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1

Interpretation of Amniotic Fluid White Blood Cell Count in “Bloody Tap” Amniocenteses in Women With Symptoms of Preterm Labor  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate whether blood-contaminated amniotic fluid affects the performance of white blood cell (WBC) count in diagnosing intraamniotic inflammation and infection. Methods Three hundred fifty-seven consecutive women pregnant with singletons undergoing amniocentesis to rule out infection were enrolled prospectively. A “bloody tap” was defined as a red blood cell (RBC) count of 1,000 cells/mm3 or more. Proteomics analysis of amniotic fluid was used in this study as the standard for diagnosing inflammation. Infection was confirmed by positive amniotic fluid culture. An amniotic fluid WBC count correction formula was computed using maternal WBC count, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular volume. Results The prevalence of a bloody tap amniocentesis was 22% (77 of 357). In the absence of inflammation, the amniotic fluid WBC count was significantly higher in bloody tap (median [interquartile range] 18 [9–58] cells/mm3) compared with non–bloody tap specimens (4 [1–10] cells/mm3; P<.001). The correction formula reversed this difference to a nonsignificant level (bloody tap 0 [0–17] compared with non–bloody tap 3 [1–10] cells/mm3; P=.273). In the setting of inflammation, the observed WBC count of bloody tap samples (778 [197–2,062 cells/mm3]) was significantly elevated compared with that of the non–bloody tap specimens (616 [105–1,730] cells/mm3; P=.023). Correction of the WBC count in bloody tap amniocenteses improved the test accuracy and positive likelihood ratios for inflammation and infection. A correction algorithm was not useful in amniotic fluid specimens with less than 1,000/RBCs/mm3 or WBC counts more than 1,100 cells/mm3. Given the nonlinear relationship between amniotic fluid WBC and RBC, for a rapid correction of WBC count, the number of neutrophils that need to be subtracted from the observed WBC count is variable. Conclusion In the setting of an amniotic fluid sample contaminated with 1,000 RBCs/mm3 or more, WBC count is a less accurate indicator of inflammation and infection. In such samples, correction of WBC count enhances diagnostic performance for inflammation and infection. Level of Evidence II PMID:20664395

Abdel-Razeq, Sonya S.; Buhimschi, Irina A.; Bahtiyar, Mert O.; Rosenberg, Victor A.; Dulay, Antonette T.; Han, Christina S.; Werner, Erika F.; Thung, Stephen; Buhimschi, Catalin S.

2014-01-01

2

Cerebrospinal fluid mononuclear cell counts influence CSF HIV-1 RNA levels.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the relation between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) mononuclear cells (MNC) and CSF HIV-1 RNA levels. HIV-1 RNA levels in plasma and CSF were analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in 58 consecutive patients with neurologic symptoms and late HIV-1 infection. The majority of the patients had no central nervous system (CNS) complication (n = 36), 11 had AIDS dementia complex (ADC) and 11 had CNS opportunistic infection (CNS OI). CSF cell counts were analyzed using a method that also evaluated hypocellular CSF (i.e., from 0.1 x 10(6) cells/L). A strong correlation was found between CSF MNC and CD4+ lymphocyte counts in blood (r = 0.58; p < .0001). HIV-1 RNA was detected in all plasma samples and in 38 of 58 (66%) of the cell-free CSF samples. CSF HIV-1 RNA was less frequently detected in patients with hypocellular CSF than in patients with normocellular or pleocytic CSF (13 of 28 patients [46%] versus 10 of 14 patients [71%] versus 15 of 16 patients [94%], respectively). The levels of CSF HIV-1 RNA correlated with the CSF MNC count (r = 0.61; p < .0001). The correlation also remained strong within the clinical subgroups of CNS asymptomatic patients (r = 0.55; p < .001) and ADC patients (r = 0.79; p < .001), but not among CNS OI patients (r = 0.19). Patients with CNS OI were found to have higher CSF HIV-1 RNA levels than the patients without evidence of CNS complication. Thus, a close relation was found between CSF HIV-1 RNA levels and CSF MNC counts. These data support the hypothesis that a substantial part of the virus in the CSF of HIV-1-infected patients is locally produced by CSF MNC. PMID:9495220

Martin, C; Albert, J; Hansson, P; Pehrsson, P; Link, H; Sönnerborg, A

1998-03-01

3

Assignment 2 Counting Cells  

E-print Network

Assignment 2 Counting Cells This assignment is based on funny cells. Please look up the following, you are expected to program Counting Cells that can count the number of Susceptible Cells on the map in a distributed manner. Objective The objective is to count the number of Susceptible Cells on the map. When

Prasad, Sanjiva

4

T-cell count  

MedlinePLUS

Thymus derived lymphocyte count; T-lymphocyte count ... T cells are a type of lymphocyte. Lymphocytes are white blood cells. They make up part of the immune system. T cells help the body fight diseases or harmful ...

5

Automated counting of mammalian cell colonies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigating the effect of low-dose radiation exposure on cells using assays of colony-forming ability requires large cell samples to maintain statistical accuracy. Manually counting the resulting colonies is a laborious task in which consistent objectivity is hard to achieve. This is true especially with some mammalian cell lines which form poorly defined or `fuzzy' colonies, typified by glioma or fibroblast cell lines. A computer-vision-based automated colony counter is presented in this paper. It utilizes novel imaging and image-processing methods involving a modified form of the Hough transform. The automated counter is able to identify less-discrete cell colonies typical of these cell lines. The results of automated colony counting are compared with those from four manual (human) colony counts for the cell lines HT29, A172, U118 and IN1265. The results from the automated counts fall well within the distribution of the manual counts for all four cell lines with respect to surviving fraction (SF) versus dose curves, SF values at 2 Gy (SF2) and total area under the SF curve (Dbar). From the variation in the counts, it is shown that the automated counts are generally more consistent than the manual counts.

Barber, Paul R.; Vojnovic, Borivoj; Kelly, Jane; Mayes, Catherine R.; Boulton, Peter; Woodcock, Michael; Joiner, Michael C.

2001-01-01

6

21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.  

... 2014-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...

2014-04-01

7

21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...

2010-04-01

8

21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...

2013-04-01

9

21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...

2011-04-01

10

21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...

2012-04-01

11

Why Count Types of White Blood Cells?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How can we make use of complex cellular level responses in the human body to microbial infections and other disorders? Why is it important to differentiate between white blood cells in a blood sample and keep a record of their numbers? Improve skills at cell identification and explore these questions with the program Cell Differentials. * identify lymphocytes in a clinical laboratory simulation of blood cell counts

Ethel D. Stanley (Beloit College;Biology); Donald Buckley (Quinnipiac University;Biology)

2006-05-20

12

Optical planar waveguide for cell counting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low cost counting of cells has medical applications in screening, military medicine, disaster medicine, and rural healthcare. In this report, we present a shallow, buried, planar waveguide fabricated by potassium ion exchange in glass that enables low-cost and rapid counting of metal-tagged objects that lie in the evanescent field of the waveguide. Laser light transmitted through the waveguide was attenuated proportionately to the presence of metal-coated microstructures fabricated from photoresist. This technology enables the low-cost enumeration of cells from blood, urine, or other biofluids.

LeBlanc, John; Mueller, Andrew J.; Prinz, Adrian; Butte, Manish J.

2012-01-01

13

AUTOMATIC RED BLOOD CELL AND WHITE BLOOD CELL COUNTING FOR  

E-print Network

A complete blood count (CBC) is a blood test used to evaluate the overall health and diagnose a wide range of disorders, including anaemia, infection and leukaemia etc. CBC test infer about the kinds and numbers of cells in the blood such as Red Blood Cells(RBC), White Blood Cells(WBC) , Platelet. This blood cell count infers about the disorders against normal healthy blood cell count. Haematology analysis to be specific, accurate & reliable in the blood cell counts to mitigate diagnosis. Conventional haematology analysis triggers visit to clinic and is laboratory specialist dependent carried either manually (inaccurate) or by haematology analyser (costlier). Both are not affordable to the remote / rural areas. This paper introduces an cost effective automatic RBC and WBC counting accurately using image analysis technique for remote or rural areas using telemedicine approach independent of specialist to generate patient RBC and WBC report.

Vinutha H Reddy

14

Cell counts in cerebral cortex of an autistic patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numbers of neurons and glia were counted in the cerebral cortex of one well-documented case of autism and two age and sexmatched controls. Areas in which cell counts were made were primary auditory cortex, Broca's speech area, and auditory association cortex. No consistent differences in cell density were found between the brains of the autistic patient and the control patients.

Paul D. Coleman; John Romano; Lowell Lapham; William Simon

1985-01-01

15

Clinical usefulness of white blood cell count after cesarean delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine changes in white blood cell (WBC) count after cesarean and estimate risk of postoperative infection.Methods: We measured complete blood cell counts at admission and on postoperative day 1 for 458 women who had cesareans. Information from charts was abstracted, and definitions of infectious outcomes and fever were applied by three physicians masked to laboratory results. We examined

Katherine E. Hartmann; Katherine E. Barrett; Virgil C. Reid; Michael J. MCMahon; William C. Miller

2000-01-01

16

Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell Simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer simulation of atmospheric flow corresponds well to imges taken during the second Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (BFFC) mission. The top shows a view from the pole, while the bottom shows a view from the equator. Red corresponds to hot fluid rising while blue shows cold fluid falling. This simulation was developed by Anil Deane of the University of Maryland, College Park and Paul Fischer of Argorne National Laboratory. Credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

1998-01-01

17

Counting unstained, confluent cells by modified bright-field microscopy  

PubMed Central

We present a very simple procedure yielding high-contrast images of adherent, confluent cells such as human neuroblastoma (SH-EP) cells by ordinary bright-field microscopy. Cells are illuminated through a color filter and a pinhole aperture placed between the condenser and the cell culture surface. Refraction by each cell body generates a sharp, bright spot when the image is defocused. The technique allows robust, automatic cell counting from a single bright-field image in a wide range of focal positions; it does this via free, readily available image-analysis tools. Contrast may be enhanced by swelling cell bodies by brief incubation in PBS. The procedure was benchmarked against manual counting and automated counting of fluorescently labeled cell nuclei.. Counts from day-old and freshly seeded plates were compared in a range of densities, from sparse to densely overgrown. On average bright-field images produced the same counts as fluorescent images, with less than 5% error. This method will allow routine cell counting using a plain bright-field microscope, absent cell-line modification or cell staining. PMID:23834382

Drey, L. Louis; Graber, Michael C.; Bieschke, Jan

2013-01-01

18

A cell number counting factor alters cell metabolism  

PubMed Central

It is still not clear how organisms regulate the size of appendages or organs during development. During development, Dictyostelium discoideum cells form groups of ?2 × 104 cells. The cells secrete a protein complex called counting factor (CF) that allows them to sense the local cell density. If there are too many cells in a group, as indicated by high extracellular concentrations of CF, the cells break up the group by decreasing cell-cell adhesion and increasing random cell motility. As a part of the signal transduction pathway, CF decreases the activity of glucose-6-phosphatase to decrease internal glucose levels. CF also decreases the levels of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and increases the levels of glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate. In this report, we focus on how a secreted signal used to regulate the size of a group of cells regulates many basic aspects of cell metabolism, including the levels of pyruvate, lactate, and ATP, and oxygen consumption. PMID:19721869

Schwartz, Owen G; Gomer, Richard H

2009-01-01

19

Counting unstained, confluent cells by modified bright-field microscopy.  

PubMed

We present a very simple procedure yielding high-contrast images of adherent, confluent cells such as human neuroblastoma (SH-EP) cells by ordinary bright-field microscopy. Cells are illuminated through a color filter and a pinhole aperture placed between the condenser and the cell culture surface. Refraction by each cell body generates a sharp, bright spot when the image is defocused. The technique allows robust, automatic cell counting from a single bright-field image in a wide range of focal positions using free, readily available image-analysis tools. Contrast may be enhanced by swelling cell bodies with a brief incubation in PBS. The procedure was benchmarked against manual and automated counting of fluorescently labeled cell nuclei. Counts from day-old and freshly seeded plates were compared in a range of densities, from sparse to densely overgrown. On average, bright-field images produced the same counts as fluorescence images, with less than 5% error. This method will allow routine cell counting using a plain bright-field microscope without cell-line modification or cell staining. PMID:23834382

Drey, L Louis; Graber, Michael C; Bieschke, Jan

2013-07-01

20

Method of detecting and counting bacteria in body fluids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel method is reported for determining bacterial levels in urine samples, which method depends on the quantitative determination of bacterial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the presence of non-bacterial ATP. After the removal of non-bacterial ATP, the bacterial ATP is released by cell rupture and is measured by an enzymatic bioluminescent assay using an enzyme obtained from the firefly.

Chappelle, E. W.; Picciolo, G. L. (inventors)

1973-01-01

21

DIFFERENTIAL BLOOD CELL COUNTS OF ATLANTIC HERRING, CLUPEA HARENGUS HARENGUS  

E-print Network

DIFFERENTIAL BLOOD CELL COUNTS OF ATLANTIC HERRING, CLUPEA HARENGUS HARENGUS STUART W. SHERBURNE1 of white cell types and immature erythrocytes in the blood were found to be different from those previously- ences in the occurrence of blood cell types of Atlantic herring, Glupea harellgus harellgus, from

22

A system for counting fetal and maternal red blood cells.  

PubMed

The Kleihauer-Betke (KB) test is the standard method for quantitating fetal-maternal hemorrhage in maternal care. In hospitals, the KB test is performed by a certified technologist to count a minimum of 2000 fetal and maternal red blood cells (RBCs) on a blood smear. Manual counting suffers from inherent inconsistency and unreliability. This paper describes a system for automated counting and distinguishing fetal and maternal RBCs on clinical KB slides. A custom-adapted hardware platform is used for KB slide scanning and image capturing. Spatial-color pixel classification with spectral clustering is proposed to separate overlapping cells. Optimal clustering number and total cell number are obtained through maximizing cluster validity index. To accurately identify fetal RBCs from maternal RBCs, multiple features including cell size, roundness, gradient, and saturation difference between cell and whole slide are used in supervised learning to generate feature vectors, to tackle cell color, shape, and contrast variations across clinical KB slides. The results show that the automated system is capable of completing the counting of over 60,000 cells (versus ?2000 by technologists) within 5 min (versus ?15 min by technologists). The throughput is improved by approximately 90 times compared to manual reading by technologists. The counting results are highly accurate and correlate strongly with those from benchmarking flow cytometry measurement. PMID:24879644

Ge, Ji; Gong, Zheng; Chen, Jun; Liu, Jun; Nguyen, John; Yang, Zongyi; Wang, Chen; Sun, Yu

2014-12-01

23

APPROXIMATELY COUNTING INTEGRAL FLOWS AND CELL-BOUNDED CONTINGENCY TABLES  

E-print Network

APPROXIMATELY COUNTING INTEGRAL FLOWS AND CELL-BOUNDED CONTINGENCY TABLES MARY CRYAN, MARTIN DYER of contingency tables with prescribed cell bounds when the number of rows is constant, but the row sums, column) for standard contingency tables, but the analysis here is considerably more intricate. Key words. lattice

Cryan, Mary

24

Approximately Counting Integral Flows and Cell-Bounded Contingency Tables  

E-print Network

Approximately Counting Integral Flows and Cell-Bounded Contingency Tables Mary Cryan , Martin Dyer of contingency tables with prescribed cell bounds when the number of rows is constant, but the row sums, column) for standard contingency tables, but the analysis here is considerably more intricate. 1 Introduction

Dyer, Martin

25

WBC (White Blood Cell) Differential Count  

MedlinePLUS

... occur with bacterial infection, leukemia , myelodysplastic disorders, or myeloproliferative neoplasms , for example. Some immature cells that may be ... g., autoimmune disorders , immune deficiency) Leukemia Myelodysplastic syndrome Myeloproliferative neoplasms Some diseases trigger a response by the immune ...

26

Dynamics and regulation of bulk milk somatic cell counts.  

PubMed Central

Somatic cell count (SCC) in milk is inversely related to dairy cow productivity and milk quality. In an effort to improve product quality, and indirectly farm productivity, regulatory limits on somatic cell counts have been established by many of the major dairy producing countries. The purpose of this paper was to assess the impact of regulations on bulk milk somatic cell counts in Ontario and to assist producers in meeting regulatory limits through development of prediction models. Through the use of a transfer function model, provincial SCC was found to have dropped by approximately 60,000 as a result of the reduction program. Limits of the regulatory program, seasonality and herd characteristics were found through time series cross-sectional models to have an impact on prediction of SCC at the farm level, but the major influence was historical SCC levels. PMID:8490807

Schukken, Y H; Weersink, A; Leslie, K E; Martin, S W

1993-01-01

27

[The cell count in sheep and goat milk].  

PubMed

The udder health of 404 sheep from 23 flocks and 397 goats from 15 herds in Lower Austria was examined. In order to determine cell levels, the Schalm Test (equivalent to the California mastitis test) and a fluoroscopic "Fossomatic" cell count appliance were employed. The resultant physiological median levels of somatic cell content were established as 71,000 cells/ml for sheep milk and 415,000 cells/ml for goat milk. Significant factors influencing the cell count levels were the milking technique in both species and age in sheep but not in goats. The pathogens most frequently isolated as causes of chronic or latent mastitis were coagulase-positive and -negative cocci. PMID:1796462

Pernthaner, A; Deutz, A; Schlerka, G; Baumgartner, W

1991-12-01

28

21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. 864.8185 Section 864.8185 Food...Hematology Reagents § 864.8185 Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification....

2014-04-01

29

21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. 864.8185 Section 864.8185 Food...Hematology Reagents § 864.8185 Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification....

2011-04-01

30

21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. 864.8185 Section 864.8185 Food...Hematology Reagents § 864.8185 Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification....

2012-04-01

31

21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. 864.8185 Section 864.8185 Food...Hematology Reagents § 864.8185 Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification....

2010-04-01

32

21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. 864.8185 Section 864.8185 Food...Hematology Reagents § 864.8185 Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification....

2013-04-01

33

Interaural Comparison of Spiral Ganglion Cell Counts in Profound Deafness  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study is designed to measure the degree to which spiral ganglion cell (SGC) survival in the left and right ears is similar in profoundly hearing-impaired human patients with symmetric (right/left) etiology and sensitivity. This is of interest because a small difference between ears would imply that one ear could be used as a control ear in temporal bone studies evaluating the impact on SGC survival of a medical intervention in the other ear. Materials and Methods Forty-two temporal bones from 21 individuals with bilaterally symmetric profound hearing impairment were studied. Both ears in each individual were impaired by the same etiology. Rosenthal’s canal was reconstructed in two dimensions and segmental and total SGCs were counted. Correlation analysis and t-tests were used to compare segmental and total counts of left and right ears. Statistical power calculations illustrate how the results can be used to estimate the effect size (right/left difference in SGC count) that can be reliably identified as a function of sample size. Results Left counts (segmental and total) were significantly correlated with those in the right ears (p<0.01) and the coefficients of determination for segments 1 to 4 and total count were respectively 0.64, 0.91, 0.93, 0.91 and 0.98. The hypothesis that mean segmental and total counts of right and left are the same could not be rejected by paired t-test. Conclusion The variance in the between-ear difference across the temporal bones studied indicates that useful effect sizes can be reliably identified using subject numbers that are practical for temporal bone studies. For instance, there is 95% likelihood that an interaural difference in SGC count of approximately 1000 cells associated with a treatment/manipulation of one ear will be reliably detected in a bilaterally-symmetric profound hearing loss population of temporal bones from approximately 10 subjects. PMID:22008826

Seyyedi, Mohammad; Eddington, Donald K; Nadol, Joseph B

2011-01-01

34

Digital Cell Counting Device Integrated with a Single-Cell Array  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we present a novel cell counting method accomplished using a single-cell array fabricated on an image sensor, complementary metal oxide semiconductor sensor. The single-cell array was constructed using a microcavity array, which can trap up to 7,500 single cells on microcavities periodically arranged on a plane metallic substrate via the application of a negative pressure. The proposed method for cell counting is based on shadow imaging, which uses a light diffraction pattern generated by the microcavity array and trapped cells. Under illumination, the cell-occupied microcavities are visualized as shadow patterns in an image recorded by the complementary metal oxide semiconductor sensor due to light attenuation. The cell count is determined by enumerating the uniform shadow patterns created from one-on-one relationships with single cells trapped on the microcavities in digital format. In the experiment, all cell counting processes including entrapment of non-labeled HeLa cells from suspensions on the array and image acquisition of a wide-field-of-view of 30 mm2 in 1/60 seconds were implemented in a single integrated device. As a result, the results from the digital cell counting had a linear relationship with those obtained from microscopic observation (r2?=?0.99). This platform could be used at extremely low cell concentrations, i.e., 25–15,000 cells/mL. Our proposed system provides a simple and rapid miniaturized cell counting device for routine laboratory use. PMID:24551208

Saeki, Tatsuya; Hosokawa, Masahito; Lim, Tae-kyu; Harada, Manabu; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi

2014-01-01

35

Bronchoalveolar lavage cell count and differential are not reliable indicators of amiodarone-induced pneumonitis.  

PubMed

Amiodarone-induced interstitial pneumonitis is a serious, frequently fatal untoward effect of a commonly used antiarrhythmic agent. Recent reports suggest that bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid cellular analysis might be used to diagnose amiodarone-induced pneumonitis. The purpose of this study was to determine if the diagnosis of amiodarone-induced pneumonitis could be made by patient history, pulmonary function evaluation, and examination of BAL fluid. We studied five groups of patients. Three of the five groups received amiodarone: patients receiving amiodarone without evident lung toxic reaction, patients with amiodarone-induced pneumonitis, and amiodarone-treated patients diagnosed as having other pathologic processes involving the lung. The two other groups examined were healthy volunteers and patients with interstitial lung disease from causes other than amiodarone. Pulmonary function tests included vital capacity (FVC), first second forced exhaled volume (FEV1), total lung capacity (TLC), and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DCO). BAL fluid analysis included total and differential cell counts. We found that amiodarone-induced interstitial pneumonitis was not associated with an alteration in pulmonary function or BAL cellular composition which could permit its distinction from amiodarone-treated patients diagnosed as having an unrelated pulmonary process or patients with interstitial lung disease from other causes. The most frequent abnormality encountered in patients with amiodarone toxicity was a reduction in the percentage of macrophages in the differential cell count. The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of this finding was 82 percent, 69 percent, and 69 percent, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of a > or = 15 percent reduction in DCO was 44 percent, 50 percent, and 36 percent, respectively. We conclude that amiodarone-induced interstitial pneumonitis remains a diagnosis of exclusion, and the role of BAL fluid analysis is to narrow the differential diagnosis through microbiologic culture and cytologic examination. PMID:1395816

Ohar, J A; Jackson, F; Dettenmeier, P A; Bedrossian, C W; Tricomi, S M; Evans, R G

1992-10-01

36

[Reassessment of a combination of cerebrospinal fluid scintigraphy and nasal pledget counts in patients with suspected rhinorrhea].  

PubMed

A combination study of cerebrospinal fluid scintigraphy and nasal pledget counts was performed using 37 MBq of 111In-DTPA in 12 patients with suspected rhinorrhea. A pledget was inserted and dwelled in each nasal cavity for 6 hours, with the patient prone during at least 30 minutes. A total of 18 studies was implemented and nasal pledget counting method successfully diagnosed all of CSF rhinorrhea. Diagnosis was possible when pledget counts were greater than 1 kcpm. In patients with persistent, intermittent and occult/no nasal discharge, rhinorrhea was found in 100% (5/5), 60% (3/5), 25% (2/8), respectively. Two cases only exhibited positive scintigraphy. MRI or CT cisternography should be first performed in patients with persistent discharge, but in patients with intermittent/occult discharge pledget counting method might take priority of other diagnostic modalities. In conclusion, nasal pledget counting method is a simple and useful tool for detecting rhinorrhea. PMID:9753923

Kosuda, S; Arai, S; Hohshito, Y; Tokumitsu, H; Kusano, S; Ishihara, S; Shima, K

1998-07-01

37

CELLCOUNTER: Novel Open-Source Software for Counting Cell Migration and Invasion In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Transwell Boyden chamber based migration/invasion assay is a simple and extensively used approach for the characterization of cell motility in vitro. Cell motility is quantified by counting the number of cells that pass through the filter membrane. The counting is usually performed manually, which is laborious and error prone. We have therefore developed CELLCOUNTER, an application that is capable of recognizing and counting the total number of cells through an intuitive graphical user interface. The counting can be performed in batch, and the counting results can be visualized and further curated manually. CELLCOUNTER will be helpful in streamlining the experimental process and improving the reliability of the data acquisition. PMID:25054152

Yang, Hongshun; Zhu, Tao

2014-01-01

38

Counting Legionella cells within single amoeba host cells  

EPA Science Inventory

Here we present the first attempt to quantify L. pneumophila cell numbers within individual amoebae hosts that may be released into engineered water systems. The maximum numbers of culturable L. pneumophila cells grown within Acanthamoeba polyphaga and Naegleria fowleri were 134...

39

CD4 cell counts in human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients with tuberculosis.  

PubMed

We evaluated 85 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative patients with tuberculosis for clinical features and CD4 cell counts. Thirty-seven patients had low CD4 cell counts (mean +/- SD, 341 +/- 116 cells/microL), and 48 patients had normal CD4 cell counts (mean +/- SD, 830 +/- 254 cells/microL). CD4 cell counts were most strongly correlated with total lymphocyte counts (r = 0.84). If total lymphocyte count was excluded, depressed CD4 cell counts were significantly associated with low serum albumin levels, extensive pulmonary disease, low body-mass index, and low hematocrit. Of these four variables, multivariate linear discriminant analysis revealed that the serum albumin level was the best single predictor of low CD4 cell counts and that the other three variables did not improve predictive value. Because these four variables are markers of severe tuberculosis, these findings suggest that disease severity is associated with greater depression of the total lymphocyte and CD4 cell counts. The CD4 cell counts returned to normal levels in most patients after 1 month of therapy. PMID:9142808

Jones, B E; Oo, M M; Taikwel, E K; Qian, D; Kumar, A; Maslow, E R; Barnes, P F

1997-05-01

40

Intracellular fluid flow in rapidly moving cells  

PubMed Central

Cytosolic fluid dynamics have been implicated in cell motility1–5 because of the hydrodynamic forces they induce and because of their influence on transport of components of the actin machinery to the leading edge. To investigate the existence and the direction of fluid flow in rapidly moving cells, we introduced inert quantum dots into the lamellipodia of fish epithelial keratocytes and analysed their distribution and motion. Our results indicate that fluid flow is directed from the cell body towards the leading edge in the cell frame of reference, at about 40% of cell speed. We propose that this forward-directed flow is driven by increased hydrostatic pressure generated at the rear of the cell by myosin contraction, and show that inhibition of myosin II activity by blebbistatin reverses the direction of fluid flow and leads to a decrease in keratocyte speed. We present a physical model for fluid pressure and flow in moving cells that quantitatively accounts for our experimental data. PMID:19767741

Keren, Kinneret; Yam, Patricia T.; Kinkhabwala, Anika; Mogilner, Alex; Theriot, Julie A.

2010-01-01

41

Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering  

DOEpatents

A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel in order to mix its respective portion of liquid water with the corresponding portion of the stream. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).

Jones, Daniel O. (Glenville, NY); Walsh, Michael M. (Fairfield, CT)

1999-01-01

42

Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering  

DOEpatents

A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).

Jones, Daniel O. (Glenville, NY); Walsh, Michael M. (Fairfield, CT)

2003-01-01

43

Determination of mammalian cell counts, cell size and cell health using the Moxi Z mini automated cell counter.  

PubMed

Particle and cell counting is used for a variety of applications including routine cell culture, hematological analysis, and industrial controls(1-5). A critical breakthrough in cell/particle counting technologies was the development of the Coulter technique by Wallace Coulter over 50 years ago. The technique involves the application of an electric field across a micron-sized aperture and hydrodynamically focusing single particles through the aperture. The resulting occlusion of the aperture by the particles yields a measurable change in electric impedance that can be directly and precisely correlated to cell size/volume. The recognition of the approach as the benchmark in cell/particle counting stems from the extraordinary precision and accuracy of its particle sizing and counts, particularly as compared to manual and imaging based technologies (accuracies on the order of 98% for Coulter counters versus 75-80% for manual and vision-based systems). This can be attributed to the fact that, unlike imaging-based approaches to cell counting, the Coulter Technique makes a true three-dimensional (3-D) measurement of cells/particles which dramatically reduces count interference from debris and clustering by calculating precise volumetric information about the cells/particles. Overall this provides a means for enumerating and sizing cells in a more accurate, less tedious, less time-consuming, and less subjective means than other counting techniques(6). Despite the prominence of the Coulter technique in cell counting, its widespread use in routine biological studies has been prohibitive due to the cost and size of traditional instruments. Although a less expensive Coulter-based instrument has been produced, it has limitations as compared to its more expensive counterparts in the correction for "coincidence events" in which two or more cells pass through the aperture and are measured simultaneously. Another limitation with existing Coulter technologies is the lack of metrics on the overall health of cell samples. Consequently, additional techniques must often be used in conjunction with Coulter counting to assess cell viability. This extends experimental setup time and cost since the traditional methods of viability assessment require cell staining and/or use of expensive and cumbersome equipment such as a flow cytometer. The Moxi Z mini automated cell counter, described here, is an ultra-small benchtop instrument that combines the accuracy of the Coulter Principle with a thin-film sensor technology to enable precise sizing and counting of particles ranging from 3-25 microns, depending on the cell counting cassette used. The M type cassette can be used to count particles from with average diameters of 4 - 25 microns (dynamic range 2 - 34 microns), and the Type S cassette can be used to count particles with and average diameter of 3 - 20 microns (dynamic range 2 - 26 microns). Since the system uses a volumetric measurement method, the 4-25 microns corresponds to a cell volume range of 34 - 8,180 fL and the 3 - 20 microns corresponds to a cell volume range of 14 - 4200 fL, which is relevant when non-spherical particles are being measured. To perform mammalian cell counts using the Moxi Z, the cells to be counted are first diluted with ORFLO or similar diluent. A cell counting cassette is inserted into the instrument, and the sample is loaded into the port of the cassette. Thousands of cells are pulled, single-file through a "Cell Sensing Zone" (CSZ) in the thin-film membrane over 8-15 seconds. Following the run, the instrument uses proprietary curve-fitting in conjunction with a proprietary software algorithm to provide coincidence event correction along with an assessment of overall culture health by determining the ratio of the number of cells in the population of interest to the total number of particles. The total particle counts include shrunken and broken down dead cells, as well as other debris and contaminants. The results are presented in histogram format with an automatic curve fit, with gates that can

Dittami, Gregory M; Sethi, Manju; Rabbitt, Richard D; Ayliffe, H Edward

2012-01-01

44

Lower white blood cell counts in elite athletes training for highly aerobic sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

White cell counts at rest might be lower in athletes participating in selected endurance-type sports. Here, we analysed blood\\u000a tests of elite athletes collected over a 10-year period. Reference ranges were established for 14 female and 14 male sports\\u000a involving 3,679 samples from 937 females and 4,654 samples from 1,310 males. Total white blood cell counts and counts of neutrophils,

P. L. Horn; D. B. Pyne; W. G. Hopkins; C. J. Barnes

2010-01-01

45

Effect of Thyroid Dysfunctions on Blood Cell Count and Red Blood Cell Indice  

PubMed Central

Background Thyroid hormones have a crucial role in metabolism and proliferation of blood cells. Thyroid dysfunction induces different effects on blood cells such as anemia, erythrocytosis leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and in rare cases causes’ pancytopenia. It also alter RBC indices include MCV, MCH, MCHC and RDW. Thus this study attempted to evaluate effect of hypo & hyperthyroidism on blood cell count and RBC indices. Materials and Methods This study performed on 102 patients with hypothyroid (14.1 years), 84 with hyperthyroid (15.6 years) and 118 healthy individuals (15.2 years) as control group. Initially patients TSH level of patients was determined by ELISA method, and then according to TSH ranges (0.3-5.5µIU/mL) patients were divided into two Hyperthyroidism (TSH<0.3µIU/mL) and hypothyroidism (TSH>5.5µIU/mL) groups. Then, complete blood count was measured by cell counter. Finally, obtained results were analyzed by SPSS software. Results Analyzes of obtained data revealed statistically significant difference between two groups of patients in RBC count, MCH, MCHC, RDW, HB and HCT(P-value<0.05), but the difference was not significant for WBC and PLT counts and MCV (P-value>0.05). Conclusion In case of patients with unknown hematological dysfunctions, must be evaluated for thyroid hormones. PMID:24575274

Dorgalaleh, A; Mahmoodi, M; Varmaghani, B; Kiani node, F; Saeeidi Kia, O; Alizadeh, Sh; Tabibian, Sh; Bamedi, T; Momeni, M; Abbasian, S; Kashani Khatib, Z

2013-01-01

46

Automated counting of cell bodies using Nissl stained cross-sectional images  

E-print Network

Cell count is an important metric in neurological research. The loss in numbers of certain cells like neurons has been found to accompany not only the deterioration of important brain functions but disorders like clinical depression as well. Since...

D'Souza, Aswin Cletus

2008-10-10

47

Automated counting of cell bodies using Nissl stained cross-sectional images  

E-print Network

Cell count is an important metric in neurological research. The loss in numbers of certain cells like neurons has been found to accompany not only the deterioration of important brain functions but disorders like clinical depression as well. Since...

D'Souza, Aswin Cletus

2009-05-15

48

Micro-a-fluidics ELISA for Rapid CD4 Cell Count at the Point-of-Care  

PubMed Central

HIV has become one of the most devastating pathogens in human history. Despite fast progress in HIV-related basic research, antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains the most effective method to save AIDS patients' lives. Unfortunately, ART cannot be universally accessed, especially in developing countries, due to the lack of effective treatment monitoring diagnostics. Here, we present an inexpensive, rapid and portable micro-a-fluidic platform, which can streamline the process of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in a fully automated manner for CD4 cell count. The micro-a-fluidic CD4 cell count is achieved by eliminating operational fluid flow via “moving the substrate”, as opposed to “flowing liquid” in traditional ELISA or microfluidic methods. This is the first demonstration of capturing and detecting cells from unprocessed whole blood using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in a microfluidic channel. Combined with cell phone imaging, the presented micro-a-fluidic ELISA platform holds great promise for offering rapid CD4 cell count to scale up much needed ART in resource-constrained settings. The developed system can be extended to multiple areas for ELISA-related assays. PMID:24448112

Wang, ShuQi; Tasoglu, Savas; Chen, Paul Z.; Chen, Michael; Akbas, Ragip; Wach, Sonya; Ozdemir, Cenk Ibrahim; Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Giguel, Francoise F.; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.; Demirci, Utkan

2014-01-01

49

Association of Psychological Stress Response of Fatigue with White Blood Cell Count in Male Daytime Workers  

PubMed Central

Relationships between work-related psychological and physical stress responses and counts of white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils, and lymphocytes were investigated in 101 daytime workers. Counts of WBCs and neutrophils were positively associated with smoking and inversely correlated with high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Additionally, general fatigue score as measured by the profile of mood state was positively correlated with WBC and neutrophil counts whereas lymphocyte counts was not significantly associated with fatigue score. Multiple regression analysis showed that WBC count was significantly related to general fatigue, age, and HDL-cholesterol levels. Neutrophil count was significantly related to HDL-cholesterol levels and fatigue score. Among various psychological stress response variables, general fatigue may be a key determinant of low-grade inflammation as represented by increases of WBC and neutrophil counts. PMID:24975105

NISHITANI, Naoko; SAKAKIBARA, Hisataka

2014-01-01

50

Accurate cell counts in live mouse embryos using optical quadrature and differential interference contrast microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present imaging techniques used in in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics are unable to produce accurate cell counts in developing embryos past the eight-cell stage. We have developed a method that has produced accurate cell counts in live mouse embryos ranging from 13-25 cells by combining Differential Interference Contrast (DIC) and Optical Quadrature Microscopy. Optical Quadrature Microscopy is an interferometric imaging modality that measures the amplitude and phase of the signal beam that travels through the embryo. The phase is transformed into an image of optical path length difference, which is used to determine the maximum optical path length deviation of a single cell. DIC microscopy gives distinct cell boundaries for cells within the focal plane when other cells do not lie in the path to the objective. Fitting an ellipse to the boundary of a single cell in the DIC image and combining it with the maximum optical path length deviation of a single cell creates an ellipsoidal model cell of optical path length deviation. Subtracting the model cell from the Optical Quadrature image will either show the optical path length deviation of the culture medium or reveal another cell underneath. Once all the boundaries are used in the DIC image, the subtracted Optical Quadrature image is analyzed to determine the cell boundaries of the remaining cells. The final cell count is produced when no more cells can be subtracted. We have produced exact cell counts on 5 samples, which have been validated by Epi-Fluorescence images of Hoechst stained nuclei.

Warger, William C., II; Newmark, Judith A.; Zhao, Bing; Warner, Carol M.; DiMarzio, Charles A.

2006-02-01

51

Risk Factors Associated with Clinical Mastitis in Low Somatic Cell Count British Dairy Herds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-sectional survey of dairy farms with low bulk milk somatic cell counts was carried out to assess the level of clinical mastitis and to quantify risk factors associated with the incidence rate of clinical mastitis. Questionnaires were sent to 3009 milk operations with an annual mean bulk milk somatic cell count of less than 100,000 cells\\/ml during 1997. A

E. J. Peeler; M. J. Green; J. L. Fitzpatrick; K. L. Morgan; L. E. Green

2000-01-01

52

Current automated 3D cell detection methods are not a suitable replacement for manual stereologic cell counting  

PubMed Central

Stereologic cell counting has had a major impact on the field of neuroscience. A major bottleneck in stereologic cell counting is that the user must manually decide whether or not each cell is counted according to three-dimensional (3D) stereologic counting rules by visual inspection within hundreds of microscopic fields-of-view per investigated brain or brain region. Reliance on visual inspection forces stereologic cell counting to be very labor-intensive and time-consuming, and is the main reason why biased, non-stereologic two-dimensional (2D) “cell counting” approaches have remained in widespread use. We present an evaluation of the performance of modern automated cell detection and segmentation algorithms as a potential alternative to the manual approach in stereologic cell counting. The image data used in this study were 3D microscopic images of thick brain tissue sections prepared with a variety of commonly used nuclear and cytoplasmic stains. The evaluation compared the numbers and locations of cells identified unambiguously and counted exhaustively by an expert observer with those found by three automated 3D cell detection algorithms: nuclei segmentation from the FARSIGHT toolkit, nuclei segmentation by 3D multiple level set methods, and the 3D object counter plug-in for ImageJ. Of these methods, FARSIGHT performed best, with true-positive detection rates between 38 and 99% and false-positive rates from 3.6 to 82%. The results demonstrate that the current automated methods suffer from lower detection rates and higher false-positive rates than are acceptable for obtaining valid estimates of cell numbers. Thus, at present, stereologic cell counting with manual decision for object inclusion according to unbiased stereologic counting rules remains the only adequate method for unbiased cell quantification in histologic tissue sections. PMID:24847213

Schmitz, Christoph; Eastwood, Brian S.; Tappan, Susan J.; Glaser, Jack R.; Peterson, Daniel A.; Hof, Patrick R.

2014-01-01

53

Current automated 3D cell detection methods are not a suitable replacement for manual stereologic cell counting.  

PubMed

Stereologic cell counting has had a major impact on the field of neuroscience. A major bottleneck in stereologic cell counting is that the user must manually decide whether or not each cell is counted according to three-dimensional (3D) stereologic counting rules by visual inspection within hundreds of microscopic fields-of-view per investigated brain or brain region. Reliance on visual inspection forces stereologic cell counting to be very labor-intensive and time-consuming, and is the main reason why biased, non-stereologic two-dimensional (2D) "cell counting" approaches have remained in widespread use. We present an evaluation of the performance of modern automated cell detection and segmentation algorithms as a potential alternative to the manual approach in stereologic cell counting. The image data used in this study were 3D microscopic images of thick brain tissue sections prepared with a variety of commonly used nuclear and cytoplasmic stains. The evaluation compared the numbers and locations of cells identified unambiguously and counted exhaustively by an expert observer with those found by three automated 3D cell detection algorithms: nuclei segmentation from the FARSIGHT toolkit, nuclei segmentation by 3D multiple level set methods, and the 3D object counter plug-in for ImageJ. Of these methods, FARSIGHT performed best, with true-positive detection rates between 38 and 99% and false-positive rates from 3.6 to 82%. The results demonstrate that the current automated methods suffer from lower detection rates and higher false-positive rates than are acceptable for obtaining valid estimates of cell numbers. Thus, at present, stereologic cell counting with manual decision for object inclusion according to unbiased stereologic counting rules remains the only adequate method for unbiased cell quantification in histologic tissue sections. PMID:24847213

Schmitz, Christoph; Eastwood, Brian S; Tappan, Susan J; Glaser, Jack R; Peterson, Daniel A; Hof, Patrick R

2014-01-01

54

The Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) experiment performed visualizations of thermal convection in a rotating differentially heated spherical shell of fluid. In these experiments dielectric polarization forces are used to generate a radially directed buoyancy force. This enables the laboratory simulation of a number of geophysically and astrophysically important situations in which sphericity and rotation both impose strong constraints on global scale fluid motions. During USML-2 a large set of experiments with spherically symmetric heating were carried out. These enabled the determination of critical points for the transition to various forms of nonaxisymmetric convection and, for highly turbulent flows, the transition latitudes separating the different modes of motion. This paper presents a first analysis of these experiments as well as data on the general performance of the instrument during the USML-2 flight.

Hart, J. E.; Ohlsen, D.; Kittleman, S.; Borhani, N.; Leslie, F.; Miller, T.

1999-01-01

55

Mathematical modelling of adult hippocampal neurogenesis: effects of altered stem cell dynamics on cell counts and bromodeoxyuridine-labelled cells.  

PubMed

In the adult hippocampus, neurogenesis-the process of generating mature granule cells from adult neural stem cells-occurs throughout the entire lifetime. In order to investigate the involved regulatory mechanisms, knockout (KO) experiments, which modify the dynamic behaviour of this process, were conducted in the past. Evaluating these KOs is a non-trivial task owing to the complicated nature of the hippocampal neurogenic niche. In this study, we model neurogenesis as a multicompartmental system of ordinary differential equations based on experimental data. To analyse the results of KO experiments, we investigate how changes of cell properties, reflected by model parameters, influence the dynamics of cell counts and of the experimentally observed counts of cells labelled by the cell division marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). We find that changing cell proliferation rates or the fraction of self-renewal, reflecting the balance between symmetric and asymmetric cell divisions, may result in multiple time phases in the response of the system, such as an initial increase in cell counts followed by a decrease. Furthermore, these phases may be qualitatively different in cells at different differentiation stages and even between mitotically labelled cells and all cells existing in the system. PMID:24598209

Ziebell, Frederik; Martin-Villalba, Ana; Marciniak-Czochra, Anna

2014-05-01

56

Mathematical modelling of adult hippocampal neurogenesis: effects of altered stem cell dynamics on cell counts and bromodeoxyuridine-labelled cells  

PubMed Central

In the adult hippocampus, neurogenesis—the process of generating mature granule cells from adult neural stem cells—occurs throughout the entire lifetime. In order to investigate the involved regulatory mechanisms, knockout (KO) experiments, which modify the dynamic behaviour of this process, were conducted in the past. Evaluating these KOs is a non-trivial task owing to the complicated nature of the hippocampal neurogenic niche. In this study, we model neurogenesis as a multicompartmental system of ordinary differential equations based on experimental data. To analyse the results of KO experiments, we investigate how changes of cell properties, reflected by model parameters, influence the dynamics of cell counts and of the experimentally observed counts of cells labelled by the cell division marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). We find that changing cell proliferation rates or the fraction of self-renewal, reflecting the balance between symmetric and asymmetric cell divisions, may result in multiple time phases in the response of the system, such as an initial increase in cell counts followed by a decrease. Furthermore, these phases may be qualitatively different in cells at different differentiation stages and even between mitotically labelled cells and all cells existing in the system. PMID:24598209

Ziebell, Frederik; Martin-Villalba, Ana; Marciniak-Czochra, Anna

2014-01-01

57

Optimization of a cell counting algorithm for mobile point-of-care testing platforms.  

PubMed

In a point-of-care (POC) setting, it is critically important to reliably count the number of specific cells in a blood sample. Software-based cell counting, which is far faster than manual counting, while much cheaper than hardware-based counting, has emerged as an attractive solution potentially applicable to mobile POC testing. However, the existing software-based algorithm based on the normalized cross-correlation (NCC) method is too time- and, thus, energy-consuming to be deployed for battery-powered mobile POC testing platforms. In this paper, we identify inefficiencies in the NCC-based algorithm and propose two synergistic optimization techniques that can considerably reduce the runtime and, thus, energy consumption of the original algorithm with negligible impact on counting accuracy. We demonstrate that an AndroidTM smart phone running the optimized algorithm consumes 11.5× less runtime than the original algorithm. PMID:25195851

Ahn, DaeHan; Kim, Nam Sung; Moon, SangJun; Park, Taejoon; Son, Sang Hyuk

2014-01-01

58

Depressive symptoms in the elderly: Association with total white blood cell count  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.1. The white blood cell (WBC) count in those with high depressive symptoms and non-depressed participants in the Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE) were compared.2.2. Of 3769 participants 10.8% had high depressive symptoms as assessed by the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale. The mean white blood cell count was higher in the high depressive

S. Lori Brown; Marcel E. Salive; Jack M. Guralnik; Robert B. Wallace; Adrian M. Ostfeld; Dan Blazer

1995-01-01

59

Effective Use of Dairy Herd Improvement Somatic Cell Counts in Mastitis Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The single most important factor affecting somatic cell count in milk is mammary gland infection status. In comparison, all other factors are minor. Consideration needs to be given to diurnal effects on Dairy Herd Improve- ment a.m.-p.m, sampling schemes. Somatic cell count linear score of 5 (283,000) appears to be a good choice of threshold for mastitis control applications. A

Jeffrey K. Reneau

1986-01-01

60

CD8+ T-Cells Count in Acute Myocardial Infarction in HIV Disease in a Predominantly Male Cohort  

PubMed Central

Human Immunodeficiency Virus- (HIV-) infected persons have a higher risk for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) than HIV-uninfected persons. Earlier studies suggest that HIV viral load, CD4+ T-cell count, and antiretroviral therapy are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Whether CD8+ T-cell count is associated with CVD risk is not clear. We investigated the association between CD8+ T-cell count and incident AMI in a cohort of 73,398 people (of which 97.3% were men) enrolled in the U.S. Veterans Aging Cohort Study-Virtual Cohort (VACS-VC). Compared to uninfected people, HIV-infected people with high baseline CD8+ T-cell counts (>1065?cells/mm3) had increased AMI risk (adjusted HR = 1.82, P < 0.001, 95% CI: 1.46 to 2.28). There was evidence that the effect of CD8+ T-cell tertiles on AMI risk differed by CD4+ T-cell level: compared to uninfected people, HIV-infected people with CD4+ T-cell counts ?200?cells/mm3 had increased AMI risk with high CD8+ T-cell count, while those with CD4+ T-cell counts <200?cells/mm3 had increased AMI risk with low CD8+ T-cell count. CD8+ T-cell counts may add additional AMI risk stratification information beyond that provided by CD4+ T-cell counts alone.

Chang, Chung-Chou; So-Armah, Kaku A.; Baker, Jason V.; Butt, Adeel A.; Gordon, Adam J.; Rinaldo, Charles R.; Samet, Jeffrey H.; Tindle, Hilary A.; Goetz, Matthew B.; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C.; Bedimo, Roger; Gibert, Cynthia L.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Deeks, Steven G.; Justice, Amy C.; Freiberg, Matthew S.

2015-01-01

61

Correlation between CD4 T cell Counts and Virus Compartmentalization in Genital and Systemic Compartments of HIV-infected Females  

PubMed Central

The majority of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) across the world occurs by heterosexual transmission and is likely mediated by virus present in genital secretions. In spite of this, infection is followed by clinical markers of the virus present in blood, which may not be representative of the virus involved in transmission. In fact, several studies have demonstrated that the genital tract represents a unique compartment for the virus. We assessed the relationship between immune system integrity, represented by CD4+ T cell counts, and the maintenance of viral compartmentalization between plasma and vaginal fluid virus in treatment naïve women from the Dominican Republic infected by the heterosexual transmission route. We cloned and sequenced cell free virus from plasma and genital fluid samples from six women to assess viral evolution, phylogenetic relatedness, and calculated co-receptor use for the C2V3 region of the envelope. Our analyses demonstrated plasma and vaginal fluid virus compartments remained intact only in samples from women with CD4+ T cell counts over 350 cells/?1 majority of viral forms were predicted to use the CCR5 co-receptor, although several dual tropic forms were also identified. None of the clones were found to use the CXCR4 co-receptor even though many of the patients showed severe disease. Our findings lend further support to the role of an intact immune system in maintaining compartmentalization across blood and genital quasispecies and provide a compelling rationale to specifically consider genital tract viral forms in therapeutic and vaccine research. PMID:21745672

Chaudhary, Suman; Noel, Richard J.; Rodríguez, Nayra; Collado, Santiago; Munoz, Jhoanne; Kumar, Anil; Yamamura, Yashuhiro

2011-01-01

62

Blood cell counting and classification by nonflowing laser light scattering method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a nonflowing laser light scattering method for automatically counting and classifying blood cells. A linear charge- coupled device (CCD) and a silicon photoelectric cell (which is placed behind a pinhole plate on the CCD) form a double-detector structure: the CCD is used to detect the scattered light intensity distri- bution of the blood cells and the silicon photoelectric

Ye Yang; Zhenxi Zhang; Xinhui Yang; Joon Hock Yeo; Lijun Jiang; Dazong Jiang

2004-01-01

63

Relationships between California mastitis test (CMT) and somatic cell counts in dairy goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic cell counts (SCC) obtained with Fossomatic cell counter and CMT have been compared in dairy goats in order to verify if CMT can be used to manage sanitary status directly as a “farm test” or in countries where Fossomatic cell counters are not present. This study shows that CMT is well correlated with SCC. Using a simplified rule of

G. G. Perrin; M. P. Mallereau; D. Lenfant; C. Baudry

1997-01-01

64

Mechanotransduction of fluid stresses governs 3D cell migration  

E-print Network

Solid tumors are characterized by high interstitial fluid pressure, which drives fluid efflux from the tumor core. Tumor-associated interstitial flow (IF) at a rate of ?3 µm/s has been shown to induce cell migration in the ...

Polacheck, William J.

65

Atmospheric remote sensing to detect effects of temperature inversions on sputum cell counts in airway diseases.  

PubMed

Temperature inversions result in the accumulation of air pollution, often to levels exceeding air quality criteria. The respiratory response may be detectable in sputum cell counts. This study investigates the effect of boundary layer temperature inversions on sputum cell counts. Total and differential cell counts of neutrophils, eosinophils, macrophages and lymphocytes were quantified in sputum samples of patients attending an outpatient clinic. Temperature inversions were identified using data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder, an atmospheric sensor on the Aqua spacecraft which was launched in 2002 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. On inversion days, a statistically significant increase in the percent of cells that were neutrophils was observed in stable patients. There was also a statistically significant increase in the percent of cells that were macrophages, in exacerbated patients. Multivariate linear regression models were used to assess the relationship between temperature inversions and cell counts, controlling patients' age, smoking status, medications and meteorological variables of temperature and humidity. The analyses indicate that, in the stable and exacerbated groups, percent neutrophils and macrophages increased by 12.6% and 2.5%, respectively, on inversion days. These results suggest that temperature inversions need consideration as an exacerbating factor in bronchitis and obstructive airway disease. The effects of air pollutants, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, fine particulate matter and ozone, were investigated. We identified no significant associations with any pollutant. However, we found that monthly averages of total cell counts were strongly correlated with monthly nitrogen dioxide concentrations, an association not previously identified in the literature. PMID:20704033

Wallace, Julie; Nair, Parameswaran; Kanaroglou, Pavlos

2010-08-01

66

The Galaxy Counts-in-cells Distribution from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determine the galaxy counts-in-cells distribution from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) for three-dimensional spherical cells in redshift space as well as for two-dimensional projected cells. We find that cosmic variance in the SDSS causes the counts-in-cells distributions in different quadrants to differ from each other by up to 20%. We also find that within this cosmic variance, the overall galaxy counts-in-cells distribution agrees with both the gravitational quasi-equilibrium distribution and the negative binomial distribution. We also find that brighter galaxies are more strongly clustered than if they were randomly selected from a larger complete sample that includes galaxies of all luminosities. The results suggest that bright galaxies could be in dark matter halos separated by less than ~10 h -1 Mpc.

Yang, Abel; Saslaw, William C.

2011-03-01

67

ICSH guidelines for the verification and performance of automated cell counters for body fluids.  

PubMed

One of the many challenges facing laboratories is the verification of their automated Complete Blood Count cell counters for the enumeration of body fluids. These analyzers offer improved accuracy, precision, and efficiency in performing the enumeration of cells compared with manual methods. A patterns of practice survey was distributed to laboratories that participate in proficiency testing in Ontario, Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Japan to determine the number of laboratories that are testing body fluids on automated analyzers and the performance specifications that were performed. Based on the results of this questionnaire, an International Working Group for the Verification and Performance of Automated Cell Counters for Body Fluids was formed by the International Council for Standardization in Hematology (ICSH) to prepare a set of guidelines to help laboratories plan and execute the verification of their automated cell counters to provide accurate and reliable results for automated body fluid counts. These guidelines were discussed at the ICSH General Assemblies and reviewed by an international panel of experts to achieve further consensus. PMID:24628711

Bourner, G; De la Salle, B; George, T; Tabe, Y; Baum, H; Culp, N; Keng, T B

2014-12-01

68

Somatic cell counts in relation to infection status of the goat udder.  

PubMed

Bacteriological analyses, cell counts using the Fossomatic method and California Mastitis Test were performed on 1523 goat milk samples taken aseptically at monthly intervals throughout lactation from three goat herds. Of the goat udders, 81.4% were infected, minor pathogens being the most frequent isolates (65.7%). Differences in the level of infection by minor pathogens were found between herds. Cell counts were influenced by stage of lactation and intramammary infection. Cell counts greater than 10(6) cells/ml were found in 80% of milk samples infected by major pathogens and in 45% infected by minor pathogens. About 81% of udders infected with major pathogens gave California Mastitis Test scores of 2 and 3, compared with 20% for uninfected goats. A high proportion (65%) of udders infected with minor pathogens also produced scores of 2 and 3. A significant positive correlation was found between the California Mastitis Test and cell counts. The use of cell counts for the detection of abnormal goat milk is discussed. PMID:1560126

Kalogridou-Vassiliadou, D; Manolkidis, K; Tsigoida, A

1992-02-01

69

Effects of Smoothing Functions in Cosmological Counts-in-Cells Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for a counts-in-cells analysis of the galaxy distribution is investigated with arbitrary smoothing functions for obtaining the galaxy counts. We explore the possiblity of optimizing the smoothing function, while considering a series of m-weight Epanechnikov kernels. The popular top-hat and Gaussian smoothing functions are two special cases in this series. In this paper, we mainly consider the second moments of counts-in-cells as a first step. We have analytically derived the covariance matrix among different smoothing scales of cells, while taking into account possible overlaps between cells. We find that the Epanechnikov kernel of m=1 is better than top-hat and Gaussian smoothing functions in estimating cosmological parameters. As an example, we estimated expected parameter bounds that come only from an analysis of the second moments of the galaxy distributions in a survey that is similar to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.

Murata, Yoshitaka; Matsubara, Takahiko

2007-02-01

70

Statistical Estimation & Inference of Cell Counts from ELISPOT Limiting Dilution Assays  

PubMed Central

The ELISPOT Assay is often used for cell count determination in immunological studies. Automated methods are needed to estimate cell concentrations from spot counts obtained from the assay. Three major distributions are assumed for observational cell counts. For each assumed distribution, individual least squares (LS)/maximum likelihood, and/or individual robust least squares (RLS) are applied for parameter estimation. Distributions of study endpoints (derived variables), defined as percentages of antigen-specific memory cell per total IgG, are investigated to provide a basis for hypothesis testing. We show, under some weak conditions, the distribution of endpoint estimates across subjects is approximately the same within a group. Thus the t-test or the Wilcoxon Rank Sum test can be applied to detect group differences. These methods are compared through simulations and application to real data. PMID:23786336

Yang, Hongmei; Topham, David J.; Holden-Wiltse, Jeanne; Wu, Hulin

2013-01-01

71

Response of sheep lymphocytes to PHA: quantitation by nuclear volume measurement and cell counts (40764)  

SciTech Connect

Phytohemagglutinin response of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of sheep was studied. Assessment of proliferative response was performed by determination of nuclear volumes and cell counts in cultures from 14 sheep and by incorporation of tritiated thymidine in cultures in four additional sheep. PBL of sheep were found to transform and proliferate with PHA similarly to human peripheral blood lymphocytes with minor differences. Quantitation of the proliferative response by determining the cell count and nuclear volumes provided more information on cell kinetics in culture than the commonly used isotope-labeled thymidine incorporation method.

Chandra, P.; Chanana, A.D.; Joel, D.D.

1980-03-01

72

Physiological threshold of somatic cell count and California Mastitis Test for diagnosis of caprine subclinical mastitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three hundred and sixty-nine milk samples from half udders of 188 Murciano-Granadina goats in the second and third month of lactation, from ten commercial dairy goat herds were studied. Bacteriological analyses, California Mastitis Test (CMT) and somatic cell count (SCO by Fossomatic Counter were performed. The best SCC threshold for defining subclinical mastitis was 500 × 103 cells ml?1, but

A. Contreras; D. Sierra; J. C. Corrales; A. Sanchez; J. Marco

1996-01-01

73

Leukocyte Count in the Synovial Fluid of Children with Culture-Proven Brucellar Arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   Brucellosis is an important cause of paediatric septic arthritis in endemic areas. Because the Gram stain is frequently negative\\u000a and culture results are unavailable at the time of the patient’s admission, the diagnosis of brucellar arthritis is usually\\u000a entertained on the bases of epidemiological considerations and cytological examination of the synovial fluid aspirate. The\\u000a aim of this study was

N. Peled; D. Buskila; P. Yagupsky

2002-01-01

74

Differential proteomic analysis of renal cell carcinoma tissue interstitial fluid.  

PubMed

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the most common type of kidney cancer, currently has no biomarker of clinical utility. The present study utilized a mass spectrometry-based proteomics workflow for identifying differentially abundant proteins in RCC by harvesting shed and secreted proteins from the tumor microenvironment through sampling tissue interstitial fluid (TIF) from radical nephrectomies. Matched tumor and adjacent normal kidney (ANK) tissues were collected from 10 patients diagnosed with clear cell RCC. One-hundred thirty-eight proteins were identified with statistically significant differential abundances derived by spectral counting in tumor TIF when compared to ANK TIF. Among those proteins with elevated abundance in tumor TIF, nicotinamide n-methyltransferase (NNMT) and enolase 2 (ENO2) were verified by Western blot and selected reaction monitoring (SRM). The presence of ENO2 and thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) were verified as present and at elevated abundance in RCC patient serum samples as compared to a pooled standard control by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), recapitulating the relative abundance increase in RCC as compared with ANK TIF. PMID:21142074

Teng, Pang-ning; Hood, Brian L; Sun, Mai; Dhir, Rajiv; Conrads, Thomas P

2011-03-01

75

Antimicrobial susceptibility testing in 90 min by bacterial cell count monitoring.  

PubMed

The rise in antimicrobial resistance has become a serious global health problem. Restrictive use of antibiotics seems the only option to temper this accession since research in new antibiotics has halted. Antimicrobial stewardship programmes rely on quick access to susceptibility data. This study evaluated the concept of bacterial cell count monitoring as a fast method to determine susceptibility. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus strains were tested for amoxicillin/piperacillin and gentamicin by three conventional methods (VITEK2(®) , Etest(®) and broth-macrodilution). Bacterial cell count monitoring reliably predicted susceptibility after 90 min for Escherichia coli and after 120 min for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus without any minor, major or very major discrepancies. Time-to-result was reduced by 74%, 83% and 76%, respectively. Bacterial cell count monitoring shows great potential for rapid susceptibility testing. PMID:22390723

Broeren, M A C; Maas, Y; Retera, E; Arents, N L A

2013-03-01

76

Optical inline measurement procedures for counting and sizing cells in bioprocess technology.  

PubMed

To observe and control cultivation processes, optical sensors are used increasingly. Important parameters for controlling such processes are cell count, cell size distribution, and the morphology of cells. Among turbidity measurement methods, imaging procedures are applied for determining these process parameters. A disadvantage of most previously developed imaging procedures is that they are only available offline which requires sampling. On the other hand, available imaging inline probes can so far only deliver a limited number of process parameters. This chapter presents new optical procedures for the inline determination of cell count, cell size distribution, and other parameters. In particular, by in situ microscopy an imaging procedure will be described which allows the determination of direct and nondirect cell parameters in real time without sampling. PMID:19609497

Rudolph, Guido; Lindner, Patrick; Bluma, Arne; Joeris, Klaus; Martinez, Geovanni; Hitzmann, Bernd; Scheper, Thomas

2009-01-01

77

COX-2 drives metastatic breast cells from brain lesions into the cerebrospinal fluid and systemic circulation.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is among the most common malignancies that metastasize to the brain, with 15% to 20% of patients with metastatic breast cancer eventually developing brain metastases. We previously reported a method to enumerate tumor cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with breast cancer with central nervous system (CNS) metastases, a setting that lacks sufficiently informative biomarkers. Here, we show that breast cancer cells can spontaneously disseminate into the CSF from brain lesions in mice in a COX-2-dependent manner and can escape from the CNS to systemic circulation. Enumeration of tumor cells in the peripheral blood (circulating tumor cells, CTC) and CSF (cerebrospinal fluid tumor cells, CSFTC) of nine breast cancer patients with brain metastases revealed dynamic changes in tumor cell burden in both the peripheral blood and CSF compartments that correlated with clinical disease progression. Interestingly, four of the enrolled patients exhibited rapid intercompartmental transitioning of the disease reflected in the CTC and CSFTC counts that preceded corresponding evidence by clinical imaging or neurologic symptoms. Two of these patients had systemic disease recurrence involving the primary malignant site. Intercompartmental cycling of tumor cells may represent an important mechanism for disease persistence and recurrence that may involve tumor self-seeding. Our findings demonstrate the involvement of COX-2 in the genesis of CSFTCs and suggest that COX-2 inhibitors should be investigated in patients with breast cancer with brain metastases for their ability to reduce CSFTC counts and prevent systemic recurrence. PMID:24614081

Allen, Joshua E; Patel, Akshal S; Prabhu, Varun V; Dicker, David T; Sheehan, Jonas M; Glantz, Michael J; El-Deiry, Wafik S

2014-05-01

78

Argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region counts and Ki-67 scores in human renal cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

The proliferative activity of 21 cases of renal cell carcinoma has been investigated by means of monoclonal antibody Ki-67 and Nucleolar Organizer Regions (AgNORs) analysis. The correlation between AgNOR counts and Ki-67 scores was only slightly significant (r = 0.53, r2 = 0.28) as determined by linear regression. Positive correlation was found between Ki-67 scores and tumour histologic grade. However, no correlation was observed between Ki-67 scores and tumour pathologic stage and between AgNOR counts and tumour histologic grade and/or pathologic stage. The results suggest that AgNOR counts cannot replace Ki-67 scores in evaluating the proliferative activity of renal cell carcinoma and that such activity and both histologic grade and pathologic stage seem to be independent parametres. PMID:1715079

Pich, A; Valente, G; Azzoni, L; Stramignoni, A; Margaria, E; Tasso, M

1991-05-01

79

AIDS . Author manuscript HIV-specific regulatory T cells are associated with higher CD4 cell counts  

E-print Network

count was 480 cells/ l (33 1306)­ ­ and plasma HIV RNA levels ranged between 3.3 to 5.7 log cp ; methods ; Cell Proliferation ; Female ; Flow Cytometry ; HIV Infections ; diagnosis ; immunology ; immunology ; Male ; Phenotype ; Prospective Studies ; RNA, Viral ; immunology ; metabolism ; Suppressor

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

80

Effect of parity on milk yield, composition, somatic cell count, renneting parameters and bacteria counts of Comisana ewes.  

PubMed

Twenty-four Comisana ewes, with no history of mastitis, were included in this study, with eight ewes each in parities 1, 2 and 3. Groups were separately penned on straw litter and ewes were individually checked for yield, composition, renneting properties and bacteriological characteristics of milk from January, when separated from their lambs (50+/-3 days after lambing), to May. Samples with more than 3.5x10(5) somatic cells/ml were cultured for mastitis related pathogens. Milk yield was not significantly affected by parity. The P3 ewes had significantly higher milk protein, casein and fat contents compared to the P1 and P2 ewes. The P3 ewes also had improved renneting ability of milk as compared to the P1 ewes. Quality of milk decreased with lower lactations. The milk of P1 ewes had significantly greater amounts of mesophilic bacteria than the P2 and P3 ewes, as well as higher concentrations of psychrotrophs and total coliforms in their milk with respect to the P3 ewes. Somatic cell counts in milk and the prevalence of subclinical mastitis were not changed by parity, although mastitis infection set in progressively earlier as the number of lactations decreased. These results suggest that ewes in first or second lactation have a less favourable milk secretion status in relation to mastitis than ewes with a higher number of lactations. Milk yield and quality of younger ewes may be improved by offering feed rations that take into account this reduced capacity to mobilise body reserves. Also, most scrupulous control of sanitation of housing, equipment and personnel is necessary. PMID:10818309

Sevi; Taibi; Albenzio; Muscio; Annicchiarico

2000-07-01

81

Association of white blood cell count with metabolic syndrome in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Although some data suggest that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome is higher in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD), the factors related to this increased risk are not well elucidated. We therefore examined whether peripheral white blood cell (WBC) count is correlated with the risk of metabolic syndrome

Jung Tak Park; Tae Ik Chang; Dong Ki Kim; Hoon Young Choi; Jung Eun Lee; Hyun Wook Kim; Jae Hyun Chang; Sun Young Park; Eunyoung Kim; Tae-Hyun Yoo; Dae-Suk Han; Shin-Wook Kang

2009-01-01

82

The future role of CD4 cell count for monitoring antiretroviral therapy.  

PubMed

For more than two decades, CD4 cell count measurements have been central to understanding HIV disease progression, making important clinical decisions, and monitoring the response to antiretroviral therapy (ART). In well resourced settings, the monitoring of patients on ART has been supported by routine virological monitoring. Viral load monitoring was recommended by WHO in 2013 guidelines as the preferred way to monitor people on ART, and efforts are underway to scale up access in resource-limited settings. Recent studies suggest that in situations where viral load is available and patients are virologically suppressed, long-term CD4 monitoring adds little value and stopping CD4 monitoring will have major cost savings. CD4 cell counts will continue to play an important part in initial decisions around ART initiation and clinical management, particularly for patients presenting late to care, and for treatment monitoring where viral load monitoring is restricted. However, in settings where both CD4 cell counts and viral load testing are routinely available, countries should consider reducing the frequency of CD4 cell counts or not doing routine CD4 monitoring for patients who are stable on ART. PMID:25467647

Ford, Nathan; Meintjes, Graeme; Pozniak, Anton; Bygrave, Helen; Hill, Andrew; Peter, Trevor; Davies, Mary-Ann; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Calmy, Alexandra; Kumarasamy, N; Phanuphak, Praphan; deBeaudrap, Pierre; Vitoria, Marco; Doherty, Meg; Stevens, Wendy; Siberry, George K

2014-11-19

83

Low somatic cell count : a risk factor for subsequent clinical mastitis in a dairy herd  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case-control study was conducted to evaluate factors measured at the udder inflammation-free state as risk factors for subsequent clinical mastitis. The factors including somatic cell count (SCC), body condition score, milk yield, percentages of milk fat and milk protein, and diseases were evaluated for their association with the results of udder inflammatory response. The results of the response were

W. Suriyasathaporn; Y.H. Schukken; M. Nielen; A. Brand

2000-01-01

84

Original article Evolution of milk somatic cell count of cows grazing  

E-print Network

Original article Evolution of milk somatic cell count of cows grazing an alpine pasture according issus de 55 vaches de race Abondance et Tarentaise ont été analysés à 3 reprises ­ avant la montée en

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

85

An alternative staining method for counting red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta) blood cells using crystal violet in cells diluted with 0.45% sodium chloride.  

PubMed

Various staining methods are available for reptilian species blood cell quantification. However, these methods have shown inaccurate differentiation limitations. The current study evaluates staining effects and blood cell counting results using an alternative method, counting blood cells diluted with 0.45% sodium chloride solution and stained with crystal violet. Blood samples from 8 red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta) were collected. Red and white blood cell counts were performed using different methods: the unstained method, the Unopette method, Liu stain, and crystal violet method using blood cells diluted in various sodium chloride solution osmolarities. The staining properties and blood cell count results were compared. The crystal violet method using blood cells diluted in 0.45% sodium chloride solution delivered the best staining and counting results among all of the tested methods, with the lowest average coefficient of variance. The proposed method can easily be performed, serving as a feasible method for blood cell counting in chelonians. PMID:25080443

Tsai, Chyong-Ying; Yu, Jane-Fang; Wang, Yu-Wen; Fan, Pei-Chia; Cheng, Ting-Yu; Wang, Lih-Chiann

2014-09-01

86

Prognostic study of continuous variables (white blood cell count, peripheral blast cell count, haemoglobin level, platelet count and age) in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Analysis of a population of 1545 children treated by the French Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia Group (FRALLE)  

PubMed Central

Many cutpoints have been proposed to categorize continuous variables in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (white blood cell count, peripheral blast cell count, haemoglobin level, platelet count and age), and have been used to define therapeutic subgroups. This variation in the choice of cutpoints leads to a bias called the ‘Will Rogers phenomenon’. The aim of this study was to analyse variations in the relative risk of relapse or death as a function of continuous prognostic variables in childhood ALL and to discuss the choice of cutpoints. We studied a population of 1545 children with ALL enrolled in three consecutive protocols named FRALLE 83, FRALLE 87 and FRALLE 89. We estimated the risk of relapse or death associated with different values of each continuous prognostic variable by dividing the sample into quintiles of the distribution of the variables. As regards age, a category of children under 1 year of age was distinguished and the rest of the population was divided into quintiles. The floated variance method was used to calculate the confidence interval of each relative risk, including the reference category. The relation between the quantitative prognostic factors and the risk was monotonic for each variable, except for age. For the white blood cell count (WBC), the relation is log linear. The risk associated with WBC values in the upper quintile was 1.9 times higher than that in the lower quintile. The peripheral blast cell count correlated strongly with WBC (correlation coefficient: 0.99). The risk increased with the haemoglobin level, and the risk in the upper quintile was 1.3 times higher than that in the lower quintile. The risk decreased as the platelet count increased: the risk in the lower quintile was 1.2 times higher than that in the upper quintile. The risk increased gradually with increasing age above one year. The small subgroup of patients (2.5% of the population) under 1 year of age at diagnosis had a risk 2.6 times higher than the reference category of patients between 3 and 4.3 years of age. When the risk associated with a quantitative prognostic factor varies monotonously, the selection of a cutpoint is arbitrary and represents a loss of information. Despite this loss of information, such arbitrary categorization may be necessary to define therapeutic stratification. In that case, consensus cutpoints must be defined if one wants to avoid the Will Rogers phenomenon. The cutpoints proposed by the Rome workshop and the NCI are arbitrary, but may represent an acceptable convention. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11104555

Donadieu, J; Auclerc, M-F; Baruchel, A; Perel, Y; Bordigoni, P; Landman-Parker, J; Leblanc, T; Cornu, G; Sommelet, D; Leverger, G; Schaison, G; Hill, C

2000-01-01

87

Direct and indirect measurement of somatic cell count as indicator of intramammary infection in dairy goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Mastitis is the most important and costly disease in dairy goat production. Subclinical mastitis is common in goats and is\\u000a mainly caused by contagious bacteria. Several methods to diagnose subclinical mastitis are available. In this study indirect\\u000a measurement of somatic cell count (SCC) by California Mastitis Test (CMT) and direct measurement of SCC using a portable deLaval\\u000a cell counter (DCC)

Ylva Persson; Ida Olofsson

2011-01-01

88

Transmission Electron Microscopy Study of Casein Micelle in Raw Milk with Different Somatic Cell Count Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between elevated raw milk somatic cell count (SCC) and casein micelle dimension was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Milk samples collected from the dairy cattle with three different levels of SCC (<200,000, 200,000 to 800,000, and >800,000 cells\\/ml) were studied by TEM. The results indicated that an increase in SCC resulted in a decrease in the casein

M. Moslehishad; H. Ezzatpanah

2010-01-01

89

White Blood Cell Count and the Risk for Coronary Artery Disease in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Background The association between white blood cell (WBC) count and coronary artery disease (CAD) is unknown in young adults. Our objective was to assess the association between WBC count and its changes over time with CAD incidence in the Metabolic, Life-style and Nutrition Assessment in Young adults (MELANY) study, a cohort of Israeli army personnel. Methods and Findings 29,120 apparently healthy young men (mean age; 31.2±5.5 years) with a normal baseline WBC count (3,000–12,000 cells/mm3) were followed during a mean follow up of 7.5±3.8 years for incidence of CAD. Participants were screened every 3–5 years using a stress test, and CAD was confirmed by coronary angiography. In a multivariate model adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI), LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, family history of CAD, physical activity, diabetes, triglycerides and smoking status, WBC levels (divided to quintiles) above 6,900 cells/mm3 (quintile 4) were associated with a 2.17-fold increase (95%CI?=?1.18–3.97) in the risk for CAD as compared with men in quintile 1 (WBC?5,400 cells/mm3). When modeled as a continuous variable, a WBC increment of 1000 cells/mm3 was associated with a 17.4% increase in CAD risk (HR 1.174; 95%CI?=?1.067–1.290, p?=?0.001). A decrease in the WBC level (within the normal range) during the follow-up period was associated with increased physical activity and decreased triglyceride levels as well as with reduced incidence of CAD. Conclusions WBC count is an independent risk factor for CAD in young adults at values well within the normal range. WBC count may assist in detecting subgroups of young men at either low or high risk for progression to CAD. PMID:23077568

Twig, Gilad; Afek, Arnon; Shamiss, Ari; Derazne, Estela; Tzur, Dorit; Gordon, Barak; Tirosh, Amir

2012-01-01

90

CD4+ cell count and risk for antiretroviral drug resistance among women using peripartum nevirapine for perinatal HIV prevention  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the association between antenatal CD4+ cell count and development of viral drug resistance following use of peripartum nevirapine (NVP) for perinatal HIV prevention. Design Secondary analysis of data from previously conducted randomized control trial. Setting Lusaka, Zambia. Population HIV positive pregnant women. Methods We analyzed data from a clinical trial of single-dose tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) to reduce viral drug resistance associated with peripartum NVP. The trial population was categorized according to antenatal CD4+ cell count (200–350 cells/uL, 351–500 cells/uL, and >500 cells/uL). Main outcome measures Relative risk for acquiring drug resistance—determined by consensus sequencing and oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA)—was estimated using multivariable logistic regression. Results Of 397 study participants, 119 (30%) had a CD4+ count of 200–350 cells/uL, 135 (34%) had a CD4+ count of 351–500 cells/uL, and 143 (36%) had a CD4+ count >500 cells/uL. Among women receiving no intervention, risk for drug resistance appeared to increase as CD4+ cell count decreased. Participants with CD4+ cell counts of 200–350 cells/uL randomized to the study arm had the lowest risk, suggesting higher efficacy of the intervention within this stratum. These results were consistent at two and six weeks, regardless of how drug resistance was measured. Conclusion Women with CD4+ cell counts of 200–350 cells/uL may be at increased risk for viral drug resistance following use of peripartum NVP. Given the high prevalence of NVP resistance and the clear benefits of treatment, antiretroviral therapy should be initiated among pregnant women with CD4+ cell counts ? 350 cells/uL. PMID:21199294

Dorton, Benjamin J.; Mulindwa, Jessica; Li, Michelle S.; Chintu, Namwinga T.; Chibwesha, Carla J.; Mbewe, Felistas; Frenkel, Lisa M.; Stringer, Jeffrey S. A.; Chi, Benjamin H.

2010-01-01

91

Automated imaging, identification, and counting of similar cells from digital hologram reconstructions.  

PubMed

This paper presents our method, which simultaneously combines automatic imaging, identification, and counting with the acquisition of morphological information for at least 1000 blood cells from several three-dimensional images of the same sample. We started with seeking parameters to differentiate between red blood cells that are similar but different with respect to their development stage, i.e., mature or immature. We highlight that these cells have different diffractive patterns with complementary central intensity distribution in a given plane along the propagation axis. We use the Fresnel approximation to simulate propagation through cells modeled as spheroid-shaped phase objects and to find the cell property that has the dominant influence on this behavior. Starting with images obtained in the reconstruction step of the digital holographic microscopy technique, we developed a code for automated simultaneous individual cell image separation, identification, and counting, even when the cells are partially overlapped on a slide, and accurate measuring of their morphological features. To find the centroids of each cell, we propose a method based on analytical functions applied at threshold intervals. Our procedure separates the mature from the immature red blood cells and from the white blood cells through a decision based on gradient and radius values. PMID:21743570

Mihailescu, Mona; Scarlat, Mihaela; Gheorghiu, Alexandru; Costescu, Julia; Kusko, Mihai; Paun, Irina Alexandra; Scarlat, Eugen

2011-07-10

92

Circulating Progenitor Cell Count for Cardiovascular Risk Stratification: A Pooled Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Circulating progenitor cells (CPC) contribute to the homeostasis of the vessel wall, and a reduced CPC count predicts cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We tested the hypothesis that CPC count improves cardiovascular risk stratification and that this is modulated by low-grade inflammation. Methodology/Principal Findings We pooled data from 4 longitudinal studies, including a total of 1,057 patients having CPC determined and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) collected. We recorded cardiovascular risk factors and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) level. Risk estimates were derived from Cox proportional hazard analyses. CPC count and/or hsCRP level were added to a reference model including age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors, prevalent CVD, chronic renal failure (CRF) and medications. The sample was composed of high-risk individuals, as 76.3% had prevalent CVD and 31.6% had CRF. There were 331 (31.3%) incident MACE during an average 1.7±1.1 year follow-up time. CPC count was independently associated with incident MACE even after correction for hsCRP. According to C-statistics, models including CPC yielded a non-significant improvement in accuracy of MACE prediction. However, the integrated discrimination improvement index (IDI) showed better performance of models including CPC compared to the reference model and models including hsCRP in identifying MACE. CPC count also yielded significant net reclassification improvements (NRI) for CV death, non-fatal AMI and other CV events. The effect of CPC was independent of hsCRP, but there was a significant more-than-additive interaction between low CPC count and raised hsCRP level in predicting incident MACE. Conclusions/Significance In high risk individuals, a reduced CPC count helps identifying more patients at higher risk of MACE over the short term, especially in combination with a raised hsCRP level. PMID:20634884

Fadini, Gian Paolo; Maruyama, Shoichi; Ozaki, Takenori; Taguchi, Akihiko; Meigs, James; Dimmeler, Stefanie; Zeiher, Andreas M.; de Kreutzenberg, Saula; Avogaro, Angelo; Nickenig, Georg; Schmidt-Lucke, Caroline; Werner, Nikos

2010-01-01

93

Impulsivity-related traits are associated with higher white blood cell counts.  

PubMed

A chronically elevated white blood cell (WBC) count is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality. The present research tests whether facets of impulsivity-impulsiveness, excitement-seeking, self-discipline, and deliberation-are associated with chronically elevated WBC counts. Community-dwelling participants (N = 5,652) from Sardinia, Italy, completed a standard personality questionnaire and provided blood samples concurrently and again 3 years later. Higher scores on impulsivity, in particular impulsiveness and excitement-seeking, were related to higher total WBC counts and higher lymphocyte counts at both time points. Impulsiveness was a predictor of chronic inflammation: for every standard deviation difference in this trait, there was an almost 25% higher risk of elevated WBC counts at both time points (OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.10-1.38). These associations were mediated, in part, by smoking and body mass index. The findings demonstrate that links between psychological processes and immunity are not limited to acute stressors; stable personality dispositions are associated with a chronic inflammatory state. PMID:22190235

Sutin, Angelina R; Milaneschi, Yuri; Cannas, Alessandra; Ferrucci, Luigi; Uda, Manuela; Schlessinger, David; Zonderman, Alan B; Terracciano, Antonio

2012-12-01

94

Fluid flow plate for decreased density of fuel cell assembly  

DOEpatents

A fluid flow plate includes first and second outward faces. Each of the outward faces has a flow channel thereon for carrying respective fluid. At least one of the fluids serves as reactant fluid for a fuel cell of a fuel cell assembly. One or more pockets are formed between the first and second outward faces for decreasing density of the fluid flow plate. A given flow channel can include one or more end sections and an intermediate section. An interposed member can be positioned between the outward faces at an interface between an intermediate section, of one of the outward faces, and an end section, of that outward face. The interposed member can serve to isolate the reactant fluid from the opposing outward face. The intermediate section(s) of flow channel(s) on an outward face are preferably formed as a folded expanse.

Vitale, Nicholas G. (Albany, NY)

1999-01-01

95

Fluid mechanics of method of separating motile cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If the Reynolds number is small enough (Re<<1), then two fluids can flow in parallel in direct contact, exchanging momentum and species only by diffusion. If the interface is stable, then this system can be used as a filter. In this problem, the flow fields in both fluids are found. The system here has a diffusing species which is motile cells with a random behavior relative to the flowing fluid.

Krane, Matthew J.; Martinez, Carlos

2008-10-25

96

Measurement of nicotine intake in pregnant women--associations to changes in blood cell count.  

PubMed

Self-reported information about smoking is imprecise and subject to bias, with accuracy varying according to circumstances. Biochemical assessment gives much clearer indications of the effects of tobacco intake on physiological parameters. As part of a randomized controlled trial, a new point-of-care test for smoking was used as a tool to reduce smoking in pregnancy. Measurements of nicotine metabolites in urine were related to a physiological effect of smoking, notably changes to blood parameters, assessed as a routine part of antenatal care. One hundred and eighty-seven pregnant women attending outpatient antenatal care were initially questioned by a midwife about smoking habits and later questioned by the investigators, during which the test was performed and the results relayed back to the patient. Self-reported smoking habit and cigarette consumption, either reported to midwives or the investigators, were shown to be poor indicators of the effects of smoking on blood parameters. The biochemical assessment of nicotine intake was significantly related to white blood count, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, mean cell volume, and mean cell haemoglobin. Red cell count, mean cell haemoglobin concentration, and platelet count were unrelated to nicotine metabolite measurements. We concluded that the new test was a reliable measure of nicotine intake in pregnancy and the results correlated with smoking-related changes to haematological parameters. PMID:11403725

Cope, G F; Nayyar, P; Holder, R

2001-05-01

97

A model of oscillatory blood cell counts in chronic myelogenous leukaemia.  

PubMed

In certain blood diseases, oscillations are found in blood cell counts. Particularly, such oscillations are sometimes found in chronic myelogenous leukaemia, and then occur in all the derived blood cell types: red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. It has been suggested that such oscillations arise because of an instability in the pluri-potential stem cell population, associated with its regulatory control system. In this paper, we consider how such oscillations can arise in a model of competition between normal (S) and genetically altered abnormal (A) stem cells, as the latter population grows at the expense of the former. We use an analytic model of long period oscillations to describe regions of oscillatory behaviour in the S-A phase plane, and give parametric criteria to describe when such oscillations will occur. We also describe a mechanism which can explain dynamically how the transformation from chronic phase to acute phase and blast crisis can occur. PMID:21512833

Drobnjak, Ivana; Fowler, A C

2011-12-01

98

HIV-specific regulatory T cells are associated with higher CD4 cell counts in primary infection  

PubMed Central

Objective Expansion of Regulatory T (Treg) cells has been described in chronically HIV-infected subjects. We investigated whether HIV-suppressive Treg could be detected during primary HIV infection (PHI). Methods Seventeen patients diagnosed early after PHI (median: 13 days; 1–55) were studied. Median CD4 cell count was 480 cells/?l (33–1306) and plasma HIV RNA levels ranged between 3.3 to 5.7 log10 cp/mL. Suppressive capacity of blood purified CD4+CD25+ was evaluated in a co-culture assay. Fox-p3, IL-2 and IL-10 were quantified by RT-PCR and intra-cellular staining of ex vivo and activated CD4+CD25high T cells. Results The frequency of CD4+CD127lowCD25high T cells among CD4 T cells was lower in PHI compared to chronic patients (n=19). They exhibited a phenotype of memory T cells and expressed constitutively FoxP3. Similarly to chronic patients, Treg from PHI patients inhibited the proliferation of PPD and HIV p24 activated CD4+CD25? T cells. CD4+CD25high T cells from PHI patients responded specifically to p24 stimulation by expressing IL-10. In untreated PHI patients, the frequency, as well as HIV-specific activity of Treg decreased during a 24-month follow up. A positive correlation between percentages of Treg and both CD4 cell counts and the magnitude of p24-specific suppressive activity at diagnosis of PHI was found. Conclusions Our data showed that HIV drives Treg since PHI and that these cells persist throughout the course of the infection. A correlation between the frequency of Treg and CD4 T cell counts suggest that these cells may impact on the immune activation set point at PHI diagnosis. PMID:19005268

Kared, Hassen; Lelièvre, Jean-Daniel; Donkova-Petrini, Vladimira; Aouba, Albertine; Melica, Giovanna; Balbo, Michèle; Weiss, Laurence; Lévy, Yves

2008-01-01

99

Association Between White Blood Cell Count Following Radiation Therapy With Radiation Pneumonitis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Radiation pneumonitis (RP) is an inflammatory response to radiation therapy (RT). We assessed the association between RP and white blood cell (WBC) count, an established metric of systemic inflammation, after RT for non-small cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 366 patients with non-small cell lung cancer who received ?60 Gy as definitive therapy. The primary endpoint was whether WBC count after RT (defined as 2 weeks through 3 months after RT completion) was associated with grade ?3 or grade ?2 RP. Median lung volume receiving ?20 Gy (V{sub 20}) was 31%, and post-RT WBC counts ranged from 1.7 to 21.2 × 10{sup 3} WBCs/?L. Odds ratios (ORs) associating clinical variables and post-RT WBC counts with RP were calculated via logistic regression. A recursive-partitioning algorithm was used to define optimal post-RT WBC count cut points. Results: Post-RT WBC counts were significantly higher in patients with grade ?3 RP than without (P<.05). Optimal cut points for post-RT WBC count were found to be 7.4 and 8.0 × 10{sup 3}/?L for grade ?3 and ?2 RP, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed significant associations between post-RT WBC count and grade ?3 (n=46, OR=2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4?4.9, P=.003) and grade ?2 RP (n=164, OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.2?3.4, P=.01). This association held in a stepwise multivariate regression. Of note, V{sub 20} was found to be significantly associated with grade ?2 RP (OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.2?3.4, P=.01) and trended toward significance for grade ?3 RP (OR=1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5, P=.06). Conclusions: Post-RT WBC counts were significantly and independently associated with RP and have potential utility as a diagnostic or predictive marker for this toxicity.

Tang, Chad; Gomez, Daniel R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wang, Hongmei [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Levy, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhuang, Yan [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Xu, Ting; Nguyen, Quynh; Komaki, Ritsuko [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Liao, Zhongxing, E-mail: zliao@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

2014-02-01

100

Effect of Conjunctival Structure and Inflammatory Cell Counts on Intraocular Pressure after Trabeculectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To evaluate the conjunctival structure and inflammatory cell counts and to determine the predictive value of these histological parameters for postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) levels after trabeculectomy. Methods: A clinical and histological study was performed on consecutive patients. Postoperative (mean 32.8 ± 18.4 months; range 6–60 months) conjunctival biopsies of 36 eyes of 28 primary open-angle glaucoma patients who

Süleyman Demircan; Cenap Güler; Handan Aker

1999-01-01

101

Effect of somatic cell count on lactation and soft cheese yield by dairy goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic cell count (SCC), California mastitis test (CMT), milk acidity (pH and titratable acidity) and their relationship with artisan soft chevre-type goat cheese yield were studied, using individual samples taken from Alpine goats over a 7 month lactation period. Every animal (n = 57) was sampled weekly for 2 months after parturition and every 15 days thereafter. Goats were hand-milked

M. A. Galina; R. Morales; B. López; M. A. Carmona

1996-01-01

102

An Automated High-Throughput Counting Method for Screening Circulating Tumor Cells in Peripheral Blood  

PubMed Central

Enumeration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has proved valuable for early detection and prognosis in cancer treatment. This paper describes an automated high-throughput counting method for CTCs based on microfluidics and line-confocal microscopy. Peripheral blood was directly labeled with multiple antibodies, each conjugated with a different fluorophore, pneumatically pumped through a microfluidic channel and interrogated by a line-confocal microscope. Based on the fluorescence signals and labeling schemes, the count of CTCs was automatically reported. Due to the high flow rate, 1 mL of whole blood can be analyzed in less than 30 minutes. We applied this method in analyzing CTCs from 90 stage IV breast-cancer patient samples, and performed a side-by-side comparison with the results of the CellSearch assay, which is the only method approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) at present for enumeration of CTCs. This method has a recovery rate for cultured breast cancer cells of 94% (n=9), with an average of 1.2 counts/mL of background level of detected CTCs from healthy donors. It detected CTCs from breast-cancer patients, ranging from 15 to 3375 counts/7.5 mL. Using this method, we also demonstrate the ability to enumerate CTCs from breast-cancer patients that were positive for Her2 or CD44+/CD24?, which is a putative cancer stem cell marker. This automated method can enumerate CTCs from peripheral blood with high throughput and sensitivity. It could potentially benefit the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of cancer. PMID:23387387

Zhao, Mengxia; Schiro, Perry G.; Kuo, Jason S.; Koehler, Karen M.; Sabath, Daniel E.; Popov, Viorica; Feng, Qinghua; Chiu, Daniel T.

2013-01-01

103

Automated recognition and counting of the immunoreactive neuroendocrine cells in chronic gastritis (the preliminary study).  

PubMed

The paper presents the designed software CAMI (Computerized Analysis of Microscopic Images) for a digital reconstruction of the diversiform glands seen in chronic inflammatory gastric mucosa, and for automated recognition and quantization of the immunoreactive neuroendocrine (NE) cells appearing within mucosal glands. Digital reconstruction of the individual gastric gland is difficult due to variable shapes of the glandular cross-sections. Fifteen gastric biopsy specimens representing chronic gastritis were stained routinely with H+E and immunohistochemically with 3 NE markers: Chromogranin A, Somatostatin and Serotonin. Two expert pathologists counted manually the NE cells with the light microscope in 4 types of glandular cross-sections: round, short- oblique, long- oblique and longitudinal. The automated counting of the NE cells was performed on the digital images presenting the same microscopic areas which were selected for the manual reading. The first step of image analysis was concerned to the cell extraction and recognition of the cytoplasmic immunoreactivity. The unstained nuclei of the NE cells were spotted by the sequential thresholding algorithm combined with the artificial neural network of Support\\Vector Machine (SVM) type. The second step of image analysis comprised reconstruction of the glands. The presumed shape of each gastric gland was defined by the cellular lining of viewed glandular cross-section. The designed algorithm for gland reconstruction was based on the cell masks. The third step of analysis dealt the cell counting. Every recognized gland with the face cells was used for the NE cell evaluation. The results of the automated quantization compared with manual counting results for the number of NE cells showed high concordance in 3 types of glandular cross-sections: round, short- and long- oblique. A difference noticed in the results of the longitudinal glands should be verified in the extended study. The designed software CAMI is more adequate for the gland recognition with an discontinuous gland face seen in the immunohistochemical digital images, which appear to be a difficult problem for the accurate automated analysis of the cellular component of glands. PMID:20430739

Markiewicz, Tomasz; Jochymski, Cezary; Slodkowska, Janina; Kozlowski, Wojciech

2009-01-01

104

Relationship among specific bacterial counts and total bacterial and somatic cell counts and factors influencing their variation in ovine bulk tank milk.  

PubMed

To analyze the relationship among the counts of different organisms and total bacterial count (BTTBC) and somatic cell count (BTSCC) as determined in dairy laboratories in ovine bulk tank milk, 751 bulk tank milk samples from 205 dairy sheep flocks belonging to Consortium for Ovine Promotion (CPO) were collected between January and December 2011. Four samplings were carried out in each flock, once per season, throughout 1 yr. Variables analyzed were bulk tank counts of thermoduric, psychrotrophic, coliform, and gram-positive catalase-negative cocci (GPCNC) bacterial groups. Thermoduric, psychrotrophic, and coliform species were significantly related to BTTBC, whereas GPCNC were correlated with both BTTBC and BTSCC variables. Highest counts were for psychrotroph and coliform groups, and a moderate to high correlation (r=0.51) was found between both variables, indicating that poor cleaning practices in the flocks tend to select for less-resistant organisms, such as gram-negative rods. In addition, BTTBC correlated with BTSCC (r=0.42). Some variation factors for specific bacterial counts, such as breed, season, milking type, dry therapy, and milk yield, were also analyzed. Flock information was collected from flock books, annual audits, and the CPO traceability system. Psychrotrophs and coliforms had elevated counts in winter, whereas GPCNC were higher in summer and in hand-milked flocks. Dry therapy contributed to the reduction in psychrotrophic bacteria; therefore, some strains of mammary pathogens could also be psychrotrophic bacteria. Results of this study would be helpful for troubleshooting milk quality problems and developing premium payment systems in dairy sheep. PMID:23200475

de Garnica, M L; Linage, B; Carriedo, J A; De La Fuente, L F; García-Jimeno, M C; Santos, J A; Gonzalo, C

2013-02-01

105

Composition, indigenous proteolytic enzymes and coagulating behaviour of ewe milk as affected by somatic cell count.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to assess the effect of somatic cell count in ewe milk on i) composition and hygienic traits; ii) plasmin, cathepsin and elastase activities; iii) leukocyte differential count; iv) renneting parameters. Individual ewe milk samples were grouped according to somatic cell count (SCC) into five classes: SC300 (<300 000 cells/ml), SC500 (from 301 000 to 500 000 cells/ml), SC1000 (from 501 000 to 1 000 000 cells/ml), SC2000 (from 1 001 000 to 2 000 000 cells/ml) and SC>2000 (>2 001 000 cells/ml). Individual milk samples were analysed for pH, chemical composition, microbial features, indigenous proteolytic enzymes, differential leukocyte population, and renneting parameters. Milk yield, lactose, protein, non casein nitrogen, microbial features were affected by SCC level. Plasmin and elastase activities were the highest in samples with more than 1 000 000 cells/ml; plasmin had intermediate values in samples with 300 000 to 1 000 000 cells/ml and the lowest in samples with less than 300 000 cells/ml of milk. Cathepsin D showed significantly lower values in SC300 and SC1000 classes than in SC500, SC2000 and SC>2000 classes. The highest percentages of lymphocyte were found in samples with less than 1 000 000 cells/ml, while the highest levels of polymorphonuclear leukocyte were found in samples with more than 1 000 000 cells/ml of milk. Longer clotting time was found in SC>2000 samples, while reduced clot firmness was observed in SC500 and SC>2000 samples. Results on milk yield and on compositional parameters evidenced an impairment of udder efficiency in ewe milk samples starting from 300 000 cells/ml. Plasmin activity in milk can be considered as a marker of the synthetic and secreting ability of the mammary gland; furthermore plasmin and elastase were consistent with the health status of the udder. Finally cathepsin D played a role in the worsening of renneting properties of ewe milk. PMID:21871142

Albenzio, Marzia; Santillo, Antonella; Caroprese, Mariangela; Schena, Laura; Russo, Donatella Esterina; Sevi, Agostino

2011-11-01

106

An integrated microfluidic platform for rapid tumor cell isolation, counting and molecular diagnosis.  

PubMed

Ovarian cancer is the second most common of the gynecological cancers in Taiwan. It is challenging to diagnose at an early stage when proper treatment is the most effective. It is well recognized that the detection of tumor cells (TCs) is critical for determining cancer growth stages and may provide important information for accurate diagnosis and even prognosis. In this study, a new microfluidic platform integrated with a moving-wall micro-incubator, a micro flow cytometer and a molecular diagnosis module performed automated identification of ovarian cancer cells. By efficiently mixing the cells and immunomagnetic beads coated with specific antibodies, the target TCs were successfully isolated from the clinical samples. Then counting of the target cells was achieved by a combination of the micro flow cytometer and an optical detection module and showed a counting accuracy as high as 92.5 %. Finally, cancer-associated genes were amplified and detected by the downstream molecular diagnosis module. The fluorescence intensity of specific genes (CD24 and HE4) associated with ovarian cancer was amplified by the molecular diagnosis module and the results were comparable to traditional slab-gel electrophoresis analysis, with a limit of detection around 10 TCs. This integrated microfluidic platform realized the concept of a "lab-on-a-chip" and had advantages which included automation, disposability, lower cost and rapid diagnosis and, therefore, may provide a promising approach for the fast and accurate detection of cancer cells. PMID:23315192

Hung, Lien-Yu; Chuang, Ying-Hsin; Kuo, Hsin-Tzu; Wang, Chih-Hung; Hsu, Keng-Fu; Chou, Cheng-Yang; Lee, Gwo-Bin

2013-04-01

107

Correlation of striatal dopamine transporter imaging with post mortem substantia nigra cell counts.  

PubMed

Dopamine transporter imaging is widely used for the differential diagnosis of parkinsonism. Only limited data are available on the relationship between striatal dopamine transporter binding and dopaminergic cell loss in the substantia nigra (SN). We analyzed postmortem SN cell counts in patients who had previously undergone dopamine transporter single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Pathological diagnoses included Parkinson's disease (n?=?1), dementia with Lewy bodies (n?=?2), multiple system atrophy (n?=?1), corticobasal degeneration (n?=?2), atypical parkinsonism with multiple pathological conditions (n?=?1), Alzheimer's disease (n?=?1), and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (n?=?1). [(12) (3) I]?-CIT SPECT had been performed in all subjects using a standardized protocol on the same triple-head gamma camera. The density of neuromelanin-containing and tyrosine hydroxylase-positive substantia nigra neurons/mm(2) was evaluated in paraffin-embedded tissue sections by morphometric methods. Mean disease duration at the time of dopamine transporter imaging was 2.3 years, and the mean interval from imaging to death was 29.3 months (range, 4-68 months). Visual analysis of dopamine transporter images showed reduced striatal uptake in all seven patients with neurodegenerative parkinsonism, but not in Alzheimer's and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease cases. Averaged [(right+left)/2] striatal uptake was highly correlated with averaged SN cell counts (rs ?=?0.98, P?cells). Similar strong correlations were found in separate analyses for the right and left sides. Striatal dopamine transporter binding highly correlated with postmortem SN cell counts, confirming the validity of dopamine transporter imaging as an excellent in vivo marker of nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration. PMID:25048738

Kraemmer, Julia; Kovacs, Gabor G; Perju-Dumbrava, Laura; Pirker, Susanne; Traub-Weidinger, Tatiana; Pirker, Walter

2014-12-01

108

White blood cell count and mortality in patients with acute pulmonary embolism.  

PubMed

Although associated with adverse outcomes in other cardiovascular diseases, the prognostic value of an elevated white blood cell (WBC) count, a marker of inflammation and hypercoagulability, is uncertain in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE). We therefore sought to assess the prognostic impact of the WBC in a large, state-wide retrospective cohort of patients with PE. We evaluated 14,228 patient discharges with a primary diagnosis of PE from 186 hospitals in Pennsylvania. We used random-intercept logistic regression to assess the independent association between WBC count levels at the time of presentation and mortality and hospital readmission within 30 days, adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics. Patients with an admission WBC count <5.0, 5.0-7.8, 7.9-9.8, 9.9-12.6, and >12.6 × 10(9) /L had a cumulative 30-day mortality of 10.9%, 6.2%, 5.4%, 8.3%, and 16.3% (P < 0.001), and a readmission rate of 17.6%, 11.9%, 10.9%, 11.5%, and 15.0%, respectively (P < 0.001). Compared with patients with a WBC count 7.9-9.8 × 10(9) /L, adjusted odds of 30-day mortality were significantly greater for patients with a WBC count <5.0 × 10(9) /L (odds ratio [OR] 1.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-2.03), 9.9-12.6 × 10(9) /L (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.26-1.91), or >12.6 × 10(9) /L (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.83-2.69), respectively. The adjusted odds of readmission were also significantly increased for patients with a WBC count <5.0 × 10(9) /L (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.07-1.68) or >12.6 × 10(9) /L (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.10-1.51). In patients presenting with PE, WBC count is an independent predictor of short-term mortality and hospital readmission. PMID:23674436

Venetz, Carmen; Labarère, José; Jiménez, David; Aujesky, Drahomir

2013-08-01

109

Fluorescence based cell counting in collagen monolayer cultures of primary hepatocytes.  

PubMed

Accurate determination of cell number is essential for the quantitative description of biological processes. The changes should be related to a measurable reference e.g. in the case of cell culture, the viable cell number is a very valuable reference parameter. Indirect methods of cell number/viability measurements may have up to 10 % standard deviation. This can lead to undesirable large deviations in the analysis of "-omics" data as well as time course studies. Such data should be preferably normalized to the exact viable cell number at a given time to allow meaningful interpretation and understanding of the biological processes. Manual counting of cell number is very laborious and not possible in certain experimental setups. We therefore, developed a simple and reliable fluorescence based method with an accuracy of 95-98 % for the determination of the viable cell number in situ. We optimized the seeding cell densities for primary rat hepatocytes for optimal cell adhesion. This will help in efficient use of primary cells which are usually limited in availability. The method will be very useful in the application of "-omics" techniques, especially metabolome analysis where the specific rates of uptake/production of metabolites can be reliably calculated. PMID:25424145

Priesnitz, C; Sperber, S; Garg, R; Orsini, M; Noor, F

2014-11-26

110

Single cell magnetorheological fluid based tactile display  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tactile display is a programmable device whose controlled surface is intended to be investigated by human touch, as a finger is dragged over it. It has a great number of potential applications in the field of virtual reality and elsewhere. In this research, a prototype tactile display incorporating magnetorheological (MR) fluid has been constructed and investigated. Surface force responses

Yanju Liu; R. I. Davidson; P. M. Taylor; J. D. Ngu; J. M. C. Zarraga

2005-01-01

111

Effect of Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells and Amniotic Fluid Cells on the Wound Healing Process in a White Rat Model  

PubMed Central

Background Amniotic-fluid-derived stem cells and amniocytes have recently been determined to have wound healing effects, but their mechanism is not yet clearly understood. In this study, the effects of amniotic fluid stem cells and amniocytes on wound healing were investigated through animal experiments. Methods On the back of Sprague-Dawley rats, four circular full-thickness skin wounds 2 cm in diameter were created. The wounds were classified into the following four types: a control group using Tegaderm disc wound dressings and experimental groups using collagen discs, amniotic fluid stem cell discs, and amniocyte discs. The wounds were assessed through macroscopic histological examination and immunohistochemistry over a period of time. Results The amniotic fluid stem cell and amniocyte groups showed higher wound healing rates compared with the control group; histologically, the inflammatory cell invasion disappeared more quickly in these groups, and there was more significant angiogenesis. In particular, these groups had significant promotion of epithelial cell reproduction, collagen fiber formation, and angiogenesis during the initial 10 days of the wound healing process. The potency of transforming growth factor-? and fibronectin in the experimental group was much greater than that in the control group in the early stage of the wound healing process. In later stages, however, no significant difference was observed. Conclusions The amniotic fluid stem cells and amniocytes were confirmed to have accelerated the inflammatory stage to contribute to an enhanced cure rate and shortened wound healing period. Therefore, they hold promise as wound treatment agents. PMID:24086800

Choi, Dong Sik; Cho, Young Kyoo; Kim, Taek Kyun; Lee, Jeong Woo; Choi, Kang Young; Chung, Ho Yun; Cho, Byung Chae; Byun, Jin Suk

2013-01-01

112

Fluids as Dynamic Templates for Cytoskeletal Proteins in Plant Cells  

E-print Network

The Dynamic Template model of biological cell membranes and the cytoplasm as spatially organised fluid layers is extended to plant cells, and is shown to offer a feasible shear driven mechanism for the co-alignment of internal and external fibres observed during growth and tropic responses

J. T. Lofthouse

2008-07-12

113

Lesch-Nyhan Mutation: Prenatal Detection with Amniotic Fluid Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cells cultured from the amniotic fluid of a 22-week fetus in a heterozygote for the X-linked Lesch-Nyhan mutation, which results in neurological and developmental disorders, lacked sex chromatin and were unable to incorporate hypoxanthine. The diagnosis of a mutant male was confirmed upon birth of enzyme-deficient, hyperuricemic twin boys whose amniotic membrane cells failed to incorporate hypoxanthine.

Robert Demars; Gloria Sarto; Jeanette S. Felix; Paul Benke

1969-01-01

114

Three counting methods agree on cell and neuron number in chimpanzee primary visual cortex  

PubMed Central

Determining the cellular composition of specific brain regions is crucial to our understanding of the function of neurobiological systems. It is therefore useful to identify the extent to which different methods agree when estimating the same properties of brain circuitry. In this study, we estimated the number of neuronal and non-neuronal cells in the primary visual cortex (area 17 or V1) of both hemispheres from a single chimpanzee. Specifically, we processed samples distributed across V1 of the right hemisphere after cortex was flattened into a sheet using two variations of the isotropic fractionator cell and neuron counting method. We processed the left hemisphere as serial brain slices for stereological investigation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the agreement between these methods in the most direct manner possible by comparing estimates of cell density across one brain region of interest in a single individual. In our hands, these methods produced similar estimates of the total cellular population (approximately 1 billion) as well as the number of neurons (approximately 675 million) in chimpanzee V1, providing evidence that both techniques estimate the same parameters of interest. In addition, our results indicate the strengths of each distinct tissue preparation procedure, highlighting the importance of attention to anatomical detail. In summary, we found that the isotropic fractionator and the stereological optical fractionator produced concordant estimates of the cellular composition of V1, and that this result supports the conclusion that chimpanzees conform to the primate pattern of exceptionally high packing density in V1. Ultimately, our data suggest that investigators can optimize their experimental approach by using any of these counting methods to obtain reliable cell and neuron counts. PMID:24904305

Miller, Daniel J.; Balaram, Pooja; Young, Nicole A.; Kaas, Jon H.

2014-01-01

115

Performing colonic mast cell counts in patients with chronic diarrhea of unknown etiology has limited diagnostic use.  

PubMed

Context .- Mastocytic enterocolitis is a recently described entity defined by chronic diarrhea of unknown etiology and normal colon biopsy results with increased mast cells (MCs) seen on special stains. These patients may benefit from mast cell stabilizers; however, the clinical utility of MC counts remains unknown. Objective .- To determine the clinical utility of colonic MC counts on normal biopsies in patients with chronic diarrhea of unknown etiology. Design .- Blinded MC counts using a c-Kit stain were performed in 76 consecutive patients with chronic diarrhea of unknown etiology who had normal colon biopsy results and in 89 consecutive control patients presenting for screening colonoscopy. Mast cells were counted per single high-power field in the highest-density area. A t test was used to compare the counts, and receiver operating characteristic curves were generated to examine sensitive and specific cutoff values. Results .- Overall, MC counts averaged 31 MCs per high-power field in the study group versus 24 MCs per high-power field in the control group (P < .001). When stratified by location, a significant increase was seen in biopsies from the left colon only. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that overall MC counts, left-sided MC counts, and the difference between right- and left-sided MC counts did not yield discriminatory cutoff values (area under the curve, 0.68, 0.74, and 0.81, respectively). Conclusions .- Mast cell counts were increased in patients with chronic diarrhea of unknown etiology, primarily in the left colon. However, receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrates no discriminatory cutoff values. Quantitative MC stains yield little useful diagnostic information, and further studies are necessary to determine whether mastocytic enterocolitis truly represents a distinct entity. PMID:25611105

Sethi, Aisha; Jain, Dhanpat; Roland, Bani Chander; Kinzel, Jason; Gibson, Joanna; Schrader, Ronald; Hanson, Joshua Anspach

2015-02-01

116

Neonatal nucleated red blood cell counts in small-for-gestational age fetuses with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The presence of elevated nucleated red blood cell counts in neonatal blood has been associated with fetal hypoxia. We sought to determine whether small-for-gestational-age fetuses with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler velocity waveforms have elevated nucleated red blood cell counts. Study Design: Hospital charts of neonates with the discharge diagnosis of small for gestational age (birth weight <10th percentile) who

Peter S. Bernstein; Victoria K. Minior; Michael Y. Divon

1997-01-01

117

Choroid epithelial cells: source cerebrospinal fluid progesterone in sheep?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Karahan S., Yarim G. F., Yarim M. Choroid epithelial cells: the source of cerebrospinal fluid progesterone in sheep? Summary The present study was conducted to immunolocalize 3b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3b-HSD), an enzyme metabolizing pregnenolone to progesterone in the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricle in sheep, as well as to measure progesterone concentration in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma using radioimmunoassay

SIYAMI KARAHAN; GUL FATMA YARIM; MURAT YARIM

2007-01-01

118

Enhanced cell viability via strain stimulus and fluid flow in magnetically actuated scaffolds.  

PubMed

A novel magnetically actuated scaffold was used to explore the effects of strain stimulus on the proliferation and spatial distribution of smooth muscle cells and improve cell viability in the scaffold interior by pumping nutrients throughout the structure. Magnetically actuable scaffolds were fabricated in a tube shape by winding electrospun sheets of a biodegradable polymer modified with magnetic Fe(2)O(3) nanoparticles. Prior to rolling, the sheets were seeded with smooth muscle cells and wound into tubes with diameter 5.2 mm and wall thickness 0.2 mm. The tubular scaffolds were actuated by a magnetic field to induce a cyclic crimping deformation, which applies strain stimulus to the cells and pumps nutrient fluid through the porous tube walls. Comparison with non-actuated controls shows that magnetic actuation increases the total cell count throughout the scaffold after 14 days of incubation. Furthermore, whereas cell density as a function of position through the tube wall thickness showed a minimum in the mid-interior in the controls after 14 days due to cell starvation, the actuated scaffolds displayed a maximum cell density. Comparison of cell distributions with the expected spatial variations in strain amplitude and nutrient flux implies that both strain stimulus and nutrient pumping are significant factors in cell proliferation. PMID:23042257

Mack, Julia J; Corrin, Abigail A; dos Santos e Lucato, Sergio L; Dunn, James C Y; Wu, Benjamin W; Cox, Brian N

2013-03-01

119

Fluorescent Cell Counting as an Assay Method for Respiratory Syncytial Virus  

PubMed Central

The fluorescent cell-counting technique was applied to the enumeration of cell-infecting units of respiratory syncytial (RS) virus in human fetal diploid (HFD) cover-slip cell cultures; it was a sensitive, precise, and rapid assay method. Approximately 2 hr was required for maximal adsorption of RS virus to HFD cell monolayers. However, about 15% of the infectious virus in the inoculum remained unadsorbed; this percentage was not significantly reduced even when the adsorption period was extended to 5 hr. A linear relationship between virus concentration and the number of fluorescent cells existed over a range of 1.2 log10 units. Variation of the mean of replicate determinations in a single experiment was approximately 7.5%. The distribution of single infected HFD cells on cover-slip cell cultures corresponded with the calculated frequencies of the Poisson distribution. The Chi square test for the extent of fit was calculated for several experiments, and the value of P was never less than 0.5. The addition of immune serum after virus adsorption effectively inhibited the development of detectable levels of viral antigen in secondarily infected cells. PMID:4918238

Schieble, Jack H.; Kase, Alice; Lennette, Edwin H.

1967-01-01

120

Fluorescent cell counting as an assay method for respiratory syncytial virus.  

PubMed

The fluorescent cell-counting technique was applied to the enumeration of cell-infecting units of respiratory syncytial (RS) virus in human fetal diploid (HFD) cover-slip cell cultures; it was a sensitive, precise, and rapid assay method. Approximately 2 hr was required for maximal adsorption of RS virus to HFD cell monolayers. However, about 15% of the infectious virus in the inoculum remained unadsorbed; this percentage was not significantly reduced even when the adsorption period was extended to 5 hr. A linear relationship between virus concentration and the number of fluorescent cells existed over a range of 1.2 log(10) units. Variation of the mean of replicate determinations in a single experiment was approximately 7.5%. The distribution of single infected HFD cells on cover-slip cell cultures corresponded with the calculated frequencies of the Poisson distribution. The Chi square test for the extent of fit was calculated for several experiments, and the value of P was never less than 0.5. The addition of immune serum after virus adsorption effectively inhibited the development of detectable levels of viral antigen in secondarily infected cells. PMID:4918238

Schieble, J H; Kase, A; Lennette, E H

1967-06-01

121

A Multiple Parameters Biodosimetry Tool with Various Blood Cell Counts - the Hemodose Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There continue to be important concerns about the possibility of the occurrence of acute radiation syndromes following nuclear and radiological terrorism or accidents that may result in mass casualties in densely populated areas. To guide medical personnel in their clinical decisions for effective medical management and treatment of the exposed individuals, biological markers are usually applied to examine radiation induced biological changes to assess the severity of radiation injury to sensitive organ systems. Among these the peripheral blood cell counts are widely used to assess the extent of radiation induced bone marrow injury. This is due to the fact that the hematopoietic system is the most vulnerable part of the human body to radiation damage. Particularly, the lymphocyte, granulocyte, and platelet cells are the most radiosensitive of the blood elements, and monitoring their changes after exposure is regarded as a practical and recommended laboratory test to estimate radiation dose and injury. Based upon years of physiological and pathophysiological investigation of mammalian hematopoietic systems, and rigorous coarse-grained bio-mathematical modeling and validation on species from mouse, to dog, monkey, and human, we have developed a set of software tools Hemodose, which can use single or serial granulocyte, lymphocyte, leukocyte, or platelet counts after exposure to estimate absorbed doses of adult victims very rapidly and accurately. Some patient data from historical accidents are utilized as examples to demonstrate the capabilities of these tools as a rapid point-of-care diagnostic or centralized high-throughput assay system in a large-scale radiological disaster scenario. Most significant to the improvement of national and local preparedness of a potential nuclear/radiological disaster, this HemoDose approach establishes robust correlations between the absorbed doses and victim's various types of blood cell counts not only in the early time window (1 or 2 days), but also in the very late phase (up to 4 weeks) after exposure.

Hu, Shaowen

2014-01-01

122

Alcohol dependence and CD4 cell count: is there a relationship?  

PubMed

Alcohol and other drugs use seem to be common among people infected with HIV on antiretroviral treatment (ART). Their effects on HIV progression is still in debate. This study aimed to assess the association between alcohol and drug use and an HIV disease progression biomarker (CD4 cell count) among patients on ART. A cross-sectional study was carried out at an HIV treatment center affiliated with Medical School of the University of São Paulo, Brazil. Four hundred and thirty-eight HIV-positive patients on ART were interviewed by trained psychiatrists and psychologists using the following instruments: Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and the Simplified Medication Adherence Questionnaire (SMAQ). In the previous month, 219 (50%) and 41 (9.3%) patients reported use of alcohol and illicit drugs, respectively. Fifty patients (12.6%) were classified as having harmful alcohol use by AUDIT. According to SCID-I, 80 patients (18.3%) were alcohol abusers, 24 (5.5%) alcohol dependents, and 21 (4.2%) had a current depressive disorder. Almost 73% (n = 319-72.8%) of the patients were adherent to ART. Alcohol dependents were nine times (p < 0.01) more likely to have CD4 cell count ?200/mm(3), and this association was independent of ART adherence. In conclusion, alcohol dependence seems to be associated with low CD4 cell count in HIV-positive patients. Based on these data, HIV health care workers should always assess alcohol consumption in the treatment setting, and patients should be advised that alcohol dependence may be linked to low CD4. PMID:25179410

Malbergier, Andre; Amaral, Ricardo Abrantes do; Cardoso, Luciana Donola

2015-01-01

123

Computer-assisted counting of retinal cells by automatic segmentation after TV denoising  

PubMed Central

Background Quantitative evaluation of mosaics of photoreceptors and neurons is essential in studies on development, aging and degeneration of the retina. Manual counting of samples is a time consuming procedure while attempts to automatization are subject to various restrictions from biological and preparation variability leading to both over- and underestimation of cell numbers. Here we present an adaptive algorithm to overcome many of these problems. Digital micrographs were obtained from cone photoreceptor mosaics visualized by anti-opsin immuno-cytochemistry in retinal wholemounts from a variety of mammalian species including primates. Segmentation of photoreceptors (from background, debris, blood vessels, other cell types) was performed by a procedure based on Rudin-Osher-Fatemi total variation (TV) denoising. Once 3 parameters are manually adjusted based on a sample, similarly structured images can be batch processed. The module is implemented in MATLAB and fully documented online. Results The object recognition procedure was tested on samples with a typical range of signal and background variations. We obtained results with error ratios of less than 10% in 16 of 18 samples and a mean error of less than 6% compared to manual counts. Conclusions The presented method provides a traceable module for automated acquisition of retinal cell density data. Remaining errors, including addition of background items, splitting or merging of objects might be further reduced by introduction of additional parameters. The module may be integrated into extended environments with features such as 3D-acquisition and recognition. PMID:24138794

2013-01-01

124

Variability in CD34+ Cell Counts in Umbilical Cord Blood:Implications for Cord Blood Transplants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine if total nucleated cell counts alone are sufficient for predicting the efficacy of cord blood units for transplant from neonatal umbilical cord blood samples. Methods: Umbilical cord blood samples were collected from 200 mothers at delivery and the cord blood units processed. The total nucleated cells and CD34+ cells were enumerated and compared for each sample. Results:

C. Yap; M. T. Loh; K. K. Heng; P. Tan; S. L. Yu; S. H. Chan; E. C. Ren

2000-01-01

125

Mean CD4 cell count changes in patients failing a first-line antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings  

PubMed Central

Background Changes in CD4 cell counts are poorly documented in individuals with low or moderate-level viremia while on antiretroviral treatment (ART) in resource-limited settings. We assessed the impact of on-going HIV-RNA replication on CD4 cell count slopes in patients treated with a first-line combination ART. Method Naïve patients on a first-line ART regimen with at least two measures of HIV-RNA available after ART initiation were included in the study. The relationships between mean CD4 cell count change and HIV-RNA at 6 and 12?months after ART initiation (M6 and M12) were assessed by linear mixed models adjusted for gender, age, clinical stage and year of starting ART. Results 3,338 patients were included (14 cohorts, 64% female) and the group had the following characteristics: a median follow-up time of 1.6?years, a median age of 34?years, and a median CD4 cell count at ART initiation of 107 cells/?L. All patients with suppressed HIV-RNA at M12 had a continuous increase in CD4 cell count up to 18?months after treatment initiation. By contrast, any degree of HIV-RNA replication both at M6 and M12 was associated with a flat or a decreasing CD4 cell count slope. Multivariable analysis using HIV-RNA thresholds of 10,000 and 5,000 copies confirmed the significant effect of HIV-RNA on CD4 cell counts both at M6 and M12. Conclusion In routinely monitored patients on an NNRTI-based first-line ART, on-going low-level HIV-RNA replication was associated with a poor immune outcome in patients who had detectable levels of the virus after one year of ART. PMID:22742573

2012-01-01

126

Fluid dynamics and noise in bacterial cell-cell and cell-surface scattering.  

PubMed

Bacterial processes ranging from gene expression to motility and biofilm formation are constantly challenged by internal and external noise. While the importance of stochastic fluctuations has been appreciated for chemotaxis, it is currently believed that deterministic long-range fluid dynamical effects govern cell-cell and cell-surface scattering-the elementary events that lead to swarming and collective swimming in active suspensions and to the formation of biofilms. Here, we report direct measurements of the bacterial flow field generated by individual swimming Escherichia coli both far from and near to a solid surface. These experiments allowed us to examine the relative importance of fluid dynamics and rotational diffusion for bacteria. For cell-cell interactions it is shown that thermal and intrinsic stochasticity drown the effects of long-range fluid dynamics, implying that physical interactions between bacteria are determined by steric collisions and near-field lubrication forces. This dominance of short-range forces closely links collective motion in bacterial suspensions to self-organization in driven granular systems, assemblages of biofilaments, and animal flocks. For the scattering of bacteria with surfaces, long-range fluid dynamical interactions are also shown to be negligible before collisions; however, once the bacterium swims along the surface within a few microns after an aligning collision, hydrodynamic effects can contribute to the experimentally observed, long residence times. Because these results are based on purely mechanical properties, they apply to a wide range of microorganisms. PMID:21690349

Drescher, Knut; Dunkel, Jörn; Cisneros, Luis H; Ganguly, Sujoy; Goldstein, Raymond E

2011-07-01

127

Method of detecting and counting bacteria  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved method is provided for determining bacterial levels, especially in samples of aqueous physiological fluids. The method depends on the quantitative determination of bacterial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the presence of nonbacterial ATP. The bacterial ATP is released by cell rupture and is measured by an enzymatic bioluminescent assay. A concentration technique is included to make the method more sensitive. It is particularly useful where the fluid to be measured contains an unknown or low bacteria count.

Picciolo, G. L.; Chappelle, E. W. (inventors)

1976-01-01

128

Low blood cell counts in wild Japanese monkeys after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.  

PubMed

In April 2012 we carried out a 1-year hematological study on a population of wild Japanese monkeys inhabiting the forest area of Fukushima City. This area is located 70 km from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), which released a large amount of radioactive material into the environment following the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011. For comparison, we examined monkeys inhabiting the Shimokita Peninsula in Aomori Prefecture, located approximately 400 km from the NPP. Total muscle cesium concentration in Fukushima monkeys was in the range of 78-1778 Bq/kg, whereas the level of cesium was below the detection limit in all Shimokita monkeys. Compared with Shimokita monkeys, Fukushima monkeys had significantly low white and red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, and the white blood cell count in immature monkeys showed a significant negative correlation with muscle cesium concentration. These results suggest that the exposure to some form of radioactive material contributed to hematological changes in Fukushima monkeys. PMID:25060710

Ochiai, Kazuhiko; Hayama, Shin-ichi; Nakiri, Sachie; Nakanishi, Setsuko; Ishii, Naomi; Uno, Taiki; Kato, Takuya; Konno, Fumiharu; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Tsuchida, Shuichi; Omi, Toshinori

2014-01-01

129

Benchmarks for evaluation and comparison of udder health status using monthly individual somatic cell count  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this study were to propose benchmarks for the interpretation of herd udder health using monthly individual somatic cell counts (SCC) from dairy herds in Quebec, Canada and to evaluate the association of risk factors with intramammary infection (IMI) dynamics relative to these benchmarks. The mean and percentiles of indices related to udder infection status [e.g., proportion of healthy or chronically infected cows, cows cured and new IMI (NIMI) rate] during lactation and over the dry period were calculated using a threshold of ? 200 000 cells/mL at test day. Mean NIMI proportion and proportion of cows cured during lactation were 0.11 and 0.27. Benchmarks of 0.70 and 0.03 for healthy and chronically infected cows over the dry period were proposed. Season and herd mean SCC were risk factors influencing IMI dynamics during lactation and over the dry period. PMID:25082989

Fauteux, Véronique; Roy, Jean-Philippe; Scholl, Daniel T.; Bouchard, Émile

2014-01-01

130

Fluid transport by cultured corneal epithelial cell layers  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/AIMS—Fluid transport across the in vitro corneal epithelium is short lived, hence difficult to detect and characterise. Since stable rates of fluid transport across several cultured epithelial cell layers have been demonstrated, the behaviour of confluent SV40 transformed rabbit corneal epithelial cells (tRCEC) grown on permeable supports was examined.?METHODS—Fluid transport was determined with a nanoinjector volume clamp; the specific electrical resistance of the layers was 184 (SEM 9) ? cm2. tRCEC layers transported fluid (from basal to apical) against a pressure head of 3 cm H2O for 2-3 hours.?RESULTS—In the first hour, the rate of fluid transport was 5.2 (0.5) µl/h/cm?2 (n=23), which is comparable with that found in other epithelia. Fluid transport was completely inhibited in 15-30 minutes by either 100 µM ouabain (n=6), 50 µM bumetanide (n=6), or 1 µM endothelin-1 (ET-1; n=6). Preincubation with 10 µM BQ123 (an ETA receptor antagonist) obviated inhibition by ET-1 (n=6). ET-1 also caused a 22% decrease in specific resistance.?CONCLUSIONS—Fluid transport appears to depend on transepithelial Cl transport since (1) their directions are the same (stroma?tear), and (2) both bumetanide and ouabain inhibit it with similar time course. tRCEC appear useful to investigate aspects of the physiology and pharmacology of fluid transport across this layer, including receptor mediated control of this process.?? PMID:10655198

Yang, H; Reinach, P; Koniarek, J; Wang, Z; Iserovich, P; Fischbarg, J

2000-01-01

131

Alternative experiments using the geophysical fluid flow cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study addresses the possibility of doing large scale dynamics experiments using the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell. In particular, cases where the forcing generates a statically stable stratification almost everywhere in the spherical shell are evaluated. This situation is typical of the Earth's atmosphere and oceans. By calculating the strongest meridional circulation expected in the spacelab experiments, and testing its stability using quasi-geostrophic stability theory, it is shown that strongly nonlinear baroclinic waves on a zonally symmetric modified thermal wind will not occur. The Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell does not have a deep enough fluid layer to permit useful studies of large scale planetary wave processes arising from instability. It is argued, however, that by introducing suitable meridional barriers, a significant contribution to the understanding of the oceanic thermocline problem could be made.

Hart, J. E.

1984-01-01

132

Influence of NK cell count on the survival of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with R-CHOP  

PubMed Central

Background Although adding rituximab to the chemotherapy regimen of cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and prednisone (R-CHOP) has improved clinical outcomes of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), several recent studies have shown that the effect of rituximab is dominantly in the non-germinal center (non-GC) subtype compared to the germinal center (GC) subtype. Natural killer (NK) cell count, a surrogate marker of immune status, is associated with clinical outcomes in DLBCL patients in the rituximab era. We investigated whether the impact of NK cells on clinical outcomes differed according to the immunophenotype of DLBCL. Methods This study analyzed 72 DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP between January 2010 and January 2014. Results Low NK cell counts (<100/µL) were associated with poor progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) compared to high NK cell counts. In multivariate analysis, low NK cell count was an independent prognostic factor for PFS and OS. However, survival did not significantly differ between the GC and non-GC subtypes. We examined the clinical influence of NK cells according to the immunophenotype and found that low NK cell counts were significantly associated with poor PFS and OS in non-GC cases, but not in GC cases. Conclusion Low NK cell counts at diagnosis are associated with poor clinical outcomes in DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP therapy. However, the impact is significant only in non-GC subtype DLBCL, not in the GC subtype. PMID:25325035

Kim, Joong-Keun; Shin, Ho-Jin; Song, Moo-Kon; Yi, Ji-Won; Shin, Dong-Hun; Lee, Dae-Sung; Baek, Sung-Min

2014-01-01

133

Granulosa cells are refractory to FSH action in individuals with a low antral follicle count.  

PubMed

The reason ovarian function and fertility are diminished in women with a low antral follicle count (AFC), despite significant numbers of follicles remaining in ovaries, is unknown. The bovine model is unique to address this question because cattle and women with a low AFC exhibit similar phenotypic characteristics including a diminished ovarian reserve, reduced circulating concentrations of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) but heightened FSH secretion during reproductive cycles. Because women and cattle with a low AFC respond minimally to gonadotropin stimulation during IVF cycles or superovulation, granulosa cells in individuals with a low AFC are hypothesised to be refractory to FSH. The present study evaluates this hypothesis by testing whether capacity of granulosa cells to respond to FSH differs between cattle with a low and a high AFC. Granulosa cells from cattle with a low (?15 follicles ?3 mm in diameter) or a high (?25 follicles) AFC were cultured with different doses of FSH. Treatments were evaluated by measurement of oestradiol (E), progesterone (P) and AMH in media and abundance of mRNAs for aromatase (CYP19A1), AMH, FSH receptor (FSHR) and oxytocin (OXT). Progesterone and OXT mRNA are well-established markers of granulosa cell luteinisation. Although high doses of FSH induced granulosa cell luteinisation, basal and FSH-induced increases in E and AMH production and expression of mRNAs for CYP19A1, FSHR and AMH in granulosa cells were much lower, while P production and OXT mRNA expression were higher in non-luteinised and luteinised granulosa cells from the low than the high AFC group. Granulosa cells in cattle with a low AFC are refractory to FSH action, which could explain why ovarian function, responsiveness to gonadotropin stimulation and fertility are diminished in individuals with a low versus a high AFC. PMID:22281079

Scheetz, Danielle; Folger, Joseph K; Smith, George W; Ireland, James J

2012-01-01

134

Evaluation of the use of dry cow antibiotics in low somatic cell count cows.  

PubMed

The goal of dry cow therapy (DCT) is to reduce the prevalence of intramammary infections (IMI) by eliminating existing IMI at drying off and preventing new IMI from occurring during the dry period. Due to public health concerns, however, preventive use of antibiotics has become questionable. This study evaluated selective DCT in 1,657 cows with low somatic cell count (SCC) at the last milk recording before drying off in 97 Dutch dairy herds. Low SCC was defined as <150,000 cells/mL for primiparous and <250,000 cells/mL for multiparous cows. A split-udder design was used in which 2 quarters of each cow were treated with dry cow antibiotics and the other 2 quarters remained as untreated controls. The effect of DCT on clinical mastitis (CM), bacteriological status, SCC, and antibiotic use were determined at the quarter level using logistic regression and chi-squared tests. The incidence rate of CM was found to be 1.7 times (95% confidence interval = 1.4-2.1) higher in quarters dried off without antibiotics as compared with quarters dried off with antibiotics. Streptococcus uberis was the predominant organism causing CM in both groups. Somatic cell count at calving and 14 d in milk was significantly higher in quarters dried off without antibiotics (772,000 and 46,000 cells/mL, respectively) as compared with the quarters dried off with antibiotics (578,000 and 30,000 cells/mL, respectively). Quarters with an elevated SCC at drying off and quarters with a positive culture for major pathogens at drying off had a higher risk for an SCC above 200,000 cells/mL at 14 d in milk as compared with quarters with a low SCC at drying off and quarters with a negative culture for major pathogens at drying off. For quarters that were culture-positive for major pathogens at drying off, a trend for a higher risk on CM was also found. Selective DCT, not using DCT in cows that had a low SCC at the last milk recording before drying off, significantly increased the incidence rate of CM and SCC. The decrease in antibiotic use by drying off quarters without DCT was not compensated by an increase in antibiotic use for treating CM. Total antibiotic use related to mastitis was reduced by 85% in these quarters. PMID:24746132

Scherpenzeel, C G M; den Uijl, I E M; van Schaik, G; Olde Riekerink, R G M; Keurentjes, J M; Lam, T J G M

2014-06-01

135

Detection and Counting of "in vivo" cells to predict cell migratory potential  

E-print Network

. The aim of this work is to evaluate the migratory potential of cancerous cells. Cancer is characterised the cells present therein. It is a hard and fastidious work, so here we present some algorithms are derived all from the same clone, the cell initiator of the cancer, that has acquired certain

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

136

Design of an Automated-Counting System of Cell Micronuclei in Micrographs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed and tested a system for the automatic analysis of cell images in order to identify and count micronuclei configurations in digital images from a microscope. The presence of micronuclei has been used as an indicator of DNA damage, and a fast automated analysis may be suitable for early cancer detection, for example. We describe in this work the image-processing protocol and system comprising: acquisition, color normalization, contrast enhancement, color-background removing, color segmentation, mathematical-morphology filtering and restoration, morphometry, feature extraction and analysis, and counting. Among the morphological features used for discriminating micronuclei configurations, we tested compactness, area ratios and separation of selected features (ideally, a nucleus and one or more micronuclei). Among the mathematical-morphology techniques, we used for instance a modified watershed segmentation algorithm for separating touching features. We present our results on several images, the evaluation and performance of each step, and the main problems we solved by using several techniques from mathematical morphology and color-image processing.

Lozano, A. V.; Márquez, J. A.; Buenfil, A. E.; Gonsebatt, M. E.

2004-09-01

137

Effects of acute exercise on bleeding time, bleeding amount and blood cell counts: a comparative study.  

PubMed

Twenty-five men and 26 women were studied to investigate the effects of acute strenuous exercise on hemostasis after obtaining their informed consent. After familiarization, they performed exercise on a bicycle ergometer at 75% of their predetermined maximal workload until exhaustion. Bleeding time, measured by the Simplate method, and venous blood cell counts of platelets (Plt), erythrocytes (RBC), leukocytes (WBC) were determined at rest and immediately after exercise. We found that bleeding time of Chinese in our study was longer than those of the westerners in other studies and that bleeding time was significantly shortened after exercise from 8.3 +/- .7 to 6.5 +/- .5 min in men and from 11.4 +/- .9 to 8.6 +/- .8 min in women (p less than 0.001). In men, but not in women, acute exercise also augmented the initial bleeding rate and bleeding amount from standard incisions. We also observed that RBC, WBC and Plt counts were greatly increased. The increased percentages for RBC, WBC and Plt in men were 7 +/- 1%, 59 +/- 7%, 16 +/- 3%, and those in women were 5 +/- 1%, 42 +/- 6% and 17 +/- 2% respectively. PMID:2814940

Chen, H I; Tang, Y R; Wu, H J; Jen, C J

1989-08-15

138

Trypanosoma cruzi infectivity assessment in "in vitro" culture systems by automated cell counting.  

PubMed

Chagas disease is an endemic, neglected tropical disease in Latin America that is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. In vitro models constitute the first experimental approach to study the physiopathology of the disease and to assay potential new trypanocidal agents. Here, we report and describe clearly the use of commercial software (MATLAB(®)) to quantify T. cruzi amastigotes and infected mammalian cells (BeWo) and compared this analysis with the manual one. There was no statistically significant difference between the manual and the automatic quantification of the parasite; the two methods showed a correlation analysis r(2) value of 0.9159. The most significant advantage of the automatic quantification was the efficiency of the analysis. The drawback of this automated cell counting method was that some parasites were assigned to the wrong BeWo cell, however this data did not exceed 5% when adequate experimental conditions were chosen. We conclude that this quantification method constitutes an excellent tool for evaluating the parasite load in cells and therefore constitutes an easy and reliable ways to study parasite infectivity. PMID:25553972

Liempi, Ana; Castillo, Christian; Cerda, Mauricio; Droguett, Daniel; Duaso, Juan; Barahona, Katherine; Hernández, Ariane; Díaz-Luján, Cintia; Fretes, Ricardo; Härtel, Steffen; Kemmerling, Ulrike

2015-03-01

139

Reticular cell hyperplasia and amyloidosis in a line of mice with low leukocyte counts.  

PubMed Central

Two pathologic conditions, reticular cell hyperplasia and amyloidosis, were studied in a strain of mice selectively bred for low leukocyte counts (LLC). At the age of 3 to 6 months, 70% of the mice developed reticular cell hyperplasia in the inguinea lymph nodes, and at 11 to 18 months, about 100% of them developed amyloidosis in the spleen and in the kidney, liver, and adrenal glands. Immunofluorescence was revealed in the glomeruli, interstitium of the tubules, and the amyloid skeleton of the papilla when the kidney sections were incubated with fluorescein-labeled antimouse immunoglobulins. Both intracellular and extracellular amyloid fibrils were found in the liver, spleen, and kidney sections by electron microscopy. Distended rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) cisternae and hypertrophy of RER with or without the simultaneous presence of amyloid fibrils in the reticular cells of the spleen and Kupffer cells of the liver were observed. In this light, we believe that the pathologic conditions are manifestations of immunologic events that are characteristic of the LLC mice with immune deficiency or abnormality in the immune system. We conclude that the origin of amyloid protein is at the RER. We discuss processes of amyloid fibril formation and some genetic aspects of amyloid development. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 10 Figure 9 Figure 11 Figure 2C and D Figure 12 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:970442

Chai, C. K.

1976-01-01

140

Amniotic Fluid-Derived Stem Cells for Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering Applications  

E-print Network

Recent research has demonstrated that a population of stem cells can be isolated from amniotic fluid removed by amniocentesis that are broadly multipotent and nontumorogenic. These amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (AFSC) ...

Petsche Connell, Jennifer

141

Human Amniotic Fluid Stem Cell Preconditioning Improves Their Regenerative Potential  

PubMed Central

Human amniotic fluid stem (hAFS) cells, a novel class of broadly multipotent stem cells that share characteristics of both embryonic and adult stem cells, have been regarded as promising candidate for cell therapy. Taking advantage by the well-established murine model of acute kidney injury (AKI), we studied the proregenerative effect of hAFS cells in immunodeficient mice injected with the nephrotoxic drug cisplatin. Infusion of hAFS cells in cisplatin mice improved renal function and limited tubular damage, although not to control level, and prolonged animal survival. Human AFS cells engrafted injured kidney predominantly in peritubular region without acquiring tubular epithelial markers. Human AFS cells exerted antiapoptotic effect, activated Akt, and stimulated proliferation of tubular cells possibly via local release of factors, including interleukin-6, vascular endothelial growth factor, and stromal cell–derived factor-1, which we documented in vitro to be produced by hAFS cells. The therapeutic potential of hAFS cells was enhanced by cell pretreatment with glial cell line–derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), which markedly ameliorated renal function and tubular injury by increasing stem cell homing to the tubulointerstitial compartment. By in vitro studies, GDNF increased hAFS cell production of growth factors, motility, and expression of receptors involved in cell homing and survival. These findings indicate that hAFS cells can promote functional recovery and contribute to renal regeneration in AKI mice via local production of mitogenic and prosurvival factors. The effects of hAFS cells can be remarkably enhanced by GDNF preconditioning. PMID:22066606

Rota, Cinzia; Imberti, Barbara; Pozzobon, Michela; Piccoli, Martina; De Coppi, Paolo; Atala, Anthony; Gagliardini, Elena; Xinaris, Christodoulos; Benedetti, Valentina; Fabricio, Aline S.C.; Squarcina, Elisa; Abbate, Mauro; Benigni, Ariela; Remuzzi, Giuseppe

2012-01-01

142

Counting Gene Expression in Single Cells to Identify Stem Cells | Physical Sciences in Oncology  

Cancer.gov

Using a technique that can track the expression of multiple genes in a single cell, a team of investigators from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences have demonstrated that they can identify and track individual stem cells from fixed samples of intestinal tissues. The researchers believe that this approach will be useful for studying the role of stem cells in the development of cancer.

143

Possible prognostic and therapeutic significance of c-Kit expression, mast cell count and microvessel density in renal cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most frequent renal tumor and its incidence is increasing worldwide. Tumor angiogenesis is known to play a crucial role in the etiopathogenesis of RCC and over the last few years an even deeper knowledge of its contribution in metastatic RCC development has led to the development of numerous molecular targeting agents (such as sunitinib, sorafenib, pazopanib, axitinib, tivozanib, and dovitinib). The above agents are principally directed against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) members and also against c-Kit receptor (c-KitR). The role of c-kitR inhibition on clear cell RCC (ccRCC), the main RCC subtype, is less well established. Whether c-kitR activation through its ligand, stem cell factor (SCF) contributes significantly to the effects of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) treatment remains to be established. It is important to underscore that the c-KitR is expressed on mast cells (MCs) and cancer cells. After an examination of the c-KitR/SCF pathway, we review here the principal studies that have evaluated c-Kit expression in RCC. Moreover, we summarize some investigations that have observed the distribution of MCs in primary renal cancer and in adjacent normal tissue with appropriate histological immunohistochemical techniques. We also focus on few studies that have evaluated the correlation between RCC proliferation, MC count and microvessel density (MVD), as hallmarks of tumor angiogenesis. Thus, the aim of this review of the literature is to clarify if c-KitR expression, MC count and MVD could have prognostic significance and the possible predictive therapeutic implications in RCC. PMID:25056544

Marech, Ilaria; Gadaleta, Cosmo Damiano; Ranieri, Girolamo

2014-01-01

144

Fluid phase biopsy for detection and characterization of circulating endothelial cells in myocardial infarction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elevated levels of circulating endothelial cells (CECs) occur in response to various pathological conditions including myocardial infarction (MI). Here, we adapted a fluid phase biopsy technology platform that successfully detects circulating tumor cells in the blood of cancer patients (HD-CTC assay), to create a high-definition circulating endothelial cell (HD-CEC) assay for the detection and characterization of CECs. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 79 MI patients, 25 healthy controls and six patients undergoing vascular surgery (VS). CECs were defined by positive staining for DAPI, CD146 and von Willebrand Factor and negative staining for CD45. In addition, CECs exhibited distinct morphological features that enable differentiation from surrounding white blood cells. CECs were found both as individual cells and as aggregates. CEC numbers were higher in MI patients compared with healthy controls. VS patients had lower CEC counts when compared with MI patients but were not different from healthy controls. Both HD-CEC and CellSearch® assays could discriminate MI patients from healthy controls with comparable accuracy but the HD-CEC assay exhibited higher specificity while maintaining high sensitivity. Our HD-CEC assay may be used as a robust diagnostic biomarker in MI patients.

Bethel, Kelly; Luttgen, Madelyn S.; Damani, Samir; Kolatkar, Anand; Lamy, Rachelle; Sabouri-Ghomi, Mohsen; Topol, Sarah; Topol, Eric J.; Kuhn, Peter

2014-02-01

145

A robust cell counting approach based on a normalized 2D cross-correlation scheme for in-line holographic images.  

PubMed

To achieve the important aims of identifying and marking disease progression, cell counting is crucial for various biological and medical procedures, especially in a Point-Of-Care (POC) setting. In contrast to the conventional manual method of counting cells, a software-based approach provides improved reliability, faster speeds, and greater ease of use. We present a novel software-based approach to count in-line holographic cell images using the calculation of a normalized 2D cross-correlation. This enables fast, computationally-efficient pattern matching between a set of cell library images and the test image. Our evaluation results show that the proposed system is capable of quickly counting cells whilst reliably and accurately following human counting capability. Our novel approach is 5760 times faster than manual counting and provides at least 68% improved accuracy compared to other image processing algorithms. PMID:23839256

Ra, Ho-Kyeong; Kim, Hyungseok; Yoon, Hee Jung; Son, Sang Hyuk; Park, Taejoon; Moon, Sangjun

2013-09-01

146

White Blood Cell Count Measured Prior to Cancer Development Is Associated with Future Risk of Venous Thromboembolism – The Tromsø Study  

PubMed Central

Background Elevated white blood cell (WBC) count is associated with risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in cancer patients initiating chemotherapy. It is not known whether the risk of VTE by WBC count in cancer patients is causal or merely a consequence of the malignant disease. To address this question, we studied the association between WBC count, measured prior to cancer development, and risk of VTE in subjects who did and did not develop cancer during follow-up in a prospective population-based study. Methods Baseline characteristics, including WBC and neutrophil counts, were measured in 24304 initially cancer-free subjects who participated in the Tromsø Study in 1994-1995. Incident cancer diagnosis and VTE events were registered up to September 1, 2007. In the cancer cohort, WBC and neutrophil counts were measured in average 7.1 years before cancer development. Cox-regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for VTE by WBC and neutrophil counts as categorized variables (<40th, 40-80th, and >80th percentile) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results During follow-up, 1720 subjects developed cancer and there were 388 VTE events, of which 116 occurred in the cancer-group (6.9 per 1000 person-years) and 272 in the cancer-free group (1.1 per 1000 person-years). In those who developed cancer, WBC count above the 80th percentile (?8.6x109 cells/L) was associated with a 2.4-fold higher risk (HR 2.36, 95% CI: 1.44-3.87) of VTE compared to WBC count below the 40th percentile (<6.4x109 cells/L). No association was found between WBC count and VTE in those who stayed cancer-free (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.65-1.36). Similar findings were observed for neutrophils. Comment Pre-cancer WBC count was associated with risk of VTE in cancer patients, but not in cancer-free subjects. Our findings suggest that leukocytes may play a causal role in cancer-related VTE rather than only reflecting the low-grade inflammation associated with cancer. PMID:24023876

Blix, Kristine; Jensvoll, Hilde; Brækkan, Sigrid K.; Hansen, John-Bjarne

2013-01-01

147

Correlation between the reduced circulating endothelial progenitor cell counts and elevated intraocular pressure-induced retinal ganglion cell apoptosis.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate the correlations between intraocular pressure (IOP) and circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), retinal ganglion cells (RGC) apoptosis and EPCs, and explore the possible role of EPCs in the elevated IOP-induced RGC apoptosis. Materials and methods: A rat model of IOP elevation was induced by photocoagulation of the limbus vein and episcleral veins using a 532-nm green laser. Twenty rats were randomly assigned to normal control (NC) group, 30 rats were randomly assigned to sham-treated control (STC) group and 50 rats were randomly assigned to laser-treated (LT) group. The IOPs were measured with a Tono-pen XL tonometer. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was performed to observe the effects of IOP elevation on the structure of retina. Retinal apoptotic cells were determined by in situ TUNEL staining, and peripheral blood EPCs (CD34(+)/CD133(+)) were detected by flow cytometry. Results: Compared with the NC group (9.9?±?1.2?mmHg), the IOPs in the LT group were 37.4?±?1.5, 31.8?±?4.1, 25.9?±?2.2, 23.1?±?3.6 and 22.4?±?3.0?mmHg on the third day, seventh day, third week, second month and third month, respectively, after the laser photocoagulation. There were significant differences in IOPs between the groups at the different time points (F?=?110.02, p?counts were 121.3?±?22.4, 81.3?±?23.7, 46.1?±?15.8, 54.4?±?19.1 and 54.7?±?15.9 /2?×?10(5) mononuclear cells (MNCs) on the third day, seventh day, third week, second month and third month, respectively, after the laser photocoagulation, compared with the NC group (62.1?±?13.1)/2?×?10(5) MNCs. There were significant differences in EPC counts between the groups at the different time points (F?=?22.09, p?counts. PMID:25025752

Yao, Baoqun; Zhao, Qing; Yan, Hua; Chen, Fanglian; Liu, Li

2014-07-15

148

Computational fluid dynamics modeling of proton exchange membrane fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transient, multi-dimensional model has been developed to simulate proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. The model accounts simultaneously for electrochemical kinetics, current distribution, hydrodynamics and multi-component transport. A single set of conservation equations valid for flow channels, gas-diffusion electrodes, catalyst layers and the membrane region are developed and numerically solved using a finite-volume-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. The

SUKKEE UM; C.-Y. Wang; KEN S. CHEN

2000-01-01

149

Cosmological Parameter Estimation and Window Function in Counts-in-Cell Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We estimate the cosmological parameter bounds expected from the counts-in-cells analysis of the galaxy distributions of SDSS samples, which are the Main Galaxies (MGs) and the Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs). We use the m-weight Epanechnikov kernel as window function with expectation of improving the bounds of parameters. We apply the Fisher Information Matrix Analysis, which can estimate the minimum expected parameter bounds without any data. In this analysis, we derive the covariance matrix that includes the consideration of overlapping of cells. As a result, we found that the signal to noise of the LRG sample is bigger than that of the MG sample because the range of data using is only linear scale. Therefore, the LRG sample is more suitable for parameter estimation. For the LRG sample, about six hundred data points are sufficient to get maximum effect on parameter bounds. Large parameter set results in poor bounds because of degeneracy, the matter density, the baryon fraction, the neutrino density and ?2 8 including the amplitude of the power spectrum, the linear bias and the Kaiser effect seems to be an appropriate set.

Murata, Y.; Matsubara, T.

2006-11-01

150

Effect of the stage of lactation on somatic cell counts in healthy goats ( Caprae hircus) breed in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present trial was to evaluate the effect of the stage of lactation on somatic cell counts (SCC) in milk produced by healthy goats. Forty goats that presented no clinical signs of udder inflammatory process, and whose milk was negative in bacteriological examination were used. All animals were kept in the same management system and received the

Viviani Gomes; Alice Maria Melville Paiva Della Libera; Melville Paiva; Karina Medici Madureira; Wanderley Pereira Araújo

2006-01-01

151

Consequence of alternative standards for bulk tank somatic cell count of dairy herds in the United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Comparison of dairy operations failing compliance with current US and European Union (EU) standards for bulk-tank somatic cell count (BTSCC) as well as BTSCC standards proposed by 3 national organizations were evaluated using 2 populations of US dairy herds: Dairy Herd Improvement Association (DHI) ...

152

Management Style and Its Association with Bulk Milk Somatic Cell Count and Incidence Rate of Clinical Mastitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management style and its association with bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC) and the incidence rate of clinical mastitis were studied in 300 Dutch dairy herds. Cluster analysis was used to identify groups of farmers who had similar management styles for the prevention of mastitis. Two groups of farmers could be differentiated. The management style of the first group of

H. W. Barkema; J. D. Van der Ploeg; Y. H. Schukken; T. J. G. M. Lam; G. Benedictus; A. Brand

1999-01-01

153

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center study examines predicting ovarian cancer by counting tumor-attacking immune cells  

Cancer.gov

Scientists at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center have developed a new method for counting a special class of cancer-fighting cells – called tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes, or TILs – reliably, quickly and cheaply in patients with early stage and advanced ovarian cancer.

154

Nonspecific particle-based method with two-photon excitation detection for sensitive protein quantification and cell counting.  

PubMed

A novel easy-to-use homogeneous method utilizing two-photon excitation (TPX) for quantification of proteins or counting of eukaryotic cells in solution has been developed. This highly sensitive technique is based on the adsorption competition between the sample and fluorescently labeled protein to micrometer-sized carboxylate modified polystyrene particles and detection of two-photon excited fluorescence. The adsorption of the labeled protein to the particles was detected as a distinct fluorescence on individual microparticles. Analyte protein or eukaryotic cells interacted with particle surface and reduced the adsorption of labeled protein to the particles resulting in a decrease of the fluorescence. The optimizations of assay conditions were performed separately for protein quantification and cell counting, and the principle of the method was confirmed with the fluorescence microscopy imaging. The protein quantification assay allowed the determination of picogram quantities (1.2 ?g/L) of protein, and the cell counting assay allowed three cells in the sample with an average variation of approximately 10% in the signal. The protein assay sensitivity was more than 500-fold improved from the common most sensitive commercial methods. Moreover, the dynamic range of the assay was broad, approximately 4 orders of magnitude. The cell assay has sensitivity comparable to the most sensitive commercial method. The developed method tolerates interfering agents such as neutral detergents found in cell lysate samples even at high concentrations. The method is experimentally fairly simple and allows the expansion for the use of the TPX technology. PMID:23384281

Pihlasalo, Sari; Engbert, Anke; Martikkala, Eija; Ylander, Pilvi; Hänninen, Pekka; Härmä, Harri

2013-03-01

155

Micro Flow Cytometer Chip Integrated with Micro-Pumps/Micro-Valves for Multi-Wavelength Cell Counting and Sorting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flow cytometry is a popular technique for counting and sorting of individual cells. This study presents a new chip-based flow cytometer capable of cell injection, counting and switching in an automatic format. The new microfluidic system is also capable of multi-wavelength detection of fluorescence-labeled cells by integrating multiple buried optical fibers within the chip. Instead of using large-scale syringe pumps, this study integrates micro-pumps and micro-valves to automate the entire cell injection and sorting process. By using pneumatic serpentine-shape (S-shape) micro-pumps to drive sample and sheath flows, the developed chip can generate hydrodynamic focusing to allow cells to pass detection regions in sequence. Two pairs of optical fibers are buried and aligned with the microchannels, which can transmit laser light sources with different wavelengths and can collect induced fluorescence signals. The cells labeled with different fluorescent dyes can be excited by the corresponding light source at different wavelengths. The fluorescence signals are then collected by avalanche photodiode (APD) sensors. Finally, a flow switching device composed of three pneumatic micro-valves is used for cell sorting function. Experimental data show that the developed flow cytometer can distinguish specific cells with different dye-labeling from mixed cell samples in one single process. The target cell samples can be also switched into appropriate outlet channels utilizing the proposed microvalve device. The developed microfluidic system is promising for miniature cell-based biomedical applications.

Chang, Chen-Min; Hsiung, Suz-Kai; Lee, Gwo-Bin

2007-05-01

156

Incidence of Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Herds Grouped in Three Categories by Bulk Milk Somatic Cell Counts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incidence of clinical mastitis was studied in 274 herds grouped in three categories by bulk milk so- matic cell count (SCC). Mean incidence rate of clini- cal mastitis was 0.278, 0.257, and 0.252 cases per 365 cow-days at risk in herds with low ( ?150,000), medium (150,000 to 250,000), and high (250,000 to 400,000 cells\\/ml) bulk milk SCC, respectively. The

H. W. Barkema; Y. H. Schukken; T. J. G. M. Lam; M. L. Beiboer; H. Wilmink; G. Benedictus; A. Brand

1998-01-01

157

Fluid models and simulations of biological cell phenomena  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dynamics of coated droplets are examined within the context of biofluids. Of specific interest is the manner in which the shape of a droplet, the motion within it as well as that of aggregates of droplets can be controlled by the modulation of surface properties and the extent to which such fluid phenomena are an intrinsic part of cellular processes. From the standpoint of biology, an objective is to elucidate some of the general dynamical features that affect the disposition of an entire cell, cell colonies and tissues. Conventionally averaged field variables of continuum mechanics are used to describe the overall global effects which result from the myriad of small scale molecular interactions. An attempt is made to establish cause and effect relationships from correct dynamical laws of motion rather than by what may have been unnecessary invocation of metabolic or life processes. Several topics are discussed where there are strong analogies droplets and cells including: encapsulated droplets/cell membranes; droplet shape/cell shape; adhesion and spread of a droplet/cell motility and adhesion; and oams and multiphase flows/cell aggregates and tissues. Evidence is presented to show that certain concepts of continuum theory such as suface tension, surface free energy, contact angle, bending moments, etc. are relevant and applicable to the study of cell biology.

Greenspan, H. P.

1982-01-01

158

Routine analysis of synovial fluid cells is of value in the differential diagnosis of arthritis in children.  

PubMed

Results of synovianalysis are reported in 129 children, 91 with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), 13 with septic arthritis, 12 with enteroarthritis, 12 with acute transient arthritis and 1 with bacillus Calmette-Guerin arthritis. Mononuclear cells were dominant in the patients with oligoarticular JRA (mean 64%, median 74%), and among these, significantly lower proportions of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells were found in patients with early onset disease with antinuclear antibodies or chronic uveitis than in those with late onset with HLA-B27. PMN cells were dominant in polyarticular and systemic onset JRA, septic arthritis and enteroarthritis. The sensitivity and specificity of a white cell count above 40,000/mm3 exceeded 90% in differentiating septic arthritis from the other kinds of arthritis. Measurement of total protein, glucose and lactate in synovial fluid was of limited diagnostic value. PMID:3560094

Kunnamo, I; Pelkonen, P

1986-12-01

159

Cell sourcing for bone tissue engineering: Amniotic fluid stem cells have a delayed, robust differentiation compared to mesenchymal stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell based therapies for bone regeneration are an exciting emerging technology, but the availability of osteogenic cells is limited and an ideal cell source has not been identified. Amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (AFS) and bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were compared to determine their osteogenic differentiation capacity in both 2D and 3D environments. In 2D culture, the AFS cells

Alexandra Peister; Maria A. Woodruff; Jarod J. Prince; Derwin P. Gray; Dietmar W. Hutmacher; Robert E. Guldberg

2011-01-01

160

Microparticle and cell counting with digital microfluidic compact disc using standard CD drive.  

PubMed

Lab-on-chip medical diagnostics in a global health setting would greatly benefit from highly portable, cost effective and readily available devices. Digital compact disc (CD) and the corresponding detection device-CD drives-for personal computers are extremely affordable and distributable worldwide, therefore they can be immediately used in global health applications if empowered with molecular and cellular biosensing functions. Here we present a novel digital microfluidic CD device derived from conventional music or data CD and demonstrate its preliminary application of counting polystyrene microparticles and living cells in minute-volume fluidic samples. No other detection instruments except for a standard CD drive in a personal computer is used for reading and decoding the quantitative liquid sample information from the digital microfluidic CD. The results presented herein are the first step towards creating a truly portable, low-cost and ubiquitously accessible device-health diagnostic compact disc (HDCD)-for biosensing and health diagnostics, especially in remote or impoverished settings with limited medical infrastructure and healthcare workers. PMID:21350788

Imaad, Syed M; Lord, Nathan; Kulsharova, Gulsim; Liu, Gang Logan

2011-04-21

161

Coupling EELS/EFTEM Imaging with Environmental Fluid Cell Microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Insight into dynamically evolving electrochemical reactions and mechanisms encountered in electrical energy storage (EES) and conversion technologies (batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors), materials science (corrosion and oxidation), and materials synthesis (electrodeposition) remains limited due to the present lack of in situ high-resolution characterization methodologies. Electrochemical fluid cell microscopy is an emerging in-situ method that allows for the direct, real-time imaging of electrochemical processes within a fluid environment. This technique is facilitated by the use of MEMS-based biasing microchip platforms that serve the purpose of sealing the highly volatile electrolyte between two electron transparent SiNx membranes and interfacing electrodes to an external potentiostat for controlled nanoscale electrochemislly experiments [!]. In order to elucidate both stmctural and chemical changes during such in situ electrochemical experiments, it is impmtant to first improve upon the spatial resolution by utilizing energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) (to minimize chromatic aben ation), then to detennine the chemical changes via electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). This presents a formidable challenge since the overall thickness through which electrons are scattered through the multiple layers of the cell can be on the order of hundreds of nanometers to microns, scattering through which has the deleterious effect of degrading image resolution and decreasing signal-to noise for spectroscopy [2].

Unocic, Raymond R [ORNL; Baggetto, Loic [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL

2012-01-01

162

Validation of a single-platform, volumetric, flow cytometry for CD4 T cell count monitoring in therapeutic mobile unit  

PubMed Central

Background A mobile health unit may be useful to follow up adult and pediatric patients on antiretroviral treatment and living in remote areas devoid of laboratory facilities. The study evaluated the use of the simplified, robust, single-plateform, volumetric, pan-leucogating Auto40 flow cytometer (Apogee Flow Systems Ltd, Hemel Hempstead, UK) for CD4 T cell numeration in a mobile unit, compared against a reference flow cytometry method. Methods The therapeutic mobile unit of the Laboratoire National de Santé Hygiène Mobile, Yaoundé, Cameroon, was equipped with the Auto40. A FACSCalibur flow cytometer (Becton Dickinson Immuno-cytometry System, San Jose, CA, USA) was used as reference method. EDTA-blood samples from volunteers were first subjected to CD4 T cell count in the mobile unit, and an aliquot was sent within 4 hours to Centre International de Référence Chantal Biya, Yaoundé, for FACSCalibur assay. Results Two HIV screening campaigns with the mobile unit were organised in December 2009 and January 2010. The campaign in the suburb of Yaoundé which was 20 km from the reference laboratory included 188 volunteers comprising 93 children less than 5 years old. The campaign in Ambang Bikok (53 km far from Yaoundé) included 69 adult volunteers. In Yaoundé suburb, mean ± standard deviation (SD) CD4 T cell count was 996 ± 874 cells/?l by Auto40, and 989 ± 883 cells/?l by FACSCalibur; in Ambang Bikok, mean ± SD CD4 T cell count was 1041 ± 317 cells/?l by Auto40, and 1032 ± 294 cells/?l by FACSCalibur. Results by Auto40 and FACSCalibur were highly correlated in Yaoundé (r2 = 0.982) as in Ambang Bikok (r2 = 0.921). Bland-Altman analysis showed a close agreement between Auto40 and FACSCalibur results expressed in absolute count as in percentage in Yaoundé and Ambang Bikok. When pooling the 257 CD4 T cell count measurements, the Auto40 yielded a mean difference of +7.6 CD4 T cells/?l higher than by reference flow cytometry; and the sensitivity and specificity of Auto40 in enumerating absolute CD4 T cell counts of less than 200 cells/?l were 87% and 99%, respectively, and in enumerating absolute CD4 T cell counts of less than 350 cells/?l were 87% and 98%, respectively. The intrarun and interun precisions of the Auto40 assay assessed in the mobile unit were 5.5% and 7.9%, respectively. Conclusions The Auto40 flow cytometer installed in a therapeutic mobile unit and operated far from its reference laboratory gave a perfect correlation with the reference method, and could be useful in carrying out immunological monitoring of HIV-infected patients living in areas without access to laboratory facilities. PMID:22309994

2012-01-01

163

Absolute peripheral monocyte count at diagnosis predicts central nervous system relapse in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Recently, elevated peripheral blood monocyte counts at diagnosis have been shown to be an independent marker associated with poor prognosis in patients with both non-Hodgkin and Hodgkin lymphoma. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed the data from a total of 550 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and evaluated the relationship between central nervous system relapse and absolute monocyte counts at diagnosis. Twenty-six patients developed central nervous system relapse. The central nervous system relapse-free survival rate was significantly lower in patients with the absolute monocyte counts ?0.51×109/L (87.8% versus 96.4%; P<0.001). This association was independently significant after adjusting for other significant factors, including systemic relapse as a time-dependent covariate by multivariate analysis (hazard ratio 2.46; 95% confidence intervals 1.05–5.75; P=0.039). These results suggest that the absolute monocyte count at diagnosis is an independent significant risk factor for central nervous system relapse in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. PMID:25261092

Nitta, Hideaki; Terui, Yasuhito; Yokoyama, Masahiro; Mishima, Yuko; Nishimura, Noriko; Ueda, Kyoko; Kusano, Yoshiharu; Tsuyama, Naoko; Takeuchi, Kengo; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Hatake, Kiyohiko

2015-01-01

164

Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells from EGFP Transgenic Mice Attenuate Hyperoxia-Induced Acute Lung Injury  

PubMed Central

High concentrations of oxygen aggravate the severity of lung injury in patients requiring mechanical ventilation. Although mesenchymal stem cells have been shown to effectively attenuate various injured tissues, there is limited information regarding a role for amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs) in treating acute lung injury. We hypothesized that intravenous delivery of AFSCs would attenuate lung injury in an experimental model of hyperoxia-induced lung injury. AFSCs were isolated from EGFP transgenic mice. The in vitro differentiation, surface markers, and migration of the AFSCs were assessed by specific staining, flow cytometry, and a co-culture system, respectively. The in vivo therapeutic potential of AFSCs was evaluated in a model of acute hyperoxia-induced lung injury in mice. The administration of AFSCs significantly reduced the hyperoxia-induced pulmonary inflammation, as reflected by significant reductions in lung wet/dry ratio, neutrophil counts, and the level of apoptosis, as well as reducing the levels of inflammatory cytokine (IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-?) and early-stage fibrosis in lung tissues. Moreover, EGFP-expressing AFSCs were detected and engrafted into a peripheral lung epithelial cell lineage by fluorescence microscopy and DAPI stain. Intravenous administration of AFSCs may offer a new therapeutic strategy for acute lung injury (ALI), for which efficient treatments are currently unavailable. PMID:24040409

Lai, Cheng-Wei; Yen, Chih-Ching; Lee, Kun-Hsiung; Wu, Shinn-Chih; Chen, Chuan-Mu

2013-01-01

165

Counting Mycobacteria in Infected Human Cells and Mouse Tissue: A Comparison between qPCR and CFU  

PubMed Central

Due to the slow growth rate and pathogenicity of mycobacteria, enumeration by traditional reference methods like colony counting is notoriously time-consuming, inconvenient and biohazardous. Thus, novel methods that rapidly and reliably quantify mycobacteria are warranted in experimental models to facilitate basic research, development of vaccines and anti-mycobacterial drugs. In this study we have developed quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays for simultaneous quantification of mycobacterial and host DNA in infected human macrophage cultures and in mouse tissues. The qPCR method cannot discriminate live from dead bacteria and found a 10- to 100-fold excess of mycobacterial genomes, relative to colony formation. However, good linear correlations were observed between viable colony counts and qPCR results from infected macrophage cultures (Pearson correlation coefficient [r] for M. tuberculosis?=?0.82; M. a. avium?=?0.95; M. a. paratuberculosis?=?0.91). Regression models that predict colony counts from qPCR data in infected macrophages were validated empirically and showed a high degree of agreement with observed counts. Similar correlation results were also obtained in liver and spleen homogenates of M. a. avium infected mice, although the correlations were distinct for the early phase (counts constituted a much higher proportion of the total genomic qPCR count in the early phase (geometric mean ratio of 0.37 and 0.34 in spleen and liver, respectively), as compared to later phase of infection (geometric mean ratio of 0.01 in both spleen and liver). Overall, qPCR methods offer advantages in biosafety, time-saving, assay range and reproducibility compared to colony counting. Additionally, the duplex format allows enumeration of bacteria per host cell, an advantage in experiments where variable cell death can give misleading colony counts. PMID:22532835

Pathak, Sharad; Awuh, Jane A.; Leversen, Nils Anders; Flo, Trude H.; Åsjø, Birgitta

2012-01-01

166

B Cell Depletion in HIV1 Subtype A Infected Ugandan Adults: Relationship to CD4 T Cell Count, Viral Load and Humoral Immune Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand the nature of B cell dysfunctions in subjects infected with HIV-1 subtype A, a rural cohort of 50 treatment-naïve Ugandan patients chronically infected with HIV-1 subtype A was studied, and the relationship between B cell depletion and HIV disease was assessed. B cell absolute counts were found to be significantly lower in HIV-1+ patients, when compared to

Peter Oballah; Britta Flach; Leigh A. Eller; Michael A. Eller; Benson Ouma; Mark de Souza; Hannah N. Kibuuka; Fred Wabwire-Mangen; Bruce K. Brown; Nelson L. Michael; Merlin L. Robb; David Montefiori; Victoria R. Polonis

2011-01-01

167

Decreased white blood cell counts in semiconductor manufacturing workers in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To assess the systematic health effects on the liver, kidney, and haematological function tests of workers in semiconductors in Taiwan. Methods: 926 workers of a semiconductor plant in Taiwan in July 1995 were investigated. Complete blood tests including liver, kidney, and haematological functions were available from 227 workers. Results: There was a significantly lower mean (SD) white blood cell (WBC) count in male workers of photolithography (5870 (1190)/mm3, p=0.003) and implantation (6190 (1150)/mm3, p=0.018) than that of male control workers (7350 (1660)/mm3). There was a significantly higher prevalence of leukopenia in male photolithography workers (6 of 20; 30%) than in male control workers (1 of 18; 5.6%), the crude odds ratio (OR) was 7.3 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1 to 55.6), and the multivariate adjusted OR was 8.1 (95% CI 0.83 to 78.3). The tests for serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), ? glutamyl transferase (RGT), and creatinine were not significant among male workers. Female workers in photolithography had abnormal SGPT and RGT of borderline significance, the multivariate adjusted ORs were 9.6 (95% CI 0.86 to 107) and 6.35 (95% CI 0.53 to 75.8), respectively. Conclusions: This study suggests that leukopenia is a potential health effect in male fabrication workers of the semiconductor industry. The tasks of the process, maintenance, and equipment engineers which consisted mostly of men put them at risk for intermittent short term peak exposure to glycol ethers, ionising radiation, arsenic, or other toxins. The findings of this medical surveillance are significant; however, a further investigation of the aetiological factors and the subsequent health effects is necessary. PMID:11836468

Luo, J; Hsieh, L; Chang, M; Hsu, K

2002-01-01

168

Relationship between the somatic cell count in milk and reproductive function in peripartum dairy cows  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of the somatic cell count (SCC) in milk on reproductive performance, such as pregnancy status in the prepartum period and ovarian function in the postpartum period, in dairy cows. Blood samples were collected every week from one month prepartum to parturition in order to measure the concentrations of 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF2? (PGFM), estrone sulfate (E1S) and progesterone. Milk samples were collected three times per week in both the prepartum (for one month before the dry period) and postpartum periods (for 3 months immediately after parturition) to measure the SCC. Progesterone was also determined in the whole milk of postpartum cows to define the day of the first ovulation. In the prepartum period, the maximum SCC negatively correlated with the pregnancy period (r = –0.77), but not the calf birth weight. Positive and negative correlations were observed between the average SCC and PGFM or progesterone concentrations in plasma, respectively (r = 0.84 or –0.92, respectively), at 39 weeks of pregnancy. In the postpartum period, a correlation was observed between the day of the first ovulation and both the average and maximum SCC (r = –0.74 and –0.75, respectively), whereas days open was not related to the SCC. These results suggest that a high SCC in the prepartum period may advance parturition by increasing PGF2? and decreasing progesterone and that the first ovulation in the postpartum period was affected by a high SCC.

ISOBE, Naoki; IWAMOTO, Chihiro; KUBOTA, Hirokazu; YOSHIMURA, Yukinori

2014-01-01

169

Human amniotic fluid stem cell differentiation along smooth muscle lineage.  

PubMed

Functional smooth muscle engineering requires isolation and expansion of smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and this process is particularly challenging for visceral smooth muscle tissue where progenitor cells have not been clearly identified. Herein we showed for the first time that efficient SMCs can be obtained from human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFSCs). Clonal lines were generated from c-kit(+) hAFSCs. Differentiation toward SM lineage (SMhAFSCs) was obtained using a medium conditioned by PDGF-BB and TGF-?1. Molecular assays revealed higher level of ? smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), desmin, calponin, and smoothelin in SMhAFSCs when compared to hAFSCs. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrated that SMhAFSCs also presented in the cytoplasm increased intermediate filaments, dense bodies, and glycogen deposits like SMCs. SMhAFSC metabolism evaluated via mass spectrometry showed higher glucose oxidation and an enhanced response to mitogenic stimuli in comparison to hAFSCs. Patch clamp of transduced hAFSCs with lentiviral vectors encoding ZsGreen under the control of the ?-SMA promoter was performed demonstrating that SMhAFSCs retained a smooth muscle cell-like electrophysiological fingerprint. Eventually SMhAFSCs contractility was evident both at single cell level and on a collagen gel. In conclusion, we showed here that hAFSCs under selective culture conditions are able to give rise to functional SMCs. PMID:23995291

Ghionzoli, Marco; Repele, Andrea; Sartiani, Laura; Costanzi, Giulia; Parenti, Astrid; Spinelli, Valentina; David, Anna L; Garriboli, Massimo; Totonelli, Giorgia; Tian, Jun; Andreadis, Stelios T; Cerbai, Elisabetta; Mugelli, Alessandro; Messineo, Antonio; Pierro, Agostino; Eaton, Simon; De Coppi, Paolo

2013-12-01

170

CD4+ T cell counts reflect the immunosuppressive state of CD4 helper cells in patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.  

PubMed

The recovery of the host immune system after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is pivotal to prevent infections, relapse, and secondary malignancies. In particular, numerical CD4+ T cells reconstitution is delayed and CD4 helper cell function is considered impaired as a consequence of the transplant procedure and concomitant immunosuppressive medication. From HIV/AIDS patients, it is known that numerical and functional CD4 defects increase the risk of opportunistic infections. However, and in contrast to patients with HIV, anti-infective prophylaxis after allogeneic transplantation is usually given for 6 months depending on immunosuppressive medication and existing graft-versus-host disease but independently of absolute CD4+ T cells counts. We hypothesized that a qualitative T cell defect is existing after allogeneic transplantation, especially in patients with delayed immune-reconstitution. Applying transcriptional as well as functional approaches, we show that CD4+ T cells with delayed recovery have a distinct transcriptional profile and cluster differently from T cells originated from patients with completed immune recovery. Moreover, inhibitory signatures are substantially enriched within the transcriptional profile of these T cells translating to functional defects and impaired interleukin 2 production. In addition to time after transplant, CD4+ T cells numbers should be considered for the decision to stop or maintain antimicrobial prophylaxis in patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. PMID:25118994

Holtick, Udo; Frenzel, Lukas P; Shimabukuro-Vornhagen, Alexander; Theurich, Sebastian; Claasen, Julia; Scheid, Christof; von Bergwelt-Baildon, Michael; Fröhlich, Holger; Wendtner, Clemens M; Chemnitz, Jens M

2015-01-01

171

Automatic detection of clinical mastitis is improved by in-line monitoring of somatic cell count.  

PubMed

This study explored the potential value of in-line composite somatic cell count (ISCC) sensing as a sole criterion or in combination with quarter-based electrical conductivity (EC) of milk, for automatic detection of clinical mastitis (CM) during automatic milking. Data generated from a New Zealand research herd of about 200 cows milked by 2 automatic milking systems during the 2006-2007 milking season included EC, ISCC, monthly laboratory-determined SCC, and observed cases of CM that were treated with antibiotics. Milk samples for ISCC and laboratory-determined SCC were taken sequentially at the end of a cow milking. Both samples were derived from a composite cow milking obtained from the bottom of the milk receiver. Different time windows were defined in which true-positive, false-negative, and false-positive alerts were determined. Quarters suspected of having CM were visually checked and, if CM was confirmed, sampled for bacteriological culturing and treated with an antibiotic treatment. These treated quarters were considered as gold-standard positives for comparing CM detection models. Alert thresholds were adjusted to achieve a sensitivity of 80% in 3 detection models: using ISCC alone, EC alone, or a combination of these. The success rate (also known as the positive predictive value) and the false alert rate (number of false-positive alerts per 1,000 cow milkings) were used to evaluate detection performance. Normalized ISCC estimates were highly correlated with normalized laboratory-determined SCC measurements (r = 0.82) for SCC measurements >200 x 10(3) cells/mL. Using EC alone as a detection tool resulted in a range of 6.9 to 11.0% for success rate, and a range of 4.7 to 7.8 for the false alert rate. Values for the ISCC model were better than the model using EC alone with 12.7 to 15.6% for the success rate and 2.9 to 3.7 for the false alert rate. Combining sensor information to detect CM, by using a fuzzy logic algorithm, produced a 2- to 3-fold increase in the success rate (range 21.9 to 32.0%) and a 2- to 3-fold decrease in the false alert rate (range 1.2 to 2.1) compared with the models using ISCC or EC alone. Results suggest that the performance of a CM detection system improved when ISCC information was added to a detection model using EC information. PMID:19038931

Kamphuis, C; Sherlock, R; Jago, J; Mein, G; Hogeveen, H

2008-12-01

172

A FLUID-CELL INTERACTION AND ADHESION ALGORITHM FOR TISSUE-COATING OF CARDIOVASCULAR IMPLANTS  

E-print Network

A FLUID-CELL INTERACTION AND ADHESION ALGORITHM FOR TISSUE-COATING OF CARDIOVASCULAR IMPLANTS JIAN of artificial surfaces of cardiovascular implants for improved biocompat- ibility. The fluid-cell interaction and adhesion algorithm applied to modeling the cell coating of artificial surfaces of cardiovascular implants

Canic, Suncica

173

Syphilis increases HIV viral load and decreases CD4 cell counts in HIV-infected patients with new syphilis infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Syphilitic ulcers are known to facilitate the transmission of HIV infec- tion, but the effect of syphilis infection on HIV viral loads and CD4 cell counts is poorly understood. Methods: We abstracted medical records for HIV-infected male syphilis patients seen at three clinics in San Francisco and Los Angeles from January 2001 to April 2003. We compared plasma HIV-RNA

Kate Buchacz; Pragna Patel; Melanie Taylor; Peter R. Kerndt; Robert H. Byers; Scott D. Holmberg; Jeffrey D. Klausnere

2004-01-01

174

Impact of ambient air pollution on the differential white blood cell count in patients with chronic pulmonary disease.  

PubMed

Epidemiologic studies report associations between particulate air pollution and increased mortality from pulmonary diseases. This study was performed to examine whether the exposure to ambient gaseous and particulate air pollution leads to an alteration of the differential white blood cell count in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases like chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma. A prospective panel study was conducted in Erfurt, Eastern Germany, with 12 repeated differential white blood cell counts in 38 males with chronic pulmonary diseases. Hourly particulate and gaseous air pollutants and meteorological data were acquired. Mixed models with a random intercept adjusting for trend, meteorology, weekday, and other risk variables were used. In this explorative analysis, we found an immediate decrease of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in response to an increase of most gaseous and particulate pollutants. Lymphocytes increased within 24 h in association with all gaseous pollutants but showed only minor effects in regard to particulate air pollution. Monocytes showed an increase associated with ultrafine particles, and nitrogen monoxide. The effect had two peaks in time, one 0-23 h before blood withdrawal and a second one with a time lag of 48-71 h. The increase of particulate and gaseous air pollution was associated with multiple changes in the differential white blood cell count in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases. PMID:20064088

Brüske, Irene; Hampel, Regina; Socher, Martin M; Rückerl, Regina; Schneider, Alexandra; Heinrich, Joachim; Oberdörster, Günter; Wichmann, H-Erich; Peters, Annette

2010-02-01

175

White Blood Cell Counts as Risk Markers of Developing Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in the Predimed Study  

PubMed Central

Background The Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that includes hyperglucemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia and central obesity, conferring an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The white blood cell (WBC) count has been proposed as a marker for predicting cardiovascular risk. However, few prospective studies have evaluated the relationship between WBC subtypes and risk of MetS. Methods Participants were recruited from seven PREDIMED study centers. Both a baseline cross-sectional (n?=?4,377) and a prospective assessment (n?=?1,637) were performed. Participants with MetS at baseline were excluded from the longitudinal analysis. The median follow-up was 3.9 years. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, fasting glucose, lipid profile and WBC counts were assessed at baseline and yearly during the follow-up. Participants were categorized by baseline WBC and its subtype count quartiles. Adjusted logistic regression models were fitted to assess the risk of MetS and its components. Results Of the 4,377 participants, 62.6% had MetS at baseline. Compared to the participants in the lowest baseline sex-adjusted quartile of WBC counts, those in the upper quartile showed an increased risk of having MetS (OR, 2.47; 95%CI, 2.03–2.99; P-trend<0.001). This association was also observed for all WBC subtypes, except for basophils. Compared to participants in the lowest quartile, those in the top quartile of leukocyte, neutrophil and lymphocyte count had an increased risk of MetS incidence. Leukocyte and neutrophil count were found to be strongly associated with the MetS components hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol. Likewise, lymphocyte counts were found to be associated with the incidence of the MetS components low HDL-cholesterol and high fasting glucose. An increase in the total WBC during the follow-up was also associated with an increased risk of MetS. Conclusions Total WBC counts, and some subtypes, were positively associated with MetS as well as hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-cholesterol and high fasting glucose, all components of MetS. Trial registration Controlled-Trials.comISRCTN35739639. PMID:23526980

Babio, Nancy; Ibarrola-Jurado, Núria; Bulló, Mònica; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Wärnberg, Julia; Salaverría, Itziar; Ortega-Calvo, Manuel; Estruch, Ramón; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Covas, Maria Isabel; Sorli, José Vicente; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

2013-01-01

176

Fluids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth explores the Web's offerings on the physics of fluids. By an educational Web site called School for Champions, the first site is the Fluids lesson plan (1). Here, students or anyone interested can read about the basics of fluids and then take a short interactive quiz on the topic. The second site is maintained by Steve Lower of the Department of Chemistry at Simon Fraser University called Liquids and their Vapors (2). This Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) file contains an eighteen-page document that covers topics such as properties of liquids and changes of state. The next site contains an interactive multimedia activity presented by explorescience.com called Floating Log (3). The site allows users to explore how a fluid can affect buoyancy by letting them change the mass of the log and the fluid's density. The next site from Purdue University's Chemical Education Web site is called Liquids (4). This page describes the structure of liquids, what kinds of materials form liquids, vapor pressure, and more. The fifth site, offered by Professor M.S. Cramer at the College of Engineering at Virginia Tech, is entitled Gallery of Fluid Dynamics (5). It contains movies, animations, photographs, and descriptions of various fluid mechanics topics such as condensation, shock waves, and supersonic cars. Next comes the Innovative Technology Solutions Corporation's Fundamental Fluid Mechanics Movies Web site (6). Over thirty short films show how fluids move in various conditions including gravity waves, fire, material transport, and hydraulics. From the University of Waterloo's Department of Mechanical Engineering-Microelectronics Heat Transfer Laboratory comes the next site, called the Fluid Properties Calculator (7). This online tool allows users to select a fluid and enter a temperature to calculate various parameters such as density, viscosity, specific heat, and thermal diffusivity. The last site is the online journal Physics of Fluids (8), which is published monthly by the American Institute of Physics with the cooperation of The American Physical Society Division of Fluid Dynamics. The journal is "devoted to the publication of original theoretical, computational, and experimental contributions to the dynamics of gases, liquids, and complex or multiphase fluids" and provides free full-text articles for online viewing.

Brieske, Joel A.

2002-01-01

177

INTERFERENCE OF PERITONEAL DIALYSIS FLUIDS WITH CELL CYCLE MECHANISMS.  

PubMed

? Introduction: Peritoneal dialysis fluids (PDF) differ with respect to osmotic and buffer compound, and pH and glucose degradation products (GDP) content. The impact on peritoneal membrane integrity is still insufficiently described. We assessed global genomic effects of PDF in primary human peritoneal mesothelial cells (PMC) by whole genome analyses, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and functional measurements. ? Methods: PMC isolated from omentum of non-uremic patients were incubated with conventional single chamber PDF (CPDF), lactate- (LPDF), bicarbonate- (BPDF) and bicarbonate/lactate-buffered double-chamber PDF (BLPDF), icodextrin (IPDF) and amino acid PDF (APDF), diluted 1:1 with medium. Affymetrix GeneChip U133Plus2.0 (Affymetrix, CA, USA) and quantitative RT-PCR were applied; cell viability was assessed by proliferation assays. ? Results: The number of differentially expressed genes compared to medium was 464 with APDF, 208 with CPDF, 169 with IPDF, 71 with LPDF, 45 with BPDF and 42 with BLPDF. Out of these genes 74%, 73%, 79%, 72%, 47% and 57% were downregulated. Gene Ontology (GO) term annotations mainly revealed associations with cell cycle (p = 10-35), cell division, mitosis, and DNA replication. One hundred and eighteen out of 249 probe sets detecting genes involved in cell cycle/division were suppressed, with APDF-treated PMC being affected the most regarding absolute number and degree, followed by CPDF and IPDF. Bicarbonate-containingPDF and BLPDF-treated PMC were affected the least. Quantitative RT-PCR measurements confirmed microarray findings for key cell cycle genes (CDK1/CCNB1/CCNE2/AURKA/KIF11/KIF14). Suppression was lowest for BPDF and BLPDF, they upregulated CCNE2 and SMC4. All PDF upregulated 3 out of 4 assessed cell cycle repressors (p53/BAX/p21). Cell viability scores confirmed gene expression results, being 79% of medium for LPDF, 101% for BLPDF, 51% for CPDF and 23% for IPDF. Amino acid-containing PDF (84%) incubated cells were as viable as BPDF (86%). ? Conclusion: In conclusion, PD solutions substantially differ with regard to their gene regulating profile and impact on vital functions of PMC, i.e. on cells known to be essential for peritoneal membrane homeostasis. PMID:25082841

Büchel, Janine; Bartosova, Maria; Eich, Gwendolyn; Wittenberger, Timo; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Steppan, Sonja; Hackert, Thilo; Schaefer, Franz; Passlick-Deetjen, Jutta; Schmitt, Claus P

2014-07-31

178

Value of tests for evaluating udder health in dairy goats: somatic cell counts, California Milk Cell Test and electrical conductivity.  

PubMed

The value of electric conductivity (EC), California Milk Cell Test (CMCT) and somatic cell count (SCC) as diagnostic tools was investigated in dairy goats. Conductivity colour reading correlated with SCC. Milk samples with conductivity colour red had significantly higher SCC than those with conductivity colours green and orange (P < 0.001). There were moderate positive correlations between CMCT (R2 = 0.470), and conductivity score and CMCT and conductivity colour readings (R2 = 0.597). Conductivity scores were significantly (P< 0.001) higher during and after intra-mammary treatment with Cloxamast LC and conductivity colours were significantly different between treatment and control groups (P< 0.001). There was a weak positive correlation between conductivity colour and stage of lactation (R2 = 0.317) and a moderately positive correlation between conductivity score and stage of lactation (R2 = 0.523). A moderately negative correlation was shown between milk yield and conductivity score (R2 = -0.426) and between milk yield and conductivity colour (R2 = -0.433). Moderate positive correlations were present between CMCT and SCC (R2 = 0.689) and between CMCT and stage of lactation (R2 = 0.459). CMCT ratings were significantly different (P < 0.001) for the intra-mammary treatment groups. CMCT ratings for infected and non-infected udder halves (P = 0.008) were significantly different; as were those for infected and non-infected udder halves and for left and right udder halves separately (P= 0.010). CMCT ratings for milk samples with SCC above and below 750 x 10(3) cells per ml were significantly different (P < 0.001) as well as for milk from treated and control udder halves with SCC below or above 750 x 10(3) cells per ml (P < 0.001). CMCT was found to be more accurate for indicating the absence of mastitis than for diagnosing it. There were significant differences in log SCC between treatment and control groups, during and after treatment. Infected udder halves had significantly higher log SCC than non-infected udder halves before and after treatment, but not during treatment. There was a moderate positive correlation between stage of lactation and SCC (R2 = 0.438). PMID:19294984

Petzer, I M; Donkin, E F; Du Preez, E; Karzis, J; van der Schans, T J; Watermeyer, J C; van Reenen, R

2008-12-01

179

[Laparoscopic left partial nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma associated with ITP with platelet count of 10,000/?L].  

PubMed

A 58-year-old man from Brazil was followed as an outpatient with asymptomatic macroglobulinemia and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). Abdominal enhanced computed tomographic (CT) scan for elevated liver enzymes revealed a left renal tumor. The tumor was in the middle outer left kidney, measured 18 mm in diameter, was discovered in its early phase, and appeared half exophytic. After investigations, the patient was diagnosed with left renal cell carcinoma associated with ITP. His preoperative platelet count was 10,000/?l ; five days of intravenous gamma globulin therapy with high-dose dexamethasone increased the platelet count to 76,000/?l just before operation. Laparoscopic left partial nephrectomy was performed successfully using the retroperitoneal approach. The renal artery was clamped and the tumor excised with an adequate margin. Renal parenchymal repair was completed using running sutures. Ischemia time was 16 minutes. There was no severe oozing of blood intraoperatively. The platelet count decreased to 15,000/?l on postoperative day three (POD 3), and there was oozing of blood around the retroperitoneal drain tube. The bleeding stopped after administration of platelet transfusion. The patient was discharged on POD 9. The histopathological diagnosis was clear cell carcinoma, and surgical margins were negative. PMID:24419010

Kubota, Yasuaki; Horie, Kengo; Nagai, Shingo; Maeda, Shinichi; Ogawa, Mika

2013-12-01

180

The joint statistics of mildly non-linear cosmological densities and slopes in count-in-cells  

E-print Network

In the context of count-in-cells statistics, the joint probability distribution of the density in two concentric spherical shells is predicted from first first principle for sigmas of the order of one. The agreement with simulation is found to be excellent. This statistics allows us to deduce the conditional one dimensional probability distribution function of the slope within under dense (resp. overdense) regions, or of the density for positive or negative slopes. The former conditional distribution is likely to be more robust in constraining the cosmological parameters as the underlying dynamics is less evolved in such regions. A fiducial dark energy experiment is implemented on such counts derived from Lambda-CDM simulations.

Bernardeau, Francis; Pichon, Christophe

2015-01-01

181

Paradoxical Drop in Circulating Neutrophil Count Following Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor and Stem Cell Factor Administration in Rhesus Macaques  

PubMed Central

Objective Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is frequently used therapeutically to treat chronic or transient neutropenia and to mobilize hematopoietic stem cells. Shortly following G-CSF administration, we observed a dramatic drop in circulating neutrophil number. This paper characterizes this effect in a rhesus macaque animal model. Methods Hematologic changes were monitored following subcutaneous(SQ) administration of G-CSF. G-CSF was administered as a single SQ dose at 10?g/kg or 50?g/kg. It was also administered (10?g/kg) either alone or in combination with SCF (200?g/kg) over five days. Flow cytometry was performed on serial blood samples to detect changes in cell surface adhesion protein expression. Results Neutrophil count dramatically declined 30 minutes following G-CSF administration. This decline was observed whether 10?g/kg G-CSF was administered alone or in combination with SCF over five days, or given as a single 10?g/kg dose. At a single 50?g/kg dose the decline accelerated to 15 minutes. Neutrophil count returned to baseline after 120 minutes and rapidly increased thereafter. An increase in CD11a and CD49d expression coincided with the drop in neutrophil count. Conclusion A paradoxical decline in neutrophil count was observed following the administration of G-CSF either alone or in combination with SCF. This decline accelerated with the administration of a higher dose of G-CSF and was associated with an increase in CD11a and CD49d expression. It remains to be determined whether this decline in circulating neutrophils is associated with an increase in endothelial margination and/or entrance into extravascular compartments. PMID:17533041

Gordon, Brent C.; Revenis, Amy M.; Bonifacino, Aylin C.; Sander, William E.; Metzger, Mark E.; Krouse, Allen E.; Usherson, Tatiana N.; Donahue., Robert E.

2007-01-01

182

EQUIVALENCE OF MICROBIAL BIOMASS MEASURES BASED ON MEMBRANE LIPID AND CELL WALL COMPONENTS, ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE, AND DIRECT COUNTS IN SUBSURFACE AQUIFER SEDIMENTS (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

An uncontaminated subsurface aquifer sediment contains a sparse microbial community consisting primarily of coccobacillary bacteria of relatively uniform size which can be counted directly with appropriate straining. The morphological simplicity and the relatively decreased cell ...

183

Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid IFN-?+ Th17 Cells and Regulatory T Cells in Pulmonary Sarcoidosis  

PubMed Central

In sarcoidosis, increased Th17 cell fractions have been reported in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and elevated numbers of Th17 cells producing IFN-? have been observed in peripheral blood. The balance between Th1, Th17, and FoxP3+ CD4+ T cell subsets in sarcoidosis remains unclear. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells, from 30 patients with sarcoidosis, 18 patients with other diffuse parenchymal lung diseases, and 15 healthy controls, were investigated with flow cytometry for intracellular expression of FoxP3. In a subset of the patients, expression of the cytokines IL17A and IFN-? was investigated. The fractions of FoxP3+ CD4+ T cells and Th17 cells were both lower in sarcoidosis compared to controls (P = 0.017 and P = 0.011, resp.). The proportion of Th17 cells positive for IFN-? was greater in sarcoidosis than controls (median 72.4% versus 31%, P = 0.0005) and increased with radiologic stage (N = 23, rho = 0.45, and P = 0.03). IFN-?+ Th17 cells were highly correlated with Th1 cells (N = 23, rho = 0.64, and P = 0.001), and the ratio of IFN-?+ Th17/FoxP3+ CD4+ T cells was prominently increased in sarcoidosis. IFN-?+ Th17 cells may represent a pathogenic subset of Th17 cells, yet their expression of IFN-? could be a consequence of a Th1-polarized cytokine milieu. Our results indicate a possible immune cell imbalance in sarcoidosis. PMID:24882950

Tøndell, Anders; Moen, Torolf; Børset, Magne; Salvesen, Øyvind; Rø, Anne Dorthea; Sue-Chu, Malcolm

2014-01-01

184

Platelet count  

MedlinePLUS

A platelet count is a test to measure how many platelets you have in your blood. Platelets are parts of ... LOW PLATELET COUNT A low platelet count is below 150,000. If you do not have enough platelets, you may ...

185

Counting Collections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores how counting collections of objects helps elementary-age children develop number sense and number relations. The authors provide evidence that counting collections offers multiple entry points for children at different places on the counting trajectory. It is suggested that the teacher's role is one of noticing, questioning,…

Schwerdtfeger, Julie Kern; Chan, Angela

2007-01-01

186

Has the Rate of CD4 Cell Count Decline before Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy Changed over the Course of the Dutch HIV Epidemic among MSM?  

PubMed Central

Introduction Studies suggest that the HIV-1 epidemic in the Netherlands may have become more virulent, leading to faster disease progression if untreated. Analysis of CD4 cell count decline before antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, a surrogate marker for disease progression, may be hampered by informative censoring as ART initiation is more likely with a steeper CD4 cell count decline. Methods Development of CD4 cell count from 9 to 48 months after seroconversion was analyzed using a mixed-effects model and 2 models that jointly modeled CD4 cell counts and time to censoring event (start ART, <100 CD4 cells/mm3, or AIDS) among therapy-naïve MSM HIV-1 seroconverters in the Netherlands. These models make different assumptions about the censoring process. Results All 3 models estimated lower median CD4 cell counts 9 months after seroconversion in later calendar years (623, 582, and 541 cells/mm3 for 1984–1995 [n?=?111], 1996–2002 [n?=?139], and 2003–2007 seroconverters [n?=?356], respectively, shared-parameter model). Only the 2 joint-models found a trend for a steeper decline of CD4 cell counts with seroconversion in later calendar years (overall p-values 0.002 and 0.06 for the pattern-mixture and the shared-parameter model, respectively). In the shared-parameter model the median decline from 9 to 48 months was 276 cellsmm3 for 1984–1995 seroconverters and 308 cells/mm3 for 2003–2007 seroconverters (difference in slope, p?=?0.045). Conclusion Mixed-effects models underestimate the CD4 cell decline prior to starting ART. Joint-models suggest that CD4 cell count declines more rapidly in patients infected between 2003 and 2007 compared to patients infected before 1996. PMID:23724048

Gras, Luuk; Geskus, Ronald B.; Jurriaans, Suzanne; Bakker, Margreet; van Sighem, Ard; Bezemer, Daniela; Fraser, Christophe; Prins, Jan M.; Berkhout, Ben

2013-01-01

187

The effect of blood cell count on coronary flow in patients with coronary slow flow phenomenon  

PubMed Central

Background and Objective: The coronary slow flow phenomenon (CSFP) is a coronary artery disease with a benign course, but its pathological mechanisms are not yet fully understood.The purpose of this controlled study was to investigate the cellular content of blood in patients diagnosed with CSFP and the relationship of this with coronary flow rates. Methods: Selective coronary angiographies of 3368 patients were analyzed to assess Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) frame count (TFC) values. Seventy eight of them had CSFP, and their demographic and laboratory findings were compared with 61 patients with normal coronary flow. Results: Patients’ demographic characteristics were similar in both groups. Mean corrected TFC (cTFC) values were significantly elevated in CSFP patients (p<0.001). Furthermore, hematocrit and hemoglobin values, and eosinophil and basophil counts of the CSFP patients were significantly elevated compared to the values obtained in the control group (p=0.005, p=0.047, p=0.001 and p=0.002, respectively). The increase observed in hematocrit and eosinophil levels showed significant correlations with increased TFC values (r=0.288 and r=0.217, respectively). Conclusion: Significant changes have been observed in the cellular composition of blood in patients diagnosed with CSFP as compared to the patients with normal coronary blood flow. The increases in hematocrit levels and in the eosinophil and basophil counts may have direct or indirect effects on the rate of coronary blood flow. PMID:25225502

Soylu, Korhan; Gulel, Okan; Yucel, Huriye; Yuksel, Serkan; Aksan, Gokhan; Soylu, Ay?egül ?dil; Demircan, Sabri; Y?lmaz, Özcan; Sahin, Mahmut

2014-01-01

188

White blood cell counts, leukocyte ratios, and eosinophils as inflammatory markers in patients with coronary artery disease.  

PubMed

Inflammation is a key feature of atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestations. The leukocyte count has emerged as a marker of inflammation that is widely available in clinical practice. Since inflammation plays a key role in atherosclerosis and its end results, discovering new biomarkers of inflammation becomes important in order to help diagnostic accuracy and provide prognostic information about coronary cardiac disease. In acute coronary syndromes and percutaneous coronary intervention, elevated levels of almost all subtypes of white blood cell counts, including eosinophils, monocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes, and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and eosinophil-leukocyte ratio constitute independent predictors of adverse outcomes. Eosinophil count and eosinophil-leukocyte ratio, in particular, emerge as novel biomarkers for risk stratification in patients with coronary artery disease. Since the presence of eosinophils denotes hypersensitivity inflammation and hypersensitivity associated with Kounis syndrome, this reality is essential for elucidating the etiology of inflammation in order to consider predictive and preventive measures and to apply the appropriate therapeutic methods. PMID:24770327

Kounis, Nicholas G; Soufras, George D; Tsigkas, Grigorios; Hahalis, George

2015-03-01

189

Influence of somatic cell count and breed on capillary electrophoretic protein profiles of ewes' milk: a chemometric study.  

PubMed

Bulk tank ewe milk from the Assaf, Castellana, and Churra breeds categorized into 3 somatic cell count (SCC) groups (<500,000; 1,000,000 to 1,500,000; and >2,500,000 cells/mL) was used to investigate changes in chemical composition and capillary electrophoresis protein profiles. The results obtained indicated that breed affected fat, protein, and total solids levels, and differences were also observed for the following milk proteins: beta-, beta1-, beta2-, and alpha(s1)-III-casein, alpha-lactalbumin, and beta-lactoglobulin. High SCC affected fat and protein contents and bacterial counts. The level of beta1-, beta2-, and alpha(s1)-I-casein, and alpha-lactalbumin were significantly lower in milk with SCC scores >2,500,000 cells/mL. A preliminary study of the chemical, microbiological, and electrophoretic data was performed by cluster analysis and principal components analysis. Applying discriminant analysis, it was possible to group the milk samples according to breed and level of SCC, obtaining a prediction of 100 and 97% of the samples, respectively. PMID:17582101

Rodríguez-Nogales, J M; Vivar-Quintana, A M; Revilla, I

2007-07-01

190

T E C H N I C A L R E P O R T Single-molecule transcript counting of stem-cell  

E-print Network

T E C H N I C A L R E P O R T Single-molecule transcript counting of stem-cell markers in the mouse the molecular identities of adult stem cells requires technologies for sensitive transcript detection in tissues distinct stem-cell populations, residing either at crypt bases or at position +4, but a detailed analysis

van Oudenaarden, Alexander

191

OpenCFU, a New Free and Open-Source Software to Count Cell Colonies and Other Circular Objects  

PubMed Central

Counting circular objects such as cell colonies is an important source of information for biologists. Although this task is often time-consuming and subjective, it is still predominantly performed manually. The aim of the present work is to provide a new tool to enumerate circular objects from digital pictures and video streams. Here, I demonstrate that the created program, OpenCFU, is very robust, accurate and fast. In addition, it provides control over the processing parameters and is implemented in an intuitive and modern interface. OpenCFU is a cross-platform and open-source software freely available at http://opencfu.sourceforge.net. PMID:23457446

Geissmann, Quentin

2013-01-01

192

Comparison of automated differential blood cell counts from Abbott Sapphire, Siemens Advia 120, Beckman Coulter DxH 800, and Sysmex XE-2100 in normal and pathologic samples.  

PubMed

Reliable automated blood cell characterization and quantification remain challenging in pathologic samples, whereas slide reviews due to unnecessary flagging should be avoided. We compared 4 modern hematology analyzers-Abbott Sapphire, Siemens Advia 120, Sysmex XE-2100, and Beckman Coulter DxH 800-regarding complete blood cell count (CBC), leukocyte differential count, and flagging efficacy in a total of 202 samples from hematology patients and normal controls. Manual differential count was used as reference. The analyzers exhibited very good correlation for CBC parameters. Neutrophils and eosinophils also showed very good correlations, whereas lymphocytes and monocytes correlated fairly. The Advia 120 displayed notably lower measurements for both parameters, which is attributable to classification of some events as large unstained cells. Basophil counts were unreliable with all analyzers. Flagging for blasts and immature granulocytes showed moderate sensitivity and specificity. Operators must not rely on blast flagging alone to detect leukemic samples with any analyzer. PMID:23596116

Meintker, Lisa; Ringwald, Jürgen; Rauh, Manfred; Krause, Stefan W

2013-05-01

193

Analysis of low level radioactive metabolites in biological fluids using high-performance liquid chromatography with microplate scintillation counting: Method validation and application  

Microsoft Academic Search

TopCount, a microplate scintillation counter (MSC), has been recently employed as an off-line liquid radiochromatographic detector for radioactive metabolite profile analysis. The present study was undertaken to validate TopCount for metabolite profiling with respect to sensitivity, accuracy, precision and radioactivity recovery. Matrix effects of various human samples on TopCount performance and capability of MSC for volatile metabolite analysis were also

Mingshe Zhu; Weiping Zhao; Natasha Vazquez; James G. Mitroka

2005-01-01

194

A rapid high-precision flow cytometry based technique for total white blood cell counting in chickens.  

PubMed

The automated analysis of total white blood cell count and white blood cell differentials is routine in research and clinical diagnosis in mammalian species. In contrast, in avian haematology these parameters are still estimated by conventional microscopic procedures due to technical difficulties associated with the morphological peculiarities of avian erythrocytes and thrombocytes. Both cell types are nucleated and fairly resistant to cell lysis, a prerequisite for automated leukocyte quantification and differentiation by commercial instruments. By using an anti-CD45 monoclonal antibody in combination with selected subset specific markers we have established a simple (no-lyse no-wash single-step one-tube) flow cytometry based technique for high precision chicken blood cell quantification. EDTA-blood samples are diluted, spiked with fluorescence beads and incubated with a mixture of fluorochrome conjugated chicken leukocyte specific antibodies. We demonstrate that total leukocyte numbers as well as thrombocyte, monocyte, T-cell, B-cell and heterophilic granulocyte numbers can be determined by flow cytometry in a single step without prior cell lysis, cell separation or cell washing steps. Importantly, we also show that blood samples can be fixed prior to cell staining which enables shipping of samples making the technology widely available. Comparison of this technique with conventional microscopy revealed superior precision. By comparing leukocyte differentials of two chicken populations and during immune system development after hatch we demonstrate that large sample numbers can be analysed within hours. This technique will help to overcome previous restrictions in immune status analysis in chickens in experimental systems, during vaccine testing and health status monitoring in chicken flocks. Advances in avian genomics should facilitate the development of appropriate tools for other avian species in the future which will make this technique broadly applicable. PMID:22088676

Seliger, Christian; Schaerer, Beatrice; Kohn, Marina; Pendl, Helene; Weigend, Steffen; Kaspers, Bernd; Härtle, Sonja

2012-01-15

195

Fluid Inclusion Gas Analysis  

DOE Data Explorer

Fluid inclusion gas analysis for wells in various geothermal areas. Analyses used in developing fluid inclusion stratigraphy for wells and defining fluids across the geothermal fields. Each sample has mass spectrum counts for 180 chemical species.

Dilley, Lorie

196

Fluid Inclusion Gas Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Fluid inclusion gas analysis for wells in various geothermal areas. Analyses used in developing fluid inclusion stratigraphy for wells and defining fluids across the geothermal fields. Each sample has mass spectrum counts for 180 chemical species.

Dilley, Lorie

2013-01-01

197

Single cell rheometry with a microfluidic constriction: quantitative control of friction and fluid leaks between cell and  

E-print Network

1 Single cell rheometry with a microfluidic constriction: quantitative control of friction and fluid leaks between cell and channel walls Pascal Preiraa , Marie-Pierre Valignata , José Bicob, France. We report how cell rheology measurements can be performed by monitoring the deformation of a cell

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

198

The FASEB Journal Research Communication Fluid shear stress primes mouse embryonic stem cells  

E-print Network

The FASEB Journal · Research Communication Fluid shear stress primes mouse embryonic stem cells the increasing use of perfusion culture in stem cell research, it is unclear how changes in the stem cell stress is a ubiquitous environmen- tal cue experienced by stem cells when they are being differentiated

Voldman, Joel

199

Expression of CD56 is an unfavorable prognostic factor for acute promyelocytic leukemia with higher initial white blood cell counts.  

PubMed

Expression of CD56 has recently been introduced as one of the adverse prognostic factors in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). However, the clinical significance of CD56 antigen in APL has not been well elucidated. We assessed the clinical significance of CD56 antigen in 239 APL patients prospectively treated with all-trans retinoic acid and chemotherapy according to the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group APL97 protocol. All patients were prospectively treated by the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group APL97 protocol. The median follow-up period was 8.5 years. Positive CD56 expression was found in 23 APL patients (9.6%). Expression of CD56 was significantly associated with lower platelet count (P = 0.04), severe disseminated intravascular coagulation (P = 0.04), and coexpression of CD2 (P = 0.03), CD7 (P = 0.04), CD34 (P < 0.01) and/or human leukocyte antigen-DR (P < 0.01). Complete remission rate and overall survival were not different between the two groups. However, cumulative incidence of relapse and event-free survival (EFS) showed an inferior trend in CD56(+) APL (P = 0.08 and P = 0.08, respectively). Among patients with initial white blood cell counts of 3.0 × 10(9)/L or more, EFS and cumulative incidence of relapse in CD56(+) APL were significantly worse (30.8% vs 63.6%, P = 0.008, and 53.8% vs 28.9%, P = 0.03, respectively), and in multivariate analysis, CD56 expression was an unfavorable prognostic factor for EFS (P = 0.04). In conclusion, for APL with higher initial white blood cell counts, CD56 expression should be regarded as an unfavorable prognostic factor. PMID:24206578

Ono, Takaaki; Takeshita, Akihiro; Kishimoto, Yuji; Kiyoi, Hitoshi; Okada, Masaya; Yamauchi, Takahiro; Emi, Nobuhiko; Horikawa, Kentaro; Matsuda, Mitsuhiro; Shinagawa, Katsuji; Monma, Fumihiko; Ohtake, Shigeki; Nakaseko, Chiaki; Takahashi, Masatomo; Kimura, Yukihiko; Iwanaga, Masako; Asou, Norio; Naoe, Tomoki

2014-01-01

200

A new cell counting method to evaluate anti-tumor compound activity.  

PubMed

Determining cell quantity is a common problem in cytology research and anti-tumor drug development. A simple and low-cost method was developed to determine monolayer and adherent-growth cell quantities. The cell nucleus is located in the cytoplasm, and is independent. Thus, the nucleus cannot make contact even if the cell density is heavy. This phenomenon is the foundation of accurate cell-nucleus recognition. The cell nucleus is easily recognizable in images after fluorescent staining because it is independent. A one-to-one relationship exists between the nucleus and the cell; therefore, this method can be used to determine the quantity of proliferating cells. Results indicated that the activity of the histone deacetylase inhibitor Z1 was effective after this method was used. The nude-mouse xenograft model also revealed the potent anti-tumor activity of Z1. This research presents a new anti-tumor-drug evaluation method. PMID:24870728

Wang, Xue-Jian; Zhang, Xiu-Rong; Zhang, Lei; Li, Qing-Hua; Wang, Lin; Shi, Li-Hong; Fang, Chun-Yan

2014-01-01

201

Satellited 4q identified in amniotic fluid cells  

SciTech Connect

Extra material was identified on the distal long arm of a chromosome 4 in an amniotic fluid specimen sampled at 16.6 weeks of gestational age. There was no visible loss of material from chromosome 4, and no evidence for a balanced rearrangement. The primary counseling issue in this case was advanced maternal age. Ultrasound findings were normal, and family history was unremarkable. The identical 4qs chromosome was observed in cells from a paternal peripheral blood specimen and appeared to be an unbalanced rearrangement. This extra material was NOR positive in lymphocytes from the father, but was negative in the fetal amniocytes. Father`s relatives were studied to verify the familial origin of this anomaly. In situ hybridization with both exon and intron sequences of ribosomal DNA demonstrated that ribosomal DNA is present at the terminus of the 4qs chromosome in the fetus, father, and paternal grandmother. This satellited 4q might have been derived from a translocation event that resulted in very little or no loss from the 4q and no specific phenotype. This derivative chromosome 4 has been inherited through at least 3 generations of phenotypically normal individuals. 8 refs., 3 figs.

Miller, I.; Hsieh, C.L.; Songster, G. [Stanford Univ. Medical Center, Stanford, CA (United States)] [and others

1995-01-16

202

Effect of infectious status and parity on somatic cell count and California mastitis test in pampinta dairy ewes.  

PubMed

The relationship between somatic cell counts (SCC) and California mastitis test (CMT) results according to the infectious status of mammary halves and parity of Pampinta dairy ewes was evaluated. Tests were associated to bacteriological analysis and classified into three groups: uninfected (negative culture), infected by minor pathogens and infected by major pathogens. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (32.4%), Micrococcus spp. (32.4%), Corynebacterium spp. (5.4%), and Bacillus spp. (1.4%) were the minor pathogens isolated, while Staphylococcus aureus (27%) and Escherichia coli (1.4%) were the major pathogens isolated. A good correlation was found between the CMT and SCC, which included inflammatory and epithelial cells (r = 0.64; P < 0.0001). SCC averages for the CMT scores shown in parentheses were 223 576 (0); 245,248 (1); 397,778 (2); 1,159,109 (3) and 2,460,833 (4) cells/ml. The correlation between SCC and the infectious status of udder halves was 0.58 (P < 0.0001). The relationship between SCC and CMT profiles and infectious status studied by a discriminant analysis showed, with an accuracy of 65%, three infectious status groups. SCC arithmetic means were 244,470 cells/ml for negative culture, 1,044,100 cells/ml for minor pathogens and 2,045,652 cells/ ml for major pathogens. With the exception of 1-year-old ewes, no significant differences were observed in SCC as affected by age or parity. PMID:12121043

Suarez, V H; Busetti, M R; Miranda, A O; Calvinho, L F; Bedotti, D O; Canavesio, V R

2002-06-01

203

Mechanical interaction between cells and fluid for bone tissue engineering scaffold: Modulation of the interfacial shear stress  

E-print Network

Mechanical interaction between cells and fluid for bone tissue engineering scaffold: Modulation Analytical solution Bone tissue engineering a b s t r a c t An analytical model of the fluid/cell mechanical n f o Article history: Accepted 1 November 2009 Keywords: Cell fluid interaction Shear stress

Guerraoui, Rachid

204

Simvastatin induces osteogenic differentiation in human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSC).  

PubMed

Amniotic fluid is a complex mixture composed of water, salts and different cells types derived from embryo exfoliation. Some of these cells present similar characteristics to mesenchymal stem cells as adherent properties, typical surface antigens and differentiation capacity. These cells are called amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSCs) and are easily obtained by amniocentesis, propagated in culture and differentiated in several cell types with specific inductions. In this study, we observe the ability of simvastatin, a 3-HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, to induce AFSMCs osteogenic differentiation. When AFSMCs were incubated with medium containing simvastatin, it was observed morphological changes, calcium deposits formation confirmed by Alizarin Red stain. Differentiated cells also expressed typical osteogenic genes, as osteopontin and osteocalcin. In conclusion, simvastatin could be used as an optional osteogenic induction agent for amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells. PMID:23094676

de Lara Janz, Felipe; Favero, Giovani Marino; Bohatch, Milton Sérgio; Aguiar Debes, Adrianade; Bydlowski, Sergio Paulo

2014-04-01

205

Low NK cell counts in peripheral blood are associated with inferior overall survival in patients with follicular lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Host immune responses influence follicular lymphoma (FL) outcomes. To test our hypothesis that immune cells in blood reflect that response, we assessed by peripheral blood flow cytometry in 75 untreated FL patients the absolute counts of: lymphocytes (ALC), CD4+T (ACD4C), CD8+T (ACD8C) and natural killer (ANKC) cells. Low ANKC was the only parameter associated with inferior overall survival by univariate analysis (p= 0.02), and trended to significance in multivariable analysis with ACD4C (p= 0.08). Five (24%) patients with low initial ANKC died, while none with normal/high ANKC have died Conclusions: Evaluation of blood ANKC may be a useful indicator of outcome in previously untreated FL patients. PMID:23968916

Shafer, Danielle; Smith, Mitchell R.; Borghaei, Hossein; Millenson, Michael M.; Li, Tianyu; Litwin, Samuel; Anad, Rachna; Al-Saleem, Tahseen

2013-01-01

206

CD4+ cell count recovery in naïve patients initiating cART, who achieved and maintained plasma HIV-RNA suppression  

PubMed Central

Introduction A key objective of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) is to reach and maintain high CD4 cell counts to provide long-term protection against AIDS-defining opportunistic infections and malignancies, as well as other comorbidities. However, a high proportion of patients present late for care. Our objective was to assess CD4 cell count recovery up to seven years in naïve patients initiating cART with at least three drugs in usual clinical care. Methods From the French Hospital Database on HIV, we selected naïve individuals initiating cART from 2000 with at least two years of follow-up. Participants were further required to have achieved viral load suppression by six months after initiating cART and were censored in case of virological failure. We calculated the proportion of patients (Kaplan-Meier estimates) who achieved CD4 recovery to >500/mm3 according to baseline CD4 cell count. Results A total of 15,025 patients were analyzed with a median follow-up on ART of 65.5 months (IQR: 42.3–96.0). At cART initiation, the median age was 38.6 years (IQR: 32.2–46.0), 9734 (64.8%) were men, median CD4 cell count was 239 (IQR: 130–336) and 2668 (17.8%) had a prior AIDS event. Results are presented in the Table 1. Conclusions This study shows that CD4 cell counts continue to increase seven years after cART initiation, whatever the baseline CD4 cell count. Failing to achieve CD4 recovery with continuous viral load suppression is rare for naïve patients initiating cART in routine clinical practice, but takes substantially longer in patients who initiate antiretroviral therapy at low CD4 cell counts. PMID:25393990

Costagliola, Dominique; Lacombe, Jean-Marc; Ghosn, Jade; Delaugerre, Constance; Pialoux, Gilles; Cuzin, Lise; Launay, Odile; Ménard, Amélie; de Truchis, Pierre; Mary-Krause, Murielle; Weiss, Laurence; Delfraissy, Jean-François

2014-01-01

207

[Prevalence of subclinical udder infections and individual somatic cell counts in three dairy goat herds during a full lactation].  

PubMed

For dairy goats, both the determination of the somatic cell counts (SCC) and the interpretation of these values may be a problem. Several investigations have shown that SCC for goat's milk, even from not infected mammary halves, are often higher than for cows milk. In the three herds examined about 40% of mammary halves and 30% of the goats were infected. However large differences between the three herds could be observed. In most cases, infections were caused by coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) or corynebacteria. The SCC of individual milk samples from goats without any udder infection hardly differed from those of goats with at least one udder half infected with CNS. In 20% and 30% of the cases the SCC was higher than 750'000 cells/ml, respectively. The relation between California Mastitis Test (CMT) reactions and udder infections was not very close. Over 20% of mammary halves infected with CNS showed negative CMT reactions. On the other hand, 25% of samples from mammary halves without a proven infection reacted positively. The large differences in individual cell counts on herd and animal level indicate that production and breeding systems might be important reasons for the higher SCC. As a consequence, the most common methods for or the control of udder health and udder infections (SCC, California Mastitis Test) are of limited value for goats. Since there was only a weak relation between milk quality properties and SCC, any arguments for the introduction of legal limits below 1 million cells per ml can hardly be found. PMID:17263081

Schaeren, W; Maurer, J

2006-12-01

208

Responses of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus to Simulated Food Processing Treatments, Determined Using Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting and Plate Counting?  

PubMed Central

Three common food pathogenic microorganisms were exposed to treatments simulating those used in food processing. Treated cell suspensions were then analyzed for reduction in growth by plate counting. Flow cytometry (FCM) and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) were carried out on treated cells stained for membrane integrity (Syto 9/propidium iodide) or the presence of membrane potential [DiOC2(3)]. For each microbial species, representative cells from various subpopulations detected by FCM were sorted onto selective and nonselective agar and evaluated for growth and recovery rates. In general, treatments giving rise to the highest reductions in counts also had the greatest effects on cell membrane integrity and membrane potential. Overall, treatments that impacted cell membrane permeability did not necessarily have a comparable effect on membrane potential. In addition, some bacterial species with extensively damaged membranes, as detected by FCM, appeared to be able to replicate and grow after sorting. Growth of sorted cells from various subpopulations was not always reflected in plate counts, and in some cases the staining protocol may have rendered cells unculturable. Optimized FCM protocols generated a greater insight into the extent of the heterogeneous bacterial population responses to food control measures than did plate counts. This study underlined the requirement to use FACS to relate various cytometric profiles generated by various staining protocols with the ability of cells to grow on microbial agar plates. Such information is a prerequisite for more-widespread adoption of FCM as a routine microbiological analytical technique. PMID:21602370

Kennedy, Deirdre; Cronin, Ultan P.; Wilkinson, Martin G.

2011-01-01

209

Weighing of Biomolecules, Single Cells, and Single Nanoparticles in Fluid  

E-print Network

result in sensor drift. Devices are vacuum sealed at sub-millitorr pressure, and an on-chip getter and previously described micromachined fluid density sensors is a substantially smaller cross section, resulting in improved sensitivity towards total mass at the expense of sensitivity for bulk fluid density. Electrostatic

210

Association between herd exposure to BVDV-infection and bulk milk somatic cell count of Flemish dairy farms.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the statistical association between herd bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) status based on bulk milk antibody detection and monthly bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) as a reflection of the udder health. A distinction was made between vaccinating and non-vaccinating herds via a questionnaire concerning BVD-vaccination. No significant difference in BMSCC was found between vaccinating (228,300 cells/ml; SD 180,019) and non-vaccinating (237,070 cells/ml; SD 77,900) herds. Non-vaccinating herds (n=243) were selected, and the relationship between a single BVDV-antibody titre and the BMSCC of each herd over a 12-month observation period evaluated. For this purpose, the non-vaccinating herds were divided into five groups depending on bulk milk BVDV-antibody titres. Overall, no significant relationship between the antibody titre and the BMSCC was found. Still, when comparing the category with the lowest S/P ratio (essentially BVDV-naïve herds; BMSCC=211,390 cells/ml) with the combined four other categories (BMSCC=242,790 cells/ml), a significant difference in BMSSC was observed (P=0.01). PMID:23063176

Laureyns, Jozef; Piepers, Sofie; Ribbens, Stefaan; Sarrazin, Steven; De Vliegher, Sarne; Van Crombrugge, Jean-Marie; Dewulf, Jeroen

2013-04-01

211

arXiv:astro-ph/0401559v126Jan2004 Self-Calibration of Cluster Dark Energy Studies: Counts in Cells  

E-print Network

arXiv:astro-ph/0401559v126Jan2004 Self-Calibration of Cluster Dark Energy Studies: Counts in Cells of Chicago, Chicago IL 60637 Cluster number counts can constrain the properties of dark energy if and only constraints on the dark energy equation of state by a factor of 2 or more to (w) = 0.06 for a deep 4000 deg2

Hu, Wayne

212

Counting Money  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will reinforce the idea of counting coins as well as adding different amounts of coins. First, play Shoot your fruit! to identify your numbers! Then, dive into Underwater Counting!! Ms. Eppes Class: First, visit farm stand to figure out how much it will cost to buy eggs and apples. Once you have completed the farm stand go on a spending spree! ...

Bunn, Ms.

2010-10-30

213

Impact on life expectancy of HIV-1 positive individuals of CD4+ cell count and viral load response to antiretroviral therapy  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objective of this study is to estimate life expectancies of HIV-positive patients conditional on response to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods: Patients aged more than 20 years who started ART during 2000–2010 (excluding IDU) in HIV clinics contributing to the UK CHIC Study were followed for mortality until 2012. We determined the latest CD4+ cell count and viral load before ART and in each of years 1–5 of ART. For each duration of ART, life tables based on estimated mortality rates by sex, age, latest CD4+ cell count and viral suppression (HIV-1 RNA <400?copies/ml), were used to estimate expected age at death for ages 20–85 years. Results: Of 21?388 patients who started ART, 961 (4.5%) died during 110?697 person-years. At start of ART, expected age at death [95% confidence interval (CI)] of 35-year-old men with CD4+ cell count less than 200, 200–349, at least 350?cells/?l was 71 (68–73), 78 (74–82) and 77 (72–81) years, respectively, compared with 78 years for men in the general UK population. Thirty-five-year-old men who increased their CD4+ cell count in the first year of ART from less than 200 to 200–349 or at least 350?cells/?l and achieved viral suppression gained 7 and 10 years, respectively. After 5 years on ART, expected age at death of 35-year-old men varied from 54 (48–61) (CD4+ cell count <200?cells/?l and no viral suppression) to 80 (76–83) years (CD4+ cell count ?350?cells/?l and viral suppression). Conclusion: Successfully treated HIV-positive individuals have a normal life expectancy. Patients who started ART with a low CD4+ cell count significantly improve their life expectancy if they have a good CD4+ cell count response and undetectable viral load. PMID:24556869

May, Margaret T.; Gompels, Mark; Delpech, Valerie; Porter, Kholoud; Orkin, Chloe; Kegg, Stephen; Hay, Phillip; Johnson, Margaret; Palfreeman, Adrian; Gilson, Richard; Chadwick, David; Martin, Fabiola; Hill, Teresa; Walsh, John; Post, Frank; Fisher, Martin; Ainsworth, Jonathan; Jose, Sophie; Leen, Clifford; Nelson, Mark; Anderson, Jane; Sabin, Caroline

2014-01-01

214

Flow manipulation and cell immobilization for biochemical applications using thermally responsive fluids.  

PubMed

A flow redirection and single cell immobilization method in a microfluidic chip is presented. Microheaters generated localized heating and induced poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) phase transition, creating a hydrogel that blocked a channel or immobilized a single cell. The heaters were activated in sets to redirect flow and exchange the fluid in which an immobilized cell was immersed. A yeast cell was immobilized in hydrogel and a 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) fluorescent stain was introduced using flow redirection. DAPI diffused through the hydrogel and fluorescently labelled the yeast DNA, demonstrating in situ single cell biochemistry by means of immobilization and fluid exchange. PMID:24285990

Haraksingh Thilsted, Anil; Bazargan, Vahid; Piggott, Nina; Measday, Vivien; Stoeber, Boris

2012-01-01

215

Flow manipulation and cell immobilization for biochemical applications using thermally responsive fluids  

PubMed Central

A flow redirection and single cell immobilization method in a microfluidic chip is presented. Microheaters generated localized heating and induced poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) phase transition, creating a hydrogel that blocked a channel or immobilized a single cell. The heaters were activated in sets to redirect flow and exchange the fluid in which an immobilized cell was immersed. A yeast cell was immobilized in hydrogel and a 4?,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) fluorescent stain was introduced using flow redirection. DAPI diffused through the hydrogel and fluorescently labelled the yeast DNA, demonstrating in situ single cell biochemistry by means of immobilization and fluid exchange. PMID:24285990

Haraksingh Thilsted, Anil; Bazargan, Vahid; Piggott, Nina; Measday, Vivien; Stoeber, Boris

2012-01-01

216

SOMATIC CELL COUNTS OF MILK FROM DAIRY HERD IMPROVEMENT HERDS DURING 2001  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Test-day data from all herds enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) somatic cell testing during 2001 was examined to assess the status of national milk quality. Cows with records failing AIPL editing procedures were excluded. Somatic cell score (SCS) is reported to AIPL and was converted to somati...

217

Supplemental Figure 1: Pil1 and Lsp1 behave identically during de novo eisosome formation (a) Number of eisosomes where counted in cells expressing either Lsp1-GFP,  

E-print Network

Supplemental Figure 1: Pil1 and Lsp1 behave identically during de novo eisosome formation (a) Number of eisosomes where counted in cells expressing either Lsp1-GFP, TWY113 (red) or Pil1-GFP, TWY110 (green) and are shown as a function of the bud cell surface. (b) Eisosome deposition as visualized by Lsp

Walter, Peter

218

The Effects of Decreasing Maternal Anxiety on Fetal Oxygenation and Nucleated Red Blood Cells Count in the Cord Blood  

PubMed Central

Objective: Vasoconstriction during anxiety reduces fetal oxygenation and leads to hypoxia. Hypoxia in turn results in increase of the number of nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) in the cord blood. The present study aimed to assess the effect of decreasing maternal anxiety on fetal oxygenation and NRBCs count in the cord blood. Methods:. In this study, 150 women were randomly divided into two intervention groups [supportive care and acupressure in BL32 (bladder) acupoint] and a control group (hospital routine care). The infants' cord blood was investigated regarding the number of NRBCs and the intensity of hypoxia after birth. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software (v. 16) and analyzed using ANOVA, Chi-square test, and logistic regression analysis. Findings : The significant difference was found between the two groups regarding the number of NRBCs counted in the peripheral blood smear (P<0.001). Besides, a significant relationship was observed between the length of the first and second stages of labor and the number of NRBCs in the cord blood (P=0.01). Also, a significant association was observed between the type of delivery and the number of NRBCs in the cord blood in both intervention (P<0.001) and control groups (P=0.03). Conclusion: Doula supportive care and acupressure at BL32 point reduced the length of labor stages as well as the anxiety level. Also, nucleated red blood cells were less in the 2 groups of intervention than in control group. Regarding the fact that nucleated red blood cells cannot be the only factor for hypoxia predicting, for affirmation of this theory study with higher sample size and survey of mothers at high risk are needed.

Masoudi, Zahra; Akbarzadeh, Marziyeh; Vaziri, Farideh; Zare, Najaf; Ramzi, Mani

2014-01-01

219

Influence of somatic cell counts and breed on physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of hard ewes'-milk cheeses.  

PubMed

The aim of the present work was to perform a physico-chemical, descriptive quantitative and consumer-preference analysis of hard ewes'-milk cheeses that had been matured for one year and to determine the correlations between the variables studied. The cheeses were elaborated with milk from three breeds of sheep (Castellana, Churra and Assaf) with different somatic cell counts (lower than 500,000 cells ml-1; between 1,000,000 and 1,500,000 cells ml-1, and more than 2,500,000 cells ml-1). The results show that the cheeses elaborated with milk with high SCC had lower values of dry extract and fat and high values of pH and fat acidity and were described as pungent, granulose and less creamy. Regarding the effect of breed, the cheeses made with milk from the Churra breed had lower values for fat and those made with Assaf breed milk were significantly more rancid. The study of correlations showed that creaminess was positively correlated with the dry extract and total fat content and negatively correlated with ash and fat acidity, indeed grainy texture and pungency had the opposite sign in their correlation with these latter variables. The yellow colour was positively correlated with ash and negatively with protein. Finally, the consumer preferences reveals that the less accepted cheeses showed the higher values for rancidness and pungency and they were less likely to accept the cheeses made with Assaf breed milk. PMID:19445825

Revilla, Isabel; Lurueña-Martínez, Miguel A; Vivar-Quintana, Ana M

2009-08-01

220

Comparison of equine bone marrow-, umbilical cord matrix and amniotic fluid-derived progenitor cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to compare in vitro the stemness features of horse progenitor cells derived from bone marrow (BM-MSCs),\\u000a amniotic fluid (AF-MSCs) and umbilical cord matrix (EUC-MSCs). It has been suggested that there may be a stem cell population\\u000a within both umbilical cord matrix and amniotic fluid. However, little knowledge exists about the characteristics of these\\u000a progenitor

Arianna Barbara Lovati; Bruna Corradetti; Anna Lange Consiglio; Camilla Recordati; Elisa Bonacina; Davide Bizzaro; Fausto Cremonesi

2011-01-01

221

Computation of the fluid-induced shear stress in bioreactor-cultured 3D cell systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluid-induced shear is known to enhance chondrogenesis on animal cells. We have developed a computational fluid dynamic model of the flow through chondrocyte seeded scaffolds cultured inside a novel bioreactor in which the culture medium flows through the constructs' microstructure. The median shear stress imposed to the cells in the bioreactor culture, as predicted by the CFD model, is 3·10-3

F. Boschetti; M. T. Raimondi; G. B. Fiore; G. Dubini; L. Falcone; A. Remuzzi; E. Marinoni; M. Marazzi; R. Pietrabissa

2002-01-01

222

Segmentation technique of complex image scene for an automatic blood-cell-counting system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a method for automatic localization and segmentation of white blood cells (WBCs) with color images to develop an efficient automated leukocyte counter by using pattern recognition-based slide readers. The segmentation techniques consist of the following steps. On the first a smear image acquired at the low magnification. The next is extraction of WBC nuclei by chromatic properties and image mapping. After this the cells clustered according to the distances between them and regions of interest (ROI) determined. Image of ROI captured at the high magnification and its validity checked. Then nucleus segments extracted and grouped into prospective cells. The detection of blood cells is based on the intensity of G image plane and the balance between G and B intensity of the nuclei. A cytoplasm region approximated by a circle area around the nucleus center. Finally, the cytoplasm area cleaned considering a priori knowledge of background color and possible cell occlusions. The result of the segmentation is presented in the form of a cell location list and image template in which every pixel is assigned to a label such as Background, Cytoplasm, Nucleus, Hole, etc. The proposed technique has yielded correct segmentation of complex image scenes for blood smears prepared by ordinary manual staining methods in 99% of tested images.

Kovalev, Vassili A.; Grigoriev, Andrei Y.; Ahn, Hyo-Sok; Myshkin, Nickolai K.

1996-04-01

223

Effect of cooling rate on eutectic cell count, grain size, microstructure, and ultimate tensile strength of hypoeutectic cast iron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes a series of microstructural and strength studies performed on hypoeutectic cast iron, which was sand cast using a variety of end chills (metallic, nonmetallic, water-cooled, and subzero, respectively). The effects of cooling rate on the eutectic cell count (ECC), grain size, and the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) were evaluated. Attempts were also made to explain these effects and to correlate the UTS with ECC. It was found that subzero chilled and water-cool, chilled cast iron exhibit severe undercooling compared to normal sand cast iron. It was concluded from this investigation that nucleation conditions are completely altered but growth conditions prevail as usual. Therefore, undercooling during solidification is considered to be responsible for variation in ECC, grain size, microstructure, and tensile strength.

Hemanth, J.; Rao, K. V. S.

1999-08-01

224

Induction of E-cadherin+ human amniotic fluid cell differentiation into oocyte-like cells via culture in medium supplemented with follicular fluid.  

PubMed

Pluripotent human amniotic fluid cells (HuAFCs) can differentiate into various types of somatic cell in vitro. However, their differentiation into oocyte-like cells has never been described to the best of our knowledge. In the present study, differentiation of E-cadherin+ and E-cadherin- HuAFC sub-populations into oocyte-like cells was induced via culture in medium containing bovine follicular fluid and ?-mercaptoethanol. The E-cadherin+ HuAFCs expressed DAZL highly. Post-induction, cells with an oocyte-like phenotype were found among the E-cadherin+ HuAFCs, expressing markers specific to germ cells and oocytes (VASA, ZP3 and GDF9) and meiosis (DMC1 and SCP3). When specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to suppress E-cadherin in the E-cadherin+ HuAFCs, the levels of DAZL expression were reduced. Post-induction, the morphology of the siRNA?E?cadherin HuAFCs was poorer and the expression levels of germ cell-specific markers were lower compared with those of the siRNA-mock HuAFCs. Therefore, E-cadherin+ HuAFCs could be more easily induced to differentiate into oocyte-like cells by bovine follicular fluid and ?-mercaptoethanol. In addition, the E-cadherin+ HuAFCs exhibited potential characteristics of DAZL protein expression, and thus it was conjectured that bovine follicular fluid acts on DAZL protein and promotes E-cadherin+ HuAFC differentiation into oocyte-like cells. PMID:24788191

Liu, Te; Huang, Yongyi; Bu, Yanzhen; Zhao, Yanhui; Zou, Gang; Liu, Zhixue

2014-07-01

225

Induction of E-cadherin+ human amniotic fluid cell differentiation into oocyte-like cells via culture in medium supplemented with follicular fluid  

PubMed Central

Pluripotent human amniotic fluid cells (HuAFCs) can differentiate into various types of somatic cell in vitro. However, their differentiation into oocyte-like cells has never been described to the best of our knowledge. In the present study, differentiation of E-cadherin+ and E-cadherin? HuAFC sub-populations into oocyte-like cells was induced via culture in medium containing bovine follicular fluid and ?-mercaptoethanol. The E-cadherin+ HuAFCs expressed DAZL highly. Post-induction, cells with an oocyte-like phenotype were found among the E-cadherin+ HuAFCs, expressing markers specific to germ cells and oocytes (VASA, ZP3 and GDF9) and meiosis (DMC1 and SCP3). When specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to suppress E-cadherin in the E-cadherin+ HuAFCs, the levels of DAZL expression were reduced. Post-induction, the morphology of the siRNA-E-cadherin HuAFCs was poorer and the expression levels of germ cell-specific markers were lower compared with those of the siRNA-mock HuAFCs. Therefore, E-cadherin+ HuAFCs could be more easily induced to differentiate into oocyte-like cells by bovine follicular fluid and ?-mercaptoethanol. In addition, the E-cadherin+ HuAFCs exhibited potential characteristics of DAZL protein expression, and thus it was conjectured that bovine follicular fluid acts on DAZL protein and promotes E-cadherin+ HuAFC differentiation into oocyte-like cells. PMID:24788191

LIU, TE; HUANG, YONGYI; BU, YANZHEN; ZHAO, YANHUI; ZOU, GANG; LIU, ZHIXUE

2014-01-01

226

Associations between decreased fertility and management factors, claw health, and somatic cell count in Swedish dairy cows.  

PubMed

The aim of this retrospective single-cohort study was to investigate if a rapid change in feeding, management, or housing or an increasing incidence of claw diseases or udder health problems is associated with decreased reproductive performance. Data on individual cows and herds were retrieved from the Swedish official milk recording system and questionnaire data on feeding system was obtained from the regional dairy associations. In total, 63,561 cows in 759 herds were included in the study. The associations between the probability of pregnancy at first insemination and number of inseminations per animal submitted for artificial insemination and potential predictor variables were investigated using a logistic regression model and a Poisson regression model, respectively. The results indicated that cows with severe claw lesions or an increasing somatic cell count after calving had a lower probability of pregnancy at first insemination and had a higher number of inseminations per animal submitted for artificial insemination than healthy cows. Variables representing a change in housing, production system, or milking system within the period from 6 mo before calving until establishment of a new pregnancy were significantly associated with decreased reproductive performance. No differences in fertility were observed between cows milked in an automatic milking system compared with cows milked conventionally. The results indicate that a change of system, rather than the actual type of milking or housing system negatively affects reproductive performance. Special attention should therefore be paid to the fertility of cows when the herd management is changing. It is also important to prevent claw lesions and increasing cell counts after calving to avoid a decrease in reproductive performance. PMID:23958022

Lomander, H; Svensson, C; Hallén-Sandgren, C; Gustafsson, H; Frössling, J

2013-10-01

227

Deferoxamine compensates for decreases in B cell counts and reduces mortality in enterovirus 71-infected mice.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 is one of the major causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease in children under six years of age. No vaccine or antiviral therapy is currently available. In this work, we found that the number of B cells was reduced in enterovirus 71-infected mice. Deferoxamine, a marine microbial natural product, compensated for the decreased levels of B cells caused by enterovirus 71 infection. The neutralizing antibody titer was also improved after deferoxamine treatment. Furthermore, deferoxamine relieved symptoms and reduced mortality and muscle damage caused by enterovirus 71 infection. This work suggested that deferoxamine has the potential for further development as a B cell-immunomodulator against enterovirus 71. PMID:25003792

Yang, Yajun; Ma, Jing; Xiu, Jinghui; Bai, Lin; Guan, Feifei; Zhang, Li; Liu, Jiangning; Zhang, Lianfeng

2014-07-01

228

Counting carbohydrates  

MedlinePLUS

Carbohydrates are found in fruit, cereal, bread, pasta, and rice. They are quickly turned into a sugar ... sugar better if they can count how many carbohydrates they eat. Your dietitian will teach you a ...

229

Choral Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a whole group, have students chant the counting sequence starting with one to thirty, using the pointer to follow the number sequence. Over time, increase the range to one to fifty and then one to one hundred. Eventually have a student take over the job of pointing out the numbers in the sequence. Highlight the multiples of ten using a marker or a colored screen and have students chant the counting sequence by 10s. This should be done daily.

Illustrative Mathematics

2012-07-31

230

Estimating the impact of somatic cell count on the value of milk utilising parameters obtained from the published literature.  

PubMed

The impact of mastitis on milk value per litre independent of the effect of mastitis on milk volume, was quantified for Ireland using a meta-analysis and a processing sector model. Changes in raw milk composition, cheese processing and composition associated with increased bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) were incorporated into the model. Processing costs and market values were representative of current industry values. It was assumed that as BMSCC increased (i) milk fat and milk protein increased and milk lactose decreased, (ii) fat and protein recoveries decreased, (iii) cheese protein decreased and cheese moisture increased. Five BMSCC categories were examined from ?100 000 to >400 000 cells/ml. The analysis showed that as BMSCC increased the production quantities reduced. An increase in BMSCC from 100 000 to >400 000 cells/ml saw a reduction in net revenue of 3·2% per annum (€51·3 million) which corresponded to a reduction in the value of raw milk of €0·0096 cents/l. PMID:24666778

Geary, Una; Lopez-Villalobos, Nicolas; O'Brien, Bernadette; Garrick, Dorian J; Shalloo, Laurence

2014-05-01

231

Circulating Tumor Cells Detection and Counting in Uveal Melanomas by a Filtration-Based Method  

PubMed Central

Uveal melanoma is one of the most deadly diseases in ophthalmology for which markers able to predict the appearance of metastasis are needed. The study investigates the role of circulating tumor cells (CTC) as a prognostic factor in this disease. We report the detection of circulating tumor cells by Isolation by Size of Epithelial Tumor cells (ISET) in a cohort of 31 uveal melanoma patients: we identified single CTCs or clusters of cells in 17 patients, while the control population, subjects with choroidal nevi, showed no CTC in peripheral blood. The presence of CTCs did not correlate with any clinical and pathological parameter, such as tumor larger basal diameter (LBD), tumor height and TNM. By stratifying patients in groups on the basis of the number of CTC (lower or higher than 10 CTC per 10 mL blood) and the presence of CTC clusters we found a significant difference in LBD (p = 0.019), Tumor height (p = 0.048), disease-free and overall survival (p < 0.05). In conclusion, we confirm the role of CTC as a negative prognostic marker in uveal melanoma patients after a long follow-up period. Further characterization of CTC will help understanding uveal melanoma metastasization and improve patient management. PMID:24514165

Mazzini, Cinzia; Pinzani, Pamela; Salvianti, Francesca; Scatena, Cristian; Paglierani, Milena; Ucci, Francesca; Pazzagli, Mario; Massi, Daniela

2014-01-01

232

Human transgene-free amniotic-fluid-derived induced pluripotent stem cells for autologous cell therapy.  

PubMed

The establishment of a reliable prenatal source of autologous, transgene-free progenitor cells has enormous potential in the development of regenerative-medicine-based therapies for infants born with devastating birth defects. Here, we show that a largely CD117-negative population of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stromal cells (AF-MSCs) obtained from fetuses with or without prenatally diagnosed anomalies are readily abundant and have limited baseline differentiation potential when compared with bone-marrow-derived MSCs and other somatic cell types. Nonetheless, the AF-MSCs could be easily reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) using nonintegrating Sendai viral vectors encoding for OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and cMYC. The iPSCs were virtually indistinguishable from human embryonic stem cells in multiple assays and could be used to generate a relatively homogeneous population of neural progenitors, expressing PAX6, SOX2, SOX3, Musashi-1, and PSA-NCAM, for potential use in neurologic diseases. Further, these neural progenitors showed engraftment potential in vivo and were capable of differentiating into mature neurons and astrocytes in vitro. This study demonstrates the usefulness of AF-MSCs as an excellent source for the generation of human transgene-free iPSCs ideally suited for autologous perinatal regenerative medicine applications. PMID:25014361

Jiang, Guihua; Di Bernardo, Julie; Maiden, Michael M; Villa-Diaz, Luis G; Mabrouk, Omar S; Krebsbach, Paul H; O'Shea, K Sue; Kunisaki, Shaun M

2014-11-01

233

Phytoplankton community dynamics assessed by ships-of-opportunity sampling in the northern Baltic Sea: A comparison of HPLC pigment analysis and cell counts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of phytoplankton diversity constitute crucial data in environmental monitoring, food-web studies and ecosystem modeling. Proper assessment of phytoplankton community composition requires large investments in offshore sampling and taxonomic competence because these communities can change fundamentally on a weekly scale. Cheap and high-frequent offshore phytoplankton sampling can be achieved by using ships-of-opportunity, and in the present study we used the Alg@line facilities onboard a passenger ferry during its regular route between Finland and Sweden in the northern Baltic Sea. The first aim was to test if pigment analysis, as a cheaper alternative to cell counts, can be used to detect environment-correlated variation in phytoplankton communities. It has been shown that spatial variation (salinity differences) and variation throughout one annual cycle (changes in temperature and nutrients) were strongly reflected by pigment composition. The second aim was to test if pigment analyses and cell counts detect environment-correlated variation in phytoplankton communities equally well. It has been shown that spatial and seasonal variations were reflected by pigment composition while cell counts reflected seasonal variation only. This suggests that the pigment analyses detected aspects of the phytoplankton that were neglected or misinterpreted by cell counts. It is advocated that available resources of long-term studies, such as environmental monitoring, can be used more efficiently by utilizing the high ecological resolution of pigment composition in combination with high-frequent ships-of-opportunity sampling. To assess heterotrophic and/or toxic species, such programs could also include sampling for cell counts in a complementary manner, with actually performing counts only for crucial samples (e.g. between large community changes) as indicated by multivariate statistical analysis of pigment composition. Some aspects of analyzing phytoplankton data with multivariate statistics are also discussed.

Wänstrand, Ingrid; Snoeijs, Pauli

2006-01-01

234

Sex and species differences in plasma testosterone and in counts of androgen receptor-positive cells in key brain regions of Sceloporus lizard species that differ in aggression  

PubMed Central

We studied neuroendocrine correlates of aggression differences in adults of two Sceloporus lizard species. These species differ in the degree of sex difference in aggressive color signals (belly patches) and in aggression: S. undulatus (males blue, high aggression; females white, low aggression) and S. virgatus (both sexes white, lower aggression). We measured plasma testosterone and counted cells expressing androgen receptor-like immunoreactivity to the affinity-purified polyclonal AR antibody, PG-21, in three brain regions of breeding season adults. Male S. undulatus had the highest mean plasma testosterone and differed significantly from conspecific females. In contrast, there was no sex difference in plasma testosterone concentrations in S. virgatus. Male S. undulatus also had the highest mean number of AR-positive cells in the preoptic area: the sexes differed in S. undulatus but not in S. virgatus, and females of the two species did not differ. In the ventral medial hypothalamus, S. undulatus males had higher mean AR cell counts compared to females, but again there was no sex difference in S. virgatus. In the habenula, a control brain region, the sexes did not differ, and although the sex by species interaction significant was not significant, there was a trend (p = 0.050) for S. virgatus to have higher mean AR cell counts than S. undulatus. Thus hypothalamic AR cell counts paralleled sex and species differences in aggression, as did mean plasma testosterone levels in these breeding-season animals. PMID:22230767

Hews, Diana K.; Hara, Erina; Anderson, Maurice C.

2012-01-01

235

Amniotic fluid derived stem cells give rise to neuron-like cells without a further differentiation potential into retina-like cells  

PubMed Central

Amniotic fluid contains heterogeneous cell types and has become an interesting source for obtaining fetal stem cells. These stem cells have a high proliferative capacity and a good differentiation potential and may thus be suitable for regenerative medicine. As there is increasing evidence, that these stem cells are also able to be directed into the neural lineage, in our study we investigated the neuronal and glial differentiation potential of these cells, so that they may also be applied to cure degenerative diseases of the retina. Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from routine prenatal amniocentesis at 15 to 18 weeks of pregnancy of human amniotic fluid and expanded in the cell culture. Cells were cultivated according to standard procedures for mesenchymal stem cells and were differentiated along the neural lineage using various protocols. Furthermore, it was also tried to direct them into cell types of the retina as well as into endothelial cells. Cells of more than 72 amniotic fluid samples were collected and characterized. While after induction neural-like phenotypes could actually be detected, which was confirmed using neural marker proteins such as GFAP and ßIII tubulina further differentiation into retinal like cells could not reliably be shown. These data suggest that amniotic fluid derived cells are an interesting cell source, which may also give rise to neural-like cells. However, a more specific differentiation into neuronal and glial cells could not unequivocally be shown, so that further investigations have to becarried out. PMID:23862099

Hartmann, K; Raabe, O; Wenisch, S; Arnhold, S

2013-01-01

236

The Combination of Platelet Count and Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio Is a Predictive Factor in Patients with Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The prognostic value of inflammation indexes in esophageal cancer was not established. In this study, therefore, both prognostic values of Glasgow prognostic score (GPS) and combination of platelet count and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (COP-NLR) in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) were investigated and compared. METHODS: This retrospective study included 375 patients who underwent esophagectomy for ESCC. The cancer-specific survival (CSS) was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and the difference was assessed by the log-rank test. The GPS was calculated as follows: patients with elevated C-reactive protein (> 10 mg/l) and hypoalbuminemia (< 35 g/l) were assigned to GPS2. Patients with one or no abnormal value were assigned to GPS1 or GPS0, respectively. The COP-NLR was calculated as follows: patients with elevated platelet count (> 300 × 109/l) and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (> 3) were assigned to COP-NLR2. Patients with one or no abnormal value were assigned to COP-NLR1 or COP-NLR0, respectively. RESULTS: The 5-year CSS in patients with GPS0, 1, and 2 was 50.0%, 27.0%, and 12.5%, respectively (P < .001). The 5-year CSS in patients with COP-NLR0, 1, and 2 was 51.8%, 27.0%, and 11.6%, respectively (P < .001). Multivariate analysis showed that both GPS (P = .003) and COP-NLR (P = .003) were significant predictors in such patients. In addition, our study demonstrated a similar hazard ratio (HR) between COP-NLR and GPS (HR = 1.394 vs HR = 1.367). CONCLUSIONS: COP-NLR is an independent predictive factor in patients with ESCC. We conclude that COP-NLR predicts survival in ESCC similar to GPS. PMID:25389458

Feng, Ji-Feng; Huang, Ying; Chen, Qi-Xun

2014-01-01

237

Cooperative effects of matrix stiffness and fluid shear stress on endothelial cell behavior.  

PubMed

Arterial hemodynamic shear stress and blood vessel stiffening both significantly influence the arterial endothelial cell (EC) phenotype and atherosclerosis progression, and both have been shown to signal through cell-matrix adhesions. However, the cooperative effects of fluid shear stress and matrix stiffness on ECs remain unknown. To investigate these cooperative effects, we cultured bovine aortic ECs on hydrogels matching the elasticity of the intima of compliant, young, or stiff, aging arteries. The cells were then exposed to laminar fluid shear stress of 12 dyn/cm(2). Cells grown on more compliant matrices displayed increased elongation and tighter EC-cell junctions. Notably, cells cultured on more compliant substrates also showed decreased RhoA activation under laminar shear stress. Additionally, endothelial nitric oxide synthase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation in response to fluid shear stress occurred more rapidly in ECs cultured on more compliant substrates, and nitric oxide production was enhanced. Together, our results demonstrate that a signaling cross talk between stiffness and fluid shear stress exists within the vascular microenvironment, and, importantly, matrices mimicking young and healthy blood vessels can promote and augment the atheroprotective signals induced by fluid shear stress. These data suggest that targeting intimal stiffening and/or the EC response to intima stiffening clinically may improve vascular health. PMID:25650915

Kohn, Julie C; Zhou, Dennis W; Bordeleau, François; Zhou, Allen L; Mason, Brooke N; Mitchell, Michael J; King, Michael R; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A

2015-02-01

238

Endothelial cell counts after Descemet’s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty versus penetrating keratoplasty in Asian eyes  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to compare endothelial cell counts after Descemet’s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) and penetrating keratoplasty in Asian eyes. Methods This was a retrospective study of patients from our prospective Singapore Corneal Transplant Study cohort who received corneal transplantation in 2006–2008. We compared eyes that underwent DSAEK or penetrating keratoplasty for Fuchs’ endothelial dystrophy or pseudophakic and aphakic bullous keratopathy. Clinical data, and donor and recipient characteristics were recorded. Of 241 patients who met our inclusion criteria, 68 underwent DSAEK and 173 underwent penetrating keratoplasty. The main outcome measure was endothelial cell loss at 1 year. Secondary outcome measures were graft survival and visual outcomes at 1-year follow-up. Results There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics of patients between the treatment groups. Percent endothelial cell loss at 1-year follow-up was greater in penetrating keratoplasty eyes (40.9% ± 2.9%) compared with DSAEK eyes (22.4% ± 2.3%; P < 0.001). DSAEK-treated eyes had significantly superior uncorrected visual acuity (mean difference = 0.42 ± 0.0059; P < 0.001) and best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (mean difference = 0.14 ± 0.032; P < 0.001) as compared with penetrating keratoplasty-treated eyes. Penetrating keratoplasty-treated eyes had worse astigmatism as compared with DSAEK-treated eyes (?3.0 ± 2.1 versus ?1.7 ± 0.8; P < 0.001). Graft survival at 1 year was comparable in both groups, ie, 66/68 (97.0%) DSAEK-treated eyes versus 158/173 (92.0%) of penetrating keratoplasty-treated eyes had clear grafts (P = 0.479). Conclusion We report lower percent endothelial cell loss comparing DSAEK and penetrating keratoplasty at 1-year follow-up in Asian eyes, with comparable graft survival rates in both groups. PMID:22536049

Ang, Marcus; Mehta, Jodhbir S; Anshu, Arundhati; Wong, Hon Kiat; Htoon, Hla M; Tan, Donald

2012-01-01

239

Intracellular [Na +], Na + pathways, and fluid transport in cultured bovine corneal endothelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of fluid transport across corneal endothelium remains unclear. We examine here the relative contributions of cellular mechanisms of Na+ transport and the homeostasis of intracellular [Na+] in cultured bovine corneal endothelial cells, and the influence of ambient Na+ and HCO3?on the deturgescence of rabbit cornea. Bovine corneal endothelial cells plated on glass coverslips were incubated for 60 min

Kunyan Kuang; Yansui Li; Maimaiti Yiming; José M. Sánchez; Pavel Iserovich; E. J. Cragoe; Friedrich P. J. Diecke; Jorge Fischbarg

2004-01-01

240

Interstitial Fluid Flow Intensity Modulates Endothelial Sprouting in Restricted Src-Activated Cell Clusters During  

E-print Network

Interstitial Fluid Flow Intensity Modulates Endothelial Sprouting in Restricted Src-Activated Cell play a critical role during capillary morphogenesis by promoting cell sprouting. In the present work the amount, length, and branching of developing sprouts during capillary morphogenesis. The number

Kamm, Roger D.

241

Regulation of bronchoalveolar lavage fluids cell function by the immunomodulatory agents from Cordyceps sinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) is one of the well known fungi used in traditional Chinese medicine for treatment asthma and bronchial and lung inflammation. In this study, effects of C. sinensis methanolic extracts on bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) cells proliferation, inflammatory cytokines production, and genes expression were evaluated. The proliferative response of BALF cells to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was determined by

Yuh-Chi Kuo; Wei-Jern Tsai; Jir-Yenn Wang; Shi-Chung Chang; Ching-Yuang Lin; Ming-Shi Shiao

2001-01-01

242

Counting Quail  

E-print Network

away from the noises of the engine cooling down. Note the time (a stopwatch is recommended), and then count (a) the number of different cocks heard, and (b) the total number of calls heard. Marking the location of various cocks calling on the data... sheet (Fig. 6) will help you determine if a bird you hear calling has been identifi ed previously. Experi- ence shows that spring call counts are fairly accurate until the number of calling cocks is greater than eight birds per listening post. Each...

Rollins, Dale; Brooks, Jason; Wilkins, Neal; Ransom, Dean

2005-10-05

243

Immunologic differentiation of absolute lymphocyte count with an integrated flow cytometric system: a new concept for absolute T cell subset determinations.  

PubMed

We describe a method to obtain results for immune status monitoring that uses a three-test panel, comprised of isotype control and 2 specific Mab tests (CD4/CD8/CD3 and CD16/CD19/CD3), in conjunction with a flow cytometer that directly measures absolute counts. Automated software is used for lineage-specific gating of three-color immunofluorescence to determine lymphocyte and lymphocyte subset counts. The autogating function of this software is shown to yield equivalent results to manual analysis by an expert user, and to be effective when as few as 25 target cells are present. The software is also shown to perform automatic quality control checks of the sample preparation, reagent, and automated analysis. We demonstrate that the sum of T (CD3+), B (CD19+), and natural killer (NK, CD16 + CD3-) cells, as a determination of all lymphocytes, correlates well with lymphocytes measured using a light scatter differential. Moreover, T + B + NK lymphocyte count is shown to be less error-prone than lymphocyte count from light scatter differential, and to minimize errors that arise from between-technician variation in sample preparation. Our data suggest that the new approach that we describe could offer an alternative to the traditional two-stage methods for measuring absolute counts of lymphocyte subsets for immune status monitoring. As such this method could reduce, through objective automated analysis, testing cost and complexity, without sacrificing the quality of results. PMID:7587734

Mercolino, T J; Connelly, M C; Meyer, E J; Knight, M D; Parker, J W; Stelzer, G T; DeChirico, G

1995-03-15

244

Genome-Wide Association Study of White Blood Cell Count in 16,388 African Americans: the Continental Origins and Genetic Epidemiology Network (COGENT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total white blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil counts are lower among individuals of African descent due to the common African-derived “null” variant of the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC) gene. Additional common genetic polymorphisms were recently associated with total WBC and WBC sub-type levels in European and Japanese populations. No additional loci that account for WBC variability have been

Alexander P. Reiner; Guillaume Lettre; Michael A. Nalls; Santhi K. Ganesh; Rasika Mathias; Melissa A. Austin; Eric Dean; Sampath Arepalli; Angela Britton; Zhao Chen; David Couper; J. David Curb; Charles B. Eaton; Myriam Fornage; Struan F. A. Grant; Tamara B. Harris; Dena Hernandez; Naoyuki Kamatini; Brendan J. Keating; Michiaki Kubo; Andrea LaCroix; Leslie A. Lange; Simin Liu; Kurt Lohman; Yan Meng; Emile R. Mohler; Solomon Musani; Yusuke Nakamura; Christopher J. ODonnell; Yukinori Okada; Cameron D. Palmer; George J. Papanicolaou; Kushang V. Patel; Andrew B. Singleton; Atsushi Takahashi; Hua Tang; Herman A. Taylor; Kent Taylor; Cynthia Thomson; Lisa R. Yanek; Lingyao Yang; Elad Ziv; Alan B. Zonderman; Aaron R. Folsom; Michele K. Evans; Yongmei Liu; Diane M. Becker; Beverly M. Snively; James G. Wilson

2011-01-01

245

Nucleated red blood cell count in the differentiation of fetuses with pathologic growth restriction from healthy small-for-gestational-age fetuses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of the neonatal nucleated red blood cell count in differentiating the fetus with growth restriction from the small but otherwise healthy fetus. Study Design: Perinatal outcomes were evaluated prospectively for all neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit in 1997. Nonanomalous neonates with normal phenotype and a complete

Victoria K. Minior; Ellen Shatzkin; Michael Y. Divon

2000-01-01

246

Association of conception rate with pattern and level of somatic cell count elevation relative to time of insemination in dairy cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim was to evaluate the effects of mastitis, determined by the pattern and level of somatic cell count (SCC) around first artificial insemination (AI), on conception rate (CR). Data from 287,192 first AI and milk records covering a 7-yr period were obtained from the Israeli Herd Book. Analyses examined the association of probability of conception with SCC elevation relative

Y. Lavon; E. Ezra; G. Leitner; D. Wolfenson

2011-01-01

247

Relationships among somatic cell count, California mastitis test, impedance and bacteriological status of milk in goats and sheep in early lactation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this trial were to evaluate and compare the test characteristics of a number of indirect tests of bacteriological status of the milk from goats and sheep and to assess the affect of varying levels of prevalence of infection on the performance of those tests.The somatic cell count, California mastitis test (CMT) score, electrical impedance and the bacteriological

Scott McDougall; Patricia Murdough; Woody Pankey; Carol Delaney; John Barlow; Dan Scruton

2001-01-01

248

The Characteristics of Adherent, Black, HIV+ Women: The Influence of Spirituality, Social Support and Trust in Physician on Medication Adherence and CD4 Cell Count  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite increases in HIV awareness, prevention and treatment, little is known about the contributing factors to medication adherence among adherent Black women with HIV. Understanding the protective factors that improve medication adherence and CD4 cell count for Black HIV+ women is essential and necessary to improve the treatment outcomes for this understudied population. The purpose of this study was to

Monica A. Hobbs

2010-01-01

249

Genetic and Phenotypic Correlations Between Milk Coagulation Properties, Milk Production Traits, Somatic Cell Count, Casein Content, and pH of Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic and phenotypic correlations between milk coagulation properties (MCP: coagulation time and curd firmness), milk yield, fat content, protein content, ln(somatic cell count) (SCS), casein content, and pH of milk and heritability of these traits were estimated from data consisting of milk samples of 4664 Finnish Ayrshire cows sired by 91 bulls. In addition, differences in average estimated breeding values

T. Ikonen; S. Morri; A.-M. Tyrisevä; O. Ruottinen; M. Ojala

2004-01-01

250

Increases in platelet and red cell counts, blood viscosity, and arterial pressure during mild surface cooling: factors in mortality from coronary and cerebral thrombosis in winter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six hours of mild surface cooling in moving air at 24 degrees C with little fall in core temperature (0.4 degree C) increased the packed cell volume by 7% and increased the platelet count and usually the mean platelet volume to produce a 15% increase in the fraction of plasma volume occupied by platelets. Little of these increases occurred in

W R Keatinge; S R Coleshaw; F Cotter; M Mattock; M Murphy; R Chelliah

1984-01-01

251

Fluid biopsy for circulating tumor cell identification in patients with early-and late-stage non-small cell lung cancer: a glimpse into lung cancer biology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Circulating tumor cell (CTC) counts are an established prognostic marker in metastatic prostate, breast and colorectal cancer, and recent data suggest a similar role in late stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, due to sensitivity constraints in current enrichment-based CTC detection technologies, there are few published data about CTC prevalence rates and morphologic heterogeneity in early-stage NSCLC, or the correlation of CTCs with disease progression and their usability for clinical staging. We investigated CTC counts, morphology and aggregation in early stage, locally advanced and metastatic NSCLC patients by using a fluid-phase biopsy approach that identifies CTCs without relying on surface-receptor-based enrichment and presents them in sufficiently high definition (HD) to satisfy diagnostic pathology image quality requirements. HD-CTCs were analyzed in blood samples from 78 chemotherapy-naïve NSCLC patients. 73% of the total population had a positive HD-CTC count (>0 CTC in 1 mL of blood) with a median of 4.4 HD-CTCs mL-1 (range 0-515.6) and a mean of 44.7 (±95.2) HD-CTCs mL-1. No significant difference in the medians of HD-CTC counts was detected between stage IV (n = 31, range 0-178.2), stage III (n = 34, range 0-515.6) and stages I/II (n = 13, range 0-442.3). Furthermore, HD-CTCs exhibited a uniformity in terms of molecular and physical characteristics such as fluorescent cytokeratin intensity, nuclear size, frequency of apoptosis and aggregate formation across the spectrum of staging. Our results demonstrate that despite stringent morphologic inclusion criteria for the definition of HD-CTCs, the HD-CTC assay shows high sensitivity in the detection and characterization of both early- and late-stage lung cancer CTCs. Extensive studies are warranted to investigate the prognostic value of CTC profiling in early-stage lung cancer. This finding has implications for the design of extensive studies examining screening, therapy and surveillance in lung cancer patients.

Wendel, Marco; Bazhenova, Lyudmila; Boshuizen, Rogier; Kolatkar, Anand; Honnatti, Meghana; Cho, Edward H.; Marrinucci, Dena; Sandhu, Ajay; Perricone, Anthony; Thistlethwaite, Patricia; Bethel, Kelly; Nieva, Jorge; van den Heuvel, Michel; Kuhn, Peter

2012-02-01

252

Multilobated B-cell lymphoma. Report of a case with immunocytologic diagnosis in pleural fluid.  

PubMed

The cytologic, histologic and immunocytochemical findings in an aggressive case of multilobated lymphoma in an 89-year-old man are described. This unusual variant of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is morphologically distinct but may be of either T-cell or B-cell origin. A battery of immunocytologic stains on pleural fluid specimens allowed determination of a B-cell (follicular center cell) origin to be made. Previous literature on this neoplasm is briefly reviewed, and the unreliability of morphologic findings in predicting a T-cell or B-cell origin is discussed. PMID:3501217

Miller, R T; Baker, K I; Moga, D

1987-01-01

253

Fluid flow regulates e-selectin protein levels in human endothelial cells by inhibiting translation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism with which fluid flow inhibits endothelial E-selectin expression. Methods: Cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells were stimulated with inflammatory agonists (tumor necrosis factor-? [TNF-?], interleukin-1?, oncostatin M, or phorbol ester) in the presence or absence of fluid flow (peak shear stress, ?12 dynes\\/cm2) imposed with an orbital shaker. E-selectin

Larry W. Kraiss; Neal M. Alto; Dan A. Dixon; Thomas M. McIntyre; Andrew S. Weyrich; Guy A. Zimmerman

2003-01-01

254

Automated Static Culture System Cell Module Mixing Protocol and Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report is a documentation of a fluid dynamic analysis of the proposed Automated Static Culture System (ASCS) cell module mixing protocol. The report consists of a review of some basic fluid dynamics principles appropriate for the mixing of a patch of high oxygen content media into the surrounding media which is initially depleted of oxygen, followed by a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study of this process for the proposed protocol over a range of the governing parameters. The time histories of oxygen concentration distributions and mechanical shear levels generated are used to characterize the mixing process for different parameter values.

Kleis, Stanley J.; Truong, Tuan; Goodwin, Thomas J,

2004-01-01

255

Shared Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you're interested in checking out the social media shares for various websites, the Shared Count tool is a nice find. Visitors just need to enter the URL in question and then can find out how often the site has been shared on a range of social media platforms. This version is compatible with all operating systems.

Kumar, Neeraj

2014-03-27

256

Counting Penguins.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity on the simplification of penguin counting by employing the basic ideas and principles of sampling to teach students to understand and recognize its role in statistical claims. Emphasizes estimation, data analysis and interpretation, and central limit theorem. Includes a list of items for classroom discussion. (ASK)

Perry, Mike; Kader, Gary

1998-01-01

257

Counting Coins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this iOS app students practice counting U.S. coins by matching the value, making the total, telling how much, and creating their own values. Students drag coins onto a digital mat or enter values with a keypad to complete the tasks, and then receive feedback.

K12, Inc.

2011-03-23

258

Biodiversity Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this class exercise, students count the number of species they can find in a five minute block of time in both an urban lawn and natural, remnant forest area. The students are introduced to the concept of low and high biodiversity areas and engage in a discussion about biodiversity loss.

Suzanne Savanick, Science Education Resource Center, Carleton College, ssavanic@carleton.edu

259

Counting Populations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

Damonte, Kathleen

2004-01-01

260

Ca²? signaling and regulation of fluid secretion in salivary gland acinar cells.  

PubMed

Neurotransmitter stimulation of plasma membrane receptors stimulates salivary gland fluid secretion via a complex process that is determined by coordinated temporal and spatial regulation of several Ca(2+) signaling processes as well as ion flux systems. Studies over the past four decades have demonstrated that Ca(2+) is a critical factor in the control of salivary gland function. Importantly, critical components of this process have now been identified, including plasma membrane receptors, calcium channels, and regulatory proteins. The key event in activation of fluid secretion is an increase in intracellular [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)]i) triggered by IP3-induced release of Ca(2+) from ER via the IP3R. This increase regulates the ion fluxes required to drive vectorial fluid secretion. IP3Rs determine the site of initiation and the pattern of [Ca(2+)]i signal in the cell. However, Ca(2+) entry into the cell is required to sustain the elevation of [Ca(2+)]i and fluid secretion. This Ca(2+) influx pathway, store-operated calcium influx pathway (SOCE), has been studied in great detail and the regulatory mechanisms as well as key molecular components have now been identified. Orai1, TRPC1, and STIM1 are critical components of SOCE and among these, Ca(2+) entry via TRPC1 is a major determinant of fluid secretion. The receptor-evoked Ca(2+) signal in salivary gland acinar cells is unique in that it starts at the apical pole and then rapidly increases across the cell. The basis for the polarized Ca(2+) signal can be ascribed to the polarized arrangement of the Ca(2+) channels, transporters, and signaling proteins. Distinct localization of these proteins in the cell suggests compartmentalization of Ca(2+) signals during regulation of fluid secretion. This chapter will discuss new concepts and findings regarding the polarization and control of Ca(2+) signals in the regulation of fluid secretion. PMID:24646566

Ambudkar, Indu S

2014-06-01

261

A fatal case of amniotic fluid embolism with elevation of serum mast cell tryptase  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of a 40-year-old female who died of amniotic fluid embolism is presented. This case showed typical histological findings of this syndrome. Postmortem serum of this case showed an elevated tryptase level (67.2ng\\/ml, normal levels <10ng\\/ml). Tryptase is a neutral protease of mast cells, and an important indicator of mast cell activation and degranulation. Thus, mast cell activation, a

Hajime Nishio; Kiyoshi Matsui; Tokiko Miyazaki; Akiyoshi Tamura; Misa Iwata; Koichi Suzuki

2002-01-01

262

In Vitro and In Vivo Cardiomyogenic Differentiation of Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell therapy has developed as a complementary treatment for myocardial regeneration. While both autologous and allogeneic\\u000a uses have been advocated, the ideal candidate has not been identified yet. Amniotic fluid-derived stem (AFS) cells are potentially\\u000a a promising resource for cell therapy and tissue engineering of myocardial injuries. However, no information is available\\u000a regarding their use in an allogeneic context. c-kit-sorted,

Sveva Bollini; Michela Pozzobon; Muriel Nobles; Johannes Riegler; Xuebin Dong; Martina Piccoli; Angela Chiavegato; Anthony N. Price; Marco Ghionzoli; King K. Cheung; Anna Cabrelle; Paul R. O’Mahoney; Emanuele Cozzi; Saverio Sartore; Andrew Tinker; Mark F. Lythgoe; Paolo De Coppi

2011-01-01

263

Immune Regulatory Properties of CD117(pos) Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells Vary According to Gestational Age.  

PubMed

Amniotic Fluid Stem (AFS) cells are broadly multipotent fetal stem cells derived from the positive selection and ex vivo expansion of amniotic fluid CD117/c-kit(pos) cells. Considering the differentiation potential in vitro toward cell lineages belonging to the three germ layers, AFS cells have raised great interest as a new therapeutic tool, but their immune properties still need to be assessed. We analyzed the in vitro immunological properties of AFS cells from different gestational age in coculture with T, B, and natural killer (NK) cells. Nonactivated (resting) first trimester-AFS cells showed lower expression of HLA class-I molecules and NK-activating ligands than second and third trimester-AFS cells, whose features were associated with lower sensitivity to NK cell-mediated lysis. Nevertheless, inflammatory priming with interferon gamma (IFN-?) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) enhanced resistance of all AFS cell types to NK cytotoxicity. AFS cells modulated lymphocyte proliferation in a different manner according to gestational age: first trimester-AFS cells significantly inhibited T and NK cell proliferation, while second and third trimester-AFS cells were less efficient. In addition, only inflammatory-primed second trimester-AFS cells could suppress B cell proliferation, which was not affected by the first and third trimester-AFS cells. Indolamine 2,3 dioxygenase pathway was significantly involved only in T cell suppression mediated by second and third trimester-AFS cells. Overall, this study shows a number of significant quantitative differences among AFS cells of different gestational age that have to be considered in view of their clinical application. PMID:25072397

Di Trapani, Mariano; Bassi, Giulio; Fontana, Emanuela; Giacomello, Luca; Pozzobon, Michela; Guillot, Pascale V; De Coppi, Paolo; Krampera, Mauro

2015-01-01

264

Effect on quarter milk somatic cell count and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus rostri causing intramammary infection in dairy water buffaloes.  

PubMed

In many parts of the world, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the predominant cause of intramammary infections (IMI) in dairy cows and in water buffaloes, as well. A longitudinal field study was carried out on one well-managed dairy water buffalo herd to determine the prevalence and distribution of CNS and a recently described CNS-species, Staphylococcus rostri, in milk samples to explore its relevance for buffaloes' udder health throughout lactation, and to gain insight into the susceptibility of the latter species toward commonly used antimicrobials. Twice weekly quarter milk samples from a cohort of 11 lactating water buffaloes were collected over an 8-mo period. The CNS (n=109; 76.2% of all culture-positive samples) were the predominant pathogens causing IMI, followed by Corynebacterium bovis (n=11; 7.6%) and Streptococcus spp. (n=9; 6.2%) other than Stretococcus uberis (n=2; 1.4%). Thirty-seven hemolytic staphylococci suspected to be Staphylococcus aureus were further differentiated using transfer DNA-intergenic spacer-PCR and rpoB-gene sequencing because they were coagulase-negative. Thirty-three of those isolates were identified as Staph. rostri, whereas 2 others were identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis. None of the Staph. rostri isolates displayed resistance to the antimicrobial agents tested. Mean quarter milk somatic cell count (qSCC) of all samples collected throughout lactation was 20,970 cells/mL. The qSCC at sampling of quarters infected with Staph. rostri (34,466 cells/mL) and CNS other than Staph. rostri (34,813 cells/mL) were significantly higher than the qSCC of noninfected quarters (20,287 cells/mL), yet not significantly different from each other. These findings provide novel insight into the prevalence and distribution, antimicrobial susceptibility, and relevance of Staph. rostri compared with other CNS species causing IMI in water buffaloes. Further studies are needed to pinpoint the relevance, niches, and transmission routes of Staph. rostri, as well as other CNS in water buffaloes. PMID:23548306

Locatelli, C; Piepers, S; De Vliegher, S; Barberio, A; Supré, K; Scaccabarozzi, L; Pisoni, G; Bronzo, V; Haesebrouck, F; Moroni, P

2013-06-01

265

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles induce cytotoxicity and reduce mitotic index in human amniotic fluid-derived cells.  

PubMed

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) are commonly used materials present in many consumables for which most people are exposed to. The biological hazards of the NPs on human health have been demonstrated previously. In this study, we aimed to assess the cytotoxicity potency of TiO2 NPs on the primary human amniotic fluid cells. The cells derived from amniotic fluid were treated with different dosages of TiO2 NPs for some periods. Cell adhesion status was assessed using a light microscopic observation. Cell proliferation and cell death rates were determined using trypan blue staining and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Also, mitotic index was determined using fluorescence in situ hybridization with chromosome 8 centromer-specific DNA probe. Disrupted cell adhesion, decreased proliferation, and increased mortality rates were detected in the cells that were treated with TiO2 NPs depending on the dosage (p < 0.001). Also, reduced mitotic index was determined in the cells depending on the time and TiO2 dosage when compared with the controls (p < 0.0001). These results showed that TiO2 NPs have high cytotoxicity for amniotic fluid-derived cells. Therefore, different products containing TiO2 NPs should be used with care, especially for pregnant women. PMID:24717318

Acar, Ms; Bulut, Zb; Ate?, A; Nami, B; Koçak, N; Y?ld?z, B

2015-01-01

266

Efficacy of standard vs. extended intramammary cefquinome treatment of clinical mastitis in cows with persistent high somatic cell counts.  

PubMed

Extended duration of clinical mastitis (CM) treatment has been advocated, although results showing its higher efficacy compared with standard treatment are difficult to compare and seem conflicting. In a non-blinded, positively controlled clinical trial with systematic allocation, the efficacy of a standard, 1·5-d cefquinome treatment (ST), and an extended, 5-d intramammary cefquinome treatment (ET) were evaluated. The latter is frequently performed in cows with persistent high somatic cell count (SCC), expecting a better cure. Therefore, cows with CM immediately preceded by at least two consecutive monthly elevated SCC >200 000 cells/ml, were studied. The primary efficacy criteria were bacteriological cure (BC) and clinical cure (CC), while SCC cure was considered a secondary criterion of cure. Least square means of overall BC were not different after ET (79%, n=206) compared with ST (72%, n=203). ET, as compared with ST, improved BC of CM when caused by streptococci, specifically Streptococcus uberis. At day 1·5, only 13% of quarters showed CC, increasing significantly towards 60% at day 5, and 99% at day 14 and at day 21. No significant difference in CC was present between treatment groups. Overall SCC cure was low (22%) and not significantly different between treatment groups, but significantly higher for cases due to enterobacteriacae compared with staphylococci. In conclusion, ET with cefquinome of CM in cows with a persistent high SCC seems to be only indicated when caused by streptococci, mainly Str. uberis but shows no advantage when no information on bacteriological causes of mastitis is available. In our data, absence of CC directly after ST was not related to eventual BC. PMID:25230074

Swinkels, Jantijn M; Krömker, Volker; Lam, Theo J G M

2014-11-01

267

A Novel Marker for Screening Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria Using Routine Complete Blood Count and Cell Population Data  

PubMed Central

Background Final diagnosis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) may take years demanding a quick diagnosis measure. We used the facts that PNH cells are damaged in acid, and reagents for measuring reticulocytes in Coulter DxH800 (Beckman Coulter, USA) are weakly acidic and hypotonic, to create a new PNH screening marker. Methods We analyzed 979 complete blood counts (CBC) data from 963 patients including 57 data from 44 PNH patients. Standard criteria for PNH assay for population selection were followed: flow cytometry for CD55 and CD59 on red blood cells (RBCs) to a detection level of 1%; and fluorescent aerolysin, CD24 and CD15 in granulocytes to 0.1%. Twenty-four PNH minor clone-positive samples (minor-PNH+) were taken, in which the clone population was <5% of RBCs and/or granulocytes. Excluding PNH and minor-PNH+ patients, the population was divided into anemia, malignancy, infection, and normal groups. Parameters exhibiting a distinct demarcation between PNH and non-PNH groups were identified, and each parameter cutoff value was sought that includes the maximum [minimum] number of PNH [non-PNH] patients. Results Cutoff values for 5 selected CBC parameters (MRV, RDWR, MSCV, MN-AL2-NRET, and IRF) were determined. Positive rates were: PNH (86.0%), minor-PNH+ (33.3%), others (5.0%), anemia (13.4%), malignancy (5.3%), infection (3.7%), normal (0.0%); within anemia group, aplastic anemia (40.0%), immune hemolytic anemia (11.1%), iron deficiency anemia (1.6%). Sensitivity (86.0%), specificity (95.0%), PPV (52.1%), and NPV (99.1%) were achieved in PNH screening. Conclusion A new PNH screening marker is proposed with 95% specificity and 86% sensitivity. The flag identifies PNH patients, reducing time to final diagnosis by flow cytometry. PMID:25553278

Kahng, Jimin; Kim, Yonggoo; Kim, Jung Ok; Koh, Kwangsang; Lee, Jong Wook

2015-01-01

268

Mucous cell metaplasia in the airways of rats exposed to machining fluids.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure to microbial-contaminated machining fluids is associated with a variety of adverse pulmonary effects including chronic bronchitis and increased sputum production. We have previously demonstrated in F344 rats that inhaled endotoxin can increase the amount of stored intraepithelial mucosubstances (Vs) in the respiratory tract. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of endotoxin-contaminated machining fluid aerosols on mucous production. Rats were exposed to aerosols of pyrogen-free water, 1 or 10 mg/m3 used machining fluid, or 10 mg/m3 unused machining fluid for 3 hr/day for 3 days. Twenty-four hours after the final exposure, right lung lobes were lavaged and the nasal cavity and left lung were fixed in formalin. The amount of Alcian blue/periodic acid-Schiff-stained mucosubstances was determined by morphometry. Exposure to 10 mg/m3 used machining fluid (equivalent to 0.8 micrograms/m3 endotoxin) produced a significant increase in Vs in the epithelial lining of both the nasal septum and intrapulmonary airways. These changes in Vs were accompanied by a significant increase in total cells and neutrophils in the lavage fluid. No changes in stored mucosubstances or lavage parameters were found in animals exposed to 1 mg/m3 used machining fluid aerosols. A significant increase in Vs was observed in the nasal septum but not in the intrapulmonary airways of animals exposed to 10 mg/m3 unused machining fluids (no measurable endotoxin). These results suggest that in addition to endotoxin, nonendotoxin components of machining fluids may contribute to the increase in sputum and chronic bronchitis reported for workers exposed to machining fluid aerosols. PMID:8835237

Gordon, T; Harkema, J R

1995-12-01

269

Counting Money  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Today you are going to practice counting money. We will be reviewing the penny, nickel, and dime, and quarter. The coin with the lowest value is the penny. Here is a picture of a penny. A penny is worth one cent or $0.01picture of a penny The next coin of the lowest value is the nickel. Here is a picture of a nickel. picture of a nickel A nickel is worth five cents or $0.05 The next coin ...

areese

2008-09-25

270

Identification of mast cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Comparison between different fixation and staining methods.  

PubMed

The present study was carried out to compare the effectiveness of different fixation and staining methods in the identification of mast cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage from patients with interstitial lung diseases. Cell preparations were fixed with formaldehyde or methanol. Mast cells were identified by metachromatic staining with May Grünwald Giemsa, Toluidine blue or Gallamine blue Giemsa. After formaldehyde fixation only a few mast cells were identified, regardless of the stain method used. In contrast, a significantly higher number of mast cells were observed after methanol fixation. Using this fixative, Toluidine blue stain showed a higher number of mast cells than May Grünwald Giemsa. However, there was no difference between Toluidine and Gallamine blue Giemsa in the number of cells observed. The easy identification of mast cells after staining with toluidine, combined with its easy application, suggest that Toluidine blue stain after methanol fixation is the most useful method for determining the presence of mast cells in lavage fluid. PMID:1711798

Xaubet, A; Moisés, J A; Agustí, C; Martos, J A; Picado, C

1991-04-01

271

Fluorescent molecular rotor for the study of membrane fluidity in endothelial cells under fluid shear stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular rotors are fluorescent probes that change quantum yield with the viscosity of their environment. When integrated into the cell membrane, they can be used to probe viscosity changes of the membrane. Fluid shear stress is hypothesized to increase membrane fluidity in the membrane of endothelial cells, a change that leads to the activation of heterotrimetric G proteins, thus activating a signal transduction cascade. This hypothesis was examined using a molecular rotor, 9-dicyanovinyl-julolidine (DCVJ) as membrane probe. The principal response, a decease of fluorescence intensity caused by increased membrane fluidity, was obtained by adding a fluidity-increasing agent to the cells. In a parallel-plate flow chamber, a confluent layer of DCVJ-labeled human umbilical cord venous endothelial cells were exposed to different levels of fluid shear stress. With increased shear, a reduced fluorescence intensity was observed, indicating an increase of membrane fluidity. Step changes of fluid shear stress caused an approximately linear drop of fluorescence within 5 seconds, showing fast and almost full recovery after shear stopped. A linear relationship between shear stress and membrane fluidity changes was also observed. This study not only shows the suitability of the molecular rotor DCVJ as a membrane fluidity probe, but also provides evidence for the direct link between fluid shear stress and membrane fluidity, and suggests that the membrane is the primary flow mechanosensor of the cell.

Haidekker, Mark A.; Frangos, John A.

2000-04-01

272

Anisotropic diffusion of macromolecules in the contiguous nucleocytoplasmic fluid during eukaryotic cell division.  

PubMed

Character and rapidity of protein diffusion in intracellular fluids are key determinants of the dynamics and steady state of a plethora of biochemical reactions. So far, an anomalous diffusion in cytoplasmic fluids with viscoelastic and even glassy characteristics has been reported in a variety of organisms on several length scales and timescales. Here, we show that the contiguous fluid of former cytoplasm and nucleoplasm features an anisotropically varying diffusion of macromolecules during eukaryotic cell division. In metaphase, diffusion in the contiguous nucleocytoplasmic fluid appears less anomalous along the spindle axis as compared to perpendicular directions. As a consequence, the long-time diffusion of macromolecules preferentially points along the spindle axis, leading to prolonged residence of macromolecules in the spindle region. Based on our experimental data, we suggest that anisotropic diffusion facilitates the encounter and interaction of spindle-associated proteins, e.g., during the formation of a dynamic spindle matrix. PMID:25127218

Pawar, Nisha; Donth, Claudia; Weiss, Matthias

2014-08-18

273

Computational fluid dynamics modeling of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed steady-state isothermal two-dimensional model of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell has been developed. A finite element method was used to solve this multi-component transport model coupled with flow in porous medium, charge balance, electrochemical kinetics, and a rigorous water balance in the membrane. The model-predicted fuel cell performance curves are compared with published experimental results and a

Galip H. Guvelioglu; Harvey G. Stenger

2005-01-01

274

Utility of routine viral load, CD4 cell count, and clinical monitoring among adults with HIV receiving antiretroviral therapy in Uganda: randomised trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the use of routine laboratory monitoring in terms of clinical outcomes among patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Uganda. Design Randomised clinical trial Setting A home based ART programme in rural Uganda. Participants All participants were people with HIV who were members of the AIDS Support Organisation. Participants had CD4 cell counts <250 cells × 106/L or World Health Organization stage 3 or 4 disease. Interventions Participants were randomised to one of three different monitoring arms: a viral load arm (clinical monitoring, quarterly CD4 counts, and viral load measurements), CD4 arm (clinical monitoring and CD4 counts), or clinical arm (clinical monitoring alone). Main outcome measures Serious morbidity (newly diagnosed AIDS defining illness) and mortality. Results 1094 participants started ART; median CD4 count at baseline was 129 cells × 106/L. Median follow-up was three years. In total, 126 participants died (12%), 148 (14%) experienced new AIDS defining illnesses, and 61(6%) experienced virological failure, defined as two consecutive viral loads >500 copies/mL occurring more than three months after the start of ART. After adjustment for age, sex, baseline CD4 count, viral load, and body mass index, the rate of new AIDS defining events or death was higher in the clinical arm than the viral load arm (adjusted hazard ratio 1.83, P=0.002) or the CD4 arm (1.49, P=0.032). There was no significant difference between the CD4 arm and the viral load arm (1.23, P=0.31). Conclusion In patients receiving ART for HIV infection in Uganda, routine laboratory monitoring is associated with improved health and survival compared with clinical monitoring alone. Trial registration Clinical Trials NCT00119093. PMID:22074711

2011-01-01

275

Association between somatic cell count early in the first lactation and the longevity of Irish dairy cows.  

PubMed

Reduced longevity of cows is an important component of mastitis costs, and increased somatic cell count (SCC) early in the first lactation has been reported to increase culling risk throughout the first lactation. Generally, cows must survive beyond the first lactation to break even on their rearing costs. The aim of this research was to assess the association between SCC of primiparous cows at 5 to 30 days in milk (SCC1), and survival over a 5-y period for cows in Irish dairy herds. The data set used for model development was based on 147,458 test day records from 7,537 cows in 812 herds. Cows were censored at their last recording if identified at a later date in other herds or if recorded at the last available test date for their herd, otherwise, date of disposal was taken to be at the last test date for each cow. Survival time was calculated as the number of days between the dates of first calving and the last recording, which was split into 50-d intervals. Data were analyzed in discrete time logistic survival models that accounted for clustering of 50-d intervals within cows, and cows within herds. Models were fitted in a Bayesian framework using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations. Model fit was assessed by comparison of posterior predictions to the observed disposal risk for cows aggregated by parameters in the model. Model usefulness was assessed by cross validation in a separate data set, which contained 144,113 records from 7,353 cows in 808 herds, and posterior predictions were compared with the observed disposal risk for cows aggregated by parameters of biological importance. Disposal odds increased by a factor of 5% per unit increase in ln SCC1. Despite this, posterior predictive distributions revealed that the probability of reducing replacement costs by >€10 per heifer calved, through decreasing the herd level prevalence of cows with SCC1 ? 400,000 cells/mL (from an initial prevalence of ? 20 to <10%) only exceeded 50% for less than 1 in 5 Irish herds. These results indicate that the effect of a reduction in the prevalence of cows with SCC1 ? 400,000 cells/mL on replacement costs alone for most Irish dairy herds is small, and future research should investigate other potential losses, such as the effect of SCC1 on lifetime milk yield. PMID:23522676

Archer, S C; Mc Coy, F; Wapenaar, W; Green, M J

2013-05-01

276

Therapeutic outcomes of transplantation of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells in experimental ischemic stroke  

PubMed Central

Accumulating preclinical evidence suggests the use of amnion as a source of stem cells for investigations of basic science concepts related to developmental cell biology, but also for stem cells’ therapeutic applications in treating human disorders. We previously reported isolation of viable rat amniotic fluid-derived stem (AFS) cells. Subsequently, we recently reported the therapeutic benefits of intravenous transplantation of AFS cells in a rodent model of ischemic stroke. Parallel lines of investigations have provided safety and efficacy of stem cell therapy for treating stroke and other neurological disorders. This review article highlights the need for investigations of mechanisms underlying AFS cells’ therapeutic benefits and discusses lab-to-clinic translational gating items in an effort to optimize the clinical application of the cell transplantation for stroke. PMID:25165432

Tajiri, Naoki; Acosta, Sandra; Portillo-Gonzales, Gabriel S.; Aguirre, Daniela; Reyes, Stephanny; Lozano, Diego; Pabon, Mibel; Dela Peña, Ike; Ji, Xunming; Yasuhara, Takao; Date, Isao; Solomita, Marianna A.; Antonucci, Ivana; Stuppia, Liborio; Kaneko, Yuji; Borlongan, Cesar V.

2014-01-01

277

Obstructive renal injury: from fluid mechanics to molecular cell biology  

PubMed Central

Urinary tract obstruction is a frequent cause of renal impairment. The physiopathology of obstructive nephropathy has long been viewed as a mere mechanical problem. However, recent advances in cell and systems biology have disclosed a complex physiopathology involving a high number of molecular mediators of injury that lead to cellular processes of apoptotic cell death, cell injury leading to inflammation and resultant fibrosis. Functional studies in animal models of ureteral obstruction using a variety of techniques that include genetically modified animals have disclosed an important role for the renin-angiotensin system, transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and other mediators of inflammation in this process. In addition, high throughput techniques such as proteomics and transcriptomics have identified potential biomarkers that may guide clinical decision-making. PMID:24198613

Ucero, Alvaro C; Gonçalves, Sara; Benito-Martin, Alberto; Santamaría, Beatriz; Ramos, Adrian M; Berzal, Sergio; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Egido, Jesus; Ortiz, Alberto

2010-01-01

278

Effect of milk base and starter culture on acidification, texture, and probiotic cell counts in fermented milk processing.  

PubMed

In the present work, the compared effect of milk base and starter culture on acidification, texture, growth, and stability of probiotic bacteria in fermented milk processing, was studied. Two strains of probiotic bacteria were used, Lactobacillus acidophilus LA5 and L. rhamnosus LR35, with two starter cultures. One starter culture consisted only of Streptococcus thermophilus ST7 (single starter culture); the other was a yogurt mixed culture with S. thermophilus ST7 and L. bulgaricus LB12 (mixed starter culture). For the milk base preparation, four commercial dairy ingredients were tested (two milk protein concentrates and two casein hydrolysates). The resulting fermented milks were compared to those obtained with control milk (without enrichment) and milk added with skim milk powder. The performance of the two probiotic strains were opposite. L. acidophilus LA5 grew well on milk but showed a poor stability during storage. L. rhamnosus LR35 grew weakly on milk but was remarkably stable during storage. With the strains tested in this study, the use of the single starter culture and the addition of casein hydrolysate gave the best probiotic cell counts. The fermentation time was of about 11 h, and the probiotic level after five weeks of storage was greater than 106 cfu/ml for L. acidophilus LA5 and 10(7) cfu/ml for L. rhamnosus LR35. However, an optimization of the level of casein hydrolysate added to milk base has to be done, in order to improve texture and flavor when using this dairy ingredient. PMID:12416799

Sodini, I; Lucas, A; Oliveira, M N; Remeuf, F; Corrieu, G

2002-10-01

279

Applications of Amniotic Membrane and Fluid in Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine  

PubMed Central

The amniotic membrane (AM) and amniotic fluid (AF) have a long history of use in surgical and prenatal diagnostic applications, respectively. In addition, the discovery of cell populations in AM and AF which are widely accessible, nontumorigenic and capable of differentiating into a variety of cell types has stimulated a flurry of research aimed at characterizing the cells and evaluating their potential utility in regenerative medicine. While a major focus of research has been the use of amniotic membrane and fluid in tissue engineering and cell replacement, AM- and AF-derived cells may also have capabilities in protecting and stimulating the repair of injured tissues via paracrine actions, and acting as vectors for biodelivery of exogenous factors to treat injury and diseases. Much progress has been made since the discovery of AM and AF cells with stem cell characteristics nearly a decade ago, but there remain a number of problematic issues stemming from the inherent heterogeneity of these cells as well as inconsistencies in isolation and culturing methods which must be addressed to advance the field towards the development of cell-based therapies. Here, we provide an overview of the recent progress and future perspectives in the use of AM- and AF-derived cells for therapeutic applications. PMID:23093978

Rennie, Kerry; Gruslin, Andrée; Hengstschläger, Markus; Pei, Duanqing; Cai, Jinglei; Nikaido, Toshio; Bani-Yaghoub, Mahmud

2012-01-01

280

Immunohistochemical identification of syncytiotrophoblastic cells and megakaryocytes in pulmonary vessels in a fatal case of amniotic fluid embolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The histological diagnosis of amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is based on finding amniotic fluid components in the pulmonary microvasculature. In addition to the distinctive constituents of AFE, placental and decidual tissue fragments as well as isolated trophoblastic cells and megakaryocytes are potentially detectable within pulmonary vessels. The identification of single syncytiotrophoblastic cells (STC), and their differentiation from circulating megakaryocytes (MK)

P. Lunetta; A. Penttilä

1996-01-01

281

Biodiversity Counts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This extensive collection of activities from the American Museum of Natural History offers middle school students an exciting and creative context for involving students in the scientific process while introducing them to the rich diversity and beauty of their local ecosystem. Lesson plans, Web-based interactive activities, useful Web links, profiles of AMNH scientists and staff, and other features help students inventory and analyze the plants and arthropods found in their own neighborhoods. All activities address national science standards, and have been field tested in schools around the nation. Biodiversity Counts even has students develop their own exhibitions for their findings -- a great way to build science communication skills.

1998-01-01

282

Amoeboid Swimming: A Generic Self-Propulsion of Cells in Fluids by Means of Membrane Deformations  

E-print Network

Amoeboid Swimming: A Generic Self-Propulsion of Cells in Fluids by Means of Membrane Deformations. By contrast, other organisms employ pronounced changes of the membrane shape to achieve propulsion density distribution (with zero total force and torque). It is shown that fast propulsion can be achieved

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

283

Axon Reactive B Cells Clonally Expanded in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demyelination and axonal loss have been described as the histological hallmarks of inflammatory lesions of multiple sclerosis (MS) and are the pathological correlates of persistent disability. However, the immune mechanisms underlying axonal damage in MS remain unknown. Here, we report the use of single chain-variable domain fragments (scFv) from clonally expanded cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) B cells to show the role

Yiping Zhang; Reng-Rong Da; Wenzhong Guo; Hui-Min Ren; Lutz G. Hilgenberg; Raymond A. Sobel; Wallace W. Tourtellotte; Martin A. Smith; Michael Olek; Sudhir Gupta; Richard T. Robertson; Rashed Nagra; Stanley Van Den Noort; Yufen Qin

2005-01-01

284

Total and Differential White Blood Cell Counts, High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein, and Cardiovascular Risk in Non-Affective Psychoses  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia is associated with increased cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Schizophrenia is also associated with immune and inflammatory abnormalities, including aberrant blood levels of lymphocytes, cytokines and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between total and differential white blood cell (WBC) counts, hsCRP, and indices of cardiovascular disease risk in patients with schizophrenia and related non-affective psychoses. 108 inpatients and outpatients age 18–70 with non-affective psychoses and 44 controls participated in this cross-sectional study. Subjects had a fasting blood draw between 8 and 9 am for glucose, lipids, total and differential WBC counts, and hsCRP. Vital signs and medical history were obtained. Patients with non-affective psychosis had significantly higher hsCRP levels than controls (p=0.04). In linear regression analyses, lymphocyte and monocyte counts were a significant predictor of the total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio in subjects with non-affective psychosis (p?0.02 for each). In binary logistic regression analyses, total WBC count was a significant predictor of an elevated 10-year estimated risk of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular disease in subjects with non-affective psychosis (p?0.03 for each). Associations between total and differential WBC counts and cardiovascular disease risk indices were stronger in males than females with non-affective psychosis. Our findings provide further evidence that measurement of total and differential WBC counts may be germane to the clinical care of patients with schizophrenia and related disorders, and support an association between inflammation and cardiovascular disease risk in these patients. PMID:22982547

Miller, Brian J.; Kandhal, Prianka; Rapaport, Mark Hyman; Mellor, Andrew; Buckley, Peter

2014-01-01

285

Fluid Flow through a High Cell Density Fluidized-Bed during Centrifugal Bioreactor Culture  

PubMed Central

An increasing demand for products such as tissues, proteins, and antibodies from mammalian cell suspension cultures is driving interest in increasing production through high-cell density bioreactors. The centrifugal bioreactor (CCBR) retains cells by balancing settling forces with surface drag forces due to medium throughput and is capable of maintaining cell densities above 108 cells/mL. This article builds on a previous study where the fluid mechanics of an empty CCBR were investigated showing fluid flow is nonuniform and dominated by Coriolis forces, raising concerns about nutrient and cell distribution. In this article, we demonstrate that the previously reported Coriolis forces are still present in the CCBR, but masked by the presence of cells. Experimental dye injection observations during culture of 15 ?m hybridoma cells show a continual uniform darkening of the cell bed, indicating the region of the reactor containing cells is well mixed. Simulation results also indicate the cell bed is well mixed during culture of mammalian cells ranging in size from 10 to 20 ?m. However, simulations also allow for a slight concentration gradient to be identified and attributed to Coriolis forces. Experimental results show cell density increases from 0.16 to 0.26 when centrifugal force is doubled by increasing RPM from 650 to 920 at a constant inlet velocity of 6.5 cm/s; an effect also observed in the simulation. Results presented in this article indicate cells maintained in the CCBR behave as a high-density fluidized bed of cells providing a homogeneous environment to ensure optimal growth conditions. PMID:20205172

Detzel, Christopher J.; Van Wie, Bernard J.; Ivory, Cornelius F.

2010-01-01

286

CD4 T cell count as predictor of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in children born to mothers infected with HIV. European Collaborative Study Group.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To assess the value of CD4 T cell count in predicting Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in infants born to mothers infected with HIV, with reference to the guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control on prophylaxis against pneumocystis. DESIGN--Prospective birth cohort study. SETTING--Hospitals in 10 European cities participating in the European collaborative study. SUBJECTS--924 children born to mothers known to be infected with HIV at or before delivery. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--The incidence of P carinii pneumonia. CD4 T cell counts in children before diagnosis of the pneumonia. The proportions of children infected and uninfected with HIV who fulfilled the criteria for primary prophylaxis. RESULTS--Fourteen children were diagnosed with P carinii pneumonia. The cumulative incidence by the age of 6 years was 2% (95% confidence interval 0.9 to 3.0%). Of the 11 children with a CD4 T cell count predating diagnosis, only three fulfilled the criteria from the Centers for Disease Control for prophylaxis. Prophylaxis was indicated by 1 year of age for 62% of infected children who had not developed P carinii pneumonia and for at least 10% of uninfected children. CONCLUSIONS--Monitoring CD4 T cell count seems to be of limited value in deciding when to start prophylaxis against P carinii pneumonia in children born to mothers infected with HIV. The alternative approach of giving prophylaxis to all children born to infected mothers would be difficult to justify given the low incidence of the pneumonia. PMID:7907246

1994-01-01

287

[Analysis of differential cell counts of sputa induced by inhalation of ultrasonically nebulized hypertonic saline or distilled water in asthmatic patients].  

PubMed

Bronchial asthma is an inflammatory disease of the airways, and a simple method of evaluating inflammation, safer than BALF or bronchial mucosal biopsy, has long been sought after. The induction of sputa by the inhalation of an appropriate solution and the examination of the induced sputa may provide such a method. We compared the safety of two sputum induction methods, ultrasonically nebulized hypertonic saline inhalation and distilled water inhalation, and examined the usefulness of differential cell counts of the induced sputa. The safety of these methods was ascertained by determining lung functions (FEV1.0, PEFR) and urinary leukotriene E4 before and after inhalation of these solutions, and the usefulness of differential cell counts of induced sputa by examining the uniformity/reproducibility. Only after the inhalation of distilled water did the lung function reveal a statistically significant decrease when the data were compared with the control values for each of the two methods (p < 0.01), and when the data obtained with distilled water inhalation and hypertonic saline inhalation were compared (p < 0.05). The urinary leukotriene E4 levels obtained were not very different between the two methods; however, in two patients, urinary leukotriene E4 levels were increased markedly only after inhalation of distilled water. The uniformity of the sputum differential cell counts in the same specimen (evaluated by intraclass correlation coefficient) and inter-specimens (evaluated by Friedman test) was satisfactory for both methods, except for basophils. Hypertonic saline inhalation at 24-hour intervals gave a better reproducibility in differential cell counts of the induced sputa (evaluated by interclass correlation coefficient), when compared with distilled water inhalation. These results suggest that hypertonic saline inhalation is safer and more useful than distilled water inhalation for induction of sputum in a uniform and reproducible way, and that the induction of sputum by hypertonic saline inhalation will be clinically useful in asthmatic patients who cannot expectorate sputa spontaneously. PMID:8279966

Matsuura, T; Gonogami, Y; Kurokawa, M; Horikoshi, S; Tomita, K; Noda, H; Matsukura, S; Adachi, M; Tanaka, Y

1993-11-01

288

Morphometric study of the fibrosis and mast cell count in the circular colon musculature of chronic Chagas patients with and without megacolon.  

PubMed

A morphometric study of the circular colon musculature was performed, in which the mast cell count was determined and the connective fibrous tissue in this layer was measured. The objective was to gain better understanding of Chagas megacolon morphology and contribute towards the knowledge of fibrosis pathogenesis in Chagas megas. An evaluation was made of 15 distal sigmoid rings from Chagas patients with megacolon (MCC), 15 without megacolon (CSMC) and 15 non-Chagas patients (NC). The rings were fixed in formol, embedded in paraffin, and 7mm thick sections were cut and stained using Azan-Heidenhain and Giemsa. The mast cell count and fibrosis were greater in the MCC group than in the CSMC and NC groups (p< 0,05; Kruskal-Wallis test) and there was no significant difference between the latter two. The fibrosis and increased mast cell count in the colon musculature of the MCC group possibly indicates that there is a relationship between mastocytosis and fibrosis, as has already been demonstrated in other pathologies. PMID:12937722

Pinheiro, Simone Wanderley; Rua, Adilha Misson de Oliveira; Etchebehere, Renata Margarida; Cançado, Cristiane Gobbo; Chica, Javier Em lio Lazo; Lopes, Edison Reis; Adad, Sheila Jorge

2003-01-01

289

Amniotic fluid promotes the appearance of neural retinal progenitors and neurons in human RPE cell cultures  

PubMed Central

Purpose Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are capable of differentiating into retinal neurons when induced by the appropriate growth factors. Amniotic fluid contains a variety of growth factors that are crucial for the development of a fetus. In this study, the effects of human amniotic fluid (HAF) on primary RPE cell cultures were evaluated. Methods RPE cells were isolated from the globes of postnatal human cadavers. The isolated cells were plated and grown in DMEM/F12 with 10% fetal bovine serum. To confirm the RPE identity of the cultured cells, they were immunocytochemically examined for the presence of the RPE cell-specific marker RPE65. RPE cultures obtained from passages 2–7 were treated with HAF and examined morphologically for 1 month. To determine whether retinal neurons or progenitors developed in the treated cultures, specific markers for bipolar (protein kinase C isomer ?, PKC?), amacrine (cellular retinoic acid–binding protein I, CRABPI), and neural progenitor (NESTIN) cells were sought, and the amount of mRNA was quantified using real-time PCR. Results Treating RPE cells with HAF led to a significant decrease in the number of RPE65-positive cells, while PKC?- and CRABPI-positive cells were detected in the cultures. Compared with the fetal bovine serum–treated cultures, the levels of mRNAs quantitatively increased by 2-, 20- and 22-fold for NESTIN, PKC?, and CRABPI, respectively. The RPE cultures treated with HAF established spheres containing both pigmented and nonpigmented cells, which expressed neural progenitor markers such as NESTIN. Conclusions This study showed that HAF can induce RPE cells to transdifferentiate into retinal neurons and progenitor cells, and that it provides a potential source for cell-based therapies to treat retinal diseases. PMID:24265548

Davari, Maliheh; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Sanie-Jahromi, Fateme; Ghaderi, Shima; Kanavi, Mozhgan Rezaei; Samiei, Shahram; Akrami, Hassan; Haghighi, Massoud; Javidi-Azad, Fahimeh

2013-01-01

290

Bioprinted Amniotic Fluid-Derived Stem Cells Accelerate Healing of Large Skin Wounds  

PubMed Central

Stem cells obtained from amniotic fluid show high proliferative capacity in culture and multilineage differentiation potential. Because of the lack of significant immunogenicity and the ability of the amniotic fluid-derived stem (AFS) cells to modulate the inflammatory response, we investigated whether they could augment wound healing in a mouse model of skin regeneration. We used bioprinting technology to treat full-thickness skin wounds in nu/nu mice. AFS cells and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were resuspended in fibrin-collagen gel and “printed” over the wound site. At days 0, 7, and 14, AFS cell- and MSC-driven wound closure and re-epithelialization were significantly greater than closure and re-epithelialization in wounds treated by fibrin-collagen gel only. Histological examination showed increased microvessel density and capillary diameters in the AFS cell-treated wounds compared with the MSC-treated wounds, whereas the skin treated only with gel showed the lowest amount of microvessels. However, tracking of fluorescently labeled AFS cells and MSCs revealed that the cells remained transiently and did not permanently integrate in the tissue. These observations suggest that the increased wound closure rates and angiogenesis may be due to delivery of secreted trophic factors, rather than direct cell-cell interactions. Accordingly, we performed proteomic analysis, which showed that AFS cells secreted a number of growth factors at concentrations higher than those of MSCs. In parallel, we showed that AFS cell-conditioned media induced endothelial cell migration in vitro. Taken together, our results indicate that bioprinting AFS cells could be an effective treatment for large-scale wounds and burns. PMID:23197691

Skardal, Aleksander; Mack, David; Kapetanovic, Edi; Atala, Anthony; Jackson, John D.; Yoo, James

2012-01-01

291

Atypical manifestation of progressive outer retinal necrosis in AIDS patient with CD4+ T-cell counts more than 100 cells/microL on highly active antiretroviral therapy.  

PubMed

Typical progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) is an acute ocular infectious disease in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients with extremely low CD4+ T-cell counts. It is a form of the Varicella- zoster virus (VZV) infection. This destructive infection has an extremely rapid course that may lead to blindness in affected eyes within days or weeks. Attempts at its treatment have had limited success. We describe the case of a bilateral PORN in an AIDS patient with an initial CD4+ T-cell count >100 cells/microL that developed after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). A 29-year-old Thai female initially diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in 1998, presented with bilaterally decreased visual acuity after initiating HAART two months earlier. Multiple yellowish spots appeared in the deep retina without evidence of intraocular inflammation or retinal vasculitis. Her CD4+ T-cell count was 127 cells/microL. She was diagnosed as having PORN based on clinical features and positive VZV in the aqueous humor and vitreous by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Despite combined treatment with intravenous acyclovir and intravitreous ganciclovir, the patient's visual acuity worsened with no light-perception in either eye. This case suggests that PORN should be included in the differential diagnosis of reduced visual acuity in AIDS patients initiating HAART with higher CD4+ T-cell counts. PORN may be a manifestation of the immune reconstitution syndrome. PMID:19702067

Vichitvejpaisal, Pornpattana; Reeponmahar, Somporn; Tantisiriwat, Woraphot

2009-06-01

292

Silicone fluid as a high-pressure medium in diamond anvil cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The usefulness of a silicone oil, Dow Corning 200, as a pressure medium in diamond anvil cells has been investigated. Common indicators of deviatoric stresses on ruby, such as changes in the R-line widths and the R2-R1 peak separation, show that this fluid does not deviate from hydrostaticity up to ˜15 GPa (150 kbar). The behavior of silicone is found to be very similar to the commonly used 4:1 methanol:ethanol mixture, while being much easier to use because of its higher viscosity. This ease of use and excellent performance makes silicone fluid a superior pressure medium.

Ragan, Deirdre D.; Clarke, David R.; Schiferl, David

1996-02-01

293

A quantitative in vitro study of fibroblast and endothelial cell migration in response to serum and wound fluid  

SciTech Connect

Chemoattractant activity for irradiated and nonirradiated rabbit skin fibroblast and bovine aortic arch endothelial cells was assayed in rabbit wound fluid and sera using a modification of the agarose well method originally described for polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Both serum and wound fluid contained chemoattractants for fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Fibroblast migration was decreased by 70 to 80% when the serum or wound fluid was heated to 56 degrees C for 30 min while endothelial cell migration was reduced by 50 to 60%. Platelet-poor plasma-derived serum had no directive effect on the migration of either cell type.

Orredson, S.U.; Knighton, D.R.; Scheuenstuhl, H.; Hunt, T.K.

1983-09-01

294

Money Counts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math lesson, learners count and compare amounts of money less than or equal to one dollar. Learners begin by finding all of the possible combinations of coins that can be used to equal a specified amount of money. They then compare two amounts of money and use number sense skills and problem solving strategies to move coins from one group to another so that both groups are equal in value. Learners play the Money Exchange Game as they roll a die with money amounts and try to be the first person to obtain exactly $1.00. Learners must make monetary exchanges in the game such as trading ten pennies for a dime. Finally, learners shop in a puppet supply store where they are given one dollar to buy items to make a paper bag puppet.

PBS

2012-01-01

295

Is routine synovial fluid analysis necessary? Lessons and recommendations from an audit.  

PubMed

This audit of 408 synovial fluid samples, analysed for cell counts and crystals, revealed that crystals were present in only 25 samples (6.1%). Of these, in only three patients was the diagnosis uncertain and therefore the analysis helpful. Cell counts and types generally reflected known underlying diagnoses of inflammatory arthritis or osteoarthritis. Routine synovial fluid analysis does not contribute to diagnosis or management in established rheumatic disorders and should be performed only when the underlying cause is uncertain or in newly presenting patients. Major savings can be made by abandoning routine synovial fluid analysis. PMID:10399793

Pal, B; Nash, J; Oppenheim, B; Dean, N; McFarlane, L; Maxwell, S

1999-01-01

296

Cause-specific mortality among HIV-infected individuals, by CD4+ cell count at HAART initiation, compared with HIV-uninfected individuals  

PubMed Central

Objectives To compare the proportion, timing and hazards of non-AIDS death and AIDS death among men and women who initiated HAART at different CD4+ cell counts to mortality risks of HIV-uninfected persons with similar risk factors. Design Prospective cohort studies. Methods We used parametric mixture models to compare proportions of AIDS and non-AIDS mortality and ages at death, and multivariable Cox models to compare cause-specific hazards of mortality, across levels of CD4+ cell count at HAART initiation (?200 cells/?l: ‘late’, 201–350 cells/?l: ‘intermediate’, >350 cells/?l: ‘early’) and with HIV-uninfected individuals from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study and the Women’s Interagency HIV Study. We used multiple imputation methods to address lead-time bias in sensitivity analysis. Results Earlier initiators were more likely to die of non-AIDS causes (early: 78%, intermediate: 74%, late: 49%), and at older ages (median years 72, 69, 66), relative to later initiators. Estimated median ages at non-AIDS death for each CD4+ cell count category were lower than that estimated for the HIV-uninfected group (75 years). In multivariable analysis, non-AIDS death hazard ratios relative to early initiators were 2.15 for late initiators (P < 0.01) and 1.66 for intermediate initiators (P = 0.01); AIDS death hazard ratios were 3.26 for late initiators (P <0.01) and 1.20 for intermediate initiators (P = 0.28). Strikingly, the adjusted hazards for non-AIDS death among HIV-uninfected individuals and early initiators were nearly identical (hazard ratio 1.01). Inferences were unchanged after adjustment for lead-time bias. Conclusion Results suggest the possibility of reducing the risk of non-AIDS mortality among HIV-infected individuals to approximate that faced by comparable HIV-uninfected individuals. PMID:24105030

Wada, Nikolas; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Cohen, Mardge; French, Audrey; Phair, John; Muñoz, Alvaro

2014-01-01

297

Characteristics of normal rabbit pleural fluid: Physiologic and biochemical implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each normal rabbit pleural space contains approximately 0.2 ml of collectable, clear liquid. This fluid has a total cell count\\u000a of 1503?414 cells\\/mm3, the majority of which are monocytic cells. Pleural fluid total protein concentration (1.4?0.1 gm\\/100 ml) is approximately\\u000a 20%, and lactic dehydrogenase concentration (129?6 Wrobleski U\\/ml) is approximately 40% of that found in blood. Pleural fluid\\u000a and blood

St. A. Sahn; Mary L. Willcox; J. T. Good; D. E. Potts; G. F. Filley

1979-01-01

298

Factors Related to Changes in CD4+ T-Cell Counts over Time in Patients Living with HIV/AIDS: A Multilevel Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The measurement of CD4+ T-cell (CD4) counts is a strong predictor of progression to AIDS and a means of monitoring antiviral therapy (ART). The success or failure of controlling virus levels in untreated patients or those taking ART may be associated with treatment adherence, habits, correlated infections unrelated to HIV, cancer, immunosuppressive drugs; as well as socio-economic and psychosocial aspects and access to healthcare. The aim of the present study was to identify, using a multilevel model, the factors related to the variations of CD4 counts over time, in patients living with HIV. Methodology A cohort study was conducted with patients living with HIV, selected from July 2007 to December 2010. Patients were monitored from records of their first CD4 count after being diagnosed with HIV. A multilevel model with 3 levels of aggregation was applied to analyze the associations of predictor variables and the behavior of CD4 over time. Principal Findings A total of 1870 patients were enrolled. The mean number of CD4 at the beginning of the cohort was 393.1 cells/mm3, and there was a mean increase of 1.529 cells/mm3 per month. Patient's age, smoking, use of illicit drugs, hospital treatment, changing doctors and the use of ART, were factors that affected the kinetics of the CD4 count during the follow-up period. Conclusion/Significance The results of this study indicated increased levels of CD4 over time in a cohort of patients living with HIV/AIDS and identified factors that may influence this increase and are liable to intervention. PMID:24505247

Montarroyos, Ulisses Ramos; Miranda-Filho, Demócrito Barros; César, Cibele Comini; Souza, Wayner Vieira; Lacerda, Heloisa Ramos; Militão Albuquerque, Maria de Fátima Pessoa; Aguiar, Mariana Freitas; Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar

2014-01-01

299

Bulk tank somatic cell counts analyzed by statistical process control tools to identify and monitor subclinical mastitis incidence.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between monthly Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) subclinical mastitis and new infection rate estimates and daily bulk tank somatic cell count (SCC) summarized by statistical process control tools. Dairy Herd Improvement Association test-day subclinical mastitis and new infection rate estimates along with daily or every other day bulk tank SCC data were collected for 12 mo of 2003 from 275 Upper Midwest dairy herds. Herds were divided into 5 herd production categories. A linear score [LNS = ln(BTSCC/100,000)/0.693147 + 3] was calculated for each individual bulk tank SCC. For both the raw SCC and the transformed data, the mean and sigma were calculated using the statistical quality control individual measurement and moving range chart procedure of Statistical Analysis System. One hundred eighty-three herds of the 275 herds from the study data set were then randomly selected and the raw (method 1) and transformed (method 2) bulk tank SCC mean and sigma were used to develop models for predicting subclinical mastitis and new infection rate estimates. Herd production category was also included in all models as 5 dummy variables. Models were validated by calculating estimates of subclinical mastitis and new infection rates for the remaining 92 herds and plotting them against observed values of each of the dependents. Only herd production category and bulk tank SCC mean were significant and remained in the final models. High R2 values (0.83 and 0.81 for methods 1 and 2, respectively) indicated a strong correlation between the bulk tank SCC and herd's subclinical mastitis prevalence. The standard errors of the estimate were 4.02 and 4.28% for methods 1 and 2, respectively, and decreased with increasing herd production. As a case study, Shewhart Individual Measurement Charts were plotted from the bulk tank SCC to identify shifts in mastitis incidence. Four of 5 charts examined signaled a change in bulk tank SCC before the DHI test day identified the change in subclinical mastitis prevalence. It can be concluded that applying statistical process control tools to daily bulk tank SCC can be used to estimate subclinical mastitis prevalence in the herd and observe for change in the subclinical mastitis status. Single DHI test day estimates of new infection rate were insufficient to accurately describe its dynamics. PMID:16230700

Lukas, J M; Hawkins, D M; Kinsel, M L; Reneau, J K

2005-11-01

300

Different screening tests and milk somatic cell count for the prevalence of subclinical bovine mastitis in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Identification of cows with subclinical mastitis (SCM) is an important tool for sustainable dairying and implementing effective mastitis control strategies. A total of 892 quarters milk samples from 228 lactating cows were screened by California mastitis test (CMT), White side test (WST), Surf field mastitis test (SFMT), and somatic cell count (SCC) to study the prevalence of bovine SCM in some selected areas of Bangladesh. Out of 228 cows, 148 (64.9 %), 138 (60.5 %), 132 (57.9 %), and 164 (71.9 %) were found positive for SCM by CMT, WST, SFMT, and SCC, respectively. The prevalence of bovine SCM was diagnosed 45.7, 40.2, 36.6, and 29.6 % in Chittagong, Sirajgonj, Mymensingh, and Gazipur districts, respectively, based on a combination of all tests. The overall quarter-wise prevalence of SCM was 45.7, 43.5, 41.2, and 55.0 % for CMT, WST, SFMT, and SCC. Single quarters and left front quarters were more prone to SCM (P?CMT>WST>SFMT). Thus, CMT was concluded to be the most accurate (r?=?0.782) field diagnostic test after laboratory test like SCC (r?=?0.924). However, the use of any single test may not be reliable in diagnosing SCM, while the result of CMT supported by SCC might be used effectively to pinpoint diagnosis of SCM in dairy animals than alone. PMID:25326717

Hoque, Md Nazmul; Das, Ziban Chandra; Talukder, Anup Kumar; Alam, Mohammad Shah; Rahman, Abu Nasar Md Aminoor

2015-01-01

301

Renal ?-intercalated cells maintain body fluid and electrolyte balance.  

PubMed

Inactivation of the B1 proton pump subunit (ATP6V1B1) in intercalated cells (ICs) leads to type I distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), a disease associated with salt- and potassium-losing nephropathy. Here we show that mice deficient in ATP6V1B1 (Atp6v1b1-/- mice) displayed renal loss of NaCl, K+, and water, causing hypovolemia, hypokalemia, and polyuria. We demonstrated that NaCl loss originated from the cortical collecting duct, where activity of both the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and the pendrin/Na(+)-driven chloride/bicarbonate exchanger (pendrin/NDCBE) transport system was impaired. ENaC was appropriately increased in the medullary collecting duct, suggesting a localized inhibition in the cortex. We detected high urinary prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and ATP levels in Atp6v1b1-/- mice. Inhibition of PGE2 synthesis in vivo restored ENaC protein levels specifically in the cortex. It also normalized protein levels of the large conductance calcium-activated potassium channel and the water channel aquaporin 2, and improved polyuria and hypokalemia in mutant mice. Furthermore, pharmacological inactivation of the proton pump in ?-ICs induced release of PGE2 through activation of calcium-coupled purinergic receptors. In the present study, we identified ATP-triggered PGE2 paracrine signaling originating from ?-ICs as a mechanism in the development of the hydroelectrolytic imbalance associated with dRTA. Our data indicate that in addition to principal cells, ICs are also critical in maintaining sodium balance and, hence, normal vascular volume and blood pressure. PMID:24051376

Gueutin, Victor; Vallet, Marion; Jayat, Maximilien; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Cornière, Nicolas; Leviel, Françoise; Sohet, Fabien; Wagner, Carsten A; Eladari, Dominique; Chambrey, Régine

2013-10-01

302

Experiment 7: The Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell Experiment on USML-2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) experiment performed visualizations of thermal convection in a rotating differentially heated spherical shell of fluid. In these experiments dielectric polarization forces are used to generate a radially directed buoyancy force. This enables the laboratory simulation of a number of geophysically and astrophysically important situations in which sphericity and rotation both impose strong constraints on global scale fluid motions. During USML-2 a large set of experiments with spherically symmetric heating were carried out. These enabled the determination of critical points for the transition to various forms of non-axisymmetric convection and, for highly turbulent flows, the transition latitudes separating the different modes of motion. This paper presents a first analysis of these experiments as well as data on the general performance of the instrument during the USML-2 flight.

Hart, John E.; Ohlsen, Daniel R.; Kittleman, Scott; Leslie, Fred W.; Miller, Timothy L.

1998-01-01

303

Inverse Relationship of Serum Hepcidin Levels with CD4 Cell Counts in HIV-Infected Patients Selected from an Indonesian Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Distortion of iron homeostasis may contribute to the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and tuberculosis (TB). We studied the association of the central iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin with the severity of HIV and the association between hepcidin and other markers of iron homeostasis with development of TB. Methods Three groups of patients were selected from a prospective cohort of HIV-infected subjects in Bandung, Indonesia. The first group consisted of HIV-infected patients who started TB treatment more than 30 days after cohort enrollment (cases). The second group consisted of HIV-infected patients who were matched for age, gender and CD4 cell count to the cases group (matched controls). The third group consisted of HIV-infected patients with CD4 cell counts above 200 cells/mm3 (unmatched controls). Iron parameters including hepcidin were compared using samples collected at cohort enrollment, and compared with recently published reference values for serum hepcidin. Results A total of 127 HIV-infected patients were included, 42 cases together with 42 matched controls and 43 unmatched controls. Patients with advanced HIV infection had elevated serum hepcidin and ferritin levels. Hepcidin levels correlated inversely with CD4 cells and hemoglobin. Cases had significantly higher hepcidin and ferritin concentrations at cohort enrollment compared to matched controls, but these differences were fully accounted for by the cases who started TB treatment between day 31 and 60 after enrollment. Hepcidin levels were not different in those with or without hepatitis C infection. Conclusion Iron metabolism is distorted in advanced HIV infection with CD4 cell counts correlating inversely with serum hepcidin levels. High serum hepcidin levels and hyperferritinemia were found in patients starting TB treatment shortly after cohort enrollment, suggesting that these parameters have a predictive value for development of manifest TB in HIV-infected patients. PMID:24244576

Wisaksana, Rudi; de Mast, Quirijn; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Jusuf, Hadi; Sudjana, Primal; Indrati, Agnes R.; Sumantri, Rachmat; Swinkels, Dorine; van Crevel, Reinout; van der Ven, Andre

2013-01-01

304

Alternating current electrohydrodynamics induced nanoshearing and fluid micromixing for specific capture of cancer cells.  

PubMed

We report a new tuneable alternating current (ac) electrohydrodynamics (ac-EHD) force referred to as “nanoshearing” which involves fluid flow generated within a few nanometers of an electrode surface. This force can be externally tuned via manipulating the applied ac-EHD field strength. The ability to manipulate ac-EHD induced forces and concomitant fluid micromixing can enhance fluid transport within the capture domain of the channel (e.g., transport of analytes and hence increase target–sensor interactions). This also provides a new capability to preferentially select strongly bound analytes over nonspecifically bound cells and molecules. To demonstrate the utility and versatility of nanoshearing phenomenon to specifically capture cancer cells, we present proof-of-concept data in lysed blood using two microfluidic devices containing a long array of asymmetric planar electrode pairs. Under the optimal experimental conditions, we achieved high capture efficiency (e.g., approximately 90%; %RSD=2, n=3) with a 10-fold reduction in nonspecific adsorption of non-target cells for the detection of whole cells expressing Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2). We believe that our ac-EHD devices and the use of tuneable nanoshearing phenomenon may find relevance in a wide variety of biological and medical applications. PMID:24677444

Vaidyanathan, Ramanathan; Rauf, Sakandar; Dray, Eloïse; Shiddiky, Muhammad J A; Trau, Matt

2014-03-24

305

Hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell: Application to studies of geologic fluids  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell (HDAC) was designed to simulate the geologic conditions of crustal processes in the presence of water or other fluids. The HDAC has been used to apply external pressure to both synthetic and natural fluid inclusions in quartz to minimize problems caused by stretching or decrepitation of inclusions during microthermometric analysis. When the HDAC is loaded with a fluid sample, it can be considered as a large synthetic fluid inclusion and therefore, can be used to study the PVTX properties as well as phase relations of the sample fluid. Because the HDAC has a wide measurement pressure-temperature range and also allows in-situ optical observations, it has been used to study critical phenomena of various chemical systems, such as the geologically important hydrous silicate melts. It is possible, when the HDAC is combined with synchrotron X-ray sources, to obtain basic information on speciation and structure of metal including rare-earth elements (REE) complexes in hydrothermal solutions as revealed by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectra. Recent modifications of the HDAC minimize the loss of intensity of X-rays due to scattering and absorption by the diamonds. These modifications are especially important for studying elements with absorption edges below 10 keV and therefore particularly valuable for our understanding of transport and deposition of first-row transition elements and REE in hydrothermal environments.

Chou, I.-M.

2003-01-01

306

Sex based levels of C-reactive protein and white blood cell count in subjects with metabolic syndrome: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program  

PubMed Central

Background: C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) are proinflammatory markers. They are major pathophysiological for the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study aimed to address the independent associations between MetS and WBC counts and serum CRP levels and evaluation of their magnitude in relation to the MetS, based on the sex in the Iranian adults. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, subjects who met the MetS criteria, based on the Adult Treatment Panel III were selected from the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program database. A questionnaire containing the demographic data, weight, height, waist, and hip circumference of the respondents was completed for each person. Blood pressure was measured and the anthropometric measurements were done, and fasting blood samples were taken for 2 h postload plasma glucose (2 hpp). Serum [total, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein] levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, and CRP as well as WBC counts were determined. The univariate analyses were carried out to assess the relation between the CRP levels, WBC counts with the MetS in both sexes the. Results: In men with the abdominal obesity, the higher levels of WBC count, high serum triglyceride and blood glucose levels, a low serum HDL level, and raised systolic and diastolic blood pressure were observed. However, the higher serum CRP levels were only observed in those with the low serum HDL-cholesterol levels. The mean values of the WBC counts were statistically different between the men with and without MetS, but the mean values of the CRP levels were similar between the two groups. In women, the mean values of WBC count and CRP levels were statistically different in the subjects with and without a MetS components (except for the low serum HDL levels and high diastolic blood pressure for the WBC measures and abdominal obesity for the CRP measures) and for those with and without MetS. The age and smoking adjusted changes in the CRP levels and WBC counts correlated with the number of Mets components in the women. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest substantial implications for the prevention and management of the MetS and atherosclerotic diseases, as these involve the suppression of inflammatory conditions rather than the incitement of anti-inflammatory conditions. PMID:24250693

Gharipour, Mojgan; Ramezani, Mohammad Arash; Sadeghi, Masuomeh; Khosravi, Alireza; Masjedi, Mohsen; Khosravi-Boroujeni, Hossein; Rafieian-kopaei, Mahmoud; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

2013-01-01

307

Pregnancy and Other Factors Associated With Higher CD4+ T-Cell Counts at HIV Diagnosis in Southeast Michigan, 1992–2002  

PubMed Central

Abstract and Introduction Abstract Background Early diagnosis of HIV infection provides the opportunity for treatment to prevent progression to AIDS and for intervention to prevent further transmission. The impact of routine screening of pregnant women and other factors on the stage of HIV disease at diagnosis were evaluated. Methods Data were collected in 1992–2002 from the medical records of persons presenting for HIV-related care at 2 major medical centers in Detroit, Michigan. Patients were included in the analysis if they had a CD4+ T-cell count recorded within 6 months of their first positive HIV test (N = 1858). Results Half of the patients (49%) had a first CD4+ T-cell count of < 200 cells/mm3 and 19% had an AIDS-defining illness at the time of HIV diagnosis. In the multivariate model, pregnant women were less likely than nonpregnant women to enter care with a CD4+ T-cell count of < 200 cells/mm3 (odds ratio, .24; 95% confidence interval, .14–.41). Even after adjusting for pregnancy, female sex was protective, as was age < 30 years. HIV-transmission risk factors, race, and time period of HIV diagnosis were not significantly associated with first CD4+ T-cell counts of < 200 cells/mm3. Conclusion Routinely offering HIV testing in prenatal care, as required by Michigan law, resulted in earlier diagnoses of HIV in pregnant women, as indicated by their higher CD4+ T-cell counts. Increasing routine HIV testing of all persons seeking medical care may increase the overall proportion of HIV diagnoses that are made early in the disease process. Introduction Increasing the proportions of HIV-positive persons who know their status and receive care is a strategic goal of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).[1] As one of the tactics for achieving this goal, the CDC's recommendation on routinely offering HIV testing has recently been expanded to include all persons seeking healthcare in all clinical settings where the prevalence of HIV in the population is 1% or more.[2] Increasing the proportion of patients screened is expected to result in a larger proportion of HIV diagnoses being made at early stages of the disease. Early diagnosis of HIV benefits the patient because it provides the opportunity for treatment before the CD4+ T-cell counts drop below critical levels.[3–8] Early diagnosis of HIV also benefits the population because it provides the opportunity for intervention to decrease the risk of further transmission.[1,2] Pregnant women in Michigan provided an opportunity to demonstrate the impact of routinely offering HIV testing. The Michigan law that requires healthcare providers to offer HIV testing to their pregnant patients at their first prenatal care visit, or at labor and delivery, became effective in 1989.[9,10] A high rate of compliance with this law was shown in 1998.[11] Approximately 80% of women who delivered live infants at a major medical center in Detroit reported being tested for HIV.[11] The data on pregnant women for the analysis presented here were collected at this same medical center, over a longer period, 1992–2002. The stage at which HIV infection was diagnosed in pregnant women was compared with other persons, for whom there was not a legal requirement for routinely offering HIV testing. This analysis also tested for associations of the year of first positive HIV test, sex, age, race, and HIV-transmission risk categories with the stage of HIV disease at diagnosis. PMID:16369306

Wotring, Linda L.; Montgomery, JoLynn P.; Mokotoff, Eve D.; Inungu, Joseph N.; Markowitz, Norman; Crane, Lawrence R.

2005-01-01

308

White Blood Cell, Neutrophil, and Lymphocyte Counts in Individuals in the Evacuation Zone Designated by the Government After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: The Fukushima Health Management Survey.  

PubMed

Background: Lymphocytes are susceptible to damage from radiation, and the white blood cell (WBC) count, including counts of neutrophils and lymphocytes, is a useful method of dosimetry. According to the basic survey of the Fukushima Health Management Survey (FHMS), among 13 localities where evacuation was recommended, Iitate and Namie had more individuals with external radiation exposure of more than 5 mSv than the other evacuation areas. We analyzed whether or not WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts decreased after the disaster.Methods: The subjects of this study were 45 278 men and women aged 20 to 99 years (18 953 men and 26 325 women; mean age 56 years) in the evacuation zone who participated in the Comprehensive Health Check (CHC) from June 2011 to the end of March 2012.Results: Significant differences were detected in the mean values of WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts, and for the proportion of individuals under the minimum standard for WBC and neutrophil counts, among the 13 localities. However, the distribution of individuals at each 200-cell/µL increment in lymphocyte count were similar in these areas, and the WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts did not decrease in Iitate or Namie specifically.Conclusions: No marked effects of radiation exposure on the distribution of WBC counts, including neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were detected within one year after the disaster in the evacuation zone. PMID:25311030

Sakai, Akira; Ohira, Tetsuya; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Ohtsuru, Akira; Satoh, Hiroaki; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kobashi, Gen; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yasumura, Seiji; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi

2014-10-11

309

White Blood Cell, Neutrophil, and Lymphocyte Counts in Individuals in the Evacuation Zone Designated by the Government After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: The Fukushima Health Management Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Lymphocytes are susceptible to damage from radiation, and the white blood cell (WBC) count, including counts of neutrophils and lymphocytes, is a useful method of dosimetry. According to the basic survey of the Fukushima Health Management Survey (FHMS), among 13 localities where evacuation was recommended, Iitate and Namie had more individuals with external radiation exposure of more than 5 mSv than the other evacuation areas. We analyzed whether or not WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts decreased after the disaster. Methods The subjects of this study were 45 278 men and women aged 20 to 99 years (18 953 men and 26 325 women; mean age 56 years) in the evacuation zone who participated in the Comprehensive Health Check (CHC) from June 2011 to the end of March 2012. Results Significant differences were detected in the mean values of WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts, and for the proportion of individuals under the minimum standard for WBC and neutrophil counts, among the 13 localities. However, the distribution of individuals at each 200-cell/µL increment in lymphocyte count were similar in these areas, and the WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts did not decrease in Iitate or Namie specifically. Conclusions No marked effects of radiation exposure on the distribution of WBC counts, including neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were detected within one year after the disaster in the evacuation zone.

Sakai, Akira; Ohira, Tetsuya; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Ohtsuru, Akira; Satoh, Hiroaki; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kobashi, Gen; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yasumura, Seiji; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi

2015-01-01

310

Effect of Allium cepa L. on Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Osteoclast Precursor Cell Viability, Count, and Morphology Using 4?,6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole-Staining  

PubMed Central

Allium cepa L. is known to possess numerous pharmacological properties. Our aim was to examine the in vitro effects of Allium cepa L. extract (AcE) on Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS and Escherichia coli LPS-stimulated osteoclast precursor cells to determine cell viability to other future cell-based assays. Osteoclast precursor cells (RAW 264.7) were stimulated by Pg LPS (1??g/mL) and E. coli LPS (1??g/mL) in the presence or absence of different concentrations of AcE (10–1000??g/mL) for 5 days at 37°C/5% CO2. Resazurin reduction and total protein content assays were used to detect cell viability. AcE did not affect cell viability. Resazurin reduction assay showed that AcE, at up to 1000??g/mL, did not significantly affect cell viability and cellular protein levels. Additionally a caspase 3/7 luminescence assay was used to disclose apoptosis and there was no difference in apoptotic activity between tested groups and control group. Fluorescence images stained by DAPI showed no alteration on the morphology and cell counts of LPS-stimulated osteoclast precursor cells with the use of AcE in all tested concentrations when compared to control. These findings suggest that Allium cepa L. extract could be used for in vitro studies on Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS and Escherichia coli LPS-stimulated osteoclast precursor cells. PMID:25221602

Oliveira, Tatiane; Figueiredo, Camila A.; Stavroullakis, Alexander; Da Silva Velozo, Eudes; Nogueira-Filho, Getulio

2014-01-01

311

RBC count  

MedlinePLUS

... cor pulmonale ) Dehydration (such as from severe diarrhea) Kidney tumor (renal cell carcinoma) Low blood oxygen level (hypoxia) ... marrow failure (for example, from radiation, toxins, or tumor) ... disease) RBC destruction ( hemolysis ) due to transfusion, blood ...

312

Cooperative vaccinia infection demonstrated at the single-cell level using FluidFM.  

PubMed

The mechanisms used by viruses to enter and replicate within host cells are subjects of intense investigation. These studies are ultimately aimed at development of new drugs that interfere with these processes. Virus entry and infection are generally monitored by dispensing bulk virus suspensions on layers of cells without accounting for the fate of each virion. Here, we take advantage of the recently developed FluidFM to deposit single vaccinia virions onto individual cells in a controlled manner. While the majority of virions were blocked prior to early gene expression, infection of individual cells increased in a nondeterministic fashion with respect to the number of viruses placed. Microscopic analyses of several stages of the virus lifecycle indicated that this was the result of cooperativity between virions during early stages of infection. These findings highlight the importance of performing controlled virus infection experiments at the single cell level. PMID:22731659

Stiefel, Philipp; Schmidt, Florian I; Dörig, Pablo; Behr, Pascal; Zambelli, Tomaso; Vorholt, Julia A; Mercer, Jason

2012-08-01

313

Computational fluid dynamics-based design of a microfabricated cell capture device.  

PubMed

A microfluidic cell capture device was designed, fabricated, evaluated by numerical simulations and validated experimentally. The cell capture device was designed with a minimal footprint compartment comprising internal micropillars with the goal to obtain a compact, integrated bioanalytical system. The design of the device was accomplished by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Various microdevice designs were rapidly prototyped in poly-dimethylsiloxane using conventional soft lithograpy technique applying micropatterned SU-8 epoxy based negative photoresist as moulding replica. The numerically modeled flow characteristics of the cell capture device were experimentally validated by tracing and microscopic recording the flow trajectories using yeast cells. Finally, we give some perspectives on how CFD modeling can be used in the early stage of microfluidics-based cell capture device development. PMID:25205671

Jarvas, Gabor; Szigeti, Marton; Hajba, Laszlo; Furjes, Peter; Guttman, Andras

2015-03-01

314

Isolation and characterization of exosomes from cell culture supernatants and biological fluids.  

PubMed

Exosomes are small membrane vesicles found in cell culture supernatants and in different biological fluids. Exosomes form in a particular population of endosomes, called multivesicular bodies (MVBs), by inward budding into the lumen of the compartment. Upon fusion of MVBs with the plasma membrane, these internal vesicles are secreted. Exosomes possess a defined set of membrane and cytosolic proteins. The physiological function of exosomes is still a matter of debate, but increasing results in various experimental systems suggest their involvement in multiple biological processes. Because both cell-culture supernatants and biological fluids contain different types of lipid membranes, it is critical to perform high-quality exosome purification. This unit describes different approaches for exosome purification from various sources, and discusses methods to evaluate the purity and homogeneity of the purified exosome preparations. PMID:18228490

Théry, Clotilde; Amigorena, Sebastian; Raposo, Graça; Clayton, Aled

2006-04-01

315

Time-periodic traveling solutions of localized convection cells and their collision in binary fluid mixture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the mathematical structure of localized convection cell solutions in a binary fluid mixture, some of which are not observed in Rayleigh-Benard convection in a pure fluid. In particular, a solution representing time-periodic traveling localized convection cells (periodic traveling pulse, PTP) has not been obtained even numerically because this solution requires two unknown variables to be determined: group velocity and temporal period in the comoving frame with the group velocity. We developed a new integrated numerical method to obtain the PTP solution as well as the steady, periodic, and traveling solutions. By using this method, a global bifurcation structure containing a variety of solutions including PTPs is obtained and the phase dependence of the collision of counter- propagating PTPs is investigated in detail.

Watanabe, Takeshi; Toyabe, Kazutaka; Iima, Makoto; Nishiura, Yasumasa

2010-11-01

316

Amniotic Fluid-Derived Stem Cells for Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering Applications  

PubMed Central

Recent research has demonstrated that a population of stem cells can be isolated from amniotic fluid removed by amniocentesis that are broadly multipotent and nontumorogenic. These amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (AFSC) could potentially provide an autologous cell source for treatment of congenital defects identified during gestation, particularly cardiovascular defects. In this review, the various methods of isolating, sorting, and culturing AFSC are compared, along with techniques for inducing differentiation into cardiac myocytes and endothelial cells. Although research has not demonstrated complete and high-yield cardiac differentiation, AFSC have been shown to effectively differentiate into endothelial cells and can effectively support cardiac tissue. Additionally, several tissue engineering and regenerative therapeutic approaches for the use of these cells in heart patches, injection after myocardial infarction, heart valves, vascularized scaffolds, and blood vessels are summarized. These applications show great promise in the treatment of congenital cardiovascular defects, and further studies of isolation, culture, and differentiation of AFSC will help to develop their use for tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and cardiovascular therapies. PMID:23350771

Petsche Connell, Jennifer; Camci-Unal, Gulden; Khademhosseini, Ali

2013-01-01

317

Cervicovaginal cytological abnormalities in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection, in relation to disease stage, CD4 cell count and viral load.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to assess infections and cytologic abnormalities in cervicovaginal smears from 153 HIV-positive women and 169 HIV-negative followed up at the UFTM School of Medicine between May 1999 and May 2002. The medical records and cervicovaginal smears were reviewed and the HIV-positive group was classified according to CD4 cell count, HIV viral load, antiretroviral therapy and HIV subgroups (with or without disease; with or without therapy) and compared to HIV-negative group. We conclude that the frequency of Candida sp, Trichomonas vaginalis and bacterial vaginosis in cervicovaginal smear, is not different between HIV-positive and HIV-negative women, even if the HIV-group is subdivided according to CD4 cell count, HIV viral load, antiretroviral therapy and HIV subgroups. The frequency of LSIL, in cervicovaginal smears, was greater in the HIV-group (17.6%) than in the HIV-negative (4.1%); there was no difference between the two groups according to frequency of HSIL (4.6% versus 1.8%), ASCUS/AGUS (7.8% versus 3.5%) and invasive carcinoma (1.3% versus 0.6%). The frequency of LSIL was greater in the HIV positive group with CD4 cell count < 350 cells/mm(3). The viral load, therapeutic regimen and HIV subgroups (HIV-positive without therapy, HIV-positive with therapy, AIDS by immunological criteria and AIDS by clinical criteria) have not shown relationship with LSIL frequency, until now. PMID:19170167

Micheletti, Adilha Misson Rua; Dutra, Valéria de Freitas; Murta, Eddie Fernando Cândido; Paschoini, Marina Carvalho; Silva-Vergara, Mário Leon; Barbosa e Silva, Gisele; Adad, Sheila Jorge

2009-03-01

318

Low CD4+ T Cell Counts among African HIV-1 Infected Subjects with Group B KIR Haplotypes in the Absence of Specific Inhibitory KIR Ligands  

PubMed Central

Natural killer (NK) cells are regulated by interactions between polymorphic killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and human leukocyte antigens (HLA). Genotypic combinations of KIR3DS1/L1 and HLA Bw4-80I were previously shown to influence HIV-1 disease progression, however other KIR genes have not been well studied. In this study, we analyzed the influence of all activating and inhibitory KIR, in association with the known HLA inhibitory KIR ligands, on markers of disease progression in a West African population of therapy-naïve HIV-1 infected subjects. We observed a significant association between carriage of a group B KIR haplotype and lower CD4+ T cell counts, with an additional effect for KIR3DS1 within the frame of this haplotype. In contrast, we found that individuals carrying genes for the inhibitory KIR ligands HLA-Bw4 as well as HLA-C1 showed significantly higher CD4+ T cell counts. These associations were independent from the viral load and from individual HIV-1 protective HLA alleles. Our data suggest that group B KIR haplotypes and lack of specific inhibitory KIR ligand genes, genotypes considered to favor NK cell activation, are predictive of HIV-1 disease progression. PMID:21347267

Jennes, Wim; Verheyden, Sonja; Demanet, Christian; Menten, Joris; Vuylsteke, Bea; Nkengasong, John N.; Kestens, Luc

2011-01-01

319

Transient computation fluid dynamics modeling of a single proton exchange membrane fuel cell with serpentine channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) has become a promising candidate for the power source of electrical vehicles because of its low pollution, low noise and especially fast startup and transient responses at low temperatures. A transient, three-dimensional, non-isothermal and single-phase mathematical model based on computation fluid dynamics has been developed to describe the transient process and the dynamic

Guilin Hu; Jianren Fan

2007-01-01

320

[Corrected count].  

PubMed

The data of the 1991 census indicated that the population count of Brazil fell short of a former estimate by 3 million people. The population reached 150 million people with an annual increase of 2%, while projections in the previous decade expected an increase of 2.48% to 153 million people. This reduction indicates more widespread use of family planning (FP) and control of fertility among families of lower social status as more information is being provided to them. However, the Ministry of Health ordered an investigation of foreign family planning organizations because it was suspected that women were forced to undergo tubal ligation during vaccination campaigns. A strange alliance of left wing politicians and the Roman Catholic Church alleges a conspiracy of international FP organizations receiving foreign funds. The FP strategies of Bemfam and Pro-Pater offer women who have little alternative the opportunity to undergo tubal ligation or to receive oral contraceptives to control fertility. The ongoing government program of distributing booklets on FP is feeble and is not backed up by an education campaign. Charges of foreign interference are leveled while the government hypocritically ignores the grave problem of 4 million abortions a year. The population is expected to continue to grow until the year 2040 and then to stabilize at a low growth rate of .4%. In 1980, the number of children per woman was 4.4 whereas the 1991 census figures indicate this has dropped to 3.5. The excess population is associated with poverty and a forsaken caste in the interior. The population actually has decreased in the interior and in cities with 15,000 people. The phenomenon of the drop of fertility associated with rural exodus is contrasted with cities and villages where the population is 20% less than expected. PMID:12286542

1991-11-27

321

Mechanism of vibration-induced repulsion force on a particle in a viscous fluid cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space platforms such as the Space Shuttle and International Space Station have been considered an ideal environment for production of protein and semiconductor crystals of superior quality due to the negligible gravity-induced convection. Although it was believed that under microgravity environment diffusive mass transport would dominate the growth of the crystals, some related experiments have not shown satisfactory results possibly due to the movement of the growing crystals in fluid cells caused by small vibrations present in the space platforms called g-jitter. In ground-based experiments, there have been clear observations of attraction and repulsion of a solid particle with respect to a nearby wall of the fluid cell due to small vibrations. The present work is a numerical investigation on the physical mechanisms responsible for the repulsion force, which has been predicted to increase with the cell vibration frequency and amplitude, as well as the fluid viscosity. Moreover, the simulations have revealed that the repulsion force occurs mostly due to the increased pressure in the narrow gap between the particle and the nearest wall.

Saadatmand, Mehrrad; Kawaji, Masahiro

2013-08-01

322

Mechanism of vibration-induced repulsion force on a particle in a viscous fluid cell.  

PubMed

Space platforms such as the Space Shuttle and International Space Station have been considered an ideal environment for production of protein and semiconductor crystals of superior quality due to the negligible gravity-induced convection. Although it was believed that under microgravity environment diffusive mass transport would dominate the growth of the crystals, some related experiments have not shown satisfactory results possibly due to the movement of the growing crystals in fluid cells caused by small vibrations present in the space platforms called g-jitter. In ground-based experiments, there have been clear observations of attraction and repulsion of a solid particle with respect to a nearby wall of the fluid cell due to small vibrations. The present work is a numerical investigation on the physical mechanisms responsible for the repulsion force, which has been predicted to increase with the cell vibration frequency and amplitude, as well as the fluid viscosity. Moreover, the simulations have revealed that the repulsion force occurs mostly due to the increased pressure in the narrow gap between the particle and the nearest wall. PMID:24032936

Saadatmand, Mehrrad; Kawaji, Masahiro

2013-08-01

323

The quantitative effect of microextractor cell geometry on the analytical supercritical fluid extraction efficiencies of environmentally important compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantitative effect of microextractor cell geometries on supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) efficiencies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and methoxychlor from octadecyl-bonded sorbents has been evaluated and compared to similar effects seen upon increasing the supercritical fluid density. For the PAHs studied, correlations between the fused ring number and the relative increase in recoveries have been established. SFE recoveries can

K. G. Furton; J. Rein

1991-01-01

324

Natural evolution of CD4+ cell count in patients with CD4 >350 or >500? cells/mm3 at the time of diagnosis according to HIV-1 coreceptor tropism.  

PubMed

The HIV-1 coreceptor usage may play a critical role in AIDS pathogenesis and the X4-using viruses are considered to be more pathogenic than the R5-tropic viruses. These observations may influence the therapeutic decisions by asking for an earlier antiretroviral (ARV) treatment for the patients infected by the X4-tropic viruses compared with those infected by the R5-tropic viruses. The natural evolution of CD4+ cell count for 109 non-treated patients infected by the R5- or X4-tropic HIV-1 viruses with CD4+ >350 and >500 cells/mm(3) at time of diagnosis was compared until the initiation of an ARV regimen. The coreceptor usage was determined from the V3 env region sequence by Geno2Pheno (false positive rate 10%). A mixed linear regression model to analyse the CD4+ data with tropism as fixed effect in the model was used. Overall, 93 (85.3%) and 16 (14.7%) were infected by R5- and X4-tropic viruses, respectively. The median age, baseline CD4+ cell count, and viral load were 34 years (IQR: 30-42), 523 cells/mm(3) (IQR: 420-604), and 4.5 log(10) ?copies/ml (IQR: 3.9-5.0), respectively. There was no statistical difference in time to progression between the patients harboring R5- or X4-tropic viruses. The same results were observed for the sub-group of patients with CD4+ cell count >500 cells/mm(3). The virus tropism has no impact on the CD4+ cell count evolution in these HIV-1 patients diagnosed with CD4+ >350 or >500 cells/mm(3) suggesting that the tropism determination at time of diagnosis does not seem to be a useful tool to predict the clinical progression. PMID:23080487

Soulié, Cathia; Charpentier, Charlotte; Flandre, Philippe; Nino, Clément; Carcelain, Guislaine; Simon, Anne; Katlama, Christine; Landman, Roland; Brun-Vézinet, Françoise; Descamps, Diane; Calvez, Vincent; Marcelin, Anne-Geneviève

2012-12-01

325

Reliable and Accurate CD4+ T Cell Count and Percent by the Portable Flow Cytometer CyFlow MiniPOC and “CD4 Easy Count Kit-Dry”, as Revealed by the Comparison with the Gold Standard Dual Platform Technology  

PubMed Central

Background An accurate and affordable CD4+ T cells count is an essential tool in the fight against HIV/AIDS. Flow cytometry (FCM) is the “gold standard” for counting such cells, but this technique is expensive and requires sophisticated equipment, temperature-sensitive monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and trained personnel. The lack of access to technical support and quality assurance programs thus limits the use of FCM in resource-constrained countries. We have tested the accuracy, the precision and the carry-over contamination of Partec CyFlow MiniPOC, a portable and economically affordable flow cytometer designed for CD4+ count and percentage, used along with the “CD4% Count Kit-Dry”. Materials and Methods Venous blood from 59 adult HIV+ patients (age: 25–58 years; 43 males and 16 females) was collected and stained with the “MiniPOC CD4% Count Kit-Dry”. CD4+ count and percentage were then determined in triplicate by the CyFlow MiniPOC. In parallel, CD4 count was performed using mAbs and a CyFlow Counter, or by a dual platform system (from Beckman Coulter) based upon Cytomic FC500 (“Cytostat tetrachrome kit” for mAbs) and Coulter HmX Hematology Analyzer (for absolute cell count). Results The accuracy of CyFlow MiniPOC against Cytomic FC500 showed a correlation coefficient (CC) of 0.98 and 0.97 for CD4+ count and percentage, respectively. The accuracy of CyFlow MiniPOC against CyFlow Counter showed a CC of 0.99 and 0.99 for CD4 T cell count and percentage, respectively. CyFlow MiniPOC showed an excellent repeatability: CD4+ cell count and percentage were analyzed on two instruments, with an intra-assay precision below ±5% deviation. Finally, there was no carry-over contamination for samples at all CD4 values, regardless of their position in the sequence of analysis. Conclusion The cost-effective CyFlow MiniPOC produces rapid, reliable and accurate results that are fully comparable with those from highly expensive dual platform systems. PMID:25622041

Nasi, Milena; De Biasi, Sara; Bianchini, Elena; Gibellini, Lara; Pinti, Marcello; Scacchetti, Tiziana; Trenti, Tommaso; Borghi, Vanni; Mussini, Cristina; Cossarizza, Andrea

2015-01-01

326

Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from normal rats stimulates DNA synthesis in rat alveolar type II cells  

SciTech Connect

Proliferation of alveolar type II cells after lung injury is important for the restoration of the alveolar epithelium. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) may represent an important source of growth factors for alveolar type II cells. To test this possibility, BALF fluid was collected from normal rats, concentrated 10-fold by Amicon filtration, and tested for its ability to stimulate DNA synthesis in rat alveolar type II cells in primary culture. BALF induced a dose-dependent increase in type II cell DNA synthesis resulting in a 6-fold increase in (3H)thymidine incorporation. Similar doses also stimulated (3H)thymidine incorporation into rat lung fibroblasts by 6- to 8-fold. Removal of pulmonary surface active material by centrifugation did not significantly reduce the stimulatory activity of BALF for type II cells. The stimulation of type II cell DNA synthesis by BALF was reduced by 100% after heating at 100 degrees C for 10 min, and by approximately 80% after reduction with dithiothreitol, and after trypsin treatment. Dialysis of BALF against 1 N acetic acid resulted in a 27% reduction in stimulatory activity. The effect of BALF in promoting type II cell DNA synthesis was more pronounced when tested in the presence of serum, although serum itself has very little effect on type II cell DNA synthesis. When BALF was tested in combination with other substances that stimulate type II cell DNA synthesis (cholera toxin, insulin, epidermal growth factor, and acidic fibroblast growth factor), additive effects or greater were observed. When BALF was chromatographed over Sephadex G150, the activity eluted with an apparent molecular weight of 100 kDa.

Leslie, C.C.; McCormick-Shannon, K.; Mason, R.J.

1989-02-01

327

PIMA Point of Care CD4+ Cell Count Machines in Remote MNCH Settings: Lessons Learned from Seven Districts in Zimbabwe  

PubMed Central

An evaluation was commissioned to generate evidence on the impact of PIMA point-of-care CD4+ count machines in maternal and new-born child health settings in Zimbabwe; document best practices, lessons learned, challenges, and recommendations related to scale up of this new technology. A mixed methodology approach that included 31 in-depth interviews with stakeholders involved in procurement, distribution, and use of the POC machines was employed. Additionally, data was also abstracted from 207 patient records from 35 sites with the PIMA POC CD4+ count machines and 10 other comparative sites without the machine. A clearer training strategy was found to be necessary. The average time taken to initiate clients on antiretroviral treatment (ART) was substantially less, 15 days (IQR-1-149) for sites with a PIMA POC machine as compared to 32.7 days (IQR-1-192) at sites with no PIMA POC machine. There was general satisfaction because of the presence of the PIMA POC CD4+ count machine at sites that also initiated ART. PMID:24847177

Mtapuri-Zinyowera, Sekesai; Chiyaka, Edward T.; Mushayi, Wellington; Musuka, Godfrey; Naluyinda-Kitabire, Florence; Mushavi, Angella; Chikwasha, Vasco

2013-01-01

328

Ion transporters in brain endothelial cells that contribute to formation of brain interstitial fluid.  

PubMed

Ions and water transported across the endothelium lining the blood–brain barrier contribute to the fluid secreted into the brain and are important in maintaining appropriate volume and ionic composition of brain interstitial fluid. Changes in this secretion process may occur after stroke. The present study identifies at transcript and protein level ion transporters involved in the movement of key ions and examines how levels of certain of these alter following oxidative stress. Immunohistochemistry provides evidence for Cl?/HCO3? exchanger, AE2, and Na+, HCO3? cotransporters, NBCe1 and NBCn1, on brain microvessels. mRNA analysis by RT-PCR reveals expression of these transporters in cultured rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (both primary and immortalized GPNT cells) and also Na+/H+ exchangers, NHE1 (primary and immortalized) and NHE2 (primary cells only). Knock-down using siRNA in immortalized GPNT cells identifies AE2 as responsible for much of the Cl?/HCO3? exchange following extracellular chloride removal and NHE1 as the transporter that accounts for most of the Na+/H+ exchange following intracellular acidification. Transcript levels of both AE2 and NHE1 are increased following hypoxia/reoxygenation. Further work is now required to determine the localization of the bicarbonate transporters to luminal or abluminal membranes of the endothelial cells as well as to identify and localize additional transport mechanisms that must exist for K+ and Cl?. PMID:24022703

Mokgokong, Ruth; Wang, Shanshan; Taylor, Caroline J; Barrand, Margery A; Hladky, Stephen B

2014-05-01

329

CD4+, CD8+, CD3+ cell counts and CD4+/CD8+ ratio among patients with mycobacterial diseases (leprosy, tuberculosis), HIV infections, and normal healthy adults: a comparative analysis of studies in different regions of India.  

PubMed

In this study, we estimated the CD4+, CD8+, CD3+ cell counts and the CD4/CD8 ratio among normal healthy controls (adults and children), leprosy patients (without any complications and during reactional states), TB patients (with and without HIV), and HIV-positive patients (early infection and full-blown AIDS) and correlated the changes with disease progression. In our study, it was observed that among adults, CD4+ cell counts ranged from 518-1098, CD8+ from 312-952, whereas CD4/CD8 ratio from 0.75-2.30. Among children, both CD4+ and CD8+ cells were more and the CD4/CD8 ratio varied from 0.91-3.17. With regard to leprosy patients, we observed that CD4+ and CD8+ cell counts were lower among PB (pauci-bacillary) and MB (multi-bacillary) patients. CD4/CD8 ratio was 0.99 ± 0.28 among PB patients while the ratio was lower, 0.78 ± 0.20, among MB patients. CD4+ cell counts were raised during RR (reversal reactions) and ENL (erythema nodosum leprosum) among the PB and MB patients whereas the CD8+ cell counts were lower among PB and MB patients. CD4/CD8 ratio doubled during reactional episodes of RR and ENL. Among the HIV-negative tuberculosis (TB) patients, both the CD4+ and CD8+ cell counts were found to be less and the CD4/CD8 ratio varied between 0.53-1.75. Among the HIV-positive TB patients and HIV-positive patients, both the CD4+ and CD8+ cells were very less and ratio drops significantly. In the initial stages of infection, as CD4+ counts drop, an increase in the CD8+ cell counts was observed and the ratio declines. In full-blown cases, CD4+ cell counts were very low, 3-4 to 54 cells, CD8+ cells from 12-211 and the ratio drops too low. This study is the first of its kind in this region of the country and assumes importance since no other study has reported the values of CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocyte counts among patients with mycobacterial diseases (leprosy and TB), HIV infections along with normal healthy individuals of the region, and correlation with clinical presentations of patients. PMID:25350657

Hussain, Tahziba; Kulshreshtha, K K; Yadav, V S; Katoch, Kiran

2015-01-01

330

New apparatus for direct counting of. beta. particles from two-dimensional gels and an application to changes in protein synthesis due to cell density  

SciTech Connect

A new method is described for scanning two-dimensional gels by the direct counting of ..beta.. particles instead of autoradiography. The methodology is described; results are compared with autoradiographic results; and data are presented demonstrating changed patterns of protein synthesis accompanying changes in cell density. The method is rapid and permits identification of differences in protein abundance of approximately 10% for a substantial fraction of the more prominent proteins. A modulation effect of more than 5 standard deviations, accompanying contact inhibition of cell growth, is shown to occur for an appreciable number of these proteins. The method promises to be applicable to a variety of biochemical and genetic experiments designed to delineate changes in protein synthesis accompanying changes in genome, molecular environment, history, and state of differentiation of the cell populations studied. 13 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Anderson, H.L.; Puck, T.T.; Shera, E.B.

1987-07-01

331

Force-controlled manipulation of single cells: from AFM to FluidFM.  

PubMed

The ability to perturb individual cells and to obtain information at the single-cell level is of central importance for addressing numerous biological questions. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) offers great potential for this prospering field. Traditionally used as an imaging tool, more recent developments have extended the variety of cell-manipulation protocols. Fluidic force microscopy (FluidFM) combines AFM with microfluidics via microchanneled cantilevers with nano-sized apertures. The crucial element of the technology is the connection of the hollow cantilevers to a pressure controller, allowing their operation in liquid as force-controlled nanopipettes under optical control. Proof-of-concept studies demonstrated a broad spectrum of single-cell applications including isolation, deposition, adhesion and injection in a range of biological systems. PMID:24856959

Guillaume-Gentil, Orane; Potthoff, Eva; Ossola, Dario; Franz, Clemens M; Zambelli, Tomaso; Vorholt, Julia A

2014-07-01

332

Clonotypic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid T cells during disease exacerbation and remission in a patient with multiple sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Migration of autoreactive T cells into the central nervous system (CNS) compartment is thought to be an important step in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). To follow the evolution of T cell repertoire in the CNS of a patient with relapsing–remitting MS, we analyzed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cells obtained during an acute clinical exacerbation, and subsequent disease remission after

Paolo A. Muraro; Riccardo Cassiani-Ingoni; Katherine Chung; Amy N. Packer; Mireia Sospedra; Roland Martin

2006-01-01

333

Published in: Proteomics 5, 212-221 (2005) Cell wall proteins in apoplastic fluids of Arabidopsis thaliana  

E-print Network

-21" DOI : 10.1002/pmic.200400882 #12;2 1 Introduction Cell walls of higher plants are dynamic structures be grouped into four main functional categories related to cell wall structure, remodeling, signaling1 Published in: Proteomics 5, 212-221 (2005) Cell wall proteins in apoplastic fluids of Arabidopsis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

334

Proteomic analysis of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm cells grown under physiologically relevant fluid shear stress conditions  

PubMed Central

Background The biofilm forming bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for maladies ranging from severe skin infection to major diseases such as bacteremia, endocarditis and osteomyelitis. A flow displacement system was used to grow S. aureus biofilms in four physiologically relevant fluid shear rates (50, 100, 500 and 1000 s-1) to identify proteins that are associated with biofilm. Results Global protein expressions from the membrane and cytosolic fractions of S. aureus biofilm cells grown under the above shear rate conditions are reported. Sixteen proteins in the membrane-enriched fraction and eight proteins in the cytosolic fraction showed significantly altered expression (p?fluid shear. These 24 proteins were identified using nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS. They were found to be associated with various metabolic functions such as glycolysis / TCA pathways, protein synthesis and stress tolerance. Increased fluid shear stress did not influence the expression of two important surface binding proteins: fibronectin-binding and collagen-binding proteins. Conclusions The reported data suggest that while the general metabolic function of the sessile bacteria is minimal under high fluid shear stress conditions, they seem to retain the binding capacity to initiate new infections. PMID:24855455

2014-01-01

335

Counting whole numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Identify and use whole numbers up to 100 Here are some links to help you learn more about counting Teach R Kids Math counting and number activity themes Here are some games to help you practice your counting counting cherrios Bunny Count Connect the Dots Game ...

Hirst, Ms.

2007-10-12

336

Effect of Embryonic Cerebrospinal Fluid on Proliferation and Differentiation of Neuroprogenitor Cells  

PubMed Central

Objective: Embryonic cerebrospinal fluid (e-CSF) has an important role in development of embryonic and adult brain. Proteomic analysis suggests that this fluid has many morphogenes and cytokines that alter in time and space throughout embryonic life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the developmental effect of embryonic CSF on proliferation and differentiation of neuroprogenitor cells in different gestational age. Materials and Methods: In this In this experimental study, we examined the role of e- CSF on proliferation and differentiation of neuroprogenitor cells using neurosphere culture method. Neurospheres size analysis and MTT assay were used to assess cell proliferation after four days in vitro. Glial differentiation study was carried out by immunocytochemistry. Neurospheres size and percentage of glial fibrialy acidic protein (GFAP) positive cells were measured by image analyzer (image J). The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, followed by the Tukey’s post hoc test. Data were expressed as mean ± SEM, and differences were considered significant when p<0.05, 0.01 and 0.001. Results: Viability and proliferation of neuro progenitor cells in cultures conditioned with E16 CSF and E18 CSF were significantly increased compare to control group. A dramatic decrease in percentage of GFAP-positive cells was found following the application of CSF from E16 and E18 embryos, but not E20 CSF. Conclusion: Our data suggest that, e-CSF altered proliferation and differentiation of neuro progenitor cells in age dependent manner. E16 and E18 CSF enhanced proliferation and viability of neuro progenitor cells, and inhibited differentiation to glial fate in comparison with control group. PMID:23700558

Yari, Siamak; Parivar, Kazem; Nabiuni, Mohammad; Keramatipour, Mohammad

2013-01-01

337

Complete Blood Count and Retinal Vessel Calibers  

PubMed Central

Objective The influence of hematological indices such as complete blood count on microcirculation is poorly understood. Retinal microvasculature can be directly visualized and vessel calibers are associated with a range of ocular and systemic diseases. We examined the association of complete blood count with retinal vessel calibers. Methods Cross-sectional population-based Blue Mountains Eye Study, n?=?3009, aged 49+ years. Complete blood count was measured from fasting blood samples taken at baseline examination, 1992–4. Retinal arteriolar and venular calibers were measured from digitized retinal photographs using a validated semi-automated computer program. Results All analyses adjusted for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, smoking and fellow vessel caliber. Higher hematocrit, white cell count and platelet count were associated with narrower arteriolar caliber (p?=?0.02, 0.03 and 0.001 respectively), while higher hemoglobin, hematocrit, red cell count, white cell count and platelet count were associated with wider venular caliber (p<0.0001 for all). Each quintile increase in hematocrit, white cell count and platelet count was associated with approximately 0.5 µm narrower arteriolar caliber; whereas each quintile increase in all of the complete blood count components was associated with approximately 1–2 µm wider venular caliber. Conclusions These associations show that elevated levels of hematological indices can have adverse effects on the microcirculation. PMID:25036459

Liew, Gerald; Wang, Jie Jin; Rochtchina, Elena; Wong, Tien Yin; Mitchell, Paul

2014-01-01

338

Fluid flow releases fibroblast growth factor-2 from human aortic smooth muscle cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study tested the hypothesis that fluid shear stress regulates the release of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 from human aortic smooth muscle cells. FGF-2 is a potent mitogen that is involved in the response to vascular injury and is expressed in a wide variety of cell types. FGF-2 is found in the cytoplasm of cells and outside cells, where it associates with extracellular proteoglycans. To test the hypothesis that shear stress regulates FGF-2 release, cells were exposed to flow, and FGF-2 amounts were measured from the conditioned medium, pericellular fraction (extracted by heparin treatment), and cell lysate. Results from the present study show that after 15 minutes of shear stress at 25 dyne/cm(2) in a parallel-plate flow system, a small but significant fraction (17%) of the total FGF-2 was released from human aortic smooth muscle cells. FGF-2 levels in the circulating medium increased 10-fold over medium from static controls (P<0.01). A 50% increase in FGF-2 content versus control (P<0.01) was found in the pericellular fraction (extracted by heparin treatment). Furthermore, a significant decrease in FGF-2 was detected in the cell lysate, indicating that FGF-2 was released from inside the cell. Cell permeability studies with fluorescent dextran were performed to examine whether transient membrane disruption caused FGF-2 release. Flow cytometry detected a 50% increase in mean fluorescence of cells exposed to 25 dyne/cm(2) versus control cells. This indicates that the observed FGF-2 release from human aortic smooth muscle cells is likely due to transient membrane disruption on initiation of flow.

Rhoads, D. N.; Eskin, S. G.; McIntire, L. V.

2000-01-01

339

Fuel cell assembly unit for promoting fluid service and electrical conductivity  

DOEpatents

Fluid service and/or electrical conductivity for a fuel cell assembly is promoted. Open-faced flow channel(s) are formed in a flow field plate face, and extend in the flow field plate face between entry and exit fluid manifolds. A resilient gas diffusion layer is located between the flow field plate face and a membrane electrode assembly, fluidly serviced with the open-faced flow channel(s). The resilient gas diffusion layer is restrained against entering the open-faced flow channel(s) under a compressive force applied to the fuel cell assembly. In particular, a first side of a support member abuts the flow field plate face, and a second side of the support member abuts the resilient gas diffusion layer. The support member is formed with a plurality of openings extending between the first and second sides of the support member. In addition, a clamping pressure is maintained for an interface between the resilient gas diffusion layer and a portion of the membrane electrode assembly. Preferably, the support member is spikeless and/or substantially flat. Further, the support member is formed with an electrical path for conducting current between the resilient gas diffusion layer and position(s) on the flow field plate face.

Jones, Daniel O. (Glenville, NY)

1999-01-01

340

Mucus-stimulating substances in human body fluids assayed in an invertebrate mucous cell system.  

PubMed

An in vitro cell system has been shown to respond differentially to body fluids from normal subjects and from those with disorders of mucus secretion. The urn cell complex of the marine invertebrate Sipunculus nudus responds to mucus-stimulating substances (MSS) in normal human lacrimal fluids and stool filtrates by producing mucus. The process of mucus secretion can be directly observed, and the amount produced can be measured, in a calibrated light microscope. MSS are decreased in lacrimal fluids of patients with dry-eye conditions, while they are periodically increased in filtered stools of patients with acute Shigella dysentery and acute cholera. MSS are remarkably increased isotonic dilutions of sera of rabbits with acute mucoid enteritis, but are absent from sera of normal rabbits. MSS are present in isotonic dilutions of normal human sera which are heated to 85 degrees C for 4 minutes, but are absent from similarly processed sera of immunosuppressed patients. Mean MSS values of heated sera of children with cystic fibrosis are higher than those of controls. The active factor in tears and serum is a large molecule and is heat-stable. PMID:513427

Bang, B G; Bang, F B

1979-12-01

341

Death rates in HIV-positive antiretroviral-naive patients with CD4 count greater than 350 cells per microL in Europe and North America: a pooled cohort observational study  

PubMed Central

Background It is unclear whether antiretroviral (ART) naive HIV-positive individuals with high CD4 counts have a raised mortality risk compared with the general population, but this is relevant for considering earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Methods Pooling data from 23 European and North American cohorts, we calculated country-, age-, sex-, and year-standardised mortality ratios (SMRs), stratifying by risk group. Included patients had at least one pre-ART CD4 count above 350 cells/mm3. The association between CD4 count and death rate was evaluated using Poisson regression methods. Findings Of 40,830 patients contributing 80,682 person-years of follow up with CD4 count above 350 cells/mm3, 419 (1.0%) died. The SMRs (95% confidence interval) were 1.30 (1.06-1.58) in homosexual men, and 2.94 (2.28-3.73) and 9.37 (8.13-10.75) in the heterosexual and IDU risk groups respectively. CD4 count above 500 cells/mm3 was associated with a lower death rate than 350-499 cells/mm3: adjusted rate ratios (95% confidence intervals) for 500-699 cells/mm3 and above 700 cells/mm3 were 0.77 (0.61-0.95) and 0.66 (0.52-0.85) respectively. Interpretation In HIV-infected ART-naive patients with high CD4 counts, death rates were raised compared with the general population. In homosexual men this was modest, suggesting that a proportion of the increased risk in other groups is due to confounding by other factors. Even in this high CD4 count range, lower CD4 count was associated with raised mortality. PMID:20638118

2011-01-01

342

Effect of amniotic fluid on the in vitro culture of human corneal endothelial cells.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of human amniotic fluid (HAF) on the growth of human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs) and to establish an in vitro method for expanding HCECs. HCECs were cultured in DMEM-F12 supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Confluent monolayer cultures were trypsinized and passaged using either FBS- or HAF-containing media. Cell proliferation and cell death ELISA assays were performed to determine the effect of HAF on cell growth and viability. The identity of the cells cultured in 20% HAF was determined using immunocytochemistry (ICC) and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques to evaluate the expression of factors that are characteristic of HCECs, including Ki-67, Vimentin, Na+/K+-ATPase and ZO-1. HCEC primary cultures were successfully established using 20% HAF-containing medium, and these cultures demonstrated rapid cell proliferation according to the cell proliferation and death ELISA assay results. The ICC and real time RT-PCR results indicated that there was a higher expression of Na+/K+-ATPase and ZO-1 in the 20% HAF cell cultures compared with the control (20% FBS) (P < 0.05). The 20% HAF-containing medium exhibited a greater stimulatory effect on HCEC growth and could represent a potential enriched supplement for HCEC regeneration studies. PMID:24726921

Feizi, Sepehr; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Bagheri, Abouzar; Balagholi, Sahar; Mohammadian, Azam; Rezaei-Kanavi, Mozhgan; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Samiei, Shahram; Negahban, Kambiz

2014-05-01

343

Long term persistent accumulation of CD8+ T cells in synovial fluid of rheumatoid arthritis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To characterise the type and kinetics of T cell clones in synovial lesions of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).?METHODS—Mononuclear cells from serial samples of synovial fluid (SF) and peripheral blood from nine RA patients were separated phenotypically using antibody coated magnetic beads. After mRNA preparation, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to amplify V-D(N)-J (that is, the third complementarity determining, CDR3) regions of their T cell receptor beta chain genes. This was followed by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis to detect the clonotypes of accumulating T cells. Amino acid sequences of the dominant clones were also determined.?RESULTS—Although peripheral T cells were heterogeneous, accumulation of oligoclonal T cells was detected in SF. The predominant accumulating clone was the CD8 subset, which was persistently present in serial samples obtained over almost one year of follow up. A proportion of these cells expressed CD25 or CD45RO, or both, suggesting they are `memory' clones.?CONCLUSION—The persistent presence of CD8+ T cell clones in RA joints indicates that they may be involved in the perpetuation of the chronic inflammatory process in RA joints.?? PMID:9389223

Masuko-Hongo, K.; Sekine, T.; Ueda, S.; Kobata, T.; Yamamoto, K.; Nishioka, K.; Kato, T.

1997-01-01

344

Sheep CD34+ Amniotic Fluid Cells Have Hematopoietic Potential and Engraft After Autologous In Utero Transplantation.  

PubMed

Unmatched allogeneic in utero stem cell transplantation (IUSCT) produces poor engraftment unless the fetus has congenital immunodeficiency, probably because of maternal and fetal immune responses to injected cells. We studied the functional hematopoietic potential of transduced green fluorescent protein (GFP+) sheep amniotic fluid (AF) stem cells, before and after autologous IUSCT. CD34+ cells were selected from first trimester sheep AF, transduced overnight, and injected intravenously into NOD-SCID-gamma (NSG) mice. At 3 months, primary recipient bone marrow (BM) was injected into secondary NSG recipients. GFP+ cells were detected in the hematopoietic organs and peripheral blood of primary and secondary recipients at 3 months. Autologous IUSCT (transduced GFP+CD34+AF) was performed in fetal sheep. Six months postnatally, lamb BM was injected into secondary NSG recipients. GFP+ cells were detected in the peripheral blood of primary and secondary recipients. This confirms the hematopoietic potential of AF stem cells supporting the concept of autologous IUSCT to treat congenital hematopoietic disease. Stem Cells 2015;33:122-132. PMID:25186828

Shaw, S W Steven; Blundell, Michael P; Pipino, Caterina; Shangaris, Panicos; Maghsoudlou, Panagiotis; Ramachandra, Durrgah L; Georgiades, Fanos; Boyd, Michael; Thrasher, Adrian J; Porada, Christopher D; Almeida-Porada, Graça; Cheng, Po-Jen; David, Anna L; de Coppi, Paolo

2015-01-01

345

Application of multiple levels of fluid shear stress to endothelial cells plated on polyacrylamide gels.  

PubMed

Measurements of endothelial cell response to fluid shear stress have previously been performed on unphysiologically rigid substrates. We describe the design and implementation of a microfluidic device that applies discrete levels of shear stress to cells plated on hydrogel-based substrates of physiologically-relevant stiffness. The setup allows for measurements of cell morphology and inflammatory response to the combined stimuli, and identifies mechanisms by which vascular stiffening leads to pathological responses to blood flow. We found that the magnitude of shear stress required to affect endothelial cell morphology and inflammatory response depended on substrate stiffness. Endothelial cells on 100 Pa substrates demonstrate a greater increase in cell area and cortical stiffness and decrease in NF-?B nuclear translocation in response to TNF-? treatment compared to controls than cells plated on 10 kPa substrates. The response of endothelial cells on soft substrates to shear stress depends on the presence of hyaluronan (HA). These results emphasize the importance of substrate stiffness on endothelial function, and elucidate a means by which vascular stiffening in aging and disease can impact the endothelium. PMID:25573790

Galie, P A; van Oosten, A; Chen, C S; Janmey, P A

2015-02-01

346

Drug Transporters on Arachnoid Barrier Cells Contribute to the Blood–Cerebrospinal Fluid Barrier  

PubMed Central

The subarachnoid space, where cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flows over the brain and spinal cord, is lined on one side by arachnoid barrier (AB) cells that form part of the blood-CSF barrier. However, despite the fact that drugs are administered into the CSF and CSF drug concentrations are used as a surrogate for brain drug concentration following systemic drug administration, the tight-junctioned AB cells have never been examined for whether they express drug transporters that would influence CSF and central nervous system drug disposition. Hence, we characterized drug transporter expression and function in AB cells. Immunohistochemical analysis showed P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) in mouse AB cells but not other meningeal tissue. The Gene Expression Nervous System Atlas (GENSAT) database and the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas confirmed these observations. Microarray analysis of mouse and human arachnoidal tissue revealed expression of many drug transporters and some drug-metabolizing enzymes. Immortalized mouse AB cells express functional P-gp on the apical (dura-facing) membrane and BCRP on both apical and basal (CSF-facing) membranes. Thus, like blood-brain barrier cells and choroid plexus cells, AB cells highly express drug transport proteins and likely contribute to the blood-CSF drug permeation barrier. PMID:23298861

Yasuda, Kazuto; Cline, Cynthia; Vogel, Peter; Onciu, Mihaela; Fatima, Soghra; Sorrentino, Brian P.; Thirumaran, Ranjit K.; Ekins, Sean; Urade, Yoshihiro; Fujimori, Ko

2013-01-01

347

Defect in recruiting effector memory CD8+ T-cells in malignant pleural effusions compared to normal pleural fluid  

PubMed Central

Background Malignant pleural effusions (MPE) are a common and fatal complication in cancers including lung or breast cancers, or malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). MPE animal models and immunotherapy trials in MPM patients previously suggested defects of the cellular immunity in MPE. However only few observational studies of the immune response were done in MPM patients, using questionable control groups (transudate…). Methods We compared T cell populations evaluated by flow cytometry from blood and pleural effusion of untreated patients with MPM (n?=?58), pleural metastasis of adenocarcinoma (n?=?30) or with benign pleural lesions associated with asbestos exposure (n?=?23). Blood and pleural fluid were also obtained from healthy subjects, providing normal values for T cell populations. Results Blood CD4+ or CD8+ T cells percentages were similar in all groups of patients or healthy subjects. Whereas pleural fluid from healthy controls contained mainly CD8+ T cells, benign or malignant pleural effusions included mainly CD4+ T cells. Effector memory T cells were the main T cell subpopulation in pleural fluid from healthy subjects. In contrast, there was a striking and selective recruitment of central memory CD4+ T cells in MPE, but not of effector cells CD8+ T cells or NK cells in the pleural fluid as one would expect in order to obtain an efficient immune response. Conclusions Comparing for the first time MPE to pleural fluid from healthy subjects, we found a local defect in recruiting effector CD8+ T cells, which may be involved in the escape of tumor cells from immune response. Further studies are needed to characterize which subtypes of effector CD8+ T cells are involved, opening prospects for cell therapy in MPE and MPM. PMID:23816056

2013-01-01

348

A fictitious domain method with a hybrid cell model for simulating motion of cells in fluid flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we develop a hybrid model to represent membranes of biological cells and use the distributed-Lagrange-multiplier/fictitious-domain (DLM/FD) formulation for simulating the fluid/cell interactions. The hybrid model representing the cellular structure consists of a continuum representation of the lipid bilayer, from which the bending force is calculated through energetic variational approach, a discrete cytoskeleton model utilizing the worm-like chain to represent network filament, and area/volume constraints. For our computational scheme, a formally second-order accurate fractional step scheme is employed to decouple the entire system into three sub-systems: a fluid problem, a solid problem and a Lagrange multiplier problem. The flow problem is solved by the projection method; the solid problem based on the cell model is solved by a combination of level set method, ENO reconstruction, and the Newton method; and the Lagrange multiplier problem is solved by immerse boundary interpolation. The incompressibility of the material is implemented with the penalty function method. Numerical results compare favorably with previously reported numerical and experimental results, and show that our method is suited to the simulation of the cell motion in flow.

Hao, Wenrui; Xu, Zhiliang; Liu, Chun; Lin, Guang

2015-01-01

349

Surface force confinement cell for neutron reflectometry studies of complex fluids under nano-confinement  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we describe the construction of a new neutron surface force confinement cell (NSFCC). The NSFCC is equipped with hydraulically powered in-situ, temporally stable, force control system for simultaneous neutron reflectometry studies of nano-confined complex fluid systems. Test measurements with deuterated toluene confined between two opposing diblock copolymer (polystyrene + poly 2-vinylpyridine) coated quartz substrates demonstrate the capabilities of the NSFCC. With increasing hydraulically-applied force, a series of well-defined decreasing separations were observed from neutron reflectivity measurements. No noticeable changes in the hydraulic pressure used for controlling the surface separation were observed during the measurements, demonstrating the high stability of the apparatus. This newly designed NSFCC introduces a higher level of control for studies of confinement and consequent finite size effects on nano-scale structure in a variety of complex fluid and soft condensed matter systems.

Cho, Jae-Hie [ORNL; Smith, Gregory Scott [ORNL; Hamilton, William A. [ANSTO; Mulder, D. [University of California, Davis; Kuhl, T. L. [University of California, Davis; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL

2008-01-01

350

Characteristics of silicone fluid as a pressure transmitting medium in diamond anvil cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties of a silicone fluid with initial viscosity of 1 cst as a pressure transmitting medium for diamond anvil cells have been determined by ruby R1 line broadening and R1-R2 separation measurements to 64 GPa at ambient temperature. By these criteria, the silicone fluid is as good a pressure medium as a 4:1 methanol:ethanol mixture at low pressures to about 20 GPa, and is better than the mixture at higher pressures. Although argon media are better than the silicone at pressures to 30 GPa, this silicone behaves as well as argon at higher pressures. Furthermore, the silicone is easier to load than argon and is almost chemically inert.

Shen, Yongrong; Kumar, Ravhi S.; Pravica, Michael; Nicol, Malcolm F.

2004-11-01

351

Kinetic roughening in two-phase fluid flow through a random Hele-Shaw cell.  

PubMed

A nonlocal interface equation is derived for two-phase fluid flow, with arbitrary wettability and viscosity contrast, c=(mu(1)-mu(2))/(mu(1)+mu(2)), in a model porous medium defined as a Hele-Shaw cell with random gap b(0)+delta b. Fluctuations of both capillary and viscous pressure are explicitly related to the microscopic quenched disorder, yielding conserved, nonconserved, and power-law correlated noise terms. Two length scales are identified that control the possible scaling regimes and which scale with capillary number Ca as l(1) approximately b(0)(cCa)(-1/2) and l(2) approximately b(0)Ca-1. Exponents for forced fluid invasion are obtained from numerical simulation and compared with recent experiments. PMID:12731922

Pauné, Eduard; Casademunt, Jaume

2003-04-11

352

Silicone fluid as a high-pressure medium in diamond anvil cells  

SciTech Connect

The usefulness of a silicone oil, Dow Corning 200, as a pressure medium in diamond anvil cells has been investigated. Common indicators of deviatoric stresses on ruby, such as changes in the {ital R}-line widths and the {ital R}2-{ital R}1 peak separation, show that this fluid does not deviate from hydrostaticity up to {approximately}15 GPa (150 kbar). The behavior of silicone is found to be very similar to the commonly used 4:1 methanol:ethanol mixture, while being much easier to use because of its higher viscosity. This ease of use and excellent performance makes silicone fluid a superior pressure medium. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Ragan, D.D.; Clarke, D.R. [Materials Department, College of Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5050 (United States)] [Materials Department, College of Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5050 (United States); Schiferl, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

1996-02-01

353

The cerebrospinal fluid provides a proliferative niche for neural progenitor cells  

PubMed Central

Cortical development depends on the active integration of cell autonomous and extrinsic cues, but the coordination of these processes is poorly understood. Here, we show that the apical complex protein Pals1 and Pten have opposing roles in localizing the Igf1R to the apical, ventricular domain of cerebral cortical progenitor cells. We found that the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which contacts this apical domain, has an age-dependent effect on proliferation, much of which is attributable to Igf2, but that CSF contains other signaling activities as well. CSF samples from patients with glioblastoma multiforme show elevated Igf2 and stimulate stem cell proliferation in an Igf2-dependent manner. Together, our findings demonstrate that the apical complex couples intrinsic and extrinsic signaling, enabling progenitors to sense and respond appropriately to diffusible CSF-borne signals distributed widely throughout the brain. The temporal control of CSF composition may have critical relevance to normal development and neuropathological conditions. PMID:21382550

Lehtinen, Maria K.; Zappaterra, Mauro W.; Chen, Xi; Yang, Yawei J.; Hill, Anthony; Lun, Melody; Maynard, Thomas; Gonzalez, Dilenny; Kim, Seonhee; Ye, Ping; D’Ercole, A. Joseph; Wong, Eric T.; LaMantia, Anthony S.; Walsh, Christopher A.

2011-01-01

354

Effect of Tamarindus indica L. leaves' fluid extract on human blood cells.  

PubMed

Tamarind leaves are edible; however, their saponin content could be toxic to human blood cells. In this article, the effect of tamarind leaf fluid extract (TFE) on human blood cells was evaluated by using several tests. Results revealed that TFE did not cause significant haemolysis on human red blood cells even at the lowest evaluated concentration (20 mg/mL). Blood protein denaturalisation ratio was consistently lower than in control at TFE concentrations greater than 40 mg/mL. Erythrocyte membrane damage caused by the action of oxidative H2O2 displayed a steady reduction with increasing TFE concentrations. In the reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement by using flow cytometry assay, leucocyte viability was over 95% at tested concentrations, and a high ROS inhibition was also recorded. Protective behaviour found in TFE should be attributed to its polyphenol content. Thus, tamarind leaves can be regarded as a potential source of interesting phytochemicals. PMID:24773365

Escalona-Arranz, J C; Garcia-Diaz, J; Perez-Rosés, R; De la Vega, J; Rodríguez-Amado, J; Morris-Quevedo, H J

2014-01-01

355

Impaired Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)–Specific Interferon-? Responses in Individuals With HIV Who Acquire HCV Infection: Correlation With CD4+ T-Cell Counts  

PubMed Central

Studies examining the effect of coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) on the HCV-specific immune response in acute HCV infection are limited. This study directly compared acute HCV-specific T-cell responses and cytokine profiles between 20 HIV/HCV-coinfected and 20 HCV-monoinfected subjects, enrolled in the Australian Trial in Acute Hepatitis C (ATAHC), using HCV peptide enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) and multiplex in vitro cytokine production assays. HIV/HCV coinfection had a detrimental effect on the HCV-specific cytokine production in acute HCV infection, particularly on HCV-specific interferon ? (IFN-?) production (magnitude P = .004; breadth P = .046), which correlated with peripheral CD4+ T-cell counts (? = 0.605; P = .005) but not with detectable HIV viremia (? = 0.152; P = .534). PMID:22949308

Flynn, Jacqueline K.; Dore, Gregory J.; Matthews, Gail; Hellard, Margaret; Yeung, Barbara; Rawlinson, William D.; White, Peter A.; Kaldor, John M.; Lloyd, Andrew R.; Ffrench, Rosemary A.

2012-01-01

356

Membrane with internal passages to permit fluid flow and an electrochemical cell containing the same  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The invention provides an improved proton exchange membrane for use in electrochemical cells having internal passages parallel to the membrane surface, an apparatus and process for making the membrane, membrane and electrode assemblies fabricated using the membrane, and the application of the membrane and electrode assemblies to a variety of devices, both electrochemical and otherwise. The passages in the membrane extend from one edge of the membrane to another and allow fluid flow through the membrane and give access directly to the membrane for purposes of hydration.

Cisar, Alan J. (Inventor); Gonzalez-Martin, Anuncia (Inventor); Hitchens, G. Duncan (Inventor); Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

357

Proteomic analysis of the early bovine yolk sac fluid and cells from the day 13 ovoid and elongated preimplantation embryos.  

PubMed

The bovine blastocyst hatches 8 to 9 days after fertilization, and this is followed by several days of preimplantation development during which the embryo transforms from a spherical over an ovoid to an elongated shape. As the spherical embryo enlarges, the cells of the inner cell mass differentiate into the hypoblast and epiblast, which remain surrounded by the trophectoderm. The formation of the hypoblast epithelium is also accompanied by a change in the fluid within the embryo, i.e., the blastocoel fluid gradually alters to become the primitive yolk sac (YS) fluid. Our previous research describes the protein composition of human and bovine blastocoel fluid, which is surrounded by the trophectoderm and undifferentiated cells of the inner cell mass. In this study, we further examine the changes in the protein composition in both the primitive YS fluid and the embryonic cells during early and slightly later stage cell differentiation in the developing bovine embryo. In vitro-produced Day 6 embryos were transferred into a recipient heifer and after 7 days of further in vivo culture, ovoid and elongated Day 13 embryos were recovered by flushing both uterine horns after slaughter. The primitive YS fluid and cellular components were isolated from 12 ovoid and three elongated embryos and using nano-high-performance liquid chromatography, tandem mass spectrometry, and isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation proteomic analysis, a total of 9652 unique proteins were identified. We performed GO term and keyword analyses of differentially expressed proteins in the fluid and the cells of the two embryonic stages, along with a discussion of the biological perspectives of our data with relation to morphogenesis and embryo-maternal communication. Our study thereby provides a considerable contribution to the current knowledge of bovine preimplantation development. PMID:25015784

Jensen, Pernille L; Beck, Hans C; Petersen, Tonny S; Stroebech, Lotte; Schmidt, Mette; Rasmussen, Lars M; Hyttel, Poul

2014-09-15

358

Parametric study of the vibration-induced repulsion or attraction force on a particle in a viscous fluid cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments and three-dimensional direct numerical simulations were performed to investigate the effects of physical parameters on the repulsion or attraction force affecting the motion of a particle oscillating near a solid wall of a fluid cell under microgravity. The following physical parameters were investigated: fluid cell amplitude, fluid and particle densities, angular frequency of the cell vibration, initial distance between the particle centroid and the closest cell wall, particle radius, and dynamic viscosity. Based on the simulations, a nondimensional relation was developed to relate those physical parameters to the repulsion or attraction force affecting the particle. The relation shows that the repulsion or attraction force is increased by the increase in the cell vibration amplitude and frequency and also the force direction would change from attraction to repulsion above a threshold fluid viscosity. Relations to other physical parameters were also studied and are reported. This paper follows our previous work on the physical mechanism of observed repulsion force on a particle in a viscous fluid cell [17 M. Saadatmand and M. Kawaji, Phys. Rev. E 88, 023019 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevE.88.023019].

Saadatmand, Mehrrad; Kawaji, Masahiro

2014-04-01

359

Levels of CD105+ cells increase and cell proliferation decreases during S-phase arrest of amniotic fluid cells in long-term culture  

PubMed Central

The present study aimed to improve the characterization of amniotic fluid cells (AFCs) in order to optimize their use in chromosomal prenatal diagnosis and as seed or stem cells for tissue engineering. The AFCs used in the current study were obtained from three females in their second trimester of pregnancy. The cells were cultured independently and characterized by cell morphology, cell markers, cell cycle distribution and chromosome Giemsa banding in an early- and late-passage. The AFCs remained homogeneous in culture and expressed mesenchymal markers, but not endothelial markers along the culture process. In addition, compared with the early-passage cells, the late-passage cells exhibit an increase in CD105 expression, a decrease in cell division and a delay in the cell cycle, and a number of cells underwent cell cycle arrest. However, the cells retained a normal karyotype. Therefore, the current study characterized AFCs in a clinical culture and confirmed that AFCs are mesenchymal precursors. The results obtained may be useful for the application of AFCs in prenatal diagnosis. PMID:25289067

WANG, DING; CHEN, RUI; ZHONG, XUAN; FAN, YONG; LAI, WEIQIANG; SUN, XIAOFANG

2014-01-01

360

In utero therapy for congenital disorders using amniotic fluid stem cells  

PubMed Central

Congenital diseases are responsible for over a third of all pediatric hospital admissions. Advances in prenatal screening and molecular diagnosis have allowed the detection of many life-threatening genetic diseases early in gestation. In utero transplantation (IUT) with stem cells could cure affected fetuses but so far in humans, successful IUT using allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), has been limited to fetuses with severe immunologic defects and more recently IUT with allogeneic mesenchymal stem cell transplantation, has improved phenotype in osteogenesis imperfecta. The options of preemptive treatment of congenital diseases in utero by stem cell or gene therapy changes the perspective of congenital diseases since it may avoid the need for postnatal treatment and reduce future costs. Amniotic fluid stem (AFS) cells have been isolated and characterized in human, mice, rodents, rabbit, and sheep and are a potential source of cells for therapeutic applications in disorders for treatment prenatally or postnatally. Gene transfer to the cells with long-term transgenic protein expression is feasible. Recently, pre-clinical autologous transplantation of transduced cells has been achieved in fetal sheep using minimally invasive ultrasound guided injection techniques. Clinically relevant levels of transgenic protein were expressed in the blood of transplanted lambs for at least 6 months. The cells have also demonstrated the potential of repair in a range of pre-clinical disease models such as neurological disorders, tracheal repair, bladder injury, and diaphragmatic hernia repair in neonates or adults. These results have been encouraging, and bring personalized tissue engineering for prenatal treatment of genetic disorders closer to the clinic.

Ramachandra, Durrgah L.; Shaw, Steven S. W.; Shangaris, Panicos; Loukogeorgakis, Stavros; Guillot, Pascale V.; Coppi, Paolo De; David, Anna L.

2014-01-01

361

Cerebrospinal fluid stimulates leptomeningeal and meningioma cell proliferation and activation of STAT3.  

PubMed

The role of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the pathogenesis of meningiomas is unknown. Cell cultures from three human leptomeninges, five WHO grade I and seven grade II meningiomas were treated with remnant CSF from 22 patients with no central nervous system disease and normal cell indices. Cells were evaluated by CyQUANT for DNA synthesis/cell proliferation and by western blots for phosphorylation/activation of growth regulatory pathways activated in meningiomas including JAK1-STAT3, MEK1-p44/42MAPK, Akt-mTOR and Rb. Analysis of Caspase 3 activation and survivin was also performed. Finally, the effects of PDGF neutralizing antibody and cucurbitacin, a STAT3 inhibitor on CSF stimulation were tested. Compared to controls and the mitogen PDGF-BB, various CSF samples significantly stimulated DNA synthesis/cell proliferation in 20 and 22 week leptomeningeal cultures and all of the grade I and II meningioma cells tested. Collectively CSF samples, from multiple different patients, stimulated DNA synthesis in tests of 23 of 32 grade I and 18 of 28 grade II meningioma cells. CSF stimulated phosphorylation/activation of STAT3 and reduced p44/42 MAPK in the leptomeningeal, all three grade I and 1 of three grade II meningioma cells. CSF did not affect Caspase 3 activity or survivin levels. PDGF neutralizing antibody had no effect on CSF stimulation but cucurbitacin blocked PDGF and CSF stimulation. While there are limitations to the CSF available since they were not from "normal" volunteers, the studies suggest that, in some settings, CSF is potentially mitogenic to leptomeningeal and meningioma cells and may act, in part, via activation of STAT3. PMID:21971737

Johnson, Mahlon D; O'Connell, Mary; Facik, Michael; Maurer, Paul; Jahromi, Babak; Pilcher, Webster

2012-03-01

362

Baseline CD4+ T Cell Counts Correlates with HIV-1 Synonymous Rate in HLA-B*5701 Subjects with Different Risk of Disease Progression  

PubMed Central

HLA-B*5701 is the host factor most strongly associated with slow HIV-1 disease progression, although risk of progression may vary among patients carrying this allele. The interplay between HIV-1 evolutionary rate variation and risk of progression to AIDS in HLA-B*5701 subjects was studied using longitudinal viral sequences from high-risk progressors (HRPs) and low-risk progressors (LRPs). Posterior distributions of HIV-1 genealogies assuming a Bayesian relaxed molecular clock were used to estimate the absolute rates of nonsynonymous and synonymous substitutions for different set of branches. Rates of viral evolution, as well as in vitro viral replication capacity assessed using a novel phenotypic assay, were correlated with various clinical parameters. HIV-1 synonymous substitution rates were significantly lower in LRPs than HRPs, especially for sets of internal branches. The viral population infecting LRPs was also characterized by a slower increase in synonymous divergence over time. This pattern did not correlate to differences in viral fitness, as measured by in vitro replication capacity, nor could be explained by differences among subjects in T cell activation or selection pressure. Interestingly, a significant inverse correlation was found between baseline CD4+ T cell counts and mean HIV-1 synonymous rate (which is proportional to the viral replication rate) along branches representing viral lineages successfully propagating through time up to the last sampled time point. The observed lower replication rate in HLA-B*5701 subjects with higher baseline CD4+ T cell counts provides a potential model to explain differences in risk of disease progression among individuals carrying this allele. PMID:25187947

Norström, Melissa M.; Veras, Nazle M.; Huang, Wei; Proper, Mattia C. F.; Cook, Jennifer; Hartogensis, Wendy; Hecht, Frederick M.

2014-01-01

363

Human amniotic fluid stem cells have a potential to recover ovarian function in mice with chemotherapy-induced sterility  

PubMed Central

Background Human amniotic fluid cells (hAFCs) may differentiate into multiple cell lineages and thus have a great potential to become a donor cell source for regenerative medicine. The ability of hAFCs to differentiate into germ cell and oocyte-like cells has been previously documented. Herein we report the potential use of hAFCs to help restore follicles in clinical condition involving premature ovarian failure. Results Human amniotic fluid was obtained via amniocentesis, yielding a subpopulation of cloned hAFCs that was able to form embryoid bodies (EBs) and differentiate into three embryonic germ layers. Moreover, culture of EBs in medium containing human follicular fluid (HFF) or a germ cell maturation factor cocktail (FAC), expressed germ cells markers such as BLIMP1, STELLA, DAZL, VASA, STRA8, SCP3, SCP1, and GDF9. Furthermore, one cell line was grown from clone cells transfected with lentivirus-GFP and displaying morphological characteristics of mesenchymal cells, had the ability to restore ovarian morphology following cell injection into the ovaries of mice sterilized by intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide and busulphan. Restored ovaries displayed many follicle-enclosed oocytes at all stages of development, but no oocytes or follicles were observed in sterilized mice whose ovaries had been injected with medium only (control). Notably, identification of GFP-labeled cells and immunostaining with anti–human antigen-specific antibodies demonstrated that grafted hAFCs survived and differentiated into granulosa cells which directed oocyte maturation. Furthermore, labeling of ovarian tissue for anti-Müllerian hormone expression, a functional marker of folliculogenesis, was strong in hAFCs-transplanted ovaries but inexistent in negative controls. Conclusion These findings highlight the possibility of using human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells in regenerative medicine, in particular in the area of reproductive health. PMID:24006896

2013-01-01

364

Mortality and its predictors among antiretroviral therapy naïve HIV-infected individuals with CD4 cell count ?350 cells/mm3 compared to the general population: data from a population-based prospective HIV cohort in Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence exists that even at high CD4 counts, mortality among HIV-infected antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve individuals is higher than that in the general population. However, many developing countries still initiate ART at CD4 ?350 cells/mm3. Objective To compare mortality among HIV-infected ART naïve individuals with CD4 counts ?350 cells/mm3 with mortality in the general Ugandan population and to investigate risk factors for death. Design Population-based prospective HIV cohort. Methods The study population consisted of HIV-infected people in rural southwest Uganda. Patients were reviewed at the study clinic every 3 months. CD4 cell count was measured every 6 months. Rate ratios were estimated using Poisson regression. Indirect methods were used to calculate standardised mortality ratios (SMRs). Results A total of 374 participants with CD4 ?350 cells/mm3 were followed for 1,328 person-years (PY) over which 27 deaths occurred. Mortality rates (MRs) (per 1,000 PY) were 20.34 (95% CI: 13.95–29.66) among all participants and 16.43 (10.48–25.75) among participants aged 15–49 years. Mortality was higher in periods during which participants had CD4 350–499 cells/mm3 than during periods of CD4 ?500 cells/mm3 although the difference was not statistically significant [adjusted rate ratio (aRR)=1.52; 95% CI: 0.71–3.25]. Compared to the general Ugandan population aged 15–49 years, MRs were 123% higher among participants with CD4 ?500 cells/mm3 (SMR: 223%, 95% CI: 127–393%) and 146% higher among participants with CD4 350–499 cells/mm3 (246%, 117%–516). After adjusting for current age, mortality was associated with increasing WHO clinical stage (aRR comparing stage 3 or 4 and stage 1: 10.18, 95% CI: 3.82–27.15) and decreasing body mass index (BMI) (aRR comparing categories ?17.4 Kg/m2 and ?18.5 Kg/m2: 6.11, 2.30–16.20). Conclusion HIV-infected ART naïve individuals with CD4 count ?350 cells/mm3 had a higher mortality than the general population. After adjusting for age, the main predictors of mortality were WHO clinical stage and BMI. PMID:24433941

Masiira, Ben; Baisley, Kathy; Mayanja, Billy N.; Kazooba, Patrick; Maher, Dermot; Kaleebu, Pontiano

2014-01-01

365

Computational fluid dynamics study of phosphotungstic acid electrolyte-based fuel cell (PWAFC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study of the mass and heat transfer in the phosphotungstic acid electrolyte-based fuel cell (PWAFC) was performed in order to elucidate the cause of irregular fuel cell work failures at high current densities, which manifested through partial melting of the matrix and electrodes and crossover effect. It was established that the reason for these difficulties is not the damage (cracks) of the catalyst layer in the gas diffusion electrode, but the bad construction of the reactant gas and liquid electrolyte distributors on cathode and anode side of the PWAFC and the lack of cooling system. The CFD study pointed to several practical conclusions how to improve the PWAFC construction.

Lavri?, Igor; Staiti, Pietro; Novak, Peter; Ho?evar, Stanko

366

Rapid, low-cost and instrument-free CD4+ cell counting for HIV diagnostics in resource-poor settings.  

PubMed

We present a novel, user-friendly and widely autonomous point-of-care diagnostic to enable HIV monitoring in resource-poor regions where the current pandemic is most prevalent. To specifically isolate magnetically tagged CD4+ cells directly from patient blood, the low-cost and disposable microfluidic chip operates by dual-force CD4+ cell magnetophoresis; whereby the interplay of flow and magnetic fields governs the trajectory of target cells depending on whether the cell binds to a magnetic microbead. Instrument-free pumping is implemented by a finger-actuated elastic membrane; tagged beads are laterally deflected by a small and re-useable permanent magnet. The single-depth and monolithic microfluidic structure can easily be fabricated in a single casting step. After their magnetophoretic isolation from whole blood, estimation of CD4+ cell concentrations is then measured by bright-field inspection of the capture chamber. In addition, an optional fluorescence measurement can be used for confirmation of the bright-field result if required. On-chip CD4+ estimation produces a linear response over the full range of medically relevant CD4+ cell concentrations. Our technology combines high-efficiency capture (93.0 ± 3.3%) and cell enumeration. PMID:24911165

Glynn, Macdara T; Kinahan, David J; Ducrée, Jens

2014-08-01

367

Kinetics of T-cell-based assays on cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with tuberculous meningitis  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims The goal of this study was to monitor tuberculosis (TB)-specific T-cell responses in cerebrospinal fluid-mononuclear cells (CSF-MCs) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) over the course of anti-TB therapy. Methods Adult patients (? 16 years) with TBM admitted to Asan Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea, were prospectively enrolled between April 2008 and April 2011. Serial blood or CSF samples were collected over the course of the anti-TB therapy, and analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay. Results Serial ELISPOT assays were performed on PBMCs from 17 patients (seven definite, four probable, and six possible TBM) and CSF-MC from nine patients (all definite TBM). The median number of interferon-gamma (IFN-?)-producing T-cells steadily increased during the first 6 months after commencement of anti-TB therapy in PBMCs. Serial CSF-MC ELISPOT assays revealed significant variability in immune responses during the first 6 weeks of anti-TB therapy, though early increases in CSF-MC ELISPOT results were associated with treatment failure or paradoxical response. Conclusions Serial analysis of PBMCs by ELISPOT during the course of treatment was ineffective for predicting clinical response. However, increases in TB-specific IFN-?-producing T-cells in CSF-MC during the early phase of anti-TB therapy may be predictive of clinical failure. PMID:25378978

Park, Ki-Ho; Lee, Mi Suk; Lee, Sang-Oh; Choi, Sang-Ho; Kim, Yang Soo; Woo, Jun Hee; Kang, Joong Koo; Lee, Sang-Ahm

2014-01-01

368

Coupled thermal, electrical, and fluid flow analyses of AMTEC multitube cell with adiabatic side wall  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes a novel OSC-generated methodology for analyzing the performance of multitube AMTEC (Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electrical Conversion) cells, which are under development by AMPS (Advanced Modular Power Systems, Inc.) for the Air Force Phillips Laboratory (AFPL) and NASA{close_quote}s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), for possible application to the Pluto Express and other space missions. The OSC study was supported by the Department of Energy (DOE), and was strongly encouraged by JPL, AFPL, and AMPS. It resulted in an iterative procedure for the coupled solution of the interdependent thermal, electrical, and fluid flow differential and integral equations governing the performance of AMTEC cells and generators. The paper clarifies the OSC procedure by presenting detailed results of its application to an illustrative example of a converter cell with an adiabatic side wall, including the non-linear axial variation of temperature, pressure, open-circuit voltage, interelectrode voltage, current density, axial current, sodium mass flow, and power density. The next paper in these proceedings describes parametric results obtained by applying the same procedure to variations of the baseline adiabatic converter design, culminating in an OSC-recommended revised cell design. A subsequent paper in these proceedings extends the procedure to analyze a variety of OSC-designed radioisotope-heated generators employing non-adiabatic multitube AMTEC cells. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Schock, A.; Or, C. [Orbital Sciences Corporation 20301 Century Blvd. Germantown, Maryland20874 (United States); Noravian, H. [ANALYTIX Corporation Timonium, Maryland (United States)

1997-01-01

369

Effect of the endothelial surface layer on transmission of fluid shear stress to endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Responses of vascular endothelial cells to mechanical shear stresses resulting from blood flow are involved in regulation of blood flow, in structural adaptation of vessels, and in vascular disease. Interior surfaces of blood vessels are lined with a layer of bound or adsorbed macromolecules, known as the endothelial surface layer (ESL). In vivo investigations have shown that this layer has a width of order 1 microm, that it substantially impedes plasma flow, and that it excludes flowing red blood cells. Here, the effect of the ESL on transmission of shear stress to endothelial cells is examined using a theoretical model. The layer is assumed to consist of a matrix of molecular chains extending from the surface, held in tension by a slight increase in colloid osmotic pressure relative to that in free-flowing plasma. It is shown that, under physiological conditions, shear stress is transmitted to the endothelial surface almost entirely by the matrix, and fluid shear stresses on endothelial cell membranes are very small. Rapid fluctuations in shear stress are strongly attenuated by the layer. The ESL may therefore play an important role in sensing of shear stress by endothelial cells. PMID:11381171

Secomb, T W; Hsu, R; Pries, A R

2001-01-01

370

Design of an ultrashort optical transmission cell for vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy of supercritical fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the design and characteristics of an ultrathin flow cell optimized for vacuum ultraviolet transmission spectroscopy experiments on supercritical fluids. The cell operates satisfactorily at pressures up to 300 bar and temperatures up to 390 °C. The variable path length concept of the cell allows for optical transmission studies of analytes ranging from dense condensed-phase systems to gas-phase systems. The path length of the cell can be adjusted from hundreds of nanometers to hundreds of micrometers by an exchange of a variable thickness spacer sandwiched between two sapphire windows. In the path length range from nanometers to single micrometers, metal vapor deposited on one or both of the two sandwiched optical windows constitute the spacer. Spacers with thicknesses of 2 ?m and greater can be constructed from simple commercially available metal foils. The cell has been used to measure the lowest-lying absorption band of water in both the vapor and condensed phases from room temperature up to and above the critical point. It has also found application in the studies of aqueous ions and nonaqueous liquids including various common organic solvents and carbon dioxide.

Janik, Ireneusz; Marin, Timothy W.

2015-01-01

371

Three-Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells and Stacks  

SciTech Connect

A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) electrochemical model has been created for detailed analysis of a high-temperature electrolysis stack (solid oxide fuel cells operated as electrolyzers). Inlet and outlet plenum flow distributions are discussed. Maldistribution of plena flow show deviations in per-cell operating conditions due to non-uniformity of species concentrations. Models have also been created to simulate experimental conditions and for code validation. Comparisons between model predictions and experimental results are discussed. Mass, momentum, energy, and species conservation and transport are provided via the core features of the commercial CFD code FLUENT. A solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) model adds the electrochemical reactions and loss mechanisms and computation of the electric field throughout the cell. The FLUENT SOFC user-defined subroutine was modified for this work to allow for operation in the electrolysis mode. Model results provide detailed profiles of temperature, Nernst potential, operating potential, activation over-potential, anode-side gas composition, cathode-side gas composition, current density and hydrogen production over a range of stack operating conditions. Variations in flow distribution, and species concentration are discussed. End effects of flow and per-cell voltage are also considered. Predicted mean outlet hydrogen and steam concentrations vary linearly with current density, as expected. Contour plots of local electrolyte temperature, current density, and Nernst potential indicate the effects of heat transfer, reaction cooling/heating, and change in local gas composition.

Grant Hawkes; James O'Brien; Carl Stoots; Stephen Herring

2008-07-01

372

A fluid-structure interaction model to characterize bone cell stimulation in parallel-plate flow chamber systems.  

PubMed

Bone continuously adapts its internal structure to accommodate the functional demands of its mechanical environment and strain-induced flow of interstitial fluid is believed to be the primary mediator of mechanical stimuli to bone cells in vivo. In vitro investigations have shown that bone cells produce important biochemical signals in response to fluid flow applied using parallel-plate flow chamber (PPFC) systems. However, the exact mechanical stimulus experienced by the cells within these systems remains unclear. To fully understand this behaviour represents a most challenging multi-physics problem involving the interaction between deformable cellular structures and adjacent fluid flows. In this study, we use a fluid-structure interaction computational approach to investigate the nature of the mechanical stimulus being applied to a single osteoblast cell under fluid flow within a PPFC system. The analysis decouples the contribution of pressure and shear stress on cellular deformation and for the first time highlights that cell strain under flow is dominated by the pressure in the PPFC system rather than the applied shear stress. Furthermore, it was found that strains imparted on the cell membrane were relatively low whereas significant strain amplification occurred at the cell-substrate interface. These results suggest that strain transfer through focal attachments at the base of the cell are the primary mediators of mechanical signals to the cell under flow in a PPFC system. Such information is vital in order to correctly interpret biological responses of bone cells under in vitro stimulation and elucidate the mechanisms associated with mechanotransduction in vivo. PMID:23365189

Vaughan, T J; Haugh, M G; McNamara, L M

2013-04-01

373

A fluid–structure interaction model to characterize bone cell stimulation in parallel-plate flow chamber systems  

PubMed Central

Bone continuously adapts its internal structure to accommodate the functional demands of its mechanical environment and strain-induced flow of interstitial fluid is believed to be the primary mediator of mechanical stimuli to bone cells in vivo. In vitro investigations have shown that bone cells produce important biochemical signals in response to fluid flow applied using parallel-plate flow chamber (PPFC) systems. However, the exact mechanical stimulus experienced by the cells within these systems remains unclear. To fully understand this behaviour represents a most challenging multi-physics problem involving the interaction between deformable cellular structures and adjacent fluid flows. In this study, we use a fluid–structure interaction computational approach to investigate the nature of the mechanical stimulus being applied to a single osteoblast cell under fluid flow within a PPFC system. The analysis decouples the contribution of pressure and shear stress on cellular deformation and for the first time highlights that cell strain under flow is dominated by the pressure in the PPFC system rather than the applied shear stress. Furthermore, it was found that strains imparted on the cell membrane were relatively low whereas significant strain amplification occurred at the cell–substrate interface. These results suggest that strain transfer through focal attachments at the base of the cell are the primary mediators of mechanical signals to the cell under flow in a PPFC system. Such information is vital in order to correctly interpret biological responses of bone cells under in vitro stimulation and elucidate the mechanisms associated with mechanotransduction in vivo. PMID:23365189

Vaughan, T. J.; Haugh, M. G.; McNamara, L. M.

2013-01-01

374

Prevention of Infection in Patients With Hematologic Cancer and Persistent Fever Caused by a Low White Blood Cell Count  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Bone Marrow Suppression; Fever, Sweats, and Hot Flashes; Infection; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

2012-09-20

375

CD4 cell count and the risk of infective and non-infective serious non-AIDS events in HIV-positive persons seen for care in Italy  

PubMed Central

Introduction Serious non-AIDS events (SNAE) are frequent in HIV patients receiving cART. Current CD4 count was shown to be more strongly associated with infective compared to not-infective SNAE and unable to predict cardiovascular events. We investigated the relationship between baseline and current CD4 count and the risk of both infective and non-infective SNAE in HIV-positive patients according to current ART use. Methods We included all HIV-positive persons enrolled in the ICONA Foundation Study cohort who had at least one follow-up visit. SNAE were grouped in infective (pneumonia, sepsis, endocarditis and meningitis) and non-infective (malignancies, chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular events, hepatic events and pancreatitis) aetiology. Incidence of these event groups were calculated overall and according to baseline and current CD4 count (grouped as 0–200, 201–350, 351–500, 501–750, and >750 cells/mm3). Participants’ follow-up accrued from the date of enrolment (baseline) to a diagnosis of SNAE or their last visit. An event was defined the first time one of the considered SNAE occurred so that each person contributed a single event. A Poisson regression model for each of the two endpoints was used. Results A total of 10,822 patients were included (25.3% females, 38.2% heterosexuals) and 26.6% had hepatitis co-infections. Median age was 36 (IQR 31–42) years. Overall, 423 not-infective and 385 infective SNAE were included. The most frequent non-infective SNAE were malignancies (n=202) and the most frequent infective SNAE were pneumonia (n=289). Crude rates of non-infective SNAE were 0.78, 1.08 and 0.80/100 PYFU, and those of infective SNAE were 1.00, 0.51 and 0.66/100 PYFU in ART naive, currently off and currently on ART patients, respectively. Higher current CD4 count was associated with reduced risk of both infective and non-infective SNAE in naives and in patients on ART (Table 1). The association was less strong in the group which suspended ART (for non-infective SNAE the p value for interaction between current log-CD4 and ART-status, p=0.004). Conversely, we found no association between baseline CD4 count and risk of non-infective SNAE in people treated with ART (p value for interaction = 0.0001). When CVD were considered separately, there was no association with CD4 count (not shown). Conclusions Our findings show that, differently from ART naive, in ART-treated patients, non-infective SNAE are predicted by current but not by baseline CD4, suggesting that immune restoration is crucial to prevent these events. PMID:25394018

Madeddu, Giordano; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Girardi, Enrico; Di Biagio, Antonio; Lo Caputo, Sergio; Piolini, Roberta; Marchetti, Giulia; Pellizzer, Giampietro; Giacometti, Andrea; Galli, Laura; Antinori, Andrea; Cozzi Lepri, Alessandro

2014-01-01

376

Microbial Metabolism in Serpentinite Fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Serpentinization is the process in which ultramafic rocks, characteristic of the upper mantle, react with water liberating mantle carbon and reducing power to potenially support chemosynthetic microbial communities. These communities may be important mediators of carbon and energy exchange between the deep Earth and the surface biosphere. Our work focuses on the Coast Range Ophiolite Microbial Observatory (CROMO) in Northern California where subsurface fluids are accessible through a series of wells. Preliminary analyses indicate that the highly basic fluids (pH 9-12) have low microbial diversity, but there is limited knowledge about the metabolic capabilities of these communties. Metagenomic data from similar serpentine environments [1] have identified Betaproteobacteria belonging to the order Burkholderiales and Gram-positive bacteria from the order Clostridiales as key components of the serpentine microbiome. In an effort to better characterize the microbial community, metabolism, and geochemistry at CROMO, fluids from two representative wells (N08B and CSWold) were sampled during recent field campaigns. Geochemical characterization of the fluids includes measurements of dissolved gases (H2, CO, CH4), dissolved inorganic and organic carbon, volatile fatty acids, and nutrients. The wells selected can be differentiated in that N08B had higher pH (10-11), lower dissolved oxygen, and cell counts ranging from 105-106 cells mL-1 of fluid, with an abundance of the betaproteobacterium Hydrogenophaga. In contrast, fluids from CSWold have slightly lower pH (9-9.5), DO, and conductivity, as well as higher TDN and TDP. CSWold fluid is also characterized for having lower cell counts (~103 cells mL-1) and an abundance of Dethiobacter, a taxon within the phylum Clostridiales. Microcosm experiments were conducted with the purpose of monitoring carbon fixation, methanotrophy and metabolism of small organic compounds, such as acetate and formate, while tracing changes in fluid chemistry and microbial community composition. These experiments are expected to provide insight into the biogeochemical dynamics of the serpentinite subsurface at CROMO and represent a first step for developing metatranscriptomic and RNA-based Stable Isotope Probing (RNA-SIP) experiments to trace microbial activity at this site. [1] Brazelton et al. (2012) Frontiers in Microbiology 2:268

Crespo-Medina, M.; Brazelton, W. J.; Twing, K. I.; Kubo, M.; Hoehler, T. M.; Schrenk, M. O.

2013-12-01

377

Spatiotemporal Properties of Intracellular Calcium Signaling in Osteocytic and Osteoblastic Cell Networks under Fluid Flow  

PubMed Central

Mechanical stimuli can trigger intracellular calcium (Ca2+) responses in osteocytes and osteoblasts. Successful construction of bone cell networks necessitates more elaborate and systematic analysis for the spatiotemporal properties of Ca2+ signaling in the networks. In the present study, an unsupervised algorithm based on independent component analysis (ICA) was employed to extract the Ca2+ signals of bone cells in the network. We demonstrated that the ICA-based technology could yield higher signal fidelity than the manual region of interest (ROI) method. Second, the spatiotemporal properties of Ca2+ signaling in osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 and osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cell networks under laminar and steady fluid flow stimulation were systematically analyzed and compared. MLO-Y4 cells exhibited much more active Ca2+ transients than MC3T3-E1 cells, evidenced by more Ca2+ peaks, less time to the 1st peak and less time between the 1st and 2nd peaks. With respect to temporal properties, MLO-Y4 cells demonstrated higher spike rate and Ca2+ oscillating frequency. The spatial intercellular synchronous activities of Ca2+ signaling in MLO-Y4 cell networks were higher than those in MC3T3-E1 cell networks and also negatively correlated with the intercellular distance, revealing faster Ca2+ wave propagation in MLO-Y4 cell networks. Our findings show that the unsupervised ICA-based technique results in more sensitive and quantitative signal extraction than traditional ROI analysis, with the potential to be widely employed in Ca2+ signaling extraction in the cell networks. The present study also revealed a dramatic spatiotemporal difference in Ca2+ signaling for osteocytic and osteoblastic cell networks in processing the mechanical stimulus. The higher intracellular Ca2+ oscillatory behaviors and intercellular coordination of MLO-Y4 cells provided further evidences that osteocytes may behave as the major mechanical sensor in bone modeling and remodeling processes. PMID:23328496

Jing, Da; Lu, X. Lucas; Luo, Erping; Sajda, Paul; Leong, Pui L; Guo, X. Edward

2013-01-01

378

Usefulness of Cellular Analysis of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid for Predicting the Etiology of Pneumonia in Critically Ill Patients  

PubMed Central

Background The usefulness of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid cellular analysis in pneumonia has not been adequately evaluated. This study investigated the ability of cellular analysis of BAL fluid to differentially diagnose bacterial pneumonia from viral pneumonia in adult patients who are admitted to intensive care unit. Methods BAL fluid cellular analysis was evaluated in 47 adult patients who underwent bronchoscopic BAL following less than 24 hours of antimicrobial agent exposure. The abilities of BAL fluid total white blood cell (WBC) counts and differential cell counts to differentiate between bacterial and viral pneumonia were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results Bacterial pneumonia (n?=?24) and viral pneumonia (n?=?23) were frequently associated with neutrophilic pleocytosis in BAL fluid. BAL fluid median total WBC count (2,815/µL vs. 300/µL, P<0.001) and percentage of neutrophils (80.5% vs. 54.0%, P?=?0.02) were significantly higher in the bacterial pneumonia group than in the viral pneumonia group. In ROC curve analysis, BAL fluid total WBC count showed the best discrimination, with an area under the curve of 0.855 (95% CI, 0.750–0.960). BAL fluid total WBC count ?510/µL had a sensitivity of 83.3%, specificity of 78.3%, positive likelihood ratio (PLR) of 3.83, and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) of 0.21. When analyzed in combination with serum procalcitonin or C-reactive protein, sensitivity was 95.8%, specificity was 95.7%, PLR was 8.63, and NLR was 0.07. BAL fluid total WBC count ?510/µL was an independent predictor of bacterial pneumonia with an adjusted odds ratio of 13.5 in multiple logistic regression analysis. Conclusions Cellular analysis of BAL fluid can aid early differential diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia from viral pneumonia in critically ill patients. PMID:24824328

Hong, Hyo-Lim; Kim, Sung-Han; Huh, Jin Won; Sung, Heungsup; Lee, Sang-Oh; Kim, Mi-Na; Jeong, Jin-Yong; Lim, Chae-Man; Kim, Yang Soo; Woo, Jun Hee; Koh, Younsuck

2014-01-01

379

[Reference values in the cerebrospinal fluid of calves between four and eight weeks of age].  

PubMed

Reference values for the following parameters were established in the cerebrospinal fluid of 27 calves between four and eight weeks of age: specific weight, protein concentration, erythrocyte count, total leucocyte count with cell differentiation, creatin kinase activity, glucose and sodium. If possible, the findings were compared with those of other authors in calves and adult bovines. With 24.3 cells per microliter the 90% quantile of the total leucocyte count was seated significantly above comparable values for adult bovines. Hence, in individual cases markedly higher leucocyte counts can be expected in the cerebrospinal fluid of calves. In agreement with other authors, the protein concentration in calves was lower than in adult bovines. The reference range for creatin kinase activity was increased whereas the one for sodium was only slightly increased compared to earlier investigations in calves and in adult bovines. PMID:12125239

Stocker, H; Sicher, D; Rüsch, P; Lutz, H

2002-06-01

380

Adult cerebrospinal fluid inhibits neurogenesis but facilitates gliogenesis from fetal rat neural stem cells.  

PubMed

Neural stem cells (NSCs) are a promising source for cell replacement therapies for neurological diseases. Administration of NSCs into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) offers a nontraumatic transplantation method into the brain. However, cell survival and intraparenchymal migration of the transplants are limited. Furthermore, CSF was recently reported to be an important milieu for controlling stem cell processes in the brain. We studied the effects of adult human leptomeningeal CSF on the behavior of fetal rat NSCs. CSF increased survival of NSCs compared with standard culture media during stem cell maintenance and differentiation. The presence of CSF enhanced NSC differentiation, leading to a faster loss of self-renewal capacity and faster and stronger neurite outgrowth. Some of these effects (mainly cell survival, neurite brancing) were blocked by addition of the bone morphogenic protein (BMP) inhibitor noggin. After differentiation in CSF, significantly fewer MAP2ab(+) neurons were found, but there were more GFAP(+) astroglia compared with standard media. By RT-PCR analysis, we determined a decrease of mRNA of the NSC marker gene Nestin but an increase of Gfap mRNA during differentiation up to 72 hr in CSF compared with standard media. Our data demonstrate that adult human leptomeningeal CSF enhances cell survival of fetal rat NSCs during proliferation and differentiation. Furthermore, CSF provides a stimulus for gliogenesis but inhibits neurogenesis from fetal NSCs. Our data suggest that CSF contains factors such as BMPs regulating NSC behavior, and we hypothesize that fast differentiation of NSCs in CSF leads to a rapid loss of migration capacity of intrathecally transplanted NSCs. PMID:19530161

Buddensiek, Judith; Dressel, Alexander; Kowalski, Michael; Storch, Alexander; Sabolek, Michael

2009-11-01

381

Relationships among somatic cell count, California mastitis test, impedance and bacteriological status of milk in goats and sheep in early lactation.  

PubMed

The objectives of this trial were to evaluate and compare the test characteristics of a number of indirect tests of bacteriological status of the milk from goats and sheep and to assess the affect of varying levels of prevalence of infection on the performance of those tests.The somatic cell count, California mastitis test (CMT) score, electrical impedance and the bacteriological status of 220 and 262 milk samples from the glands of lactating dairy goats and sheep, respectively, were determined. The sensitivity and specificity of indirect tests in predicting the bacteriological status were compared by analyzing the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve and calculating the likelihood ratio at various cut-off values.Bacteria were isolated from 17.7 and 4.6% of glands from goats and sheep, respectively. Somatic cell count was a better predictor of bacteriological status than either the CMT score or impedance in both goats and sheep. However, knowledge of the CMT score in both sheep and goats and the impedance in goats increases the likelihood of predicting the presence of a bacterial pathogen compared to no testing at all (P<0.05). Knowledge of the age and days postpartum of the animals at the time of testing did not increase the probability that infection status could be predicted. Variation in cut-off levels to predict infection status reported in the literature may be due to variation in the prevalence of infection in the populations studied. Use of likelihood ratio allows comparison of tests over a range of prevalence's as likelihood ratios are independent of prevalence. The prevalence of infection within a herd should be considered when selecting a cut-off value for indirect testing for the presence of bacteria in milk of small ruminants. PMID:11323209

McDougall, S; Murdough, P; Pankey, W; Delaney, C; Barlow, J; Scruton, D

2001-06-01

382

Changes in the bacterial flora of the upper and lower respiratory tracts and bronchoalveolar lavage differential cell counts in feedlot calves treated for respiratory diseases.  

PubMed Central

Serial nasopharyngeal swab and bronchoalveolar lavage cultures were used to estimate changes in the bacterial flora of the respiratory tracts of calves during the first month after arrival in the feedlot. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) differential cell counts served to evaluate pulmonary inflammatory changes during this period. Two groups of calves were studied, one consisting of clinically normal controls (n = 60), the other, of cases (n = 59) which received treatment for respiratory disease (penicillin +/- trimethoprimsulfadoxine). A variety of organisms, including Pasteurella multocida, Pasteurella haemolytica, Haemophilus somnus, Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma bovirhinis, were present in the upper and lower airways of both groups during the postarrival period. With the exception of M. bovis, an overall decline in the prevalence of these organisms was observed during the course of the study. In cases, there was a marked decrease in the number of Pasteurella spp. and H. somnus isolates immediately following treatment. For the Pasteurella spp., however, this effect was shortlived as they often appeared to recolonize the respiratory tract within eight days of terminating antimicrobial therapy. Treatment did not appear to affect the frequency of isolating M. bovis. Its prevalence, in both groups of calves, increased to levels approaching 100% during the course of the study. All Pasteurella spp. isolates were tested for susceptibility to several commonly used antimicrobials. Resistance was only evident among P. haemolytica isolated from cases and in every instance this was to a combination of penicillin, ampicillin and tetracycline. Significantly more isolates were resistant after treatment than before. There were BAL differential cell count abnormalities indicative of inflammation in both cases and controls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1423052

Allen, J W; Viel, L; Bateman, K G; Rosendal, S

1992-01-01

383

Associations between CXCR1 polymorphisms and pathogen-specific incidence rate of clinical mastitis, test-day somatic cell count, and test-day milk yield.  

PubMed

The CXCR1 gene plays an important role in the innate immunity of the bovine mammary gland. Associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) CXCR1c.735C>G and c.980A>G and udder health have been identified before in small populations. A fluorescent multiprobe PCR assay was designed specifically and validated to genotype both SNP simultaneously in a reliable and cost-effective manner. In total, 3,106 cows from 50 commercial Flemish dairy herds were genotyped using this assay. Associations between genotype and detailed phenotypic data, including pathogen-specific incidence rate of clinical mastitis (IRCM), test-day somatic cell count, and test-day milk yield (MY) were analyzed. Staphylococcus aureus IRCM tended to associate with SNP c.735C>G. Cows with genotype c.735GG had lower Staph. aureus IRCM compared with cows with genotype c.735CC (rate ratio = 0.35, 95% confidence interval = 0.14–0.90). Additionally, a parity-specific association between Staph. aureus IRCM and SNP c.980A>G was detected. Heifers with genotype c.980GG had a lower Staph. aureus IRCM compared with heifers with genotype c.980AG (rate ratio = 0.15, 95% confidence interval = 0.04–0.56). Differences were less pronounced in multiparous cows. Associations between CXCR1 genotype and somatic cell count were not detected. However, MY was associated with SNP c.735C>G. Cows with genotype c.735GG out-produced cows with genotype c.735CC by 0.8 kg of milk/d. Results provide a basis for further research on the relation between CXCR1 polymorphism and pathogen-specific mastitis resistance and MY. PMID:25459910

Verbeke, Joren; Van Poucke, Mario; Peelman, Luc; Piepers, Sofie; De Vliegher, Sarne

2014-12-01

384

Ethanol alters the osteogenic differentiation of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells  

PubMed Central

Background Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is a set of developmental defects caused by prenatal alcohol exposure. Clinical manifestations of FASD are highly variable and include mental retardation and developmental defects of the heart, kidney, muscle, skeleton, and craniofacial structures. Specific effects of ethanol on fetal cells include induction of apoptosis as well as inhibition of proliferation, differentiation, and migration. This complex set of responses suggests that a bioinformatics approach could clarify some of the pathways involved in these responses. Methods In this study, the responses of fetal stem cells derived from the amniotic fluid (AFSCs) to treatment with ethanol have been examined. Large-scale transcriptome analysis of ethanol-treated AFSCs indicates that genes involved in skeletal development and ossification are up-regulated in these cells. Therefore, the effect of ethanol on osteogenic differentiation of AFSCs was studied. Results Exposure to ethanol during the first 48 hours of an osteogenic differentiation protocol increased in vitro calcium deposition by AFSCs and increased alkaline phosphatase activity. In contrast, ethanol treatment later in the differentiation protocol (day 8) had no significant effect on the activity of alkaline phosphatase. Conclusions These results suggest that transient exposure of AFSCs to ethanol during early differentiation enhances osteogenic differentiation of the cells. PMID:20608908

Hipp, Jennifer A; Hipp, Jason D; Atala, Anthony; Soker, Shay

2010-01-01

385

Fluid shear stress stimulates membrane phospholipid metabolism in cultured human endothelial cells.  

PubMed

There is evidence suggesting that fluid shear stress activates phospholipid turnover in endothelial cells, but it is not clear which phospholipids are involved in the transduction of the flow signal. Cultured human umbilical-vein endothelial cells were prelabeled with [14C]-arachidonic acid and subjected to laminar shear stresses of 0.4, 1.4 and 22 dyn/cm2 for times up to 30 min, after which the distribution of the radioactivity in the phospholipids was determined. We observed decreases in labeled phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidic acid at 10-30 s, and increases in labeled diacylglycerol (DG) and free arachidonate, as well as a simultaneous elevation in inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) levels. A second peak in IP3 levels was observed 10 min after the onset of shear. This is in contrast with agonist-stimulated endothelial cells, where IP3 levels go back to initial values within a few minutes after stimulation. The flow-induced IP3 response was the same in the presence or absence of ATP and serum in the perfusing medium. These results are consistent with the activation of phospholipase C, phospholipase A2 and DG lipase by shear stress. This suggests that several phospholipids are involved in the production of free arachidonic acid and DG, which are likely to be important mediators of the shear stress signal. In addition, flow may lead to a chronic stimulation of endothelial-cell metabolism. PMID:1489890

Bhagyalakshmi, A; Berthiaume, F; Reich, K M; Frangos, J A

1992-01-01

386

Human amniotic fluid stem cells seeded in fibroin scaffold produce in vivo mineralized matrix.  

PubMed

This study investigated the potential of amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs) to synthesize mineralized extracellular matrix (ECM) within different porous scaffolds of collagen, poly-D,L-lactic acid (PDLLA), and silk fibroin. The AFSCs were initially differentiated by using an osteogenic medium in two-dimensional culture, and expression of specific bone proteins and the physiologic mineral production by the AFSCs were analyzed. In particular, during differentiation process, AFSCs expressed proteins like Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), Osterix, Osteopontin, and Osteocalcin with a sequential expression, analogous to those occurring during osteoblast differentiation, and produced extracellular calcium stores. AFSCs were then cultured on three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds and evaluated for their ability to differentiate into osteoblastic cells in vivo. Stem cells were cultured in vitro for 1 week in collagen, fibroin, and PDLLA scaffolds. The effect of predifferentiation of the stem cells in scaffolds on the subsequent bone formation in vivo was determined in a rat subcutaneous model. With the addition of a third dimension, osteogenic differentiation and mineralized ECM production by AFSCs were significantly higher. This study demonstrated the strong potential of AFSCs to produce 3D mineralized bioengineered constructs in vivo and suggests that fibroin may be an effective scaffold material for functional repair of critical size bone defects. PMID:21864161

Maraldi, Tullia; Riccio, Massimo; Resca, Elisa; Pisciotta, Alessandra; La Sala, Giovanni B; Ferrari, Adriano; Bruzzesi, Giacomo; Motta, Antonella; Migliaresi, Claudio; Marzona, Laura; De Pol, Anto

2011-11-01

387

The number that counts. Phylogenetic implications of the number of nurse cells in ovarian follicles of Coleoptera-Adephaga.  

PubMed

The structure of polytrophic ovarioles in both Geadephaga and Hydradephaga is reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the significance of various morphological features and their bearing on the phylogeny of Adephaga. It is concluded that the number of nurse cells in the egg chambers is a valuable character in clarifying the phylogenetic relationships. The comparative analysis of the organization of egg chambers in aquatic and terrestrial adephagans, combined with other data suggests that a relatively small and constant number of nurse cells is a plesiomorphic condition for the Adephaga. This conclusion supports the notion that Haliplidae and Gyrinidae stand close to the ancestral stock of adephagous beetles. PMID:10051971

Jaglarz, M K

1998-01-01

388

Role of sputum differential cell count in detecting airway inflammation in patients with chronic bronchial asthma or COPD  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Sputum may provide an alternative source of bronchial cells to investigate characteristics of airway inflammation and its functional correlates in patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: Two groups of clinically stable patients were studied: a group of 43 patients with mild or moderate asthma and a group of 18 patients with COPD. Twenty normal subjects

M. C. Ronchi; C. Piragino; E. Rosi; M. Amendola; R. Duranti; G. Scano

1996-01-01

389

The relationship between nucleated red blood cell counts at birth and neuropsychological outcome in preterm-birth preschoolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of the current study was to examine the relationship between a putative marker of antenatal hypoxia, nucleated red blood cells (nRBCs) in circulating neonatal blood obtained shortly after birth, and motor, memory and intellectual development at preschool age in children with history of preterm birth (gestational ages 24–34 weeks). ^ Children with congenital disorders and children who

Angela K DeBastos

2007-01-01

390

Visualization and direct counting of individual denitrifying bacterial cells in soil by nirK-targeted direct in situ PCR.  

PubMed

The abundance of denitrifying bacteria in soil has been determined primarily by the conventional most probable number (MPN) method. We have developed a single-cell identification technique that is culture-independent, direct in situ PCR, to enumerate denitrifying bacteria in soils. The specificity of this method was evaluated with six species of denitrifying bacteria using nirK as the target gene; Escherichia coli was used as a negative control. Almost all (97.3%-100%) of the nirK-type denitrifying bacteria (Agromonas oligotrophica, Alcaligenes faecalis, Achromobacter denitrificans, Bradyrhizobium japonicum, and Pseudomonas chlororaphis) were detected by direct in situ PCR, whereas no E. coli cells and only a few cells (2.4%) of nirS-type denitrifying bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) were detected. Numbers of denitrifying bacteria in upland and paddy soil samples quantified by this method were 3.3 × 10(8) to 2.6 × 10(9) cells g(-1) dry soil. These values are approximately 1,000 to 300,000 times higher than those estimated by the MPN method. These results suggest that direct in situ PCR is a better tool for quantifying denitrifying bacteria in soil than the conventional MPN method. PMID:21487206

Ryuda, Noriko; Hashimoto, Tomoyoshi; Ueno, Daisuke; Inoue, Koichi; Someya, Takashi

2011-01-01

391

End plate assembly having a two-phase fluid-filled bladder and method for compressing a fuel cell stack  

DOEpatents

An end plate assembly is disclosed for use in a fuel cell assembly in which the end plate assembly includes a housing having a cavity, and a bladder receivable in the cavity and engageable with the fuel cell stack. The bladder includes a two-phase fluid having a liquid portion and a vapor portion. Desirably, the two-phase fluid has a vapor pressure between about 100 psi and about 600 psi at a temperature between about 70 degrees C. to about 110 degrees C.

Carlstrom, Jr., Charles M. (Clifton Park, NY)

2001-01-01

392

Study of cell apoptosis in the hippocampus and thalamencephalon in a ventricular fluid impact model  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the apoptosis of nerve cells in the hippocampal and thalamencephalon regions using a rabbit model of ventricular fluid impact. The results for the study demonstrated a variety of pathophysiological changes in the rabbit model, while changes in the hippocampal and thalamencephalon regions were observed under a light microscope following hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)/terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. Among the mild, moderate and severe injury groups, there were significant differences in the mortality rate and in the changes in vital signs and consciousness recovery time following trauma. Furthermore, H&E staining showed that pathological changes, such as hemorrhage and necrosis, occurred in the hippocampal and thalamencephalon regions at an early stage subsequent to trauma, while TUNEL staining showed that neuronal apoptosis occurred in the various injury groups. In traumatic brain injuries, the impact caused by cerebrospinal fluid moving with a certain energy results in marked damage to the contralateral periventricular structures and may generate a series of pathophysiological changes. PMID:24255676

CHEN, RUI; WANG, JUNYU; JIANG, BING; WAN, XIN; LIU, HONGWEI; LIU, HUAN; YANG, XIAOSHENG; WU, XIAOBING; ZOU, QIN; YANG, WENREN

2013-01-01

393

MALDI-TOF MS analysis of lipids from cells, tissues and body fluids.  

PubMed

Many diseases as atherosclerosis and metabolic dysfunctions are known to correlate with changes of the lipid profile of tissues and body fluids. Therefore, the importance of reliable methods of lipid analysis is obvious. Although matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was so far primarily used for protein analysis, this method has itself proven to be very useful in lipid analysis, too. This review provides an overview of applications of MALDI-TOF MS in lipid analysis and summarizes the specific advantages and drawbacks of this modern soft-ionization method. The focus will be on the analysis of body fluids and cells as well as the diagnostic potential of the method in the lipid field. It will be shown that MALDI-TOF mass spectra can be recorded in a very short time and provide important information on the lipid as well as the fatty acyl composition of the lipids of an unknown sample. However, it will also be shown that only selected lipid classes (in particular those with quaternary ammonia groups as phosphatidylcholine) are detected if crude mixtures are analyzed as they are more sensitively detectable than other ones. This review ends with a short outlook emphasizing current methodological developments. PMID:18751926

Fuchs, Beate; Schiller, Jürgen

2008-01-01

394

Ascitic fluid from human ovarian cancer patients contains growth factors necessary for intraperitoneal growth of human ovarian adenocarcinoma cells.  

PubMed Central

Human ovarian cancer, the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancy, tends to remain localized to the peritoneal cavity until late in the disease. In established disease, ascitic fluid accumulates in the peritoneal cavity. We have previously demonstrated that this ascitic fluid is a potent source of in vitro mitogenic activity including at least one unique growth factor. We now report that the human ovarian adenocarcinoma line, HEY, can be induced to grow intraperitoneally in immunodeficient nude mice in the presence (23/28 mice), but not absence (0/21 mice) of ascitic fluid from ovarian cancer patients. Ascitic fluid from patients with benign disease did not have similar effects on intraperitoneal growth of HEY cells (1/15 mice). Once tumors were established by injections of exogenous ascitic fluid, they could progress in the absence of additional injections of ascitic fluid. The mice eventually developed ascitic fluid which contained potent growth factor activity, suggesting that the tumors eventually produced autologous growth factors. This nude mouse model provides a system to study the action of ovarian cancer growth factors on tumor growth in vivo and to evaluate preclinically, therapeutic approaches designed to counteract the activity of these growth factors. PMID:2394835

Mills, G B; May, C; Hill, M; Campbell, S; Shaw, P; Marks, A

1990-01-01

395

Complete Blood Count  

MedlinePLUS

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