high levels of immune activation in CD8 T cells, CD4 T cells, and invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells. Expression of co-stimulatory receptors CD80 and CD83 was elevated in mDCs and correlated with T cell activation. Levels of both FoxP3+ T regulatory (Treg) cells and iNKT cells were low, whereas soluble CD14 (sCD14), indicative of monocyte activation, was elevated. Importantly, immune reconstitution treatment with IVIg partially restored the CD4 T cell and mDC compartments. Treatment furthermore reduced the levels of CD8 T cell activation and mDC activation, whereas levels of Treg cells and iNKT cells remained low. Thus, primary deficiency in humoral immunity with impaired control of microbial infections is associated with significant pathological changes in cell-mediated immunity. Furthermore, therapeutic enhancement of humoral immunity with IVIg infusions alleviates several of these defects, indicating a relationship between poor antibody-mediated immune control of infections and the occurrence of abnormalities in the T cell and mDC compartments. These findings help our understanding of the immunopathogenesis of primary immunodeficiency, as well as acquired immunodeficiency caused by HIV-1 infection.

Carvalho, Karina I.; Toledo-Barros, Myrthes; Barreto de Oliveira, Ana Karolina; Kokron, Cristina M.; Kalil, Jorge; Moll, Markus; Kallas, Esper G.; Sandberg, Johan K.



Counting carbohydrates  


Carbohydrates are found in fruit, cereal, bread, pasta, and rice. They are quickly turned into a sugar ... sugar better if they can count how many carbohydrates they eat. Your dietitian will teach you a ...


Revisiting the white blood cell count: immature granulocytes count as a diagnostic marker to discriminate between SIRS and sepsis - a prospective, observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Sepsis is a serious disease condition and a major cause of intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Its diagnosis in critically ill patients is complicated. To diagnose an infection rapidly, and to accurately differentiate systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) from sepsis, is challenging yet early diagnosis is vital for early induction of an appropriate therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the immature granulocyte (IG) count is a useful early diagnostic marker of sepsis compared to other markers. Therefore, a total of 70 consecutive surgical intensive care patients were assessed. IGs were measured from whole blood samples using an automated analyzer. C-reactive protein (CRP), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations were also determined. The observation period was a maximum of 21?days and ended with the patients’ discharge from ICU or death. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were conducted and area under the curve (AUC) was calculated to determine sensitivities and specificities for the parameters. Results We found that the IG count significantly discriminates between infected and non-infected patients (P?count was more indicative than other clinical parameters such as CRP, LBP and IL-6, which had a sensitivity of less than 68%. Additionally, the highest diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) with 26.7 was calculated for the IG count within the first 48?hours. During the course of the disease ROC curve analyses showed a superior positive predictive value of the IG count compared to the other measured parameters during the first five days following the fulfillment of SIRS criteria. However, the number of IGs was not correlated with ICU mortality. Conclusions The total number of IG in peripheral blood from ICU patients is a good marker to discriminate infected and non-infected patients very early during SIRS. However, the IG count is not suitable as a prognostic marker for mortality. Routine and serial measurement of IGs may provide new possibilities for rapid screening of SIRS patients on ICU with suspected infections.



Development and Validation of Decision Rules to Guide Frequency of Monitoring CD4 Cell Count in HIV-1 Infection before Starting Antiretroviral Therapy  

PubMed Central

Background Although CD4 cell count monitoring is used to decide when to start antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV-1 infection, there are no evidence-based recommendations regarding its optimal frequency. It is common practice to monitor every 3 to 6 months, often coupled with viral load monitoring. We developed rules to guide frequency of CD4 cell count monitoring in HIV infection before starting antiretroviral therapy, which we validated retrospectively in patients from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. Methodology/Principal Findings We built up two prediction rules (“Snap-shot rule” for a single sample and “Track-shot rule” for multiple determinations) based on a systematic review of published longitudinal analyses of CD4 cell count trajectories. We applied the rules in 2608 untreated patients to classify their 18 061 CD4 counts as either justifiable or superfluous, according to their prior ?5% or <5% chance of meeting predetermined thresholds for starting treatment. The percentage of measurements that both rules falsely deemed superfluous never exceeded 5%. Superfluous CD4 determinations represented 4%, 11%, and 39% of all actual determinations for treatment thresholds of 500, 350, and 200×106/L, respectively. The Track-shot rule was only marginally superior to the Snap-shot rule. Both rules lose usefulness for CD4 counts coming near to treatment threshold. Conclusions/Significance Frequent CD4 count monitoring of patients with CD4 counts well above the threshold for initiating therapy is unlikely to identify patients who require therapy. It appears sufficient to measure CD4 cell count 1 year after a count >650 for a threshold of 200, >900 for 350, or >1150 for 500×106/L, respectively. When CD4 counts fall below these limits, increased monitoring frequency becomes advisable. These rules offer guidance for efficient CD4 monitoring, particularly in resource-limited settings.

Buclin, Thierry; Telenti, Amalio; Perera, Rafael; Csajka, Chantal; Furrer, Hansjakob; Aronson, Jeffrey K.; Glasziou, Paul P.




EPA Science Inventory

An uncontaminated subsurface aquifer sediment contains a sparse microbial community consisting primarily of coccobacillary bacteria of relatively uniform size which can be counted directly with appropriate straining. The morphological simplicity and the relatively decreased cell ...


[Effect of bethametasone on blood cell count and C-reactive protein in patients with threatened preterm delivery].  


The objective of the study was to determine changeableness of blood cells count, hemoglobin (HGB) and hematocrit (HCT) within the peripheral blood of patients who received betamethasone during treatment of threatened preterm delivery. 65 patients at increased risk of preterm delivery received intramuscular injections of betamethasone 3 x 4 mg/day for fetal lung maturity and to decrease the risk of CNS trauma in newborns. RBC, HGB, HCT, WBC, neutrophils count and CRP level were measured before treatment and on the 1th, 2nd and 7th days after first dose of betamethasone. The steroid administration caused a significant decrease in RBC, HGB and HCT: The lowest levels were noticed on 2nd day. Statistically significant changes were observed between before and 1st day (p < 0.0001), before and 2nd day (p < 0.0001), before and Ist week (p < 0.05), 1st day and 1st week (p < 0.006), 2nd day and Ist week (p < 0.005). The level of WBC and neutrophils were increased. Their peak levels were noticed on 1st day. Statistically significant changes were observed between before and 1st day (p < 0.0001), before and 1st week (p < 0.0003), 1st day and 1st week (p < 0.0001), 2nd day and 1st week (p< 0.001). After 3 days there was a significant decrease of WBC and neutrophils count. Conclusions: Intramuscular administration of 12 mg betamethasone per day caused decrease of the RBC, HGB and HCT account and elevation of the WBC and neutrophil count. All these parameters normalized after about 7 days. PMID:15537271

Nieweg?owska, Nikola; Niewiadomska-Kowalczyk, Ma?gorzata; Roszkowski, Piotr; Czajkowski, Krzysztof


Development and Validation of Decision Rules to Guide Frequency of Monitoring CD4 Cell Count in HIV1 Infection before Starting Antiretroviral Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAlthough CD4 cell count monitoring is used to decide when to start antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV-1 infection, there are no evidence-based recommendations regarding its optimal frequency. It is common practice to monitor every 3 to 6 months, often coupled with viral load monitoring. We developed rules to guide frequency of CD4 cell count monitoring in HIV infection before

Thierry Buclin; Amalio Telenti; Rafael Perera; Chantal Csajka; Hansjakob Furrer; Jeffrey K. Aronson; Paul P. Glasziou; Landon Myer



Progress Realized: Trends in HIV-1 Viral Load and CD4 Cell Count in a Tertiary-Care Center from 1999 through 2011  

PubMed Central

Background HIV-1 RNA and CD4 cell counts are important parameters for HIV care. The objective of this study was to assess the overall trends in HIV-1 viral load and CD4 cell counts within our clinic. Methods Patients with at least one of each test performed by the Infectious Diseases Laboratory from 1999 through 2011 were included in this analysis. By adapting a novel statistical model, log10 HIV-1 RNA means were estimated by month, and log10-transformed HIV-1 RNA means were estimated by calendar year. Geometric means were calculated for CD4 cell counts by month and calendar year. Log10 HIV-1 RNA and CD4 cell count monthly means were also examined with polynomial regression. Results There were 1,814 individuals with approximately 25,000 paired tests over the 13-year observation period. Based on each patient's final value of the year, the percentage of patients with viral loads below the lower limit of quantitation rose from 29% in 1999 to 72% in 2011, while the percentage with CD4 counts <200 cells/µL fell from 31% to 11%. On average annually, the mean HIV-1 RNA decreased by 86 copies/mL and the mean CD4 counts increased by 16 cells/µL. For the monthly means, the correlations (R2) from second-order polynomial regressions were 0.944 for log10 HIV-1 RNA and 0.840 for CD4 cell counts. Conclusions Marked improvements in HIV-1 RNA suppression and CD4 cell counts were achieved in a large inner-city population from 1999 through 2011. This success demonstrates that sustained viral control with improved immunologic status can be a realistic goal for most individuals in clinical care.

Gale, Howard B.; Rodriguez, Manuel D.; Hoffman, Heather J.; Benator, Debra A.; Gordin, Fred M.; Labriola, Ann M.; Kan, Virginia L.



OpenCFU, a new free and open-source software to count cell colonies and other circular objects.  


Counting circular objects such as cell colonies is an important source of information for biologists. Although this task is often time-consuming and subjective, it is still predominantly performed manually. The aim of the present work is to provide a new tool to enumerate circular objects from digital pictures and video streams. Here, I demonstrate that the created program, OpenCFU, is very robust, accurate and fast. In addition, it provides control over the processing parameters and is implemented in an intuitive and modern interface. OpenCFU is a cross-platform and open-source software freely available at PMID:23457446

Geissmann, Quentin



The effect of estrus synchronization treatments on somatic cell count of transitional-anestrus Awassi ewes’ milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-three transitional-anestrus Awassi ewes, randomly assigned to three groups: fluorogestone acetate (FGA, n?=?18), FGA-Prostaglandin\\u000a (FGA-PGF, n?=?18) and control (n?=?17), were used to examine the effect of estrus synchronization protocols and steroid hormones\\u000a concentrations on milk somatic cell count (SCC). Intravaginal FGA sponge was inserted for 13 days and 600 IU equine chorionic\\u000a gonadotropin was administered for ewes of FGA and FGA-PGF groups

A. Q. Talafha; S. Q. Lafi; M. M. Ababneh



Brief Exercise Increases Peripheral Blood NK Cell Counts without Immediate Functional Changes, but Impairs their Responses to ex vivo Stimulation.  


Physical as well as psychological stress increases the number of circulating peripheral blood NK cells. Whereas some studies found a positive correlation between exercise and NK cell counts and cytotoxic activity, others showed that, for example, heavy training leads to a decrease in per cell NK cytotoxicity. Thus, the impact of exercise on NK cell function and eventually on altered immunocompetence remains to be elucidated. Here, we investigated whether a single bout of brief exercise, consisting in running up and down 150 stair-steps, affects the number and function of circulating NK cells. NK cells, obtained from 29 healthy donors, before and immediately after brief exercise, were assessed for numbers, phenotype, IFN? production, degranulation, cytotoxicity, and in vitro response to stimulation with IL-2, IL-2/IL-12, or TLR2 agonists. Running resulted in a sixfold increase in the number of CD3(-)/CD56(+) NK cells, but decreased the frequency of CD56(bright) NK cells about twofold. Brief exercise did not significantly interfere with baseline IFN? secretion or NK cell cytotoxicity. In vitro stimulation with IL-2 and TLR2 agonists (lipoteichoic acid, and synthetic triacylated lipopeptide Pam3CSK4) enhanced IFN?-secretion, degranulation, and cytotoxicity mediated by NK cells isolated pre-exercise, but had less effect on NK cells isolated following exercise. There were no differences in response to combined IL-2/IL-12 stimulation. In conclusion, having no obvious impact on baseline NK functions, brief exercise might be used as a simple method to significantly increase the number of CD56(dim) NK cell available for in vitro experiments. Nevertheless, the observed impaired responses to stimulation suggest an alteration of NK cell-mediated immunity by brief exercise which is at least in part explained by a concomitant decrease of the circulating CD56(bright) NK cell fraction. PMID:23755049

Millard, Anne-Laure; Valli, Piero V; Stussi, Georg; Mueller, Nicolas J; Yung, Gisella Puga; Seebach, Jörg D



Pitted red cell counts in Nigerian children with sickle cell anemia: correlation with age and splenic size.  

PubMed Central

Using direct interference phase-contrast microscopy (Normansky Optics), pit counts were performed on 32 HbSS patients, aged 3 to 17 years. The influence of age and splenic size on counts were also investigated. Nine HbSS and 15 HbAA age and sex-matched, healthy individuals served as controls. The mean +/- SD counts in the three groups were 11.1 +/- 9.1%, 1.7 +/- 1.4% and 1.8 +/- 1.7%, respectively. The older SS patients tended to have higher values, but the linear correlation with age was not impressive (r = 0.28). Seventeen (53.1%) patients had counts greater than 10%, while 8 (25%) had less than 3.5%. Five patients with gross splenomegaly had a mean count of 4.3 +/- 1.9%, significantly lower than the figure of 12.3 +/- 7.9% for the patients without splenomegaly (P less than .001), demonstrating retained reticulo-endothelial function in such patients.

Adekile, A. D.; Reindorf, C. A.; Adeodu, O. A.; Johnson, W.; Dairo, B. A.



Role of cells in freezing-induced cell-fluid-matrix interactions within engineered tissues.  


During cryopreservation, ice forms in the extracellular space resulting in freezing-induced deformation of the tissue, which can be detrimental to the extracellular matrix (ECM) microstructure. Meanwhile, cells dehydrate through an osmotically driven process as the intracellular water is transported to the extracellular space, increasing the volume of fluid for freezing. Therefore, this study examines the effects of cellular presence on tissue deformation and investigates the significance of intracellular water transport and cell-ECM interactions in freezing-induced cell-fluid-matrix interactions. Freezing-induced deformation characteristics were examined through cell image deformetry (CID) measurements of collagenous engineered tissues embedded with different concentrations of MCF7 breast cancer cells versus microspheres as their osmotically inactive counterparts. Additionally, the development of a biophysical model relates the freezing-induced expansion of the tissue due to the cellular water transport and the extracellular freezing thermodynamics for further verification. The magnitude of the freezing-induced dilatation was found to be not affected by the cellular water transport for the cell concentrations considered; however, the deformation patterns for different cell concentrations were different suggesting that cell-matrix interactions may have an effect. It was, therefore, determined that intracellular water transport during freezing was insignificant at the current experimental cell concentrations; however, it may be significant at concentrations similar to native tissue. Finally, the cell-matrix interactions provided mechanical support on the ECM to minimize the expansion regions in the tissues during freezing. PMID:23719856

Seawright, Angela; Ozcelikkale, Altug; Dutton, Craig; Han, Bumsoo



Diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of a simplified low cost method of counting CD4 cells with flow cytometry in Malawi: diagnostic accuracy study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess the diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of a simplified low cost method for measuring absolute and percentage CD4 counts with flow cytometry. Design A CD4 counting method (Blantyre count) using a CD4 and CD45 antibody combination with reduced blood and reagent volumes. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed by measuring agreement of the index test with two other assays (TruCount and FACSCount). Clinical utility was investigated by comparing CD4 counts with the new assay with WHO clinical staging in patients with HIV. Setting Research laboratories and antiretroviral therapy clinic at a medical school and large government hospital in southern Malawi. Participants Assay comparisons were performed on consecutive blood samples sent for CD4 counting from 129 patients with HIV. Comparison of CD4 count with staging was conducted on 253 consecutive new patients attending the antiretroviral therapy clinic. Main outcome measures Limits of agreement with 95% confidence intervals between index test and reference standards. Results The limits of agreement for Blantyre count and TruCount were excellent (cell count ?48.9 to 27.0 ×109/l for absolute counts in the CD4 range <400×109/l and ?2.42% to 2.37% for CD4 percentage). The assay was affordable with reagent costs per test of $0.44 (£0.22, €0.33) for both absolute count and CD4 percentage, and $0.11 for CD4 percentage alone. Of 193 patients with clinical stage I or II disease, who were ineligible for antiretroviral therapy by clinical staging criteria, 73 (38%) had CD4 counts <200×109/l. By contrast, 12 (20%) of 60 patients with stage III or IV disease had CD4 counts >350×109/l. Conclusions This simplified method of counting CD4 cells with flow cytometry has good agreement with established commercial assays, is affordable for routine clinical use in Africa, and could improve clinical decision making in patients with HIV.

Liu, Michael K P; White, Sarah A; van Oosterhout, Joep J G; Simukonda, Felanji; Bwanali, Joseph; Moore, Michael J; Zijlstra, Eduard E; Drayson, Mark T; Molyneux, Malcolm E



Comparison of automated differential blood cell counts from Abbott Sapphire, Siemens Advia 120, Beckman Coulter DxH 800, and Sysmex XE-2100 in normal and pathologic samples.  


Reliable automated blood cell characterization and quantification remain challenging in pathologic samples, whereas slide reviews due to unnecessary flagging should be avoided. We compared 4 modern hematology analyzers-Abbott Sapphire, Siemens Advia 120, Sysmex XE-2100, and Beckman Coulter DxH 800-regarding complete blood cell count (CBC), leukocyte differential count, and flagging efficacy in a total of 202 samples from hematology patients and normal controls. Manual differential count was used as reference. The analyzers exhibited very good correlation for CBC parameters. Neutrophils and eosinophils also showed very good correlations, whereas lymphocytes and monocytes correlated fairly. The Advia 120 displayed notably lower measurements for both parameters, which is attributable to classification of some events as large unstained cells. Basophil counts were unreliable with all analyzers. Flagging for blasts and immature granulocytes showed moderate sensitivity and specificity. Operators must not rely on blast flagging alone to detect leukemic samples with any analyzer. PMID:23596116

Meintker, Lisa; Ringwald, Jürgen; Rauh, Manfred; Krause, Stefan W



Status of TIM-1 exon 4 haplotypes and CD4+T cell counts in HIV-1 seroprevalent North Indians.  


The TIM (T cell/transmembrane, immunoglobulin and mucin) proteins are crucial regulators of Th1/Th2 immune responses and have been implicated in several diseases including HIV-1/AIDS. The TIM1 exon 4 that codes for mucin domain is highly diverse, with sequence variants associated with varying phenotypes. In this study, TIM1 exon 4 was sequenced among 227 HIV-1 seroprevalent and 288 healthy non infected individuals from North Indian population and haplotypes established. A novel but rare haplotype D1(?) was identified among the healthy and differed from D1 by a synonymous substitution G>T at Thr208Thr. The TIM1 haplotype diversity showed no association with susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. The seroprevalent individuals carrying D3A had relatively higher median CD4+T cell counts (368/?l) than those without (313/?l; p=0.02). A comparison of CD4+T counts between D3-A individuals on ART or ART naïve did not show any significant difference plausibly due to confounding nature of ART and other factors. PMID:23220501

Sharma, Gaurav; Ohtani, Hitoshi; Kaur, Gurvinder; Naruse, Taeko K; Sharma, S K; Vajpayee, Madhu; Kimura, Akinori; Mehra, Narinder



Count On  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Count On is an educational mathematics Web site based in the United Kingdom. Mainly intended for elementary school students, Count On offers a variety of online multimedia games and modules that serve as a fun way to practice math concepts or learn new ones. The Explorer section is a good place to start when first visiting the site; it has everything from basic numbers to fractions to mathematical art. The Matrix is a virtual museum of mathematics, where users can learn about historical figures and innovations by exploring each room. The games section has many instructive resources, but it is difficult to see the connection to mathematics for a couple of them.


Satellited 4q identified in amniotic fluid cells  

SciTech Connect

Extra material was identified on the distal long arm of a chromosome 4 in an amniotic fluid specimen sampled at 16.6 weeks of gestational age. There was no visible loss of material from chromosome 4, and no evidence for a balanced rearrangement. The primary counseling issue in this case was advanced maternal age. Ultrasound findings were normal, and family history was unremarkable. The identical 4qs chromosome was observed in cells from a paternal peripheral blood specimen and appeared to be an unbalanced rearrangement. This extra material was NOR positive in lymphocytes from the father, but was negative in the fetal amniocytes. Father`s relatives were studied to verify the familial origin of this anomaly. In situ hybridization with both exon and intron sequences of ribosomal DNA demonstrated that ribosomal DNA is present at the terminus of the 4qs chromosome in the fetus, father, and paternal grandmother. This satellited 4q might have been derived from a translocation event that resulted in very little or no loss from the 4q and no specific phenotype. This derivative chromosome 4 has been inherited through at least 3 generations of phenotypically normal individuals. 8 refs., 3 figs.

Miller, I.; Hsieh, C.L.; Songster, G. [Stanford Univ. Medical Center, Stanford, CA (United States)] [and others



Counting Penguins.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents an activity on the simplification of penguin counting by employing the basic ideas and principles of sampling to teach students to understand and recognize its role in statistical claims. Emphasizes estimation, data analysis and interpretation, and central limit theorem. Includes a list of items for classroom discussion. (ASK)|

Perry, Mike; Kader, Gary



Counting Coins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this iOS app students practice counting U.S. coins by matching the value, making the total, telling how much, and creating their own values. Students drag coins onto a digital mat or enter values with a keypad to complete the tasks, and then receive feedback.

K12, Inc.



Counting Populations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of…

Damonte, Kathleen



Biodiversity Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this class exercise, students count the number of species they can find in a five minute block of time in both an urban lawn and natural, remnant forest area. The students are introduced to the concept of low and high biodiversity areas and engage in a discussion about biodiversity loss.

Suzanne Savanick, Science Education Resource Center, Carleton College,


Recruitment of host's progenitor cells to sites of human amniotic fluid stem cells implantation.  


The amniotic fluid is a new source of multipotent stem cells with a therapeutic potential for human diseases. Cultured at low cell density, human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFSCs) were still able to generate colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F) after 60 doublings, thus confirming their staminal nature. Moreover, after extensive in vitro cell expansion hAFSCs maintained a stable karyotype. The expression of genes, such as SSEA-4, SOX2 and OCT3/4 was confirmed at early and later culture stage. Also, hAFSCs showed bright expression of mesenchymal lineage markers and immunoregulatory properties. hAFSCs, seeded onto hydroxyapatite scaffolds and subcutaneously implanted in nude mice, played a pivotal role in mounting a response resulting in the recruitment of host's progenitor cells forming tissues of mesodermal origin such as fat, muscle, fibrous tissue and immature bone. Implanted hAFSCs migrated from the scaffold to the skin overlying implant site but not to other organs. Given their in vivo: (i) recruitment of host progenitor cells, (ii) homing towards injured sites and (iii) multipotentiality in tissue repair, hAFSCs are a very appealing reserve of stem cells potentially useful for clinical application in regenerative medicine. PMID:21459439

Mirabella, Teodelinda; Poggi, Alessandro; Scaranari, Monica; Mogni, Massimo; Lituania, Mario; Baldo, Chiara; Cancedda, Ranieri; Gentili, Chiara



Somatic Cell Counts of Milk from Dairy Herd Improvement Herds during 2006  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Test-day data from all herds enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) somatic cell testing during 2006 were examined to assess the status of national milk quality. Cows with records failing some AIPL editing procedures were excluded. Somatic cell score (SCS) is reported to AIPL and was converted to ...


Quality Assessment of Protected Specimen Brush Samples by Microscopic Cell Count  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protected specimen brushing (PSB), combined with quantitative culture, is now recognized as one of the reference methods for diagnosis of nosocomial pneumonia. However, no criteria exist with which to assess the quality of the PSB sample. We studied numbers of inflammatory cells and bronchial cells per microscopic field (magnification: 3 500, objective 3 50) in cytospin preparations of PSB samples.



Association between herd exposure to BVDV-infection and bulk milk somatic cell count of Flemish dairy farms.  


The purpose of this study was to investigate the statistical association between herd bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) status based on bulk milk antibody detection and monthly bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) as a reflection of the udder health. A distinction was made between vaccinating and non-vaccinating herds via a questionnaire concerning BVD-vaccination. No significant difference in BMSCC was found between vaccinating (228,300 cells/ml; SD 180,019) and non-vaccinating (237,070 cells/ml; SD 77,900) herds. Non-vaccinating herds (n=243) were selected, and the relationship between a single BVDV-antibody titre and the BMSCC of each herd over a 12-month observation period evaluated. For this purpose, the non-vaccinating herds were divided into five groups depending on bulk milk BVDV-antibody titres. Overall, no significant relationship between the antibody titre and the BMSCC was found. Still, when comparing the category with the lowest S/P ratio (essentially BVDV-naïve herds; BMSCC=211,390 cells/ml) with the combined four other categories (BMSCC=242,790 cells/ml), a significant difference in BMSSC was observed (P=0.01). PMID:23063176

Laureyns, Jozef; Piepers, Sofie; Ribbens, Stefaan; Sarrazin, Steven; De Vliegher, Sarne; Van Crombrugge, Jean-Marie; Dewulf, Jeroen



Association Between White Blood Cell Count, Epicardial Blood Flow, Myocardial Perfusion, and Clinical Outcomes in the Setting of Acute Myocardial Infarction A Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction 10 Substudy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Elevation of the white blood cell (WBC) count during acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is associated with adverse outcomes. We examined the relationship between the WBC count and angiographic findings to gain insight into this relationship. Results and Methods—We evaluated data from 975 patients in the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) 10A and 10B trials. Patients with a closed artery at

Hal V. Barron; Christopher P. Cannon; Sabina A. Murphy; Eugene Braunwald; C. Michael Gibson



White blood cell count and mortality in patients with ischemic and nonischemic left ventricular systolic dysfunction (an analysis of the studies of left ventricular dysfunction [SOLVD])  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a retrospective analysis of the Studies Of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) trials to assess the predictive value of the baseline white blood cell (WBC) count on mortality. Mortality was higher in participants with a baseline WBC count >7,000 compared to those with a baseline WBC ?7,000 (27% vs 21%, p <0.0001). After controlling for important covariates, each increase

Howard A Cooper; Derek V Exner; Myron A Waclawiw; Michael J Domanski



Spiral Phyllotaxis Pattern in an Animal Cell: A Fluid Driven Mechanism for Red Cell Echinocytosis and Programmed Cell Death  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates that the pattern of lipid spiculesthat emerge on the\\u000asurface of red blood cells in the classic 'Discocyte to Echinocyte' shape\\u000achange is a generative spiral, and presents a qualitative, fluid- driven\\u000amechanism for their production, compatible with the work of Douady and Couder.\\u000aImplications for the dynamics of cell growth, plant cell phyllotaxy, programmed\\u000acell death

J T Lofthouse



Genetic parameters for faecal egg count, packed-cell volume and body-weight in Santa In?s lambs  

PubMed Central

Worm infection is one of the main factors responsible for economic losses in sheep breeding in Brazil. Random regression analysis was used to estimate genetic parameters for the factors faecal egg-count (FEC), packed-cell volume (PCV) and body weight (BW) in Santa Inês lambs. Data from 119 female, offspring of nine rams, were collected between December, 2005 and December, 2006, from the experimental flock of Embrapa Tabuleiros Costeiros, the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation located in Frei Paulo, SE, Brazil. After weaning, females were drenched until the faecal egg count had dropped to zero. Two natural challenges were undertaken. FEC heritability was extremely variable, this increasing from 0.04 to 0.27 in the first challenge and from 0.01 to 0.52 during the second. PCV heritability peaks were 0.31 and 0.12 in the first and second challenges, respectively. In the second challenge, BW heritability was close to 0.90. The genetic correlations among these traits did not differ from zero. There is the possibility of increasing parasite resistance in Santa Inês by selecting those animals with lower FEC. Selection to increase resistance will not adversely affect lamb-growth, although lambs with a slow growth-rate may be more susceptible to infection.



Genetic parameters for faecal egg count, packed-cell volume and body-weight in Santa Inês lambs.  


Worm infection is one of the main factors responsible for economic losses in sheep breeding in Brazil. Random regression analysis was used to estimate genetic parameters for the factors faecal egg-count (FEC), packed-cell volume (PCV) and body weight (BW) in Santa Inês lambs. Data from 119 female, offspring of nine rams, were collected between December, 2005 and December, 2006, from the experimental flock of Embrapa Tabuleiros Costeiros, the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation located in Frei Paulo, SE, Brazil. After weaning, females were drenched until the faecal egg count had dropped to zero. Two natural challenges were undertaken. FEC heritability was extremely variable, this increasing from 0.04 to 0.27 in the first challenge and from 0.01 to 0.52 during the second. PCV heritability peaks were 0.31 and 0.12 in the first and second challenges, respectively. In the second challenge, BW heritability was close to 0.90. The genetic correlations among these traits did not differ from zero. There is the possibility of increasing parasite resistance in Santa Inês by selecting those animals with lower FEC. Selection to increase resistance will not adversely affect lamb-growth, although lambs with a slow growth-rate may be more susceptible to infection. PMID:21637682

Lôbo, Raimundo N B; Vieira, Luiz S; de Oliveira, Amaury A; Muniz, Evandro N; da Silva, José M



Reduction of viable cell counts of hospital meals by combination of gamma radiation and other preservative agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frozen vacuum-packed green peas (as a ``vegetable plate'', or, component of meals) was irradiated in the 11-32 kGy dose range and stored at -18°C. Its preparation for eating was performed with microwave heating. After 16 kGy dose, the total viable cell count was less than 10 CFU.g-1, and the count of aerobic spores was under the detection level. The peroxide value did not practically change in the above dose range: it was 38 after 32 kGy dose, and 21 three months later, near to that of the unirradiated sample. The texture was softened by the radiation treatment while the colour did not change significantly. Organoleptic changes were detected by a sensory panel. The off-flavour may be connected with an interaction of the irradiated product and the plastic packaging foil. Processed cheeses (fat content 45%) were vacuum packed and irradiated with 10 and 20 kGy doses at dry-ice temperature. Flavour changes were noted by a majority of the panelists, however, in some cases, the irradiated samples were preferred. This work was partly supported by the IAEA.

Kiss, I. F.; Polyák-Fehér, K.; Farkas, J.; Horti, K.; Beczner, J.; Fábián, A.



Correlation of viable cell counts, metabolic activity of sulphur-oxidizing bacteria and chemical parameters of marine sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viable counts of aerobic and anaerobic chemotrophic sulphur-oxidizers as well as phototrophic sulphur bacteria were determined in sediment samples taken from two different areas along the Baltic Sea shore which were known to regularly develop sulphidic conditions. Depth profiles of bacterial cell counts were correlated with concentration profiles of chloride, sulphate, sulphide, nitrate and phosphate in the pore water of these sediments and with potential activities of nitrate reduction, thiosulphate transformation and sulphate formation. The data revealed a complex multilayered structure within the sediments. Sulphide was released into the water from sediments of both sampling areas, but it was found that light and the availability of oxygen significantly reduced this amount. In the highly reduced sediment at Hiddensee, the highest numbers of phototrophic and chemotrophic sulphur-oxidizers were found near the sediment surface. Therefore, it was concluded that the combined action of both groups of bacteria most efficiently oxidizes reduced sulphur compounds in the top layers of the sediments. Nitrate may replace oxygen as final electron acceptor and will support oxidation of sulphide, in particular when oxygen and light are limiting.

Imhoff, J. F.; Schneider, A.; Podgorsek, L.



Molecular and phenotypic characterization of human amniotic fluid cells and their differentiation potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main goal of the study was to identify a novel source of human multipotent cells, overcoming ethical issues involved in embryonic stem cell research and the limited availability of most adult stem cells. Amniotic fluid cells (AFCs) are routinely obtained for prenatal diagnosis and can be expanded in vitro; nevertheless current knowledge about their origin and properties is limited.

Patrizia Bossolasco; Tiziana Montemurro; Lidia Cova; Stefano Zangrossi; Cinzia Calzarossa; Simona Buiatiotis; Davide Soligo; Silvano Bosari; Vincenzo Silani; Giorgio Lambertenghi Deliliers; Paolo Rebulla; Lorenza Lazzari



BANA-Positive Plaque Samples Are Associated with Oral Hygiene Practices and Not CD4+ T Cell Counts in HIV-Positive Patients  

PubMed Central

Background. The “red complex” microorganisms, namely, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia are considered as potential pathogens causing HIV-associated periodontal diseases. Moreover, it has been recognized that an association exists between CD4+ T cell counts and periodontal disease progression. Objective. To establish whether CD4+ T cell counts or oral hygiene plays a greater role in producing BANA-positive results in HIV-associated periodontal disease. Materials and Methods. One hundred and twenty HIV-positive patients participated in the study, and their CD4+ T cell counts were obtained from their medical records. The six Ramfjord teeth were used for evaluating periodontal clinical indices and subgingival plaque sampling. BANA test was used for the detection and prevalence of the “red complex” bacteria in plaque samples. Results. A majority of 69.17% HIV-positive patients were BANA-positive. No significant associations were found between BANA and CD4+ T cell counts. A highly significant association was found between BANA with probing depth and clinical attachment level (P ? 0.0001) and between BANA and the use of interdental aids (P = 0.0168). Conclusion. HIV-associated periodontal diseases are strongly related to oral hygiene practices rather than the effect of CD4+ T cell counts, and the use of interdental aids was marked as a significant predictor of BANA-negative plaque samples.

John, Cathy Nisha; Xavier Graham Stephen, Lawrence; Wilma Joyce Africa, Charlene



Automated Static Culture System Cell Module Mixing Protocol and Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a documentation of a fluid dynamic analysis of the proposed Automated Static Culture System (ASCS) cell module mixing protocol. The report consists of a review of some basic fluid dynamics principles appropriate for the mixing of a patch of...

S. J. Kleis T. Truong T. J. Goodwin



X-ray Microanalysis of Apical Fluid in Cystic Fibrosis Airway Epithelial Cell Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ionic composition of the fluid lining the airways (airway surface liquid, ASL) in healthy subjects and patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) has been a matter of controversy. It has been attempted to resolve conflicting theories by using cell cultures, but published results show a wide variety of values for the ionic concentrations in the apical fluid in these cultures.

Inna Kozlova; Harriet Nilsson; Godfried M. Roomans



Microthermometric analysis of synthetic fluid inclusions in the hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell (HDAC) was employed as a pressurized fluid inclusion heating stage to determine temperatures of phase transitions in synthetic fluid inclusions in quartz. Using this technique, the common problem of decrepitation or stretch- ing of inclusions having high internal pressures was eliminated. Homogenization temperatures of pure H2O synthetic inclusions determined in the HDAC are inversely related to



Bovine mastitis pathogens in New York and Pennsylvania: prevalence and effects on somatic cell count and milk production.  


Milk samples were collected from 108,312 dairy cows during 1601 farm visits made between January 1991 and June 1995. The herd visits were made by personnel from the Central Laboratory of the Quality Milk Promotion Services at Cornell University (Ithaca, NY) to farms located in central New York and northern Pennsylvania. Dairy Herd Improvement Association records were available for 32,978 cows in 327 herds. Intramammary infections, as defined by positive milk cultures, were present in 48.5% of all cows and in 36.3% of cows in herds enrolled in the Dairy Herd Improvement Association. Over 75% of the intramammary infections were caused by Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus spp. other than Strep. agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, and coagulase-negative staphylococci. Mean days in milk at the time of diagnosis, linear score of the somatic cell count, cost of milk loss per lactation, and milk production effects were calculated for 24 etiologic agents of bovine mastitis. PMID:9361234

Wilson, D J; Gonzalez, R N; Das, H H



Fluid shear stress sensitizes cancer cells to receptor-mediated apoptosis via trimeric death receptors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cancer metastasis, the process of cancer cell migration from a primary to distal location, typically leads to a poor patient prognosis. Hematogenous metastasis is initiated by intravasation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) into the bloodstream, which are then believed to adhere to the luminal surface of the endothelium and extravasate into distal locations. Apoptotic agents such as tumor necrosis factor apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), whether in soluble ligand form or expressed on the surface of natural killer cells, have shown promise in treating CTCs to reduce the probability of metastasis. The role of hemodynamic shear forces in altering the cancer cell response to apoptotic agents has not been previously investigated. Here, we report that human colon cancer COLO 205 and prostate cancer PC-3 cells exposed to a uniform fluid shear stress in a cone-and-plate viscometer become sensitized to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Shear-induced sensitization directly correlates with the application of fluid shear stress, and TRAIL-induced apoptosis increases in a fluid shear stress force- and time-dependent manner. In contrast, TRAIL-induced necrosis is not affected by the application fluid shear stress. Interestingly, fluid shear stress does not sensitize cancer cells to apoptosis when treated with doxorubicin, which also induces apoptosis in cancer cells. Caspase inhibition experiments reveal that shear stress-induced sensitization to TRAIL occurs via caspase-dependent apoptosis. These results suggest that physiological fluid shear forces can modulate receptor-mediated apoptosis of cancer cells in the presence of apoptotic agents.

Mitchell, Michael J.; King, Michael R.



Predictive value of white blood cell count and C-reactive protein in children with appendicitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/PurposeFew studies have addressed the predictive value of white blood cells (WBCs) and C-reactive protein (CRP) at different cutoff values in appendicitis. Our purpose was to determine the cutoff values for WBC and CRP at different periods during clinical evolution of appendicitis and to establish their use for the diagnosis of appendicitis and differentiation of simple from perforated appendicitis.

Marcelo A. Beltrán; Jorge Almonacid; Alfonso Vicencio; Jorge Gutiérrez; Karina S. Cruces; Miguel A. Cumsille



Prognosis of patients treated with cART from 36 months after initiation, according to current and previous CD4 cell count and plasma HIV-1 RNA measurements  

PubMed Central

Objectives CD4 cell count and plasma viral load are well known predictors of AIDS and mortality in HIV-1-infected patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). This study investigated, in patients treated for at least 3 years, the respective prognostic importance of values measured at cART initiation, and 6 and 36 months later, for AIDS and death. Methods Patients from 15 HIV cohorts included in the ART Cohort Collaboration, aged at least 16 years, antiretroviral-naive when they started cART and followed for at least 36 months after start of cART were eligible. Results Among 14 208 patients, the median CD4 cell counts at 0, 6 and 36 months were 210, 320 and 450 cells/µl, respectively, and 78% of patients achieved viral load less than 500 copies/ml at 6 months. In models adjusted for characteristics at cART initiation and for values at all time points, values at 36 months were the strongest predictors of subsequent rates of AIDS and death. Although CD4 cell count and viral load at cART initiation were no longer prognostic of AIDS or of death after 36 months, viral load at 6 months and change in CD4 cell count from 6 to 36 months were prognostic for rates of AIDS from 36 months. Conclusions Although current values of CD4 cell count and HIV-1 RNA are the most important prognostic factors for subsequent AIDS and death rates in HIV-1-infected patients treated with cART, changes in CD4 cell count from 6 to 36 months and the value of 6-month HIV-1 RNA are also prognostic for AIDS.



Circulating hematopoietic stem cell count is a valuable predictor of prematurity complications in preterm newborns  

PubMed Central

Background The frequency of preterm labour has risen over the last few years. Hence, there is growing interest in the identification of markers that may facilitate prediction and prevention of premature birth complications. Here, we studied the association of the number of circulating stem cell populations with the incidence of complications typical of prematurity. Methods The study groups consisted of 90 preterm (23–36 weeks of gestational age) and 52 full-term (37–41 weeks) infants. Non-hematopoietic stem cells (non-HSCs; CD45-lin-CD184+), enriched in very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs), expressing pluripotent (Oct-4, Nanog), early neural (?-III-tubulin), and oligodendrocyte lineage (Olig-1) genes as well as hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs; CD45+lin-CD184+), and circulating stem/progenitor cells (CSPCs; CD133+CD34+; CD133-CD34+) in association with characteristics of prematurity and preterm morbidity were analyzed in cord blood (CB) and peripheral blood (PB) until the sixth week after delivery. Phenotype analysis was performed using flow cytometry methods. Clonogenic assays suitable for detection of human hematopoietic progenitor cells were also applied. The quantitative parameters were compared between groups by the Mann–Whitney test and between time points by the Friedman test. Fisher’s exact test was used for qualitative variables. Results We found that the number of CB non-HSCs/VSELs is inversely associated with the birth weight of preterm infants. More notably, a high number of CB HSCs is strongly associated with a lower risk of prematurity complications including intraventricular hemorrhage, respiratory distress syndrome, infections, and anemia. The number of HSCs remains stable for the first six weeks of postnatal life. Besides, the number of CSPCs in CB is significantly higher in preterm infants than in full-term neonates (p?



Four-Parameter white blood cell differential counting based on light scattering measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of the depolarized orthogonal light scattering in flow cytometry enables one to discriminate human eosinephilic granulocytes from neutrophilic granulocytes. We use this method to perform a four-parameter differential white blood cell analysis. \\u000aA simple flow cytometer was built equipped with a 5-mW helium neon laser that measures simultaneously four light scattering parameters. Lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes were identified by

L. W. M. M. Terstappen; Grooth de B. G; K. Visscher; F. A. Kouterik; J. Greve



Extracting, Recognizing, and Counting White Blood Cells from Microscopic Images by Using Complex-valued Neural Networks  

PubMed Central

In this paper a method related to extracting white blood cells (WBCs) from blood microscopic images and recognizing them and counting each kind of WBCs is presented. In medical science diagnosis by check the number of WBCs and compared with normal number of them is a new challenge and in this context has been discussed it. After reviewing the methods of extracting WBCs from hematology images, because of high applicability of artificial neural networks (ANNs) in classification we decided to use this effective method to classify WBCs, and because of high speed and stable convergence of complex-valued neural networks (CVNNs) compare to the real one, we used them to classification purpose. In the method that will be introduced, first the white blood cells are extracted by RGB color system's help. In continuance, by using the features of each kind of globules and their color scheme, a normalized feature vector is extracted, and for classifying, it is sent to a complex-valued back-propagation neural network. And at last, the results are sent to the output in the shape of the quantity of each of white blood cells. Despite the low quality of the used images, our method has high accuracy in extracting and recognizing WBCs by CVNNs, and because of this, certainly its result on high quality images will be acceptable. Learning time of complex-valued neural networks, that are used here, was significantly less than real-valued neural networks.

Akramifard, Hamid; Firouzmand, Mohammad; Moghadam, Reza Askari



Autoradiographische Untersuchungen an Liquorzellen. (Autoradiographic investigations of cells from the cerebrospinal fluid).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A total of 155 samples of cerebrospinal fluid obtained from 61 patients were subjected to cytological examination and incubated together with /sub 3//sup 1/H-thymidine. Radioactive labelling was thus achieved for lymphocytes, monocytes and tumour cells. T...

W. Thamm



Computation of the fluid-induced shear stress in bioreactor-cultured 3D cell systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluid-induced shear is known to enhance chondrogenesis on animal cells. We have developed a computational fluid dynamic model of the flow through chondrocyte seeded scaffolds cultured inside a novel bioreactor in which the culture medium flows through the constructs' microstructure. The median shear stress imposed to the cells in the bioreactor culture, as predicted by the CFD model, is 3·10-3

F. Boschetti; M. T. Raimondi; G. B. Fiore; G. Dubini; L. Falcone; A. Remuzzi; E. Marinoni; M. Marazzi; R. Pietrabissa



Comparison of particle in cell and fluid models in plasma display panels simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a particle in cell model (PIC) was developed. We compare the major characteristics of a single discharge obtained from our PIC model and the fluid model. Fluid model uses different approximations as Local field (LFA). The particle in cell (PIC) model, although its costs in time, still an efficient tool to understand a PDP discharge. Even there is some differences as the delay time and the ionization, the discharge still be correctly described as the energy balance.

Benstâali, W.; Belasri, A.



Biocompatibility and buffers: Effect of bicarbonate-buffered peritoneal dialysis fluids on peritoneal cell function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biocompatibility and buffers: Effect of bicarbonate-buffered peritoneal dialysis fluids on peritoneal cell function.BackgroundConventional peritoneal dialysis fluids (PDF) have been shown to compromise the function of both leukocytes and human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMC). Various in vitro studies have identified the low initial pH in combination with high lactate content, as well as the hyperosmolality and high glucose concentration present in

Achim Jörres; Thorsten O Bender; André Finn; Janusz Witowski; Sibylle Fröhlich; Gerhard M Gahl; Ulrich Frei; Heiko Keck; Jutta Passlick-Deetjen



Different Immunological Phenotypes Associated with Preserved CD4+ T Cell Counts in HIV-Infected Controllers and Viremic Long Term Non-Progressors  

PubMed Central

Background HIV-infected controllers control viral replication and maintain normal CD4+ T cell counts. Long Term Non-Progressors (LTNP) also maintain normal CD4+ T cell counts, but have on-going viral replication. We hypothesized that different immunological mechanisms are responsible for preserved CD4+ T cell counts in controllers and LTNP. Methods 25 HIV-infected controllers and 14 LTNP were included in this cross-sectional study. For comparison, 25 progressors and 34 healthy controls were included. Production and destruction of T cells were addressed by determination of T cell receptor excision circles (TREC), recent thymic emigrants, naïve cells, immune activation, senescence and apoptosis. Furthermore, telomere length was determined, and the amount of lymphoid tissue in tonsil biopsies was quantified. Results Controllers presented with partly preserved thymic output, preserved expression of the IL-7 receptor and IL-7 receptor density, and lower levels of destruction of cells than progressors resembling HIV-negative healthy controls. In contrast, LTNP appeared much like progressors, and different from controllers in immune activation, senescence, and apoptosis. Interestingly, CD8+ RTE, TREC and telomere length were partly preserved. Finally, both controllers and LTNP displayed decreased amounts of lymphoid tissue compared to healthy controls. Conclusions Controllers presented with an immunological profile different from LTNP. While controllers resembled healthy controls, LTNP were similar to progressors, suggesting different immunological mechanisms to be responsible for preserved CD4+ T cell counts in LTNP and controllers. However, both controllers and LTNP presented with reduced amounts of lymphoid tissue despite preserved CD4+ T cell counts, indicating HIV to cause damage even in non-progressors.

Gaardbo, Julie Christine; Hartling, Hans J.; Ronit, Andreas; Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Madsen, Hans Ole; Springborg, Karoline; Gjerdrum, Lise Mette Rahbek; Birch, Carsten; Laye, Matthew; Ullum, Henrik; Andersen, Ase Bengaard; Nielsen, Susanne Dam



Effect of human splenic contraction on variation in circulating blood cell counts.  


1. The human spleen sequesters 200-250 mL densely packed red blood cells. Up to 50% of this viscous blood is actively expelled into the systemic circulation during strenuous exercise or simulated apnoea (breath-hold) diving. The contribution of splenic contraction to changes in the circulating volume of red blood cells (RBCV), as well as the venous concentration of white blood cells (WBC) and platelets (PLT), was investigated following repeated breath-hold apnoeas. 2. Eighteen trained apnoea divers and 18 intact and six splenectomized subjects without diving experience repeated five maximal apnoeas with face immersion in cold water, with 2 min intervals between successive attempts. Venous blood samples were taken before and between consecutive apnoeas, as well as at 0, 10 and 20 min after the last breath hold. Arterial pressure, heart rate and transcutaneous partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide were monitored continuously. 3. Plasma protein concentration decreased by 5.8, 2.2 and 9% in apnoea divers, untrained and splenectomized subjects, respectively, indicating an expansion of plasma volume. The RBCV and venous concentration of WBC, corrected for changes in plasma volume, increased in both trained apnoea divers (4.9+/-1.0 and 14.9+/-3.1%, respectively) and intact subjects (1.7+/-0.8 and 7.2+/-1.8%, respectively), whereas in splenectomized subjects there was no change in RBCV and a delayed increase in WBC concentration. Furthermore, an initial lymphocytosis detected during repeated breath holds in divers and intact subjects was completely absent in splenectomized subjects. None of the groups showed significant changes in PLT concentrations. The well-recognized diving response to apnoea (bradycardia and increased blood pressure) was seen during all breath-hold attempts in all subjects. 4. Repeated breath-holds (apnoeas) contribute to increased RBCV and venous blood concentrations of WBC through splenic contraction. PMID:16405451

Bakovi?, Darija; Eterovi?, Davor; Saratlija-Novakovi?, Zana; Palada, Ivan; Valic, Zoran; Bilopavlovi?, Nada; Duji?, Zeljko



Electrical Impedance Study of Cultured Endothelial Cells Under Fluid Shear Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lumen of blood vessels is lined with a monolayer of endothelial cells (EC). In this work, electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) was used to monitor the effect of fluid shear stress (FSS) on the morphology and function of cultured EC layers. Confluent layers of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) were grown on small gold electrodes and exposed to different

Chunzhi Dong; Natacha Depaola; Charles R. Keese; Ivar Giaever



Seminal fluid and the generation of regulatory T cells for embryo implantation.  


T regulatory (Treg) cells are essential mediators of the maternal immune adaptation necessary for embryo implantation. In mice, insufficient Treg cell activity results in implantation failure, or constrains placental function and fetal growth. In women, Treg cell deficiency is linked with unexplained infertility, miscarriage, and pre-eclampsia. To devise strategies to improve Treg cell function, it is essential to define the origin of the Treg cells in gestational tissues, and the regulators that control their functional competence and recruitment. Male seminal fluid is a potent source of the Treg cell-inducing agents TGF? and prostaglandin E, and coitus is one key factor involved in expanding the pool of inducible Treg cells that react with paternal alloantigens shared by conceptus tissues. In mice, coitus initiates a sequence of events whereby female dendritic cells cross-present seminal fluid antigens and activate T cells, which in turn circulate via the blood to be sequestered into the endometrium. Similar events may occur in the human genital tract, where seminal fluid induces immune cell changes that appear competent to prime Treg cells. Improved understanding of how seminal fluid influences Treg cells in women should ultimately assist in the development of new therapies for immune-mediated pathologies of pregnancy. PMID:23480148

Robertson, Sarah A; Prins, Jelmer R; Sharkey, David J; Moldenhauer, Lachlan M



A cohort study of the associations between udder conformation, milk somatic cell count, and lamb weight in suckler ewes.  


A cohort study of 67 suckler ewes from 1 farm was carried out from January to May 2010 to investigate associations between udder conformation, udder half milk somatic cell count (SCC), and lamb weight. Ewes and lambs were observed at lambing. Ewe health and teat condition and lamb health and weight were recorded on 4 to 5 further occasions at 14-d intervals. At each observation, a milk sample was collected from each udder half for somatic cell counting. Two weeks after lambing, ewe udder conformation and teat placement were scored. Low lamb weight was associated with ewe SCC >400,000 cells/mL (-0.73 kg), a new teat lesion 14 d previously (-0.91 kg), suboptimal teat position (-1.38 kg), rearing in a multiple litter (-1.45 kg), presence of diarrhea at the examination (-1.19 kg), and rearing by a 9-yr-old ewe compared with a 6-yr-old ewe (-2.36 kg). High lamb weight was associated with increasing lamb age (0.21 kg/d), increasing birth weight (1.65 kg/kg at birth), and increasing number of days the ewe was given supplementary feed before lambing (0.06 kg/d). High udder half SCC was associated with pendulous udders (9.6% increase in SCC/cm of drop) and greater total cross-sectional area of the teats (7.2% increase of SCC/cm(2)). Low SCC were associated with a heavier mean litter weight (6.7% decrease in SCC/kg). Linear, quadratic, and cubic terms for days in lactation were also significant. We conclude that poor udder and teat conformation are associated with high levels of intramammary infection, as indicated by increased SCC and that both physical attributes of the udder and SCC are linked to lamb growth, suggesting that selection of suckler ewes with better udder and teat conformation would reduce intramammary infection and increase lamb growth rate. PMID:22916904

Huntley, S J; Cooper, S; Bradley, A J; Green, L E



Enhanced generation of retinal progenitor cells from human retinal pigment epithelial cells induced by amniotic fluid  

PubMed Central

Background Retinal progenitor cells are a convenient source of cell replacement therapy in retinal degenerative disorders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression patterns of the homeobox genes PAX6 and CHX10 (retinal progenitor markers) during treatment of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells with amniotic fluid (AF), RPE cells harvested from neonatal cadaver globes were cultured in a mixture of DMEM and Ham's F12 supplemented with 10% FBS. At different passages, cells were trypsinized and co-cultured with 30% AF obtained from normal fetuses of 1416 weeks gestational age. Results Compared to FBS-treated controls, AF-treated cultures exhibited special morphological changes in culture, including appearance of spheroid colonies, improved initial cell adhesion and ordered cell alignment. Cell proliferation assays indicated a remarkable increase in the proliferation rate of RPE cells cultivated in 30% AF-supplemented medium, compared with those grown in the absence of AF. Immunocytochemical analyses exhibited nuclear localization of retinal progenitor markers at a ratio of 33% and 27% for CHX10 and PAX6, respectively. This indicated a 3-fold increase in retinal progenitor markers in AF-treated cultures compared to FBS-treated controls. Real-time PCR data of retinal progenitor genes (PAX6, CHX10 and VSX-1) confirmed these results and demonstrated AF's capacity for promoting retinal progenitor cell generation. Conclusion Taken together, the results suggest that AF significantly promotes the rate of retinal progenitor cell generation, indicating that AF can be used as an enriched supplement for serum-free media used for the in vitro propagation of human progenitor cells.



Enumeration of CD4+ T-Cells Using a Portable Microchip Count Platform in Tanzanian HIV-Infected Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundCD4+ T-lymphocyte count (CD4 count) is a standard method used to monitor HIV-infected patients during anti-retroviral therapy (ART). The World Health Organization (WHO) has pointed out or recommended that a handheld, point-of-care, reliable, and affordable CD4 count platform is urgently needed in resource-scarce settings.MethodsHIV-infected patient blood samples were tested at the point-of-care using a portable and label-free microchip CD4 count

SangJun Moon; Umut Atakan Gurkan; Jeffrey Blander; Wafaie W. Fawzi; Said Aboud; Ferdinand Mugusi; Daniel R. Kuritzkes; Utkan Demirci



CD4+ Cell Count and HIV Load as Predictors of Size of Anal Warts Over Time in HIV-Infected Women  

PubMed Central

Background.?Little is known about the associations between CD4+ cell counts, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) load, and human papillomavirus “low-risk” types in noncancerous clinical outcomes. This study examined whether CD4+ count and HIV load predict the size of the largest anal warts in 976 HIV-infected women in an ongoing cohort. Methods.?A linear mixed model was used to determine the association between size of anal wart and CD4+ count and HIV load. Results.?The incidence of anal warts was 4.15 cases per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.83–4.77) and 1.30 cases per 100 person-years (95% CI, 1.00–1.58) in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women, respectively. There appeared to be an inverse association between size of the largest anal warts and CD4+ count at baseline; however, this was not statistically significant. There was no association between size of the largest anal warts and CD4+ count or HIV load over time. Conclusions.?There was no evidence for an association between size of the largest anal warts and CD4+ count or HIV load over time. Further exploration on the role of immune response on the development of anal warts is warranted in a larger study.

Luu, Hung N.; Amirian, E. Susan; Chan, Wenyaw; Beasley, R. Palmer; Piller, Linda B.



Continuous cell lines and immune ascitic fluid pools in arbovirus detection.  


Successive experiments led us to use two cellular systems, MOS61 (Aedes pseudoscutellaris cells) and Vero cells, among the continuous cell lines recommended by the WHO Collaborating Center for systematic research and isolation of arboviruses. Virus detection in cell cultures is carried out with 7 mixtures containing 10 hyperimmune ascitic fluids made with the reference viruses. This technique enables the detection of 70 of the 80 arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes in Africa and very easily detects arbovirus associations by using either monospecific or monoclonal immune ascitic fluids (dengue-1-2-3-4 and yellow fever viruses) used in the indirect immunofluorescence technique. PMID:1297177

Digoutte, J P; Calvo-Wilson, M A; Mondo, M; Traore-Lamizana, M; Adam, F


Flow cytometric leucocyte counts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flow cytometric method was evaluated for performing total leucocyte counts on bovine blood. Fifty blood samples from 19\\u000a healthy Holstein cows were analysed on a flow cytometer. The method involved diluting blood with either hypotonic or isotonic\\u000a saline solution, lysing the red blood cells, and performing a 2-parameter analysis on the basis of cell size and cellular\\u000a granularity. Leucocyte

C. J. Liu; M. J. Paape; R. R. Peters



Effect of Nadir CD4+ T Cell Count on Clinical Measures of Periodontal Disease in HIV+ Adults before and during Immune Reconstitution on HAART  

PubMed Central

Background The contribution of HIV-infection to periodontal disease (PD) is poorly understood.  We proposed that immunological markers would be associated with improved clinical measures of PD. Methods We performed a longitudinal cohort study of HIV-infected adults who had started highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) <2 years. PD was characterized clinically as the percent of teeth with ?1 site with periodontal probing depth (PPD) ?5.0mm, recession (REC) >0mm, clinical attachment level (CAL) ?4.0mm, and bleeding on probing (BOP) at ?4 sites/tooth and microbiologically as specific periodontopathogen concentration. Linear mixed-effects models were used to assess the associations between immune function and PD. Results Forty (40) subjects with median 2.7 months on HAART and median nadir CD4+ T-cell count of 212 cells/?l completed a median 3 visits. Over 24 months, CD4+ T-cell count increased by a mean 173 cells/µl (p<0.001) and HIV RNA decreased by 0.5 log10 copies/ml (p<0.001); concurrently, PPD, CAL and BOP decreased by a mean 11.7%, 12.1%, and 14.7% respectively (all p<0.001). Lower nadir CD4+ T-cell count was associated with worse baseline REC (-6.72%; p=0.04) and CAL (9.06%; p<0.001). Further, lower nadir CD4+ T-cell count was associated with a greater relative longitudinal improvement in PPD in subjects with higher baseline levels of Porphyromonas gingivalis (p=0.027), and BOP in subjects with higher baseline levels of Porphyromonas gingivalis or Treponema denticola (p=0.001 and p=0.006 respectively). Longitudinal changes from baseline in CD4+ T-cell count and level of HIV RNA were not independently associated with longitudinal changes in any clinical markers of PD. Conclusion Degree of immunosuppression was associated with baseline gingival recession. After HAART initiation, measures of active PD improved most in those with lower nadir CD4+ T-cell counts and higher baseline levels of specific periodontopathogens. Nadir CD4+ T-cell count differentially influences periodontal disease both before and after HAART in HIV-infected adults.

Vernon, Lance T.; Demko, Catherine A.; Babineau, Denise C.; Wang, Xuelei; Toossi, Zahra; Weinberg, Aaron; Rodriguez, Benigno



Fossomatic cell-counting on ewe milk: comparison with direct microscopy and study of variation factors.  


Using the Fossomatic method (FSCC) a total of 23,003 analytical SCC observations were carried out on 6400 aliquots taken from 80 individual ewe milk samples with the objective of studying the influence of 4 preservation procedures (without preservation, potassium dichromate, azidiol, and bronopol), 2 storage temperatures (ambient and refrigeration), 10 milk ages (3,6,12, and 24h, and 2,3,4,5,7, and 9d postcollection), and two analytical temperatures (40 and 60 degrees C). In addition, each sample was analyzed with direct microscopic method (DMSCC), using 3 different stainings for each sample: methylene blue (MB), May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG) and Pyronin Y-methyl green (PGM). This allowed DMSCC and FSCC (at 24 h of age) to be compared. The reference DMSCC from MB staining was a reliable method in ewe milk, though more specific stainings such as MGG and PMG slightly improve the residual standard deviation for repeated SCC. Between DMSCC and FSCC, the highest coefficients of correlation (0.972 to 0.996) corresponded to preserved and refrigerated milk, and the lowest (0.708 to 0.919) to unpreserved and ambient stored aliquots. Except for the unpreserved and ambient stored aliquots, SCC values were similar in all aliquots. Under FSCC, preservation, storage and analytical temperature, milk age, and most of the interactions showed a significant effect on SCC variation. In preserved samples, logSCC values ranged between 5.67 (bronopol) and 5.62 (azidiol). The higest values (5.72) were for unpreserved milk, which showed false overestimation of SCC due to bacterial proliferation. LogSCC was higher at 60 degrees C (5.68) than at 40 degrees C (5.65). The interaction between age, preservation and storage temperature showed no cell degeneration in properly handled samples over the 9 d of study. PMID:12613858

Gonzalo, C; Martínez, J R; Carrledo, J A; San Primitivo, F



PtRu/Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposite Synthesized in Supercritical Fluid: A Novel Electrocatalyst for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell  

SciTech Connect

This manuscript describes a novel approach for synthesis of Pt-Ru/CNTs nanocomposites in supercritical fluid and demonstrated that Pt-Ru/CNTs nanocomposites synthesized in supercritical fluid are effective electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells.

Lin, Yuehe; Cui, Xiaoli; Yen, Clive; Wai, Chien M.



Retail display evaluation of steaks from select beef strip loins injected with a brine containing 1% ammonium hydroxide. Part 1: Fluid loss, oxidation, color, and microbial plate counts.  


Select beef loin pairs (n = 10) were injected (10% pump) with brine containing either 4.5% sodium-based phosphates, (CON), or 1% ammonium hydroxide treatment (AHT). Both brines also contained 3.6% NaCl and 1% Rosemary Herbalox. Steaks cut from loins were high oxygen (80% O(2)/20% CO(2)) modified atmosphere packaged, stored 4 d at 4 °C in the dark to simulate transportation, and then placed in retail display for 14 d (4 °C). On day 0, 7, and 14 of retail display steak properties were measured. Purge from AHT steaks was higher than CON (P < 0.05). Panelists were not able to visually discriminate between AHT and CON steaks through the first 6 d of retail display. After day 6, panelists rated AHT steaks higher for muscle color, percent discoloration, and overall color. Steaks from both treatments started at day 0 retail display with similar total plate counts (P > 0.05). Microbial counts increased more rapidly for AHT steaks than CON steaks (P < 0.05). AHT and CON steaks were not different in terms of lipid oxidation through day 7 retail display. By day 14 retail display CON steaks were above the threshold for consumer perception of oxidized flavors in fresh meat. However, results also indicated the AHT and CON steaks were no longer acceptable by day 14 in terms of color, were questionable in terms of microbial load, and likely were beyond their reasonable shelf life. Based on retail display properties, results indicated 1% AHT could successfully replace 4.5% SP in a meat injection brine. Practical Application: The research in this report compares steaks that have been injected with a commercial brine formulated with SP to steaks that have been injected with a brine, where the SP in the formulation are replaced with 1% AHT. Ammonium hydroxide is an USDA-FSIS approved ingredient in brines injected into fresh meats. Successful replacement of sodium phosphate with ammonium hydroxide would allow processors to significantly reduce the sodium content of injected fresh meat. PMID:21535717

Parsons, A N; VanOverbeke, D L; Goad, C L; Mireles Dewitt, C A



What is the exact predictive role of preoperative white blood cell count for new-onset atrial fibrillation following open heart surgery?  

PubMed Central

Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) occurs in 30% patients on the second or third day post operation; therefore, it is the most prevalent and complicated arrhythmia after open heart surgery. White blood cell (WBC) count seems to be most significantly associated with cardiovascular disorders. This study was designed to evaluate the exact relationship between preoperative WBC count and post-Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) AF in patients with severe left ventricle (LV) dysfunction who underwent elective off-pump coronary artery bypass. Methods: This study was conducted on 104 patients from among 400 patients with severe LV dysfunction undergoing elective off-pump CABG surgery from February 2011 to February 2012, in Afshar Cardiovascular Center, Yazd, Iran. Patients with emergency surgery, unstable angina creatinine higher than 2.0 mg/dL, malignancy, or immunosuppressive disease were excluded. Preoperative serological tests of the participants, such as WBC counts, were saved in their medical dossiers. Of the 400 patients undergoing CABG, AF was found in 54 cases; these 54 male patients formed the experimental group and 60 other patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stay without postoperative AF were part of the control group. Results: The average age of the patients was 68.5±12.8 years. WBC counts in patients with and without AF three days before surgery were 12,340±155 and 8,950±170, respectively. On surgical day, WBC counts in the patients with and without AF were 13,188±140 and 9,145±255, respectively (P value three days before surgery: 0.04; P value on surgical day: 0.01). Of the 54 male patients with postoperative AF (POAF), duration of AF was more in cases with elevated WBC count (12,000-14,000) than in those with lower elevated WBC count (10,000-12,000) (]P=0.025), but there was no relationship between frequency of recurrence of AF and grading of elevation of WBC count (]P=0.81). Conclusion: These findings show that three days before surgery and on surgery day, there was a difference in WBC count between both groups. So, preoperative WBC count may predict the incidence and duration of AF; however, it cannot be a predictor of the frequency of recurrence of AF. Finally, WBC count is an independent marker for POAF and duration of AF.

Mirhosseini, Seyed Jalil; Ali-Hassan-Sayegh, Sadegh; Forouzannia, Seyed Khalil



Analysis of Fluid Dynamics and Reactant Consumption in Microchannel Based Fuel Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the fluid dynamics within a membraneless microchannel fuel cell is analyzed computationally. The membraneless design is a result of the laminar nature of the fluid flow at small Reynolds numbers, restricting the fuel and oxidant to the vicinity of the corresponding electrodes, without the need of a proton exchange membrane (PEM). The performance of such cells is limited by the mass transport near the electrodes, with much of the reactants leaving the channel without coming in contact with the catalytic surfaces. We use various strategies similar with those used in grooved micromixers to overcome this limitation. While the flow is still laminar in nature, the addition of ridges to the top and bottom of the cell introduce a transverse element to the fluid flow, increasing reactant consumption and overall cell efficiency. The characteristics of the cells are investigated as a function of the Peclet number.

Dalessandro, Joseph; Fodor, Petru



Suppression of Dendritic Cell Maturation and T Cell Proliferation by Synovial Fluid Myeloid Cells from Mice with Autoimmune Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether myeloid cells (such as granulocytes) present in the synovial fluid (SF) of arthritic joints have an impact on adaptive immunity. Specifically, we investigated the effects of SF cells, harvested from the joints of mice with proteoglycan (PG)-induced arthritis (PGIA), on dendritic cell (DC) maturation and antigen-specific T-cell proliferation. Methods We monitored DC maturation (MHC class II and CD86 expression) by flow cytometry upon co-culture of DCs with SF or spleen myeloid cells from mice with PGIA. The effects of these myeloid cells on T-cell proliferation were studied using T cells purified from PG-specific T cell receptor transgenic (PG-TCR-Tg) mice. Phenotypic analysis of myeloid cells was performed employing immunostaining, RT-PCR, Western blot, and biochemical assays. Results Inflammatory SF cells significantly suppressed the maturation of DCs upon co-culture. PG-TCR-Tg T cells cultured with antigen-loaded DCs showed dramatic decreases in proliferation in the presence of SF cells. Spleen myeloid cells from arthritic mice did not have suppressive effects. SF cells were unable to suppress CD3/CD28-stimulated proliferation of the same T cells, suggesting a DC-dependent mechanism. SF cells exhibited all of the characteristics of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), and exerted suppression primarily through production of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species by granulocyte-like cells. Conclusion SF in the joints of mice with PGIA contains a population of granulocytic MDSCs that potently suppress DC maturation and T-cell proliferation. These MDSCs have the potential to limit the expansion of autoreactive T cells, thus breaking the vicious cycle of autoimmunity and inflammation.

Egelston, Colt; Kurko, Julia; Besenyei, Timea; Tryniszewska, Beata; Rauch, Tibor A.; Glant, Tibor T.; Mikecz, Katalin



High interstitial fluid pressure promotes tumor cell proliferation and invasion in oral squamous cell carcinoma.  


It has been shown that interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) is elevated in many solid tumors. The elevated IFP in tumors is responsible, at least in part, for the poor blood supply, inadequate delivery of therapeutic agents to solid tumors and poor treatment response in patients. The present study was carried out to examine alterations in malignant phenotypes in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells subjected to conditions mimicking IFP and to identify the relevant molecular mechanisms. We investigated tumor cell proliferation and invasion using SCC-4 and SCC-9 cells subjected to an increased extracellular pressure of 0, 15 and 30 mmHg in vitro. The results revealed that the increased IFP resulted in a marked increase in cancer cell proliferation, survival and invasion in vitro and altered the expression of >1,800 genes involved in invasion and metastasis, the heat shock pathway, the p38 and JNK signaling pathway, apoptosis and the cell growth and differentiation signaling pathway. These results suggest the important potential clinical application of measuring IFP, which can be used as a generic marker of prognosis and response to therapy. PMID:24043259

Yu, Tao; Liu, Kun; Wu, Yingying; Fan, Jinchuan; Chen, Jianchao; Li, Chao; Zhu, Guiquan; Wang, Zhaohui; Li, Longjiang



Effect of storage and separation of milk at udder quarter level on milk composition, proteolysis, and coagulation properties in relation to somatic cell count  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coagulation properties of milk are altered by elevated somatic cell count (SCC), partly due to increased proteolytic and lipolytic activity in the milk and, thereby, degradation of protein and fat during storage. Milk is commonly stored on the farm at cooling conditions for up to 2 d before transport to the dairy for processing. This study evaluated the effects of

L. Forsbäck; H. Lindmark-Månsson; K. Svennersten-Sjaunja; L. Bach Larsen; A. Andrén



Accuracy of Methods Using Somatic Cell Count and N-Acetyl-?-D-Glucosaminidase Activity in Milk to Assess the Bacteriological Cure of Bovine Clinical Mastitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the capability of milk somatic cell count (SCC) andNAGase activity to discriminate between quarters that had been cured versus those that had not been cured at 4 wk after antimicrobial therapy for clinical mastitis. The distribution of microorganisms that were isolated before therapy from 630 quarters with mastitis was as follows: 225 strains of Staphylococcus aureus, 96

S. PYORALAand E. PYORALA; E. Pyörälä



Association of conception rate with pattern and level of somatic cell count elevation relative to time of insemination in dairy cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim was to evaluate the effects of mastitis, determined by the pattern and level of somatic cell count (SCC) around first artificial insemination (AI), on conception rate (CR). Data from 287,192 first AI and milk records covering a 7-yr period were obtained from the Israeli Herd Book. Analyses examined the association of probability of conception with SCC elevation relative

Y. Lavon; E. Ezra; G. Leitner; D. Wolfenson



Correlation of CD4+ T-Cell Counts Estimated by an Immunocapture Technique (Capcellia) with Viral Loads in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Seropositive Individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

As antiretroviral therapy becomes more affordable, valid, reliable, and inexpensive laboratory tests are also needed to monitor the progression of disease in people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The CD4 T-cell counts estimated by Capcellia, an immunocapture method, and flow cytometry were compared and were correlated with HIV type 1 (HIV-1) load. There was a significant negative correlation between

R. Kannangai; S. Ramalingam; M. V. Jesudason; T. S. Vijayakumar; O. C. Abraham; A. Zachariah; G. Sridharan



Influence of estrus of dairy goats on somatic cell count, milk traits, and sex steroid receptors in the mammary gland.  


Two experiments were conducted to study the effect of the stage of a spontaneous estrus cycle on milk yield and constituents [somatic cell count (SCC), fat, protein, caseins, lactose, and urea content] and on estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha ) and progesterone receptor (PR) immunostaining in the mammary gland. In experiment I, the major components of milk and SCC were monitored weekly in 80 lactating Saanen goats for 6 wk, whereas detection of estrus was daily. In experiment II, milk samples were collected daily for SCC determination during 1 spontaneous estrus (d 0) until the second spontaneous estrus in 14 Saanen goats. The day of the estrous cycle was confirmed by plasma progesterone and 17beta-estradiol levels. Immunoreactivity of ERalpha and PR was analyzed in mammary gland samples of 8 Saanen goats (d 0, n = 4; d 10, n = 4) and the number of positive nuclei and intensity of the staining were evaluated in 1,000 cells. In experiment I, milk casein and protein percentages were significantly affected by the stage of estrous cycle; during proestrus and estrus, these variables were higher (3.32 +/- 0.06 and 4.44 +/- 0.08) than during metestrus (3.03 +/- 0.07 and 4.07 +/- 0.10), but not higher than during diestrus (3.23 +/- 0.06 and 4.35 +/- 0.09, respectively). In experiment II, daily measurement of SCC revealed higher levels at estrus (7,195 +/- 672 x 10(3) cells/mL) and a decline toward the luteal phase (1,694 +/- 672 +/- 10(3) cells/mL). Estrogen receptor-alpha and PR immunostaining were exclusively detected on epithelial cells. The percentage of positive nuclei to ERalpha was higher on d 0 than on d 10 (75.4 +/- 8.8 vs. 68.3 +/- 8.8%), but no change was observed for PR (4.0 +/- 0.3 vs. 3.5 +/- 0.4%). The average immunostaining intensity for both receptors was greater on d 0 than on d 10 (ERalpha : 1.44 +/- 0.02 vs. 1.35 +/- 0.02; PR: 0.079 +/- 0.008 vs. 0.057 +/- 0.008). The high SCC at estrus in experiment II was associated with high plasma estradiol and low progesterone, suggesting that the increased SCC could be brought about by the estrogen-induced proliferation and exfoliation of epithelial cells. In addition, this action may be supported by the higher sensitivity to estrogens (ERalpha content) found at d 0. PMID:17235156

Moroni, P; Pisoni, G; Savoini, G; van Lier, E; Acuña, S; Damián, J P; Meikle, A



Platelet counts during normal pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven reports of platelet counts were found in the literature which reported a progressive increase, no change, or a progressive fall during pregnancy. The counts had been made using venous or capillary blood, with either simple dilution or red cell lysis prior to enumeration in a haemocytometer, with or without phase-contrast microscopy. It was therefore decided to examine whole blood

S A Sejeny; R D Eastham; S R Baker



Optical detection and virotherapy of live metastatic tumor cells in body fluids with vaccinia strains.  


Metastatic tumor cells in body fluids are important targets for treatment, and critical surrogate markers for evaluating cancer prognosis and therapeutic response. Here we report, for the first time, that live metastatic tumor cells in blood samples from mice bearing human tumor xenografts and in blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with cancer were successfully detected using a tumor cell-specific recombinant vaccinia virus (VACV). In contrast to the FDA-approved CellSearch system, VACV detects circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in a cancer biomarker-independent manner, thus, free of any bias related to the use of antibodies, and can be potentially a universal system for detection of live CTCs of any tumor type, not limited to CTCs of epithelial origin. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time that VACV was effective in preventing and reducing circulating tumor cells in mice bearing human tumor xenografts. Importantly, a single intra-peritoneal delivery of VACV resulted in a dramatic decline in the number of tumor cells in the ascitic fluid from a patient with gastric cancer. Taken together, these results suggest VACV to be a useful tool for quantitative detection of live tumor cells in liquid biopsies as well as a potentially effective treatment for reducing or eliminating live tumor cells in body fluids of patients with metastatic disease. PMID:24019862

Wang, Huiqiang; Chen, Nanhai G; Minev, Boris R; Zimmermann, Martina; Aguilar, Richard J; Zhang, Qian; Sturm, Julia B; Fend, Falko; Yu, Yong A; Cappello, Joseph; Lauer, Ulrich M; Szalay, Aladar A



Synthetic gene networks that count.  


Synthetic gene networks can be constructed to emulate digital circuits and devices, giving one the ability to program and design cells with some of the principles of modern computing, such as counting. A cellular counter would enable complex synthetic programming and a variety of biotechnology applications. Here, we report two complementary synthetic genetic counters in Escherichia coli that can count up to three induction events: the first, a riboregulated transcriptional cascade, and the second, a recombinase-based cascade of memory units. These modular devices permit counting of varied user-defined inputs over a range of frequencies and can be expanded to count higher numbers. PMID:19478183

Friedland, Ari E; Lu, Timothy K; Wang, Xiao; Shi, David; Church, George; Collins, James J



Mean cell volume of neutrophils and monocytes compared with C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and white blood cell count for prediction of sepsis and nonsystemic bacterial infections.  


Clinicians are in need of better diagnostic markers for rapid diagnosis of severe infections. Therefore, we studied the diagnostic significance of mean cell volume of neutrophils (MNV) and monocytes (MMV) compared with Interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell count for predicting systemic clinical infection (sepsis). MNV and MMV were obtained by volume conductivity scatter (VCS) technique of the Coulter LH 750 hematology analyzer during automated differential counts, and blood samples from patients with sepsis (n = 37), nonsystemic bacterial infections (n = 39) and controls (n = 48) were studied. We observed a significant increase in MNV and MMV in the sepsis group compared with limited infections and controls. However, at a designated cut-off point of 250 pg/ml, IL-6 seemed to be the best predictor for sepsis with a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 76%. Compared with CRP (cut-off point 60 mg/dl), MNV at a cut-off of 150 had a comparable sensitivity and specificity and was the most predictive VCS parameter. Taken together, MNV and MMV seemed to be potential parameters to discriminate between sepsis and nonsystemic infections. PMID:19919621

Mardi, D; Fwity, B; Lobmann, R; Ambrosch, A



Mitochondrial Genomics and CD4 T-cell Count Recovery after Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation in AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study 384  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation has been associated with time to progression to AIDS and adverse effects from antiretroviral therapy (ART). In this study, full mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data from U.S.-based adult participants in the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) study 384 was used to assess associations between mtDNA variants and CD4 T cell recovery with ART. METHODS Full mtDNA sequence was determined using chip-based array sequencing. Sequence and CD4 cell count data was available at baseline and after ART initiation for 423 subjects with HIV RNA levels <400copies/mL plasma. The primary outcome was change in CD4 count of ?100 cells/mm3 from baseline. Analyses were adjusted for baseline age, CD4 cell count, HIV RNA, and naïve:memory CD4 cell ratio. RESULTS Race-stratified analysis of mtDNA variants with a minor allele frequency >1% revealed multiple mtDNA variants marginally associated (P < 0.05 before Bonferroni correction) with CD4 cell recovery. The most significant SNP associations were those tagging the African L2 haplogroup, which was associated with a decreased likelihood of ?100 cells/mm3 CD4 count increase at week 48 in non-Hispanic blacks (adjusted OR=0.17; 95% CI=0.06–0.53; P=0.002). CONCLUSIONS An African mtDNA haplogroup was associated with CD4 cell recovery after ART in this clinical trial population. These initial findings warrant replication and further investigation in order to confirm the role of mtDNA variation in CD4 cell recovery during ART.

Grady, Benjamin J.; Samuels, David C.; Robbins, Gregory K.; Selph, Doug; Canter, Jeffrey A.; Pollard, Richard B.; Haas, David W.; Shafer, Robert; Kalams, Spyros A.; Murdock, Deborah G.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Hulgan, Todd



Effect of subclinical intramammary infection on somatic cell counts, NAGase activity and gross composition of goats' milk.  


The study was aimed at identifying the pathogens causing subclinical udder infections in representative Israeli dairy goat herds and determining their effect on milk quality. Five hundred goats in ten flocks of various breeds and crossbreeds were surveyed. Of the 500 goats, 13.4% were in their first lactation, 36.4% were in their second lactation and 50.2% were in their third or higher lactation. Percentages of udder halves with subclinical intramammary infection in the flocks ranged from 35 to 71%. The effect of the bacteriological infection on somatic cells count (SCC) was significant (P<0.001). Various species of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), mainly Staphylococcus caprae and Staphylococcus epidermidis, were the main pathogens in infected udder halves. Lactation number did not significantly influence either infection rate of udder halves or SCC, although the percentage of udder halves with no bacteriological findings was higher at the first lactation than at the third lactation. Milk composition (fat, protein and lactose) varied among flocks, with lower mean total protein in uninfected halves than in infected ones and higher lactose in uninfected than infected halves. PMID:15354577

Leitner, Gabriel; Merin, Uzi; Silanikove, Nissim; Ezra, Efraim; Chaffer, Marcelo; Gollop, Natan; Winkler, Marta; Glickman, Anita; Saran, Arthur



Estimation of genetic and phenotypic parameters for production traits and somatic cell count for jersey dairy cattle in zimbabwe.  


Genetic and phenotypic parameters for production traits and somatic cell count (SCC) for Jersey dairy cattle in Zimbabwe were estimated. A total of 10986 lactation records were obtained from Zimbabwe Livestock Identification Trust, with cows calving in the period from 1996 to 2008. An ASReml program fitting an animal model was used for the analyses. Heritability estimates for milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fat percentage, protein percentage, and Log10SCC were 0.30, 0.32, 0.33, 0.42, 0.44, and 0.08, respectively. The corresponding repeatability estimates were 0.39, 0.38, 0.39, 0.49, 0.51, and 0.16, respectively. The genetic and phenotypic correlations between different production traits ranged from -0.86 to 0.95 and from -0.88 to 0.98, respectively. The genetic and phenotypic correlations between production traits and Log10SCC were weak almost nonsignificantly differentl from zero. The results imply that milk traits for Jersey dairy cattle in Zimbabwe are more heritable. Therefore, these traits may be preferred by breeders as selection criteria for development of effective genetic improvement programme. PMID:23956868

Missanjo, Edward; Imbayarwo-Chikosi, Venancio; Halimani, Tinyiko



Development of a Prognostic Score Using the Complete Blood Cell Count for Survival Prediction in Unselected Critically Ill Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective. The purpose of this study was to develop a new prognostic scoring system for critically ill patients using the simple complete blood cell count (CBC). Methods. CBC measurements in samples from 306 patients in an intensive care unit were conducted with automated analyzers, including levels of neutrophils, lymphocytes, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, and platelets. The time of sampling and the time of death were recorded. Z values were calculated according to the measured values, reference mean values, and standard deviations. The prognostic score was equivalent to the median of the Z value of each of the measured parameters. Results. There was a significant correlation between survival time and neutrophil, lymphocyte, and platelet levels (P < 0.05). Prognostic scores were calculated from the Z value of these three parameters. Survival times decreased as the prognostic score increased. Conclusions. This study suggests that a model that uses levels of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and platelets is potentially useful in the objective evaluation of survival time or disease severity in unselected critically ill patients.

Chongliang, Fang; Yuzhong, Li; Qian, Shi; Xiliang, Liu; Hui, Liu



Lingual antimicrobial peptide and lactoferrin concentrations and lactoperoxidase activity in bovine colostrum are associated with subsequent somatic cell count.  


The present study was undertaken to examine whether potential levels of innate immune factors (lingual antimicrobial peptide (LAP), lactoferrin (LF) and lactoperoxidase (LPO)) in colostrum are associated with subsequent milk somatic cell count (SCC) in dairy cows. Quarter milk samples were collected daily for 1 week postpartum to measure LAP and LF concentrations and LPO activity. SCC in milk was determined weekly for 2 months postpartum and its correlations to concentrations of LAP and LF and LPO activity were examined. Only small variations of all immune factors were found among four udders in each individual cow, whereas there were great differences in these factors among cows. Negative correlation was detected only between LPO activity and mean and maximum SCC, whereas its relationship was not significant. LAP and LF concentrations were significantly correlated positively to mean, maximum and minimum SCC. These results suggest that the great difference in innate immune factors among animals and high LAP and LF concentrations in colostrum may be associated with subsequent high incidence of SCC increase. PMID:24001397

Isobe, Naoki; Shibata, Ayumi; Kubota, Hirokazu; Yoshimura, Yukinori



Categorical counting.  


Pigeons pecked on three keys, responses to one of which could be reinforced after a few pecks, to a second key after a somewhat larger number of pecks, and to a third key after the maximum pecking requirement. The values of the pecking requirements and the proportion of trials ending with reinforcement were varied. Transits among the keys were an orderly function of peck number, and showed approximately proportional changes with changes in the pecking requirements, consistent with Weber's law. Standard deviations of the switch points between successive keys increased more slowly within a condition than across conditions. Changes in reinforcement probability produced changes in the location of the psychometric functions that were consistent with models of timing. Analyses of the number of pecks emitted and the duration of the pecking sequences demonstrated that peck number was the primary determinant of choice, but that passage of time also played some role. We capture the basic results with a standard model of counting, which we qualify to account for the secondary experiments. PMID:20540994

Fetterman, J Gregor; Killeen, P Richard



Environmental Enrichment Increases Progenitor Cell Survival in the Dentate Gyrus following Lateral Fluid Percussion Injury  

PubMed Central

Neurons in the hilus of the dentate gyrus are lost following a lateral fluid percussion injury. Environmental enrichment is known to increase neurogenesis in the dentate in intact rats, suggesting that it might also do so following fluid percussion injury, and potentially provide replacements for lost neurons. We report that 1 hour of daily environmental enrichment for 3 weeks increased the number of progenitor cells in the dentate following fluid percussion injury, but only on the ipsilesional side. In the dentate granule cell layer, but not the hilus, most progenitors had a neuronal phenotype. The rate of on going cell proliferation was similar across groups. Collectively these results suggest that the beneficial effects of environmental enrichment on behavioral recovery following FP injury are not attributable to neuronal replacement in the hilus, but may be related to increased neurogenesis in the granule cell layer.

Gaulke, Lindsey J.; Horner, Philip J.; Fink, Andrew J.; McNamara, Courtney L.; Hicks, Ramona R.



Osmotic induction of fluid-phase endocytosis in onion epidermal cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transient plasmolysis\\/deplasmolysis (plasmolytic cycle) of onion epidermal cells has been shown to induce the formation\\u000a of fluid-phase endocytic vesicles. Plasmolysis in the presence of the membrane-impermeant fluorescent probes Lucifer Yellow\\u000a CH (LYCH) and Cascade Blue hydrazide resulted in the uptake of these probes by fluid-phase endocytosis. Following deplasmolysis,\\u000a many of the dye-containing vesicles left their parietal positions within the

K. J. Oparka; D. A. M. Prior; N. Harris



Squeeze flow of multiply-connected fluid domains in a Hele-Shaw cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The theory of algebraic curves and quadrature domains is used to construct exact solutions to the problem of the squeeze flow\\u000a of multiply-connected fluid domains in a Hele-Shaw cell. The solutions are exact in that they can be written down in terms\\u000a of a finite set of time-evolving parameters. The method is very general and applies to fluid domains of

D. Crowdy; H. Kang



Regulation of bronchoalveolar lavage fluids cell function by the immunomodulatory agents from Cordyceps sinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) is one of the well known fungi used in traditional Chinese medicine for treatment asthma and bronchial and lung inflammation. In this study, effects of C. sinensis methanolic extracts on bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) cells proliferation, inflammatory cytokines production, and genes expression were evaluated. The proliferative response of BALF cells to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was determined by

Yuh-Chi Kuo; Wei-Jern Tsai; Jir-Yenn Wang; Shi-Chung Chang; Ching-Yuang Lin; Ming-Shi Shiao



Computational Fluid Dynamic Simulation of Aggregation of Deformable Cells in a Shear Flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation of aggregation of two deform- able cells in a shear flow. This work is motivated by an attempt to develop computational models of aggregation of red blood cells (RBCs). Aggregation of RBCs is a major deter- minant of blood viscosity in microcirculation under physiological and pathological con- ditions. Deformability of the RBCs plays

Prosenjit Bagchi; Paul C. Johnson; Aleksander S. Popel



Incidence of clinical mastitis in dairy herds grouped in three categories by bulk milk somatic cell counts.  


Incidence of clinical mastitis was studied in 274 herds grouped in three categories by bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC). Mean incidence rate of clinical mastitis was 0.278, 0.257, and 0.252 cases per 365 cow-days at risk in herds with low (< or = 150,000), medium (150,000 to 250,000), and high (250,000 to 400,000 cells/ml) bulk milk SCC, respectively. The incidence rate of clinical mastitis was not different among the three categories. Variance in the incidence of clinical mastitis among herds increased as bulk milk SCC decreased. Clinical mastitis caused by Gram-negative pathogens, such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., or Pseudomonas spp., occurred more often in herds with a low bulk milk SCC. Clinical mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Streptococcus agalactiae occurred more often in herds with a high bulk milk SCC. Systemic signs of illness caused by clinical mastitis occurred more often in herds with a low bulk milk SCC. Both overall culling rate and culling rate for clinical mastitis were not different among groups catergorized by bulk milk SCC. In herds with a high bulk milk SCC, however, more cows that produced milk with a high SCC were culled. In herds with a low bulk milk SCC, more cows were culled for teat lesions, milkability, udder shape, fertility, and character than were cows in herds with a high bulk milk SCC. In herds with a low bulk milk SCC, cows were also culled more for export and production reasons. PMID:9532494

Barkema, H W; Schukken, Y H; Lam, T J; Beiboer, M L; Wilmink, H; Benedictus, G; Brand, A



Electrokinetic focusing and separation of mammalian cells in conductive biological fluids.  


Active manipulation of cells, such as trapping, focusing, and isolation, is essential for various bioanalytical applications. Herein, we report a hybrid electrokinetic technique for manipulating mammalian cells in physiological fluids. This technique applies a combination of negative dielectrophoretic force and hydrodynamic drag force induced by electrohydrodynamics, which is effective in conductive biological fluids. With a three-electrode configuration, the stable equilibrium positions of cells can be adjusted for separation and focusing applications. Cancer cells and white blood cells can be positioned and isolated into specific locations in the microchannel under both static and dynamic flow conditions. To investigate the sensitivity of the hybrid electrokinetic process, AC voltage, frequency, and bias dependences of the cell velocity were studied systematically. The applicability of the hybrid electrokinetic technique for manipulating cells in physiological samples is demonstrated by continuous focusing of human breast adenocarcinoma spiked in urine, buffy coats, and processed blood samples with 98% capture efficiency. PMID:22937529

Gao, Jian; Riahi, Reza; Sin, Mandy L Y; Zhang, Shufeng; Wong, Pak Kin



Isolation, culture, and identification of amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells.  


Amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AF-MSC) are newly described, excellent seed cells that have good differentiation capability and are convenient to obtain. However, it is important to develop a method to isolate and culture AF-MSC efficiently. Amniotic fluid samples were obtained from rabbits and the adherence method was used for AF-MSC culture. Flow cytometry, western blot, and immunofluorescence studies were used to analyze the phenotypic characteristics of the cultured AF-MSC. Amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells were successfully isolated and cultured from amniotic fluid. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that these cells expressed CD29 and CD44, while they did not express CD34. The expression of transcription factor Oct-4 was confirmed by western blot and immunofluorescence analysis. Using the adherence method, we developed a successful, reproducible protocol for the isolation of AF-MSC from amniotic fluid. The results of our phenotypic analysis revealed that the AF-MSC isolated in the present study were multipotent cells. PMID:23508888

Fei, Xuetao; Jiang, Shan; Zhang, Song; Li, Yigang; Ge, Junbo; He, Ben; Goldstein, Steven; Ruiz, George



Sperm counts and serum follicle-stimulating hormone levels before and after radiotherapy and chemotherapy in men with testicular germ cell cancer  

SciTech Connect

Sperm counts were low (median, 15 X 10(6) per ejaculate) and serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were moderately elevated (median, 31 IU/l) after unilateral orchiectomy and immediately before radiotherapy and chemotherapy in 34 patients with seminomas and 20 patients with nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. The scattered radiation (0.2 to 1.3 Gray (Gy)) reaching the remaining testicle during radiotherapy caused azoospermia in more than two thirds of the patients. A median of 540 days elapsed after the end of treatment before spermatozoa were again found in semen samples, while a median of 1250 days passed before the pretreatment sperm count was reached. One to 5 years after treatment, sperm counts were still low (median, 6 X 10(6) per ejaculate) and serum FSH was elevated (median, 61 IU/l). The adjuvant chemotherapy given to the 20 patients with nonseminomatous tumors did not appear to affect restitution appreciably.

Berthelsen, J.G.



Fluid-mineral interactions in subduction zones: insights from experiments in the diamond- anvil cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatile-rich high-pressure fluids released into the mantle during the subduction of the oceanic lithosphere have a broad impact on the mass transfer in the Earth since they mediate the recycling of elements into the mantle and their return to the atmosphere through arc volcanism. Constrains on element transport and mass fluxes in these environments rely on quantitative thermodynamical modeling of fluid-mineral interactions, that is greatly limited by the lack of thermodynamic data of aqueous fluids at high pressure and temperature conditions (10 GPa - 800 C). As a part of the efforts to adress this problem, this contribution will present recent results on it in situ studies of fluid-mineral interactions at high P-T conditions in the diamond anvil cells using synchrotron X-ray and vibrational spectroscopies. Experiments designed to measure in situ the solubility of mineral, the distribution of stable isotopes between minerals-melts-fluids and the density of aqueous fluids will be presented. Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence spectroscopy (SXRF) has been used to conduct it in situ dissolution/precipitation kinetics studies and mineral solubility measurements with detection limits as low as 40 ppm in the diamond-anvil cell. Results on the solubility of carbonate minerals in water will be shown to illustrate the potentials of the technique for in situ observations of mineral-fluids interactions at extreme conditions. In another example we report investigations on the systematic of boron isotopic fractionation between mineral/melt/fluid at subduction zone conditions. Boron isotopic fractionation factors between trigonal B(OH)3 and tetragonal B(OH)4- aqueous species at high P-T conditions (10 GPa - 500 C) were calculated using measured vibrational spectra (Raman and IR) and thermodynamical modeling following Urey's theory. Combining these results with previous data on B-isotopic fractionation between minerals/melts/fluids we propose a model in which B-isotopic exchanges at high P-T conditions can be quantitatively predicted from coordination changes between phases, be it solids or fluids. Finally, efforts on the evaluation of the thermodynamic properties of high pressure fluids will be illustrated by the determination of the equations of state from sound velocity measurements in the diamond-anvil cell by Brillouin scattering spectroscopy. Densities of H2O and NaCl-H2O fluids will be presented and discussed in comparison with literature data.

Sanchez-Valle, C.; Daniel, I.; Bass, J. D.; Reynard, B.



Fluorescent intensity-based differential counting of FITC-doped silica nanoparticles: applications of CD4+ T-cell detection in microchip-type flowcytometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although CD4+ T-cells are an important target of HIV detection, there have been still major problems in making a diagnosis and monitoring in the third world and the region with few medical facilities. Then, it is necessary to use portable diagnosis devices at low cost when you put an enumeration of CD4+ T-cells. In general, the counting of CD4 below 200cells/uL makes it necessary to initiate antiretroviral treatment in adults (over 13 years old). However, lymphocyte subsets (including CD4 counts) of infants and young children are higher than those of adults. This fact shows the percentage of CD4+ T-cells of blood subsets, i.e., CD4/CD45%, CD4/CD8% or CD4/CD3% means a more reliable indicator of HIV infection than absolute counts in children. To know the percentage of CD4+ T-cell by using two fluorescent dyes of different emission wavelength, at least, one laser and two PMT detectors are in general needed. Then, it is so hard to develop a portable device like a 'toaster size' because this makes such a device more complex including many peripheral modules. In this study, we developed a novel technique to control the intensity of fluorescent dye-doped silica nanoparticles. I synthesized FITC-doped silica nanoparticles conjugated CD4 antibody 10 times brighter than FITC-conjugated CD45 antibody. With the difference of intensity of two fluorescent dyes, we measured two parameters by using only a single detector and laser. Most experiments were achieved with uFACS (microfabricated fluorescence-activated cell sorter) on an inverted microscope (IX71, Olympus). In conclusion, this method enables us to discriminate the difference between CD4 and CD45 in an intensity domain simultaneously. Furthermore, this technique would make it possible develop much cheaper and smaller devices which can count the number of CD4 T-cells.

Yun, Hoyoung; Bang, Hyunwoo; Lee, Won Gu; Lim, Hyunchang; Park, Junha; Lee, Joonmo; Riaz, Asif; Cho, Keunchang; Chung, Chanil; Han, Dong-Chul; Chang, Jun Keun



Consequence of alternative standards for bulk tank somatic cell count of dairy herds in the United States.  


Noncompliance with current US and European Union (EU) standards for bulk-tank somatic cell count (BTSCC) as well as BTSCC standards recently proposed by 3 US organizations was evaluated using US Dairy Herd Improvement Association (DHI) herds and herds supplying milk to 4 Federal Milk Marketing Orders (FMO). Herds with 15 to 26 tests (frequently monthly) from January 2009 through October 2010 were included. Somatic cell scores (SCS) from 14,854 herds and 164,794 herd-tests were analyzed for DHI herds with ?10 cows for all tests. Herd test-day SCC was derived as a proxy for BTSCC and was the basis for determining noncompliance and percentage of the milk it represented. For FMO herds, actual milk marketed and BTSCC were available from 27,759 herds and 325,690 herd-tests. A herd was noncompliant for the current EU BTSCC standard after 4 consecutive rolling 3-test geometric means (geometric method) were >400,000 cells/mL. A herd was noncompliant for the current US BTSCC standard after 3 of 5 consecutive monthly BTSCC shipments (frequency method) were >750,000 cells/mL. Alternative proposed standards (600,000, 500,000, or 400,000 cells/mL) also were examined. A third method designated noncompliance when a single 3-mo geometric mean of >550,000 or >400,000 cells/mL and a subsequent test exceeded the same level. Results were examined based on herd size or milk shipped by month. Noncompliance for the current US standard for the 12 mo ending October 2010 in DHI and FMO herds was 0.9 and 1.0%, respectively, compared with 7.8 and 16.1% for the current EU standard. Noncompliance was always greater for the frequency method than for the geometric method and was inversely related to herd size or milk shipped. Using the frequency method at 400,000 cells/mL, noncompliance was 19.1% for DHI herd-tests in herds with <50 cows compared with 1.1% for herds with ? 1,000 cows. For FMO herds shipping <900 t, noncompliance was 44.5% using the frequency method at 400,000 cells/mL compared with 8.0% for herds marketing >9,000 t. All methods proposed increased the percentages of herds and shipped milk that exceeded the regulatory limit. Producers will need to place more emphasis on reducing the incidence and prevalence of subclinical mastitis through known management practices such as proper milking techniques, well-functioning milking machines, postmilking teat disinfectant, dry cow treatment, and culling of problem cows to meet any of the proposed new standards. PMID:22118112

Norman, H D; Lombard, J E; Wright, J R; Kopral, C A; Rodriguez, J M; Miller, R H



Evaluation of stabilized blood cell products as candidate preparations for quality assessment programs for CD4 T-cell counting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Exceptionally robust cell preparations are needed for quality assessment programs (QAPs) such as the International Program for Quality Assessment and Standardization for Immunological Measures (QASI) relevant to HIV\\/AIDS. A suitable product must withstand environmental stress related to transportation for a minimum of 6 days. The two objectives of this study are (1) to evaluate the performance of various commercial

Atousa Shafaie; Tao Ding; Sieglinde Phaneuf; Nadia Soucy; Francis Mandy; John Bradley; John Fahey



The Impact of HIV Infection and CD4 Cell Count on the Performance of an Interferon Gamma Release Assay in Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Background The performance of the tuberculosis specific Interferon Gamma Release Assays (IGRAs) has not been sufficiently documented in tuberculosis- and HIV-endemic settings. This study evaluated the sensitivity of the QuantiFERON TB-Gold In-Tube (QFT-IT) in patients with culture confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in a TB- and HIV-endemic population and the effect of HIV-infection and CD4 cell count on test performance. Methodology/Principal Findings 161 patients with sputum culture confirmed PTB were subjected to HIV- and QFT-IT testing and measurement of CD4 cell count. The QFT-IT was positive in 74% (119/161; 95% CI: 67–81%). Sensitivity was higher in HIV-negative (75/93) than in HIV-positive (44/68) patients (81% vs. 65%, p?=?0.02) and increased with CD4 cell count in HIV-positive patients (test for trend p?=?0.03). 23 patients (14%) had an indeterminate result and this proportion decreased with increasing CD4 cell count in HIV-positive patients (test for trend p?=?0.03). Low CD4 cell count (<300 cells/µl) did not account for all QFT-IT indeterminate nor all negative results. Sensitivity when excluding indeterminate results was 86% (95% CI: 81–92%) and did not differ between HIV-negative and HIV–positive patients (88 vs. 83%, p?=?0.39). Conclusions/Significance Sensitivity of the QFT-IT for diagnosing active PTB infection was reasonable when excluding indeterminate results and in HIV-negative patients. However, since the test missed more than 10% of patients, its potential as a rule-out test for active TB disease is limited. Furthermore, test performance is impaired by low CD4 cell count in HIV-positive patients and possibly by other factors as well in both HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients. This might limit the potential of the test in populations where HIV-infection is prevalent.

Aabye, Martine G.; Ravn, Pernille; PrayGod, George; Jeremiah, Kidola; Mugomela, Apolinary; Jepsen, Maria; Faurholt, Daniel; Range, Nyagosya; Friis, Henrik; Changalucha, John; Andersen, Aase B.



In Vitro and In Vivo Cardiomyogenic Differentiation of Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell therapy has developed as a complementary treatment for myocardial regeneration. While both autologous and allogeneic\\u000a uses have been advocated, the ideal candidate has not been identified yet. Amniotic fluid-derived stem (AFS) cells are potentially\\u000a a promising resource for cell therapy and tissue engineering of myocardial injuries. However, no information is available\\u000a regarding their use in an allogeneic context. c-kit-sorted,

Sveva Bollini; Michela Pozzobon; Muriel Nobles; Johannes Riegler; Xuebin Dong; Martina Piccoli; Angela Chiavegato; Anthony N. Price; Marco Ghionzoli; King K. Cheung; Anna Cabrelle; Paul R. O’Mahoney; Emanuele Cozzi; Saverio Sartore; Andrew Tinker; Mark F. Lythgoe; Paolo De Coppi



Dunaliella Cells in Fluid Inclusions in Halite: Significance for Long-term Survival of Prokaryotes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 90-m-long (100,000 year old) salt core from Death Valley, California, contains cells of the algal genus Dunaliella co-trapped with prokaryote cells in fluid inclusions in halite. It is hypothesized that Dunaliella cells provided glycerol, the carbon source needed by halophilic Archaea for survival over periods of tens of thousands of years. Support for this hypothesis includes: observations that intracellular

Brian A. Schubert; Michael N. Timofeeff; Tim K. Lowenstein; Jürgen E. W. Polle



Utility of routine viral load, CD4 cell count, and clinical monitoring among adults with HIV receiving antiretroviral therapy in Uganda: randomised trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the use of routine laboratory monitoring in terms of clinical outcomes among patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Uganda. Design Randomised clinical trial Setting A home based ART programme in rural Uganda. Participants All participants were people with HIV who were members of the AIDS Support Organisation. Participants had CD4 cell counts <250 cells × 106/L or World Health Organization stage 3 or 4 disease. Interventions Participants were randomised to one of three different monitoring arms: a viral load arm (clinical monitoring, quarterly CD4 counts, and viral load measurements), CD4 arm (clinical monitoring and CD4 counts), or clinical arm (clinical monitoring alone). Main outcome measures Serious morbidity (newly diagnosed AIDS defining illness) and mortality. Results 1094 participants started ART; median CD4 count at baseline was 129 cells × 106/L. Median follow-up was three years. In total, 126 participants died (12%), 148 (14%) experienced new AIDS defining illnesses, and 61(6%) experienced virological failure, defined as two consecutive viral loads >500 copies/mL occurring more than three months after the start of ART. After adjustment for age, sex, baseline CD4 count, viral load, and body mass index, the rate of new AIDS defining events or death was higher in the clinical arm than the viral load arm (adjusted hazard ratio 1.83, P=0.002) or the CD4 arm (1.49, P=0.032). There was no significant difference between the CD4 arm and the viral load arm (1.23, P=0.31). Conclusion In patients receiving ART for HIV infection in Uganda, routine laboratory monitoring is associated with improved health and survival compared with clinical monitoring alone. Trial registration Clinical Trials NCT00119093.



Influence of somatic cell count, body condition and lameness on follicular growth and ovulation in dairy cows  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of somatic cell count (SCC), body condition score (BCS) or lameness score on ovarian follicular growth and ovulation in dairy cows. Seventy four animals 30–80 days post-partum were monitored for all three conditions before synchronization of ovarian follicular phases by administration of gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) followed seven days later with prostaglandin F2alpha (PG). Ultrasonography of both ovaries twice daily throughout the follicular phase revealed that fewer animals with combined high SCC and lameness (4/9) ovulated compared to healthy animals (19/21; P = 0.006) or animals with only high SCC (11/11; P = 0.004) or only lameness (21/27; P = 0.06). Overall, regardless of the presence of other concurrent conditions, fewer lame cows ovulated than Non Lame animals (30/42 and 30/32; P = 0.015). Mean follicular growth and maximum follicular diameter were unaffected by any of the three conditions. However, dominant follicle growth and maximum diameter were greater in the 60 animals that ovulated compared to the 14 that did not; 1.83 ± 0.16 versus 0.96 ± 0.26 mm/day (P = 0.014) and 19.4 ± 0.4 versus 16.4 ± 1.2 mm (P = 0.003), respectively. In conclusion, lameness reduced the proportion of cows that ovulated and the synergistic effect of high SCC and lameness reduced that proportion further. However, follicular growth and maximum follicular diameter were unaffected by high SCC, low BCS or lameness.

Morris, M.J.; Walker, S.L.; Jones, D.N.; Routly, J.E.; Smith, R.F.; Dobson, H.



Computational fluid dynamic simulation of aggregation of deformable cells in a shear flow.  


We present computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation of aggregation of two deformable cells in a shearflow. This work is motivated by an attempt to develop computational models of aggregation of red blood cells (RBCs). Aggregation of RBCs is a major determinant of blood viscosity in microcirculation under physiological and pathological conditions. Deformability of the RBCs plays a major role in determining their aggregability. Deformability depends on the viscosity of the cytoplasmic fluid and on the rigidity of the cell membrane, in a macroscopic sense. This paper presents a computational study of RBC aggregation that takes into account the rheology of the cells as well as cell-cell adhesion kinetics. The simulation technique considered here is two dimensional and based on the front tracking/immersed boundary method for multiple fluids. Results presented here are on the dynamic events of aggregate formation between two cells, and its subsequent motion, rolling, deformation, and breakage. We show that the rheological properties of the cells have significant effects on the dynamics of the aggregate. A stable aggregate is formed at higher cytoplasmic viscosity and membrane rigidity. We also show that the bonds formed between the cells change in a cyclic manner as the aggregate rolls in a shearflow. The cyclic behavior is related to the rolling orientation of the aggregate. The frequency and amplitude of oscillation in the number of bonds also depend on the rheological properties. PMID:16502649

Bagchi, Prosenjit; Johnson, Paul C; Popel, Aleksander S



Autografting with blood progenitor cells: predictive value of preapheresis blood cell counts on progenitor cell harvest and correlation of the reinfused cell dose with hematopoietic reconstitution  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and nine patients suffering from various malignancies underwent 285 apheresis procedures for PBPC collection. A median of two leukaphereses (range: 2–5) resulted in median numbers of 4.6×108 MNC\\/kg, 14.1×104 CFU-GM\\/kg, and 6.0×106 CD34+ cells\\/kg. Preleukapheresis peripheral blood CD34+ cells correlated significantly with collected CD34+ cells\\/kg (r=0.94;pr=0.52;p4×104 CD34+ cells\\/ml was highly predictive for a collection yield >2.5×106 CD34+ cells\\/kg

N. Schwella; W. Siegert; J. Beyer; O. Rick; J. Zingsem; R. Eckstein; S. Serke; D. Huhn



Induction of apoptotic cell death by pancreatitis-associated ascitic fluid in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the cytotoxicity on Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells of pancreatitis-associated ascitic fluid (PAAF) collected from rats with experimental necrotizing pancreatitis. PAAF reduced viability of MDCK cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. We detected DNA fragmentation on the PAAF-treated MDCK cells, indicating that the cytocidal action of PAAF is via apoptosis. From the results obtained, we conclude that

Junsuke Nishikawa; Yoshifumi Takeyama; Takashi Ueda; Yuichi Hori; Nozomi Ueno; Masahiro Yamamoto; Yoichi Saitoh



Verifying Reference Counted Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reference counting is a pervasive resource management idiom where each resource contains a count of the number of clients that hold a reference to it, and each client increments (resp., de cre- ments) the count on acquiring (resp., releasing) the resour ce. If the reference count falls to zero, the system can reclaim the res ource. Reference counting is often

Michael Emmi; Ranjit Jhala; Rupak Majumdar



Verifying Reference Counting Implementations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reference counting is a widely-used resource management idiom which maintains a count of references to each resource by incrementing the count upon an acquisition, and decrementing upon a release; resources whose counts fall to zero may be recycled. We present an algorithm to verify the correctness of reference counting with minimal user interaction. Our algorithm performs com- positional verification through

Michael Emmi; Ranjit Jhala; Eddie Kohler; Rupak Majumdar



Counting is FUN!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Let\\'s Practice counting! Let\\'s practice are counting by visiting Count the Chickens!. Now we are going to visit Fishy Count! and count fish! So you think you are smart? Why not try this fun game and Help Froggy get across!! ...

Wren, Ms.



[Correlation between CD4 T-cell counts and HIV-1 RNA plasma levels in HIV-1 patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)  


The prognostic value of plasma HIV-1 RNA baseline levels in patients who are going to receive HAART has been recently questioned. In the present study the authors correlated the baseline counts of viremy and CD4 with the viral suppression induced by HAART in an ongoing cohort of HIV-1 positive patients. Data resulting from the study suggest that the HAART effect on CD4 T-cells depends both on the immunological status before starting therapy and on the degree of viral suppression. After briefly discussing about the possible causes of disconnection between CD4 T-cells count and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels, authors conclude that the viral suppression is the desired goal of antiretroviral treatment and that the maximum effect of HAART can be achieved by carefully clinically evaluating patients and individuating the best therapy. PMID:12748445

Maggiolo, F.; Bottura, P.; Capra, R.; Pravettoni, G.; Suter, F.



Effect of emergency major abdominal surgery on CD4 cell count among HIV positive patients in a sub Saharan Africa tertiary hospital - a prospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Surgery plays a key role in HIV palliative care, specifically in the diagnosis and treatment of HIV related and non-related conditions. Yet major surgery depresses the immune system. Whereas the surgical consequences of HIV infection are well described, there is a paucity of published data, in resource-limited settings, on the effects of major surgery on the immune system. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of major abdominal surgery on CD4 count in HIV positive and HIV negative patients after emergency major surgery. Methods A prospective cohort study was done for patients who underwent emergency major abdominal surgery. Their peri-operative CD4 counts were done for both HIV- and HIV?+?patients. Median CD4s were used in analysis. Mann Whitney test of significance was used for continuous data and Fisher’ exact test used for categorical data. IRB approval was obtained. Results A total of 101 patients were recruited, 25 HIV positive and 76 HIV negative. The median CD4 cell reduction was higher in the HIV negative group (?68 cells) than HIV positive group (?29 cells) (p?=?0.480). There was a general increase in the median CD4 change by 72 cells for the HIV positives and 95 cells for the HIV negatives (p?=?0.44). CD4 change rose in both the HIV positive and negative groups by 27 cells for the HIV positives and 28 cells for the HIV negatives (p?=?0.94). Relative Risk was 0.96, {CI 0.60 – 1.53}. Conclusion Major emergency abdominal surgery had no significant effect on CD4 cell count among HIV positive patients.



Effect of cooling rate on dendrite arm spacing (DAS), eutectic cell count (ECC) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of austempered chilled ductile iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results obtained and the deductions made from a series of microstructural studies and strength tests involving austempered chilled ductile iron which was sand cast using a variety of end chills (metallic, non-metallic, water-cooled and sub-zero, respectively). The effect of cooling rate on the dendrite arm spacing, eutectic cell count and the ultimate tensile strength were evaluated.

Joel Hemanth



Ocular manifestation of HIV/AIDS and correlation with CD4+ cells count among adult HIV/AIDS patients in Jimma town, Ethiopia: a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background HIV/AIDS is one of twenty first century’s challenges to human being with protean manifestation affecting nearly all organs of our body. It is causing high morbidity and mortality especially in sub-Saharan Africa with numerous ocular complications and blindness. The purpose of this study was to determine the patterns of ocular manifestations of HIV/AIDS and their correlation with CD4+Tcells count. Methods A cross-sectional study was done on 348 HIV-positive patients presented to Anti-Retroviral Therapy clinics. Data were collected using face-to-face interview, clinical examination and laboratory investigation, and analyzed using SPSS version 13 software. Statistical association test was done and p<0.05 was considered significant. Other statistical tests like student t-test and logistic regression were also done. Results Of 348 patients, 175 were on antiretroviral therapy and 173 were not on therapy. The mean duration of therapy was 27?months. The overall prevalence of ocular manifestations was 25.3%. The commonest ocular manifestation was keratoconjunctivitis sicca (11.3%) followed by blepharitis (3.2%), molluscum contagiosum (2.6%), conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma (2.3%), conjunctival microvasculopathy (2.3%), cranial nerve palsies (2%), herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) (1.2%), and HIV retinopathy (0.6%). HIV retinopathy and conjunctival microvasculopathy were common in patient with CD4+ count of <200 cells/?l while HZO and molluscum contagiosum were common in patients with CD4+ count of 200–499 cells/?l. Prevalence of ocular manifestation was higher among patients on HAART (32.6%) than those patients not on HAART (17.9%) (p<0.05). There was statistically significant association between ocular manifestation and sex, CD4+Tcells count, and age (p<0.05). CD4+ count, <200 cells/?l and age >35?years were independent risk factors for ocular manifestations. Conclusion The study showed that the prevalence of ocular manifestation of HIV/AIDS is lower than previous studies and could be due to antiretroviral therapy. Lower CD4 count is a risk as well as predictor for ocular manifestations.



Measurement of the Elastic Modulus for Red Cell Membrane Using a Fluid Mechanical Technique  

PubMed Central

Red cells which adhere to a surface in a parallel plate flow channel are stretched when acted on by a fluid shear stress. Three types of stretching are studied: whole cell stretching, the stretching of a red cell evagination, and tether (long, thin membrane process) stretching. In addition, the stretching of a large scale model cell attached to a surface is studied in a Couette flow channel. The results indicate that the uniaxial stretching of red cell membrane can be described by a linear stress-strain relationship. Simple theories developed from free body diagrams permit the calculation of a value for the modulus of elasticity of cell membrane in each of the three experiments. In all cases the value for the modulus is on the order of 104 dyn/cm2 for an assumed membrane thickness of 0.01 ?m. It was also observed that red cell tethers steadily increase in length when the fluid shear stress is greater than approximately 1.5 dyn/cm2 and tether lengths in excess of 200 ?m have been achieved. Tethers appear to possess both fluid and elastic properties. ImagesFigure 2Figure 6

Hochmuth, R. M.; Mohandas, N.; Blackshear, P. L.



Preparation and Some Basic Properties of Cell-Free Cellulolytic Extracts of Rumen Fluid[1] and [2  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A method was developed by which cell-free cellulolytically active extracts were obtained from rumen fluid. The procedure consisted of agitating rumen fluid in a Waring blendor, followed by high-speed centrifugation to remove bacterial cells and feed particles. Rumen fluid of pH 6.0 yielded the strongest cellulolytically active extracts. Extracts obtained by this method were active on carboxymethylcellulose (CMC 70-L,

R. W. Stanley; E. M. Kesler



CD4+ T cell count, HIV-1 viral loads and demographic variables of newly identified patients with HIV infection in Wuhan, China.  


In China, the rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing is increasing among men who have sex with men. The purpose of the present study was to describe HIV-related biomarkers and selected demographic variables of persons with newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS, among men who have sex with men in particular, in Wuhan China. Demographic indicators, and CD4+ T cell counts and HIV-1 viral load were collected from individuals newly identified as HIV-1 antibody positive during 2011. Of 176 enrolled patients, 132 (75.0%) were men who have sex with men. This group was significantly younger and had higher CD4+ T cell counts than patients who were likely infected through heterosexual contact. Most men who have sex with men (56.6%) were discovered by initiative investigation. Among heterosexual patients CD4+ T cell counts and HIV-1 viral load were significantly correlated; among the group of men who have sex with men, no such association was found. PMID:23861066

Liu, Man-Qing; Tang, Li; Kong, Wen-Hua; Zhu, Ze-Rong; Peng, Jin-Song; Wang, Xia; Yao, Zhong-Zhao; Schilling, Robert; Zhou, Wang



Neutralizing Antibodies against Autologous Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Isolates in Patients with Increasing CD4 Cell Counts despite Incomplete Virus Suppression during Antiretroviral Treatment  

PubMed Central

Antiretroviral-treated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-seropositive individuals can remain clinically stable for a long period of time with an increasing CD4 cell count irrespective of incomplete viral suppression. We evaluated the role of neutralizing antibody (NtAb) activity in the etiopathogenesis of this viro-immunological disconnection (defined as an increasing CD4+-cell count despite a persistent, detectable viral load during antiretroviral therapy) in 33 patients failing therapy with two analogue nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. An HIV NtAb titer of ?1:25 was detected in specimens from 16 out of 33 (48%) patients. A significant correlation was found between NtAb titers and CD4+-cell counts (P = 0.001; r = 0.546) but not with HIV RNA levels in plasma. Five patients with a viro-immunological disconnection had an NtAb titer of >1:125, statistically higher than the NtAb titers for the remaining 28 patients with both virologic and immunologic failure (P < 0.0001). The HIV-specific humoral immune response could play a role during antiretroviral treatment to improve immunological function despite an incomplete suppression of viral load.

Sarmati, Loredana; d'Ettorre, Gabriella; Nicastri, Emanuele; Ercoli, Lucia; Uccella, Ilaria; Massetti, Paola; Parisi, Saverio Giuseppe; Vullo, Vincenzo; Andreoni, Massimo



Increased Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid CD1c Expressing Dendritic Cells in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Chronic inflammation is implicated in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) pathogenesis and is associated with persistent activation of immune responses. These are largely controlled by dendritic cells (DCs). Although large numbers of DCs infiltrate the lungs of patients with IPF, there are no similar reports in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Objectives: We aimed to investigate DC populations in BALF of

M. Tsoumakidou; K. P. Karagiannis; I. Bouloukaki; S. Zakynthinos; N. Tzanakis; N. M. Siafakas



Fluid Flow Sensitivity of Bone Cells as a Function of Age.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the final report of DAMD-17-91-8509. The project was completed and the original hypothesis that fluid flow sensitivity of bone cells decreases as a function of age was confirmed. Additionaly, several other interesting findings regarding mechanotra...

H. J. Donahue



Fluid Flow Sensitivity of Bone Cells as a Function of Age.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The third year of the proposal has gone quite well. Aims 1 and 2 are essentially complete. Major findings include: (1) Confirmation that GJIC contributes to bone cell PGE2 but not Ca(2+) response to fluid flow. This was demonstrated in two different osteo...

H. J. Donahue



Cyclophosphamide induced early biochemical changes in lung lavage fluid and alterations in lavage cell function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation evaluated the changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) biochemical constituents and indices of bronchoalveolar lavage cell functions to detect early lung injury in rats following intraperitoneal administration of cyclophosphamide (CP). Rats were exposed to a single intraperitoneal injection of CP (200 or 300 mg\\/kg body weight). Experimental and control rats were sacrificed at various time intervals (2,

N. Venkatesan; G. Chandrakasan



FLIP: A method for adaptively zoned, particle-in-cell calculations of fluid in two dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented for calculating fluid flow in two dimensions using a full particle-in-cell representation on an adaptively zoned grid. The method has many interesting properties, among them an almost total absence of numerical dissipation and the ability to represent large variations in the data. The method is described using a standard formalism and its properties are illustrated by

J. U. Brackbill; H. M. Ruppel



A mathematical model of fluid secretion from a parotid acinar cell  

PubMed Central

Salivary fluid secretion is crucial for preventing problems such as dryness of mouth, difficulty with mastication and swallowing, as well as oral pain and dental cavities. Fluid flow is driven primarily by the transepithelial movement of chloride and sodium ions into the parotid acinus lumen. The activation of Cl? channels is calcium dependent, with the average elevated calcium concentration during calcium oscillations increasing the conductance of the channels, leading to an outflow of Cl?. The accumulation of NaCl in the lumen drives water flow by osmosis. We construct a mathematical model of the calcium concentration oscillations and couple this to a model for Cl? efflux. We also construct a model governing fluid flow in an isolated parotid acinar cell, which includes a description of the rate of change of intracellular ion concentrations, cell volume, membrane potential and water flow rate. We find that [Ca2+] oscillations lead to oscillations in fluid flow, and that the rate of fluid flow is regulated by the average calcium concentration and not the frequency of the oscillations.

Gin, Elan; Crampin, Edmund J.; Brown, David A.; Shuttleworth, Trevor J.; Yule, David I.; Sneyd, James



Immune cell counts and risks of respiratory infections among infants exposed pre- and postnatally to organochlorine compounds: a prospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Early-life chemical exposure may influence immune system development, subsequently affecting child health. We investigated immunomodulatory potentials of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,p'-DDE in infants. Methods Prenatal exposure to PCBs and p,p'-DDE was estimated from maternal serum concentrations during pregnancy. Postnatal exposure was calculated from concentrations of the compounds in mother's milk, total number of nursing days, and percentage of full nursing each week during the 3 month nursing period. Number and types of infections among infants were registered by the mothers (N = 190). White blood cell counts (N = 86) and lymphocyte subsets (N = 52) were analyzed in a subgroup of infants at 3 months of age. Results Infants with the highest prenatal exposure to PCB congeners CB-28, CB-52 and CB-101 had an increased risk of respiratory infection during the study period. In contrast, the infection odds ratios (ORs) were highest among infants with the lowest prenatal mono-ortho PCB (CB-105, CB-118, CB-156, CB-167) and di-ortho PCB (CB-138, CB-153, CB-180) exposure, and postnatal mono- and di-ortho PCB, and p,p'-DDE exposure. Similar results were found for pre- and postnatal CB-153 exposure, a good marker for total PCB exposure. Altogether, a negative relationship was indicated between infections and total organochlorine compound exposure during the whole pre- and postnatal period. Prenatal exposure to CB-28, CB-52 and CB-101 was positively associated with numbers of lymphocytes and monocytes in infants 3 months after delivery. Prenatal exposure to p,p'-DDE was negatively associated with the percentage of eosinophils. No significant associations were found between PCB and p,p'-DDE exposure and numbers/percentages of lymphocyte subsets, after adjustment for potential confounders. Conclusion This hypothesis generating study suggests that background exposure to PCBs and p,p'-DDE early in life modulate immune system development. Strong correlations between mono- and di-ortho PCBs, and p,p'-DDE exposures make it difficult to identify the most important contributor to the suggested immunomodulation, and to separate effects due to pre- and postnatal exposure. The suggested PCB and p,p'-DDE modulation of infection risks may have consequences for the health development during childhood, since respiratory infections early in life may be risk factors for asthma and middle ear infections.

Glynn, Anders; Thuvander, Ann; Aune, Marie; Johannisson, Anders; Darnerud, Per Ola; Ronquist, Gunnar; Cnattingius, Sven



Rapid, Semiautomated Quantification of Bacterial Cells in Freshwater by Using a Microfluidic Device for On-Chip Staining and Counting?  

PubMed Central

A microfluidic device-based system for the rapid and semiautomated counting of bacteria in freshwater was fabricated and examined. Bacteria in groundwater and in potable water, as well as starved Escherichia coli O157:H7 spiked in pond water, were able to be on-chip stained and enumerated within 1 h using this system.

Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Torii, Masashi; Uebayashi, Yuko; Nasu, Masao



Polyclonal B-Cell Expansion in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Psedotumor Cerebri  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the hypothesis that pseudotumor cerebri (PTC) is associated with humoral immunity, we analyzed immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (Ig-VH) genes of B cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 10 patients with PTC. Using RT-PCR and sequencing techniques, intrathecal B-cell Ig-VH genes were amplified in 6 of 10 PTC samples. Sequence analysis of complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR 3)




Applications of Amniotic Membrane and Fluid in Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine  

PubMed Central

The amniotic membrane (AM) and amniotic fluid (AF) have a long history of use in surgical and prenatal diagnostic applications, respectively. In addition, the discovery of cell populations in AM and AF which are widely accessible, nontumorigenic and capable of differentiating into a variety of cell types has stimulated a flurry of research aimed at characterizing the cells and evaluating their potential utility in regenerative medicine. While a major focus of research has been the use of amniotic membrane and fluid in tissue engineering and cell replacement, AM- and AF-derived cells may also have capabilities in protecting and stimulating the repair of injured tissues via paracrine actions, and acting as vectors for biodelivery of exogenous factors to treat injury and diseases. Much progress has been made since the discovery of AM and AF cells with stem cell characteristics nearly a decade ago, but there remain a number of problematic issues stemming from the inherent heterogeneity of these cells as well as inconsistencies in isolation and culturing methods which must be addressed to advance the field towards the development of cell-based therapies. Here, we provide an overview of the recent progress and future perspectives in the use of AM- and AF-derived cells for therapeutic applications.

Rennie, Kerry; Gruslin, Andree; Hengstschlager, Markus; Pei, Duanqing; Cai, Jinglei; Nikaido, Toshio; Bani-Yaghoub, Mahmud



White blood cell count in young adulthood and coronary artery calcification in early middle age: coronary artery risk development in young adults (CARDIA) study.  


White blood cell (WBC) count is associated with incident coronary heart disease (CHD). Data are sparse regarding its association in young adults with future coronary artery calcification (CAC). Our study was conducted among coronary artery risk development in young adults (CARDIA) participants (n = 3,094). We examined the association between baseline (Y0) WBC counts and CHD risk factors using linear regression models. We further assessed prospective associations between Y0 WBC and inflammatory biomarkers during the follow-up, and the presence of CAC 15 and 20 years later. In total, 272 and 566 subjects had CAC scores >0 at year (Y) 15 and Y20, respectively. Baseline total WBC counts were cross-sectionally associated with SBP, BMI, and smoking, or HDL-cholesterol (p ? 0.01) at Y0, and prospectively associated with C-reactive protein at Y7, Y15, and Y20, and fibrinogen at Y5 and Y20 (p < 0.01). After adjustment for potential confounding factors, baseline neutrophil count was borderline associated with CAC presence 15 years later (OR = 1.18 per unit, 95 % CI 1.00-1.44) and total WBC (OR = 1.07, 95 % CI 0.96-1.19) or eosinophil (OR = 1.12, 95 %CI 1.00-1.25) was borderline associated with CAC presence at Y20. Baseline total WBC counts in young adults was associated prospectively with CAC presence 20 years later after adjusting for age, sex, and race. Results are attenuated when other risk factors are accounted for. Our results suggest the possible early involvement of WBC, particularly eosinophils, in the early stages of atherosclerosis. PMID:24030512

Hou, Lifang; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Ning, Hongyan; Huffman, Mark D; Fornage, Myriam; He, Ka; Zhang, Xiao; Jacobs, David R; Goff, David C; Sidney, Steve; Carr, Jeffrey J; Liu, Kiang



Cytology of metastatic appendiceal goblet cell carcinoid in pleural effusion fluid: a case report.  


Goblet cell appendiceal carcinoid (GCAC) is a rare neoplasm. We described the case of a 72-year-old man who presented with symptoms related to ascites. A computed tomography (CT) scan showed a mass involving the base of the appendix, ascites and concomitant pleural effusion. Thoracentesis of the pleural fluid showed metastatic GCAC. The appendiceal mass was biopsied and diagnosed as a GCAC. We describe the cytologic features of the metastatic GCAC to pleural fluid. To our knowledge this is the first such described case. PMID:18855885

Zafar, Samiah; Chen, Hua; Sun, Wei; Das, Kasturi




PubMed Central

The tumour cells and the reaction cells in Sarcoma 37 ascitic fluids have been studied in thin sections with the electron microscope. The reaction cells were either leucocytes or much larger acidophilic peritoneal cells of the same dimensions as the tumour cells; the peritoneal cells formed as much as 20 per cent of the large cell population. The fine structure of the cells is described and some new observations recorded. It has been found that the cell membrane of eosinophil granulocytes has a laminated composition and the characteristic granules of these cells a double limiting membrane. The pores in the double nuclear membrane of the peritoneal cells have been observed to have a fine line running across them. In the tumour cells, a rounded granular body with a central dense area has been found in the region of the centrosome; these cells were also seen to contain rows of parallel smooth surfaced cisternae lying 150 mµ apart similar to those hitherto only observed in spermatids. There was a feltwork of fine filaments in the cytoplasm of the centrosome region of the tumour cells. The cytoplasmic fine structure underlying the basophilia of the tumour cells and the acidophilia of the peritoneal cells is compared and discussed.

Epstein, M. A.



AIDS and Non-AIDS Morbidity and Mortality Across the Spectrum of CD4 Cell Counts in HIV-Infected Adults Before Starting Antiretroviral Therapy in C?te d'Ivoire  

PubMed Central

Background.?In Western Europe, North America, and Australia, large cohort collaborations have been able to estimate the short-term CD4 cell count–specific risk of AIDS or death in untreated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected adults with high CD4 cell counts. In sub–Saharan Africa, these CD4 cell count–specific estimates are scarce. Methods.?From 1996 through 2006, we followed up 2 research cohorts of HIV-infected adults in Côte d’Ivoire. This included follow-up off antiretroviral therapy (ART) across the entire spectrum of CD4 cell counts before the ART era, and only in patients with CD4 cell counts >200?cells/?L once ART became available. Data were censored at ART initiation. We modeled the CD4 cell count decrease using an adjusted linear mixed model. CD4 cell count–specific rates of events were obtained by dividing the number of first events occurring in a given CD4 cell count stratum by the time spent in that stratum. Results.?Eight hundred sixty patients were followed off ART over 2789 person-years (PY). In the ?650, 500–649, 350–499, 200–349, 100–199, 50–99, and 0–49?cells/?L CD4 cell count strata, the rates of AIDS or death were 0.9, 1.7, 3.7, 10.4, 30.9, 60.8, and 99.9 events per 100 PY, respectively. In patients with CD4 cell counts ?200 CD4?cells/?L, the most frequent AIDS-defining disease was tuberculosis (decreasing from 4.0 to 0.6 events per 100 PY for 200–349 and ?650 cells/?L, respectively), and the most frequent HIV non-AIDS severe diseases were visceral bacterial diseases (decreasing from 9.1 to 3.6 events per 100 PY). Conclusions.?Rates of AIDS or death, tuberculosis, and invasive bacterial diseases are substantial in patients with CD4 cell counts ?200 cells/?L. Tuberculosis and bacterial diseases should be the most important outcomes in future trials of early ART in sub–Saharan Africa.

Minga, Albert; Gabillard, Delphine; Ouassa, Timothee; Messou, Eugene; Morris, Brandon; Traore, Moussa; Coulibaly, Ali; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Lewden, Charlotte; Menan, Herve; Abo, Yao; Dakoury-Dogbo, Nicole; Toure, Siaka; Seyler, Catherine



Validation of body fluid analysis on the Coulter LH 750.  


The role of the hematology laboratory in the analysis of body fluid has been to provide accurate enumeration of red blood cells (RBCs), total nucleated cells (TNCs), and differentials by manual analysis. Three hospitals (London Health Sciences Centre, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, and University of Michigan Health System) participated in the assessment of the performance of automated analysis of body fluid by the Beckman Coulter LH 750, an impedance-based hematology analyzer. We evaluated the accuracy of analysis results for both the TNCs and RBCs of 372 samples (158 serous fluid, 148 cerebrospinal fluid [CSF], 66 synovial fluid) run on the LH 750 compared to results obtained from manual chamber counting. Of the 372 samples, 152 were suitable for evaluation of accuracy of the automated TNC. The remaining 220 samples were either flagged for interfering substances or the reference results were < 0.2 x 10(9)/L, below the background limit of the analyzer. Correlation coefficients for serous fluid were 0.895, P = .88; for CSF, 0.993, P = .84; and for synovial fluid, 0.836, P = .94. Of the 372 samples, 106 had RBC counts greater than 0.01 x 10(12)/L and were used for method comparison. Correlation coefficients for serous fluid were 0.957, P = .66; for CSF, 0.849, P = .55; and for synovial fluid, 0.667, P = .81. Linearity and precision studies showed excellent agreement for both TNC and RBC parameters. Low-level sensitivity excluded the majority of cerebrospinal (119) and a small number of peritoneal dialysate fluid samples (8), which require accurate enumeration at clinical decision points between 0 to 100 cells/microliter. In the case of synovial and serous fluids, however, most clinicians are interested in TNC counts above 0.2 x 10(9)/L, and RBC counts are relevant only if they are significantly increased (> or = 0.05 x 10(12)/L). Adopting the criteria of reporting TNC counts as < 0.2 x 10(9)/L or accurate enumeration on counts > or = 0.2 x 10(9)/L, clinically relevant results could be provided by automated analysis in 93.8% of serous fluids and 85.8% of synovial fluids. PMID:14521323

Brown, Wendy; Keeney, Michael; Chin-Yee, Ian; Johnson, Kathleen; Lantis, Kay; Finn, William; Wolfe, Nancy; Kaplan, Sandra



Short-time scale variation of phytoplankton succession in Lisbon bay (Portugal) as revealed by microscopy cell counts and HPLC pigment analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phytoplankton distribution and composition in Lisbon bay was studied, at a short time scale based on a weekly sampling, during one year (April 2004 - May 2005), using microscopic examination and pigment analysis with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). This work is a contribution to the knowledge on species succession and ecology of coastal communities. The frequency of the sampling permitted monitoring peak blooming and decaying, a process which frequently occurred within 1 -2 weeks. Cell counts determined that the classes Dinophyceae, Bacillariophyceae and Prymnesiophyceae dominated the assemblages. Maxima abundances and diversity of phytoplankton were observed from spring to autumn. HPLC analysis reflected the major seasonal variations observed by the cell counts and in addition detected the presence of four small sized phytoplankton classes that were not identified by microscopy. Phytoplankton counts were essential to identify the main contributing species to total chlorophyll a. Fucoxantin, peridinin and 19'-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin appeared as good indicators for diatoms, dinoflagellates and coccolithophores, respectively, with synchronized seasonal variations and significant positive correlations.

Silva, A.; Mendes, C. R.; Palma, S.; Brotas, V.



Renal ?-intercalated cells maintain body fluid and electrolyte balance.  


Inactivation of the B1 proton pump subunit (ATP6V1B1) in intercalated cells (ICs) leads to type I distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), a disease associated with salt- and potassium-losing nephropathy. Here we show that mice deficient in ATP6V1B1 (Atp6v1b1-/- mice) displayed renal loss of NaCl, K+, and water, causing hypovolemia, hypokalemia, and polyuria. We demonstrated that NaCl loss originated from the cortical collecting duct, where activity of both the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and the pendrin/Na+-driven chloride/bicarbonate exchanger (pendrin/NDCBE) transport system was impaired. ENaC was appropriately increased in the medullary collecting duct, suggesting a localized inhibition in the cortex. We detected high urinary prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and ATP levels in Atp6v1b1-/- mice. Inhibition of PGE2 synthesis in vivo restored ENaC protein levels specifically in the cortex. It also normalized protein levels of the large conductance calcium-activated potassium channel and the water channel aquaporin 2, and improved polyuria and hypokalemia in mutant mice. Furthermore, pharmacological inactivation of the proton pump in ?-ICs induced release of PGE2 through activation of calcium-coupled purinergic receptors. In the present study, we identified ATP-triggered PGE2 paracrine signaling originating from ?-ICs as a mechanism in the development of the hydroelectrolytic imbalance associated with dRTA. Our data indicate that in addition to principal cells, ICs are also critical in maintaining sodium balance and, hence, normal vascular volume and blood pressure. PMID:24051376

Gueutin, Victor; Vallet, Marion; Jayat, Maximilien; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Cornière, Nicolas; Leviel, Françoise; Sohet, Fabien; Wagner, Carsten A; Eladari, Dominique; Chambrey, Régine



Renal ?-intercalated cells maintain body fluid and electrolyte balance  

PubMed Central

Inactivation of the B1 proton pump subunit (ATP6V1B1) in intercalated cells (ICs) leads to type I distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), a disease associated with salt- and potassium-losing nephropathy. Here we show that mice deficient in ATP6V1B1 (Atp6v1b1–/– mice) displayed renal loss of NaCl, K+, and water, causing hypovolemia, hypokalemia, and polyuria. We demonstrated that NaCl loss originated from the cortical collecting duct, where activity of both the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and the pendrin/Na+-driven chloride/bicarbonate exchanger (pendrin/NDCBE) transport system was impaired. ENaC was appropriately increased in the medullary collecting duct, suggesting a localized inhibition in the cortex. We detected high urinary prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and ATP levels in Atp6v1b1–/– mice. Inhibition of PGE2 synthesis in vivo restored ENaC protein levels specifically in the cortex. It also normalized protein levels of the large conductance calcium-activated potassium channel and the water channel aquaporin 2, and improved polyuria and hypokalemia in mutant mice. Furthermore, pharmacological inactivation of the proton pump in ?-ICs induced release of PGE2 through activation of calcium-coupled purinergic receptors. In the present study, we identified ATP-triggered PGE2 paracrine signaling originating from ?-ICs as a mechanism in the development of the hydroelectrolytic imbalance associated with dRTA. Our data indicate that in addition to principal cells, ICs are also critical in maintaining sodium balance and, hence, normal vascular volume and blood pressure.

Gueutin, Victor; Vallet, Marion; Jayat, Maximilien; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Corniere, Nicolas; Leviel, Francoise; Sohet, Fabien; Wagner, Carsten A.; Eladari, Dominique; Chambrey, Regine



Fluid flow through a high cell density fluidized-bed during centrifugal bioreactor culture.  


An increasing demand for products such as tissues, proteins, and antibodies from mammalian cell suspension cultures is driving interest in increasing production through high-cell density bioreactors. The centrifugal bioreactor (CCBR) retains cells by balancing settling forces with surface drag forces due to medium throughput and is capable of maintaining cell densities above 10(8) cells/mL. This article builds on a previous study where the fluid mechanics of an empty CCBR were investigated showing fluid flow is nonuniform and dominated by Coriolis forces, raising concerns about nutrient and cell distribution. In this article, we demonstrate that the previously reported Coriolis forces are still present in the CCBR, but masked by the presence of cells. Experimental dye injection observations during culture of 15 microm hybridoma cells show a continual uniform darkening of the cell bed, indicating the region of the reactor containing cells is well mixed. Simulation results also indicate the cell bed is well mixed during culture of mammalian cells ranging in size from 10 to 20 microm. However, simulations also allow for a slight concentration gradient to be identified and attributed to Coriolis forces. Experimental results show cell density increases from 0.16 to 0.26 when centrifugal force is doubled by increasing RPM from 650 to 920 at a constant inlet velocity of 6.5 cm/s; an effect also observed in the simulation. Results presented in this article indicate cells maintained in the CCBR behave as a high-density fluidized bed of cells providing a homogeneous environment to ensure optimal growth conditions. PMID:20205172

Detzel, Christopher J; Van Wie, Bernard J; Ivory, Cornelius F


Atypical manifestation of progressive outer retinal necrosis in AIDS patient with CD4+ T-cell counts more than 100 cells/microL on highly active antiretroviral therapy.  


Typical progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) is an acute ocular infectious disease in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients with extremely low CD4+ T-cell counts. It is a form of the Varicella- zoster virus (VZV) infection. This destructive infection has an extremely rapid course that may lead to blindness in affected eyes within days or weeks. Attempts at its treatment have had limited success. We describe the case of a bilateral PORN in an AIDS patient with an initial CD4+ T-cell count >100 cells/microL that developed after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). A 29-year-old Thai female initially diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in 1998, presented with bilaterally decreased visual acuity after initiating HAART two months earlier. Multiple yellowish spots appeared in the deep retina without evidence of intraocular inflammation or retinal vasculitis. Her CD4+ T-cell count was 127 cells/microL. She was diagnosed as having PORN based on clinical features and positive VZV in the aqueous humor and vitreous by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Despite combined treatment with intravenous acyclovir and intravitreous ganciclovir, the patient's visual acuity worsened with no light-perception in either eye. This case suggests that PORN should be included in the differential diagnosis of reduced visual acuity in AIDS patients initiating HAART with higher CD4+ T-cell counts. PORN may be a manifestation of the immune reconstitution syndrome. PMID:19702067

Vichitvejpaisal, Pornpattana; Reeponmahar, Somporn; Tantisiriwat, Woraphot



Tuberculin testing of individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus : relationship with peripheral T-cell counts and active tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate tuberculin test results and relate them to the presence or absence of active tuberculosis, as well as to CD4 + and CD8 + T-lymphocyte counts. Method: The charts of 802 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome treated between August of 1985 and March of 2003 were reviewed. Of the 185 patients submitted to tuberculin tests (23.1%), 107 (57.8%)

Lenice d. R. Souza; Jussara M. Machado; Domingos A. Meira; Karlla Cunha



Clinical prognostic value of RNA viral load and CD4 cell counts during untreated HIV1 infection - A quantitative review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The prognostic value of CD4 counts and RNA viral load for identifying treatment need in HIV-infected individuals depends on (a) variation within and among individuals, and (b) relative risks of clinical progression per unit CD4 or RNA difference. Methodology\\/Principal Findings: We reviewed these measurements across (a) 30 studies, and (b) 16 cohorts of untreated seropositive adults. Median within-population interquartile

Eline L. Korenromp; Brian G. Williams; George P. Schmid; Christopher Dye



Murine amniotic fluid stem cells contribute mesenchymal but not epithelial components to reconstituted mammary ducts  

PubMed Central

Introduction Amniotic fluid harbors cells indicative of all three germ layers, and pluripotent fetal amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSs) are considered potentially valuable for applications in cellular therapy and tissue engineering. We investigated whether it is possible to direct the cell fate of AFSs in vivo by transplantation experiments into a particular microenvironment, the mammary fat pad. This microenvironment provides the prerequisites to study stem cell function and the communication between mesenchymal and epithelial cells. On clearance of the endogenous epithelium, the ductal tree can be reconstituted by the transfer of exogenously provided mammary stem cells. Analogously, exogenously provided stem cells from other tissues can be investigated for their potential to contribute to mammary gland regeneration. Methods We derived pluripotent murine AFSs, measured the expression of stem cell markers, and confirmed their in vitro differentiation potential. AFSs were transplanted into cleared and non cleared fat pads of immunocompromised mice to evaluate their ability to assume particular cell fates under the instructive conditions of the fat-pad microenvironment and the hormonal stimulation during pregnancy. Results Transplantation of AFSs into cleared fat pads alone or in the presence of exogenous mammary epithelial cells caused their differentiation into stroma and adipocytes and replaced endogenous mesenchymal components surrounding the ducts in co-transplantation experiments. Similarly, transplantation of AFSs into fat pads that had not been previously cleared led to AFS-derived stromal cells surrounding the elongating endogenous ducts. AFSs expressed the marker protein ?-SMA, but did not integrate into the myoepithelial cell layer of the ducts in virgin mice. With pregnancy, a small number of AFS-derived cells were present in acinar structures. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that the microenvironmental cues of the mammary fat pad cause AFSs to participate in mammary gland regeneration by providing mesenchymal components to emerging glandular structures, but do not incorporate or differentiate into ductal epithelial cells.



Hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell: Application to studies of geologic fluids  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell (HDAC) was designed to simulate the geologic conditions of crustal processes in the presence of water or other fluids. The HDAC has been used to apply external pressure to both synthetic and natural fluid inclusions in quartz to minimize problems caused by stretching or decrepitation of inclusions during microthermometric analysis. When the HDAC is loaded with a fluid sample, it can be considered as a large synthetic fluid inclusion and therefore, can be used to study the PVTX properties as well as phase relations of the sample fluid. Because the HDAC has a wide measurement pressure-temperature range and also allows in-situ optical observations, it has been used to study critical phenomena of various chemical systems, such as the geologically important hydrous silicate melts. It is possible, when the HDAC is combined with synchrotron X-ray sources, to obtain basic information on speciation and structure of metal including rare-earth elements (REE) complexes in hydrothermal solutions as revealed by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectra. Recent modifications of the HDAC minimize the loss of intensity of X-rays due to scattering and absorption by the diamonds. These modifications are especially important for studying elements with absorption edges below 10 keV and therefore particularly valuable for our understanding of transport and deposition of first-row transition elements and REE in hydrothermal environments.

Chou, I. -M.



Bioprinted Amniotic Fluid-Derived Stem Cells Accelerate Healing of Large Skin Wounds  

PubMed Central

Stem cells obtained from amniotic fluid show high proliferative capacity in culture and multilineage differentiation potential. Because of the lack of significant immunogenicity and the ability of the amniotic fluid-derived stem (AFS) cells to modulate the inflammatory response, we investigated whether they could augment wound healing in a mouse model of skin regeneration. We used bioprinting technology to treat full-thickness skin wounds in nu/nu mice. AFS cells and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were resuspended in fibrin-collagen gel and “printed” over the wound site. At days 0, 7, and 14, AFS cell- and MSC-driven wound closure and re-epithelialization were significantly greater than closure and re-epithelalization in wounds treated by fibrin-collagen gel only. Histological examination showed increased microvessel density and capillary diameters in the AFS cell-treated wounds compared with the MSC-treated wounds, whereas the skin treated only with gel showed the lowest amount of microvessels. However, tracking of fluorescently labeled AFS ceils and MSCs revealed that the cells remained transiently and did not permanently integrate in the tissue. These observations suggest that the increased wound closure rates and angiogenesis may be due to delivery of secreted trophic factors, rather than direct cell-cell interactions. Accordingly, we performed proteomic analysis, which showed that AFS cells secreted a number of growth factors at concentrations higher than those of MSCs. In parallel, we showed that AFS cell-conditioned media induced endothelial cell migration in vitro. Taken together our results indicate that bioprinting AFS cells could be an effective treatment for large-scale wounds and burns.

Skardal, Aleksander; Mack, David; Kapetanovic, Edi; Atala, Anthony; Jackson, John D.; Yoo, James; Soker, Shay



A Study of Alternate Biomarkers in HIV Disease and Evaluating their Efficacy in Predicting T CD4+ Cell Counts and Disease Progression in Resource Poor Settings in Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) Era  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), the causative agent of AIDS, has been a challenge to medical fraternity since it was first discovered in 1983. About 40 million people are living with HIV infection globally and 99% of the infected people are in south East Asia (SEA). Traditionally, HIV disease and progression, initiation of HAART and response to therapy is monitored by assessing in regular intervals, the T CD4+ cell counts and plasma HIV/RNA viral load. Resource poor, low and low – middle income group countries still have no finances to acquire infrastructure and scientific technology for performing such tests. Objectives: Since very few studies are available, they have demonstrated the role of alternate biomarkers that can be used to predict CD4 cell counts and thereby, monitor HIV disease progression and HAART. We aimed to measure certain haematological parameters in HIV seropositive patients and to evaluate their efficacy in predicting TCD4+ cell counts. Methods: The study group included 250 HIV seropositive patients with an age range of 18-65 years. 140(56%) males and 110(44%) females were included in the study. Absolute TCD4+cell counts and CD8+T cell counts were measured by using a flow cytometer. (MMWR Recommendations and Reports, 1992) TLC; HB%, AEC and ESR were estimated by using conventional haematological methods. CRP was evaluated by latex agglutination test (Immuno CRP Latex Agglutination Test). Results: Among the tested haematological markers, a TLC of <1800 cells/mm3 showed high specificity (100%) in predicting CD4 counts of < 200 cells/mm3, with an accuracy of 61.46%. Haemoglobin and Absolute Eosinophilic counts showed high specificities of 84.09% and 94.32% respectively in predicting CD4 counts which were below 350 cells/mm3. ESR with 98.98% sensitivity and AEC which had 83.67% sensitivity were able to predict CD4 counts of <200 cells/mm3. Conclusion: Among the tested biomarkers, it was seen that Absolute Eosinophilic counts of more than 550 cells/mm3, Blood Haemoglobin which was less than 10 g%, ESR which measured more than 20 mm, CRP values of >1.2 and TLC of <1800 cells/mm3 could be helpful in predicting CD4 cell counts of < 350 and <200 cells/mm3.

Ramana, K V; Sabitha, V; Rao, Ratna



A polymer NMR cell for the study of high-pressure and supercritical fluid solutions  


Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) offers researchers unique, highly localized molecular information. The importance of this technique is well established in studies using chemical shift, spin coupling, and relaxation times providing detailed structural information, determining chemical equilibria and kinetics, and understanding molecular dynamic processes. However, the widespread application of NMR spectroscopy to high-pressure liquids and supercritical fluids has been limited due to the complexity of the necessary instrumentation. One approach to these studies is to build a dedicated high-pressure probe. Another involves the utilization of a high-pressure cell designed to fit in commercially available probes. Here we present the design and implementation of a simple, three-piece, high-pressure NMR cell constructed of high-performance polymers. The present cell has pressure capabilities of up to 400 bar; however, the ultimate temperature and pressure limits will be determined by the specific polymer chosen. High-resolution NMR spectra of methanol modified and tributyl phosphate (IBP) modified supercritical CO2 are presented. An example of supercritical fluid phase behavior monitored with NMR is demonstrated for the TBP system in which the chemical shift changes in the 31P nucleus as a function of density are indicative of solution phase separation. The multinuclear NMR data demonstrate the utility of this cell for studying supercritical fluid solution systems relevant to analytical separations and extractions. PMID:10994988

Wallen; Schoenbachler; Dawson; Blatchford



An altered repertoire of T cell receptor V gene expression by rheumatoid synovial fluid T lymphocytes.  

PubMed Central

The pattern of T cell receptor V gene expression by lymphocytes from rheumatoid synovial fluid and paired peripheral blood samples was compared using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay. Eight rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients who had varying durations of disease (from 2 to 20 years) were studied. In all patients there was evidence of a different pattern of V gene expression between the two compartments. Significantly increased expression of at least one V alpha or V beta gene family by synovial fluid T cells was observed in all the patients studied. Three different V alpha (V alpha 10, 15 and 18) and three V beta (V beta 4, 5 and 13) families were commonly elevated. Sequencing of synovial V beta transcripts demonstrated that the basis of increased expression of selected V gene families in the synovial fluid was due to the presence of dominant clonotypes within those families, which constituted up to 53% of the sequences isolated from one particular synovial V gene family. There were considerable differences in the NDJ sequences found in synovial and peripheral blood T cell receptor (TCR) transcripts of the same V beta gene family. These data suggest that the TCR repertoire in the two compartments differs, and that antigen-driven expansion of particular synovial T cell populations is a component of rheumatoid synovitis, and is present in all stages of the disease.

Lunardi, C; Marguerie, C; So, A K



Low CD4+ T Cell Counts among African HIV-1 Infected Subjects with Group B KIR Haplotypes in the Absence of Specific Inhibitory KIR Ligands  

PubMed Central

Natural killer (NK) cells are regulated by interactions between polymorphic killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and human leukocyte antigens (HLA). Genotypic combinations of KIR3DS1/L1 and HLA Bw4-80I were previously shown to influence HIV-1 disease progression, however other KIR genes have not been well studied. In this study, we analyzed the influence of all activating and inhibitory KIR, in association with the known HLA inhibitory KIR ligands, on markers of disease progression in a West African population of therapy-naïve HIV-1 infected subjects. We observed a significant association between carriage of a group B KIR haplotype and lower CD4+ T cell counts, with an additional effect for KIR3DS1 within the frame of this haplotype. In contrast, we found that individuals carrying genes for the inhibitory KIR ligands HLA-Bw4 as well as HLA-C1 showed significantly higher CD4+ T cell counts. These associations were independent from the viral load and from individual HIV-1 protective HLA alleles. Our data suggest that group B KIR haplotypes and lack of specific inhibitory KIR ligand genes, genotypes considered to favor NK cell activation, are predictive of HIV-1 disease progression.

Jennes, Wim; Verheyden, Sonja; Demanet, Christian; Menten, Joris; Vuylsteke, Bea; Nkengasong, John N.; Kestens, Luc