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Sample records for fluid-saturated anisotropic porous

  1. Standing Torsional Waves in Fluid-Saturated Porous Circular Cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solorza, S.; Sahay, P. N.

    2002-12-01

    For dynamic measurement of elastic constants of a porous material saturated with viscous fluid when resonance-bar technique is applied, one also observes attenuation of the wave field. The current practice is to interpret it in terms of solid-viscosity by assuming a viscoelastic rheology for porous material. The likely mechanisms of attenuation in a fluid saturated porous material are: 1) motion of the fluid with respect to the solid frame and 2) viscous loss within the pore fluid. Therefore, it is appropriate to assume a poroelastic rheology and link the observed attenuation value to fluid properties and permeability. In the framework of poroelastic theory, the explicit formula linking attenuation to the properties of solid and fluid constituents and permeability are not worked out yet. In order to established such a link one has to workout solutions of appropriate boundary value problems in such a framework. Here, we have carried out the solution of boundary value problem associated with torsional oscillation of a finite poroelastic circular cylinder, casted in the framework of volume-averaged theory of poroelasticity. Analysing this solution by a perturbative approach we are able to develop explicit expressions for resonance frequency and attenuation for this mode of vibration. It shows how the attenuation is controlled by the permeability and the fluid properties, and how the resonance frequency drops over its value for the dry porous frame due to the effect of the fluid-mass.

  2. Investigation of ultrasonic wave interactions with fluid-saturated porous rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, L.

    1990-01-01

    Investigation of ultrasonic waves, especially the slow compressional wave, with fluid-saturated porous solids, especially rocks. This research effort should fine applications in the geophysical evaluation of fluid-bearing porous rocks where parameters such as tortuosity, permeability, saturation level, and internal impurities are difficult to measure by conventional techniques. The proposed investigation may be divided into three major subtasks: Experimental study of surface wave propagation on fluid-saturated porous materials. A new, so-called direct excitation technique will be used on both air- and water-saturated samples; further development of the Lamb wave technique recently introduced to study guided wave propagation in thin fluid-saturated porous plates. The analytical treatment will be extended to account for viscous losses and scattering inhomogeneities; and theoretical and experimental study of slow wave propagation in fluid-saturated natural rocks. A new technique based on the transmission of airborne ultrasound through air-saturated porous plates will be used to determine properties such as tortuosity, permeability, etc. 22 refs., 37 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. A coupled deformation-diffusion theory for fluid-saturated porous solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henann, David; Kamrin, Ken; Anand, Lallit

    2012-02-01

    Fluid-saturated porous materials are important in several familiar applications, such as the response of soils in geomechanics, food processing, pharmaceuticals, and the biomechanics of living bone tissue. An appropriate constitutive theory describing the coupling of the mechanical behavior of the porous solid with the transport of the fluid is a crucial ingredient towards understanding the material behavior in these varied applications. In this work, we formulate and numerically implement in a finite-element framework a large-deformation theory for coupled deformation-diffusion in isotropic, fluid-saturated porous solids. The theory synthesizes the classical Biot theory of linear poroelasticity and the more-recent Coussy theory of poroplasticity in a large deformation framework. In this talk, we highlight several salient features of our theory and discuss representative examples of the application of our numerical simulation capability to problems of consolidation as well as deformation localization in granular materials.

  4. Generalized formula for the surface stiffness of fluid-saturated porous media containing parallel pore channels

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, P.B.; Nayfeh, A.H.

    1995-09-25

    The surface stiffness of a fluid-saturated porous solid is defined as the ratio between a small change in capillary pressure and the average displacement of the boundary due to the resulting rise or fall of the fluid level in the pore channels. When the surface pores are structurally open, the surface stiffness is entirely due to the stiffness of the microscopic fluid membranes extended by capillary forces over the surface pores. Due to interfacial tension between the immiscible wetting fluid in the pores and nonwetting fluid (air) above the surface, essentially closed-pore boundary conditions can prevail at the interface. It has recently been shown that the surface stiffness of a porous material containing cylindrical pores can be calculated simply as the surface tension of the saturating fluid divided by the static permeability of the porous solid [P. B. Nagy, Appl. Phys. Lett. {bold 60}, 2735 (1992)]. In this letter, we show that the same simple relationship can be generalized for the surface stiffness of fluid-saturated porous media containing parallel prismatic pore channels of any number, size, or shape. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  5. Effect of thermal stratification on free convection in a fluid-saturated porous enclosure

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, B.V.R.; Singh, P.

    1998-08-28

    Natural convection heat transfer from an isothermal vertical surface in a fluid-saturated porous medium under the influence of thermal stratification has been numerically analyzed using the finite element method. The combined effect of Rayleigh number and thermal stratification on the global heat flux in porous cavities of varying aspect ratios has been analyzed. It is observed that the global heat flux (1) decreases with increasing values of the thermal stratification b and (2) increases with increasing values of Rayleigh number Ra. However, the cumulative heat flux along the midsegment of the vertical wall increases with increasing b and decreases with Ra. With increasing b, a reduction in the convection zone with a downward drift is noticed. Global heat flux can be boosted by reducing the width L of the cavity by a factor of {approximately}8 or more. The flow field and the heat transfer results are presented through the streamlines, isotherms, and global heat flux plots.

  6. On wave propagation characteristics in fluid saturated porous materials by a nonlocal Biot theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Lihong; Yu, Yang; Hu, Wentao; Shi, Yufeng; Xu, Changjie

    2016-09-01

    A nonlocal Biot theory is developed by combing Biot theory and nonlocal elasticity theory for fluid saturated porous material. The nonlocal parameter is introduced as an independent variable for describing wave propagation characteristics in poroelastic material. A physical insight on nonlocal term demonstrates that the nonlocal term is a superposition of two effects, one is inertia force effect generated by fluctuation of porosity and the other is pore size effect inherited from nonlocal constitutive relation. Models for situations of excluding fluid nonlocal effect and including fluid nonlocal effect are proposed. Comparison with experiment confirms that model without fluid nonlocal effect is more reasonable for predicting wave characteristics in saturated porous materials. The negative dispersion is observed theoretically which agrees well with the published experimental data. Both wave velocities and quality factors as functions of frequency and nonlocal parameter are examined in practical cases. A few new physical phenomena such as backward propagation and disappearance of slow wave when exceeding critical frequency and disappearing shear wave in high frequency range, which were not predicted by Biot theory, are demonstrated.

  7. Liquid accumulation in vibrating vocal fold tissue: A simplified model based on a fluid-saturated porous solid theory

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Chao; Jiang, Jack J.; Czerwonka, Lukasz

    2011-01-01

    The human vocal fold is treated as a continuous, transversally isotropic, porous solid saturated with liquid. A set of mathematical equations, based on the theory of fluid-saturated porous solids, is developed to formulate the vibration of the vocal fold tissue. As the fluid-saturated porous tissue model degenerates to the continuous elastic tissue model when the relative movement of liquid in the porous tissue is ignored, it can be considered a more general description of vocal fold tissue than the continuous, elastic model. Using the fluid-saturated porous tissue model, the vibration of a bunch of one-dimensional fibers in the vocal fold is analytically solved based on the small amplitude assumption. It is found that the vibration of the tissue will lead to the accumulation of excess liquid in the midmembranous vocal fold. The degree of liquid accumulation is positively proportional to the vibratory amplitude and frequency. The correspondence between the liquid distribution predicted by the porous tissue theory and the location of vocal nodules observed in clinical practice, provides theoretical evidence for the liquid accumulation hypothesis of vocal nodule formation (Jiang, Ph. D., dissertation, 1991, University of Iowa). PMID:19660905

  8. The Onset of Double Diffusive Convection in a Viscoelastic Fluid-Saturated Porous Layer with Non-Equilibrium Model

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhixin; Wang, Shaowei; Zhao, Moli; Li, Shucai; Zhang, Qiangyong

    2013-01-01

    The onset of double diffusive convection in a viscoelastic fluid-saturated porous layer is studied when the fluid and solid phase are not in local thermal equilibrium. The modified Darcy model is used for the momentum equation and a two-field model is used for energy equation each representing the fluid and solid phases separately. The effect of thermal non-equilibrium on the onset of double diffusive convection is discussed. The critical Rayleigh number and the corresponding wave number for the exchange of stability and over-stability are obtained, and the onset criterion for stationary and oscillatory convection is derived analytically and discussed numerically. PMID:24312193

  9. Thermal instability of a fluid-saturated porous medium bounded by thin fluid layers

    SciTech Connect

    Pillatsis, G.; Taslim, M.E.; Narusawa, U. )

    1987-08-01

    A linear stability analysis is performed for a horizontal Darcy porous layer of depth 2d{sub m} sandwiched between two fluid layers of depth d (each) with the top and bottom boundaries being dynamically free and kept at fixed temperatures. The Beavers-Joseph condition is employed as one of the interfacial boundary conditions between the fluid and the porous layer. The critical Rayleigh number and the horizontal wave number for the onset of convective motion depend on the following four dimensional parameters: {cflx d} (= d{sub m}/d, the depth ratio), {delta} (= {radical}K/d{sub m} with K being the permeability of the porous medium) {alpha} (the proportionality constant in the Beavers-Joseph condition), and k/k{sub m} (the thermal conductivity ratio). In order to analyze the effect of these parameters on the stability condition, a set of numerical solutions is obtained in terms of a convergent series for the respective layers, for the case in which the thickness of the porous layer is much greater than that of the fluid layer. A comparison of this study with the previously obtained exact solution for the case of constant heat flux boundaries is made to illustrate quantitative effects of the interfacial and the top/bottom boundaries on the thermal instability of a combined system of porous and fluid layers.

  10. Acoustic emission in a fluid saturated heterogeneous porous layer with application to hydraulic fracture

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J.T. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA )

    1988-11-01

    A theoretical model for acoustic emission in a vertically heterogeneous porous layer bounded by semi-infinite solid regions is developed using linearized equations of motion for a fluid/solid mixture and a reflectivity method. Green's functions are derived for both point loads and moments. Numerically integrated propagators represent solutions for intermediate heterogeneous layers in the porous region. These are substituted into a global matrix for solution by Gaussian elimination and back-substitution. Fluid partial stress and seismic responses to dislocations associated with fracturing of a layer of rock with a hydraulically conductive fracture network are computed with the model. A constitutive model is developed for representing the fractured rock layer as a porous material, using commonly accepted relationships for moduli. Derivations of density, tortuosity, and sinuosity are provided. The main results of the model application are the prediction of a substantial fluid partial stress response related to a second mode wave for the porous material. The response is observable for relatively large distances, on the order of several tens of meters. The visco-dynamic transition frequency associated with parabolic versus planar fluid velocity distributions across micro-crack apertures is in the low audio or seismic range, in contrast to materials with small pore size, such as porous rocks, for which the transition frequency is ultrasonic. Seismic responses are predicted for receiver locations both in the layer and in the outlying solid regions. In the porous region, the seismic response includes both shear and dilatational wave arrivals and a second-mode arrival. The second-mode arrival is not observable outside of the layer because of its low velocity relative to the dilatational and shear wave propagation velocities of the solid region.

  11. Turbulent flow over a channel with fluid-saturated porous bed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The characteristics of fully developed turbulent flow in a hybrid domain channel, which consists of a clear fluid region and a porous bed, are examined numerically using a model based on the macroscopic Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations. By adopting the classical continuity interface conditi...

  12. Analytical and numerical analysis of bifurcations in thermal convection of viscoelastic fluids saturating a porous square box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taleb, A.; BenHamed, H.; Ouarzazi, M. N.; Beji, H.

    2016-05-01

    We report theoretical and numerical results on bifurcations in thermal instability for a viscoelastic fluid saturating a porous square cavity heated from below. The modified Darcy law based on the Oldroyd-B model was used for modeling the momentum equation. In addition to Rayleigh number ℜ, two more dimensionless parameters are introduced, namely, the relaxation time λ1 and the retardation time λ2. Temporal stability analysis showed that the first bifurcation from the conductive state may be either oscillatory for sufficiently elastic fluids or stationary for weakly elastic fluids. The dynamics associated with the nonlinear interaction between the two kinds of instabilities is first analyzed in the framework of a weakly nonlinear theory. For sufficiently elastic fluids, analytical expressions of the nonlinear threshold above which a second hysteretic bifurcation from oscillatory to stationary convective pattern are derived and found to agree with two-dimensional numerical simulations of the full equations. Computations performed with high Rayleigh number indicated that the system exhibits a third transition from steady single-cell convection to oscillatory multi-cellular flows. Moreover, we found that an intermittent oscillation regime may exist with steady state before the emergence of the secondary Hopf bifurcation. For weakly elastic fluids, we determined a second critical value ℜ2 Osc ( λ 1 , λ 2 ) above which a Hopf bifurcation from steady convective pattern to oscillatory convection occurs. The well known limit of ℜ2 Osc ( λ 1 = 0 , λ 2 = 0 ) = 390 for Newtonian fluids is recovered, while the fluid elasticity is found to delay the onset of the Hopf bifurcation. The major new findings were presented in the form of bifurcation diagrams as functions of viscoelastic parameters for ℜ up to 420.

  13. Spectral Quasi-linearization Method for Homogeneous-Heterogeneous Reactions on Nonlinear Convection Flow of Micropolar Fluid Saturated Porous Medium with Convective Boundary Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    RamReddy, Chetteti; Pradeepa, Teegala

    2016-05-01

    Based on the nonlinear variation of density with temperature (NDT) in the buoyancy term, the mixed convection flow along a vertical plate of a micropolar fluid saturated porous medium is considered. In addition, the effect of homogeneous-heterogeneous reaction and convective boundary condition has been taken into account. Using lie scaling group transformations, the similarity representation is attained for the system of partial differential equations, prior to being solved by a spectral quasilinearization method. The results show that in the presence of aiding and opposing flow situations, both the species concentration and mass transfer rate decreases when the strength of homogeneous and heterogeneous reaction parameters are enhanced.

  14. Effects of geological inhomogeneity on high Rayleigh number steady state heat and mass transfer in fluid-saturated porous media heated from below

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, C.; Muehlaus, H.B.; Hobbs, B.E.

    1998-03-01

    A parametric study is carried out to investigate how geological inhomogeneity affects the pore-fluid convective flow field, the temperature distribution, and the mass concentration distribution in a fluid-saturated porous medium. The related numerical results have demonstrated that (1) the effects of both medium permeability inhomogeneity and medium thermal conductivity inhomogeneity are significant on the pore-fluid convective flow and the species concentration distribution in the porous medium; (2) the effect of medium thermal conductivity inhomogeneity is dramatic on the temperature distribution in the porous medium, but the effect of medium permeability inhomogeneity on the temperature distribution may be considerable, depending on the Rayleigh number involved in the analysis; (3) if the coupling effect between pore-fluid flow and mass transport is weak, the effect of the Lewis number is negligible on the pore-fluid convective flow and temperature distribution, but it is significant on the species concentration distribution in the medium.

  15. Analysis of matching conditions at the boundary surface of a fluid-saturated porous solid and a bulk fluid: the use of Lagrange multipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubik, J.; Cieszko, M.

    2005-12-01

    The compatibility conditions matching macroscopic mechanical fields at the contact surface between a fluid-saturated porous solid and an adjacent bulk fluid are considered. The general form of balance equations at that discontinuity surface are analyzed to obtain the compatibility conditions for the tangent and normal components of the velocity and the stress vector fields. Considerations are based on the procedure similar to that used in the phenomenological thermodynamics for derivation of constitutive relations, where the entropy inequality and the concept of Lagrange multipliers are applied. This procedure made possible to derive the compatibility conditions for the viscous fluid flowing tangentially and perpendicularly to the boundary surface of the porous solid and to formulate the generalized form of the so called slip condition for the fluid velocity field, postulated earlier by Beavers and Joseph, J. Fluid. Mech. 30, 197-207 (1967).

  16. Thermal convection of magneto compressible couple-stress fluid saturated in a porous medium with Hall current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, C. B.; Singh, M.; Kumar, S.

    2016-02-01

    An investigation is made on the effect of Hall currents on thermal instability of a compressible couple-stress fluid in the presence of a horizontal magnetic field saturated in a porous medium. The analysis is carried out within the framework of the linear stability theory and normal mode technique. A dispersion relation governing the effects of viscoelasticity, Hall currents, compressibility, magnetic field and porous medium is derived. For the stationary convection a couple-stress fluid behaves like an ordinary Newtonian fluid due to the vanishing of the viscoelastic parameter. Compressibility, the magnetic filed and couple-stress parameter have stabilizing effects on the system whereas Hall currents and medium permeability have a destabilizing effect on the system, but in the absence of Hall current couple-stress has a destabilizing effect on the system. It has been observed that oscillatory modes are introduced due to the presence of viscoelasticity, magnetic field porous medium and Hall currents which were non-existent in their absence.

  17. Influence of anisotropic permeability on convection in porous media: Implications for geological CO2 sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Paoli, Marco; Zonta, Francesco; Soldati, Alfredo

    2016-05-01

    Solute convection in porous media at high Rayleigh-Darcy numbers has important fundamental features and may also bear implications for geological CO2 sequestration processes. With the aid of direct numerical simulations, we examine the role of anisotropic permeability on the distribution of solutal concentration in fluid saturated porous medium. Our computational analyses span over few decades of Rayleigh-Darcy number and confirm the linear scaling of Nusselt number that was previously found in the literature. In addition, we find that anisotropic permeability γ < 1, i.e., with vertical permeability smaller than horizontal permeability, effectively increases the Nusselt number compared with isotropic conditions. We link this seemingly counterintuitive effect with the occurring modifications to the flow topology in the anisotropic conditions. Finally, we use our data computed for the two-sided configuration (i.e., Dirichlet conditions on upper and lower boundaries) to examine the time evolution of solutal dynamics in the one-sided configuration, and we demonstrate that the finite-time (short-term) amount of CO2 that can be dissolved in anisotropic sedimentary rocks is much larger than in isotropic rocks.

  18. Wave simulation in anisotropic, saturated porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Carcione, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    Porous media are anisotropic due to bedding, compaction and the presence of aligned microcracks and fractures. Here, I assume that the skeleton (and not the solid itself) is anisotropic. The rheological model also includes anisotropic tortuosity and permeability. The poroelastic equations are based on a transversely isotropic extension of Biot`s theory, and the problem is of plane strain type, i.e., two dimensional, and describes qP - qS propagation. In the high-frequency case, the (two) viscodynamic operators are approximated by Zener relaxation functions, that allow a close differential formulation of Biot`s equation of motion. The propagation is solved numerically, with a direct grid method and a time splitting integration algorithm, allowing the solution of the stiff part of the differential equations in closed analytical form. Snapshots in sandstone show that three waves propagate when the fluid is ideal (zero viscosity): the fast compressional and shear waves and the slow compressional wave. Anisotropic tortuosity has not a major influence on the faster modes, but significantly affects the slow wavefront. On the other hand, when the fluid is viscous, the slow wave becomes diffusive and appears as a static mode at the source location.

  19. Poroelastic measurement schemes resulting in complete data sets for granular and other anisotropic porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Berryman, J.G.

    2009-11-20

    Poroelastic analysis usually progresses from assumed knowledge of dry or drained porous media to the predicted behavior of fluid-saturated and undrained porous media. Unfortunately, the experimental situation is often incompatible with these assumptions, especially when field data (from hydrological or oil/gas reservoirs) are involved. The present work considers several different experimental scenarios typified by one in which a set of undrained poroelastic (stiffness) constants has been measured using either ultrasound or seismic wave analysis, while some or all of the dry or drained constants are normally unknown. Drained constants for such a poroelastic system can be deduced for isotropic systems from available data if a complete set of undrained compliance data for the principal stresses are available - together with a few other commonly measured quantities such as porosity, fluid bulk modulus, and grain bulk modulus. Similar results are also developed here for anisotropic systems having up to orthotropic symmetry if the system is granular (i.e., composed of solid grains assembled into a solid matrix, either by a cementation process or by applied stress) and the grains are known to be elastically homogeneous. Finally, the analysis is also fully developed for anisotropic systems with nonhomogeneous (more than one mineral type), but still isotropic, grains - as well as for uniform collections of anisotropic grains as long as their axes of symmetry are either perfectly aligned or perfectly random.

  20. Quantitative Permeability Prediction for Anisotropic Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Q.; Thompson, K. E.

    2012-12-01

    Pore-scale modeling as a predictive tool has become an integral to both research and commercial simulation in recent years. Permeability is one of the most important of the many properties that can be simulated. Traditionally, permeability is determined using Darcy's law, based on the assumption that the pressure gradient is aligned with the principal flow direction. However, a wide variety of porous media exhibit anisotropic permeability due to particle orientation or laminated structure. In these types of materials, the direction of fluid flow is not aligned with the pressure gradient (except along the principal directions). Thus, it is desirable to predict the full permeability tensor for anisotropic materials using a first-principles pore-scale approach. In this work, we present a fast method to determine the full permeability tensor and the principal directions using a novel network modeling algorithm. We also test the ability of network modeling (which is an approximate method) to detect anisotropy in various structures. Both computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods and network modeling have emerged as effective techniques to predict rock properties. CFD models are more rigorous but computationally expensive. Network modeling involves significant approximations but can be orders-of-magnitude more efficient computationally, which is important for both speed and the ability to model larger scales. This work uses network modeling, with simulations performed on two types of anisotropic materials: laminated packings (with layers of different sized particles) and oriented packings (containing particles with preferential orientation). Pore network models are created from the porous media data, and a novel method is used to determine the permeability tensor and principal flow direction using pore network modeling. The method is verified by comparing the calculated principal directions with the known anisotropy and also by comparing permeability with values from CFD

  1. On the Onset of Thermal Convection in a Layer of Oldroydian Visco-Elastic Fluid Saturated by Brinkman-Darcy Porous Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chand, Ramesh

    2015-12-01

    Thermal instability in a horizontal layer of Oldroydian visco-elastic fluid in a porous medium is investigated. For porous medium the Brinkman-Darcy model is considered. A linear stability analysis based upon perturbation method and normal mode technique is used to find solution of the fluid layer confined between two free-free boundaries. The onset criterion for stationary and oscillatory convection is derived analytically. The influence of the Brinkman-Darcy, Prandtl-Darcy number, stress relaxation parameter on the stationary and oscillatory convection is studied both analytically and graphically. The sufficient condition for the validity of PES has also been derived.

  2. Dilatant hardening of fluid-saturated sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhnenko, Roman Y.; Labuz, Joseph F.

    2015-02-01

    The presence of pore fluid in rock affects both the elastic and inelastic deformation processes, yet laboratory testing is typically performed on dry material even though in situ the rock is often saturated. Techniques were developed for testing fluid-saturated porous rock under the limiting conditions of drained, undrained, and unjacketed response. Confined compression experiments, both conventional triaxial and plane strain, were performed on water-saturated Berea sandstone to investigate poroelastic and inelastic behavior. Measured drained response was used to calibrate an elasto-plastic constitutive model that predicts undrained inelastic deformation. The experimental data show good agreement with the model: dilatant hardening in undrained triaxial and plane strain compression tests under constant mean stress was predicted and observed.

  3. Mixed convection magnetohydrodynamic heat and mass transfer past a stretching surface in a micropolar fluid-saturated porous medium under the influence of Ohmic heating, Soret and Dufour effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Dulal; Chatterjee, Sewli

    2011-03-01

    A numerical model is developed to examine the combined effects of Soret and Dufour on mixed convection magnetohydrodynamic heat and mass transfer in micropolar fluid-saturated Darcian porous medium in the presence of thermal radiation, non-uniform heat source/sink and Ohmic dissipation. The governing boundary layer equations for momentum, angular momentum (microrotation), energy and species transfer are transformed to a set of non-linear ordinary differential equations by using similarity solutions which are then solved numerically based on shooting algorithm with Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg integration scheme over the entire range of physical parameters with appropriate boundary conditions. The influence of Darcy number, Prandtl number, Schmidt number, Soret number and Dufour number, magnetic parameter, local thermal Grashof number and local solutal Grashof number on velocity, temperature and concentration fields are studied graphically. Finally, the effects of related physical parameters on local Skin-friction, local Nusselt number and local Sherwood number are also studied. Results showed that the fields were influenced appreciably by the Soret and Dufour effects, thermal radiation and magnetic field, etc.

  4. Pore-Scale Study of the Effect of the Saturation History on Fluid Saturation and Relative Permeability of Three-Fluid Flow in Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, S. Y.; Tsai, J. P.; Chang, L. C.

    2014-12-01

    The flow of three immiscible fluids - water, NAPL, air - in porous media is important in many subsurface processes. To model the three-fluid flow, the relation of relative permeability-saturation-capillary pressure (k-S-P) of three fluids is of central importance. In this experimental study, we directly measure the k-S-P of the water (wetting phase) when three fluids are coexist in a micromodel during the water drainage and imbibition. The results show that the sequence of the non-wetting fluids (air and NAPL) entering into the micromodel affects the fluid distributions as well as the relative permeability of water. During the drainage process, the relative permeability of water dropped drastically when the pathway of water from inlet to outlet of the micromodel was visually blocked by the non-wetting fluids. At this stage, the relative permeability of water was low but not down to zero. The water was still able to move via corner flows or thin-film flows. During the imbibition process, the water displaced two non-wetting liquids via both "snap-off" and "piston-type" motions. The relative permeability of water jumped when the water pathway was formed again. In addition, we found that the well-known scaling format proposed by Parker et al. [1] might fail when the interfaces between the most non-wetting (air) and the most wetting (water) fluids occurs in the three-fluids system. References[1] J. C. Parker, R. J. Lenhard, and T. Kuppusamy, Water Resources Research, 23, 4, 618-624 (1987)

  5. Numerical investigation of nanoparticles transport in anisotropic porous media.

    PubMed

    Salama, Amgad; Negara, Ardiansyah; El Amin, Mohamed; Sun, Shuyu

    2015-10-01

    In this work the problem related to the transport of nanoparticles in anisotropic porous media is investigated numerically using the multipoint flux approximation. Anisotropy of porous media properties is an essential feature that exists almost everywhere in subsurface formations. In anisotropic media, the flux and the pressure gradient vectors are no longer collinear and therefore interesting patterns emerge. The transport of nanoparticles in subsurface formations is affected by several complex processes including surface charges, heterogeneity of nanoparticles and soil grain collectors, interfacial dynamics of double-layer and many others. We use the framework of the theory of filtration in this investigation. Processes like particles deposition, entrapment, as well as detachment are accounted for. From the numerical methods point of view, traditional two-point flux finite difference approximation cannot handle anisotropy of media properties. Therefore, in this work we use the multipoint flux approximation (MPFA). In this technique, the flux components are affected by more neighboring points as opposed to the mere two points that are usually used in traditional finite volume methods. We also use the experimenting pressure field approach which automatically constructs the global system of equations by solving multitude of local problems. This approach facilitates to a large extent the construction of the global system. A set of numerical examples is considered involving two-dimensional rectangular domain. A source of nanoparticles is inserted in the middle of the anisotropic layer. We investigate the effects of both anisotropy angle and anisotropy ratio on the transport of nanoparticles in saturated porous media. It is found that the concentration plume and porosity contours follow closely the principal direction of anisotropy of permeability of the central domain. PMID:26212784

  6. Frequency-dependent processing and interpretation (FDPI) of seismic data for identifying, imaging and monitoring fluid-saturated underground reservoirs

    DOEpatents

    Goloshubin, Gennady M.; Korneev, Valeri A.

    2005-09-06

    A method for identifying, imaging and monitoring dry or fluid-saturated underground reservoirs using seismic waves reflected from target porous or fractured layers is set forth. Seismic imaging the porous or fractured layer occurs by low pass filtering of the windowed reflections from the target porous or fractured layers leaving frequencies below low-most corner (or full width at half maximum) of a recorded frequency spectra. Additionally, the ratio of image amplitudes is shown to be approximately proportional to reservoir permeability, viscosity of fluid, and the fluid saturation of the porous or fractured layers.

  7. Frequency-dependent processing and interpretation (FDPI) of seismic data for identifying, imaging and monitoring fluid-saturated underground reservoirs

    DOEpatents

    Goloshubin, Gennady M.; Korneev, Valeri A.

    2006-11-14

    A method for identifying, imaging and monitoring dry or fluid-saturated underground reservoirs using seismic waves reflected from target porous or fractured layers is set forth. Seismic imaging the porous or fractured layer occurs by low pass filtering of the windowed reflections from the target porous or fractured layers leaving frequencies below low-most corner (or full width at half maximum) of a recorded frequency spectra. Additionally, the ratio of image amplitudes is shown to be approximately proportional to reservoir permeability, viscosity of fluid, and the fluid saturation of the porous or fractured layers.

  8. Fabric dependence of wave propagation in anisotropic porous media

    PubMed Central

    Cowin, Stephen C.; Cardoso, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Current diagnosis of bone loss and osteoporosis is based on the measurement of the Bone Mineral Density (BMD) or the apparent mass density. Unfortunately, in most clinical ultrasound densitometers: 1) measurements are often performed in a single anatomical direction, 2) only the first wave arriving to the ultrasound probe is characterized, and 3) the analysis of bone status is based on empirical relationships between measurable quantities such as Speed of Sound (SOS) and Broadband Ultrasound Attenuation (BUA) and the density of the porous medium. However, the existence of a second wave in cancellous bone has been reported, which is an unequivocal signature of poroelastic media, as predicted by Biot’s poroelastic wave propagation theory. In this paper the governing equations for wave motion in the linear theory of anisotropic poroelastic materials are developed and extended to include the dependence of the constitutive relations upon fabric - a quantitative stereological measure of the degree of structural anisotropy in the pore architecture of a porous medium. This fabric-dependent anisotropic poroelastic approach is a theoretical framework to describe the microarchitectural-dependent relationship between measurable wave properties and the elastic constants of trabecular bone, and thus represents an alternative for bone quality assessment beyond BMD alone. PMID:20461539

  9. Fabric dependence of quasi-waves in anisotropic porous media.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Luis; Cowin, Stephen C

    2011-05-01

    Assessment of bone loss and osteoporosis by ultrasound systems is based on the speed of sound and broadband ultrasound attenuation of a single wave. However, the existence of a second wave in cancellous bone has been reported and its existence is an unequivocal signature of poroelastic media. To account for the fact that ultrasound is sensitive to microarchitecture as well as bone mineral density (BMD), a fabric-dependent anisotropic poroelastic wave propagation theory was recently developed for pure wave modes propagating along a plane of symmetry in an anisotropic medium. Key to this development was the inclusion of the fabric tensor--a quantitative stereological measure of the degree of structural anisotropy of bone--into the linear poroelasticity theory. In the present study, this framework is extended to the propagation of mixed wave modes along an arbitrary direction in anisotropic porous media called quasi-waves. It was found that differences between phase and group velocities are due to the anisotropy of the bone microarchitecture, and that the experimental wave velocities are more accurately predicted by the poroelastic model when the fabric tensor variable is taken into account. This poroelastic wave propagation theory represents an alternative for bone quality assessment beyond BMD. PMID:21568431

  10. Birefringence and anisotropic optical absorption in porous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Efimova, A. I. Krutkova, E. Yu.; Golovan', L. A.; Fomenko, M. A.; Kashkarov, P. K.; Timoshenko, V. Yu.

    2007-10-15

    The refractive indices and the coefficients of optical absorption by free charge carriers and local vibrations in porous silicon (por-Si) films, comprising nanometer-sized silicon residues (nanocrystals) separated by nanometer-sized pores (nanopores) formed in the course of electrochemical etching of the initial single crystal silicon, have been studied by polarization-resolved IR absorption spectroscopy techniques. It is shown that the birefringence observed in por-Si is related to the anisotropic shapes of nanocrystals and nanopores, while the anisotropy (dichroism) of absorption by the local vibrational modes is determined predominantly by the microrelief of the surface of nanocrystals. It is demonstrated that silicon-hydrogen surface bonds in nanocrystals can be restored by means of selective hydrogen thermodesorption with the formation of a considerable number of H-terminated surface Si-Si dimers.

  11. Diffusion, Dispersion, and Uncertainty in Anisotropic Fractal Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnig, N. D.; Benson, D. A.

    2007-12-01

    Motivated by field measurements of aquifer hydraulic conductivity (K), recent techniques were developed to construct anisotropic fractal random fields, in which the scaling, or self-similarity parameter, varies with direction and is defined by a matrix. Ensemble numerical results are analyzed for solute transport through these 2-D "operator-scaling" fractional Brownian motion (fBm) ln(K) fields. Contrary to some analytic stochastic theories for monofractal K fields, the plume growth rates never exceed Mercado's (1967) purely stratified aquifer growth rate of plume apparent dispersivity proportional to mean distance. Apparent super-stratified growth must be the result of other demonstrable factors, such as initial plume size. The addition of large local dispersion and diffusion does not significantly change the effective longitudinal dispersivity of the plumes. In the presence of significant local dispersion or diffusion, the concentration coefficient of variation CV={σc}/{\\langle c \\rangle} remains large at the leading edge of the plumes. This indicates that even with considerable mixing due to dispersion or diffusion, there is still substantial uncertainty in the leading edge of a plume moving in fractal porous media.

  12. Elastic and inelastic deformation of fluid-saturated rock.

    PubMed

    Makhnenko, Roman Y; Labuz, Joseph F

    2016-10-13

    In situ rock is often saturated with fluid, the presence of which affects both elastic parameters and inelastic deformation processes. Techniques were developed for testing fluid-saturated porous rock under the limiting conditions of drained (long-term), undrained (short-term) and unjacketed (solid matrix) response in hydrostatic, axisymmetric and plane-strain compression. Drained and undrained poroelastic parameters, including bulk modulus, Biot and Skempton coefficients, of Berea sandstone were found to be stress dependent up to 35 MPa mean stress, and approximately constant at higher levels of loading. The unjacketed bulk modulus was measured to be constant for pressure up to 60 MPa, and it appears to be larger than the unjacketed pore bulk modulus. An elasto-plastic constitutive model calibrated with parameters from drained tests provided a first-order approximation of undrained inelastic deformation: dilatant hardening was observed due to pore pressure decrease during inelastic deformation of rock specimens with constant fluid content.This article is part of the themed issue 'Energy and the subsurface'. PMID:27597783

  13. Stability of Poiseuille flow in a fluid overlying an anisotropic and inhomogeneous porous layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deepu, P.; Anand, Prateek; Basu, Saptarshi

    2015-08-01

    We present the linear stability analysis of horizontal Poiseuille flow in a fluid overlying a porous medium with anisotropic and inhomogeneous permeability. The generalized Darcy model is used to describe the flow in the porous medium with the Beavers-Joseph condition at the interface of the two layers and the eigenvalue problem is solved numerically. The effect of major system parameters on the stability characteristics is addressed in detail. It is shown that the anisotropic and inhomogeneous modulation of the permeability of the underlying porous layer provides an effective means for passive control of the flow stability.

  14. Numerical study on the permeability in a tensorial form for laminar flow in anisotropic porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo-Torres, S. A.; Scheuermann, A.; Li, L.

    2012-10-01

    Pore-scale flow simulations were conducted to investigate the permeability tensor of anisotropic porous media constructed using the Voronoi tessellation method. This construction method enabled the introduction of anisotropy to the media at the particle level in a random and yet controllable way. Simulations were carried out for media with different degrees of anisotropy through varying the mean aspect ratio of grain particles. The simulation results were then analyzed using the Kozeny-Carman (KC) model. The KC model describes the permeability of the anisotropic media in a tensor form with the anisotropy represented by different tortuosities along the three principal directions. The tortuosity tensor was found to be a complex function of the particle morphology, which is yet to be fully determined. However, the results presented have established the starting point for further theoretical development to formulate such a function and to build closed-form analytical permeability models for anisotropic porous media based on first principles.

  15. Experimental studies of electrokinetic conversions in fluid-saturated borehole models

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Z.; Haartsen, M.W.; Toksoez, M.N.

    1999-10-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies show that there are electromagnetic (EM) fields generated by seismic waves with two kinds of conversion mechanisms in a fluid-saturated, porous medium. Within a homogeneous formation, the seismic wave generates a seismoelectric field that exists only in the area disturbed by the seismic wave and whose apparent velocity is that of the seismic wave. At an interface between differing formation properties, the generated seismoelectric wave is a propagating EM wave that can be detected everywhere, An electrode, used as a receiver on the ground surface, can detect the propagating EM wave generated at an interface, but cannot detect the seismoelectric field generated in a homogeneous formation. When the electrode is in a borehole and close to a porous formation, it can detect both the EM waves and the seismoelectric field. In this paper, electrokinetic measurements are performed with borehole models made of natural rocks or artificial materials. Experimental results show that the Stoneley wave and other acoustic modes, excited by a monopole source in the borehole models, generate seismoelectric fields in fluid-saturated formations. The electric components of the seismoelectric fields can be detected by an electrode in the borehole or on the borehole wall. The amplitude and frequency of the seismoelectric fields are related not only to the seismic wave, but also to formation properties such as permeability, conductivity, etc. Comparison between the waveforms of the seismoelectric signals and acoustic logging waves suggests that seismoelectric well logging may explore the different properties of the formation. Electroseismic measurements are also performed with these borehole models. The electric pulse through the electrode in the borehole or on the borehole wall induces Stoneley waves in fluid-saturated models that can be received by a monopole transducer in the same borehole. These measurement methods (seismoelectric logging or

  16. Onset of convection in an anisotropic porous layer of finite lateral extent

    SciTech Connect

    Mahidjiba, A.; Robillard, L.; Vasseur, P.; Mamou, M.

    2000-04-01

    Despite the fact that the porous materials are anisotropic in several applications, natural convection in such media has received relatively little attention. Anisotropy is generally a consequence of asymmetric geometry of the grain or fibers or of a preferential orientation. Such media are in fact often encountered in numerous systems in industry and nature. Examples include fibrous materials, geological formations, oil extraction, some biological materials, etc. A linear stability analysis is performed to study the onset of convection in a horizontal saturated porous layer of finite aspect ratio and anisotropic in permeability. The critical Rayleigh number is established as a function of the permeability ratio, the inclination angle of the principal axes and the enclosure aspect ratio. A linear stability analysis is conducted through a numerical procedure. Also, for the weak finite amplitude convection, results are obtained by solving numerically the full governing equations.

  17. Computation of the transient flow in zoned anisotropic porous media by the boundary element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruch, E.; Grilli, S.

    Results on the application of the BEM to transient two-dimensional flows in zoned anisotropic porous media are presented, including the iterative calculation of the free surface seepage position. The classical BEM equations are discretized by linear, quadratic, or cubic elements, employing special singular numerical quadrature rules. The method is improved by the incorporation of a subregion division. The present technique is shown to be very accurate and to avoid previously encountered oscillation problems.

  18. Method of determining interwell oil field fluid saturation distribution

    DOEpatents

    Donaldson, Erle C.; Sutterfield, F. Dexter

    1981-01-01

    A method of determining the oil and brine saturation distribution in an oil field by taking electrical current and potential measurements among a plurality of open-hole wells geometrically distributed throughout the oil field. Poisson's equation is utilized to develop fluid saturation distributions from the electrical current and potential measurement. Both signal generating equipment and chemical means are used to develop current flow among the several open-hole wells.

  19. In-situ ellipsometric characterization of the growth of porous anisotropic nanocrystalline ZnO layers

    SciTech Connect

    Laha, P. Terryn, H.; Ustarroz, J.; Nazarkin, M. Y. Gavrilov, S. A.; Volkova, A. V.; Simunin, M. M.

    2015-03-09

    ZnO films have increasingly been in the spotlight due to their largely varied electro-physical and optical properties. For several applications, porous anisotropic nanocrystalline layers are especially interesting. To study the growth kinetics of such films during different fabrication processes, a powerful non-destructive in-situ technique is required. In this work, both ex-situ and in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry are used along with advanced modelling techniques that are able to take both the anisotropy and the porosity of the films into account. Scanning electron microscopy, along with nitrogen absorption methods for measuring porosity, validated the ellipsometric data and proposed model. The film, grown by chemical bath deposition, was monitored from around 700 to 1800 nm in thickness. This same principle can now be used to monitor any other porous and/or anisotropic structure in an effective in-situ manner, e.g., growth of porous anodic aluminium oxides, nano-porous silica films, etc.

  20. Theoretical and numerical aspects of fluid-saturated elasto-plastic soils

    SciTech Connect

    Ehlers, W.

    1995-12-31

    The theoretical and numerical treatment of fluid-saturated porous solid materials generally falls into the category of porous media models, which are described within the framework of the classical theory of mixtures extended by the concept of volume fractions (porous media theories). In particular, this concept allows for the description of saturated, unsaturated and empty porous matrix materials, thus offering a well-founded theoretical background for a lot of engineering problems occurring, for instance, in the fields of geomechanics (soil and rock mechanics as well as glacier and rock ice mechanics), oil producing industries, sintering technologies, biomechanics, etc. In the present contribution, theoretical and numerical studies are outlined to describe a two-phase material composed of an incompressible elasto-plastic soil matrix saturated by an incompressible viscous pore fluid. In this context, the phenomenon of phase incompressibility is well known as a microscopic effect not implying bulk incompressibility in the macro regime. This is seen from the fact that even if the material density functions of the individual constituents are constant during deformation, the corresponding bulk densities can still change through changes in the volume fractions. Within the framework of a pure mechanical theory, constitutive equations are given for both the solid and the fluid partial stress tensors and for the interaction force acting between the two materials. Concerning the porous soil matrix, the elastic properties are described by an elasticity law of Hookean type, while the plastic range is governed by a {open_quote}single surface{close_quote} yield function exhibiting a smooth and closed shape in the principal stress space together with a non-associated flow rule. The viscosity effects of the pore fluid are included in the fluid stress tensor and in the drag force.

  1. A 3D porous media liver lobule model: the importance of vascular septa and anisotropic permeability for homogeneous perfusion.

    PubMed

    Debbaut, Charlotte; Vierendeels, Jan; Siggers, Jennifer H; Repetto, Rodolfo; Monbaliu, Diethard; Segers, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The hepatic blood circulation is complex, particularly at the microcirculatory level. Previously, 2D liver lobule models using porous media and a 3D model using real sinusoidal geometries have been developed. We extended these models to investigate the role of vascular septa (VS) and anisotropic permeability. The lobule was modelled as a hexagonal prism (with or without VS) and the tissue was treated as a porous medium (isotropic or anisotropic permeability). Models were solved using computational fluid dynamics. VS inclusion resulted in more spatially homogeneous perfusion. Anisotropic permeability resulted in a larger axial velocity component than isotropic permeability. A parameter study revealed that results are most sensitive to the lobule size and radial pressure drop. Our model provides insight into hepatic microhaemodynamics, and suggests that inclusion of VS in the model leads to perfusion patterns that are likely to reflect physiological reality. The model has potential for applications to unphysiological and pathological conditions. PMID:23237543

  2. Description of a Furnace for the Creation of Anisotropic Porous Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Gutsch, Thomas; Miszkiel, Mark; Schmale, David T.

    1999-05-01

    A furnace has been built for the purpose of producing anisotropic porous metals through solid-gas eutectic solidification. This process allows control of continuously formed anisotropic pores in metals and was discovered at the State Metallurgical Academic' University in Dnepropetrovsk Ukraine. The process incorporates hydrogen gas within the metal as it solidifies from the molten state. Metals which do not form hydrides, including iron, nickel, aluminum, copper and others can be formed in this manner. The furnace is housed within a ~.64 meter³ (30 ft³) ASME code stamped cylindrical stainless steel vacuum/pressure vessel. The vessel is a water chilled vertical cylinder with removable covers at the top and bottom. It can be evacuated to 20 mTorr or pressurized to 5.5 MPa (800 psi). A charge of 2700 cc (167 in³) of molten metal can be melted in a crucible in the upper portion within a watercooled 30 cm (12 in.) ID induction coil. A 175 kW Inductotherm power source energizes the coil. Vertical actuation of a ceramic stopper rod allows the molten metal to be tapped into a solidification mold beneath the melting crucible. The cylindrical mold rests on a water cooled copper base inducing directional solidification from the bottom. Mixtures of hydrogen and argon gases are introduced during the process. The system is remotely controlled and located in a structure with frangible walls specially designed for possible ambient pressure excursions as a result of equipment failure. This paper includes a general description of the furnace and operating procedure and a detailed description of the control, monitoring and interlock systems.

  3. Growth Assisted by Glancing Angle Deposition: A New Technique to Fabricate Highly Porous Anisotropic Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Valencia, Juan Ramon; Longtin, Remi; Rossell, Marta D; Gröning, Pierangelo

    2016-04-01

    We report a new methodology based on glancing angle deposition (GLAD) of an organic molecule in combination with perpendicular growth of a second inorganic material. The resulting thin films retain a very well-defined tilted columnar microstructure characteristic of GLAD with the inorganic material embedded inside the columns. We refer to this new methodology as growth assisted by glancing angle deposition or GAGLAD, since the material of interest (here, the inorganic) grows in the form of tilted columns, though it is deposited under a nonglancing configuration. As a "proof of concept", we have used silver and zinc oxide as the perpendicularly deposited material since they usually form ill-defined columnar microstructures at room temperature by GLAD. By means of our GAGLAD methodology, the typical tilted columnar microstructure can be developed for materials that otherwise do not form ordered structures under conventional GLAD. This simple methodology broadens significantly the range of materials where control of the microstructure can be achieved by tuning the geometrical deposition parameters. The two examples presented here, Ag/Alq3 and ZnO/Alq3, have been deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD) and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), respectively: two different vacuum techniques that illustrate the generality of the proposed technique. The two type of hybrid samples present very interesting properties that demonstrate the potentiality of GAGLAD. On one hand, the Ag/Alq3 samples present highly optical anisotropic properties when they are analyzed with linearly polarized light. To our knowledge, these Ag/Alq3 samples present the highest angular selectivity reported in the visible range. On the other hand, ZnO/Alq3 samples are used to develop highly porous ZnO thin films by using Alq3 as sacrificial material. In this way, antireflective ZnO samples with very low refractive index and extinction coefficient have been obtained. PMID:26954074

  4. Numerical study of heat and mass transfer in an anisotropic porous enclosure due to constant heating and cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Bera, P.; Eswaran, V.; Singh, P.

    1998-12-01

    Combined heat and mass transfer in porous media occurs in many natural phenomena and engineering applications, such as the migration of moisture through air contained in insulation, the spreading of chemical pollutants in saturated soil, and the extraction of geothermal energy. Here, double-diffusive natural convective flow within a rectangular enclosure has been studied for an anisotropic porous medium using a non-Darcy extension. The principal direction of the permeability tensor has been taken oblique to the gravity vector. The spectral element method has been used to solve the problem numerically. The method has been validated using existing analytical and numerical results. Parametric studies are presented for isotropic and anisotropic cases for different fundamental parameters, e.g., buoyancy ratio, Lewis number, Rayleigh number, Darcy number. The results show that anisotropy causes significant changes in the Nusselt and Sherwood numbers. In particular, the present analysis shows that permeability orientation angle has a significant effect on the flow rate and, consequently, on the heat and mass transfer.

  5. Imaging of multiphase fluid saturation within a porous material via sodium NMR.

    PubMed

    Washburn, Kathryn E; Madelin, Guillaume

    2010-01-01

    We present in this paper a method to monitor multiphase fluid core saturation through measurement of the sodium NMR signal. In a rock core saturated with water and oil, sodium will be present only in the water phase, and therefore can be used to separate the two fluids. Two dimensional sodium images were taken to monitor the movement of brine into oil saturated rock cores. The measured fluid exchange agrees well with expected behavior from traditional core analysis methods. Indications of damage to the rock structure can be seen from the patterns of fluid imbibition. PMID:19864169

  6. Evidence of anisotropic quenched disorder effects on a smectic liquid crystal confined in porous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Guegan, Regis; Morineau, Denis; Loverdo, Claude; Beziel, Wilfried; Guendouz, Mohammed

    2006-01-15

    We present a neutron scattering analysis of the structure of the smectic liquid crystal octylcyanobiphenyl (8CB) confined in one-dimensional nanopores of porous silicon films (PS). The smectic transition is completely suppressed, leading to the extension of a short-range ordered smectic phase aligned along the pore axis. It evolves reversibly over an extended temperature range, down to 50 K below the N-SmA transition in pure 8CB. This behavior strongly differs from previous observations of smectics in different one-dimensional porous materials. A coherent picture of this striking behavior requires that quenched disorder effects are invoked. The strongly disordered nature of the inner surface of PS acts as random fields coupling to the smectic order. The one-dimensionality of PS nanochannels offers perspectives on quenched disorder effects, of which observation has been restricted to homogeneous random porous materials so far.

  7. Superior mechanical performance of highly porous, anisotropic nanocellulose-montmorillonite aerogels prepared by freeze casting.

    PubMed

    Donius, Amalie E; Liu, Andong; Berglund, Lars A; Wegst, Ulrike G K

    2014-09-01

    Directionally solidified nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC)-sodium-montmorillonite (MMT) composite aerogels with a honeycomb-like pore structure were compared with non-directionally frozen aerogels with equiaxed pore structure and identical composition and found to have superior functionalities. To explore structure-property correlations, three different aerogel compositions of 3wt% MMT, and 0.4wt%, 0.8wt%, and 1.2wt% NFC, respectively, were tested. Young׳s modulus, compressive strength and toughness were found to increase with increasing NFC content for both architectures. The modulus increased from 25.8kPa to 386kPa for the isotropic and from 2.13MPa to 3.86MPa for the anisotropic aerogels, the compressive yield strength increased from 3.3kPa to 18.0kPa for the isotropic and from 32.3kPa to 52.5kPa for the anisotropic aerogels, and the toughness increased from 6.3kJ/m(3) to 24.1kJ/m(3) for the isotropic and from 22.9kJ/m(3) to 46.2kJ/m(3) for the anisotropic aerogels. The great range of properties, which can be achieved through compositional as well as architectural variations, makes these aerogels highly attractive for a large range of applications, for which either a specific composition, or a particular pore morphology, or both are required. Finally, because NFC is flammable, gasification experiments were performed, which revealed that the inclusion of MMT increased the heat endurance and shape retention functions of the aerogels dramatically up to 800°C while the mechanical properties were retained up to 300°C. PMID:24905177

  8. Anisotropic magnetic porous assemblies of oxide nanoparticles interconnected via silica bridges for catalytic application.

    PubMed

    Wacker, Josias B; Parashar, Virendra K; Gijs, Martin A M

    2011-04-19

    We report the microfluidic chip-based assembly of colloidal silanol-functionalized silica nanoparticles using monodisperse water-in-oil droplets as templates. The nanoparticles are linked via silica bridges, thereby forming superstructures that range from doublets to porous spherical or rod-like micro-objects. Adding magnetite nanoparticles to the colloid generates micro-objects that can be magnetically manipulated. We functionalized such magnetic porous assemblies with horseradish peroxidase and demonstrate the catalytic binding of fluorescent dye-labeled tyramide over the complete effective surface of the superstructure. Such nanoparticle assemblies permit easy manipulation and recovery after a heterogeneous catalytic process while providing a large surface similar to that of the individual nanoparticles. PMID:21417232

  9. Anisotropic elastic properties of flexible metal-organic frameworks: how soft are soft porous crystals?

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Aurélie U; Boutin, Anne; Fuchs, Alain H; Coudert, François-Xavier

    2012-11-01

    We performed ab initio calculations of the elastic constants of five flexible metal-organic frameworks (MOFs): MIL-53(Al), MIL-53(Ga), MIL-47, and the square and lozenge structures of DMOF-1. Tensorial analysis of the elastic constants reveals a highly anisotropic elastic behavior, some deformation directions exhibiting very low Young's modulus and shear modulus. This anisotropy can reach a 400:1 ratio between the most rigid and weakest directions, in stark contrast to the case of nonflexible MOFs such as MOF-5 and ZIF-8. In addition, we show that flexible MOFs can display extremely large negative linear compressibility. These results uncover the microscopic roots of stimuli-induced structural transitions in flexible MOFs, by linking the local elastic behavior of the material and its multistability. PMID:23215398

  10. An H2O-CO2 mixed fluid saturation model compatible with rhyolite-MELTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghiorso, Mark S.; Gualda, Guilherme A. R.

    2015-06-01

    A thermodynamic model for estimating the saturation conditions of H2O-CO2 mixed fluids in multicomponent silicate liquids is described. The model extends the capabilities of rhyolite-MELTS (Gualda et al. in J Petrol 53:875-890, 2012a) and augments the water saturation model in MELTS (Ghiorso and Sack in Contrib Mineral Petrol 119:197-212, 1995). The model is internally consistent with the fluid-phase thermodynamic model of Duan and Zhang (Geochim Cosmochim Acta 70:2311-2324, 2006). It may be used independently of rhyolite-MELTS to estimate intensive variables and fluid saturation conditions from glass inclusions trapped in phenocrysts. The model is calibrated from published experimental data on water and carbon dioxide solubility, and mixed fluid saturation in silicate liquids. The model is constructed on the assumption that water dissolves to form a hydroxyl melt species, and that carbon dioxide both a molecular species and a carbonate ion, the latter complexed with calcium. Excess enthalpy interaction terms in part compensate for these simplistic assumptions regarding speciation. The model is restricted to natural composition liquids over the pressure range 0-3 GPa. One characteristic of the model is that fluid saturation isobars at pressures greater than ~100 MPa always display a maximum in melt CO2 at nonzero H2O melt concentrations, regardless of bulk composition. This feature is universal and can be attributed to the dominance of hydroxyl speciation at low water concentrations. The model is applied to four examples. The first involves estimation of pressures from H2O-CO2-bearing glass inclusions found in quartz phenocrysts of the Bishop Tuff. The second illustrates H2O and CO2 partitioning between melt and fluid during fluid-saturated equilibrium and fractional crystallization of MORB. The third example demonstrates that the position of the quartz-feldspar cotectic surface is insensitive to melt CO2 contents, which facilitates geobarometry using phase

  11. Numerical research on the anisotropic transport of thermal neutron in heterogeneous porous media with micron X-ray computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Yue, Wenzheng; Zhang, Mo

    2016-01-01

    The anisotropic transport of thermal neutron in heterogeneous porous media is of great research interests in many fields. In this paper, it is the first time that a new model based on micron X-ray computed tomography (CT) has been proposed to simultaneously consider both the separation of matrix and pore and the distribution of mineral components. We apply the Monte Carlo method to simulate thermal neutrons transporting through the model along different directions, and meanwhile detect those unreacted thermal neutrons by an array detector on the other side of the model. Therefore, the anisotropy of pore structure can be imaged by the amount of received thermal neutrons, due to the difference of rock matrix and pore-filling fluids in the macroscopic reaction cross section (MRCS). The new model has been verified by the consistent between the simulated data and the pore distribution from X-ray CT. The results show that the evaluation of porosity can be affected by the anisotropy of media. Based on the research, a new formula is developed to describe the correlation between the resolution of array detectors and the quality of imaging. The formula can be further used to analyze the critical resolution and the suitable number of thermal neutrons emitted in each simulation. Unconventionally, we find that a higher resolution cannot always lead to a better image. PMID:27271330

  12. Numerical research on the anisotropic transport of thermal neutron in heterogeneous porous media with micron X-ray computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yong; Yue, Wenzheng; Zhang, Mo

    2016-06-01

    The anisotropic transport of thermal neutron in heterogeneous porous media is of great research interests in many fields. In this paper, it is the first time that a new model based on micron X-ray computed tomography (CT) has been proposed to simultaneously consider both the separation of matrix and pore and the distribution of mineral components. We apply the Monte Carlo method to simulate thermal neutrons transporting through the model along different directions, and meanwhile detect those unreacted thermal neutrons by an array detector on the other side of the model. Therefore, the anisotropy of pore structure can be imaged by the amount of received thermal neutrons, due to the difference of rock matrix and pore-filling fluids in the macroscopic reaction cross section (MRCS). The new model has been verified by the consistent between the simulated data and the pore distribution from X-ray CT. The results show that the evaluation of porosity can be affected by the anisotropy of media. Based on the research, a new formula is developed to describe the correlation between the resolution of array detectors and the quality of imaging. The formula can be further used to analyze the critical resolution and the suitable number of thermal neutrons emitted in each simulation. Unconventionally, we find that a higher resolution cannot always lead to a better image.

  13. Numerical research on the anisotropic transport of thermal neutron in heterogeneous porous media with micron X-ray computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Yue, Wenzheng; Zhang, Mo

    2016-01-01

    The anisotropic transport of thermal neutron in heterogeneous porous media is of great research interests in many fields. In this paper, it is the first time that a new model based on micron X-ray computed tomography (CT) has been proposed to simultaneously consider both the separation of matrix and pore and the distribution of mineral components. We apply the Monte Carlo method to simulate thermal neutrons transporting through the model along different directions, and meanwhile detect those unreacted thermal neutrons by an array detector on the other side of the model. Therefore, the anisotropy of pore structure can be imaged by the amount of received thermal neutrons, due to the difference of rock matrix and pore-filling fluids in the macroscopic reaction cross section (MRCS). The new model has been verified by the consistent between the simulated data and the pore distribution from X-ray CT. The results show that the evaluation of porosity can be affected by the anisotropy of media. Based on the research, a new formula is developed to describe the correlation between the resolution of array detectors and the quality of imaging. The formula can be further used to analyze the critical resolution and the suitable number of thermal neutrons emitted in each simulation. Unconventionally, we find that a higher resolution cannot always lead to a better image. PMID:27271330

  14. Dynamic bulk and shear moduli due to grain-scale local fluid flow in fluid-saturated cracked poroelastic rocks: Theoretical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yongjia; Hu, Hengshan; Rudnicki, John W.

    2016-07-01

    Grain-scale local fluid flow is an important loss mechanism for attenuating waves in cracked fluid-saturated poroelastic rocks. In this study, a dynamic elastic modulus model is developed to quantify local flow effect on wave attenuation and velocity dispersion in porous isotropic rocks. The Eshelby transform technique, inclusion-based effective medium model (the Mori-Tanaka scheme), fluid dynamics and mass conservation principle are combined to analyze pore-fluid pressure relaxation and its influences on overall elastic properties. The derivation gives fully analytic, frequency-dependent effective bulk and shear moduli of a fluid-saturated porous rock. It is shown that the derived bulk and shear moduli rigorously satisfy the Biot-Gassmann relationship of poroelasticity in the low-frequency limit, while they are consistent with isolated-pore effective medium theory in the high-frequency limit. In particular, a simplified model is proposed to quantify the squirt-flow dispersion for frequencies lower than stiff-pore relaxation frequency. The main advantage of the proposed model over previous models is its ability to predict the dispersion due to squirt flow between pores and cracks with distributed aspect ratio instead of flow in a simply conceptual double-porosity structure. Independent input parameters include pore aspect ratio distribution, fluid bulk modulus and viscosity, and bulk and shear moduli of the solid grain. Physical assumptions made in this model include (1) pores are inter-connected and (2) crack thickness is smaller than the viscous skin depth. This study is restricted to linear elastic, well-consolidated granular rocks.

  15. Effective reactive surface area: An anisotropic property of physically and chemically heterogeneous porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.W.; Schafer, A.L.

    1999-07-01

    Although transport calculations are often formulated in terms of mass-based isotropic distribution coefficients, it is the abundance of reactive surface areas of subsurface materials that controls contaminant adsorption. In water-saturated homogeneous systems devoid of advective fluxes (e.g., batch experiments), the available reactive surface area is similar to the total surface area (as measured by conventional methods such as BET gas adsorption). However, in physically and chemically heterogeneous systems with advective fluxes, the effective reactive surface area (i.e., the surface area that a packet of advecting water interacts with) is smaller than the laboratory measured surface area and is a complex function of advective velocity and the correlation structures of the physical and chemical heterogeneities. Theoretical derivations for an important but simple type of heterogeneity (fine-scale horizontal layering) suggest that the effective reactive surface area is an anisotropic property of the medium and is inversely correlated with the anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity. The implications of reactive transport anisotropy include the concept that the retardation factor should be treated as a directional property rather than being treated as a constant. Furthermore, because of the inverse relationship between effective reactive surface area and hydraulic conductivity, batch adsorption experiments tend to overestimate the retention of contaminants relative to intact natural materials.

  16. Compressive mechanical compatibility of anisotropic porous Ti6Al4V alloys in the range of physiological strain rate for cortical bone implant applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Fuping; Li, Jinshan; Kou, Hongchao; Huang, Tingting; Zhou, Lian

    2015-09-01

    Porous titanium and its alloys are believed to be promising materials for bone implant applications, since they can reduce the "stress shielding" effect by tailoring porosity and improve fixation of implant through bone ingrowth. In the present work, porous Ti6Al4V alloys for biomedical application were fabricated by diffusion bonding of alloy meshes. Compressive mechanical behavior and compatibility in the range of physiological strain rate were studied under quasi-static and dynamic conditions. The results show that porous Ti6Al4V alloys possess anisotropic structure with elongated pores in the out-of-plane direction. For porous Ti6Al4V alloys with 60-70 % porosity, more than 40 % pores are in the range of 200-500 μm which is the optimum pore size suited for bone ingrowth. Quasi-static Young's modulus and yield stress of porous Ti6Al4V alloys with 30-70 % relative density are in the range of 6-40 GPa and 100-500 MPa, respectively. Quasi-static compressive properties can be quantitatively tailored by porosity to match those of cortical bone. Strain rate sensitivity of porous Ti6Al4V alloys is related to porosity. Porous Ti6Al4V alloys with porosity higher than 50 % show enhanced strain rate sensitivity, which is originated from that of base materials and micro-inertia effect. Porous Ti6Al4V alloys with 60-70 % porosity show superior compressive mechanical compatibility in the range of physiological strain rate for cortical bone implant applications. PMID:26384823

  17. Wave propagation in fluid-saturated media: waveform and spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boadu, F. K.

    2000-04-01

    A new numerical approach to the solution of waves propagating in a fluid-saturated medium, using Biot's theory as a foundation, has important implications for oil reservoir management and earthquake prediction. A numerical scheme is developed using an exponential transformation that explicitly treats the petrophysical and fluid properties of the medium within the framework of a generalized model. The scheme accounts for wave dissipation and velocity modifications. The numerical solution is used to perform numerical experiments to study the dynamic behaviour of waves in a fluid-saturated medium at well-logging frequencies (15kHz). The results from the numerical experiments indicate that the degree of saturation by a high-viscosity fluid (HVF) such as oil, the temperature and the porosity of a medium strongly influence the spectral power distribution, frequency content and the velocity of waves propagating through the medium. An increase in HVF saturation causes enhanced attenuation of the low-frequency components, and increases the seismic velocity. An increase in porosity, however, enriches the low-frequency components and decreases the seismic velocity. A spectral quantification procedure is suggested and used to obtain information about the petrophysical and fluid properties of the medium from the spectral characteristics of the transmitted waveform. The procedure involves segmentation of the energy or power distribution of the transmitted waveforms into specified energy bands. The energy or power in these bands is then estimated. The extracted quantification variables are found to have strong correlations with the degree of HVF saturation, and the temperature and the porosity of the medium.

  18. Urban flood modeling with porous shallow-water equations: A case study of model errors in the presence of anisotropic porosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Byunghyun; Sanders, Brett F.; Famiglietti, James S.; Guinot, Vincent

    2015-04-01

    Porous shallow-water models (porosity models) simulate urban flood flows orders of magnitude faster than classical shallow-water models due to a relatively coarse grid and large time step, enabling flood hazard mapping over far greater spatial extents than is possible with classical shallow-water models. Here the errors of both isotropic and anisotropic porosity models are examined in the presence of anisotropic porosity, i.e., unevenly spaced obstacles in the cross-flow and along-flow directions, which is common in practical applications. We show that porosity models are affected by three types of errors: (a) structural model error associated with limitations of the shallow-water equations, (b) scale errors associated with use of a relatively coarse grid, and (c) porosity model errors associated with the formulation of the porosity equations to account for sub-grid scale obstructions. Results from a unique laboratory test case with strong anisotropy indicate that porosity model errors are smaller than structural model errors, and that porosity model errors in both depth and velocity are substantially smaller for anisotropic versus isotropic porosity models. Test case results also show that the anisotropic porosity model is equally accurate as classical shallow-water models when compared directly to gage measurements, while the isotropic model is less accurate. Further, results show the anisotropic porosity model resolves flow variability at smaller spatial scales than the isotropic model because the latter is restricted by the assumption of a Representative Elemental Volume (REV) which is considerably larger than the size of obstructions. These results point to anisotropic porosity models as being well-suited to whole-city urban flood prediction, but also reveal that point-scale flow attributes relevant to flood risk such as localized wakes and wave reflections from flow obstructions may not be resolved.

  19. Effect of irregularity on torsional surface waves in an initially stressed anisotropic porous layer sandwiched between homogeneous and non-homogeneous half-space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Anup; Kundu, Santimoy; Gupta, Shishir; Vaishnav, Pramod Kumar

    2016-06-01

    The present paper is concerned with the propagation of torsional surface waves in an initially stressed anisotropic porous layer sandwiched between homogeneous and non-homogeneous half-space. We assume the quadratic inhomogeneity in rigidity and density in the lower half-space and irregularity is taken in the form of rectangle at the interface separating the layer from the lower half-space. The dispersion equation for torsional waves has been obtained in a closed form. Velocity equation is also obtained in the absence of irregularity. The study reveals that the presence of irregularity, initial stress, porosity, inhomogeneity and anisotropy factor in the dispersion equation approves the significant effect of these parameters in the propagation of torsional waves in porous medium. It has also been observed that for a uniform media, the velocity equation reduces to the classical result of Love wave.

  20. Pressure and fluid saturation prediction in a multicomponent reservoir, using combined seismic and electromagnetic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hoversten, G.M.; Gritto, Roland; Washbourne, John; Daley, Tom

    2002-06-10

    This paper presents a method for combining seismic and electromagnetic measurements to predict changes in water saturation, pressure, and CO{sub 2} gas/oil ratio in a reservoir undergoing CO{sub 2} flood. Crosswell seismic and electromagnetic data sets taken before and during CO{sub 2} flooding of an oil reservoir are inverted to produce crosswell images of the change in compressional velocity, shear velocity, and electrical conductivity during a CO{sub 2} injection pilot study. A rock properties model is developed using measured log porosity, fluid saturations, pressure, temperature, bulk density, sonic velocity, and electrical conductivity. The parameters of the rock properties model are found by an L1-norm simplex minimization of predicted and observed differences in compressional velocity and density. A separate minimization, using Archie's law, provides parameters for modeling the relations between water saturation, porosity, and the electrical conductivity. The rock-properties model is used to generate relationships between changes in geophysical parameters and changes in reservoir parameters. Electrical conductivity changes are directly mapped to changes in water saturation; estimated changes in water saturation are used along with the observed changes in shear wave velocity to predict changes in reservoir pressure. The estimation of the spatial extent and amount of CO{sub 2} relies on first removing the effects of the water saturation and pressure changes from the observed compressional velocity changes, producing a residual compressional velocity change. This velocity change is then interpreted in terms of increases in the CO{sub 2}/oil ratio. Resulting images of the CO{sub 2}/oil ratio show CO{sub 2}-rich zones that are well correlated to the location of injection perforations, with the size of these zones also correlating to the amount of injected CO{sub 2}. The images produced by this process are better correlated to the location and amount of injected

  1. In vivo vascularization of anisotropic channeled porous polylactide-based capsules for islet transplantation: the effects of scaffold architecture and implantation site.

    PubMed

    Kasoju, N; Kubies, D; Fábryová, E; Kříž, J; Kumorek, M M; Sticová, E; Rypáček, F

    2015-01-01

    The replacement of pancreatic islets for the possible treatment of type 1 diabetes is limited by the extremely high oxygen demand of the islets. To this end, here we hypothesize to create a novel extra-hepatic highly-vascularized bioartificial cavity using a porous scaffold as a template and using the host body as a living bioreactor for subsequent islet transplantation. Polylactide-based capsular-shaped anisotropic channeled porous scaffolds were prepared by following the unidirectional thermally-induced phase separation technique, and were implanted under the skin and in the greater omentum of Brown Norway rats. Polyamide mesh-based isotropic regular porous capsules were used as the controls. After 4weeks, the implants were excised and analyzed by histology. The hematoxylin and eosin, as well as Masson's trichrome staining, revealed a) low or no infiltration of giant inflammatory cells in the implant, b) minor but insignificant fibrosis around the implant, c) guided infiltration of host cells in the test capsule in contrast to random cell infiltration in the control capsule, and d) relatively superior cell infiltration in the capsules implanted in the greater omentum than in the capsules implanted under the skin. Furthermore, the anti-CD31 immunohistochemistry staining revealed numerous vessels at the implant site, but mostly on the external surface of the capsules. Taken together, the current study, the first of its kind, is a significant step-forward towards engineering a bioartificial microenvironment for the transplantation of islets. PMID:26447597

  2. Seismic attenuation in fractured porous media: insights from a hybrid numerical and analytical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekanem, A. M.; Li, X. Y.; Chapman, M.; Main, I. G.

    2015-04-01

    Seismic attenuation in fluid-saturated porous rocks can occur by geometric spreading, wave scattering or the internal dissipation of energy, most likely due to the squirt-flow mechanism. In principle, the pattern of seismic attenuation recorded on an array of sensors contains information about the medium, in terms of material heterogeneity and anisotropy, as well as material properties such as porosity, crack density, and pore-fluid composition and mobility. In practice, this inverse problem is challenging. Here we provide some insights into the effects of internal dissipation by analysing synthetic data produced by a hybrid numerical and analytical model for seismic wave propagation in a fractured medium embedded within a layered geological structure. The model is made up of one anisotropic and three isotropic horizontal layers. The anisotropic layer consists of a porous, fluid-saturated material containing vertically aligned inclusions representing a set of fractures. This combination allows squirt-flow to occur between the pores in the matrix and the model fractures. Our results show that the fluid mobility and the associated relaxation time of the fluid-pressure gradient control the frequency range over which attenuation occurs. This induced attenuation increases with incidence angle and azimuth away from the fracture strike-direction. Azimuthal variations in the induced attenuation are elliptical allowing the fracture orientations to be obtained from the axes of the ellipse. These observations hold out the potential of using seismic attenuation as an additional diagnostic in the characterisation of rock formations for a variety of applications including hydrocarbon exploration and production, subsurface storage of CO2, and geothermal energy extraction.

  3. Preparation of asymmetric porous materials

    DOEpatents

    Coker, Eric N.

    2012-08-07

    A method for preparing an asymmetric porous material by depositing a porous material film on a flexible substrate, and applying an anisotropic stress to the porous media on the flexible substrate, where the anisotropic stress results from a stress such as an applied mechanical force, a thermal gradient, and an applied voltage, to form an asymmetric porous material.

  4. A rocking multianvil: elimination of chemical segregation in fluid-saturated high-pressure experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Max W.; Ulmer, Peter

    2004-04-01

    Fluid saturated high-pressure experiments often result in strongly zoned experimental charges, this hinders experimentation in chemically homogeneous systems which in turn has serious consequences on equilibration, reaction progress, and (apparent) phase stabilities. In order to overcome these problems, a 600-ton press accommodating either a multianvil or end-loaded piston cylinder module has been mounted in such a way that it can be turned by 180°, thus inverting its position in the gravity field. During turning, hydraulic pressure, heating power, and cooling water remain connected allowing fully controlled pressures and temperatures during experiments. A series of experiments at 13 GPa, 950°C, on a serpentine bulk composition in the MgO-SiO 2-H 2O system demonstrates that continuous turning at a rate of 2 turns/min results in a nearly homogeneous charge composed of phase E + enstatite. The same experiment at static conditions resulted in four mineral zones: quench phase E, enstatite, enstatite + phase E, and phase E + phase A. Phase A disappears in experiments at a turning rate ≥1 turn/min. A static 15-min experiment shows that zonation already forms within this short time span. Placing two short capsules within a single static experiment reveals that the fluid migrates to the hot spot in each capsule and is not gravitationally driven toward the top. The zonation pattern follows isotherms within the capsule, and the degree of zonation increases with temperature gradient (measured as 10 °C within a capsule) and run time. Our preferred interpretation is that Soret diffusion causes a density-stratified fluid within the capsule that does not convect in a static experiment and results in temperature dependant chemical zonation. The aggravation of zonation and appearance of additional phases with run time can be explained with a dissolution-reprecipitation process where the cold spot of the capsule is relatively MgO enriched and the hot spot relatively SiO 2 and H

  5. Pressure diffusion waves in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Silin, Dmitry; Korneev, Valeri; Goloshubin, Gennady

    2003-04-08

    Pressure diffusion wave in porous rocks are under consideration. The pressure diffusion mechanism can provide an explanation of the high attenuation of low-frequency signals in fluid-saturated rocks. Both single and dual porosity models are considered. In either case, the attenuation coefficient is a function of the frequency.

  6. Effective Hydro-Mechanical Properties of Fluid-Saturated Fracture Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollmann, N.; Vinci, C.; Renner, J.; Steeb, H.

    2015-12-01

    Consideration of hydro-mechanical processes is essential for the characterization of liquid-resources as well as for many engineering applications. Furthermore, the modeling of seismic waves in fractured porous media finds application not only in geophysical exploration but also reservoir management. Fractures exhibit high-aspect-ratio geometries, i.e. they constitute thin and long hydraulic conduits. Motivated by this peculiar geometry, the investigation of the hydro-mechanically coupled processes is performed by means of a hybrid-dimensional modeling approach. The effective material behavior of domains including complex fracture patterns in a porous rock is assessed by investigating the fluid pressure and the solid displacement of the skeleton saturated by compressible fluids. Classical balance equations are combined with a Poiseuille-type flow in the dimensionally reduced fracture. In the porous surrounding rock, the classical Biot-theory is applied. For simple geometries, our findings show that two main fluid-flow processes occur, leak-off from fractures to the surrounding rock and fracture flow within and between the connected fractures. The separation of critical frequencies of the two flow processes is not straightforward, in particular for systems containing a large number of fractures. Our aim is to model three dimensional hydro-mechanically coupled processes within complex fracture patterns and in particular determine the frequency-dependent attenuation characteristics. Furthermore, the effect of asperities of the fracture surfaces on the fracture stiffness and on the hydraulic conductivity will be added to the approach.

  7. A note on conservative transport in anisotropic, heterogeneous porous media in the presence of small-amplitude transients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naff, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    The late-time macrodispersion coefficients are obtained for the case of flow in the presence of a small-scale deterministic transient in a three-dimensional anisotropic, heterogeneous medium. The transient is assumed to affect only the velocity component transverse to the mean flow direction and to take the form of a periodic function. For the case of a highly stratified medium, these late-time macrodispersion coefficients behave largely as the standard coefficients used in the transport equation. Only in the event that the medium is isotropic is it probable that significant deviations from the standard coefficients would occur.

  8. Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics with nonlinear Moving-Least-Squares WENO reconstruction to model anisotropic dispersion in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avesani, Diego; Herrera, Paulo; Chiogna, Gabriele; Bellin, Alberto; Dumbser, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Most numerical schemes applied to solve the advection-diffusion equation are affected by numerical diffusion. Moreover, unphysical results, such as oscillations and negative concentrations, may emerge when an anisotropic dispersion tensor is used, which induces even more severe errors in the solution of multispecies reactive transport. To cope with this long standing problem we propose a modified version of the standard Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method based on a Moving-Least-Squares-Weighted-Essentially-Non-Oscillatory (MLS-WENO) reconstruction of concentrations. This scheme formulation (called MWSPH) approximates the diffusive fluxes with a Rusanov-type Riemann solver based on high order WENO scheme. We compare the standard SPH with the MWSPH for different a few test cases, considering both homogeneous and heterogeneous flow fields and different anisotropic ratios of the dispersion tensor. We show that, MWSPH is stable and accurate and that it reduces the occurrence of negative concentrations compared to standard SPH. When negative concentrations are observed, their absolute values are several orders of magnitude smaller compared to standard SPH. In addition, MWSPH limits spurious oscillations in the numerical solution more effectively than classical SPH. Convergence analysis shows that MWSPH is computationally more demanding than SPH, but with the payoff a more accurate solution, which in addition is less sensitive to particles position. The latter property simplifies the time consuming and often user dependent procedure to define the initial dislocation of the particles.

  9. Micro-poromechanics model of fluid-saturated chemically active fibrous media

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Anil; Parthasarathy, Ranganathan; Singh, Viraj; Spencer, Paulette

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a micromechanics based model for chemically active saturated fibrous media that incorporates fiber network microstructure, chemical potential driven fluid flow, and micro-poromechanics. The stress-strain relationship of the dry fibrous media is first obtained by considering the fiber behavior. The constitutive relationships applicable to saturated media are then derived in the poromechanics framework using Hill’s volume averaging. The advantage of this approach is that the resultant continuum model accounts for the discrete nature of the individual fibers while retaining a form suitable for porous materials. As a result, the model is able to predict the influence of micro-scale phenomena, such as the fiber pre-strain caused by osmotic effects and evolution of fiber network structure with loading, on the overall behavior and in particular, on the poromechanics parameters. Additionally, the model can describe fluid-flow related rate-dependent behavior under confined and unconfined conditions and varying chemical environments. The significance of the approach is demonstrated by simulating unconfined drained monotonic uniaxial compression under different surrounding fluid bath molarity, and fluid-flow related creep and relaxation at different loading-levels and different surrounding fluid bath molarity. The model predictions conform to the experimental observations for saturated soft fibrous materials. The method can potentially be extended to other porous materials such as bone, clays, foams and concrete. PMID:25755301

  10. Poromechanics Parameters of Fluid-Saturated Chemically Active Fibrous Media Derived from a Micromechanical Approach.

    PubMed

    Misra, Anil; Parthasarathy, Ranganathan; Singh, Viraj; Spencer, Paulette

    2013-01-01

    The authors have derived macroscale poromechanics parameters for chemically active saturated fibrous media by combining microstructure-based homogenization with Hill's volume averaging. The stress-strain relationship of the dry fibrous media is first obtained by considering the fiber behavior. The constitutive relationships applicable to saturated media are then derived in the poromechanics framework using Hill's Lemmas. The advantage of this approach is that the resultant continuum model assumes a form suited to study porous materials, while retaining the effect of discrete fiber deformation. As a result, the model is able to predict the influence of microscale phenomena such as fiber buckling on the overall behavior, and in particular, on the poromechanics constants. The significance of the approach is demonstrated using the effect of drainage and fiber nonlinearity on monotonic compressive stress-strain behavior. The model predictions conform to the experimental observations for articular cartilage. The method can potentially be extended to other porous materials such as bone, clays, foams, and concrete. PMID:25419475

  11. Poromechanics Parameters of Fluid-Saturated Chemically Active Fibrous Media Derived from a Micromechanical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, Ranganathan; Singh, Viraj; Spencer, Paulette

    2014-01-01

    The authors have derived macroscale poromechanics parameters for chemically active saturated fibrous media by combining microstructure-based homogenization with Hill's volume averaging. The stress-strain relationship of the dry fibrous media is first obtained by considering the fiber behavior. The constitutive relationships applicable to saturated media are then derived in the poromechanics framework using Hill's Lemmas. The advantage of this approach is that the resultant continuum model assumes a form suited to study porous materials, while retaining the effect of discrete fiber deformation. As a result, the model is able to predict the influence of microscale phenomena such as fiber buckling on the overall behavior, and in particular, on the poromechanics constants. The significance of the approach is demonstrated using the effect of drainage and fiber nonlinearity on monotonic compressive stress-strain behavior. The model predictions conform to the experimental observations for articular cartilage. The method can potentially be extended to other porous materials such as bone, clays, foams, and concrete. PMID:25419475

  12. Hydrothermal alteration of silicate minerals: effects of crystallographic orientation and fluid saturation state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollet-Villard, M.; Daval, D.; Saldi, G.; Knauss, K.; Wild, B.; Guyot, F. J.; Cabié, M.; Fritz, B.

    2014-12-01

    Prediction of reaction kinetics of fluid/rock interactions represents a critical issue for several geological and engineering concerns. In the specific context of geothermal energy, the relative intensities of primary mineral leaching and secondary phase formation significantly affect porosity and permeability of the reservoir, thereby influencing its hydraulic performance and the efficiency of a geothermal site. Moreover, it is noteworthy that in general, the circulation of aqueous fluids induces only modest modifications of their chemical composition, which slightly deviate from an equilibrium state. Therefore, fluid rock interactions take place at close-to-equilibrium conditions, where the rate-affinity relations are poorly known and intensively debated [1]. To unravel these points, in the context of the geothermal power station of Soultz-sous-Forêts (Alsace, France), our strategy consists in (1) investigating the dissolution of the main cleavages of K-spar, one of the prevalent primary minerals in the reservoir, in order to decipher the impact of crystallographic orientation and microstructural surface modifications on the dissolution kinetics and (2) proposing a relation between K-spar dissolution rate and the Gibbs free energy of reaction (∆G) over a wide range of ∆G conditions. Our experimental work relies on a coupled approach which combines classical experiments of K-spar dissolution monitored by aqueous chemical analyses (ICPAES) and innovative techniques of nm to μm-scale characterization of solid surface (FIB-TEM, AFM, VSI) [2]. Our ongoing experiments evidence that K-spar dissolution is an anisotropic process, with faces (-1-1 1) dissolving up to ten times faster than the slowest (001) faces. The complex evolution of surface topography with the occurrence of etch pits is at odds with the shrinking core model implemented in most of reactive-transport codes, representing a possible cause of an apparent modification of silicate dissolution rate over

  13. 2D steady-state general solution and fundamental solution for fluid-saturated, orthotropic, poroelastic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Li-Hua; Hou, Peng-Fei; Chen, Jia-Yun

    2016-08-01

    The 2D steady-state solutions regarding the expressions of stress and strain for fluid-saturated, orthotropic, poroelastic plane are derived in this paper. For this object, the general solutions of the corresponding governing equation are first obtained and expressed in harmonic functions. Based on these compact general solutions, the suitable harmonic functions with undetermined constants for line fluid source in the interior of infinite poroelastic body and a line fluid source on the surface of semi-infinite poroelastic body are presented, respectively. The fundamental solutions can be obtained by substituting these functions into the general solution, and the undetermined constants can be obtained by the continuous conditions, equilibrium conditions and boundary conditions.

  14. The Materials Chemistry of Atomic Oxygen with Applications to Anisotropic Etching of Submicron Structures in Microelectronics and the Surface Chemistry Engineering of Porous Solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steve L.; Leger, Lubert J.; Wu, Corina; Cross, Jon B.; Jurgensen, Charles W.

    1994-01-01

    Neutral atomic oxygen is the most abundant component of the ionospheric plasma in the low Earth orbit environment (LEO; 200 to 700 kilometers altitude) and can produce significant degradation of some spacecraft materials. In order to produce a more complete understanding of the materials chemistry of atomic oxygen, the chemistry and physics of O-atom interactions with materials were determined in three radically different environments: (1) The Space Shuttle cargo bay in low Earth orbit (the EOIM-3 space flight experiment), (2) a high-velocity neutral atom beam system (HVAB) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and (3) a microwave-plasma flowing-discharge system at JSC. The Space Shuttle and the high velocity atom beam systems produce atom-surface collision energies ranging from 0.1 to 7 eV (hyperthermal atoms) under high-vacuum conditions, while the flowing discharge system produces a 0.065 eV surface collision energy at a total pressure of 2 Torr. Data obtained in the three different O-atom environments referred to above show that the rate of O-atom reaction with polymeric materials is strongly dependent on atom kinetic energy, obeying a reactive scattering law which suggests that atom kinetic energy is directly available for overcoming activation barriers in the reaction. General relationships between polymer reactivity with O atoms and polymer composition and molecular structure have been determined. In addition, vacuum ultraviolet photochemical effects have been shown to dominate the reaction of O atoms with fluorocarbon polymers. Finally, studies of the materials chemistry of O atoms have produced results which may be of interest to technologists outside the aerospace industry. Atomic oxygen 'spin-off' or 'dual use' technologies in the areas of anisotropic etching in microelectronic materials and device processing, as well as surface chemistry engineering of porous solid materials are described.

  15. A numerical study of unsteady shear flows of fluid-saturated granular materials in the presence of gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varsakelis, Christos; Papalexandris, Miltiadis

    2012-11-01

    In this talk we present results from a numerical study of unsteady, shear flows of fluid-saturated granular materials in the presence of gravity. In our study, we employ a two-pressure, two-velocity continuum model for the mixtures of interest. The governing equations are integrated via a predictor-corrector algorithm that combines a projection method for the pressure of each phase and an interface-tracking scheme. Initially, a high particle concentration ball is placed between two parallel plates while the rest of the domain is filled with a carrier fluid. The mixture is set in motion by the horizontal movement of the upper plate with constant speed. Because of the developing shear stresses and the onset of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, the ball deforms to a wavy finger-like shape whose length increases with time. Further, fluid entrainment produces a mushroom pattern in its frontal part. At the same time, this granular finger descends due to gravity and once it reaches the bottom plate it forms an asymmetric granular pile. This talk concludes with results from a parametric study with respect to the shear rate and the diameter of the particles.

  16. Bounds on Transport Coefficients of Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Berryman, J G

    2005-03-21

    An analytical formulation of conductivity bounds by Bergman and Milton is used in a different way to obtain rigorous bounds on the real transport coefficients (electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and/or fluid permeability) of a fluid-saturated porous medium. These bounds do not depend explicitly on the porosity, but rather on two formation factors--one associated with the pore space and the other with the solid frame. Hashin-Shtrikman bounds for transport in random polycrystals of porous-material laminates will also be discussed.

  17. Mixed convection opposing flow in porous annulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salman, Ahmed N. J.; Kamangar, Sarfaraz; Al-Rashed, Abdullah A. A. A.; Khan, T. M. Yunus; Khaleed, H. M. T.

    2016-06-01

    The current work investigates the mixed convection flow in a vertical porous annulus embedded with fluid saturated porous medium. The annulus is isothermally heated discretely at 20%, 35% and 50% of the height of cylinder at the center of annulus. Darcy law with thermal non-equilibrium approach is considered. The governing partial differential equations are solved using Finite Element Method (FEM). The effects of Peclet number Pe and conductivity ratio Kr on heat transfer and fluid flow is discussed It is found that the applied velocity in the downward direction, in case of an opposing flow, does not allow the thermal energy to reach from a hot to a cold surface.

  18. Characterization of Porous Medium Properties Using 2D NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Boqin; Dunn, Keh-Jim

    2003-03-01

    We have successfully applied the concept of 2D NMR to the characterization of properties of fluid-saturated porous medium. Using a two-windowed modified CPMG pulse sequence, we were able to explore the magnetic internal filed gradient distribution within the pore space of a fluid-saturated porous medium due to magnetic susceptibility contrast between the solid matrix and pore fluid. Similar scheme is used to identify and quantify different types of pore fluids, such as oil, water, and gas, based on the contrast in their diffusion coefficients. The magic angle spinning technique (MAS) can also be applied in the 2D NMR framework for delineating the chemical shift spectra of the pore fluids in a porous medium at different T1 or T2 relaxation times. The results can be displayed in a two-dimensional plot, with one axis being the T1 or T2 relaxation times, the other axis being the internal field gradient, diffusion coefficient, or chemical shift, and the third axis being the proton population. Our preliminary laboratory work indicates that the 2D NMR approach can be a powerful tool for the characterization of properties of fluid-saturated porous medium, such as fluid typing, oil viscosity determination, surface wettability, etc.

  19. H2O-fluid-saturated melting of subducted continental crust facilitates exhumation of ultrahigh-pressure rocks in continental subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labrousse, L.; Duretz, T.; Gerya, T.

    2015-10-01

    We present two-dimensional numerical models of plate subduction and collision inspired by the Scandinavian Caledonian orogeny to investigate the possible impact of continental crust partial melting on the exhumation of ultra-high pressure metamorphic rocks. Three possible reactions were tested: low temperature solidus representing H2O-fluid-saturated partial melting, and two end-member reaction curves for dehydration melting. Thermo-mechanical effects of partial melting were implemented as (1) a viscosity decrease as a determined rheologically critical melt percentage was reached (here 0.1), (2) a change in effective heat capacity and adiabatic heating/cooling accounting for a latent heat term in the heat equation. Among the 3 tested reactions, only H2O-fluid-saturated partial melting drastically modifies the collision dynamics from the non-melting reference model holding all other parameters constant. A substantially low general viscosity truncation (here 1017 Pa s) is needed to properly resolve the effect of partial melting on deep collision processes. Low temperature melting indeed induces the development of a low viscosity buoyant plume prior to slab detachment, where migmatites exhume from UHP conditions at rates and with pressure-temperature paths similar to the natural values acknowledged for the Norwegian Caledonides. High temperature melting has no drastic influence on early collision dynamics. While positive buoyancy remains the first order driver for the exhumation of buried continental rocks, exhumation initiates in these cases with eduction subsequent to slab detachment. Melting and formation of a migmatite plume can later occur along decompression path while continental crust undergoes thermal reequilibration at temperatures above 900 °C. Some of the partially molten material can also relaminate in the overriding plate rather than exhume within the collision zone. Even if minor in terms of amount of magma produced, H2O-fluid-saturated partial melting

  20. [Models for quantification of fluid saturation in two-phase flow system by light transmission method and its application].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Hong; Ye, Shu-Jun; Wu, Ji-Chun

    2014-06-01

    Based on light transmission method in quantification of liquid saturation and its application in two-phase flow system, two groups of sandbox experiments were set up to study the migration of gas or Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs) in water saturated porous media. The migration of gas or DNAPL was monitored in the study. Two modified Light Intensity-Saturation (LIS) models for water/gas two-phase system were applied and verified by the experiment data. Moreover two new LIS models for NAPL/water system were developed and applied to simulate the DNAPL infiltration experiment data. The gas injection experiment showed that gas moved upward to the top of the sandbox in the form of 'fingering' and finally formed continuous distribution. The results of DNAPL infiltration experiment showed that TCE mainly moved downward as the result of its gravity, eventually formed irregular plume and accumulated at the bottom of the sandbox. The outcomes of two LIS models for water/gas system (WG-A and WG-B) were consistent to the measured data. The results of two LIS models for NAPL/water system (NW-A and NW-B) fit well with the observations, and Model NW-A based on assumption of individual drainage gave better results. It could be a useful reference for quantification of NAPL/water saturation in porous media system. PMID:25158486

  1. The diffraction of Rayleigh waves by a fluid-saturated alluvial valley in a poroelastic half-space modeled by MFS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhongxian; Liang, Jianwen; Wu, Chengqing

    2016-06-01

    Two dimensional diffraction of Rayleigh waves by a fluid-saturated poroelastic alluvial valley of arbitrary shape in a poroelastic half-space is investigated using the method of fundamental solutions (MFS). To satisfy the free surface boundary conditions exactly, Green's functions of compressional (PI and PII) and shear (SV) wave sources buried in a fluid-saturated poroelastic half-space are adopted. Next, the procedure for solving the scattering wave field is presented. It is verified that the MFS is of excellent accuracy and numerical stability. Numerical results illustrate that the dynamic response strongly depends on such factors as the incident frequency, the porosity of alluvium, the boundary drainage condition, and the valley shape. There is a significant difference between the diffraction of Rayleigh waves for the saturated soil case and for the corresponding dry soil case. The wave focusing effect both on the displacement and pore pressure can be observed inside the alluvial valley and the amplification effect seems most obvious in the case of higher porosity and lower frequency. Additionally, special attention should also be paid to the concentration of pore pressure, which is closely related to the site liquefaction in earthquakes.

  2. A general methodology for inverse estimation of the elastic and anelastic properties of anisotropic open-cell porous materials—with application to a melamine foam

    SciTech Connect

    Cuenca, Jacques Van der Kelen, Christophe; Göransson, Peter

    2014-02-28

    This paper proposes an inverse estimation method for the characterisation of the elastic and anelastic properties of the frame of anisotropic open-cell foams used for sound absorption. A model of viscoelasticity based on a fractional differential constitutive equation is used, leading to an augmented Hooke's law in the frequency domain, where the elastic and anelastic phenomena appear as distinctive terms in the stiffness matrix. The parameters of the model are nine orthotropic elastic moduli, three angles of orientation of the material principal directions and three parameters governing the anelastic frequency dependence. The inverse estimation consists in numerically fitting the model on a set of transfer functions extracted from a sample of material. The setup uses a seismic-mass measurement repeated in the three directions of space and is placed in a vacuum chamber in order to remove the air from the pores of the sample. The method allows to reconstruct the full frequency-dependent complex stiffness matrix of the frame of an anisotropic open-cell foam and in particular it provides the frequency of maximum energy dissipation by viscoelastic effects. The characterisation of a melamine foam sample is performed and the relation between the fractional-derivative model and other types of parameterisations of the augmented Hooke's law is discussed.

  3. The response of fluid-saturated reservoirs to lunisolar tides: Part 1. Background parameters of tidal components in ground displacements and groundwater level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besedina, A. N.; Vinogradov, E. A.; Gorbunova, E. M.; Kabychenko, N. V.; Svintsov, I. S.; Pigulevskiy, P. I.; Svistun, V. K.; Shcherbina, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    The first part of this work is dedicated to the response of different-age structures to lunisolar tides, which can be considered as a sounding signal for monitoring the state of fluid-saturated reservoirs. The complex approach to processing the data obtained at the testing sites of the Institute of Geosphere Dynamics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geophysics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, and KIEV station of the IRIS seismic network is applied for recognizing the tides against the hydrogeological, barometric, and seismic series. The comparative analysis of the experimental and theoretical values of the diurnal and semidiurnal tidal components in the time series of ground displacements is carried out. The tidal variations in the groundwater level are compared with the tidal components revealed in the ground displacement of the different-age structure of the Moscow Basin and Ukrainian Shield, which are parts of the East European artesian region. The differences in the tidal responses of the groundwater level and ground displacement probably suggest that the state of the massif is affected by certain additional factors associated, e.g., with the passage of earthquake-induced seismic waves and the changes in the hydrogeodynamic environment.

  4. Anisotropic universe with anisotropic sources

    SciTech Connect

    Aluri, Pavan K.; Panda, Sukanta; Sharma, Manabendra; Thakur, Snigdha E-mail: sukanta@iiserb.ac.in E-mail: snigdha@iiserb.ac.in

    2013-12-01

    We analyze the state space of a Bianchi-I universe with anisotropic sources. Here we consider an extended state space which includes null geodesics in this background. The evolution equations for all the state observables are derived. Dynamical systems approach is used to study the evolution of these equations. The asymptotic stable fixed points for all the evolution equations are found. We also check our analytic results with numerical analysis of these dynamical equations. The evolution of the state observables are studied both in cosmic time and using a dimensionless time variable. Then we repeat the same analysis with a more realistic scenario, adding the isotropic (dust like dark) matter and a cosmological constant (dark energy) to our anisotropic sources, to study their co-evolution. The universe now approaches a de Sitter space asymptotically dominated by the cosmological constant. The cosmic microwave background anisotropy maps due to shear are also generated in this scenario, assuming that the universe contains anisotropic matter along with the usual (dark) matter and vacuum (dark) energy since decoupling. We find that they contribute dominantly to the CMB quadrupole. We also constrain the current level of anisotropy and also search for any cosmic preferred axis present in the data. We use the Union 2 Supernovae data to this extent. An anisotropy axis close to the mirror symmetry axis seen in the cosmic microwave background data from Planck probe is found.

  5. Homogenization of two fluid flow in porous media

    PubMed Central

    Daly, K. R.; Roose, T.

    2015-01-01

    The macroscopic behaviour of air and water in porous media is often approximated using Richards' equation for the fluid saturation and pressure. This equation is parametrized by the hydraulic conductivity and water release curve. In this paper, we use homogenization to derive a general model for saturation and pressure in porous media based on an underlying periodic porous structure. Under an appropriate set of assumptions, i.e. constant gas pressure, this model is shown to reduce to the simpler form of Richards' equation. The starting point for this derivation is the Cahn–Hilliard phase field equation coupled with Stokes equations for fluid flow. This approach allows us, for the first time, to rigorously derive the water release curve and hydraulic conductivities through a series of cell problems. The method captures the hysteresis in the water release curve and ties the macroscopic properties of the porous media with the underlying geometrical and material properties.

  6. Anisotropy of a synthetic layered porous medium

    SciTech Connect

    Furre, A.K.; Holt, R.M.

    1995-12-31

    Artificial, periodically laminated porous sandstones are manufactured in order to study acoustic behavior compared to permeability of porous rocks. Cores are made by mixing sand and epoxy. The laminated media are built up by two alternating types of layers, one highly permeable layer with low velocity, the other with lower permeability but higher velocity (the permeability of each layer is, however, of the order of 1-50 Darcy). Permeability and acoustic measurements are performed at different incidence angles to the layers. The wave velocities in dry samples show anisotropy largely confirming the Backus theory. Fluid saturation increases the velocities and introduces an attenuation anisotropy which may be linked to fluid flow anisotropy. The spectral contents of the waves traces do not depend on the angle of incidence, in contrast to the case when anisotropy is induced by fractures.

  7. NMR imaging of immiscible displacements in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Majors, P.D.; Li, P.; Peters, E.J.

    1995-12-31

    We introduce a rapid, quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI) technique to resolve and measure multiple fluid phases in porous media. Liquids are resolved on the basis of their NMR spin-spin (T{sub 2}) relaxation times, and their intensities are corrected via attenuation analysis. The spatially resolved and corrected NMRI intensities are normalized to yield fluid saturations. In-situ saturation measurements are presented for three immiscible (oil and water) displacements in the same Berea sandstone core. NMRI and effluent recovery methods were compared. T{sub 2} of the displacement fluids were observed to be sensitive to displacement conditions.

  8. Form birefringence in porous semiconductors and dielectrics: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Golovan', L. A. Kashkarov, P. K.; Timoshenko, V. Yu.

    2007-07-15

    The phenomenon of optical anisotropy in porous semiconductors and dielectrics (porous silicon, gallium phosphide, and alumina) and photonic crystal structures formed on their basis is reviewed. It is shown that anisotropic nanostructuring of initially isotropic media leads to the occurrence of strong birefringence. Applicability of the effective-medium model to description of the form birefringence in porous semiconductors and dielectrics is discussed.

  9. Directional wetting in anisotropic inverse opals.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Katherine R; Vogel, Nicolas; Burgess, Ian B; Perry, Carole C; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2014-07-01

    Porous materials display interesting transport phenomena due to restricted motion of fluids within the nano- to microscale voids. Here, we investigate how liquid wetting in highly ordered inverse opals is affected by anisotropy in pore geometry. We compare samples with different degrees of pore asphericity and find different wetting patterns depending on the pore shape. Highly anisotropic structures are infiltrated more easily than their isotropic counterparts. Further, the wetting of anisotropic inverse opals is directional, with liquids filling from the side more easily. This effect is supported by percolation simulations as well as direct observations of wetting using time-resolved optical microscopy. PMID:24941308

  10. Non-Darcian forced convection analysis in an annulus partially filled with a porous material

    SciTech Connect

    Chikh, S.; Boumedien, A.; Bouhadef, K.; Lauriat, G.

    1995-12-01

    Numerical solutions are presented for fully developed forced convection in concentric annuli partially filled with a porous medium. The porous medium is attached at the inner cylinder, which is maintained at uniform heat flux or at uniform wall temperature while the outer cylinder is adiabatic. The Brinkman-Forchheimer-extended Darcy model was used to model the flow inside the porous medium. The dependence of the fluid flow and heat transfer on several parameters of the problem is thoroughly documented. The inertia coefficient at which the inertial effects reduce the flow rate by 5% is determined as a function of the Darcy number for various thicknesses of the porous substrate. It is also shown that a critical thickness at which the value of the Nusselt number reaches a minimum does not exist if the effective thermal conductivity of the fluid-saturated porous medium is much higher than the fluid conductivity.

  11. Effects of Fluid Saturation on Gas Recovery from Class-3 Hydrate Accumulations Using Depressurization: Case Study of Yuan-An Ridge Site in Southwestern Offshore Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yi-Jyun; Wu, Cheng-Yueh; Hsieh, Bieng-Zih

    2016-04-01

    Gas hydrates are crystalline compounds in which guest gas molecules are trapped in host lattices of ice crystals. In Taiwan, the significant efforts have recently begun to evaluate the reserves of hydrate because the vast accumulations of gas hydrates had been recognized in southwestern offshore Taiwan. Class-3 type hydrate accumulations are referred to an isolated hydrate layer without an underlying zone of mobile fluids, and the entire hydrate layer may be well within the hydrate stability zone. The depressurization method is a useful dissociation method for gas production from Class-3 hydrate accumulations. The dissociation efficiency is controlled by the responses of hydrate to the propagating pressure disturbance, and the pressure propagation is relating to the amount (or saturation) of the mobile fluid in pore space of the hydrate layer. The purpose of this study is to study the effects of fluid saturation on the gas recovery from a class-3 hydrate accumulation using depressurization method. The case of a class-3 hydrate deposit of Yuan-An Ridge in southwestern offshore Taiwan is studied. The numerical method was used in this study. The reservoir simulator we used to study the dissociation of hydrate and the production of gas was the STARS simulator developed by CMG, which coupled heat transfer, geo-chemical, geo-mechanical, and multiphase fluid flow mechanisms. The study case of Yuan-An Ridge is located in southwestern offshore Taiwan. The hydrate deposit was found by the bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs). The geological structure of the studied hydrate deposit was digitized to build the geological model (grids) of the case. The formation parameters, phase behavior data, rock and fluid properties, and formation's initial conditions were assigned sequentially to grid blocks, and the completion and operation conditions were designed to wellbore blocks to finish the numerical model. The changes of reservoir pressure, temperature, saturation due to the hydrate

  12. Shear wave splitting of the 2009 L'Aquila seismic sequence: fluid saturated microcracks and crustal fractures in the Abruzzi region (Central Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baccheschi, P.; Pastori, M.; Margheriti, L.; Piccinini, D.

    2016-03-01

    The Abruzzi region is located in the Central Apennines Neogene fold-and-thrust belt and has one of the highest seismogenic potential in Italy, with high and diffuse crustal seismicity related to NE-SW oriented extension. In this study, we investigate the detailed spatial variation in shear wave splitting providing high-resolution anisotropic structure beneath the L'Aquila region. To accomplish this, we performed a systematic analysis of crustal anisotropic parameters: fast polarization direction (ϕ) and delay time (δt). We benefit from the dense coverage of seismic stations operating in the area and from a catalogue of several accurate earthquake locations of the 2009 L'Aquila seismic sequence, related to the Mw 6.1 2009 L'Aquila main shock, to describe in detail the geometry of the anisotropic volume around the active faults that ruptured. The spatial variations both in ϕ and δt suggest a complex anisotropic structure beneath the region caused by a combination of both structural- and stress-induced mechanisms. The average ϕ is NNW-SSE oriented (N141°), showing clear similarity both with the local fault strike and the SHmax. In the central part of the study area fast axes are oriented NW-SE, while moving towards the northeastern and northwestern sectors the fast directions clearly diverge from the general trend of NW-SE and rotate accordingly to the local fault strikes. The above-mentioned fault-parallel ϕ distribution suggests that the observed anisotropy is mostly controlled by the local fault-related structure. Toward the southeast fast directions become orthogonal both to strike of the local mapped faults and to the SHmax. Here, ϕ are predominantly oriented NE-SW; we interpret this orientation as due to the presence of a highly fractured and overpressurized rock volume which should be responsible of the 90° flips in ϕ and the increase in δt. Another possible mechanism for NE-SW orientation of ϕ in the southeastern sector could be ascribed to the

  13. Effective permeabilities for model heterogeneous porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Otevo, C.; Rusinek, I. ); Saez, A.E. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a technique to evaluate effective absolute permeabilities for heterogeneous porous media. The technique is based on a perturbation analysis of the equations of motion of a slightly compressible fluid in a homogeneous porous medium at low Reynolds numbers. The effective permeabilities can be calculated once the local geometry of the heterogeneous medium is specified. The technique is used to evaluate two- and three-dimensional effective vertical permeabilities in porous media with shale intercalations, including the case in which the porous matrix is anisotropic.

  14. Soret and Dufour Effects on MHD Peristaltic Flow of Jeffrey Fluid in a Rotating System with Porous Medium.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Tasawar; Rafiq, Maimona; Ahmad, Bashir

    2016-01-01

    The objective of present paper is to examine the peristaltic flow of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Jeffrey fluid saturating porous space in a channel through rotating frame. Unlike the previous attempts, the flow formulation is based upon modified Darcy's law porous medium effect in Jeffrey fluid situation. In addition the impacts due to Soret and Dufour effects in the radiative peristaltic flow are accounted. Rosseland's approximation has been utilized for the thermal radiative heat flux. Lubrication approach is implemented for the simplification. Resulting problems are solved for the stream function, temperature and concentration. Graphical results are prepared and analyzed for different parameters of interest entering into the problems. PMID:26808387

  15. Soret and Dufour Effects on MHD Peristaltic Flow of Jeffrey Fluid in a Rotating System with Porous Medium

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Tasawar; Rafiq, Maimona; Ahmad, Bashir

    2016-01-01

    The objective of present paper is to examine the peristaltic flow of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Jeffrey fluid saturating porous space in a channel through rotating frame. Unlike the previous attempts, the flow formulation is based upon modified Darcy's law porous medium effect in Jeffrey fluid situation. In addition the impacts due to Soret and Dufour effects in the radiative peristaltic flow are accounted. Rosseland’s approximation has been utilized for the thermal radiative heat flux. Lubrication approach is implemented for the simplification. Resulting problems are solved for the stream function, temperature and concentration. Graphical results are prepared and analyzed for different parameters of interest entering into the problems. PMID:26808387

  16. Anisotropic Slippery Surfaces: Electric-Driven Smart Control of a Drop's Slide.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tianqi; Che, Pengda; Heng, Liping; Fan, Lizhen; Jiang, Lei

    2016-08-01

    Anisotropic slippery surfaces composed of directional, porous, conductive poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) fibers, and silicone oil exhibit excellent anisotropic sliding properties for several liquid droplets and the reversible control of conductive liquid droplets sliding on these surfaces under the application of voltage. PMID:27197963

  17. Study on Two-Phase Flow in Heterogeneous Porous Media by Light Transmission Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, W.

    2015-12-01

    The non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) released to the subsurface can form residual ganglia and globules occupying pores and also accumulate and form pools, in which multiphase system forms. Determining transient fluid saturations in a multiphase system is essential to understand the flow characteristics of systems and to perform effective remediation strategies. As a non-destructive and non-invasive laboratory technique utilized for the measurement of liquid saturation in porous media, light transmission is of the lowest cost and safe. Utilization of Coupled Charge Device camera in light transmission systems provides a nearly instantaneous high-density array of spatial measurements over a very large dynamic range. The migration of NAPL and air spariging technique applied to remove NAPL in aquifer systems are typically two-phase flow problem. Because of the natural aquifer normally being heterogeneous, two 2-D sandboxes (Length55cm×width1.3cm×hight45cm) are set up to study the migration of gas and DNAPL in heterogeneous porous media based on light transmission method and its application in two-phase flow. Model D for water/gas system developed by Niemet and Selker (2001) and Model NW-A for water/NAPL system developed by Zhang et al. (2014) are applied for the calculation of fluid saturation in the two experiments, respectively. The gas injection experiments show that the gas moves upward in the irregular channels, piling up beneath the low permeability lenses and starting lateral movement. Bypassing the lenses, the gas moves upward and forms continuous distribution in the top of the sandbox. The faster of gas injects, the wider of gas migration will be. The DNAPL infiltration experiment shows that TCE mainly moves downward as the influence of gravity, stopping vertical infiltration when reaching the low permeability lenses because of its failure to overcome the capillary pressure. Then, TCE accumulates on the surface and starts transverse movement. Bypassing the

  18. Thermal convection at low Rayleigh number from concentrated sources in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Hickox, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    A simple mathematical theory is proposed for the analysis of natural convective motion, at low Rayleigh number, from a concentrated source of heat in a fluid-saturated porous medium. The theory consists of retaining only the leading terms of series expansions of the dependent variables in terms of the Rayleigh number, is thus linear, and is valid only in the limit of small Rayleigh number. Based on fundamental results for a variety of isolated sources, superposition is used to provide solutions for situations of practical interest. Special emphasis is given to the analysis of sub-seabed disposal of nuclear waste. 8 figures.

  19. Vibroacoustic response sensitivity due to relative alignment of two anisotropic poro-elastic layers.

    PubMed

    Lind Nordgren, Eleonora; Göransson, Peter; Deü, Jean-François; Dazel, Olivier

    2013-05-01

    The effects of relative alignment of two different types of anisotropic open cell porous materials are investigated in terms of the acoustic response of a multi-layered configuration. Numerical experiments, where gradient based optimization techniques were used, are conducted to find possible extremal values. It is shown that, depending on the degree of anisotropy of the porous material properties, their angular orientations have a significant and frequency dependent influence on the measured response. The results highlight the importance of further advancing the knowledge of anisotropic porous material behavior. PMID:23656104

  20. A fully coupled porous flow and geomechanics model for fluid driven cracks: a peridynamics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouchi, Hisanao; Katiyar, Amit; York, Jason; Foster, John T.; Sharma, Mukul M.

    2015-03-01

    A state-based non-local peridynamic formulation is presented for simulating fluid driven fractures in an arbitrary heterogeneous poroelastic medium. A recently developed peridynamic formulation of porous flow has been coupled with the existing peridynamic formulation of solid and fracture mechanics resulting in a peridynamic model that for the first time simulates poroelasticity and fluid-driven fracture propagation. This coupling is achieved by modeling the role of pore pressure on the deformation of porous media and vice versa through porosity variation with medium deformation, pore pressure and total mean stress. The poroelastic model is verified by simulating the one-dimensional consolidation of fluid saturated rock. An additional porous flow equation with material permeability dependent on fracture width is solved to simulate fluid flow in the fractured region. Finally, single fluid-driven fracture propagation with a two-dimensional plane strain assumption is simulated and verified against the corresponding classical analytical solution.

  1. Anisotropic ray trace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Wai Sze Tiffany

    Optical components made of anisotropic materials, such as crystal polarizers and crystal waveplates, are widely used in many complex optical system, such as display systems, microlithography, biomedical imaging and many other optical systems, and induce more complex aberrations than optical components made of isotropic materials. The goal of this dissertation is to accurately simulate the performance of optical systems with anisotropic materials using polarization ray trace. This work extends the polarization ray tracing calculus to incorporate ray tracing through anisotropic materials, including uniaxial, biaxial and optically active materials. The 3D polarization ray tracing calculus is an invaluable tool for analyzing polarization properties of an optical system. The 3x3 polarization ray tracing P matrix developed for anisotropic ray trace assists tracking the 3D polarization transformations along a ray path with series of surfaces in an optical system. To better represent the anisotropic light-matter interactions, the definition of the P matrix is generalized to incorporate not only the polarization change at a refraction/reflection interface, but also the induced optical phase accumulation as light propagates through the anisotropic medium. This enables realistic modeling of crystalline polarization elements, such as crystal waveplates and crystal polarizers. The wavefront and polarization aberrations of these anisotropic components are more complex than those of isotropic optical components and can be evaluated from the resultant P matrix for each eigen-wavefront as well as for the overall image. One incident ray refracting or reflecting into an anisotropic medium produces two eigenpolarizations or eigenmodes propagating in different directions. The associated ray parameters of these modes necessary for the anisotropic ray trace are described in Chapter 2. The algorithms to calculate the P matrix from these ray parameters are described in Chapter 3 for

  2. Hydromagnetic Flow and Heat Transfer over a Porous Oscillating Stretching Surface in a Viscoelastic Fluid with Porous Medium.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sami Ullah; Ali, Nasir; Abbas, Zaheer

    2015-01-01

    An analysis is carried out to study the heat transfer in unsteady two-dimensional boundary layer flow of a magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) second grade fluid over a porous oscillating stretching surface embedded in porous medium. The flow is induced due to infinite elastic sheet which is stretched periodically. With the help of dimensionless variables, the governing flow equations are reduced to a system of non-linear partial differential equations. This system has been solved numerically using the finite difference scheme, in which a coordinate transformation is used to transform the semi-infinite physical space to a bounded computational domain. The influence of the involved parameters on the flow, the temperature distribution, the skin-friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number is shown and discussed in detail. The study reveals that an oscillatory sheet embedded in a fluid-saturated porous medium generates oscillatory motion in the fluid. The amplitude and phase of oscillations depends on the rheology of the fluid as well as on the other parameters coming through imposed boundary conditions, inclusion of body force term and permeability of the porous medium. It is found that amplitude of flow velocity increases with increasing viscoelastic and mass suction/injection parameters. However, it decreases with increasing the strength of the applied magnetic field. Moreover, the temperature of fluid is a decreasing function of viscoelastic parameter, mass suction/injection parameter and Prandtl number. PMID:26657931

  3. Hydromagnetic Flow and Heat Transfer over a Porous Oscillating Stretching Surface in a Viscoelastic Fluid with Porous Medium

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Sami Ullah; Ali, Nasir; Abbas, Zaheer

    2015-01-01

    An analysis is carried out to study the heat transfer in unsteady two-dimensional boundary layer flow of a magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) second grade fluid over a porous oscillating stretching surface embedded in porous medium. The flow is induced due to infinite elastic sheet which is stretched periodically. With the help of dimensionless variables, the governing flow equations are reduced to a system of non-linear partial differential equations. This system has been solved numerically using the finite difference scheme, in which a coordinate transformation is used to transform the semi-infinite physical space to a bounded computational domain. The influence of the involved parameters on the flow, the temperature distribution, the skin-friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number is shown and discussed in detail. The study reveals that an oscillatory sheet embedded in a fluid-saturated porous medium generates oscillatory motion in the fluid. The amplitude and phase of oscillations depends on the rheology of the fluid as well as on the other parameters coming through imposed boundary conditions, inclusion of body force term and permeability of the porous medium. It is found that amplitude of flow velocity increases with increasing viscoelastic and mass suction/injection parameters. However, it decreases with increasing the strength of the applied magnetic field. Moreover, the temperature of fluid is a decreasing function of viscoelastic parameter, mass suction/injection parameter and Prandtl number. PMID:26657931

  4. Seismoelectric Phenomena in Fluid-Saturated Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Block, G I; Harris, J G

    2005-04-22

    Seismoelectric phenomena in sediments arise from acoustic wave-induced fluid motion in the pore space, which perturbs the electrostatic equilibrium of the electric double layer on the grain surfaces. Experimental techniques and the apparatus built to study this electrokinetic (EK) effect are described and outcomes for studies of seismoelectric phenomena in loose glass microspheres and medium-grain sand are presented. By varying the NaCl concentration in the pore fluid, we measured the conductivity dependence of two kinds of EK behavior: (1) the electric fields generated within the samples by the passage of transmitted acoustic waves, and (2) the electromagnetic wave produced at the fluid-sediment interface by the incident acoustic wave. Both phenomena are caused by relative fluid motion in the sediment pores--this feature is characteristic of poroelastic (Biot) media, but not predicted by either viscoelastic fluid or solid models. A model of plane-wave reflection from a fluid-sediment interface using EK-Biot theory leads to theoretical predictions that compare well to the experimental data for both sand and glass microspheres.

  5. Anisotropic Hydraulic Permeability Under Finite Deformation

    PubMed Central

    Ateshian, Gerard A.; Weiss, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    The structural organization of biological tissues and cells often produces anisotropic transport properties. These tissues may also undergo large deformations under normal function, potentially inducing further anisotropy. A general framework for formulating constitutive relations for anisotropic transport properties under finite deformation is lacking in the literature. This study presents an approach based on representation theorems for symmetric tensor-valued functions and provides conditions to enforce positive semi-definiteness of the permeability or diffusivity tensor. Formulations are presented which describe materials that are orthotropic, transversely isotropic, or isotropic in the reference state, and where large strains induce greater anisotropy. Strain-induced anisotropy of the permeability of a solid-fluid mixture is illustrated for finite torsion of a cylinder subjected to axial permeation. It is shown that, in general, torsion can produce a helical flow pattern, rather than the rectilinear pattern observed when adopting a more specialized, unconditionally isotropic spatial permeability tensor commonly used in biomechanics. The general formulation presented in this study can produce both affine and non-affine reorientation of the preferred directions of material symmetry with strain, depending on the choice of material functions. This study addresses a need in the biomechanics literature by providing guidelines and formulations for anisotropic strain-dependent transport properties in porous-deformable media undergoing large deformations. PMID:21034145

  6. Anisotropic metamaterial optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Pratap, Dheeraj; Anantha Ramakrishna, S; Pollock, Justin G; Iyer, Ashwin K

    2015-04-01

    Internal physical structure can drastically modify the properties of waveguides: photonic crystal fibers are able to confine light inside a hollow air core by Bragg scattering from a periodic array of holes, while metamaterial loaded waveguides for microwaves can support propagation at frequencies well below cutoff. Anisotropic metamaterials assembled into cylindrically symmetric geometries constitute light-guiding structures that support new kinds of exotic modes. A microtube of anodized nanoporous alumina, with nanopores radially emanating from the inner wall to the outer surface, is a manifestation of such an anisotropic metamaterial optical fiber. The nanopores, when filled with a plasmonic metal such as silver or gold, greatly increase the electromagnetic anisotropy. The modal solutions in such anisotropic circular waveguides can be uncommon Bessel functions with imaginary orders. PMID:25968741

  7. Preparation of Anisotropic and Oriented Particles on a Flexible Substrate.

    PubMed

    Chekini, Mahshid; Cataldi, Ugo; Maroni, Plinio; Guénée, Laure; Černý, Radovan; Bürgi, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Elongated plasmonic nanoparticles show superior optical properties when compared to spherical ones. Facile, versatile and cost-effective bottom-up approaches for fabrication of anisotropic nanoparticles in solution have been developed. However, fabrication of 2-D plasmonic templates from elongated nanoparticles with spatial arrangement at the surface is still a challenge. We used controlled seed-mediated growth in the presence of porous and functionalized surface of flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) templates to provide directional growth and formation of elongated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and spectroscopy revealed embedding of the particles within the functionalized porous surface of PDMS. Nanoparticles shapes were observed with transmission electron microscope (TEM), UV-Vis spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) measurements, which revealed an overall orientation of particles at the surface. Anisotropic and oriented particles on a flexible substrate are of interest for sensing applications. PMID:26575589

  8. Effect of segmental heating on mixed convection aiding flow in a vertical porous annulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salman, Ahmed N. J.; Al-Rashed, Abdullah A. A. A.; Kamangar, Sarfaraz; Khan, T. M. Yunus; Khaleed, H. M. T.

    2016-06-01

    Mixed convection flow in a vertical porous annulus embedded with fluid saturated porous medium for aiding is investigated. The annulus is imposed by 20%, 35% and 50% heater length at the bottom, mid and top sections of the annulus respectively. Darcy law with thermal non-equilibrium approach is considered. The governing partial differential equations are converted to simple algebraic equations using Finite Element Method (FEM). The effects of Peclet number Pe and conductivity ratio Kr on heat transfer and fluid flow behaviour are examined and it is found that for lower conductivity ratio, the heat transfer rate was higher with the increase in the Peclet number Pe, whereas this trend reversed when thermal conductivity ratio Kr is increased.

  9. Natural convection flow in porous enclosure with localized heating from below with heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiki, Md. Noor-A.-Alam; Molla, Md. Mamun; Saha, Suvash C.

    2016-07-01

    Unsteady natural convection flow in a two dimensional fluid saturated porous enclosure with localized heating from below with heat flux, symmetrical cooling from the sides and the insulated top wall has been investigated numerically. The governing equations are the Darcy's law for the porous media and the energy equation for the temperature field has been considered. The non-dimensional Darcy's law in terms of the stream function is solved by finite difference method using the successive over-relaxation (SOR) scheme and the energy equation is solved by Alternative Direction Alternative (ADI) scheme. The uniform heat flux source is located centrally at the bottom wall. The numerical results are presented in terms of the streamlines and isotherms, as well as the local and average rate of heat transfer for the wide range of the Darcy's Rayleigh number and the length of the heat flux source at the bottom wall.

  10. Investigation of Porosity Evolution and Orthotropic Axes on Anisotropic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, Raheleh Mohammad

    Advancement of porosities that happens in shear deformation of anisotropic materials is investigated by Dr. Kweon. As the hydrostatic stress in shear deformation is zero, in the solid mechanics' researches it is proved several times that porosity will not be expanded in shear deformation. Dr. Kweon showed that this statement can be wrong in large deformation of simple shear. He proposed anisotropic ductile fracture model to show that hydrostatic stress becomes nonzero and porosities are increased in the simple shear deformation of anisotropic materials. This study investigates the effect of the evolution of anisotropy which means the rotation of the orthotropic axes onto the porosity changes. Hill coefficient shows that how orthotropic materials indicate different ductile fracture manners in shear deformation. Also the effect of void aspect ratio on change of porosity is investigated. It has been found that the interaction among porosity, the matrix anisotropy and void aspect ratio play a crucial role in the ductile damage of porous materials.

  11. Anisotropic eddy viscosity models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carati, D.; Cabot, W.

    1996-01-01

    A general discussion on the structure of the eddy viscosity tensor in anisotropic flows is presented. The systematic use of tensor symmetries and flow symmetries is shown to reduce drastically the number of independent parameters needed to describe the rank 4 eddy viscosity tensor. The possibility of using Onsager symmetries for simplifying further the eddy viscosity is discussed explicitly for the axisymmetric geometry.

  12. Dynamics of Anisotropic Universes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Jérôme

    2006-11-01

    We present a general study of the dynamical properties of Anisotropic Bianchi Universes in the context of Einstein General Relativity. Integrability results using Kovalevskaya exponents are reported and connected to general knowledge about Bianchi dynamics. Finally, dynamics toward singularity in Bianchi type VIII and IX universes are showed to be equivalent in some precise sence.

  13. Hybrid Anisotropic Micromesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutzov, S.; Danchova, N.; Tsekov, R.; Barreno, I.; Ruiz del Portal, X.; Ulbikas, J.

    2015-10-01

    A new hybrid woven micromesh containing metal and polyester wires with a 2D porosity of about 30% has been created. The anisotropic microcomposite is developed as a new material with wide applications in thermal and electrical engineering. The mesh material is carefully characterized using electron microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, chemical analysis, thermal conductivity measurements and differential scanning calorimetry.

  14. Anisotropic Ambient Volume Shading.

    PubMed

    Ament, Marco; Dachsbacher, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel method to compute anisotropic shading for direct volume rendering to improve the perception of the orientation and shape of surface-like structures. We determine the scale-aware anisotropy of a shading point by analyzing its ambient region. We sample adjacent points with similar scalar values to perform a principal component analysis by computing the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the covariance matrix. In particular, we estimate the tangent directions, which serve as the tangent frame for anisotropic bidirectional reflectance distribution functions. Moreover, we exploit the ratio of the eigenvalues to measure the magnitude of the anisotropy at each shading point. Altogether, this allows us to model a data-driven, smooth transition from isotropic to strongly anisotropic volume shading. In this way, the shape of volumetric features can be enhanced significantly by aligning specular highlights along the principal direction of anisotropy. Our algorithm is independent of the transfer function, which allows us to compute all shading parameters once and store them with the data set. We integrated our method in a GPU-based volume renderer, which offers interactive control of the transfer function, light source positions, and viewpoint. Our results demonstrate the benefit of anisotropic shading for visualization to achieve data-driven local illumination for improved perception compared to isotropic shading. PMID:26529745

  15. Modeling anisotropic flow and heat transport by using mimetic finite differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tao; Clauser, Christoph; Marquart, Gabriele; Willbrand, Karen; Büsing, Henrik

    2016-08-01

    Modeling anisotropic flow in porous or fractured rock often assumes that the permeability tensor is diagonal, which means that its principle directions are always aligned with the coordinate axes. However, the permeability of a heterogeneous anisotropic medium usually is a full tensor. For overcoming this shortcoming, we use the mimetic finite difference method (mFD) for discretizing the flow equation in a hydrothermal reservoir simulation code, SHEMAT-Suite, which couples this equation with the heat transport equation. We verify SHEMAT-Suite-mFD against analytical solutions of pumping tests, using both diagonal and full permeability tensors. We compare results from three benchmarks for testing the capability of SHEMAT-Suite-mFD to handle anisotropic flow in porous and fractured media. The benchmarks include coupled flow and heat transport problems, three-dimensional problems and flow through a fractured porous medium with full equivalent permeability tensor. It shows firstly that the mimetic finite difference method can model anisotropic flow both in porous and in fractured media accurately and its results are better than those obtained by the multi-point flux approximation method in highly anisotropic models, secondly that the asymmetric permeability tensor can be included and leads to improved results compared the symmetric permeability tensor in the equivalent fracture models, and thirdly that the method can be easily implemented in existing finite volume or finite difference codes, which has been demonstrated successfully for SHEMAT-Suite.

  16. Characterization of porous hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Hing, K A; Best, S M; Bonfield, W

    1999-03-01

    Hydroxyapatite has been considered for use in the repair of osseous defects for the last 20 years. Recent developments have led to interest in the potential of porous hydroxyapatite as a synthetic bone graft. However, despite considerable activity in this field, regarding assessment of the biological response to such materials, the basic materials characterization is often inadequate. This paper documents the characterization of the chemical composition, mechanical integrity, macro- and microstructure of a porous hydroxyapatite, Endobon (E. Merck GmbH), intended for the bone-graft market. Specimens possesed a range of apparent densities from 0.35 to 1.44 g cm(-3). Chemical analysis demonstrated that the natural apatite precursor of Endobon was not converted to pure hydroxyapatite, but retained many of the ionic substituents found in bone mineral, notably carbonate, sodium and magnesium ions. Investigation of the microstructure illustrated that the struts of the material were not fully dense, but had retained some traces of the network of osteocyte lacunae. Macrostructural analysis demonstrated the complex inter-relationship between the structural features of an open pore structure. Both pore size and connectivity were found to be inversely dependent on apparent density. Furthermore, measurement of pore aspect ratio and orientation demonstrated a relationship between apparent density and the degree of macrostructural anisotropy within the specimens, while, it was also noted that pore connectivity was sensitive to anisotropy. Compression testing demonstrated the effect of apparent density and macrostructural anisotropy on the mechanical properties. An increase in apparent density from 0.38 to 1.25 g cm(-3) resulted in increases in ultimate compressive stress and compressive modulus of 1 to 11 MPa and 0.2 to 3.1 GPa, respectively. Furthermore, anisotropic high density (> 0.9 g cm(-3)) specimens were found to possess lower compressive moduli than isotropic specimens

  17. Parallel Anisotropic Tetrahedral Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Michael A.; Darmofal, David L.

    2008-01-01

    An adaptive method that robustly produces high aspect ratio tetrahedra to a general 3D metric specification without introducing hybrid semi-structured regions is presented. The elemental operators and higher-level logic is described with their respective domain-decomposed parallelizations. An anisotropic tetrahedral grid adaptation scheme is demonstrated for 1000-1 stretching for a simple cube geometry. This form of adaptation is applicable to more complex domain boundaries via a cut-cell approach as demonstrated by a parallel 3D supersonic simulation of a complex fighter aircraft. To avoid the assumptions and approximations required to form a metric to specify adaptation, an approach is introduced that directly evaluates interpolation error. The grid is adapted to reduce and equidistribute this interpolation error calculation without the use of an intervening anisotropic metric. Direct interpolation error adaptation is illustrated for 1D and 3D domains.

  18. Fractures in anisotropic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Siyi

    Rocks may be composed of layers and contain fracture sets that cause the hydraulic, mechanical and seismic properties of a rock to be anisotropic. Coexisting fractures and layers in rock give rise to competing mechanisms of anisotropy. For example: (1) at low fracture stiffness, apparent shear-wave anisotropy induced by matrix layering can be masked or enhanced by the presence of a fracture, depending on the fracture orientation with respect to layering, and (2) compressional-wave guided modes generated by parallel fractures can also mask the presence of matrix layerings for particular fracture orientations and fracture specific stiffness. This report focuses on two anisotropic sources that are widely encountered in rock engineering: fractures (mechanical discontinuity) and matrix layering (impedance discontinuity), by investigating: (1) matrix property characterization, i.e., to determine elastic constants in anisotropic solids, (2) interface wave behavior in single-fractured anisotropic media, (3) compressional wave guided modes in parallel-fractured anisotropic media (single fracture orientation) and (4) the elastic response of orthogonal fracture networks. Elastic constants of a medium are required to understand and quantify wave propagation in anisotropic media but are affected by fractures and matrix properties. Experimental observations and analytical analysis demonstrate that behaviors of both fracture interface waves and compressional-wave guided modes for fractures in anisotropic media, are affected by fracture specific stiffness (controlled by external stresses), signal frequency and relative orientation between layerings in the matrix and fractures. A fractured layered medium exhibits: (1) fracture-dominated anisotropy when the fractures are weakly coupled; (2) isotropic behavior when fractures delay waves that are usually fast in a layered medium; and (3) matrix-dominated anisotropy when the fractures are closed and no longer delay the signal. The

  19. Anisotropic Total Variation Filtering

    SciTech Connect

    Grasmair, Markus; Lenzen, Frank

    2010-12-15

    Total variation regularization and anisotropic filtering have been established as standard methods for image denoising because of their ability to detect and keep prominent edges in the data. Both methods, however, introduce artifacts: In the case of anisotropic filtering, the preservation of edges comes at the cost of the creation of additional structures out of noise; total variation regularization, on the other hand, suffers from the stair-casing effect, which leads to gradual contrast changes in homogeneous objects, especially near curved edges and corners. In order to circumvent these drawbacks, we propose to combine the two regularization techniques. To that end we replace the isotropic TV semi-norm by an anisotropic term that mirrors the directional structure of either the noisy original data or the smoothed image. We provide a detailed existence theory for our regularization method by using the concept of relaxation. The numerical examples concluding the paper show that the proposed introduction of an anisotropy to TV regularization indeed leads to improved denoising: the stair-casing effect is reduced while at the same time the creation of artifacts is suppressed.

  20. Measurement and Estimation of Organic-Liquid/Water Interfacial Areas for Several Natural Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Brusseau, M.L.; Narter, M.; Schnaar, G.; Marble, J.

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to quantitatively characterize the impact of porous-medium texture on interfacial area between immiscible organic liquid and water residing within natural porous media. Synchrotron X-ray microtomography was used to obtain high-resolution, three-dimensional images of solid and liquid phases in packed columns. The image data were processed to generate quantitative measurements of organic-liquid/water interfacial area and of organic-liquid blob sizes. Ten porous media, comprising a range of median grain sizes, grain-size distributions, and geochemical properties, were used to evaluate the impact of porous-medium texture on interfacial area. The results show that fluid-normalized specific interfacial area (A{sub f}) and maximum specific interfacial area (A{sub m}) correlate very well to inverse median grain diameter. These functionalities were shown to result from a linear relationship between effective organic-liquid blob diameter and median grain diameter. These results provide the basis for a simple method for estimating specific organic-liquid/water interfacial area as a function of fluid saturation for a given porous medium. The availability of a method for which the only parameter needed is the simple-to-measure median grain diameter should be of great utility for a variety of applications.

  1. Similarity solutions for buoyancy-induced flow of a power-law fluid over a horizontal surface immersed in a porous medium

    SciTech Connect

    Chamkha, A.J.

    1997-10-01

    There has been considerable interest in studying natural or buoyancy-induced flows in fluid-saturated porous media adjacent to surfaces in recent years. This interest stems from numerous possible industrial and technological applications. Examples of some applications include geothermal reservoirs, drying of porous solids, heat exchanger design, petroleum production, filtration, chemical catalytic reactor, nuclear waste repositories, and geophysical flows. Here, continuum equations governing steady, laminar, buoyancy-induced flow and heat transfer of a power-law fluid over a horizontal surface immersed in a uniform porosity and permeability porous medium are developed. These partial differential equations are transformed into ordinary differential equations by using a general similarity transformation for variable surface temperature and constant heat flux cases. The resulting equations are solved numerically by an implicit finite-difference method. Numerical results for typical velocity and temperature profiles are presented and discussed.

  2. Bioinspired Strong and Highly Porous Glass Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2011-01-01

    The quest for more efficient energy-related technologies is driving the development of porous and high-performance structural materials with exceptional mechanical strength. Natural materials achieve their strength through complex hierarchical designs and anisotropic structures that are extremely difficult to replicate synthetically. We emulate nature’s design by direct-ink-write assembling of glass scaffolds with a periodic pattern, and controlled sintering of the filaments into anisotropic constructs similar to biological materials. The final product is a porous glass scaffold with a compressive strength (136 MPa) comparable to that of cortical bone and a porosity (60%) comparable to that of trabecular bone. The strength of this porous glass scaffold is ~100 times that of polymer scaffolds and 4–5 times that of ceramic and glass scaffolds with comparable porosities reported elsewhere. The ability to create both porous and strong structures opens a new avenue for fabricating scaffolds for a broad array of applications, including tissue engineering, filtration, lightweight composites, and catalyst support. PMID:21544222

  3. Anisotropic spinfoam cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rennert, Julian; Sloan, David

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of a homogeneous, anisotropic universe are investigated within the context of spinfoam cosmology. Transition amplitudes are calculated for a graph consisting of a single node and three links—the ‘Daisy graph’—probing the behaviour a classical Bianchi I spacetime. It is shown further how the use of such single node graphs gives rise to a simplification of states such that all orders in the spin expansion can be calculated, indicating that it is the vertex expansion that contains information about quantum dynamics.

  4. Stability Of Superposed Fluids Through Magnetic Field With Suspended Particles Of Different Permeability Saturated Through Porous Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, M.

    2015-12-01

    The instability of plane interface between two superposed Rivlin-Ericksen elastico-viscous fluids saturated through a porous medium has been studied to include the suspended (dust) particles effect. Following the linearized stability theory and normal mode analysis the dispersion relation is obtained. For stationary convection, the Rivlin-Ericksen elastico-viscous fluid behaves like Newtonian fluids. It found that for a potentially stable arrangement the Rivlin-Ericksen elastico-viscous fluid of different permeabilities in the presence of suspended particles in a porous medium is stable, whereas in a potentially unstable case instability of the system occurs. In the presence of a magnetic field for a potentially stable arrangement the system is always stable and for the potentially unstable arrangement, the magnetic field succeeds in stabilizing certain wave-number band which was unstable in the absence of the magnetic field.

  5. [Investigation of ultrasonic surface wave interaction with porous saturated rocks]. Progress report, [July 1, 1993--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    Calculations showed that capillary forces can easily produce closed- pore boundary conditions at interface between nonwetting fluid (air) and a porous solid saturated by a wetting fluid (water). The direct excitation technique was used to measure surface wave velocity and attenuation on both wet and dry rocks. The strong correlation between the observed surface wave velocity change caused by water saturation and the formation permeability can be used for ultrasonic assessment of the dynamic permeability. The experimental system was improved further by introducing laser interferometric detection, which was adapted to surface wave inspection of fluid-saturated permeable materials. In a separate effort, the surface stiffness of different water-saturated porous solids was studied by a novel acoustical method. Areas for further study are described.

  6. Chaotic advection in 2D anisotropic porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varghese, Stephen; Speetjens, Michel; Trieling, Ruben; Toschi, Federico

    2015-11-01

    Traditional methods for heat recovery from underground geothermal reservoirs employ a static system of injector-producer wells. Recent studies in literature have shown that using a well-devised pumping scheme, through actuation of multiple injector-producer wells, can dramatically enhance production rates due to the increased scalar / heat transport by means of chaotic advection. However the effect of reservoir anisotropy on kinematic mixing and heat transport is unknown and has to be incorporated and studied for practical deployment in the field. As a first step, we numerically investigate the effect of anisotropy (both magnitude and direction) on (chaotic) advection of passive tracers in a time-periodic Darcy flow within a 2D circular domain driven by periodically reoriented diametrically opposite source-sink pairs. Preliminary results indicate that anisotropy has a significant impact on the location, shape and size of coherent structures in the Poincare sections. This implies that the optimal operating parameters (well spacing, time period of well actuation) may vary strongly and must be carefully chosen so as to enhance subsurface transport. This work is part of the research program of the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM), which is part of Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO). This research program is co-financed by Shell Global Solutions International B.V.

  7. Anisotropic Thermal Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiner, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Anisotropic thermal diffusion in magnetized plasmas is an important physical phenomena for a diverse set of physical conditions ranging from astrophysical plasmas to MFE and ICF. Yet numerically simulating this phenomenon accurately poses significant challenges when the computational mesh is misaligned with respect to the magnetic field. Particularly when the temperature gradients are unresolved, one frequently finds entropy violating solutions with heat flowing from cold to hot zones for χ∥ /χ⊥ >=102 which is substantially smaller than the range of interest which can reach 1010 or higher. In this talk we present a new implicit algorithm for solving the anisotropic thermal diffusion equations and demonstrate its characteristics on what has become a fairly standard set of test problems in the literature. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND2013-5687A.

  8. Optics of anisotropic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokushima, Katsu; Antoš, Roman; Mistrík, Jan; Višňovský, Štefan; Yamaguchi, Tomuo

    2006-07-01

    The analytical formalism of Rokushima and Yamakita [J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 901-908 (1983)] treating the Fraunhofer diffraction in planar multilayered anisotropic gratings proved to be a useful introduction to new fundamental and practical situations encountered in laterally structured periodic (both isotropic and anisotropic) multilayer media. These are employed in the spectroscopic ellipsometry for modeling surface roughness and in-depth profiles, as well as in the design of various frequency-selective elements including photonic crystals. The subject forms the basis for the solution of inverse problems in scatterometry of periodic nanostructures including magnetic and magneto-optic recording media. It has no principal limitations as for the frequencies and period to radiation wavelength ratios and may include matter wave diffraction. The aim of the paper is to make this formalism easily accessible to a broader community of students and non-specialists. Many aspects of traditional electromagnetic optics are covered as special cases from a modern and more general point of view, e.g., plane wave propagation in isotropic media, reflection and refraction at interfaces, Fabry-Perot resonator, optics of thin films and multilayers, slab dielectric waveguides, crystal optics, acousto-, electro-, and magneto-optics, diffraction gratings, etc. The formalism is illustrated on a model simulating the diffraction on a ferromagnetic wire grating.

  9. Natural convection flow and heat transfer between a fluid layer and a porous layer inside a rectangular enclosure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckermann, C.; Ramadhyani, S.; Viskanta, R.

    1987-05-01

    A numerical and experimental study is performed to analyze the steady-state natural convection fluid flow and heat transfer in a vertical rectangular enclosure that is partially filled with a vertical layer of a fluid-saturated porous medium. The flow in the porous layer is modeled utilizing the Brinkman-Forchheimer-extended Darcy equations. The numerical model is verified by conducting a number of experiments, with spherical glass beads as the porous medium and water and glycerin as the fluids, in rectangular test cells. The agreement between the flow visualization results and temperature measurements and the numerical model is, in general, good. It is found that the amount of fluid penetrating from the fluid region into the porous layer depends strongly on the Darcy (Da) and Rayleigh (Ra) numbers. For a relatively low product of Ra x Da, the flow takes place primarily in the fluid layer, and heat transfer in the porous layer is by conduction only. On other hand, fluid penetration into a relatively highly permeable porous layer has a significant impact on the natural convection flow patterns in the entire enclosure.

  10. Simple types of anisotropic inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Barrow, John D.; Hervik, Sigbjoern

    2010-01-15

    We display some simple cosmological solutions of gravity theories with quadratic Ricci curvature terms added to the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian which exhibit anisotropic inflation. The Hubble expansion rates are constant and unequal in three orthogonal directions. We describe the evolution of the simplest of these homogeneous and anisotropic cosmological models from its natural initial state and evaluate the deviations they will create from statistical isotropy in the fluctuations produced during a period of anisotropic inflation. The anisotropic inflation is not a late-time attractor in these models but the rate of approach to a final isotropic de Sitter state is slow and is conducive to the creation of observable anisotropic statistical effects in the microwave background. The statistical anisotropy would not be scale invariant and the level of statistical anisotropy will grow with scale.

  11. Anisotropic inflation with general potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, JiaMing; Huang, XiaoTian; Qiu, TaoTao

    2016-04-01

    Anomalies in recent observational data indicate that there might be some "anisotropic hair" generated in an inflation period. To obtain general information about the effects of this anisotropic hair to inflation models, we studied anisotropic inflation models that involve one vector and one scalar using several types of potentials. We determined the general relationship between the degree of anisotropy and the fraction of the vector and scalar fields, and concluded that the anisotropies behave independently of the potentials. We also generalized our study to the case of multi-directional anisotropies.

  12. Vortex dynamics in anisotropic traps

    SciTech Connect

    McEndoo, S.; Busch, Th.

    2010-07-15

    We investigate the dynamics of linear vortex lattices in anisotropic traps in two dimensions and show that the interplay between the rotation and the anisotropy leads to a rich but highly regular dynamics.

  13. Seismic moment tensor for anisotropic media: implication for Non-double-couple earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, X.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cai, M.

    2008-12-01

    It is often found that the inversion results of seismic moment tensor from real seismic recorded data show the trace of seismic moment tensor M is not zero, a phenomenon called non-double-couple earthquake sources mechanism. Recently we have derived the analytical expressions of M in transversely isotropic media with the titled axis of symmetry and the results shows even only pure shear-motion of fault can lead to the implosive components determined by several combined anisotropic elastic constants. Many non-double-couple earthquakes from observations often appear in volcanic and geothermal areas (Julian, 1998), where there exist a mount of stress-aligned fluid-saturated parallel vertical micro-cracks identical to transversely isotropic media (Crampin, 2008), this stress-aligned crack will modify the seismic moment tensor. In another word, non-double-couple earthquakes don't mean to have a seismic failure movement perpendicular to the fault plane, while traditional research of seismic moment tensor focus on the case of isotropy, which cannot provide correct interpretation of seismic source mechanism. Reference: Julian, B.R., Miller, A.D. and Foulger, G.R., 1998. Non-double-couple earthquakes,1. Theory, Rev. Geophys., 36, 525¨C549. Crampin,S., Peacock,S., 2008, A review of the current understanding of seismic shear-wave splitting in the Earth's crust and common fallacies in interpretation, wave motion, 45,675-722

  14. Mechanics of layered anisotropic poroelastic media with applications to effective stress for fluid permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Berryman, J.G.

    2010-06-01

    The mechanics of vertically layered porous media has some similarities to and some differences from the more typical layered analysis for purely elastic media. Assuming welded solid contact at the solid-solid interfaces implies the usual continuity conditions, which are continuity of the vertical (layering direction) stress components and the horizontal strain components. These conditions are valid for both elastic and poroelastic media. Differences arise through the conditions for the pore pressure and the increment of fluid content in the context of fluid-saturated porous media. The two distinct conditions most often considered between any pair of contiguous layers are: (1) an undrained fluid condition at the interface, meaning that the increment of fluid content is zero (i.e., {delta}{zeta} = 0), or (2) fluid pressure continuity at the interface, implying that the change in fluid pressure is zero across the interface (i.e., {delta}p{sub f} = 0). Depending on the types of measurements being made on the system and the pertinent boundary conditions for these measurements, either (or neither) of these two conditions might be directly pertinent. But these conditions are sufficient nevertheless to be used as thought experiments to determine the expected values of all the poroelastic coefficients. For quasi-static mechanical changes over long time periods, we expect drained conditions to hold, so the pressure must then be continuous. For high frequency wave propagation, the pore-fluid typically acts as if it were undrained (or very nearly so), with vanishing of the fluid increment at the boundaries being appropriate. Poroelastic analysis of both these end-member cases is discussed, and the general equations for a variety of applications to heterogeneous porous media are developed. In particular, effective stress for the fluid permeability of such poroelastic systems is considered; fluid permeabilities characteristic of granular media or tubular pore shapes are treated

  15. Instability of fluid flow over saturated porous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubimova, Tatyana; Kolchanova, Ekaterina; Lyubimov, Dmitry

    2013-04-01

    We investigate the stability of a fluid flow over a saturated porous medium. The problem is of importance due to the applications to washing out of contaminants from the bottom layer of vegetation, whose properties are similar to the properties of porous medium. In the case of porous medium with the relatively high permeability and porosity the flow involves a part of the fluid saturating the porous medium, with the tangential fluid velocity drop occurring because of the resistance of the solid matrix. The drop leads to the instability analogous to Kelvin-Helmholtz one accompanied by the formation of travelling waves. In the present paper we consider a two-layer system consisting of a pure fluid layer and a porous layer saturated by the fluid located underneath. The system is bounded by a rigid surface at the bottom and a non-deformable free surface at the top. It is under the gravity and inclined at a slight angle to the horizontal axis. The boundary conditions at the interface between the fluid and porous layers are the continuity of fluid velocities and the balance of normal and tangential stresses taking into account the resistance of the solid matrix with respect to the fluid flow near the interface [1-2]. The problem is solved in the framework of the Brinkman model applying the classical shooting algorithm with orthogonalization. The stability boundaries of the stationary fluid flow over the saturated porous medium with respect to the small oscillatory perturbations are obtained for the various values of the Darcy number and the ratio of the porous layer thickness to the full thickness of the system d. It was shown that at the d > 0.5 with increasing the porous layer thickness (or with decreasing of the fluid layer thickness) the stability threshold rises. This is because of the fact that the instability is primarily caused by perturbations located in the fluid layer. At the d < 0.5 the reduction of the porous layer thickness leads to the stability threshold

  16. Coefficient adaptive triangulation for strongly anisotropic problems

    SciTech Connect

    D`Azevedo, E.F.; Romine, C.H.; Donato, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Second order elliptic partial differential equations arise in many important applications, including flow through porous media, heat conduction, the distribution of electrical or magnetic potential. The prototype is the Laplace problem, which in discrete form produces a coefficient matrix that is relatively easy to solve in a regular domain. However, the presence of anisotropy produces a matrix whose condition number is increased, making the resulting linear system more difficult to solve. In this work, we take the anisotropy into account in the discretization by mapping each anisotropic region into a ``stretched`` coordinate space in which the anisotropy is removed. The region is then uniformly triangulated, and the resulting triangulation mapped back to the original space. The effect is to generate long slender triangles that are oriented in the direction of ``preferred flow.`` Slender triangles are generally regarded as numerically undesirable since they tend to cause poor conditioning; however, our triangulation has the effect of producing effective isotropy, thus improving the condition number of the resulting coefficient matrix.

  17. Experimental Evidence of Helical Flow in Porous Media.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yu; Chiogna, Gabriele; Cirpka, Olaf A; Grathwohl, Peter; Rolle, Massimo

    2015-11-01

    Helical flow leads to deformation of solute plumes and enhances transverse mixing in porous media. We present experiments in which macroscopic helical flow is created by arranging different materials to obtain an anisotropic macroscopic permeability tensor with spatially variable orientation. The resulting helical flow entails twisting streamlines which cause a significant increase in lateral mass exchange and thus a large enhancement of plume dilution (up to 235%) compared to transport in homogenous media. The setup may be used to effectively mix solutes in parallel streams similarly to static mixers, but in porous media. PMID:26588388

  18. Superlens from complementary anisotropic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G. X.; Tam, H. L.; Wang, F. Y.; Cheah, K. W.

    2007-12-01

    Metamaterials with isotropic property have been shown to possess novel optical properties such as a negative refractive index that can be used to design a superlens. Recently, it was shown that metamaterials with anisotropic property can translate the high-frequency wave vector k values from evanescence to propagating. However, electromagnetic waves traveling in single-layer anisotropic metamaterial produce diverging waves of different spatial frequency. In this work, it is shown that, using bilayer metamaterials that have complementary anisotropic property, the diverging waves are recombined to produce a subwavelength image, i.e., a superlens device can be designed. The simulation further shows that the design can be achieved using a metal/oxide multilayer, and a resolution of 30 nm can be easily obtained in the optical frequency range.

  19. Transient electrokinetic response of finely layered, fluid-filled porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, M.; Delprat-Jannaud, F.; Garambois, S.

    2012-04-01

    Transient electrokinetic coupling phenomena created at the microscopic scale by the passage of seismic waves through fluid-saturated porous media generate conversions between seismic and electromagnetic (EM) energy which can be observed at the macroscopic scale. Far from being a mere scientific curiosity, transient seismoelectric or electroseismic phenomena are especially appealing to oil and gas exploration and hydrogeology as they open up the (fairly unique) possibility to characterize fluid-bearing geological formations with the resolution of seismic methods. Indeed, electrokinetic effects are likely to reconcile the sensitivity of electromagnetic exploration methods to fluids with the high resolving power of seismic prospecting techniques for structural imaging, thus naturally bridging the gap between these two important geophysical investigation means. Accounting for the electromagnetic dimension of the seismic wave propagation, or conversely, accounting for the seismic dimension of electromagnetic wave propagation gives new insights into the microstructure and physico-chemistry of fluid-filled porous or fractured media. We present full-waveform simulations of the coupled seismoelectromagnetic wave propagation in fluid-saturated, finely stratified porous media of interest to oil and gas exploration. Our simulation code uses the macroscopic governing equations derived by Pride [1994], which couple Biot's theory and Maxwell equations via flux/force transport equations. The synthetic seismoelectrograms and seismomagnetrograms are computed by extending the generalized reflection and transmission matrix method and by using a discrete wave number integration of the global reflectivity obtained in the frequency wave number domain. The theoretical signals clearly display the coseismic electric and magnetic fields travelling with the seismic disturbances as well as the seismic-to-electromagnetic conversions taking place at contrasts in solid and fluid properties. Our

  20. Dynamical analysis of anisotropic inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karčiauskas, Mindaugas

    2016-06-01

    The inflaton coupling to a vector field via the f(φ)2F μνFμν term is used in several contexts in the literature, such as to generate primordial magnetic fields, to produce statistically anisotropic curvature perturbation, to support anisotropic inflation, and to circumvent the η-problem. In this work, I perform dynamical analysis of this system allowing for the most general Bianchi I initial conditions. I also confirm the stability of attractor fixed points along phase-space directions that had not been investigated before.

  1. Fabrication, properties, and applications of porous metals with directional pores

    PubMed Central

    NAKAJIMA, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    Lotus-type porous metals with aligned long cylindrical pores are fabricated by unidirectional solidification from the melt with a dissolved gas such as hydrogen, nitrogen, or oxygen. The gas atoms can be dissolved into the melt via a pressurized gas atmosphere or thermal decomposition of gaseous compounds. Three types of solidification techniques have been developed: mold casting, continuous zone melting, and continuous casting techniques. The last method is superior from the viewpoint of mass production of lotus metals. The observed anisotropic behaviors of the mechanical properties, sound absorption, and thermal conductivity are inherent to the anisotropic porous structure. In particular, the remarkable anisotropy in the mechanical strength is attributed to the stress concentration around the pores aligned perpendicular to the loading direction. Heat sinks are a promising application of lotus metals due to the high cooling performance with a large heat transfer. PMID:21084772

  2. Fabrication, properties, and applications of porous metals with directional pores.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    Lotus-type porous metals with aligned long cylindrical pores are fabricated by unidirectional solidification from the melt with a dissolved gas such as hydrogen, nitrogen, or oxygen. The gas atoms can be dissolved into the melt via a pressurized gas atmosphere or thermal decomposition of gaseous compounds. Three types of solidification techniques have been developed: mold casting, continuous zone melting, and continuous casting techniques. The last method is superior from the viewpoint of mass production of lotus metals. The observed anisotropic behaviors of the mechanical properties, sound absorption, and thermal conductivity are inherent to the anisotropic porous structure. In particular, the remarkable anisotropy in the mechanical strength is attributed to the stress concentration around the pores aligned perpendicular to the loading direction. Heat sinks are a promising application of lotus metals due to the high cooling performance with a large heat transfer. PMID:21084772

  3. Heat and mass transfer by natural convection at a stagnation point in a porous medium considering Soret and Dufour effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postelnicu, Adrian

    2010-10-01

    Dufour and Soret effects on flow at a stagnation point in a fluid-saturated porous medium are studied in this paper. A two dimensional stagnation-point flow with suction/injection of a Darcian fluid is considered. By using an appropriate similarity transformation, the boundary layer equations of momentum, energy and concentration are reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations, which are solved numerically using the Keller-box method, which is a very efficient finite differences technique. Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are obtained, together with the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles in the boundary layer. For the large suction case, asymptotic analytical solutions of the problem are obtained, which compare favourably with the numerical solutions. A critical view of the problem is presented finally.

  4. Anisotropic inflation with the nonvacuum initial state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emami, Razieh; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Zarei, Moslem

    2014-07-01

    In this work we study models of anisotropic inflation with the generalized nonvacuum initial states for the inflaton field and the gauge field. The effects of the non-Bunch-Davies initial condition on the anisotropic power spectrum and bispectrum are calculated. We show that the non-Bunch-Davies initial state can help to reduce the fine-tuning on the anisotropic power spectrum while reducing the level of anisotropic bispectrum.

  5. Velocity of Light in Anisotropic Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomin, I. V.

    2016-05-01

    The task of the present study is to describe local anisotropic spacetime and to discuss the possibility of its experimental detection. Anisotropic spacetime is treated as the flat isotropic Minkowski space with anisotropic perturbations. A determination of the components of the metric tensor is bound up with measurements of the velocity of light in different directions.

  6. Fracture toughness of anisotropic graphites

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, C.R.; Kehne, M.T.

    1985-01-01

    Fracture toughness measurements have been made at 0, 30, 45, 60, and 90/sup 0/ from the extrusion axis on a reasonably anisotropic graphite, grade AGOT. It was found that the fracture toughness did not vary appreciably with orientation. An observed variation in strength was found to be the result of defect orientation.

  7. PP/PS anisotropic stereotomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag, Steinar; Alerini, Mathias; Ursin, Bjørn

    2010-04-01

    Stereotomography is a slope tomographic method which gives good results for background velocity model estimation in 2-D isotropic media. We develop here the extension of the method to 3-D general anisotropic media for PP and PS events. We do not take into account the issue of shear wave degeneracy. As in isotropic media, the sensitivity matrix of the inversion can be computed by paraxial ray tracing. We introduce a `constant Z stereotomography' approach, which can reduce the size of the sensitivity matrix. Based on ray perturbation theory, we give all the derivatives of stereotomography data parameters with respect to model parameters in a 3-D general anisotropic medium. These general formulas for the derivatives can also be used in other applications that rely on anisotropic ray perturbation theory. In particular, we obtain derivatives of the phase velocity with respect to position, phase angle and elastic medium parameters, all for general anisotropic media. The derivatives are expressed using the Voigt notation for the elastic medium parameters. We include a Jacobian that allows to change the model parametrization from Voigt to Thomsen parameters. Explicit expressions for the derivatives of the data are given for the case of 2-D tilted transversely isotropic (TTI) media. We validate the method by single-parameter estimation of each Thomsen parameter field of a 2-D TTI synthetic model, where data are modelled by ray tracing. For each Thomsen parameter, the estimated velocity field fits well with the true velocity field.

  8. Mechanistic models of biofilm growth in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaiswal, Priyank; Al-Hadrami, Fathiya; Atekwana, Estella A.; Atekwana, Eliot A.

    2014-07-01

    Nondestructive acoustics methods can be used to monitor in situ biofilm growth in porous media. In practice, however, acoustic methods remain underutilized due to the lack of models that can translate acoustic data into rock properties in the context of biofilm. In this paper we present mechanistic models of biofilm growth in porous media. The models are used to quantitatively interpret arrival times and amplitudes recorded in the 29 day long Davis et al. (2010) physical scale biostimulation experiment in terms of biofilm morphologies and saturation. The model pivots on addressing the sediment elastic behavior using the lower Hashin-Shtrikman bounds for grain mixing and Gassmann substitution for fluid saturation. The time-lapse P wave velocity (VP; a function of arrival times) is explained by a combination of two rock models (morphologies); "load bearing" which assumes the biofilm as an additional mineral in the rock matrix and "pore filling" which assumes the biofilm as an additional fluid phase in the pores. The time-lapse attenuation (QP-1; a function of amplitudes), on the other hand, can be explained adequately in two ways; first, through squirt flow where energy is lost from relative motion between rock matrix and pore fluid, and second, through an empirical function of porosity (φ), permeability (κ), and grain size. The squirt flow model-fitting results in higher internal φ (7% versus 5%) and more oblate pores (0.33 versus 0.67 aspect ratio) for the load-bearing morphology versus the pore-filling morphology. The empirical model-fitting results in up to 10% increase in κ at the initial stages of the load-bearing morphology. The two morphologies which exhibit distinct mechanical and hydraulic behavior could be a function of pore throat size. The biofilm mechanistic models developed in this study can be used for the interpretation of seismic data critical for the evaluation of biobarriers in bioremediation, microbial enhanced oil recovery, and CO2

  9. Dispersion of elastic moduli in a porous-cracked rock: Theoretical predictions for squirt-flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelinet, M.; Fortin, J.; Guéguen, Y.

    2011-04-01

    Crustal rocks contain variable amount of both cracks and equant pores depending on tectonic and thermal stresses but also on their geological origin. Crack damage and porosity change result in effects on elastic waves velocities. When rocks are fluid saturated, dispersion of the P- and S-waves should be taken into account. This paper deals with frequency dispersion of elastic moduli in a fluid saturated porous and cracked rock with the assumption that squirt-flow is the dominant process. We develop a theoretical approach to calculate both high (HF) and low (LF) frequency bulk and shear moduli. The HF moduli are derived from a new effective medium model, called CPEM, with an isotropic distribution of pores or cracks with idealized geometry, respectively spheres and ellipsoids. LF moduli are obtained by taking HF dry moduli from the CPEM and substituting into Gassmann's equations. In the case of a porosity only supported by equant pores, the calculated dispersion in elastic moduli is equal to zero. In the case of a crack porosity, no bulk dispersion is predicted but a shear dispersion appears. Finally in the general case of a mixed porosity (pores and cracks), dispersion in bulk and in shear is predicted. Our results show that the maximum dispersion is predicted for a mixture of pores and spheroidal cracks with a very small aspect ratio (≤ 10 - 3 ). Our theoretical predictions are compared to experimental data obtained during hydrostatic experiment performed on a basaltic rock and a good agreement is observed. We also used our theoretical model to predict elastic waves velocities and Vp/Vs ratio dispersion. We show that the P-waves dispersion can reach almost 20% and the Vp/Vs dispersion a maximum value of 9% for a crack porosity of about 1%. Since laboratory data are ultrasonic measurements and field data are obtained at much lower frequencies, these results are useful for geophysicists to interpret seismic data in terms of fluid and rock interactions.

  10. Porous Shape Memory Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Hearon, Keith; Singhal, Pooja; Horn, John; Small, Ward; Olsovsky, Cory; Maitland, Kristen C.; Wilson, Thomas S.; Maitland, Duncan J.

    2013-01-01

    Porous shape memory polymers (SMPs) include foams, scaffolds, meshes, and other polymeric substrates that possess porous three-dimensional macrostructures. Porous SMPs exhibit active structural and volumetric transformations and have driven investigations in fields ranging from biomedical engineering to aerospace engineering to the clothing industry. The present review article examines recent developments in porous SMPs, with focus given to structural and chemical classification, methods of characterization, and applications. We conclude that the current body of literature presents porous SMPs as highly interesting smart materials with potential for industrial use. PMID:23646038

  11. Tailored Porous Materials

    SciTech Connect

    BARTON,THOMAS J.; BULL,LUCY M.; KLEMPERER,WALTER G.; LOY,DOUGLAS A.; MCENANEY,BRIAN; MISONO,MAKOTO; MONSON,PETER A.; PEZ,GUIDO; SCHERER,GEORGE W.; VARTULI,JAMES C.; YAGHI,OMAR M.

    1999-11-09

    Tailoring of porous materials involves not only chemical synthetic techniques for tailoring microscopic properties such as pore size, pore shape, pore connectivity, and pore surface reactivity, but also materials processing techniques for tailoring the meso- and the macroscopic properties of bulk materials in the form of fibers, thin films and monoliths. These issues are addressed in the context of five specific classes of porous materials: oxide molecular sieves, porous coordination solids, porous carbons, sol-gel derived oxides, and porous heteropolyanion salts. Reviews of these specific areas are preceded by a presentation of background material and review of current theoretical approaches to adsorption phenomena. A concluding section outlines current research needs and opportunities.

  12. A three-phase homogeneous model for porous electrodes in molten-carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Prins-Jansen, J.A.; Hemmes, K.; Wit, J.H.W. de; Fehribach, J.D.

    1996-05-01

    In this paper a new model for porous electrodes in molten-carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) is presented. The model is based on an averaging technique commonly used in porous-media problems. Important disadvantages of the existing agglomerate model caused by geometric assumptions and restrictions are eliminated in this new model. Unlike the agglomerate model, the new model is suitable for studying three-dimensional and anisotropic problems and incorporating the degree of electrolyte fill. Different reaction mechanisms can easily be incorporated. The validity of the new model is checked and compared with the agglomerate model by fitting the two models to ac-impedance spectra recorded from porous MCFC cathodes.

  13. Anisotropic models for compact stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurya, S. K.; Gupta, Y. K.; Ray, Saibal; Dayanandan, Baiju

    2015-05-01

    In the present paper we obtain an anisotropic analog of the Durgapal and Fuloria (Gen Relativ Gravit 17:671, 1985) perfect fluid solution. The methodology consists of contraction of the anisotropic factor with the help of both metric potentials and . Here we consider the same as Durgapal and Fuloria (Gen Relativ Gravit 17:671, 1985) did, whereas is as given by Lake (Phys Rev D 67:104015, 2003). The field equations are solved by the change of dependent variable method. The solutions set mathematically thus obtained are compared with the physical properties of some of the compact stars, strange star as well as white dwarf. It is observed that all the expected physical features are available related to the stellar fluid distribution, which clearly indicates the validity of the model.

  14. Finite-difference modeling of the monopole acoustic logs in a horizontally stratified porous formation.

    PubMed

    Guan, Wei; Hu, Hengshan; He, Xiao

    2009-04-01

    Monopole acoustic logs in a homogeneous fluid-saturated porous formation can be simulated by the real-axis integration (RAI) method to analytically solve Biot's equations [(1956a) J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 28, 168-178; (1956b) J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 28, 179-191; (1962) J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1482-1498], which govern the wave propagation in poro-elastic media. Such analytical solution generally is impossible for horizontally stratified formations which are common in reality. In this paper, a velocity-stress finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm is proposed to solve the problem. This algorithm considers both the low-frequency viscous force and the high-frequency inertial force in poro-elastic media, extending its application to a wider frequency range compared to existing algorithms which are only valid in the low-frequency limit. The perfectly matched layer (PML) is applied as an absorbing boundary condition to truncate the computational region. A PML technique without splitting the fields is extended to the poro-elastic wave problem. The FDTD algorithm is validated by comparisons against the RAI method in a variety of formations with different velocities and permeabilities. The acoustic logs in a horizontally stratified porous formation are simulated with the proposed FDTD algorithm. PMID:19354370

  15. Natural convection heat transfer from a horizontal wavy surface in a porous enclosure

    SciTech Connect

    Murthy, P.V.S.N.; Kumar, B.V.R.; Singh, P.

    1997-02-07

    The effect of surface undulations on the natural convection heat transfer from an isothermal surface in a Darcian fluid-saturated porous enclosure has been numerically analyzed using the finite element method on a graded nonuniform mesh system. The flow-driving Rayleigh number Ra together with the geometrical parameters of wave amplitude a, wave phase {phi}, and the number of waves N considered in the horizontal dimension of the cavity are found to influence the flow and heat transfer process in the enclosure. For Ra around 50 and above, the phenomenon of flow separation and reattachment is noticed on the walls of the enclosure. A periodic shift in the reattachment point from the bottom wall to the adjacent walls in the clockwise direction, leading to the manifestation of cycles of unicellular and bicellular clockwise and counterclockwise flows, is observed, with the phase varying between 0{degree} and 350{degree}. The counterflow in the secondary circulation zone is intensified with the increase in the value of Ra. The counterflow on the wavy wall hinders the heat transfer into the system. An increase in either wave amplitude or the number of waves considered per unit length decreases the global heat flux into the system. Only marginal changes in global heat flux are noticed with increasing Ra. On the whole, the comparison of global heat flux results in the wavy wall case with those of the horizontal flat wall case shows that, in a porous enclosure, the wavy wall reduces the heat transfer into the system.

  16. BISQ model based on a Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic frame in a partially saturated porous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Jian-Xin; Ba, Jing; Yang, Ding-Hui; Yan, Xin-Fei; Yuan, Zhen-Yu; Qiao, Hai-Peng

    2012-06-01

    Taking into account three important porous media mechanisms during wave propagation (the Biot-flow, squirt-flow, and solid-skeleton viscoelastic mechanisms), we introduce water saturation into the dynamic governing equations of wave propagation by analyzing the effective medium theory and then providing a viscoelastic Biot/squirt (BISQ) model which can analyze the wave propagation problems in a partially viscous pore fluid saturated porous media. In this model, the effects of pore fluid distribution patterns on the effective bulk modulus at different frequencies are considered. Then we derive the wave dynamic equations in the time-space domain. The phase velocity and the attenuation coefficient equations of the viscoelatic BISQ model in the frequency-wavenumber domain are deduced through a set of plane harmonic solution assumptions. Finally, by means of numerical simulations, we investigate the effects of water saturation, permeability, and frequency on compressional wave velocity and attenuation. Based on tight sandstone and carbonate experimental observed data, the compressional wave velocities of partially saturated reservoir rocks are calculated. The compressional wave velocity in carbonate reservoirs is more sensitive to gas saturation than in sandstone reservoirs.

  17. TOPICAL REVIEW: Textured silicon nitride: processing and anisotropic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xinwen; Sakka, Yoshio

    2008-07-01

    Textured silicon nitride (Si3N4) has been intensively studied over the past 15 years because of its use for achieving its superthermal and mechanical properties. In this review we present the fundamental aspects of the processing and anisotropic properties of textured Si3N4, with emphasis on the anisotropic and abnormal grain growth of β-Si3N4, texture structure and texture analysis, processing methods and anisotropic properties. On the basis of the texturing mechanisms, the processing methods described in this article have been classified into two types: hot-working (HW) and templated grain growth (TGG). The HW method includes the hot-pressing, hot-forging and sinter-forging techniques, and the TGG method includes the cold-pressing, extrusion, tape-casting and strong magnetic field alignment techniques for β-Si3N4 seed crystals. Each processing technique is thoroughly discussed in terms of theoretical models and experimental data, including the texturing mechanisms and the factors affecting texture development. Also, methods of synthesizing the rodlike β-Si3N4 single crystals are presented. Various anisotropic properties of textured Si3 N4 and their origins are thoroughly described and discussed, such as hardness, elastic modulus, bending strength, fracture toughness, fracture energy, creep behavior, tribological and wear behavior, erosion behavior, contact damage behavior and thermal conductivity. Models are analyzed to determine the thermal anisotropy by considering the intrinsic thermal anisotropy, degree of orientation and various microstructure factors. Textured porous Si3N4 with a unique microstructure composed of oriented elongated β-Si3N4 and anisotropic pores is also described for the first time, with emphasis on its unique mechanical and thermal-mechanical properties. Moreover, as an important related material, textured α-Sialon is also reviewed, because the presence of elongated α-Sialon grains allows the production of textured α-Sialon using the

  18. Field determination of the three-dimensional hydraulic conductivity tensor of anisotropic media 2. Methodology and application to fractured rocks.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hsieh, P.A.; Neuman, S.P.; Stiles, G.K.; Simpson, E.S.

    1985-01-01

    The analytical solutions developed in the first paper can be used to interpret the results of cross-hole tests conducted in anisotropic porous or fractured media. Test results from a granitic rock near Oracle in southern Arizona are presented to illustrate how the method works for fractured rocks. At the site, the Oracle granite is shown to respond as a near-uniform, anisotropic medium, the hydraulic conductivity of which is strongly controlled by the orientations of major fracture sets. The cross-hole test results are shown to be consistent with the results of more than 100 single- hole packer tests conducted at the site. -from Authors

  19. Anomalous optical forces on radially anisotropic nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. L.; Gao, L.

    2015-11-01

    Full-wave electromagnetic scattering theory and Maxwell stress tensor integration techniques have been established to study the optical force on the radially anisotropic nanowires. The optical forces on the isotropic nanowires are dependent on the size of the nanowire and the wave vector in the media with the Rayleigh's law. However, the optical forces on the anisotropic nanowires have the anomalous behaviors under non-Rayleigh vanishing condition and non-Rayleigh diverging condition. Therefore, the optical forces on the anisotropic nanowires may be enhanced or reduced by tuning the anisotropic parameters. These results may promote the potential applications in the field of nanotechnology.

  20. Remarks on inhomogeneous anisotropic cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Ali

    2016-08-01

    Recently a new no-global-recollapse argument was given for some inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies that utilizes surface deformation by the mean curvature flow. In this paper we discuss important properties of the mean curvature flow of spacelike surfaces in Lorentzian manifolds. We show that singularities may form during cosmic evolution, and the theorems forbidding the global recollapse lose their validity. The time evolution of the spatial scalar curvature that may kinematically prevent the recollapse is determined in normal coordinates, which shows the impact of inhomogeneities explicitly. Our analysis indicates a caveat in numerical solutions that give rise to inflation.

  1. Tunneling spectroscopy of anisotropic superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Kashiwaya, Satoshi; Koyanagi, Masao; Kajimura, Koji; Tanaka, Yukio

    1996-12-31

    Tunneling spectroscopy of normal-insulator-superconductor junction is investigated theoretically. In anisotropic superconductors, differently from the case of isotropic superconductor, the effective pair potentials felt by quasiparticles depend on the direction of their motion. By taking this effect into account, it is shown that the conductance spectra strongly depend on the crystal orientation. Using Green`s function method, local density of states (LDOS) in superconductor is also calculated. The close relation between conductance spectra and LDOS is presented. The calculation is compared with experimental spectra of high-{Tc} superconductors.

  2. Spin precession in anisotropic cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamenshchik, A. Yu.; Teryaev, O. V.

    2016-05-01

    We consider the precession of a Dirac particle spin in some anisotropic Bianchi universes. This effect is present already in the Bianchi-I universe. We discuss in some detail the geodesics and the spin precession for both the Kasner and the Heckmann-Schucking solutions. In the Bianchi-IX universe the spin precession acquires the chaotic character due to the stochasticity of the oscillatory approach to the cosmological singularity. The related helicity flip of fermions in the very early universe may produce the sterile particles contributing to dark matter.

  3. Granular Segregation with Anisotropic Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykes, Tim

    2005-11-01

    The results from experimental investigations of horizontally vibrated mixtures of anisotropic poppy seeds and long chains of linked spheres will be presented. A critical packing fraction was observed to be required to initiate a transition to segregation. The average size of the resulting patterns was measured and the concentration ratio of the mixtures was varied by changing the number of chains present in the mixtures. A change in the order of the transition, from second to first order with associated hysteresis, was observed as the chain number was reduced. This gave rise to three distinct regions of behaviour: segregated, mixed and a bi-stable state.

  4. New charged anisotropic compact models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kileba Matondo, D.; Maharaj, S. D.

    2016-07-01

    We find new exact solutions to the Einstein-Maxwell field equations which are relevant in the description of highly compact stellar objects. The relativistic star is charged and anisotropic with a quark equation of state. Exact solutions of the field equations are found in terms of elementary functions. It is interesting to note that we regain earlier quark models with uncharged and charged matter distributions. A physical analysis indicates that the matter distributions are well behaved and regular throughout the stellar structure. A range of stellar masses are generated for particular parameter values in the electric field. In particular the observed mass for a binary pulsar is regained.

  5. Anisotropic fractional diffusion tensor imaging

    PubMed Central

    Meerschaert, Mark M; Magin, Richard L; Ye, Allen Q

    2015-01-01

    Traditional diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) maps brain structure by fitting a diffusion model to the magnitude of the electrical signal acquired in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fractional DTI employs anomalous diffusion models to obtain a better fit to real MRI data, which can exhibit anomalous diffusion in both time and space. In this paper, we describe the challenge of developing and employing anisotropic fractional diffusion models for DTI. Since anisotropy is clearly present in the three-dimensional MRI signal response, such models hold great promise for improving brain imaging. We then propose some candidate models, based on stochastic theory.

  6. Planetary spectra for anisotropic scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    Some of the effects on planetary spectra that would be produced by departures from isotropic scattering are examined. The phase function is the simplest departure to handle analytically and the only phase function, other than the isotropic one, that can be incorporated into a Chandrasekhar first approximation. This approach has the advantage of illustrating trends resulting from anisotropies while retaining the simplicity that yields physical insight. An algebraic solution to the two sets of anisotropic H functions is developed in the appendix. It is readily adaptable to progammable desk calculators and gives emergent intensities accurate to 0.3 percent, which is sufficient even for spectroscopic analysis.

  7. Ventilation of porous media

    DOEpatents

    Neeper, Donald A.

    1994-01-01

    Methods for distributing gases throughout the interstices of porous materials and removing volatile substances from the interstices of porous materials. Continuous oscillation of pressures and flows results in increased penetration of the interstices by flowing gases and increased transport of gaseous components out of the interstices. The invention is particularly useful in soil vapor extraction.

  8. Ventilation of porous media

    DOEpatents

    Neeper, D.A.

    1994-02-22

    Methods are presented for distributing gases throughout the interstices of porous materials and removing volatile substances from the interstices of porous materials. Continuous oscillation of pressures and flows results in increased penetration of the interstices by flowing gases and increased transport of gaseous components out of the interstices. The invention is particularly useful in soil vapor extraction. 10 figures.

  9. Porous silicon gettering

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Menna, P.; Al-Jassim, M.

    1995-08-01

    We have studied a novel extrinsic gettering method that utilizes the very large surface areas, produced by porous silicon etch on both front and back surfaces of the silicon wafer, as gettering sites. In this method, a simple and low-cost chemical etching is used to generate the porous silicon layers. Then, a high-flux solar furnace (HFSF) is used to provide high-temperature annealing and the required injection of silicon interstitials. The gettering sites, along with the gettered impurities, can be easily removed at the end the process. The porous silicon removal process consists of oxidizing the porous silicon near the end the gettering process followed by sample immersion in HF acid. Each porous silicon gettering process removes up to about 10 {mu}m of wafer thickness. This gettering process can be repeated so that the desired purity level is obtained.

  10. Postbuckling of laminated anisotropic panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeffrey, Glenda L.

    1987-01-01

    A two-part study of the buckling and postbuckling of laminated anisotropic plates with bending-extensional coupling is presented. The first part involves the development and application of a modified Rayleigh-Ritz analysis technique. Modifications made to the classical technique can be grouped into three areas. First, known symmetries of anisotropic panels are exploited in the selection of approximation functions. Second, a reduced basis technique based on these same symmetries is applied in the linear range. Finally, geometric boundary conditions are enforced via an exterior penalty function approach, rather than relying on choice of approximation functions to satisfy these boundary conditions. Numerical results are presented for both the linear and nonlinear range, with additional studies made to determine the effect of variation in penalty parameter and number of basis vectors. In the second part, six panels possessing anisotropy and bending-extensional coupling are tested. Detailed comparisons are made between experiment and finite element results in order to gain insight into the postbuckling and failure characteristics of such panels. The panels are constructed using two different lamination sequences, and panels with three different aspect ratios were constructed for each lamination sequence.

  11. Cryogenic microwave anisotropic artificial materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trang, Frank

    This thesis addresses analysis and design of a cryogenic microwave anisotropic wave guiding structure that isolates an antenna from external incident fields from specific directions. The focus of this research is to design and optimize the radome's constituent material parameters for maximizing the isolation between an interior receiver antenna and an exterior transmitter without significantly disturbing the transmitter antenna far field characteristics. The design, characterization, and optimization of high-temperature superconducting metamaterials constitutive parameters are developed in this work at X-band frequencies. A calibrated characterization method for testing arrays of split-ring resonators at cryogenic temperature inside a TE10 waveguide was developed and used to back-out anisotropic equivalent material parameters. The artificial material elements (YBCO split-ring resonators on MgO substrate) are optimized to improve the narrowband performance of the metamaterial radome with respect to maximizing isolation and minimizing shadowing, defined as a reduction of the transmitted power external to the radome. The optimized radome is fabricated and characterized in a parallel plate waveguide in a cryogenic environment to demonstrate the degree of isolation and shadowing resulting from its presence. At 11.12 GHz, measurements show that the HTS metamaterial radome achieved an isolation of 10.5 dB and the external power at 100 mm behind the radome is reduced by 1.9 dB. This work demonstrates the feasibility of fabricating a structure that provides good isolation between two antennas and low disturbance of the transmitter's fields.

  12. Electromagnetism on anisotropic fractal media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Basic equations of electromagnetic fields in anisotropic fractal media are obtained using a dimensional regularization approach. First, a formulation based on product measures is shown to satisfy the four basic identities of the vector calculus. This allows a generalization of the Green-Gauss and Stokes theorems as well as the charge conservation equation on anisotropic fractals. Then, pursuing the conceptual approach, we derive the Faraday and Ampère laws for such fractal media, which, along with two auxiliary null-divergence conditions, effectively give the modified Maxwell equations. Proceeding on a separate track, we employ a variational principle for electromagnetic fields, appropriately adapted to fractal media, so as to independently derive the same forms of these two laws. It is next found that the parabolic (for a conducting medium) and the hyperbolic (for a dielectric medium) equations involve modified gradient operators, while the Poynting vector has the same form as in the non-fractal case. Finally, Maxwell's electromagnetic stress tensor is reformulated for fractal systems. In all the cases, the derived equations for fractal media depend explicitly on fractal dimensions in three different directions and reduce to conventional forms for continuous media with Euclidean geometries upon setting these each of dimensions equal to unity.

  13. ELECTROKINETIC WAVE PHENOMENA IN FLUID-SATURATED GRANULAR MEDIA

    SciTech Connect

    Block, G

    2005-03-29

    Electrokinetic (EK) phenomena in sediments arise from relative fluid motion in the pore space, which perturbs the electrostatic equilibrium of the double layer at the grain surface. We have developed EK techniques in the laboratory to monitor acoustic wave propagation in electrolyte-saturated, unconsolidated sediments. Our experimental results indicate that as an acoustic wave travels through electrolyte-saturated sand, it can generate electric potentials greater than 1 mV. A careful study of these potentials was performed using medium-grain sand and loose glass microspheres for a range of pore fluid salinities and ultrasonic frequencies. Experimental results are also shown to compare well with numerical and analytical modeling based on the coupled electrokinetic-Biot theory developed by Pride (1994).

  14. Seismic attenuation: Laboratory measurements in fluid saturated rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramaniyan, Shankar; Madonna, Claudio; Tisato, Nicola; Saenger, Erik; Quintal, Beatriz

    2014-05-01

    Seismic wave attenuation could be used as an indicator of reservoir fluids due to its dependence on rock and fluid properties. Over the past 30 years, many laboratory methodologies to study attenuation in rocks have been employed, such as ultrasonic (MHz), resonant bar (kHz) and forced oscillation methods in the low frequency range (0.01-100Hz) (Tisato & Madonna 2012; Madonna & Tisato 2013). Forced oscillation methods have gained prominence over time as the frequency range of measurements correspond to that of field seismic data acquired for oil/gas exploration. These experiments measure attenuation as the phase shift between the applied stress (sinusoidal) and measured strain. Since the magnitudes of measured phase shifts are quite low (Q-1 ~0.01-0.1) and the amplitudes of strain applied to the rock samples are of the order ~10-6 (i.e., similar orders of magnitude to seismic waves), it is challenging. A comparison of such forced oscillation setups will be presented to provide an overview of the various possibilities of design and implementation for future setups. In general, there is a lack of laboratory data and most of the published data are for sandstones. Currently, attenuation measurements are being carried out on carbonate and sandstone samples. We employ the Seismic Wave Attenuation Module (SWAM, Madonna & Tisato 2013) to measure seismic attenuation in these samples for different saturation degrees (90% and 100% water) and under three different confining pressures (5, 10 and 15MPa). Preliminary results from these investigations will be discussed. REFERENCES Madonna, C. & Tisato, N. 2013: A new seismic wave attenuation module to experimentally measure low-frequency attenuation in extensional mode. Geophysical Prospecting, doi: 10.1111/1365-2478.12015. Tisato, N. & Madonna, C. 2012: Attenuation at low seismic frequencies in partially saturated rocks: Measurements and description of a new apparatus. Journal of Applied Geophysics, 86, 44-53.

  15. Discrimination of porosity and fluid saturation using seismic velocity analysis

    DOEpatents

    Berryman, James G.

    2001-01-01

    The method of the invention is employed for determining the state of saturation in a subterranean formation using only seismic velocity measurements (e.g., shear and compressional wave velocity data). Seismic velocity data collected from a region of the formation of like solid material properties can provide relatively accurate partial saturation data derived from a well-defined triangle plotted in a (.rho./.mu., .lambda./.mu.)-plane. When the seismic velocity data are collected over a large region of a formation having both like and unlike materials, the method first distinguishes the like materials by initially plotting the seismic velocity data in a (.rho./.lambda., .mu./.lambda.)-plane to determine regions of the formation having like solid material properties and porosity.

  16. Solidus of carbonated fertile peridotite under fluid-saturated conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Falloon, T.J.; Green, D.H. )

    1990-03-01

    The solidus for a fertile peridotite composition (Hawaiian pyrolite) in the presence of a CO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O fluid phase has been determined from 10 to 35 kbar. The intersection of the decarbonation reaction (olivine + diopside + CO{sub 2} {l reversible} orthopyroxene + dolomite) with the pyrolite solidus defines the point Q{prime}, located at 22 kbar and 940 C. At pressures less than Q{prime}, the solidus passes through a temperature maximum at kbar, 1060 C. The solidus is coincident with amphibole breakdown at pressures less than 16 kbar. At pressures above Q{prime}, the solidus is defined by the dissolution of crystalline carbonate into a sodic, dolomitic carbonatite melt. The solidus is at a temperature of 925 C at {approximately} 28 kbar. The solidus temperature above the point Q{prime} is similar to the solidus determined for Hawaiian pyrolite-H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2} for small contents of H{sub 2}O (<0.3 wt%) and CO{sub 2} (<5 wt%), thus indicating that the primary sodic dolomitic carbonatite melt at both solidi has a very low and limited H{sub 2}O solubility. The new data clarify the roles of carbonatite melt, carbonated silicate melt, and H{sub 2}O-rich fluid in mantle conditions that are relatively oxidized (f{sub O{sub 2}} {approximately} MW to FMQ). In particular, a carbonatite melt + garnet lherzolite region is intersected by continental shield geothermal gradients, but such geotherms only intersect regions with carbonated silicate melt if perturbed to higher temperatures (kinked geotherm).

  17. Effects of anisotropic dynamics on cosmic strings

    SciTech Connect

    Kunze, Kerstin E.

    2011-08-01

    The dynamics of cosmic strings is considered in anisotropic backgrounds. In particular, the behaviour of infinitely long straight cosmic strings and of cosmic string loops is determined. Small perturbations of a straight cosmic string are calculated. The relevance of these results is discussed with respect to the possible observational imprints of an anisotropic phase on the behaviour of a cosmic string network.

  18. 2-D solution for drying with internal vaporization of anisotropic media

    SciTech Connect

    Perre, P.; Passard, J.

    1999-01-01

    A set of physical assumptions for a straightforward and efficient simulation of the drying of a porous medium submitted to a convective and/or radiative heating is proposed. All of the parameters used are physical (liquid migration coefficient, permeability values along the thickness and the length, thermal conductivity, and external changes), but the relevant geometrical properties (length and thickness of the slab) were also included in the analysis. The 2-D pressure field generated within the medium during the drying process is obtained by using an analytical expression. The treatment of the pressure field, especially for a strongly anisotropic medium, is an important feature of the model, which allows an analytical model for such a complicated porous medium as wood to be used across a wide range of drying conditions. The computer code developed from the proposed formulation permits a complete simulation of the drying process within a few seconds on a personal computer. Different configurations have been tested for both anisotropic (wood) and isotropic (light concrete) porous media. Agreement with the experimental results is reasonable in terms of the observed physical phenomena. For instance, the model highlights dependence of the duration of the first drying rate on both material properties and drying conditions. This new model can be used for a global physical characterization of products by curve fitting and the collated information for the design of dryers.

  19. Phonon heat conduction in layered anisotropic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnich, A. J.

    2015-02-01

    The thermal properties of anisotropic crystals are of both fundamental and practical interest, but transport phenomena in anisotropic materials such as graphite remain poorly understood because solutions of the Boltzmann equation often assume isotropy. Here, we extend an analytic solution of the transient, frequency-dependent Boltzmann equation to highly anisotropic solids and examine its predictions for graphite. We show that this simple model predicts key results, such as long c -axis phonon mean free paths and a negative correlation of cross-plane thermal conductivity with in-plane group velocity, that were previously observed with computationally expensive molecular-dynamics simulations. Further, using our analytic solution, we demonstrate a method to reconstruct the anisotropic mean free path spectrum of crystals with arbitrary dispersion relations without any prior knowledge of their harmonic or anharmonic properties using observations of quasiballistic heat conduction. These results provide a useful analytic framework to understand thermal transport in anisotropic crystals.

  20. Designing anisotropic inflation with form fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Asuka; Soda, Jiro

    2015-12-01

    We study inflation with anisotropic hair induced by form fields. In four dimensions, the relevant form fields are gauge (one-form) fields and two-form fields. Assuming the exponential form of potential and gauge kinetic functions, we find new exact power-law solutions endowed with anisotropic hair. We also explore the phase space of anisotropic inflation and find fixed points corresponding to the exact power-law solutions. Moreover, we perform the stability analysis around the fixed points to reveal the structure of the phase space. It turns out that one of the fixed points becomes an attractor and others (if any) are saddle points. In particular, the one corresponding to anisotropic inflation becomes an attractor when it exists. We also argue that various anisotropic inflation models can be designed by choosing coupling constants.

  1. Fabricating porous silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shor, Joseph S. (Inventor); Kurtz, Anthony D. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The formation of porous SiC occurs under electrochemical anodization. A sample of SiC is contacted electrically with nickel and placed into an electrochemical cell which cell includes a counter electrode and a reference electrode. The sample is encapsulated so that only a bare semiconductor surface is exposed. The electrochemical cell is filled with an HF electrolyte which dissolves the SiC electrochemically. A potential is applied to the semiconductor and UV light illuminates the surface of the semiconductor. By controlling the light intensity, the potential and the doping level, a porous layer is formed in the semiconductor and thus one produces porous SiC.

  2. Spatially anisotropic Heisenberg kagome antiferromagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, W.; Yavors'kii, T.; Everts, H.-U.

    2007-04-01

    In the search for spin-1/2 kagome antiferromagnets, the mineral volborthite has recently been the subject of experimental studies (Hiroi et al 2001 J. Phys. Soc. Japan 70 3377; Fukaya et al 2003 Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 207603; Bert et al 2004 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 16 S829; Bert et al 2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 087203). It has been suggested that the magnetic properties of this material are described by a spin-1/2 Heisenberg model on the kagome lattice with spatially anisotropic exchange couplings. We report on investigations of the {\\mathrm {Sp}}(\\mathcal {N}) symmetric generalization of this model in the large \\mathcal {N} limit. We obtain a detailed description of the dependence of possible ground states on the anisotropy and on the spin length S. A fairly rich phase diagram with a ferrimagnetic phase, incommensurate phases with and without long-range order and a decoupled chain phase emerges.

  3. Anisotropic charged core envelope star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mafa Takisa, P.; Maharaj, S. D.

    2016-08-01

    We study a charged compact object with anisotropic pressures in a core envelope setting. The equation of state is quadratic in the core and linear in the envelope. There is smooth matching between the three regions: the core, envelope and the Reissner-Nordström exterior. We show that the presence of the electric field affects the masses, radii and compactification factors of stellar objects with values which are in agreement with previous studies. We investigate in particular the effect of electric field on the physical features of the pulsar PSR J1614-2230 in the core envelope model. The gravitational potentials and the matter variables are well behaved within the stellar object. We demonstrate that the radius of the core and the envelope can vary by changing the parameters in the speed of sound.

  4. Anisotropic scaling of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

    PubMed

    Horbury, Timothy S; Forman, Miriam; Oughton, Sean

    2008-10-24

    We present a quantitative estimate of the anisotropic power and scaling of magnetic field fluctuations in inertial range magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, using a novel wavelet technique applied to spacecraft measurements in the solar wind. We show for the first time that, when the local magnetic field direction is parallel to the flow, the spacecraft-frame spectrum has a spectral index near 2. This can be interpreted as the signature of a population of fluctuations in field-parallel wave numbers with a k(-2)_(||) spectrum but is also consistent with the presence of a "critical balance" style turbulent cascade. We also find, in common with previous studies, that most of the power is contained in wave vectors at large angles to the local magnetic field and that this component of the turbulence has a spectral index of 5/3. PMID:18999759

  5. Anisotropic invariance in minisuperspace models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagoya, Javier; Sabido, Miguel

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we introduce invariance under anisotropic transformations to cosmology. This invariance is one of the key ingredients of the theory of quantum gravity at a Lifshitz point put forward by Hořava. We find that this new symmetry in the minisuperspace introduces characteristics to the model that can be relevant in the ultraviolet regime. For example, by canonical quantization we find a Schrödinger-type equation which avoids the problem of frozen time in quantum cosmology. For simple cases we obtain solutions to this quantum equation in a Kantowski–Sachs (KS) minisuperspace. At the classical level, we study KS and Friedmann–Robertson–Walker cosmologies, obtaining modifications to the solutions of general relativity that can be relevant in the early Universe.

  6. Gravitational baryogenesis after anisotropic inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Mitsuhiro; Mizuno, Shuntaro; Maeda, Kei-ichi

    2016-05-01

    The gravitational baryogensis may not generate a sufficient baryon asymmetry in the standard thermal history of the Universe when we take into account the gravitino problem. Hence, it has been suggested that anisotropy of the Universe can enhance the generation of the baryon asymmetry through the increase of the time change of the Ricci scalar curvature. We study the gravitational baryogenesis in the presence of anisotropy, which is produced at the end of an anisotropic inflation. Although we confirm that the generated baryon asymmetry is enhanced compared with the original isotropic cosmological model, taking into account the constraint on the anisotropy by the recent CMB observations, we find that it is still difficult to obtain the observed baryon asymmetry only through the gravitational baryogenesis without suffering from the gravitino problem.

  7. A patterned anisotropic nanofluidic sieving structure for continuous-flow separation of DNA and proteins

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jianping; Schoch, Reto B.; Stevens, Anna L.; Tannenbaum, Steven R.; Han, Jongyoon

    2008-01-01

    Microfabricated regular sieving structures hold great promise as an alternative to gels to improve biomolecule separation speed and resolution. In contrast to disordered gel porous networks, these regular structures also provide well-defined environments ideal for study of molecular dynamics in confining spaces. However, previous regular sieving structures have been limited for separation of long DNA molecules, and separation of smaller, physiologically-relevant macromolecules, such as proteins, still remains as a challenge. Here we report a microfabricated anisotropic sieving structure consisting of a two-dimensional periodic nanofluidic filter array (Anisotropic Nanofilter Array: ANA). The designed structural anisotropy in the ANA causes different-sized or -charged biomolecules to follow distinct trajectories, leading to efficient separation. Continuous-flow size-based separation of DNA and proteins as well as electrostatic separation of proteins were achieved, thus demonstrating the potential of the ANA as a generic molecular sieving structure for an integrated biomolecule sample preparation and analysis system. PMID:18654231

  8. The Anisotropic Geometrodynamics For Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siparov, Sergey V.

    2009-05-01

    The classical geometrodynamics (GRT) and its modern features based on the use of the Fridman-Robertson-Walker type metrics are still unable to explain several important issues of extragalactic observations like flat rotation curves of the spiral galaxies, Tully-Fisher law, globular clusters behavior in comparisson to that of the stars belonging to the galactic plane etc. The chalenging problem of the Universe expansion acceleration stemming from the supernovae observations demands the existence of the repulsion forces which brings one to the choice between the cosmological constant and some quintessence. The popular objects of discussion are now still dark (matter and energy), nevertheless, they are supposed to correspond to more than 95% of the Universe which seems to be far from satisfactory. According to the equivalence principle we can not experimentally distinguish between the inertial forces and the gravitational ones. Since there exist the inertial forces depending on velocity (Coriolis), it seems plausible to explore the velocity dependent gravitational forces. From the mathematical point of view it means that we should use the anisotropic metric. It immediately turns out that the expression for the Einstein-Hilbert action changes in a natural way - contrary to the cases of f(R)-theories, additional scalar fields, arbitrary MOND functions etc.. We use the linear approximation for the metric and derive the generalized geodesics and the equation for the gravity force that contains not only the Newton-Einstein term. The relation between the obtained results and those of Lense-Thirring approach are discussed. The resulting anisotropic geometrodynamics includes all the results of the GRT and is used to give the explanation to the problems mentioned above. One of the impressive consequences is the possibility to explain the observed Hubble red shift not by the Doppler effect as usually but by the gravitational red shift originating from the metric anisotropy.

  9. Porous Organic Molecular Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Jian; Thallapally, Praveen K.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2012-01-01

    Most nanoporous materials with molecular-scale pores are extended frameworks composed of directional covalent or coordination bonding, such as porous metal-organic frameworks and organic network polymers. By contrast, nanoporous materials comprised of discrete organic molecules, between which there are only weak non-covalent interactions, are seldom encountered. Indeed, most organic molecules pack efficiently in the solid state to minimize the void volume, leading to non-porous materials. In recent years, a significant number of nanoporous organic molecular materials, which may be either crystalline or amorphous, have been confirmed by the studies of gas adsorption and they are surveyed in this Highlight. In addition, the possible advantages of porous organic molecular materials over porous networks are discussed.

  10. Metal filled porous carbon

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Adam F.; Vajo, John J.; Cumberland, Robert W.; Liu, Ping; Salguero, Tina T.

    2011-03-22

    A porous carbon scaffold with a surface and pores, the porous carbon scaffold containing a primary metal and a secondary metal, where the primary metal is a metal that does not wet the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold but wets the surface of the secondary metal, and the secondary metal is interspersed between the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold and the primary metal.

  11. Porous airfoil and process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwich, Peter M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A porous airfoil having venting cavities with contoured barrier walls, formed by a core piece, placed beneath a porous upper and lower surface area that stretches over the nominal chord of an airfoil is employed, to provide an airfoil configuration that becomes self-adaptive to very dissimilar flow conditions to thereby improve the lift and drag characteristics of the airfoil at both subcritical and supercritical conditions.

  12. Anisotropic optical film embedded with cellulose nanowhisker.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dah Hee; Song, Young Seok

    2015-10-01

    We investigated anisotropic optical behaviors of composite films embedded with CNWs. To control the orientation of CNWs, elongation was applied to the composite film. Morphological and mechanical analyses of the specimens were carried out to examine the influence of the applied extension. The CNWs were found to be aligned in the elongated direction, yielding remarkable anisotropic microstructure and optical properties. As the applied elongation and CNW loading increased, the resulting degree of polarization and birefringence increased due to increased interactions between the embedded particles. This study suggests a way to prepare an anisotropic optical component with nanoparticles of which the microstructures, such as orientation and filler content, can be controlled. PMID:26076646

  13. Finite-volume scheme for anisotropic diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Es, Bram; Koren, Barry; de Blank, Hugo J.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we apply a special finite-volume scheme, limited to smooth temperature distributions and Cartesian grids, to test the importance of connectivity of the finite volumes. The area of application is nuclear fusion plasma with field line aligned temperature gradients and extreme anisotropy. We apply the scheme to the anisotropic heat-conduction equation, and compare its results with those of existing finite-volume schemes for anisotropic diffusion. Also, we introduce a general model adaptation of the steady diffusion equation for extremely anisotropic diffusion problems with closed field lines.

  14. Can cosmic parallax distinguish between anisotropic cosmologies?

    SciTech Connect

    Fontanini, Michele; West, Eric J.; Trodden, Mark

    2009-12-15

    In an anisotropic universe, observers not positioned at a point of special symmetry should observe cosmic parallax--the relative angular motion of test galaxies over cosmic time. It was recently argued that the nonobservance of this effect in upcoming precision astrometry missions such as GAIA may be used to place strong bounds on the position of off-center observers in a void-model universe described by the Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi metric. We consider the analogous effect in anisotropic cosmological models described by an axisymmetric homogeneous Bianchi type I metric and discuss whether any observation of cosmic parallax would distinguish between different anisotropic evolutions.

  15. Three-dimensional fluid pressure mapping in porous media using magnetic resonance imaging with gas-filled liposomes.

    PubMed

    Morris, Robert H; Bencsik, Martin; Vangala, Anil K; Perrie, Yvonne

    2007-05-01

    This paper presents and demonstrates a method for using magnetic resonance imaging to measure local pressure of a fluid saturating a porous medium. The method is tested both in a static system of packed silica gel and in saturated sintered glass cylinders experiencing fluid flow. The fluid used contains 3% gas in the form of 3-mum average diameter gas filled 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (C18:0, MW: 790.16) liposomes suspended in 5% glycerol and 0.5% Methyl cellulose with water. Preliminary studies at 2.35 T demonstrate relative magnetic resonance signal changes of 20% per bar in bulk fluid for an echo time T(E)=40 ms, and 6-10% in consolidated porous media for T(E)=10 ms, over the range 0.8-1.8 bar for a spatial resolution of 0.1 mm(3) and a temporal resolution of 30 s. The stability of this solution with relation to applied pressure and methods for improving sensitivity are discussed. PMID:17466775

  16. Gaseous NH3 Confers Porous Pt Nanodendrites Assisted by Halides.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shuanglong; Eid, Kamel; Li, Weifeng; Cao, Xueqin; Pan, Yue; Guo, Jun; Wang, Liang; Wang, Hongjing; Gu, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    Tailoring the morphology of Pt nanocrystals (NCs) is of great concern for their enhancement in catalytic activity and durability. In this article, a novel synthetic strategy is developed to selectively prepare porous dendritic Pt NCs with different structures for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) assisted by NH3 gas and halides (F(-), Cl(-), Br(-)). The NH3 gas plays critical roles on tuning the morphology. Previously, H2 and CO gas are reported to assist the shape control of metallic nanocrystals. This is the first demonstration that NH3 gas assists the Pt anisotropic growth. The halides also play important role in the synthetic strategy to regulate the formation of Pt NCs. As-made porous dendritic Pt NCs, especially when NH4F is used as a regulating reagent, show superior catalytic activity for ORR compared with commercial Pt/C catalyst and other previously reported Pt-based NCs. PMID:27184228

  17. Gaseous NH3 Confers Porous Pt Nanodendrites Assisted by Halides

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shuanglong; Eid, Kamel; Li, Weifeng; Cao, Xueqin; Pan, Yue; Guo, Jun; Wang, Liang; Wang, Hongjing; Gu, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    Tailoring the morphology of Pt nanocrystals (NCs) is of great concern for their enhancement in catalytic activity and durability. In this article, a novel synthetic strategy is developed to selectively prepare porous dendritic Pt NCs with different structures for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) assisted by NH3 gas and halides (F−, Cl−, Br−). The NH3 gas plays critical roles on tuning the morphology. Previously, H2 and CO gas are reported to assist the shape control of metallic nanocrystals. This is the first demonstration that NH3 gas assists the Pt anisotropic growth. The halides also play important role in the synthetic strategy to regulate the formation of Pt NCs. As-made porous dendritic Pt NCs, especially when NH4F is used as a regulating reagent, show superior catalytic activity for ORR compared with commercial Pt/C catalyst and other previously reported Pt-based NCs. PMID:27184228

  18. Gaseous NH3 Confers Porous Pt Nanodendrites Assisted by Halides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Shuanglong; Eid, Kamel; Li, Weifeng; Cao, Xueqin; Pan, Yue; Guo, Jun; Wang, Liang; Wang, Hongjing; Gu, Hongwei

    2016-05-01

    Tailoring the morphology of Pt nanocrystals (NCs) is of great concern for their enhancement in catalytic activity and durability. In this article, a novel synthetic strategy is developed to selectively prepare porous dendritic Pt NCs with different structures for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) assisted by NH3 gas and halides (F‑, Cl‑, Br‑). The NH3 gas plays critical roles on tuning the morphology. Previously, H2 and CO gas are reported to assist the shape control of metallic nanocrystals. This is the first demonstration that NH3 gas assists the Pt anisotropic growth. The halides also play important role in the synthetic strategy to regulate the formation of Pt NCs. As-made porous dendritic Pt NCs, especially when NH4F is used as a regulating reagent, show superior catalytic activity for ORR compared with commercial Pt/C catalyst and other previously reported Pt-based NCs.

  19. Dilution and reactive mixing in three-dimensional helical flows in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiogna, Gabriele; Ye, Yu; Grathwohl, Peter; Cirpka, Olaf A.; Rolle, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    Dilution under steady-state flow and transport conditions in porous media occurs primarily by lateral mass exchange at the fringe of solute plumes. This process controls the fate and transport of scalars in groundwater and in chemical reactors and it is fundamental for the understanding of many reactive processes. Three-dimensional flow fields can be characterized by a complex topological structure, which may greatly influence dilution and dilution enhancement of dissolved plumes, which is quantified by the exponential of the Shannon entropy [1]. In previous works, we identified the necessary conditions to obtain helical flow fields in non-stationary anisotropic heterogeneous porous media [2, 3]. To prove our theoretical findings, we perform steady-state bench-scale experiments with a conservative tracer and we provide a model-based investigation of the results [4]. The relevance of transverse mixing enhancement for the case of reactive solute transport is computed numerically using, as metrics of mixing, the length of a reactive plume undergoing an instantaneous complete bimolecular reaction and its critical dilution index. [1] Cirpka O.A., Chiogna G., Rolle M. and A. Bellin (2015). Transverse mixing in three-dimensional non-stationary anisotropic heterogeneous porous media. Water Resources Research, 51, DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015331. [2] Chiogna G., Cirpka O.A., Rolle M. and A. Bellin (2015). Helical flow streamlines in three-dimensional nonstationary anisotropic heterogeneous porous media. Water Resources Research, 51, DOI:10.1002/2014WR015330. [3] Chiogna G., Rolle M., Bellin A. and O.A. Cirpka (2014). Helicity and flow topology in three dimensional porous media. Advances in Water Resources, 73, 134-143, DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2014.06.017. [4] Ye Y., Chiogna G., Cirpka O.A., Grathwohl P., and M. Rolle (2015). Experimental evidence of helical flow in porous media. Phys. Rev. Lett., 115, 194502, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.194502

  20. A dynamic pressure view cell for acoustic stimulation of fluids—Micro-bubble generation and fluid movement in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Robert A.; Shaw, J. M.

    2015-09-01

    The development and baseline operation of an acoustic view cell for observing fluids, and fluid-fluid and fluid-solid interfaces in porous media over the frequency range of 10-5000 Hz is described. This range includes the industrially relevant frequency range 500-5000 Hz that is not covered by existing devices. Pressure waveforms of arbitrary shape are generated in a 17.46 mm ID by 200 mm and 690.5 mm long glass tubes at flow rates up to 200 ml/min using a syringe pump. Peak-to-peak amplitudes exceeding 80 kPa are readily realized at frequencies from 10 to 5000 Hz in bubble free fluids when actuated with 20 Vpp as exemplified using castor oil. At resonant frequencies, peak-to-peak pressure amplitudes exceeding 500 kPa were obtained (castor oil at 2100 Hz when actuated with 20 Vpp). Impacts of vibration on macroscopic liquid-liquid and liquid-vapour interfaces and interface movement are illustrated. Pressure wave transmission and attenuation in a fluid saturated porous medium, randomly packed 250-330 μm spherical silica beads, is also demonstrated. Attenuation differences and frequency shifts in resonant peaks are used to detect the presence and generation of dispersed micro-bubbles (<180 μm diameter), and bubbles within porous media that are not readily visualized. Envisioned applications include assessment of the impacts of vibration on reaction, mass transfer, and flow/flow pattern outcomes. This knowledge will inform laboratory and pilot scale process studies, where nuisance vibrations may affect the interpretation of process outcomes, and large scale or in situ processes in aquifers or hydrocarbon reservoirs where imposed vibration may be deployed to improve aspects of process performance. Future work will include miscible interface observation and quantitative measurements in the bulk and in porous media where the roles of micro-bubbles comprise subjects of special interest.

  1. A dynamic pressure view cell for acoustic stimulation of fluids--Micro-bubble generation and fluid movement in porous media.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Robert A; Shaw, J M

    2015-09-01

    The development and baseline operation of an acoustic view cell for observing fluids, and fluid-fluid and fluid-solid interfaces in porous media over the frequency range of 10-5000 Hz is described. This range includes the industrially relevant frequency range 500-5000 Hz that is not covered by existing devices. Pressure waveforms of arbitrary shape are generated in a 17.46 mm ID by 200 mm and 690.5 mm long glass tubes at flow rates up to 200 ml/min using a syringe pump. Peak-to-peak amplitudes exceeding 80 kPa are readily realized at frequencies from 10 to 5000 Hz in bubble free fluids when actuated with 20 Vpp as exemplified using castor oil. At resonant frequencies, peak-to-peak pressure amplitudes exceeding 500 kPa were obtained (castor oil at 2100 Hz when actuated with 20 Vpp). Impacts of vibration on macroscopic liquid-liquid and liquid-vapour interfaces and interface movement are illustrated. Pressure wave transmission and attenuation in a fluid saturated porous medium, randomly packed 250-330 μm spherical silica beads, is also demonstrated. Attenuation differences and frequency shifts in resonant peaks are used to detect the presence and generation of dispersed micro-bubbles (<180 μm diameter), and bubbles within porous media that are not readily visualized. Envisioned applications include assessment of the impacts of vibration on reaction, mass transfer, and flow/flow pattern outcomes. This knowledge will inform laboratory and pilot scale process studies, where nuisance vibrations may affect the interpretation of process outcomes, and large scale or in situ processes in aquifers or hydrocarbon reservoirs where imposed vibration may be deployed to improve aspects of process performance. Future work will include miscible interface observation and quantitative measurements in the bulk and in porous media where the roles of micro-bubbles comprise subjects of special interest. PMID:26429474

  2. Spatial interpolation approach based on IDW with anisotropic spatial structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jia; Duan, Ping; Sheng, Yehua; Lv, Haiyang

    2015-12-01

    In many interpolation methods, with its simple interpolation principle, Inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation is one of the most common interpolation method. There are anisotropic spatial structures with actual geographical spatial phenomenon. When the IDW interpolation is used, anisotropic spatial structures should be considered. Geostatistical theory has a characteristics of exploring anisotropic spatial structures. In this paper, spatial interpolation approach based on IDW with anisotropic spatial structures is proposed. The DEM data is tested in this paper to prove reliability of the IDW interpolation considering anisotropic spatial structures. Experimental results show that IDW interpolation considering anisotropic spatial structures can improve interpolation precision when sampling data has anisotropic spatial structures feature.

  3. Sound field distribution influenced by anisotropic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Erhard, A.; Boehm, R.; Wuestenberg, H.

    1993-12-31

    Sound wave distributions in isotropic materials are often described using analytical or numerical solutions of the wave equation. In opposition to this, it is more difficult to find a solution for anisotropic mediums. One possible method is the elastic finite integration technique (EFIT). With this method, scalar and vectorial calculations of the sound distribution from a line source in anisotropic materials were carried out. This method needs a powerful computer in order to keep the computation time short. In the present paper another theoretical model was used -- the pulse integration model -- with which sound field distributions for scalar waves were calculated in the sound field distribution of longitudinal waves in anisotropic materials. The principle of the model is described briefly. Different sound field pattern generated with a phased array longitudinal wave probe were calculated during the propagation in a homogeneous isotropic material and in a homogeneous anisotropic material (single crystal).

  4. Optical trapping of the anisotropic crystal nanorod.

    PubMed

    Bareil, Paul B; Sheng, Yunlong

    2015-05-18

    We observed in the optical tweezers experiment that some anisotropic nanorod was stably trapped in an orientation tiled to the beam axis. We explain this trapping with the T-matrix calculation. As the vector spherical wave functions do not individually satisfy the anisotropic vector wave equation, we expand the incident and scattered fields in the isotropic buffer in terms of E→, and the internal field in the anisotropic nanoparticle in terms of D→, and use the boundary condition for the normal components of D→ to compute the T-matrix. We found that when the optical axes of an anisotropic nanorod are not aligned to the nanorod axis, the nanorod may be trapped stably at a tilted angle, under which the lateral torque equals to zero and the derivative of the torque is negative. PMID:26074566

  5. Phase space analysis in anisotropic optical systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivera, Ana Leonor; Chumakov, Sergey M.; Wolf, Kurt Bernardo

    1995-01-01

    From the minimal action principle follows the Hamilton equations of evolution for geometric optical rays in anisotropic media. As in classical mechanics of velocity-dependent potentials, the velocity and the canonical momentum are not parallel, but differ by an anisotropy vector potential, similar to that of linear electromagnetism. Descartes' well known diagram for refraction is generalized and a factorization theorem holds for interfaces between two anisotropic media.

  6. Inflation in anisotropic scalar-tensor theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pimentel, Luis O.; Stein-Schabes, Jaime

    1988-01-01

    The existence of an inflationary phase in anisotropic Scalar-Tensor Theories is investigated by means of a conformal transformation that allows us to rewrite these theories as gravity minimally coupled to a scalar field with a nontrivial potential. The explicit form of the potential is then used and the No Hair Theorem concludes that there is an inflationary phase in all open or flat anisotropic spacetimes in these theories. Several examples are constructed where the effect becomes manifest.

  7. On the anisotropic elastic properties of hydroxyapatite.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, J. L.; Ukraincik, K.

    1971-01-01

    Experimental measurements of the isotropic elastic moduli on polycrystalline specimens of hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite are compared with elastic constants measured directly from single crystals of fluorapatite in order to derive a set of pseudo single crystal elastic constants for hydroxyapatite. The stiffness coefficients thus derived are given. The anisotropic and isotropic elastic properties are then computed and compared with similar properties derived from experimental observations of the anisotropic behavior of bone.

  8. Modelling Coulomb Collisions in Anisotropic Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellinger, P.; Travnicek, P. M.

    2009-12-01

    Collisional transport in anisotropic plasmas is investigated comparing the theoretical transport coefficients (Hellinger and Travnicek, 2009) for anisotropic particles with the results of the corresponding Langevin equation, obtained as a generalization of Manheimer et al. (1997). References: Hellinger, P., and P. M. Travnicek (2009), On Coulomb collisions in bi-Maxwellian plasmas, Phys. Plasmas, 16, 054501. Manheimer, W. M., M. Lampe and G. Joyce (1997), Langevin representation of Coulomb collisions in PIC simulations, J. Comput. Phys., 138, 563-584.

  9. Overview of anisotropic flow measurements from ALICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, You

    2016-05-01

    Anisotropic flow is an important observable to study the properties of the hot and dense matter, the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP), created in heavy-ion collisions. Measurements of anisotropic flow for inclusive and identified charged hadrons are reported in Pb-Pb, p-Pb and pp collisions with the ALICE detector. The comparison of experimental measurements to various theoretical calculations are also presented in these proceedings.

  10. Anisotropic System of Quasiparticles in Superfluid Helium

    SciTech Connect

    Adamenko, I.N.; Nemchenko, K.E.; Slipko, V.A.; Wyatt, A.F.G.

    2006-02-17

    The thermodynamic properties of anisotropic quasiparticle systems of He II are considered for all degrees of anisotropy. It is shown that the thermodynamic functions of a strongly anisotropic phonon-roton system are mainly determined by rotons at all temperatures. Analytical expressions for the roton thermodynamic functions are obtained for all degrees of anisotropy. The maximum anisotropy is limited by the criterion for thermodynamic stability, which is here derived for the whole temperature range.

  11. An adaptive lattice Boltzmann scheme for modeling two-fluid-phase flow in porous medium systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dye, Amanda L.; McClure, James E.; Adalsteinsson, David; Miller, Cass T.

    2016-04-01

    We formulate a multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM) to simulate two-fluid-phase flow in porous medium systems. The MRT LBM is applied to simulate the displacement of a wetting fluid by a nonwetting fluid in a system corresponding to a microfluidic cell. Analysis of the simulation shows widely varying time scales for the dynamics of fluid pressures, fluid saturations, and interfacial curvatures that are typical characteristics of such systems. Displacement phenomena include Haines jumps, which are relatively short duration isolated events of rapid fluid displacement driven by capillary instability. An adaptive algorithm is advanced using a level-set method to locate interfaces and estimate their rate of advancement. Because the displacement dynamics are confined to the interfacial regions for a majority of the relaxation time, the computational effort is focused on these regions. The proposed algorithm is shown to reduce computational effort by an order of magnitude, while yielding essentially identical solutions to a conventional fully coupled approach. The challenges posed by Haines jumps are also resolved by the adaptive algorithm. Possible extensions to the advanced method are discussed.

  12. Tracking interface and common curve dynamics for two-fluid flow in porous media

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mcclure, James E.; Miller, Cass T.; Gray, W. G.; Berrill, Mark A.

    2016-04-29

    Pore-scale studies of multiphase flow in porous medium systems can be used to understand transport mechanisms and quantitatively determine closure relations that better incorporate microscale physics into macroscale models. Multiphase flow simulators constructed using the lattice Boltzmann method provide a means to conduct such studies, including both the equilibrium and dynamic aspects. Moving, storing, and analyzing the large state space presents a computational challenge when highly-resolved models are applied. We present an approach to simulate multiphase flow processes in which in-situ analysis is applied to track multiphase flow dynamics at high temporal resolution. We compute a comprehensive set of measuresmore » of the phase distributions and the system dynamics, which can be used to aid fundamental understanding and inform closure relations for macroscale models. The measures computed include microscale point representations and macroscale averages of fluid saturations, the pressure and velocity of the fluid phases, interfacial areas, interfacial curvatures, interface and common curve velocities, interfacial orientation tensors, phase velocities and the contact angle between the fluid-fluid interface and the solid surface. Test cases are studied to validate the approach and illustrate how measures of system state can be obtained and used to inform macroscopic theory.« less

  13. Soft particles with anisotropic interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schurtenberger, Peter

    Responsive colloids such as thermo- or pH-sensitive microgels are ideal model systems to investigate the relationship between the nature of interparticle interactions and the plethora of self-assembled structures that can form in colloidal suspensions. They allow for a variation of the form, strength and range of the interaction potential almost at will. While microgels have extensively been used as model systems to investigate various condensed matter problems such as glass formation, jamming or crystallization, they can also be used to study systems with anisotropic interactions. Here we show results from a systematic investigation of the influence of softness and anisotropy on the structural and dynamic properties of strongly interacting suspensions. We focus first on ionic microgels. Due to their large number of internal counterions they possess very large polarisabilities, and we can thus use external electrical ac fields to generate large dipolar contributions to the interparticle interaction potential. This leads to a number of new crystal phases, and we can trigger crystal-crystal phase transitions through the appropriate choice of the field strength. We then show that this approach can be extended to more complex particle shapes in an attempt to copy nature's well documented success in fabricating complex nanostructures such as virus shells via self assembly. European Research Council (ERC-339678-COMPASS).

  14. Magnetospheric equilibrium with anisotropic pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, C.Z.

    1991-07-01

    Self-consistent magnetospheric equilibrium with anisotropic pressure is obtained by employing an iterative metric method for solving the inverse equilibrium equation in an optimal flux coordinate system. A method of determining plasma parallel and perpendicular pressures from either analytic particle distribution or particle distribution measured along the satellite's path is presented. The numerical results of axisymmetric magnetospheric equilibrium including the effects of finite beta, pressure anisotropy, and boundary conditions are presented for a bi-Maxwellian particle distribution. For the isotropic pressure cases, the finite beta effect produces an outward expansion of the constant magnetic flux surfaces in relation to the dipole field lines, and along the magnetic field the toroidal ring current is maximum at the magnetic equator. The effect of pressure anisotropy is found to further expand the flux surfaces outward. Along the magnetic field lines the westward ring current can be peak away from the equator due to an eastward current contribution resulting from pressure anisotropy. As pressure anisotropy increases, the peak westward current can become more singular. The outer boundary flux surface has significant effect on the magnetospheric equilibrium. For the outer flux boundary resembling dayside compressed flux surface due to solar wind pressure, the deformation of the magnetic field can be quite different from that for the outer flux boundary resembling the tail-like surface. 23 refs., 17 figs.

  15. Magnetospheric equilibrium with anisotropic pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, C.Z. )

    1992-02-01

    Self-consistent magnetospheric equilibria with anisotropic pressure are obtained by employing an iterative metric method for solving the inverse equilibrium equation in an optimal flux coordinate system. A method of determining plasma parallel and perpendicular pressures from either analytic particle distributions or particle distributions measured along a satellite's path is presented. The numerical results of axisymmetric magnetospheric equilibria including the effects of finite beta, pressure anisotropy, and boundary conditions are presented for a bi-Maxwellian particle distribution. For the isotropic pressure cases the finite beta effect produces an outward expansion of the constant magnetic flux surfaces in relation to the dipole field lines, and along the magnetic field the toroidal ring current is maximum at the magnetic equator. The effect of pressure anisotropy is found to further expand the flux surfaces outward. Along the magnetic field lines the westward ring current can be peak away from the equator owing to an eastward current contribution resulting from pressure anisotropy. As pressure anisotropy increases, the peak westward current can become more singular. The outer boundary flux surface has a significant effect on the magnetospheric equilibrium. For the outer flux boundary resembling the dayside compressed flux surface due to solar wind pressure, the deformation of the magnetic field can be quite different from that for the outer flux boundary resembling the taillike flux surface.

  16. Anisotropic diffusion-limited aggregation.

    PubMed

    Popescu, M N; Hentschel, H G E; Family, F

    2004-06-01

    Using stochastic conformal mappings, we study the effects of anisotropic perturbations on diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) in two dimensions. The harmonic measure of the growth probability for DLA can be conformally mapped onto a constant measure on a unit circle. Here we map m preferred directions for growth to a distribution on the unit circle, which is a periodic function with m peaks in [-pi,pi) such that the angular width sigma of the peak defines the "strength" of anisotropy kappa= sigma(-1) along any of the m chosen directions. The two parameters (m,kappa) map out a parameter space of perturbations that allows a continuous transition from DLA (for small enough kappa ) to m needlelike fingers as kappa--> infinity. We show that at fixed m the effective fractal dimension of the clusters D(m,kappa) obtained from mass-radius scaling decreases with increasing kappa from D(DLA) approximately 1.71 to a value bounded from below by D(min) = 3 / 2. Scaling arguments suggest a specific form for the dependence of the fractal dimension D(m,kappa) on kappa for large kappa which compares favorably with numerical results. PMID:15244564

  17. Modeling of anisotropic wound healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valero, C.; Javierre, E.; García-Aznar, J. M.; Gómez-Benito, M. J.; Menzel, A.

    2015-06-01

    Biological soft tissues exhibit non-linear complex properties, the quantification of which presents a challenge. Nevertheless, these properties, such as skin anisotropy, highly influence different processes that occur in soft tissues, for instance wound healing, and thus its correct identification and quantification is crucial to understand them. Experimental and computational works are required in order to find the most precise model to replicate the tissues' properties. In this work, we present a wound healing model focused on the proliferative stage that includes angiogenesis and wound contraction in three dimensions and which relies on the accurate representation of the mechanical behavior of the skin. Thus, an anisotropic hyperelastic model has been considered to analyze the effect of collagen fibers on the healing evolution of an ellipsoidal wound. The implemented model accounts for the contribution of the ground matrix and two mechanically equivalent families of fibers. Simulation results show the evolution of the cellular and chemical species in the wound and the wound volume evolution. Moreover, the local strain directions depend on the relative wound orientation with respect to the fibers.

  18. Minimization principles for the coupled problem of Darcy-Biot-type fluid transport in porous media linked to phase field modeling of fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miehe, Christian; Mauthe, Steffen; Teichtmeister, Stephan

    2015-09-01

    This work develops new minimization and saddle point principles for the coupled problem of Darcy-Biot-type fluid transport in porous media at fracture. It shows that the quasi-static problem of elastically deforming, fluid-saturated porous media is related to a minimization principle for the evolution problem. This two-field principle determines the rate of deformation and the fluid mass flux vector. It provides a canonically compact model structure, where the stress equilibrium and the inverse Darcy's law appear as the Euler equations of a variational statement. A Legendre transformation of the dissipation potential relates the minimization principle to a characteristic three field saddle point principle, whose Euler equations determine the evolutions of deformation and fluid content as well as Darcy's law. A further geometric assumption results in modified variational principles for a simplified theory, where the fluid content is linked to the volumetric deformation. The existence of these variational principles underlines inherent symmetries of Darcy-Biot theories of porous media. This can be exploited in the numerical implementation by the construction of time- and space-discrete variational principles, which fully determine the update problems of typical time stepping schemes. Here, the proposed minimization principle for the coupled problem is advantageous with regard to a new unconstrained stable finite element design, while space discretizations of the saddle point principles are constrained by the LBB condition. The variational principles developed provide the most fundamental approach to the discretization of nonlinear fluid-structure interactions, showing symmetric systems in algebraic update procedures. They also provide an excellent starting point for extensions towards more complex problems. This is demonstrated by developing a minimization principle for a phase field description of fracture in fluid-saturated porous media. It is designed for an

  19. Foams in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Marsden, S.S.

    1986-07-01

    In 1978 a literature search on selective blocking of fluid flow in porous media was done by Professor S.S. Marsden and two of his graduate students, Tom Elson and Kern Huppy. This was presented as SUPRI Report No. TR-3 entitled ''Literature Preview of the Selected Blockage of Fluids in Thermal Recovery Projects.'' Since then a lot of research on foam in porous media has been done on the SUPRI project and a great deal of new information has appeared in the literature. Therefore we believed that a new, up-to-date search should be done on foam alone, one which would be helpful to our students and perhaps of interest to others. This is a chronological survey showing the development of foam flow, blockage and use in porous media, starting with laboratory studies and eventually getting into field tests and demonstrations. It is arbitrarily divided into five-year time periods. 81 refs.

  20. Porous material neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Diawara, Yacouba; Kocsis, Menyhert

    2012-04-10

    A neutron detector employs a porous material layer including pores between nanoparticles. The composition of the nanoparticles is selected to cause emission of electrons upon detection of a neutron. The nanoparticles have a maximum dimension that is in the range from 0.1 micron to 1 millimeter, and can be sintered with pores thereamongst. A passing radiation generates electrons at one or more nanoparticles, some of which are scattered into a pore and directed toward a direction opposite to the applied electrical field. These electrons travel through the pore and collide with additional nanoparticles, which generate more electrons. The electrons are amplified in a cascade reaction that occurs along the pores behind the initial detection point. An electron amplification device may be placed behind the porous material layer to further amplify the electrons exiting the porous material layer.

  1. Dynamic flow localization in porous rocks under combined pressure and shear loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarushina, Viktoriya; Podladchikov, Yuri; Simon, Nina

    2015-04-01

    Flow localization occurs in deforming porous fluid saturated rocks. It exhibits itself as veins, pockmarks on the ocean floor or gas chimneys visible on seismic images from several chalk fields of the Central North Sea and from the Utsira formation at Sleipner in the Norwegian North Sea, which is one of the best documented CO2 storage sites. Porosity waves were repeatedly shown to be a viable mechanism of flow self-localization that does not require the pre-existence of a connected fracture network. Porosity waves result from an instability of the Darcy flow that occurs in porous rocks with time-dependent viscous or viscoelastoplastic rheology. Local fluid overpressure generated by fluid injection or chemical reactions aided by buoyancy force drives upward fluid migration. Viscous deformation delays pressure diffusion thus maintaining local overpressure for considerable periods of time. Development of an under-pressured region just below the over-pressured domain leads to separation of the fluid-filled high-porosity blob from the source and the background flow. The instability organizes the flow into separate vertical channels. Pressure distribution, shape and scaling of these channels are highly sensitive to the rheology of the porous rock. In this contribution, based on a micromechanical approach, we consider the complex rheology of brittle, ductile and transitional regimes of deformation of porous rocks in the presence of combined pressure and shear loading. Accurate description of transitional brittle-ductile deformation is a challenging task due to a large number of microscopic processes involved. We use elastoplastic and viscoplastic analytical solutions for the non-hydrostatic deformation of a singular cavity in the representative volume element in order to deduce expected behavior of the porous rock. The model provides micro-mechanisms for various failure modes (localized and homogeneous) and dilatancy onset. In particular, the model predicts that dilatancy

  2. FLUID TRANSPORT THROUGH POROUS MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fluid transport through porous media is a relevant topic to many scientific and engineering fields. Soil scientists, civil engineers, hydrologists and hydrogeologists are concerned with the transport of water, gases and nonaqueous phase liquid contaminants through porous earth m...

  3. Chemically Layered Porous Solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steve

    1991-01-01

    Aerogels and other porous solids in which surfaces of pores have chemical properties varying with depth below macroscopic surfaces prepared by sequences of chemical treatments. Porous glass or silica bead treated to make two depth zones having different chemical properties. Beads dropped along tube filled with flowing gas containing atomic oxygen, generated in microwave discharge. General class of materials treatable include oxides of aluminum, silicon, zirconium, tin, titanium, and nickel, and mixtures of these oxides. Potential uses of treated materials include chromatographic separations, membrane separations, controlled releases of chemicals, and catalysis.

  4. Porous silicon gettering

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Menna, P.; Pitts, J.R.

    1996-05-01

    The authors have studied a novel extrinsic gettering method that uses the large surface areas produced by a porous-silicon etch as gettering sites. The annealing step of the gettering used a high-flux solar furnace. They found that a high density of photons during annealing enhanced the impurity diffusion to the gettering sites. The authors used metallurgical-grade Si (MG-Si) prepared by directional solidification casing as the starting material. They propose to use porous-silicon-gettered MG-Si as a low-cost epitaxial substrate for polycrystalline silicon thin-film growth.

  5. Porous block nanofiber composite filters

    DOEpatents

    Ginley, David S.; Curtis, Calvin J.; Miedaner, Alexander; Weiss, Alan J.; Paddock, Arnold

    2016-08-09

    Porous block nano-fiber composite (110), a filtration system (10) and methods of using the same are disclosed. An exemplary porous block nano-fiber composite (110) includes a porous block (100) having one or more pores (200). The porous block nano-fiber composite (110) also includes a plurality of inorganic nano-fibers (211) formed within at least one of the pores (200).

  6. Computational Modeling of Seismic Wave Propagation Velocity-Saturation Effects in Porous Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeks, J.; Lumley, D. E.

    2011-12-01

    Compressional and shear velocities of seismic waves propagating in porous rocks vary as a function of the fluid mixture and its distribution in pore space. Although it has been possible to place theoretical upper and lower bounds on the velocity variation with fluid saturation, predicting the actual velocity response of a given rock with fluid type and saturation remains an unsolved problem. In particular, we are interested in predicting the velocity-saturation response to various mixtures of fluids with pressure and temperature, as a function of the spatial distribution of the fluid mixture and the seismic wavelength. This effect is often termed "patchy saturation' in the rock physics community. The ability to accurately predict seismic velocities for various fluid mixtures and spatial distributions in the pore space of a rock is useful for fluid detection, hydrocarbon exploration and recovery, CO2 sequestration and monitoring of many subsurface fluid-flow processes. We create digital rock models with various fluid mixtures, saturations and spatial distributions. We use finite difference modeling to propagate elastic waves of varying frequency content through these digital rock and fluid models to simulate a given lab or field experiment. The resulting waveforms can be analyzed to determine seismic traveltimes, velocities, amplitudes, attenuation and other wave phenomena for variable rock models of fluid saturation and spatial fluid distribution, and variable wavefield spectral content. We show that we can reproduce most of the published effects of velocity-saturation variation, including validating the Voigt and Reuss theoretical bounds, as well as the Hill "patchy saturation" curve. We also reproduce what has been previously identified as Biot dispersion, but in fact in our models is often seen to be wave multi-pathing and broadband spectral effects. Furthermore, we find that in addition to the dominant seismic wavelength and average fluid patch size, the

  7. Modeling isothermal and non-isothermal flows in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohseni Languri, Ehsan

    2011-12-01

    solutions obtained after applying the stress-continuity and stress-jump boundary conditions are found to work well at low porosities, which is in contradiction with the results achieved earlier by other researchers. The traditional approach of using averaged equations in the regions of sharp gradients in porous media to describe flow and transport is theoretically untenable and perhaps inaccurate. A novel ensemble averaging method is being proposed to test the accuracy of the volume averaged or smoothed description of flows in porous media in the regions of sharp gradients. In the new method, the flow in a certain arrangement of particles (called a realization) is averaged using a small unit cell, much smaller than the REV. Then such an averaged flow variable is further averaged over a whole gamut of randomly-generated particle realizations. First the accuracy of the ensemble averaging method was tested by comparing the permeability of an artificially generated porous medium obtained by the proposed method against the permeability predicted by some established theoretical models of permeability. The proposed method was found to be quite accurate. Later the ensemble average method was applied to the open-channel porous-medium interface region characterized by a sharp gradient in the flow velocities. It was discovered that the volume averaged description of such flows, characterized by the use of the Brinkman equation along with the stress-continuity and stress-jump conditions, is quite accurate for a range of Reynolds numbers. The non-isothermal transport during flow in porous media is examined next. The main focus in this area of research is the thermal dispersion term found in the heat transfer equation for single- and dual-scale porous media. Most of the previous efforts on modeling the heat transfer phenomena in porous media were devoted to isotropic porous media. However, for the anisotropic porous media widely in many industrial applications, not much research on the

  8. Porous metal for orthopedics implants

    PubMed Central

    Matassi, Fabrizio; Botti, Alessandra; Sirleo, Luigi; Carulli, Christian; Innocenti, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Summary Porous metal has been introduced to obtain biological fixation and improve longevity of orthopedic implants. The new generation of porous metal has intriguing characteristics that allows bone healing and high osteointegration of the metallic implants. This article gives an overview about biomaterials properties of the contemporary class of highly porous metals and about the clinical use in orthopaedic surgery. PMID:24133527

  9. Anisotropic membranes for gas separation

    DOEpatents

    Gollan, A.Z.

    1987-07-21

    A gas separation membrane has a dense separating layer about 10,000 Angstroms or less thick and a porous support layer 10 to 400 microns thick that is an integral unit with gradually and continuously decreasing pore size from the base of the support layer to the surface of the thin separating layer and is made from a casting solution comprising ethyl cellulose and ethyl cellulose-based blends, typically greater than 47.5 ethoxyl content ethyl cellulose blended with compatible second polymers, such as nitrocellulose. The polymer content of the casting solution is from about 10% to about 35% by weight of the total solution with up to about 50% of this polymer weight a compatible second polymer to the ethyl cellulose in a volatile solvent such as isopropanol, methylacetate, methanol, ethanol, and acetone. Typical nonsolvents for the casting solutions include water and formamide. The casting solution is cast in air from about zero to 10 seconds to allow the volatile solvent to evaporate and then quenched in a coagulation bath, typically water, at a temperature of 7--25 C and then air dried at ambient temperature, typically 10--30 C. 2 figs.

  10. Anisotropic membranes for gas separation

    DOEpatents

    Gollan, Arye Z.

    1987-01-01

    A gas separation membrane has a dense separating layer about 10,000 Angstroms or less thick and a porous support layer 10 to 400 microns thick that is an integral unit with gradually and continuously decreasing pore size from the base of the support layer to the surface of the thin separating layer and is made from a casting solution comprising ethyl cellulose and ethyl cellulose-based blends, typically greater than 47.5 ethoxyl content ethyl cellulose blended with compatible second polymers, such as nitrocellulose. The polymer content of the casting solution is from about 10% to about 35% by weight of the total solution with up to about 50% of this polymer weight a compatible second polymer to the ethyl cellulose in a volatile solvent such as isopropanol, methylacetate, methanol, ethanol, and acetone. Typical nonsolvents for the casting solutions include water and formamide. The casting solution is cast in air from about zero to 10 seconds to allow the volatile solvent to evaporate and then quenched in a coagulation bath, typically water, at a temperature of 7.degree.-25.degree. C. and then air dried at ambient temperature, typically 10.degree.-30.degree. C.

  11. The numerical simulation for a 3D two-phase anisotropic medium based on BISQ model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhejiang; He, Qiaodeng; Wang, Deli

    2008-03-01

    Biot-flow and squirt-flow are the two most important fluid flow mechanisms in porous media containing fluids. Based on the BISQ (Biot-Squirt) model where the two mechanisms are treated simultaneously, the elastic wave-field simulation in the porous medium is limited to two-dimensions and two-components (2D2C) or two-dimensions and three-components (2D3C). There is no previous report on wave simulation in three-dimensions and three-components. Only through three dimensional numerical simulations can we have an overall understanding of wave field coupling relations and the spatial distribution characteristics between the solid and fluid phases in the dual-phase anisotropic medium. In this paper, based on the BISQ equation, we present elastic wave propagation in a three dimensional dual-phase anisotropic medium simulated by the staggered-grid high-order finite-difference method. We analyze the resulting wave fields and show that the results are an improvement.

  12. Saturation-Dependent Hydraulic Conductivity Anisotropy for Multifluid Systems in Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z. F.; Oostrom, Mart; Ward, Andy L.

    2007-11-01

    The hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated anisotropic soils has recently been described with a tensorial connectivity-tortuosity (TCT) concept. We extend this concept to unsaturated porous media with two or three immiscible fluids. Mathematical expressions to describe the conductivity of each fluid in anisotropic porous media under unsaturated condition are derived in the form of symmetric second order tensors. The theory is applicable to the combination of any type of saturation-pressure formulation and a generalized hydraulic conductivity model. The extended model shows that the anisotropic coefficient of a fluid is independent of the saturation of other fluids. Synthetic Miller-similar soils having hypothetical anisotropy were defined by allowing the saturated hydraulic conductivity to have different correlation ranges for different directions of flow. The extended TCT concept was tested using synthetic soils with four levels of heterogeneity and four levels of anisotropy. Numerical experiments of infiltration of two liquid phases, i.e., water and the nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) carbon tetrachloride, were carried out to test the extended model. The results show that, similar to water in a two-fluid (air-water) system, NAPL retention curves in a three-fluid (air-NAPL-water) system were independent of flow direction but dependent on soil heterogeneity, while the connectivity-tortuosity coefficients are functions of both soil heterogeneity and anisotropy. The extended TCT model accurately describes unsaturated hydraulic functions of anisotropic soils and can be combined into commonly used relative permeability functions for use in multifluid flow and transport numerical simulations.

  13. Porous metallic bodies

    DOEpatents

    Landingham, R.L.

    1984-03-13

    Porous metallic bodies having a substantially uniform pore size of less than about 200 microns and a density of less than about 25 percent theoretical, as well as the method for making them, are disclosed. Group IIA, IIIB, IVB, VB, and rare earth metal hydrides a

  14. Hydrophobic, Porous Battery Boxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Casey, John E., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Boxes made of porous, hydrophobic polymers developed to contain aqueous potassium hydroxide electrolyte solutions of zinc/air batteries while allowing air to diffuse in as needed for operation. Used on other types of batteries for in-cabin use in which electrolytes aqueous and from which gases generated during operation must be vented without allowing electrolytes to leak out.

  15. POROUS DIKE INTAKE EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of a porous dike intake. A small-scale test facility was constructed and continuously operated for 2 years under field conditions. Two stone dikes of gabion construction were tested: one consisted of 7.5 cm stones; and the other, 20 cm st...

  16. Matter sourced anisotropic stress for dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Baorong; Lu, Jianbo; Xu, Lixin

    2014-11-01

    Usually a dark energy as a perfect fluid is characterized by the ratio of pressure to energy density (w =p /ρ ) and the ratio of their perturbations in its rest frame (cs2=δ p /δ ρ ). However, a dark energy would have other characteristics beyond its equation of state and the effective speed of sound. Here the extra property is the anisotropic stress sourced by matter as a simple extension to the perfect fluid model. At the background level, this anisotropic stress is zero with respect to the cosmological principle, but not at the first-order perturbation. We tested the viability of the existence of this kind of anisotropic stress by using the currently available cosmic observations through the geometrical and dynamical measurements. Using the Markov-chain Monte Carlo method, we found that the upper bounds on the anisotropic stress which enters into the summation of the Newtonian potentials should be of the order O (1 0-3)Δm . We did not find any strong evidence for the existence of this matter-sourced anisotropic stress, even in the 1 σ region.

  17. Anisotropic nanomaterials: structure, growth, assembly, and functions

    PubMed Central

    Sajanlal, Panikkanvalappil R.; Sreeprasad, Theruvakkattil S.; Samal, Akshaya K.; Pradeep, Thalappil

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive knowledge over the shape of nanomaterials is a critical factor in designing devices with desired functions. Due to this reason, systematic efforts have been made to synthesize materials of diverse shape in the nanoscale regime. Anisotropic nanomaterials are a class of materials in which their properties are direction-dependent and more than one structural parameter is needed to describe them. Their unique and fine-tuned physical and chemical properties make them ideal candidates for devising new applications. In addition, the assembly of ordered one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D), and three-dimensional (3D) arrays of anisotropic nanoparticles brings novel properties into the resulting system, which would be entirely different from the properties of individual nanoparticles. This review presents an overview of current research in the area of anisotropic nanomaterials in general and noble metal nanoparticles in particular. We begin with an introduction to the advancements in this area followed by general aspects of the growth of anisotropic nanoparticles. Then we describe several important synthetic protocols for making anisotropic nanomaterials, followed by a summary of their assemblies, and conclude with major applications. PMID:22110867

  18. Effective medium theory for anisotropic metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiujuan; Wu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Materials with anisotropic material parameters can be utilized to fabricate many fascinating devices, such as hyperlenses, metasolids, and one-way waveguides. In this study, we analyze the effects of geometric anisotropy on a two-dimensional metamaterial composed of a rectangular array of elliptic cylinders and derive an effective medium theory for such a metamaterial. We find that it is possible to obtain a closed-form analytical solution for the anisotropic effective medium parameters, provided the aspect ratio of the lattice and the eccentricity of the elliptic cylinder satisfy certain conditions. The derived effective medium theory not only recovers the well-known Maxwell-Garnett results in the quasi-static regime, but is also valid beyond the long-wavelength limit, where the wavelength in the host medium is comparable to the size of the lattice so that previous anisotropic effective medium theories fail. Such an advance greatly broadens the applicable realm of the effective medium theory and introduces many possibilities in the design of structures with desired anisotropic material characteristics. A real sample of a recently theoretically proposed anisotropic medium, with a near-zero index to control the flux, is achieved using the derived effective medium theory, and control of the electromagnetic waves in the sample is clearly demonstrated. PMID:25599847

  19. Direct Template Approach for the Formation of (Anisotropic shape) Hollow Silicate Microparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera Virtudazo, R. V.; Watanabe, H.; Shirai, T.; Fuji, M.; Takahashi, M.

    2011-10-01

    Non-uniform bulk or surface morphology of hollow particles has been an emerging interest because of the potential applications involving chemical storage, delivery and self-assembly for novel functional materials. There had been reports that experimental anisotropic (non-uniform) particles are much more difficult than synthesizing particles with uniform bulk and surface. Hence, this study reported a simple direct approach for the formation of unique hollow anisotropic amorphous silicate microparticles (10 to 20 μm). This was successfully prepared at room temperature via hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), with ammonia water (NH4OH) as catalyst, ethanol (EtOH) and inorganic micro-size calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as template. The molar ratio used was 1.88:28.85:1:2.85 (CaCO3: EtOH: TEOS: NH4OH), mixed/stirred (at room temperature for 2 h), then filtered/washed by ethanol/water, after then dried and acid treated (3.0 mole/L) to obtained a micro-sized hollow SiO2 particles. This simple approach for the formation of unique anisotropic shape hollow silicate micro-sized particles can be a good alternative for a possible application as large porous carrier for nanoparticles (large drug delivery (LPP's)).

  20. Energy shift due to anisotropic blackbody radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flambaum, V. V.; Porsev, S. G.; Safronova, M. S.

    2016-02-01

    In many applications a source of the blackbody radiation (BBR) can be highly anisotropic. This leads to the BBR shift that depends on tensor polarizability and on the projection of the total angular momentum of ions and atoms in a trap. We derived a formula for the anisotropic BBR shift and performed numerical calculations of this effect for Ca+and Yb+ transitions of experimental interest. These ions were used for a design of high-precision atomic clocks, fundamental physics tests such as the search for the Lorentz invariance violation and space-time variation of the fundamental constants, and quantum information. Anisotropic BBR shift may be one of the major systematic effects in these experiments.

  1. Azimuthally Anisotropic 3D Velocity Continuation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Burnett, William; Fomel, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    We extend time-domain velocity continuation to the zero-offset 3D azimuthally anisotropic case. Velocity continuation describes how a seismic image changes given a change in migration velocity. This description turns out to be of a wave propagation process, in which images change along a velocity axis. In the anisotropic case, the velocity model is multiparameter. Therefore, anisotropic image propagation is multidimensional. We use a three-parameter slowness model, which is related to azimuthal variations in velocity, as well as their principal directions. This information is useful for fracture and reservoir characterization from seismic data. We provide synthetic diffraction imaging examples to illustratemore » the concept and potential applications of azimuthal velocity continuation and to analyze the impulse response of the 3D velocity continuation operator.« less

  2. Magnetization of anisotropic Type II superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Mints, R.G.

    1989-04-10

    Peculiarities of magnetization of anisotropic type II superconductors are of considerable interest in view of the discovery of high-T/sub c/ superconductors characterized by strongly asymmetric layered structure. Specifics of the penetration of magnetic flux into an anisotropic type II superconductor were discussed in the literature. This analysis gave the distribution of induction in an isolated vortex, its energy, and critical magnetic field H/sub c1/. However, the magnetization curve of anisotropic superconductors was not considered. This paper deals with the magnetic moment of uniaxial London superconductor in the interval H/sub c1/ /le/ H/sub 0/ << H/sub c2/, where H/sub 0/ is the external magnetic field strength.

  3. Infrared properties of an anisotropically stirred fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubinstein, Robert; Barton, J. Michael

    1987-01-01

    A renormalization group is developed for the Navier-Stokes equations driven by an anisotropically correlated random stirring force. The stirring force generates homogeneous turbulence with a preferred direction. The force correlation is the sum of a small anisotropic perturbation and an isotropic correlation chosen, so that the fixed point of renormalization group has a k exp -5/3 energy spectrum. Fixed points for the anisotropic correlation are found near this isotropic fixed point. Two types of anisotropy are analyzed. when the additional stirring is in the plane perpendicular to the preferred direction, the renormalized viscosity is increased. When it is aligned with the preferred direction, the viscosity is decreased. A possible connection with the inverse energy cascade of two-dimensional turbulence is discussed.

  4. Elastic properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, En-Bo; Gu, Guo-Qing; Poon, Ying-Ming

    2010-09-01

    Effective elastic properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites, whose spherically anisotropic piezoelectric inclusions are embedded in an infinite non-piezoelectric matrix, are theoretically investigated. Analytical solutions for the elastic displacements and the electric potentials under a uniform external strain are derived exactly. Taking into account of the coupling effects of elasticity, permittivity and piezoelectricity, the formula is derived for estimating the effective elastic properties based on the average field theory in the dilute limit. An elastic response mechanism is revealed, in which the effective elastic properties increase as inclusion piezoelectric properties increase and inclusion dielectric properties decrease. Moreover, a piezoelectric response mechanism, of which the effective piezoelectric response vanishes due to the symmetry of spherically anisotropic composite, is also disclosed.

  5. Gravitational stresses in anisotropic rock masses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amadei, B.; Savage, W.Z.; Swolfs, H.S.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents closed-form solutions for the stress field induced by gravity in anisotropic rock masses. These rocks are assumed to be laterally restrained and are modelled as a homogeneous, orthotropic or transversely isotropic, linearly elastic material. The analysis, constrained by the thermodynamic requirement that strain energy be positive definite, gives the following important result: inclusion of anisotropy broadens the range of permissible values of gravity-induced horizontal stresses. In fact, for some ranges of anisotropic rock properties, it is thermodynamically admissible for gravity-induced horizontal stresses to exceed the vertical stress component; this is not possible for the classical isotropic solution. Specific examples are presented to explore the nature of the gravity-induced stress field in anisotropic rocks and its dependence on the type, degree and orientation of anisotropy with respect to the horizontal ground surface. ?? 1987.

  6. Foam front propagation in anisotropic oil reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Grassia, P; Torres-Ulloa, C; Berres, S; Mas-Hernández, E; Shokri, N

    2016-04-01

    The pressure-driven growth model is considered, describing the motion of a foam front through an oil reservoir during foam improved oil recovery, foam being formed as gas advances into an initially liquid-filled reservoir. In the model, the foam front is represented by a set of so-called "material points" that track the advance of gas into the liquid-filled region. According to the model, the shape of the foam front is prone to develop concave sharply curved concavities, where the orientation of the front changes rapidly over a small spatial distance: these are referred to as "concave corners". These concave corners need to be propagated differently from the material points on the foam front itself. Typically the corner must move faster than those material points, otherwise spurious numerical artifacts develop in the computed shape of the front. A propagation rule or "speed up" rule is derived for the concave corners, which is shown to be sensitive to the level of anisotropy in the permeability of the reservoir and also sensitive to the orientation of the corners themselves. In particular if a corner in an anisotropic reservoir were to be propagated according to an isotropic speed up rule, this might not be sufficient to suppress spurious numerical artifacts, at least for certain orientations of the corner. On the other hand, systems that are both heterogeneous and anisotropic tend to be well behaved numerically, regardless of whether one uses the isotropic or anisotropic speed up rule for corners. This comes about because, in the heterogeneous and anisotropic case, the orientation of the corner is such that the "correct" anisotropic speed is just very slightly less than the "incorrect" isotropic one. The anisotropic rule does however manage to keep the corner very slightly sharper than the isotropic rule does. PMID:27090239

  7. Evolution of multidimensional flat anisotropic cosmological models

    SciTech Connect

    Beloborodov, A. ); Demianski, M. Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warsaw International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics , Universita di Roma I, La Sapienza, Rome ); Ivanov, P.; Polnarev, A.G. )

    1993-07-15

    We study the dynamics of a flat multidimensional anisotropic cosmological model filled with an anisotropic fluidlike medium. By an appropriate choice of variables, the dynamical equations reduce to a two-dimensional dynamical system. We present a detailed analysis of the time evolution of this system and the conditions of the existence of spacetime singularities. We investigate the conditions under which violent, exponential, and power-law inflation is possible. We show that dimensional reduction cannot proceed by anti-inflation (rapid contraction of internal space). Our model indicates that it is very difficult to achieve dimensional reduction by classical means.

  8. Anisotropic Gold Nanocrystals:. Synthesis and Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiufiuc, R.; Toderas, F.; Iosin, M.; Stiufiuc, G.

    In this letter we report on successful preparation and characterization of anisotropic gold nanocrystals bio-synthesized by reduction of aqueous chloroaurate ions in pelargonium plant extract. The nanocrystals have been characterized by means of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy and tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TM-AFM). Using these investigation techniques, the successful formation of anisotropic single nanocrystals with the preferential growth direction along the gold (111) plane has been confirmed. The high detail phase images could give us an explanation concerning the growth mechanism of the nanocrystals.

  9. Controllable underwater anisotropic oil-wetting

    SciTech Connect

    Yong, Jiale; Chen, Feng Yang, Qing; Farooq, Umar; Bian, Hao; Du, Guangqing; Hou, Xun

    2014-08-18

    This Letter demonstrates a simple method to achieve underwater anisotropic oil-wetting using silicon surfaces with a microgroove array produced by femtosecond laser ablation. The oil contact angles along the direction perpendicular to the grooves are consistently larger than those parallel to the microgroove arrays in water because the oil droplet is restricted by the energy barrier that exists between the non-irradiated domain and the trapped water in the laser-ablated microgrooves. This underwater anisotropic oil-wetting is able to be controlled, and the anisotropy can be tuned from 0° to ∼20° by adjusting the period of the microgroove arrays.

  10. Optical Activity of Anisotropic Achiral Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Verbiest, T.; Kauranen, M.; Van Rompaey, Y.; Persoons, A. |

    1996-08-01

    Anisotropic achiral surfaces respond differently to left- and right-hand circularly polarized light. This occurs when the orientation of the surface with respect to an otherwise achiral experimental setup makes the total geometry chiral. Such optical activity is demonstrated in second-harmonic generation from an anisotropic thin molecular film. The circular-difference response reverses sign as the handedness of the geometry is reversed and vanishes when the setup possesses a mirror plane. The results are explained within the electric-dipole-allowed second-order surface nonlinearity. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  11. Bouncing anisotropic universes with varying constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrow, John D.; Sloan, David

    2013-07-01

    We examine the evolution of a closed, homogeneous and anisotropic cosmology subject to a variation of the fine structure “constant” α within the context of the theory introduced by Bekenstein and Sandvik et al. which generalizes Maxwell’s equations and general relativity The variation of α permits an effective ghost scalar field, whose negative energy density becomes dominant at small length scales, leading to a bouncing cosmology. A thermodynamically motivated coupling that describes energy exchange between the effective ghost field and the radiation field leads to an expanding, isotropizing sequence of bounces. In the absence of entropy production, we also find solutions with stable anisotropic oscillations around a static universe.

  12. Inhomogeneous and anisotropic Universe and apparent acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanizza, G.; Tedesco, L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) Bianchi type I (plane symmetric) model of the Universe. We study and solve Einstein field equations. We investigate the effects of such a model of the Universe; in particular, these results are important in understanding the effect of the combined presence of an inhomogeneous and anisotropic universe. The observational magnitude-redshift data deviated from the UNION 2 catalog have been analyzed in the framework of this LTB anisotropic universe, and the fit has been achieved without the inclusion of any dark energy.

  13. Ballooning stability of anisotropic, rotating plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, X.-H.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    1990-01-01

    The linearized equation of motion is given in a Lagrangian representation for a rotating plasma with anisotropic pressure. A WKB theory is developed for large-n ballooning modes in an axisymmetric configuration with field-aligned and rigid toroidal flows. In the presence of field-aligned flows, it is shown that a resonance occurs which is strongly suggestive of a generalized mirror instability. In the presence of toroidal rotation, a possible stabilizing effect is identified for P(normal) greater than P(parallel). Finally, as a special case of the theory, the necessary and sufficient conditions for stability in a static, anisotropic plasma are obtained.

  14. Porous bioactive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai

    Bioactive materials chemically bond to tissues through the development of biologically active apatite. Porous structures in biomaterials are designed to enhance bioactivity, grow artificial tissues and achieve better integration with host tissues in the body. The goal of this research is to design, fabricate and characterize novel porous bioactive materials. 3D ordered macroporous bioactive glasses (3DOM-BGs, pore size: 200--1000 nm) were prepared using a sol-gel process and colloidal crystal templates. 3DOM-BGs are more bioactive and degradable than mesoporous (pore size <50 nm) sol-gel BGs in simulated body fluid (SBF). Apatite formation and 3DOM-BG degradation rates increased with the decrease of soaking ratio. Apatite induction time in SBF increased with 3DOM-BG calcination temperature (600--800°C). Apatite formation and 3DOMBG degradation were slightly enhanced for a phosphate containing composition. Large 3DOM-BG particles formed less apatite and degraded less completely as compared with small particles. An increase in macropore size slowed down 3DOM-BG degradation and apatite formation processes. After heating the converted apatite at a temperature higher than 700°C, highly crystalline hydroxyapatite and a minor tri-calcium phosphate phase formed. 3DOM-BGs have potential applications as bone/periodontal fillers, and drugs and biological factors delivery agents. Anchoring artificial soft tissues (e.g., cartilage) to native bone presents a challenge. Porous polymer/bioactive glass composites are candidate materials for engineering artificial soft tissue/bone interfaces. Porous composites consisting of polymer matrices (e.g., polysulfone, polylactide, and polyurethane) and bioactive glass particles were prepared by polymer phase separation techniques adapted to include ceramic particles. Composites (thickness: 200--500 mum) have asymmetric structures with dense top layers and porous structures beneath. Porous structures consist of large pores (>100 mum) in a

  15. Mathematical modeling heat and mass transfer processes in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmed-Zaki, Darkhan

    2013-11-01

    On late development stages of oil-fields appears a complex problem of oil-recovery reduction. One of solution approaches is injecting of surfactant together with water in the form of active impurities into the productive layer - for decreasing oil viscosity and capillary forces between ``oil-water'' phases system. In fluids flow the surfactant can be in three states: dissolved in water, dissolved in oil and adsorbed on pore channels' walls. The surfactant's invasion into the reservoir is tracked by its diffusion with reservoir liquid and mass-exchange with two phase (liquid and solid) components of porous structure. Additionally, in this case heat exchange between fluids (injected, residual) and framework of porous medium has practical importance for evaluating of temperature influences on enhancing oil recovery. Now, the problem of designing an adequate mathematical model for describing a simultaneous flowing heat and mass transfer processes in anisotropic heterogeneous porous medium -surfactant injection during at various temperature regimes has not been fully researched. In this work is presents a 2D mathematical model of surfactant injections into the oil reservoir. Description of heat- and mass transfer processes in a porous media is done through differential and kinetic equations. For designing a computational algorithm is used modify version of IMPES method. The sequential and parallel computational algorithms are developed using an adaptive curvilinear meshes which into account heterogeneous porous structures. In this case we can evaluate the boundaries of our process flows - fronts (``invasion'', ``heat'' and ``mass'' transfers), according to the pressure, temperature, and concentration gradient changes.

  16. δN formalism in anisotropic inflation and large anisotropic bispectrum and trispectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Abolhasani, Ali Akbar; Emami, Razieh; Firouzjaee, Javad T.; Firouzjahi, Hassan E-mail: emami@ipm.ir E-mail: firouz@mail.ipm.ir

    2013-08-01

    We present the consistent δN formalism for curvature perturbations in anisotropic cosmological backgrounds. We employ our δN formalism to calculate the power spectrum, the bispectrum and the trispectrum in models of anisotropic inflation with the background gauge fields in Bianchi I universe. Our results coincide exactly with the recent results obtained from in-in formalism. To satisfy the observational constraints the anisotropies generated on power spectrum are kept small but large orientation-dependent non-Gaussianities can be generated. We study the Suyama-Yamaguchi inequality for the amplitudes of the bispectrum and the trispectrum in the presence of anisotropic shapes.

  17. Porous electrode preparation method

    DOEpatents

    Arons, R.M.; Dusek, J.T.

    1983-10-18

    A porous sintered plaque is provided with a bimodal porosity that is especially well suited for use as an electrode within a molten carbonate fuel cell. The coarse porosity is sufficient for admitting gases into contact with the reaction surfaces while the fine porosity is wetted with and retains molten electrolyte on the reaction sites. The electrode structure is prepared by providing a very fine powder of such as nickel oxide and blending the powder with a suitable decomposable binder to form a solid mass. The mass is comminuted into agglomerate size particles substantially larger than the fine oxide particles and formed into a cohesive compact for subsequent sintering. Sintering is carried out at sufficient conditions to bind the agglomerates together into a porous structure having both coarse and fine porosity. Where lithiated nickel oxide cathodes are prepared, the sintering conditions can be moderate enough to retain substantial quantities of lithium within the electrode for adequate conductivity. 2 figs.

  18. Porous electrode preparation method

    DOEpatents

    Arons, Richard M.; Dusek, Joseph T.

    1983-01-01

    A porous sintered plaque is provided with a bimodal porosity that is especially well suited for use as an electrode within a molten carbonate fuel cell. The coarse porosity is sufficient for admitting gases into contact with the reaction surfaces while the fine porosity is wetted with and retains molten electrolyte on the reaction sites. The electrode structure is prepared by providing a very fine powder of such as nickel oxide and blending the powder with a suitable decomposable binder to form a solid mass. The mass is comminuted into agglomerate size particles substantially larger than the fine oxide particles and formed into a cohesive compact for subsequent sintering. Sintering is carried out at sufficient conditions to bind the agglomerates together into a porous structure having both coarse and fine porosity. Where lithiated nickel oxide cathodes are prepared, the sintering conditions can be moderate enough to retain substantial quantities of lithium within the electrode for adequate conductivity.

  19. Porous polymer media

    DOEpatents

    Shepodd, Timothy J.

    2002-01-01

    Highly crosslinked monolithic porous polymer materials for chromatographic applications. By using solvent compositions that provide not only for polymerization of acrylate monomers in such a fashion that a porous polymer network is formed prior to phase separation but also for exchanging the polymerization solvent for a running buffer using electroosmotic flow, the need for high pressure purging is eliminated. The polymer materials have been shown to be an effective capillary electrochromatographic separations medium at lower field strengths than conventional polymer media. Further, because of their highly crosslinked nature these polymer materials are structurally stable in a wide range of organic and aqueous solvents and over a pH range of 2-12.

  20. Strong, Lightweight, Porous Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leventis, Nicholas; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Johnston, James C.; Fabrizio, Eve F.; Ilhan, Ulvi

    2007-01-01

    A new class of strong, lightweight, porous materials has been invented as an outgrowth of an effort to develop reinforced silica aerogels. The new material, called X-Aerogel is less hygroscopic, but no less porous and of similar density to the corresponding unmodified aerogels. However, the property that sets X-Aerogels apart is their mechanical strength, which can be as much as two and a half orders of magnitude stronger that the unmodified aerogels. X-Aerogels are envisioned to be useful for making extremely lightweight, thermally insulating, structural components, but they may also have applications as electrical insulators, components of laminates, catalyst supports, templates for electrode materials, fuel-cell components, and filter membranes.

  1. Computational Representation of Porous Media Features (Porosity, Permeability, Saturation and Physical Heterogeneous Geometry)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-López, A.; Muñoz-Negrón, D.; Palomar-Pardavé, M.; Escarela-Perez, R.; Cruz-Morales, V.

    In materials science the properties representation in anisotropic materials is a very important topic. Porous media are heterogeneous in nature. Their representation is frequently assumed as a complex problem and difficult to be treated using normal numerical methods. Chaos theory is used to treat problems without established rules in different topics. The present work is focused to show the development of some computational algorithms to simulate the porous media properties such as porosity, permeability and saturation. The procedures involve the employ of a random number generator to assign properties. The result is amorphous media formed using a cellular automaton. This work also includes the development of some amorphous geometry to represent solid walls in empty samples in order to represent tortuosity of a porous media specimen. Finally advantages and disadvantages of the models developed are commented.

  2. A generalized anisotropic deformation formulation for geomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Z.; Rougier, Esteban; Knight, E. E.; Munjiza, A.; Viswanathan, H.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the combined finite-discrete element method (FDEM) has been applied to analyze the deformation of anisotropic geomaterials. In the most general case geomaterials are both non-homogeneous and non-isotropic. With the aim of addressing anisotropic material problems, improved 2D FDEM formulations have been developed. These formulations feature the unified hypo-hyper elastic approach combined with a multiplicative decomposition-based selective integration for volumetric and shear deformation modes. This approach is significantly different from the co-rotational formulations typically encountered in finite element codes. Unlike the co-rotational formulation, the multiplicative decomposition-based formulation naturally decomposes deformation into translation, rotation, plastic stretches, elastic stretches, volumetric stretches, shear stretches, etc. This approach can be implemented for a whole family of finite elements from solids to shells and membranes. This novel 2D FDEM based material formulation was designed in such a way that the anisotropic properties of the solid can be specified in a cell by cell basis, therefore enabling the user to seed these anisotropic properties following any type of spatial variation, for example, following a curvilinear path. In addition, due to the selective integration, there are no problems with volumetric or shear locking with any type of finite element employed.

  3. Data-driven imaging in anisotropic media

    SciTech Connect

    Volker, Arno; Hunter, Alan

    2012-05-17

    Anisotropic materials are being used increasingly in high performance industrial applications, particularly in the aeronautical and nuclear industries. Some important examples of these materials are composites, single-crystal and heavy-grained metals. Ultrasonic array imaging in these materials requires exact knowledge of the anisotropic material properties. Without this information, the images can be adversely affected, causing a reduction in defect detection and characterization performance. The imaging operation can be formulated in two consecutive and reciprocal focusing steps, i.e., focusing the sources and then focusing the receivers. Applying just one of these focusing steps yields an interesting intermediate domain. The resulting common focus point gather (CFP-gather) can be interpreted to determine the propagation operator. After focusing the sources, the observed travel-time in the CFP-gather describes the propagation from the focus point to the receivers. If the correct propagation operator is used, the measured travel-times should be the same as the time-reversed focusing operator due to reciprocity. This makes it possible to iteratively update the focusing operator using the data only and allows the material to be imaged without explicit knowledge of the anisotropic material parameters. Furthermore, the determined propagation operator can also be used to invert for the anisotropic medium parameters. This paper details the proposed technique and demonstrates its use on simulated array data from a specimen of Inconel single-crystal alloy commonly used in the aeronautical and nuclear industries.

  4. On anisotropic black branes with Lifshitz scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roychowdhury, Dibakar

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, based on the method of scalar perturbations, we construct the anisotropic charged Lifshitz background perturbatively up to leading order in the anisotropy. We perform our analysis both in the extremal as well as in the non-extremal limit. Finally, we probe the so called superfluid phase of the boundary theory and explore the effects of anisotropy on the superconducting condensate.

  5. Highly Anisotropic, Highly Transparent Wood Composites.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mingwei; Song, Jianwei; Li, Tian; Gong, Amy; Wang, Yanbin; Dai, Jiaqi; Yao, Yonggang; Luo, Wei; Henderson, Doug; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-07-01

    For the first time, two types of highly anisotropic, highly transparent wood composites are demonstrated by taking advantage of the macro-structures in original wood. These wood composites are highly transparent with a total transmittance up to 90% but exhibit dramatically different optical and mechanical properties. PMID:27147136

  6. Vibrations and stresses in layered anisotropic cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, G. P.; Gupta, B. P.

    1976-01-01

    An equation describing the radial displacement in a k layered anisotropic cylinder was obtained. The cylinders are initially unstressed but are subjected to either a time dependent normal stress or a displacement at the external boundaries of the laminate. The solution is obtained by utilizing the Vodicka orthogonalization technique. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the procedure.

  7. A facile method for the preparation of chitosan-based scaffolds with anisotropic pores for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Ran, Jiabing; Xie, Lingjun; Sun, Guanglin; Hu, Jingxiao; Chen, Si; Jiang, Pei; Shen, Xinyu; Tong, Hua

    2016-11-01

    To date, great efforts have been made to prepare different kinds of isotropic tissue engineering (TE) scaffolds. However, little attention has been paid to anisotropic porous scaffolds in spite of many examples of their excellent performances. In this work, a facile method termed "ammonia-induced method" (AIM) was proposed and applied to generate anisotropic pores in chitosan (CS)-based scaffolds. The pore structures of these scaffolds were studied in detail. In order to clarify the rationale behind this process, a speculative explanation was provided on basis of the experimental results and the theory of Uras (Uras & Devlin, 2000). Compression tests indicated that the mechanical strengths of these scaffolds were sufficient for TE applications. In vitro cell culture showed that MC3T3-E1 cells cultivated in the pores of these scaffolds had positive proliferation potential. We anticipated that this novel AIM could inspire research not only in TE but also in other fields. PMID:27516311

  8. Methodology for determining material constants of anisotropic materials belonging to the transversely isotropic system by ultrasound method.

    PubMed

    Piekarczyk, Wojciech; Kata, Dariusz

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents the methodology and results of the ultrasound determination of material constants of anisotropic materials belonging to the transversely isotropic system. Ultrasound through-transmission method was used for determining material constants. Based on the measurements of velocities of longitudinal and transverse ultrasounds waves propagation, respectively polarized in required directions all the elastic and the material constant of the test materials were determined. Measurements of all the velocities necessary to determine the elastic constants were performed on a specially prepared individual samples. The tests were carried out on porous polycrystalline anisotropic graphites of anisotropy in Young's modulus of up to 26% and Al2O3 composites with up to 30% of hBN causing anisotropy of Young's modulus of up to 50%. It was found that for all tested samples the value of Young's modules and modules stiffness decreasing with increasing porosity in the graphites and increasing content of hBN in Al2O3. PMID:27395009

  9. Natural convection in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, V.; Hussain, N.A.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on free convection in porous materials. Topics considered at the conference included heat transfer, nonlinear temperature profiles and magnetic fields, boundary conditions, concentrated heat sources in stratified porous media, free convective flow in a cavity, heat flux, laminar mixed convection flow, and the onset of convection in a porous medium with internal heat generation and downward flow.

  10. Porous microsphere and its applications

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yunpeng; Chen, Yinghui; Hong, Xiaoyun; Liu, Zhenguo; Yuan, Weien

    2013-01-01

    Porous microspheres have drawn great attention in the last two decades for their potential applications in many fields, such as carriers for drugs, absorption and desorption of substances, pulmonary drug delivery, and tissue regeneration. The application of porous microspheres has become a feasible way to address existing problems. In this essay, we give a brief introduction of the porous microsphere, its characteristics, preparation methods, applications, and a brief summary of existing problems and research tendencies. PMID:23515359

  11. Selective formation of porous silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fathauer, Robert W. (Inventor); Jones, Eric W. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A pattern of porous silicon is produced in the surface of a silicon substrate by forming a pattern of crystal defects in said surface, preferably by applying an ion milling beam through openings in a photoresist layer to the surface, and then exposing said surface to a stain etchant, such as HF:HNO3:H2O. The defected crystal will preferentially etch to form a pattern of porous silicon. When the amorphous content of the porous silicon exceeds 70 percent, the porous silicon pattern emits visible light at room temperature.

  12. Selective formation of porous silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fathauer, Jones (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A pattern of porous silicon is produced in the surface of a silicon substrate by forming a pattern of crystal defects in said surface, preferably by applying an ion milling beam through openings in a photoresist layer to the surface, and then exposing said surface to a stain etchant, such as HF:HNO3:H20. The defected crystal will preferentially etch to form a pattern of porous silicon. When the amorphous content of the porous silicon exceeds 70 percent, the porous silicon pattern emits visible light at room temperature.

  13. Wellbore stability analysis in carbonate reservoir considering anisotropic behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, José; Guevara, Nestor; Coelho, Lucia; Baud, Patrick

    2010-05-01

    Carbonate reservoirs represent a major part of the world oil and gas reserves. In particular, recent discoveries in the pre-salt offshore Brazil place big challenges to exploration and production under high temperatures and pressures (HTHP). During production, the extraction of hydrocarbons reduces pore pressure and thus causes an increase in the effective stress and mechanical compaction in the reservoir. The compactive deformation and failure may be spatially extensive or localized to the vicinity of the wellbore, but in either case the consequences can be economically severe involving surface subsidence, well failure and various production problems. The analysis of wellbore stability and more generally of deformation and failure in carbonate environments hinges upon a relevant constitutive modeling of carbonate rocks over a wide range of porosities, in particular, observed microstructure of samples suggests anisotropic behaviour. In this study, we performed a wellbore stability analysis for a lateral wellbore junction in three dimensions. The complex geometry for the wellbore junction was modeled with tetrahedral finite elements considering a rate independent elastic-plastic isotropic material that presented linear behavior during elastic strain and associated flow rule. A finite element model simulating drilling and production phases were done for field conditions from a deep water reservoir in Campos basin, offshore Brazil. In this context, several scenarios were studied considering true 3D orientation for both in situ stresses and geometry of the wellbore junction itself. We discussed the impact of constitutive modeling, considering anisotropic ductile damage and pressure sensitiveness on the wellbore stability. Parameter values for the analysis were based based on experimental data on two micritic porous carbonates. Series of conventional triaxial experiments were performed at room temperature in dry and wet conditions on samples of Comiso and Tavel

  14. Limitation of parallel flow in double diffusive convection: Two- and three-dimensional transitions in a horizontal porous domain

    SciTech Connect

    Mimouni, N.; Chikh, S.; Rahli, O.; Bennacer, R.

    2014-07-15

    Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations of double diffusion natural convection in an elongated enclosure filled with a binary fluid saturating a porous medium are carried out in the present work. The Boussinesq approximation is made in the formulation of the problem, and Neumann boundary conditions for temperature and concentration are adopted, respectively, on vertical and horizontal walls of the cavity. The used numerical method is based on the control volume approach, with the third order quadratic upstream interpolation scheme in approximating the advection terms. A semi implicit method algorithm is used to handle the velocity-pressure coupling. To avoid the excessively high computer time inherent to the solution of 3D natural convection problems, full approximation storage with full multigrid method is used to solve the problem. A wide range of the controlling parameters (Rayleigh-Darcy number Ra, lateral aspect ratio Ay, Lewis number Le, and the buoyancy ration N) is investigated. We clearly show that increasing the depth of the cavity (i.e., the lateral aspect ratio) has an important effect on the flow patterns. The 2D perfect parallel flows obtained for small lateral aspect ratio are drastically destabilized by increasing the cavity lateral dimension. This yields a 3D fluid motion with a much more complex flow pattern and the usually considered 2D parallel flow model cannot be applied.

  15. Miscible gravitational instability of initially stable horizontal interface in a porous medium: Non-monotonic density profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min Chan

    2014-11-01

    To simulate a CO2 sequestration process, some researchers employed a water/propylene glycol (PPG) system which shows a non-monotonic density profile. Motivated by this fact, the stability of the diffusion layer of two miscible fluids saturated in a porous medium is analyzed. For a non-monotonic density profile system, linear stability equations are derived in a global domain, and then transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations in an infinite domain. Initial growth rate analysis is conducted without the quasi-steady state approximation (QSSA) and shows that initially the system is unconditionally stable for the least stable disturbance. For the time evolving case, the ordinary differential equations are solved applying the eigen-analysis and numerical shooting scheme with and without the QSSA. To support these theoretical results, direct numerical simulations are conducted using the Fourier spectral method. The results of theoretical linear stability analyses and numerical simulations validate one another. The present linear and nonlinear analyses show that the water/PPG system is more unstable than the CO2/brine one, and the flow characteristics of these two systems are quite different from each other.

  16. Oligonucleotide-Functionalized Anisotropic Gold Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Matthew Robert

    In this thesis, we describe the properties of oligonucleotide-functionalized gold colloids under the unique set of conditions where the particles are geometrically anisotropic and have nanometer-scale dimensions. While nearly two decades of previous work elucidated numerous unexpected and emergent phenomena arising from the combination of inorganic nanoparticles with surface-bound DNA strands, virtually nothing was known about how these properties are altered when the shape of the nanoparticle core is chosen to be non-spherical. In particular, we are interested in understanding, and ultimately controlling, the ways in which these DNA-conjugated anisotropic nanostructures interact when their attraction is governed by programmable DNA hybridization events. Chapter 1 introduces the field of DNA-based materials assembly by discussing how nanoscale building blocks which present rigid, directional interactions can be thought of as possessing artificial versions of the familiar chemical principles of "bonds" and "valency". In chapter 2 we explore the fundamental interparticle binding thermodynamics of DNA-functionalized spherical and anisotropic nanoparticles, which reveals enormous preferences for collective ligand interactions occurring between flat surfaces over those that occur between curved surfaces. Using these insights, chapter 3 demonstrates that when syntheses produce mixtures of different nanoparticle shapes, the tailorable nature of DNA-mediated interparticle association can be used to selectively crystallize and purify the desired anisotropic nanostructure products, leaving spherical impurity particles behind. Chapter 4 leverages the principle that the flat facets of anisotropic particles generate directional DNA-based hybridization interactions to assemble a variety of tailorable nanoparticle superlattices whose symmetry and dimensionality are a direct consequence of the shape of the nanoparticle building block used in their construction. Chapter 5 explores

  17. Small, porous polyacrylate beads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping Siao (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Uniformly-shaped, porous, round beads are prepared by the co-polymerization of an acrylic monomer and a cross-linking agent in the presence of 0.05 to 5% by weight of an aqueous soluble polymer such as polyethylene oxide. Cross-linking proceeds at high temperature above about 50.degree.C or at a lower temperature with irradiation. Beads of even shape and even size distribution of less than 2 micron diameter are formed. The beads will find use as adsorbents in chromatography and as markers for studies of cell surface receptors.

  18. Crosslinked, porous, polyacrylate beads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping Siao (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Uniformly-shaped, porous, round beads are prepared by the co-polymerization of an acrylic monomer and a cross-linking agent in the presence of 0.05 to 5% by weight of an aqueous soluble polymer such as polyethylene oxide. Cross-linking proceeds at high temperature above about 50.degree.C or at a lower temperature with irradiation. Beads of even shape and even size distribution of less than 2 micron diameter are formed. The beads will find use as adsorbents in chromatography and as markers for studies of cell surface receptors.

  19. Rigid porous filter

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, Ta-Kuan; Straub, Douglas L.; Dennis, Richard A.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention involves a porous rigid filter including a plurality of concentric filtration elements having internal flow passages and forming external flow passages there between. The present invention also involves a pressure vessel containing the filter for the removal of particulates from high pressure particulate containing gases, and further involves a method for using the filter to remove such particulates. The present filter has the advantage of requiring fewer filter elements due to the high surface area-to-volume ratio provided by the filter, requires a reduced pressure vessel size, and exhibits enhanced mechanical design properties, improved cleaning properties, configuration options, modularity and ease of fabrication.

  20. Crosslinked, porous, polyacrylate beads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Uniformly-shaped, porous, round beads are prepared by the co-polymerization of an acrylic monomer and a cross-linking agent in the presence of 0.05 to 5% by weight of an aqueous soluble polymer such as polyethylene oxide. Cross-linking proceeds at high temperature above about 50.degree. C or at a lower temperature with irradiation. Beads of even shape and even size distribution of less than 2 micron diameter are formed. The beads will find use as adsorbents in chromatography and as markers for studies of cell surface receptors.

  1. Disintegration of porous polyethylene prostheses.

    PubMed

    Kerr, A G; Riley, D N

    1999-06-01

    A Plastipore (porous polyethylene) Total Ossicular Replacement Prosthesis gave an excellent initial hearing result which was maintained for 14 years. Hearing then began to deteriorate and revision surgery showed disintegration of the prosthesis and a defect in the stapes footplate. Histological examination confirmed previous findings in porous polyethylene with multinucleated foreign body giant cells and breakdown of the material. PMID:10384839

  2. Wireless energy transfer between anisotropic metamaterials shells

    SciTech Connect

    Díaz-Rubio, Ana; Carbonell, Jorge; Sánchez-Dehesa, José

    2014-06-15

    The behavior of strongly coupled Radial Photonic Crystals shells is investigated as a potential alternative to transfer electromagnetic energy wirelessly. These sub-wavelength resonant microstructures, which are based on anisotropic metamaterials, can produce efficient coupling phenomena due to their high quality factor. A configuration of selected constitutive parameters (permittivity and permeability) is analyzed in terms of its resonant characteristics. The coupling to loss ratio between two coupled resonators is calculated as a function of distance, the maximum (in excess of 300) is obtained when the shells are separated by three times their radius. Under practical conditions an 83% of maximum power transfer has been also estimated. -- Highlights: •Anisotropic metamaterial shells exhibit high quality factors and sub-wavelength size. •Exchange of electromagnetic energy between shells with high efficiency is analyzed. •Strong coupling is supported with high wireless transfer efficiency. •End-to-end energy transfer efficiencies higher than 83% can be predicted.

  3. Cosmological signatures of anisotropic spatial curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Thiago S.; Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.; Carneiro, Saulo

    2015-07-01

    If one is willing to give up the cherished hypothesis of spatial isotropy, many interesting cosmological models can be developed beyond the simple anisotropically expanding scenarios. One interesting possibility is presented by shear-free models in which the anisotropy emerges at the level of the curvature of the homogeneous spatial sections, whereas the expansion is dictated by a single scale factor. We show that such models represent viable alternatives to describe the large-scale structure of the inflationary universe, leading to a kinematically equivalent Sachs-Wolfe effect. Through the definition of a complete set of spatial eigenfunctions we compute the two-point correlation function of scalar perturbations in these models. In addition, we show how such scenarios would modify the spectrum of the CMB assuming that the observations take place in a small patch of a universe with anisotropic curvature.

  4. Transverse shear stiffness of laminated anisotropic shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, G. A.

    1978-01-01

    Equations are derived for the transverse shear stiffness of laminated anisotropic shells. Without making assumptions for thickness distribution for either transverse shear stresses or strains, constitutive equations for the transverse shear deformation theory of anisotropic heterogeneous shells are found. The equations are based on Taylor series expansions about a generic point for stress resultants and couples, identically satisfying plate equilibrium equations. These equations are used to find statically correct expressions for in-surface stresses, transverse shear stresses, and the area density of transverse shear strain energy, in terms of transverse shear stress resultants and redundants. The application of Castigliano's theorem of least work minimizes shear strain energy with respect to the redundants. Examples are presented for several laminated walls. Good agreement is found between the results and those of exact three-dimensional elasticity solutions for the cylindrical bending of a plate.

  5. Anisotropic flow in transport + hydrodynamics hybrid approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Hannah

    2014-12-01

    This contribution to the focus issue covers anisotropic flow in hybrid approaches. The historical development of hybrid approaches and their impact on the interpretation of flow measurements is reviewed. The major ingredients of a hybrid approach and the transition criteria between transport and hydrodynamics are discussed. The results for anisotropic flow in (event-by-event) hybrid approaches are presented. Some hybrid approaches rely on hadronic transport for the late stages for the reaction (so called afterburner) and others employ transport approaches for the early non-equilibrium evolution. In addition, there are ‘full’ hybrid calculations where a fluid evolution is dynamically embedded in a transport simulation. After demonstrating the success of hybrid approaches at high Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and Large Hadron Collider energies, existing hybrid caluclations for collective flow observables at lower beam energies are discussed and remaining challenges outlined.

  6. Modeling of anisotropic hardening of sheet metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Fusahito; Hamasaki, Hiroshi; Uemori, Takeshi

    2013-12-01

    To describe the evolution of anisotropy of sheet metals, in terms of both r-values and stresses, the present paper proposes anisotropic hardening models, where the shape of yield surface changes with increasing plastic strain. In this framework of modeling, any types of yield functions are able to be used. The evolution of anisotropy is expressed by updating the yield function as an interpolation between two yield functions defined at two different effective plastic strains. In this paper, two types of interpolation models, i.e., nonlinear interpolation model and piecewise interpolation model are presented. These models are validated by comparing the experimental data on 3003-O aluminum sheet (after Hu, Int J Plasticity 23, 620-639, 2007). To describe the Bauschinger effect, the combined anisotropic-kinematic hardening model is formulated based on Yoshida-Uemori kinematic hardening model.

  7. Porous metallic bodies

    DOEpatents

    Landingham, Richard L.

    1985-01-01

    Porous metallic bodies having a substantially uniform pore size of less than about 200 microns and a density of less than about 25 percent theoretical, as well as the method for making them, are disclosed. Group IIA, IIIB, IVB, VB, and rare earth metal hydrides are heated in a confining container at a controlled rate to a temperature of about greater than the temperature at which the hydride decomposes. Hydrogen is removed from the container and the remaining metal is heated during a second stage to a temperature greater than the temperature at which it was previously heated but not greater than the temperature of 1/2 to 2/3 the temperature at which the metal melts at a controlled rate. The resulting porous metallic body produced has a density less than about 25 percent theoretical and a pore size of less than about 200 microns. The metallic particles of the present invention have high inner surface area and possess minimum resistance to gas flow.

  8. Anisotropic conducting films for electromagnetic radiation applications

    DOEpatents

    Cavallo, Francesca; Lagally, Max G.; Rojas-Delgado, Richard

    2015-06-16

    Electronic devices for the generation of electromagnetic radiation are provided. Also provided are methods for using the devices to generate electromagnetic radiation. The radiation sources include an anisotropic electrically conducting thin film that is characterized by a periodically varying charge carrier mobility in the plane of the film. The periodic variation in carrier mobility gives rise to a spatially varying electric field, which produces electromagnetic radiation as charged particles pass through the film.

  9. Anisotropic resonant scattering from polymer photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Haines, Andrew I; Finlayson, Chris E; Snoswell, David R E; Spahn, Peter; Hellmann, G Peter; Baumberg, Jeremy J

    2012-11-20

    Hyperspectral goniometry reveals anisotropic scattering which dominates the visual appearance of self-assembled polymer opals. The technique allows reconstruction of the reciprocal-space of nanostructures, and indicates that chain defects formed during shear-ordering are responsible for the anisotropy in these samples. Enhanced scattering with improving order is shown to arise from increased effective refractive index contrast, while broadband background scatter is suppressed by absorptive dopants. PMID:22915079

  10. Improved Beam Theory for Anisotropic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The behavior of beams made of anisotropic material was investigated in order to develop an appropriate model of such behavior. Closed form solutions of the problem were derived using two alternative approaches. In the first approach, the axial displacements are expanded as a series of eigenwarpings. In the second approach, the axial stresses are expanded as a series of eigenwarpings. A finite element solution was also derived using the same displacement field as in the first approach.

  11. A viscoplastic theory for anisotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nouailhas, D.; Freed, A. D.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this work is the development of a unified, cyclic, viscoplastic model for anisotropic materials. The first part of the paper presents the foundations of the model in the framework of thermodynamics with internal variables. The second part considers the particular case of cubic symmetry, and addresses the cyclic behavior of a nickel-base single-crystal superalloy, CMSX-2, at high temperature (950 C).

  12. Determining the Orientation of Anisotropic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugg, F. E.; Hodgetts, P. J.

    1983-01-01

    Ultrasonics probe direction of tile fibers. Hand-held acoustic transducer determines fiber orientation of heat resistant tiles. Transducers head placed on outer surface of painted tile. Signals from receiving transducers displayed on two-channel oscilloscope. Application suggests extending technique to inspection of other anisotropic materials. Plywood and fiber/epoxy composites examined to determine fiber direction; ultrasonics used to find direction of roll in sheet metal and other rolled products.

  13. Nonparaxial solitary waves in anisotropic dielectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Alberucci, Alessandro; Assanto, Gaetano

    2011-03-15

    We account for the vectorial character of electromagnetic waves in the study of nonlinear self-action and transverse localization in dielectric anisotropic media. With reference to uniaxials, we address spatial solitons propagating in the nonparaxial regime in the presence of an arbitrary degree of nonlocality, going from the standard Kerr response to the highly nonlocal case, unveiling various effects, including transverse profile asymmetry and bending of the trajectory, as well as a weak effective nonlocality even in local media.

  14. Anisotropic magnetocapacitance in ferromagnetic-plate capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haigh, J. A.; Ciccarelli, C.; Betz, A. C.; Irvine, A.; Novák, V.; Jungwirth, T.; Wunderlich, J.

    2015-04-01

    The capacitance of a parallel-plate capacitor can depend on the applied magnetic field. Previous studies have identified capacitance changes induced via classical Lorentz force or spin-dependent Zeeman effects. Here we measure a magnetization direction-dependent capacitance in parallel-plate capacitors where one plate is a ferromagnetic semiconductor, gallium manganese arsenide. This anisotropic magnetocapacitance is due to the anisotropy in the density of states dependent on the magnetization through the strong spin-orbit interaction.

  15. Multidimensional reaction rate theory with anisotropic diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezhkovskii, Alexander M.; Szabo, Attila; Greives, Nicholas; Zhou, Huan-Xiang

    2014-11-01

    An analytical expression is derived for the rate constant that describes diffusive transitions between two deep wells of a multidimensional potential. The expression, in contrast to the Kramers-Langer formula for the rate constant, is valid even when the diffusion is highly anisotropic. Our approach is based on a variational principle for the reactive flux and uses a trial function for the splitting probability or commitor. The theoretical result is validated by Brownian dynamics simulations.

  16. Modelling Fracture Propagation in Anisotropic Rock Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Baotang; Siren, Topias; Rinne, Mikael

    2015-05-01

    Anisotropic rock mass is often encountered in rock engineering, and cannot be simplified as an isotropic problem in numerical models. A good understanding of rock fracturing processes and the ability to predict fracture initiation and propagation in anisotropic rock masses are required for many rock engineering problems. This paper describes the development of the anisotropic function in FRACOD—a specialized fracture propagation modelling software—and its recent applications to rock engineering issues. Rock anisotropy includes strength anisotropy and modulus anisotropy. The level of complexity in developing the anisotropic function for strength anisotropy and modulus anisotropy in FRACOD is significantly different. The strength anisotropy function alone does not require any alteration in the way that FRACOD calculates rock stress and displacement, and therefore is relatively straightforward. The modulus anisotropy function, on the other hand, requires modification of the fundamental equations of stress and displacement in FRACOD, a boundary element code, and hence is more complex and difficult. In actual rock engineering, the strength anisotropy is often considered to be more pronounced and important than the modulus anisotropy, and dominates the stability and failure pattern of the rock mass. The modulus anisotropy will not be considered in this study. This paper discusses work related to the development of the strength anisotropy in FRACOD. The anisotropy function has been tested using numerical examples. The predicted failure surfaces are mostly along the weakest planes. Predictive modelling of the Posiva's Olkiluoto Spalling Experiment was made. The model suggests that spalling is very sensitive to the direction of anisotropy. Recent observations from the in situ experiment showed that shear fractures rather than tensile fractures occur in the holes. According to the simulation, the maximum tensile stress is well below the tensile strength, but the maximum

  17. Symmetry analysis for anisotropic field theories

    SciTech Connect

    Parra, Lorena; Vergara, J. David

    2012-08-24

    The purpose of this paper is to study with the help of Noether's theorem the symmetries of anisotropic actions for arbitrary fields which generally depend on higher order spatial derivatives, and to find the corresponding current densities and the Noether charges. We study in particular scale invariance and consider the cases of higher derivative extensions of the scalar field, electrodynamics and Chern-Simons theory.

  18. Anisotropic Thermal Conductivity of Exfoliated Black Phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyejin; Wood, Joshua D; Ryder, Christopher R; Hersam, Mark C; Cahill, David G

    2015-12-22

    The anisotropic thermal conductivity of passivated black phosphorus (BP), a reactive two-dimensional material with strong in-plane anisotropy, is ascertained. The room-temperature thermal conductivity for three crystalline axes of exfoliated BP is measured by time-domain thermo-reflectance. The thermal conductivity along the zigzag direction is ≈2.5 times higher than that of the armchair direction. PMID:26516073

  19. Seismic attenuation and velocity dispersion in heterogeneous partially saturated porous rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubino, J. Germán.; Holliger, Klaus

    2012-03-01

    Using a numerical approach, we explore wave-induced fluid flow effects in partially saturated porous rocks in which the gas-water saturation patterns are governed by mesoscopic heterogeneities associated with the dry frame properties. The link between the dry frame properties and the gas saturation is defined by the assumption of capillary pressure equilibrium, which in the presence of heterogeneity implies that neighbouring regions can exhibit different levels of saturation. To determine the equivalent attenuation and phase velocity of the synthetic rock samples considered in this study, we apply a numerical upscaling procedure, which permits to take into account mesoscopic heterogeneities associated with the dry frame properties as well as spatially continuous variations of the pore fluid properties. The multiscale nature of the fluid saturation is taken into account by locally computing the physical properties of an effective fluid, which are then used for the larger-scale simulations. We consider two sets of numerical experiments to analyse such effects in heterogeneous partially saturated porous media, where the saturation field is determined by variations in porosity and clay content, respectively. In both cases we also evaluate the seismic responses of corresponding binary, patchy-type saturation patterns. Our results indicate that significant attenuation and modest velocity dispersion effects take place in this kind of media for both binary patchy-type and spatially continuous gas saturation patterns and in particular in the presence of relatively small amounts of gas. The numerical experiments also show that the nature of the gas distribution patterns is a critical parameter controlling the seismic responses of these environments, since attenuation and velocity dispersion effects are much more significant and occur over a broader saturation range for binary patchy-type gas-water distributions. This analysis therefore suggests that the physical mechanisms

  20. Highly anisotropic Dirac fermions in square graphynes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lizhi; Wang, Zhengfei; Rao, Jiansheng; Li, Ziheng; Huang, Wulin; Wang, Zhiming; Du, Shixuan; Gao, Hongjun; Liu, Feng

    Recently, there have been intense search of new 2D materials, and one especially appealing class of 2D materials is the all-carbon allotropes of Dirac materials. Here, we predict a new family of 2D carbon allotropes, square graphynes (S-graphynes) that exhibit highly anisotropic Dirac Fermions, using first-principle calculations within density functional theory. The equal-energy contour of their 3D band structure shows a crescent shape, and the Dirac crescent has varying Fermi velocities from 0.6 x 105 to 7.2 x 105 m/s along different k directions. Near the Fermi level, the Dirac crescent can be nicely expressed by an extended 2D Dirac model Hamiltonian. Furthermore, tight-binding band fitting reveals that the Dirac crescent originates from the next-nearest-neighbor interactions between C atoms. Our findings enrich the Dirac physics founded in other 2D Dirac systems, and offer a new design mechanism for creating Dirac band by tuning the interaction range. We envision that the highly anisotropic Dirac crescent may be exploited in all-carbon-based electronic devices for manipulating anisotropic electron propagation.

  1. Highly anisotropic Dirac fermions in square graphynes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lizhi; Wang, Zhengfei; Rao, Jiansheng; Li, Ziheng; Huang, Wulin; Wang, Zhiming; Du, Shixuan; Gao, Hongjun; Liu, Feng

    Recently, there have been intense search of new 2D materials, and one especially appealing class of 2D materials is the all-carbon allotropes of Dirac materials. Here, we predict a new family of 2D carbon allotropes, square graphynes (S-graphynes) that exhibit highly anisotropic Dirac Fermions, using first-principle calculations within density functional theory. The equal-energy contour of their 3D band structure shows a crescent shape, and the Dirac crescent has varying Fermi velocities from 0.6 ×105 to 7.2 ×105 m/s along different k directions. Near the Fermi level, the Dirac crescent can be nicely expressed by an extended 2D Dirac model Hamiltonian. Furthermore, tight-binding band fitting reveals that the Dirac crescent originates from the next-nearest-neighbor interactions between C atoms. Our findings enrich the Dirac physics founded in other 2D Dirac systems, and offer a new design mechanism for creating Dirac band by tuning the interaction range. We envision that the highly anisotropic Dirac crescent may be exploited in all-carbon-based electronic devices for manipulating anisotropic electron propagation.

  2. Active Damping Using Distributed Anisotropic Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiller, Noah H.; Cabell, Randolph H.; Quinones, Juan D.; Wier, Nathan C.

    2010-01-01

    A helicopter structure experiences substantial high-frequency mechanical excitation from powertrain components such as gearboxes and drive shafts. The resulting structure-borne vibration excites the windows which then radiate sound into the passenger cabin. In many cases the radiated sound power can be reduced by adding damping. This can be accomplished using passive or active approaches. Passive treatments such as constrained layer damping tend to reduce window transparency. Therefore this paper focuses on an active approach utilizing compact decentralized control units distributed around the perimeter of the window. Each control unit consists of a triangularly shaped piezoelectric actuator, a miniature accelerometer, and analog electronics. Earlier work has shown that this type of system can increase damping up to approximately 1 kHz. However at higher frequencies the mismatch between the distributed actuator and the point sensor caused control spillover. This paper describes new anisotropic actuators that can be used to improve the bandwidth of the control system. The anisotropic actuators are composed of piezoelectric material sandwiched between interdigitated electrodes, which enables the application of the electric field in a preferred in-plane direction. When shaped correctly the anisotropic actuators outperform traditional isotropic actuators by reducing the mismatch between the distributed actuator and point sensor at high frequencies. Testing performed on a Plexiglas panel, representative of a helicopter window, shows that the control units can increase damping at low frequencies. However high frequency performance was still limited due to the flexible boundary conditions present on the test structure.

  3. Anisotropic materials appearance analysis using ellipsoidal mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filip, Jiří; Vávra, Radomír.

    2015-03-01

    Many real-world materials exhibit significant changes in appearance when rotated along a surface normal. The presence of this behavior is often referred to as visual anisotropy. Anisotropic appearance of spatially homogeneous materials is commonly characterized by a four-dimensional BRDF. Unfortunately, due to simplicity most past research has been devoted to three dimensional isotropic BRDFs. In this paper, we introduce an innovative, fast, and inexpensive image-based approach to detect the extent of anisotropy, its main axes and width of corresponding anisotropic highlights. The method does not rely on any moving parts and uses only an off-the-shelf ellipsoidal reflector with a compact camera. We analyze our findings with a material microgeometry scan, and present how results correspond to the microstructure of individual threads in a particular fabric. We show that knowledge of a material's anisotropic behavior can be effectively used in order to design a material-dependent sampling pattern so as the material's BRDF could be measured much more precisely in the same amount of time using a common gonioreflectometer.

  4. Efficient Anisotropic Filtering of Diffusion Tensor Images

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qing; Anderson, Adam W.; Gore, John C.; Ding, Zhaohua

    2009-01-01

    To improve the accuracy of structural and architectural characterization of living tissue with diffusion tensor imaging, an efficient smoothing algorithm is presented for reducing noise in diffusion tensor images. The algorithm is based on anisotropic diffusion filtering, which allows both image detail preservation and noise reduction. However, traditional numerical schemes for anisotropic filtering have the drawback of inefficiency and inaccuracy due to their poor stability and first order time accuracy. To address this, an unconditionally stable and second order time accuracy semi-implicit Craig-Sneyd scheme is adapted in our anisotropic filtering. By using large step size, unconditional stability allows this scheme to take much fewer iterations and thus less computation time than the explicit scheme to achieve a certain degree of smoothing. Second order time accuracy makes the algorithm reduce noise more effectively than a first order scheme with the same total iteration time. Both the efficiency and effectiveness are quantitatively evaluated based on synthetic and in vivo human brain diffusion tensor images, and these tests demonstrate that our algorithm is an efficient and effective tool for denoising diffusion tensor images. PMID:20061113

  5. ARTc: Anisotropic reflectivity and transmissivity calculator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malehmir, Reza; Schmitt, Douglas R.

    2016-08-01

    While seismic anisotropy is known to exist within the Earth's crust and even deeper, isotropic or even highly symmetric elastic anisotropic assumptions for seismic imaging is an over-simplification which may create artifacts in the image, target mis-positioning and hence flawed interpretation. In this paper, we have developed the ARTc algorithm to solve reflectivity, transmissivity as well as velocity and particle polarization in the most general case of elastic anisotropy. This algorithm is able to provide reflectivity solution from the boundary between two anisotropic slabs with arbitrary symmetry and orientation up to triclinic. To achieve this, the algorithm solves full elastic wave equation to find polarization, slowness and amplitude of all six wave-modes generated from the incident plane-wave and welded interface. In the first step to calculate the reflectivity, the algorithm solves properties of the incident wave such as particle polarization and slowness. After calculation of the direction of generated waves, the algorithm solves their respective slowness and particle polarization. With this information, the algorithm then solves a system of equations incorporating the imposed boundary conditions to arrive at the scattered wave amplitudes, and thus reflectivity and transmissivity. Reflectivity results as well as slowness and polarization are then tested in complex computational anisotropic models to ensure their accuracy and reliability. ARTc is coded in MATLAB ® and bundled with an interactive GUI and bash script to run on single or multi-processor computers.

  6. Monotonic solution of heterogeneous anisotropic diffusion problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aricò, Costanza; Tucciarelli, Tullio

    2013-11-01

    Anisotropic problems arise in various areas of science and engineering, for example groundwater transport and petroleum reservoir simulations. The pure diffusive anisotropic time-dependent transport problem is solved on a finite number of nodes, that are selected inside and on the boundary of the given domain, along with possible internal boundaries connecting some of the nodes. An unstructured triangular mesh, that attains the Generalized Anisotropic Delaunay condition for all the triangle sides, is automatically generated by properly connecting all the nodes, starting from an arbitrary initial one. The control volume of each node is the closed polygon given by the union of the midpoint of each side with the “anisotropic” circumcentre of each final triangle. A structure of the flux across the control volume sides similar to the standard Galerkin Finite Element scheme is derived. A special treatment of the flux computation, mainly based on edge swaps of the initial mesh triangles, is proposed in order to obtain a stiffness M-matrix system that guarantees the monotonicity of the solution. The proposed scheme is tested using several literature tests and the results are compared with analytical solutions, as well as with the results of other algorithms, in terms of convergence order. Computational costs are also investigated.

  7. Understanding conoscopic interference patterns in anisotropic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olorunsola, Oluwatobi Gabriel

    The interference patterns observed in conoscopy are important in studying the optical and geometrical properties of anisotropic materials. They have also been used to identify minerals and to explore the structure of biological tissues. In a conoscopic interferometer, an optically anisotropic specimen is placed between two crossed linear polarizers and illuminated by a convergent light beam. The interference patterns are produced because in an anisotropic material an incident light is split into two eigenwaves, namely the ordinary and the extraordinary waves. We report our work on the theoretical simulation and experimental observation of the conoscopic interference patterns in anisotropic crystals. In our simulation, the interference patterns are decomposed into fringes of isogyres and isochromates. For each light propagation direction inside the crystal there exist two eigenwaves that have their own characteristic velocities and vibration directions. The isogyres are obtained by computing the angle between the polarization of the incident light and the vibration directions of the two eigenwaves. The isochromates are obtained by computing the phase retardance between the two eigenwaves inside the crystal. The interference patterns are experimentally observed in several crystals, with their optic axes either parallel or perpendicular to their surfaces. An external electric field is applied to deform the crystals from uniaxial to biaxial. The results of our experimental observation agree well with our computer simulation. In conventional interferometers the isochromatic interference fringes are observed by using a circular polarizer and a circular analyzer, both constructed by a linear polarizer and a quarter wave plate. However, due to the dispersion of the quarter wave plates, the phase-retardance between the two light waves inside the quarter wave plates is wavelength-dependent, which results in different conoscopic interference patterns for different colors of

  8. Thermal conductivities of sub-micron Bi2Te3 films sputtered on anisotropic substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Dan; Wu, Ping; Zhang, Shiping; Pei, Yili; Yang, Fan; Wang, Li

    2016-07-01

    Approximately 450 nm thick Bi2Te3 films were deposited on flat Al2O3 substrate and nanochannel alumina (NCA) templates with different pore diameters through radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The structure and morphology of Bi2Te3 films were investigated by x-ray diffraction and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, the thermal conductivities of the films deposited on anisotropic substrates were evaluated by micro-Raman method combined with numerical simulation and optimization conducted by COMSOL Multiphysics. The thermal conductivities of Bi2Te3 films deposited on NCA templates with discontinuous Φ20 and Φ100 nm pores and flat Al2O3 substrate were 0.80, 0.99 and 1.54 Wm‑1 K‑1, respectively. The lower thermal conductivities of Bi2Te3 films deposited on NCA templates are attributed to much smaller grain size, bottom porous layers, and rougher surfaces through analysis.

  9. Fluid flow in porous media with rough pore-solid interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbarian, Behzad; Hunt, Allen G.; Daigle, Hugh

    2016-03-01

    Quantifying fluid flow through porous media hinges on the description of permeability, a property of considerable importance in many fields ranging from oil and gas exploration to hydrology. A common building block for modeling porous media permeability is consideration of fluid flow through tubes with circular cross section described by Poiseuille's law in which flow discharge is proportional to the fourth power of the tube's radius. In most natural porous media, pores are neither cylindrical nor smooth; they often have an irregular cross section and rough surfaces. This study presents a theoretical scaling of Poiseuille's approximation for flow in pores with irregular rough cross section quantified by a surface fractal dimension Ds2. The flow rate is a function of the average pore radius to the power 2(3-Ds2) instead of 4 in the original Poiseuille's law. Values of Ds2 range from 1 to 2, hence, the power in the modified Poiseuille's approximation varies between 4 and 2, indicating that flow rate decreases as pore surface roughness (and surface fractal dimension Ds2) increases. We also proposed pore length-radius relations for isotropic and anisotropic fractal porous media. The new theoretical derivations are compared with standard approximations and with experimental values of relative permeability. The new approach results in substantially improved prediction of relative permeability of natural porous media relative to the original Poiseuille equation.

  10. A comparison of magnetic resonance methods for spatially resolved T2 distribution measurements in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vashaee, S.; Marica, F.; Newling, B.; Balcom, B. J.

    2015-05-01

    Naturally occurring porous media are usually characterized by a distribution of pore sizes. If the material is fluid saturated, the 1H magnetic resonance (MR) signal depends on the pore size, the surface relaxivity and the fluid itself. Measurement of the transverse relaxation time T2 is a well-established technique to characterize material samples by means of MR. T2 distribution measurements, including T2 distribution mapping, are widely employed in clinical applications and in petroleum engineering. T2 distribution measurements are the most basic measurement employed to determine the fluid-matrix properties in MR core analysis. Three methods for T2 distribution mapping, namely spin-echo single point imaging (SE-SPI), DANTE-Z Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) and adiabatic inversion CPMG are compared in terms of spatial resolution, minimum observable T2 and sensitivity. Bulk CPMG measurement is considered to be the gold standard for T2 determination. Bulk measurement of uniform samples is compared to the three spatially resolved measurements. SE-SPI is an imaging method, which measures spatially resolved T2s in samples of interest. A variant is introduced in this work that employs pre-equalized magnetic field gradient waveforms and is therefore able to measure shorter T2s than previously reported. DANTE-Z CPMG and adiabatic inversion CPMG are faster, non-imaging, local T2 distribution measurements. The DANTE-Z pulse train and adiabatic inversion pulse are compared in terms of T1 or T2 relaxation time effects during the RF pulse application, minimum pulse duration, requisite RF pulse power, and inversion profile quality. In addition to experimental comparisons, simulation results are presented.

  11. Capillary-Driven Solute Transport and Precipitation in Porous Media during Dry-Out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Holger; Andrew, Matthew; Blunt, Martin; Snippe, Jeroen

    2014-05-01

    The injection of dry or under-saturated gases or supercritical (SC) fluids into water bearing formations might lead to a formation dry-out in the vicinity of the injection well. The dry-out is caused by the evaporation/dissolution of formation water into the injected fluid and the subsequent transport of dissolved water in the injected fluid away from the injection well. Dry-out results in precipitation from solutes of the formation brine and consequently leads to a reduction of the rock's pore space (porosity) and eventually to a reduction of permeability near the injection well, or even to the loss of injectivity. Recently evidence has been found that the complexity of the pore space and the respective capillary driven solute transport plays a key role. While no effective-permeability (Keff) reduction was observed in a single-porosity sandstone, multi porosity carbonate rocks responded to precipitation with a strong reduction of Keff. The reason for the different response of Keff to salt precipitation is suspected to be in the exact location of the precipitate (solid salt) in the pore space. In this study, we investigate dry-out and salt precipitation due to supercritical CO2 injection in single and multi-porosity systems under near well-bore conditions. We image fluid saturation changes by means of μCT scanning during desaturation. We are able to observe capillary driven transport of the brine phase and the respective transport of solutes on the rock's pore scale. Finally we have access to the precipitated solid-salt phase and their distribution. The results can proof the thought models behind permeability porosity relationships K(φ) for injectivity modeling. The topic and the mechanisms we show are of general interest for drying processes in porous material such as soils and paper.

  12. Influence of permeability anisotropy on mixing controlled reactive transport simulations in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiogna, Gabriele; Herrera, Paulo

    2015-04-01

    Several studies have demonstrated how plume deformation induced by flow heterogeneity in porous media can enhance mixing of reactants. This enhancement can have important impact on mixing controlled reactions such a biodegradation of plumes of organic compounds. On the other hand, recent studies have indicated the possibility of observing complex flow topology on groundwater flow that occurs in anisotropic yet homogenous porous media. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that those complex flow topologies can also enhance solute mixing. We study the effect of medium anisotropy on reactive solute transport for the case of a chemical reactor composed of two homogeneous anisotropic layers. We simulate different injection strategies for different chemical reactions that involve two reactants. We demonstrate the effect of the medium anisotropy by analyzing the results of the simulations and identify best strategies for the operation and design of the system to maximize reaction rates. These findings could have potential application in the design of new remediation systems for contaminated groundwater, chemical reactors and other engineering problems that involve flow through porous media.

  13. Impact of space-time mesh adaptation on solute transport modeling in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esfandiar, Bahman; Porta, Giovanni; Perotto, Simona; Guadagnini, Alberto

    2015-02-01

    We implement a space-time grid adaptation procedure to efficiently improve the accuracy of numerical simulations of solute transport in porous media in the context of model parameter estimation. We focus on the Advection Dispersion Equation (ADE) for the interpretation of nonreactive transport experiments in laboratory-scale heterogeneous porous media. When compared to a numerical approximation based on a fixed space-time discretization, our approach is grounded on a joint automatic selection of the spatial grid and the time step to capture the main (space-time) system dynamics. Spatial mesh adaptation is driven by an anisotropic recovery-based error estimator which enables us to properly select the size, shape, and orientation of the mesh elements. Adaptation of the time step is performed through an ad hoc local reconstruction of the temporal derivative of the solution via a recovery-based approach. The impact of the proposed adaptation strategy on the ability to provide reliable estimates of the key parameters of an ADE model is assessed on the basis of experimental solute breakthrough data measured following tracer injection in a nonuniform porous system. Model calibration is performed in a Maximum Likelihood (ML) framework upon relying on the representation of the ADE solution through a generalized Polynomial Chaos Expansion (gPCE). Our results show that the proposed anisotropic space-time grid adaptation leads to ML parameter estimates and to model results of markedly improved quality when compared to classical inversion approaches based on a uniform space-time discretization.

  14. Experimental investigation of transverse mixing in porous media under helical flow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Yu; Chiogna, Gabriele; Cirpka, Olaf A.; Grathwohl, Peter; Rolle, Massimo

    2016-07-01

    Plume dilution and transverse mixing can be considerably enhanced by helical flow occurring in three-dimensional heterogeneous anisotropic porous media. In this study, we perform tracer experiments in a fully three-dimensional flow-through chamber to investigate the effects of helical flow on plume spiraling and deformation, as well as on its dilution. Porous media were packed in angled stripes of materials with different grain sizes to create blocks with macroscopically anisotropic hydraulic conductivity, which caused helical flows. Steady-state transport experiments were carried out by continuously injecting dye tracers at different inlet ports. High-resolution measurements of concentration and flow rates were performed at 49 outlet ports. These measurements allowed quantifying the spreading and dilution of the solute plumes at the outlet cross section. Direct evidence of plume spiraling and visual proof of helical flow was obtained by freezing and slicing the porous media at different cross sections and observing the dye-tracer distribution. We simulated flow and transport to interpret our experimental observations and investigate the effects of helical flow on mixing-controlled reactive transport. The simulation results were evaluated using metrics of reactive mixing such as the critical dilution index and the length of continuously injected steady-state plumes. The results show considerable reaction enhancement, quantified by the remarkable decrease of reactive plume lengths (up to four times) in helical flows compared to analogous scenarios in uniform flows.

  15. Experimental investigation of transverse mixing in porous media under helical flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yu; Chiogna, Gabriele; Cirpka, Olaf A; Grathwohl, Peter; Rolle, Massimo

    2016-07-01

    Plume dilution and transverse mixing can be considerably enhanced by helical flow occurring in three-dimensional heterogeneous anisotropic porous media. In this study, we perform tracer experiments in a fully three-dimensional flow-through chamber to investigate the effects of helical flow on plume spiraling and deformation, as well as on its dilution. Porous media were packed in angled stripes of materials with different grain sizes to create blocks with macroscopically anisotropic hydraulic conductivity, which caused helical flows. Steady-state transport experiments were carried out by continuously injecting dye tracers at different inlet ports. High-resolution measurements of concentration and flow rates were performed at 49 outlet ports. These measurements allowed quantifying the spreading and dilution of the solute plumes at the outlet cross section. Direct evidence of plume spiraling and visual proof of helical flow was obtained by freezing and slicing the porous media at different cross sections and observing the dye-tracer distribution. We simulated flow and transport to interpret our experimental observations and investigate the effects of helical flow on mixing-controlled reactive transport. The simulation results were evaluated using metrics of reactive mixing such as the critical dilution index and the length of continuously injected steady-state plumes. The results show considerable reaction enhancement, quantified by the remarkable decrease of reactive plume lengths (up to four times) in helical flows compared to analogous scenarios in uniform flows. PMID:27575223

  16. Combustion in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, J.

    1999-09-01

    A 2.8-liter tube-shaped combustion vessel was constructed to study flame propagation and quenching in porous media. For this experiment, hydrogen-air flames propagating horizontally into abed of 6 mm diameter glass beads were studied. Measurements of pressure and temperature along the length of the tube were used to observe flame propagation of quenching. The critical hydrogen concentration for Hz-air mixtures was found to be 11.5%, corresponding to a critical Peclet number of Pe* = 37. This value is substantially less than the value of Pe* = 65 quoted in the literature, for example Babkin et al. (1991). It is hypothesized that buoyancy and a dependence of Pe on the Lewis number account for the discrepancy between these two results.

  17. Biogenic Cracks in Porous Rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmerle, A.; Hartung, J.; Hallatschek, O.; Goehring, L.; Herminghaus, S.

    2014-12-01

    Microorganisms growing on and inside porous rock may fracture it by various processes. Some of the mechanisms of biofouling and bioweathering are today identified and partially understood but most emphasis is on chemical weathering, while mechanical contributions have been neglected. However, as demonstrated by the perseverance of a seed germinating and cracking up a concrete block, the turgor pressure of living organisms can be very significant. Here, we present results of a systematic study of the effects of the mechanical forces of growing microbial populations on the weathering of porous media. We designed a model porous medium made of glass beads held together by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a curable polymer. The rheological properties of the porous medium, whose shape and size are tunable, can be controlled by the ratio of crosslinker to base used in the PDMS (see Fig. 1). Glass and PDMS being inert to most chemicals, we are able to focus on the mechanical processes of biodeterioration, excluding any chemical weathering. Inspired by recent measurements of the high pressure (~0.5 Mpa) exerted by a growing population of yeasts trapped in a microfluidic device, we show that yeast cells can be cultured homogeneously within porous medium until saturation of the porous space. We investigate then the effects of such an inner pressure on the mechanical properties of the sample. Using the same model system, we study also the complex interplay between biofilms and porous media. We focus in particular on the effects of pore size on the penetration of the biofilm within the porous sample, and on the resulting deformations of the matrix, opening new perspectives into the understanding of life in complex geometry. Figure 1. Left : cell culture growing in a model porous medium. The white spheres represent the grains, bonds are displayed in grey, and microbes in green. Right: microscopy picture of glass beads linked by PDMS bridges, scale bar: 100 μm.

  18. Testing different formulations of leading-order anisotropic hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinti, Leonardo; Ryblewski, Radoslaw; Florkowski, Wojciech; Strickland, Michael

    2016-02-01

    A recently obtained set of the equations for leading-order (3+1)D anisotropic hydrodynamics is tested against exact solutions of the Boltzmann equation with the collisional kernel treated in the relaxation time approximation. In order to perform detailed comparisons, the new anisotropic hydrodynamics equations are reduced to the boost-invariant and transversally homogeneous case. The agreement with the exact solutions found using the new anisotropic hydrodynamics equations is similar to that found using previous, less general formulations of anisotropic hydrodynamics. In addition, we find that, when compared to a state-of-the-art second-order viscous hydrodynamics framework, leading-order anisotropic hydrodynamics better reproduces the exact solution for the pressure anisotropy and gives comparable results for the bulk pressure evolution. Finally, we compare the transport coefficients obtained using linearized anisotropic hydrodynamics with results obtained using second-order viscous hydrodynamics.

  19. Transport of anisotropic chiral particles in a confined structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Cai-tian; Ou, Ya-li; Wu, Jian-chun; Ai, Bao-quan

    2016-03-01

    Directed transport of anisotropic chiral particles is numerically investigated in the presence of the regular arrays of rigid half-circle obstacles. It is found that due to the rotational-translational coupling, the transport of anisotropic particles is considerably more complicated compared to the isotropic case. For isotropic chiral particles, the transport direction is completely determined by the chirality of particles. However, for anisotropic chiral particles, the competition between the chirality and the anisotropic degree determines the transport direction. For a given chirality, by suitably tailoring parameters (the anisotropic degree and the self-propulsion speed), particles with different anisotropic degrees (or self-propulsion speed) can move in different directions and can be separated.

  20. Analysis of electromagnetic scattering by uniaxial anisotropic bispheres.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng-Jun; Wu, Zhen-Sen; Li, Hai-Ying

    2011-02-01

    Based on the generalized multiparticle Mie theory and the Fourier transformation approach, electromagnetic (EM) scattering of two interacting homogeneous uniaxial anisotropic spheres with parallel primary optical axes is investigated. By introducing the Fourier transformation, the EM fields in the uniaxial anisotropic spheres are expanded in terms of the spherical vector wave functions. The interactive scattering coefficients and the expansion coefficients of the internal fields are derived through the continuous boundary conditions on which the interaction of the bispheres is considered. Some selected calculations on the effects of the size parameter, the uniaxial anisotropic absorbing dielectric, and the sphere separation distance are described. The backward radar cross section of two uniaxial anisotropic spheres with a complex permittivity tensor changing with the sphere separation distance is numerically studied. The authors are hopeful that the work in this paper will help provide an effective calibration for further research on the scattering characteristic of an aggregate of anisotropic spheres or other shaped anisotropic particles. PMID:21293517

  1. Regeneratively Cooled Porous Media Jacket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mungas, Greg (Inventor); Fisher, David J. (Inventor); London, Adam Pollok (Inventor); Fryer, Jack Merrill (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The fluid and heat transfer theory for regenerative cooling of a rocket combustion chamber with a porous media coolant jacket is presented. This model is used to design a regeneratively cooled rocket or other high temperature engine cooling jacket. Cooling jackets comprising impermeable inner and outer walls, and porous media channels are disclosed. Also disclosed are porous media coolant jackets with additional structures designed to transfer heat directly from the inner wall to the outer wall, and structures designed to direct movement of the coolant fluid from the inner wall to the outer wall. Methods of making such jackets are also disclosed.

  2. Light emission from porous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penczek, John

    The continuous evolution of silicon microelectronics has produced significant gains in electronic information processing. However, greater improvements in performance are expected by utilizing optoelectronic techniques. But these techniques have been severely limited in silicon- based optoelectronics due to the lack of an efficient silicon light emitter. The recent observation of efficient light emission from porous silicon offer a promising opportunity to develop a suitable silicon light source that is compatible with silicon microelectronics. This dissertation examined the porous silicon emission mechanism via photoluminescence, and by a novel device structure for porous silicon emitters. The investigation first examined the correlation between porous silicon formation conditions (and subsequent morphology) with the resulting photoluminescence properties. The quantum confinement theory for porous silicon light emission contends that the morphology changes induced by the different formation conditions determine the optical properties of porous silicon. The photoluminescence spectral shifts measured in this study, in conjunction with TEM analysis and published morphological data, lend support to this theory. However, the photoluminescence spectral broadening was attributed to electronic wavefunction coupling between adjacent silicon nanocrystals. An novel device structure was also investigated in an effort to improve current injection into the porous silicon layer. The selective etching properties of porous silicon were used to create a p-i-n structure with crystalline silicon contacts to the porous silicon layer. The resulting device was found to have unique characteristics, with a negative differential resistance region and current-induced emission that spanned from 400 nm to 5500 nm. The negative differential resistance was correlated to resistive heating effects in the device. A numerical analysis of thermal emission spectra from silicon films, in addition to

  3. Relativistic Modelling of Stable Anisotropic Super-Dense Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurya, S. K.; Gupta, Y. K.; Jasim, M. K.

    2015-08-01

    In the present article we have obtained new set of exact solutions of Einstein field equations for anisotropic fluid spheres by using the Herrera et al. [1] algorithm. The anisotropic fluid solutions so obtained join continuously to the Schwarzschild exterior solution across the pressure-free boundary. It is observed that most of the new anisotropic solutions are well-behaved and are used to construct the super-dense star models such as neutron stars and pulsars.

  4. Fabrication and characterization of porous silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Daeyoon; Cho, Soo Gyeong; Moon, Taeho; Sohn, Honglae

    2016-01-01

    We report the synthesis of porous silicon nanowires through the metalassisted chemical etching of porous silicon in a solution of hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The morphology of porous silicon nanowires was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The etch rate of the porous silicon nanowires was faster than that of silicon nanowires, but slower than that of porous silicon. The porous silicon nanowires distributed uniformly on the entire porous silicon layer and the tips of the porous silicon nanowires congregated together. The single crystalline and sponge-like porous structure with the pore diameters of less than 5 nm was confirmed for the porous silicon nanowires. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Seismic Absorption and Modulus Measurements in Porous Rocks Under Fluid and Gas Flow-Physical and Chemical Effects: a Laboratory Study

    SciTech Connect

    Harmut Spetzler

    2005-11-28

    This paper describes the culmination of a research project in which we investigated the complex modulus change in partially fluid saturated porous rocks. The investigation started with simple flow experiments over ''clean'' and ''contaminated'' surfaces, progressed to moduli measurements on partially filled single cracks, to measurements in ''clean'' and ''contaminated'' porous rocks and finally to a feasibility study in the field. For the experiments with the simple geometries we were able to measure fundamental physical properties such as contact angles of the meniscus and time dependent forces required to get the meniscus moving and to keep it moving at various velocities. From the data thus gathered we were able to interpret the complex elastic moduli data we measured in the partially saturated single cracks. While the geometry in real rocks is too complex to make precise calculations we determined that we had indeed identified the mechanisms responsible for the changes in the moduli we had measured. Thus encouraged by the laboratory studies we embarked on a field experiment in the desert of Arizona. The field site allowed for controlled irrigation. Instrumentation for fluid sampling and water penetration were already in place. The porous loosely consolidated rocks at the site were not ideal for finding the effects of the attenuation mechanism we had identified in the lab, but for logistic and cost constraint reasons we chose to field test the idea at that site. Tiltmeters and seismometers were installed and operated nearly continuously for almost 3 years. The field was irrigated with water in the fall of 2003 and with water containing a biosurfactant in the fall of 2004. We have indications that the biosurfactant irrigation has had a notable effect on the tilt data.

  6. Stability conditions for the Bianchi type II anisotropically inflating universes

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, W.F.; Lin, Ing-Chen E-mail: g9522528@oz.nthu.edu.tw

    2009-01-15

    Stability conditions for a class of anisotropically inflating solutions in the Bianchi type II background space are shown explicitly in this paper. These inflating solutions were known to break the cosmic no-hair theorem such that they do not approach the de Sitter universe at large times. It can be shown that unstable modes of the anisotropic perturbations always exist for this class of expanding solutions. As a result, we show that these set of anisotropically expanding solutions are unstable against anisotropic perturbations in the Bianchi type II space.

  7. On uniqueness and non-degeneracy of anisotropic polarons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricaud, Julien

    2016-05-01

    We study the anisotropic Choquard-Pekar equation which describes a polaron in an anisotropic medium. We prove the uniqueness and non-degeneracy of minimizers in a weakly anisotropic medium. In addition, for a wide range of anisotropic media, we derive the symmetry properties of minimizers and prove that the kernel of the associated linearized operator is reduced, apart from three functions coming from the translation invariance, to the kernel on the subspace of functions that are even in each of the three principal directions of the medium.

  8. Relativistic heavy quark spectrum on anisotropic lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Xiaodong

    We report a fully relativistic quenched calculation of the heavy quark spectrum, including both charmonium and bottomonium, using anisotropic lattice QCD. We demonstrate that a fully relativistic treatment of a heavy quark system is well-suited to address the large systematic errors in non-relativistic calculations. In addition, the anisotropic lattice formulation is a very efficient framework for calculations requiring high temporal resolutions. A detailed excited charmonium spectrum is obtained, including both the exotic hybrids (with JPC = 1-+ , 0+-, 2+-) and orbitally excited mesons (with orbital angular momentum up to 3). Using three different lattice spacings (0.197, 0.131, and 0.092 fm), we perform a continuum extrapolation of the spectrum. The lowest lying exotic hybrid 1-+ lies at 4.428(41) GeV, slightly above the D**D (S + P wave) threshold of 4.287 GeV. Another two exotic hybrids 0+- and 2 +- are determined to be 4.70(17) GeV and 4.895(88) GeV, respectively. Our finite volume analysis confirms that our lattices are large enough to accommodate all the excited states reported here. We did the first relativistic calculation of the quenched bottomonium spectrum from anisotropic lattices. Using a very fine discretization in the temporal direction we were able to go beyond the non-relativistic approximation and perform a continuum extrapolation of our results from five different lattice spacings (0.04--0.17 fm) and two anisotropies (4 and 5). We investigate several systematic errors within the quenched approximation and compare our results with those from non-relativistic simulations.

  9. Anisotropic mechanosensing by mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Kurpinski, Kyle; Chu, Julia; Hashi, Craig; Li, Song

    2006-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a potential source for the construction of tissue-engineered vascular grafts. However, how vascular mechanical forces regulate the genetic reprogramming in MSCs is not well understood. Mechanical strain in the vascular wall is anisotropic and mainly in the circumferential direction. We have shown that cyclic uniaxial strain on elastic substrates causes the cells to align perpendicularly to the strain axis, which is different from that in the vascular wall. To simulate the vascular cell alignment and investigate the anisotropic mechanical sensing by MSCs, we used soft lithography to create elastomeric membranes with parallel microgrooves. This topographic pattern kept MSCs aligned parallel to the strain axis, and the cells were subjected to 5% cyclic uniaxial strain (1 Hz) for 2–4 days. DNA microarray analysis revealed global gene expression changes, including an increase in the smooth muscle marker calponin 1, decreases in cartilage matrix markers, and alterations in cell signaling (e.g., down-regulation of the Jagged1 signaling pathway). In addition, uniaxial strain increased MSC proliferation. However, when micropatterning was used to align cells perpendicularly to the axis of mechanical strain, the changes of some genes were diminished, and MSC proliferation was not affected. This study suggests that mechanical strain plays an important role in MSC differentiation and proliferation, and that the effects of mechanotransduction depend on the orientation of cells with respect to the strain axis. The differential cellular responses to the anisotropic mechanical environment have important implications in cardiovascular development, tissue remodeling, and tissue engineering. PMID:17060641

  10. Porous substrates filled with nanomaterials

    DOEpatents

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Stadermann, Michael

    2014-08-19

    A composition comprising: at least one porous carbon monolith, such as a carbon aerogel, comprising internal pores, and at least one nanomaterial, such as carbon nanotubes, disposed uniformly throughout the internal pores. The nanomaterial can be disposed in the middle of the monolith. In addition, a method for making a monolithic solid with both high surface area and good bulk electrical conductivity is provided. A porous substrate having a thickness of 100 microns or more and comprising macropores throughout its thickness is prepared. At least one catalyst is deposited inside the porous substrate. Subsequently, chemical vapor deposition is used to uniformly deposit a nanomaterial in the macropores throughout the thickness of the porous substrate. Applications include electrical energy storage, such as batteries and capacitors, and hydrogen storage.

  11. Capturing poromechanical coupling effects of the reactive fracturing process in porous rock via a DEM-network model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulven, Ole Ivar; Sun, WaiChing

    2016-04-01

    Fluid transport in a porous medium has important implications for understanding natural geological processes. At a sufficiently large scale, a fluid-saturated porous medium can be regarded as a two-phase continuum, with the fluid constituent flowing in the Darcian regime. Nevertheless, a fluid mediated chemical reaction can in some cases change the permeability of the rock locally: Mineral dissolution can cause increased permeability, whereas mineral precipitation can reduce the permeability. This might trigger a complicated hydro-chemo-mechanical coupling effect that causes channeling of fluids or clogging of the system. If the fluid is injected or produced at a sufficiently high rate, the pressure might increase enough to cause the onset and propagation of fractures. Fractures in return create preferential flow paths that enhance permeability, localize fluid flow and chemical reaction, prevent build-up of pore pressure and cause anisotropy of the hydro-mechanical responses of the effective medium. This leads to a complex coupled process of solid deformation, chemical reaction and fluid transport enhanced by the fracture formation. In this work, we develop a new coupled numerical model to study the complexities of feedback among fluid pressure evolution, fracture formation and permeability changes due to a chemical process in a 2D system. We combine a discrete element model (DEM) previously used to study a volume expanding process[1, 2] with a new fluid transport model based on poroelasticity[3] and a fluid-mediated chemical reaction that changes the permeability of the medium. This provides new insights into the hydro-chemo-mechanical process of a transforming porous medium. References [1] Ulven, O. I., Storheim, H., Austrheim, H., and Malthe-Sørenssen, A. "Fracture Initiation During Volume Increasing Reactions in Rocks and Applications for CO2 Sequestration", Earth Planet. Sc. Lett. 389C, 2014a, pp. 132 - 142, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2013.12.039. [2] Ulven, O. I

  12. Anisotropic Tribological Properties of Silicon Carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    The anisotropic friction, deformation and fracture behavior of single crystal silicon carbide surfaces were investigated in two categories. The categories were called adhesive and abrasive wear processes, respectively. In the adhesive wear process, the adhesion, friction and wear of silicon carbide were markedly dependent on crystallographic orientation. The force to reestablish the shearing fracture of adhesive bond at the interface between silicon carbide and metal was the lowest in the preferred orientation of silicon carbide slip system. The fracturing of silicon carbide occurred near the adhesive bond to metal and it was due to primary cleavages of both prismatic (10(-1)0) and basal (0001) planes.

  13. Multichannel image regularization using anisotropic geodesic filtering

    SciTech Connect

    Grazzini, Jacopo A

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends a recent image-dependent regularization approach introduced in aiming at edge-preserving smoothing. For that purpose, geodesic distances equipped with a Riemannian metric need to be estimated in local neighbourhoods. By deriving an appropriate metric from the gradient structure tensor, the associated geodesic paths are constrained to follow salient features in images. Following, we design a generalized anisotropic geodesic filter; incorporating not only a measure of the edge strength, like in the original method, but also further directional information about the image structures. The proposed filter is particularly efficient at smoothing heterogeneous areas while preserving relevant structures in multichannel images.

  14. Anisotropic fiber alignment in composite structures

    DOEpatents

    Graham, A.L.; Mondy, L.A.; Guell, D.C.

    1993-11-16

    High strength material composite structures are formed with oriented fibers to provide controlled anisotropic fibers. Fibers suspended in non-dilute concentrations (e.g., up to 20 volume percent for fibers having an aspect ratio of 20) in a selected medium are oriented by moving an axially spaced array of elements in the direction of desired fiber alignment. The array elements are generally perpendicular to the desired orientation. The suspension medium may also include sphere-like particles where the resulting material is a ceramic. 5 figures.

  15. Anisotropic fiber alignment in composite structures

    DOEpatents

    Graham, Alan L.; Mondy, Lisa A.; Guell, David C.

    1993-01-01

    High strength material composite structures are formed with oriented fibers to provide controlled anisotropic fibers. Fibers suspended in non-dilute concentrations (e.g., up to 20 volume percent for fibers having an aspect ratio of 20) in a selected medium are oriented by moving an axially spaced array of elements in the direction of desired fiber alignment. The array elements are generally perpendicular to the desired orientation. The suspension medium may also include sphere-like particles where the resulting material is a ceramic.

  16. Glueball spectrum from an anisotropic lattice study

    SciTech Connect

    Morningstar, C.J.; Peardon, M.

    1999-08-01

    The spectrum of glueballs below 4 GeV in the SU(3) pure-gauge theory is investigated using Monte Carlo simulations of gluons on several anisotropic lattices with spatial grid separations ranging from 0.1 to 0.4 fm. Systematic errors from discretization and finite volume are studied, and the continuum spin quantum numbers are identified. Care is taken to distinguish single glueball states from two-glueball and torelon-pair states. Our determination of the spectrum significantly improves upon previous Wilson action calculations. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  17. Watertight Anisotropic Surface Meshing Using Quadrilateral Patches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haimes, Robert; Aftosmis, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a simple technique for generating anisotropic surface triangulations using unstructured quadrilaterals when the CAD entity can be mapped to a logical rectangle. Watertightness and geometric quality measures are maintained and are consistent with the CAPRI default tessellator. These triangulations can match user specified criteria for chord-height tolerance, neighbor triangle dihedral angle, and maximum triangle side length. This discrete representation has hooks back to the owning geometry and therefore can be used in conjunction with these entities to allow for easy enhancement or modification of the tessellation suitable for grid generation or other downstream applications.

  18. Anisotropic perturbations due to dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battye, Richard A.; Moss, Adam

    2006-08-01

    A variety of observational tests seem to suggest that the Universe is anisotropic. This is incompatible with the standard dogma based on adiabatic, rotationally invariant perturbations. We point out that this is a consequence of the standard decomposition of the stress-energy tensor for the cosmological fluids, and that rotational invariance need not be assumed, if there is elastic rigidity in the dark energy. The dark energy required to achieve this might be provided by point symmetric domain wall network with P/ρ=-2/3, although the concept is more general. We illustrate this with reference to a model with cubic symmetry and discuss various aspects of the model.

  19. Some analytical models of anisotropic strange stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murad, Mohammad Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Over the years of the concept of local isotropy has become a too stringent condition in modeling relativistic self-gravitating objects. Taking local anisotropy into consideration, in this work, some analytical models of relativistic anisotropic charged strange stars have been developed. The Einstein-Maxwell gravitational field equations have been solved with a particular form of one of the metric potentials. The radial pressure and the energy density have been assumed to follow the usual linear equation of state of strange quark matter, the MIT bag model.

  20. Laminated anisotropic reinforced plastic plates and shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korolev, V. I.

    1981-01-01

    Basic technical theories and engineering calculation equations for anisotropic plates and shells made of rigid reinforced plastics, mainly laminated fiberglass, are presented and discussed. Solutions are given for many problems of design of structural plates and shells, including curved sections and tanks, as well as two chapters on selection of the optimum materials, are given. Accounting for interlayer shearing and transverse separation, which are new engineering properties, are discussed. Application of the results obtained to thin three ply plates and shells wth a light elastic filler is presented and discussed.

  1. Anisotropic de Gennes Narrowing in Confined Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nygârd, Kim; Buitenhuis, Johan; Kagias, Matias; Jefimovs, Konstantins; Zontone, Federico; Chushkin, Yuriy

    2016-04-01

    The collective diffusion of dense fluids in spatial confinement is studied by combining high-energy (21 keV) x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and small-angle x-ray scattering from colloid-filled microfluidic channels. We find the structural relaxation in confinement to be slower compared to the bulk. The collective dynamics is wave vector dependent, akin to the de Gennes narrowing typically observed in bulk fluids. However, in stark contrast to the bulk, the structure factor and de Gennes narrowing in confinement are anisotropic. These experimental observations are essential in order to develop a microscopic theoretical description of collective diffusion of dense fluids in confined geometries.

  2. Vector anisotropic filter for multispectral image denoising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Said, Ahmed; Foufou, Sebti; Hadjidj, Rachid

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we propose an approach to extend the application of anisotropic Gaussian filtering for multi- spectral image denoising. We study the case of images corrupted with additive Gaussian noise and use sparse matrix transform for noise covariance matrix estimation. Specifically we show that if an image has a low local variability, we can make the assumption that in the noisy image, the local variability originates from the noise variance only. We apply the proposed approach for the denoising of multispectral images corrupted by noise and compare the proposed method with some existing methods. Results demonstrate an improvement in the denoising performance.

  3. Chromo-natural model in anisotropic background

    SciTech Connect

    Maleknejad, Azadeh; Erfani, Encieh E-mail: eerfani@ipm.ir

    2014-03-01

    In this work we study the chromo-natural inflation model in the anisotropic setup. Initiating inflation from Bianchi type-I cosmology, we analyze the system thoroughly during the slow-roll inflation, from both analytical and numerical points of view. We show that the isotropic FRW inflation is an attractor of the system. In other words, anisotropies are damped within few e-folds and the chromo-natural model respects the cosmic no-hair conjecture. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in the slow-roll limit, the anisotropies in both chromo-natural and gauge-flation models share the same dynamics.

  4. Coarsening dynamics in elastically anisotropic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Pfau, B.; Stadler, L.-M.; Sepiol, B.; Vogl, G.; Weinkamer, R.; Kantelhardt, J. W.; Zontone, F.

    2006-05-01

    We study in situ the coarsening dynamics in elastically anisotropic phase-separating alloys, taking advantage of coherent x rays. Temporally fluctuating speckle intensities are analyzed for two different Ni-Al-Mo samples with different lattice misfits between precipitates and matrix. The detected long-term correlations depend not only on the norm but strongly on the direction of the scattering vector--an unambiguous proof of direction-dependent coarsening dynamics. For strong lattice misfits, our results indicate coalescence of precipitates in the {l_brace}100{r_brace} planes.

  5. Local thermodynamics of a magnetized, anisotropic plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Hazeltine, R. D.; Mahajan, S. M.; Morrison, P. J.

    2013-02-15

    An expression for the internal energy of a fluid element in a weakly coupled, magnetized, anisotropic plasma is derived from first principles. The result is a function of entropy, particle density and magnetic field, and as such plays the role of a thermodynamic potential: it determines in principle all thermodynamic properties of the fluid element. In particular it provides equations of state for the magnetized plasma. The derivation uses familiar fluid equations, a few elements of kinetic theory, the MHD version of Faraday's law, and certain familiar stability and regularity conditions.

  6. A transitioning universe with anisotropic dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Anil Kumar

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we present a model of transitioning universe with minimal interaction between perfect fluid and anisotropic dark energy in Bianchi I space-time. The two sources are assumed to minimally interacted and therefore their energy momentum tensors are conserved separately. The explicit expression for average scale factor are considered in hybrid form that gives time varying deceleration parameter which describes both the early and late time physical features of universe. We also discuss the physical and geometrical properties of the model derived in this paper. The solution is interesting physically as it explain accelerating universe as well as singularity free universe.

  7. Generalized anisotropic turbulence spectra and applications in the optical waves' propagation through anisotropic turbulence.

    PubMed

    Cui, Linyan; Xue, Bindang; Zhou, Fugen

    2015-11-16

    Theoretical and experimental investigations have shown that the atmospheric turbulence exhibits both anisotropic and non-Kolmogorov properties. In this work, two theoretical atmosphere refractive-index fluctuations spectral models are derived for optical waves propagating through anisotropic non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence. They consider simultaneously the finite turbulence inner and outer scales and the asymmetric property of turbulence eddies in the orthogonal xy-plane throughout the path. Two anisotropy factors which parameterize the asymmetry of turbulence eddies in both horizontal and vertical directions are introduced in the orthogonal xy-plane, so that the circular symmetry assumption of turbulence eddies in the xy-plane is no longer required. Deviations from the classic 11/3 power law behavior in the spectrum model are also allowed by assuming power law value variations between 3 and 4. Based on the derived anisotropic spectral model and the Rytov approximation theory, expressions for the variance of angle of arrival (AOA) fluctuations are derived for optical plane and spherical waves propagating through weak anisotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulence. Calculations are performed to analyze the derived spectral models and the variance of AOA fluctuations. PMID:26698490

  8. A Direct Comparison between the Negative and Positive Effects of Throughflow on the Thermal Convection in an Anisotropy and Symmetry Porous Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harfash, Akil J.; Alshara, Ahmed K.

    2015-05-01

    The linear and nonlinear stability analysis of the motionless state (conduction solution) and of a vertical throughflow in an anisotropic porous medium are tested. In particular, the effect of a nonhomogeneous porosity and a constant anisotropic thermal diffusivity have been taken into account. Then, the accuracy of the linear instability thresholds are tested using a three dimensional simulation. It is shown that the strong stabilising effect of gravity field. Moreover, the results support the assertion that the linear theory, in general, is accurate in predicting the onset of convective motion, and thus, regions of stability.

  9. Porous light-emitting compositions

    DOEpatents

    Burrell, Anthony K.; McCleskey, Thomas Mark; Jia, Quanxi; Bauer, Eve; Mueller, Alexander H.

    2012-04-17

    Light-emitting devices are prepared by coating a porous substrate using a polymer-assisted deposition process. Solutions of metal precursor and soluble polymers having binding properties for metal precursor were coated onto porous substrates. The coated substrates were heated at high temperatures under a suitable atmosphere. The result was a substrate with a conformal coating that did not substantially block the pores of the substrate.

  10. Additively manufactured porous tantalum implants.

    PubMed

    Wauthle, Ruben; van der Stok, Johan; Amin Yavari, Saber; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Kruth, Jean-Pierre; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas; Weinans, Harrie; Mulier, Michiel; Schrooten, Jan

    2015-03-01

    The medical device industry's interest in open porous, metallic biomaterials has increased in response to additive manufacturing techniques enabling the production of complex shapes that cannot be produced with conventional techniques. Tantalum is an important metal for medical devices because of its good biocompatibility. In this study selective laser melting technology was used for the first time to manufacture highly porous pure tantalum implants with fully interconnected open pores. The architecture of the porous structure in combination with the material properties of tantalum result in mechanical properties close to those of human bone and allow for bone ingrowth. The bone regeneration performance of the porous tantalum was evaluated in vivo using an orthotopic load-bearing bone defect model in the rat femur. After 12 weeks, substantial bone ingrowth, good quality of the regenerated bone and a strong, functional implant-bone interface connection were observed. Compared to identical porous Ti-6Al-4V structures, laser-melted tantalum shows excellent osteoconductive properties, has a higher normalized fatigue strength and allows for more plastic deformation due to its high ductility. It is therefore concluded that this is a first step towards a new generation of open porous tantalum implants manufactured using selective laser melting. PMID:25500631

  11. Steady Counterflow he II Heat Transfer Through Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalban-Canassy, M.; Van Sciver, S. W.

    2010-04-01

    We present steady state counterflow measurements performed on porous samples saturated in He II. The experiment is composed of a vacuum insulated open channel whose top extremity is closed to a Minco® heater. The temperature and pressure differences across the plug are measured by two germanium TTR-G Microsensors® thermometers and a Validyne DP10-20 differential pressure sensor. Applied heat fluxes range up to 0.5 kW/m2 of sample cross section. Measurements were performed at temperatures ranging from 1.7 to 2.1 K on highly anisotropic samples provided by Composite Technology Development Inc.: circular pellets (3.08 mm thick and 28.58 mm in diameter) of 20 compressed layers of pre-impregnated woven magnet insulation. In the laminar regime, the permeability is estimated from the pressure drop measurements for comparison with room temperature data. In the turbulent regime, the model based on tortuosity developed previously fails to describe the heat transfer behavior of He II in this type of porous medium.

  12. STEADY COUNTERFLOW HE II HEAT TRANSFER THROUGH POROUS MEDIA

    SciTech Connect

    Dalban-Canassy, M.; Van Sciver, S. W.

    2010-04-09

    We present steady state counterflow measurements performed on porous samples saturated in He II. The experiment is composed of a vacuum insulated open channel whose top extremity is closed to a Minco registered heater. The temperature and pressure differences across the plug are measured by two germanium TTR-G Microsensors registered thermometers and a Validyne DP10-20 differential pressure sensor. Applied heat fluxes range up to 0.5 kW/m{sup 2} of sample cross section. Measurements were performed at temperatures ranging from 1.7 to 2.1 K on highly anisotropic samples provided by Composite Technology Development Inc.: circular pellets (3.08 mm thick and 28.58 mm in diameter) of 20 compressed layers of pre-impregnated woven magnet insulation. In the laminar regime, the permeability is estimated from the pressure drop measurements for comparison with room temperature data. In the turbulent regime, the model based on tortuosity developed previously fails to describe the heat transfer behavior of He II in this type of porous medium.

  13. Two-Dimensional Phosphorus Porous Polymorphs with Tunable Band Gaps.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Zhiwen; Wu, Xiaojun; Yang, Jinlong

    2016-06-01

    Exploring stable two-dimensional (2D) crystalline structures of phosphorus with tunable properties is of considerable importance partly due to the novel anisotropic behavior in phosphorene and potential applications in high-performance devices. Here, 21 new 2D phosphorus allotropes with porous structure are reported based on topological modeling method and first-principles calculations. We establish that stable 2D phosphorus crystals can be obtained by topologically assembling selected phosphorus monomer, dimer, trimer, tetramer, and hexamer. Nine of reported structures are predicted to be more stable than white phosphorus. Their dynamic and thermal stabilities are confirmed by the calculated vibration spectra and Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamic simulation at temperatures up to 1500 K. These phosphorus porous polymorphs have isotropic mechanic properties that are significantly softer than phosphorene. The electronic band structures calculated with the HSE06 method indicate that new structures are semiconductors with band gaps ranging widely from 0.15 to 3.42 eV, which are tuned by the basic units assembled in the network. Of particular importance is that the position of both conduction and valence band edges of some allotropes matches well with the chemical reaction potential of H2/H(+) and O2/H2O, which can be used as element photocatalysts for visible-light-driven water splitting. PMID:27171121

  14. A POROUS, LAYERED HELIOPAUSE

    SciTech Connect

    Swisdak, M.; Drake, J. F.; Opher, M. E-mail: drake@umd.edu

    2013-09-01

    The picture of the heliopause (HP)-the boundary between the domains of the Sun and the local interstellar medium (LISM)-as a pristine interface with a large rotation in the magnetic field fails to describe recent Voyager 1 (V1) data. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the global heliosphere reveal that the rotation angle of the magnetic field across the HP at V1 is small. Particle-in-cell simulations, based on cuts through the MHD model at V1's location, suggest that the sectored region of the heliosheath (HS) produces large-scale magnetic islands that reconnect with the interstellar magnetic field while mixing LISM and HS plasma. Cuts across the simulation reveal multiple, anti-correlated jumps in the number densities of LISM and HS particles, similar to those observed, at the magnetic separatrices. A model is presented, based on both the observations and simulations, of the HP as a porous, multi-layered structure threaded by magnetic fields. This model further suggests that contrary to the conclusions of recent papers, V1 has already crossed the HP.

  15. Anisotropic texture of ice sheet surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Benjamin E.; Raymond, Charles F.; Scambos, Theodore

    2006-03-01

    In this paper we analyze the magnitude and spatial organization of small-scale surface features (the surface texture) of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. The texture is revealed in shaded relief maps of digital elevation models because surface slopes emphasize short-wavelength topography. We show that the surface slope components parallel to and perpendicular to the ice flow direction of ice sheets are both qualitatively and quantitatively different from one another. The parallel component variations are larger in magnitude than the perpendicular component variations, and features in maps of the parallel component are elongated perpendicular to the ice flow direction, while features in maps of the perpendicular component are elongated at a diagonal to the ice flow direction. These properties may be explained by a simple model of glacier dynamics in which a linearly viscous slab of ice flows over a random, isotropic, red noise bed. In this model an anisotropic surface results from an isotropic bed because the surface anisotropy derives from the anisotropic transfer of bed topography to the surface by viscous flow dynamics. The modeling results suggest that analysis of surface texture magnitude and anisotropy can be used to identify areas of sliding ice from surface topography data alone and can be used to roughly estimate sliding rates where bed topography is known.

  16. New formulation of leading order anisotropic hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinti, Leonardo

    2015-05-01

    Anisotropic hydrodynamics is a reorganization of the relativistic hydrodynamics expansion, with the leading order already containing substantial momentum-space anisotropies. The latter are a cause of concern in the traditional viscous hydrodynamics, since large momentum anisotropies generated in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions are not consistent with the hypothesis of small deviations from an isotropic background, i.e., from the local equilibrium distribution. We discuss the leading order of the expansion, presenting a new formulation for the (1+1)- dimensional case, namely, for the longitudinally boost invariant and cylindrically symmetric flow. This new approach is consistent with the well established framework of Israel and Stewart in the close to equilibrium limit (where we expect viscous hydrodynamics to work well). If we consider the (0+1)-dimensional case, that is, transversally homogeneous and longitudinally boost invariant flow, the new form of anisotropic hydrodynamics leads to better agreement with known solutions of the Boltzmann equation than the previous formulations, especially when we consider massive particles.

  17. Gravitomagnetic Instabilities in Anisotropically Expanding Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleidis, Kostas; Kuiroukidis, Apostolos; Papadopoulos, Demetrios B.; Vlahos, Loukas

    Gravitational instabilities in a magnetized Friedman-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe, in which the magnetic field was assumed to be too weak to destroy the isotropy of the model, are known and have been studied in the past. Accordingly, it became evident that the external magnetic field disfavors the perturbations' growth, suppressing the corresponding rate by an amount proportional to its strength. However, the spatial isotropy of the FRW universe is not compatible with the presence of large-scale magnetic fields. Therefore, in this paper we use the general-relativistic version of the (linearized) perturbed magnetohydrodynamic equations with and without resistivity, to discuss a generalized Jeans criterion and the potential formation of density condensations within a class of homogeneous and anisotropically expanding, self-gravitating, magnetized fluids in curved space-time. We find that, for a wide variety of anisotropic cosmological models, gravitomagnetic instabilities can lead to subhorizontal, magnetized condensations. In the nonresistive case, the power spectrum of the unstable cosmological perturbations suggests that most of the power is concentrated on large scales (small k), very close to the horizon. On the other hand, in a resistive medium, the critical wave-numbers so obtained, exhibit a delicate dependence on resistivity, resulting in the reduction of the corresponding Jeans lengths to smaller scales (well bellow the horizon) than the nonresistive ones, while increasing the range of cosmological models which admit such an instability.

  18. Anisotropic interpolation of sparse generalized image samples.

    PubMed

    Bourquard, Aurélien; Unser, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Practical image-acquisition systems are often modeled as a continuous-domain prefilter followed by an ideal sampler, where generalized samples are obtained after convolution with the impulse response of the device. In this paper, our goal is to interpolate images from a given subset of such samples. We express our solution in the continuous domain, considering consistent resampling as a data-fidelity constraint. To make the problem well posed and ensure edge-preserving solutions, we develop an efficient anisotropic regularization approach that is based on an improved version of the edge-enhancing anisotropic diffusion equation. Following variational principles, our reconstruction algorithm minimizes successive quadratic cost functionals. To ensure fast convergence, we solve the corresponding sequence of linear problems by using multigrid iterations that are specifically tailored to their sparse structure. We conduct illustrative experiments and discuss the potential of our approach both in terms of algorithmic design and reconstruction quality. In particular, we present results that use as little as 2% of the image samples. PMID:22968212

  19. Real ray tracing in anisotropic viscoelastic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavryčuk, Václav

    2008-11-01

    Ray tracing equations applicable to smoothly inhomogeneous anisotropic viscoelastic media are derived. The equations produce real rays, in contrast to previous ray-theoretical approaches, which deal with complex rays. The real rays are defined as the solutions of the Hamilton equations, with the Hamiltonian modified for viscoelastic media, and physically correspond to trajectories of high-frequency waves characterized by a real stationary phase. As a consequence, the complex eikonal equation is satisfied only approximately. The ray tracing equations are valid for weakly and moderately attenuating media. The rays are frequency-dependent and must be calculated for each frequency, separately. Solving the ray tracing equations in viscoelastic anisotropy is more time consuming than in elastic anisotropy. The main difficulty is with determining the stationary slowness vector, which is generally complex-valued and inhomogeneous and must be computed at each time step of the ray tracing procedure. In viscoelastic isotropy, the ray tracing equations considerably simplify, because the stationary slowness vector is homogeneous. The computational time for tracing rays in isotropic elastic and viscoelastic media is the same. Using numerical examples, it is shown that ray fields in weakly attenuating media (Q higher than about 30) are almost indistinguishable from those in elastic media. For moderately attenuating anisotropic media (Q between 5-20), the differences in ray fields can be visible and significant.

  20. Electromagnetic properties of anisotropic plasmonic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elser, Justin Lee

    In this dissertation we study the electromagnetic properties of plasmonic metamaterials. We develop an analytical description to solve the fundamental problem of free-space scattering in planar plasmonic systems by utilizing anisotropic metamaterials. We show with exact numerical simulations that these manufactured materials do completely eliminate the scattering, and even in the case of fabrication defects the scattering is greatly minimized. We further show that the standard effective medium theory calculations for the cases of anisotropic metamaterials constructed of metal-dielectric layers fails to account for nonlocal effects in the cases where the constituent materials have large differences in permittivity. We show how it is possible to construct a plasmon waveguide out of such a structure and describe a new naming scheme based on the bulk plasmon modes that are supported. Finally, we study the effective medium theory applied to the case of plasmonic wires embedded in a dielectric host. We describe the effect the geometric properties of the structure has on effective permittivities. For example, we show that a 10% stretching/compression of the distance between nanowires can change the sign of elements of the permittivity tensor. These results can be applied to high-performance optical sensing, optical polarizers, novel lenses including the hyper- and superlenses, and subdiffraction imaging.

  1. Finite-difference schemes for anisotropic diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Es, Bram van; Koren, Barry; Blank, Hugo J. de

    2014-09-01

    In fusion plasmas diffusion tensors are extremely anisotropic due to the high temperature and large magnetic field strength. This causes diffusion, heat conduction, and viscous momentum loss, to effectively be aligned with the magnetic field lines. This alignment leads to different values for the respective diffusive coefficients in the magnetic field direction and in the perpendicular direction, to the extent that heat diffusion coefficients can be up to 10{sup 12} times larger in the parallel direction than in the perpendicular direction. This anisotropy puts stringent requirements on the numerical methods used to approximate the MHD-equations since any misalignment of the grid may cause the perpendicular diffusion to be polluted by the numerical error in approximating the parallel diffusion. Currently the common approach is to apply magnetic field-aligned coordinates, an approach that automatically takes care of the directionality of the diffusive coefficients. This approach runs into problems at x-points and at points where there is magnetic re-connection, since this causes local non-alignment. It is therefore useful to consider numerical schemes that are tolerant to the misalignment of the grid with the magnetic field lines, both to improve existing methods and to help open the possibility of applying regular non-aligned grids. To investigate this, in this paper several discretization schemes are developed and applied to the anisotropic heat diffusion equation on a non-aligned grid.

  2. Multiscale porous fuel cell electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Hao

    Porous electrodes are widely used in fuel cells to enhance electrode performance due to their high surface area. Increasingly, such electrodes are designed with both micro-scale and nano-scale features. In the current work, carbon based porous materials have been synthesized and utilized as bioelectrode support for biofuel cells, analysis of such porous electrodes via rotating disk electrode has been enhanced by a numerical model that considers diffusion and convection within porous media. Finally, porous perovskite metal oxide cathodes for solid oxide fuel cell have been modeled to simulate impedance response data obtained from symmetric cells. Carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFME) were fabricated to mimic the microenvironment of carbon fiber paper based porous electrodes. They were also miniature electrodes for small-scale applications. As observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), carbon nanotubes (CNTs) formed a homogeneously intertwined matrix. Biocatalysts can fully infiltrate this matrix to form a composite, with a significantly enhanced glucose oxidation current---that is 6.4 fold higher than the bare carbon fiber electrodes. Based on the CNT based porous matrix, polystyrene beads of uniform diameter at 500 nm were used as template to tune the porous structure and enhance biomolecule transport. Focused ion beam (FIB) was used to observe the morphology both at the surface and the cross-section. It has been shown that the template macro-pores enhanced the fuel transport and the current density has been doubled due to the improvement. Like commonly used rotating disk electrode, the porous rotating disk electrode is a system with analytically solved flow field. Although models were proposed previously with first order kinetics and convection as the only mass transport at high rotations, some recent findings indicated that diffusion could play an important role at all disk rotation rates. In the current proposed model, enzymatic kinetics that follow a Ping

  3. Anisotropic artificial substrates for microwave applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahvarpour, Attieh

    The perfect electromagnetic conductor (PEMC) boundary is a novel fundamental electromagnetic concept. It is a generalized description of the electromagnetic boundary conditions including the perfect electric conductor (PEC) and the perfect magnetic conductor (PMC) and due to its fundamental properties, it has the potential of enabling several electromagnetic applications. However, the PEMC boundaries concept had remained at the theoretical level and has not been practically realized. Therefore, motivated by the importance of this electromagnetic fundamental concept and its potential applications, the first contribution of this thesis is focused on the practical implementation of the PEMC boundaries by exploiting Faraday rotation principle and ground reflection in the ferrite materials which are intrinsically anisotropic. As a result, this thesis reports the first practical approach for the realization of PEMC boundaries. A generalized scattering matrix (GSM) is used for the analysis of the grounded-ferrite PEMC boundaries structure. As an application of the PEMC boundaries, a transverse electromagnetic (TEM) waveguide is experimentally demonstrated using grounded ferrite PMC (as particular case of the PEMC boundaries) side walls. Perfect electromagnetic conductor boundaries may find applications in various types of sensors, reflectors, polarization convertors and polarization-based radio frequency identifiers. Leaky-wave antennas perform as high directivity and frequency beam scanning antennas and as a result they enable applications in radar, point-to-point communications and MIMO systems. The second contribution of this thesis is introducing and analysing a novel broadband and highly directive two-dimensional leaky-wave antenna. This antenna operates differently in the lower and higher frequency ranges. Toward its lower frequencies, it allows full-space conical-beam scanning while at higher frequencies, it provides fixed-beam radiation (at a designable angle

  4. Anisotropic superfluidity in a dipolar Bose gas

    SciTech Connect

    Ticknor, Christopher; Wilson, Ryan M; Bohn, John L

    2010-11-04

    so that the in-plane interaction is anisotropic. By induding repulsive contact interactions to ensure a stable system, we perform direct numeric simulations of an obstacle moving through the system in directions parallel and perpendicular to the tilt of the dipoles. We observe a distinct anisotropic superfluid response in these cases, both for dissipation into quasipartides and topological excitations (vortices), in the form of an anisotropic critical velocity that is larger in the direction of the dipole tilt than in the perpendicular direction. Interestingly, we find that, while the roton displays an anisotropic character, the speed of sound in the systrm is isotropic. Thus, we characterize the DBEC as an fmisotropic superfluid while illuminating the crucial role that the roton plays in this anisotropic behavior.

  5. Effect of supermolecular structure on oil filtration in a porous medium

    SciTech Connect

    Gal`tsev, V.E.; Ametov, I.M.; Dzyubenko, E.M.

    1995-09-01

    The formation of supermolecular structures during the adsorption of a tar-asphaltene fraction on the surface of grains of rock-forming materials in a porous medium was studied. The effect of these structures on the character of oil filtration in a porous medium is established. The filamentary structures formed have a diameter of 20 to 40 {angstrom}, corresponding to the size of asphaltene associates, and exhibit preferred orientation with a tilt in the direction opposite to the direction of flow. Some residual orientation of filaments is retained upon a change in the direction of flow. On the basis of ENDOR data, a model of a spatially anisotropic asphaltene micelle in oil was developed, which explains the observed character of coagulation and the formation of filamentary structures.

  6. Method for anisotropic etching in the manufacture of semiconductor devices

    DOEpatents

    Koontz, Steven L.; Cross, Jon B.

    1993-01-01

    Hydrocarbon polymer coatings used in microelectronic manufacturing processes are anisotropically etched by atomic oxygen beams (translational energies of 0.2-20 eV, preferably 1-10 eV). Etching with hyperthermal (kinetic energy>1 eV) oxygen atom species obtains highly anisotropic etching with sharp boundaries between etched and mask-protected areas.

  7. Method for anisotropic etching in the manufacture of semiconductor devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven L. (Inventor); Cross, Jon B. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Hydrocarbon polymer coatings used in microelectronic manufacturing processes are anisotropically etched by hyperthermal atomic oxygen beams (translational energies of 0.2 to 20 eV, preferably 1 to 10 eV). Etching with hyperthermal oxygen atom species obtains highly anisotropic etching with sharp boundaries between etched and mask protected areas.

  8. Optical isotropy at terahertz frequencies using anisotropic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, In-Sung; Sohn, Ik-Bu; Kang, Chul; Kee, Chul-Sik; Yang, Jin-Kyu; Lee, Joong Wook

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate optically isotropic filters in the terahertz (THz) frequency range using structurally anisotropic metamaterials. The proposed metamaterials with two-dimensional arrangements of anisotropic H-shaped apertures show polarization-independent transmission due to the combined effects of the dipole resonances of resonators and antennas. Our results may offer the potential for the design and realization of versatile THz devices and systems.

  9. Anisotropic microporous supports impregnated with polymeric ion-exchange materials

    DOEpatents

    Friesen, Dwayne; Babcock, Walter C.; Tuttle, Mark

    1985-05-07

    Novel ion-exchange media are disclosed, the media comprising polymeric anisotropic microporous supports containing polymeric ion-exchange or ion-complexing materials. The supports are anisotropic, having small exterior pores and larger interior pores, and are preferably in the form of beads, fibers and sheets.

  10. Anisotropic microporous supports impregnated with polymeric ion-exchange materials

    DOEpatents

    Friesen, D.; Babcock, W.C.; Tuttle, M.

    1985-05-07

    Novel ion-exchange media are disclosed, the media comprising polymeric anisotropic microporous supports containing polymeric ion-exchange or ion-complexing materials. The supports are anisotropic, having small exterior pores and larger interior pores, and are preferably in the form of beads, fibers and sheets. 5 figs.

  11. Long-Range Surface Plasmons on Highly Anisotropic Dielectric Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumen, L.; Nagaraj; Neogi, A.; Krokhin, A.

    We calculate the propagation length of surface plasmons in metal-dielectric structures with anisotropic substrates. We show that the Joule losses can be minimized by appropriate orientation of the optical axis of a birefringent substrate and that the favorable orientation of the axis depends on ω. A simple Kronig-Penney model for anisotropic plasmonic crystal is also proposed.

  12. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of solute transport in heterogeneous porous media with conduits to estimate macroscopic continuous time random walk model parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Anwar, S.; Cortis, A.; Sukop, M.

    2008-10-20

    Lattice Boltzmann models simulate solute transport in porous media traversed by conduits. Resulting solute breakthrough curves are fitted with Continuous Time Random Walk models. Porous media are simulated by damping flow inertia and, when the damping is large enough, a Darcy's Law solution instead of the Navier-Stokes solution normally provided by the lattice Boltzmann model is obtained. Anisotropic dispersion is incorporated using a direction-dependent relaxation time. Our particular interest is to simulate transport processes outside the applicability of the standard Advection-Dispersion Equation (ADE) including eddy mixing in conduits. The ADE fails to adequately fit any of these breakthrough curves.

  13. Porous materials with high negative Poisson’s ratios—a mechanism based material design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwangwon; Ju, Jaehyung; Kim, Doo-Man

    2013-08-01

    In an effort to tailor functional materials with customized anisotropic properties—stiffness and yield strain, we propose porous materials consisting of flexible mesostructures designed from the deformation of a re-entrant auxetic honeycomb and compliant mechanisms. Using an analogy between compliant mechanisms and a cellular material’s deformation, we can tailor the in-plane properties of mesostructures; low stiffness and high strain in one direction and high stiffness and low strain in the other direction. An analytical model is developed to obtain the effective moduli and yield strains of the porous materials by combining the kinematics of a rigid link mechanism and deformation of flexure hinges. A numerical technique is implemented with the analytical model for the nonlinear constitutive relations of the mesostructures and their strain-dependent Poisson’s ratios. A finite element analysis (FEA) is used to validate the analytical and numerical models. The designed moduli and yield strain of porous materials with an aluminum alloy are 2 GPa and 0.28% in one direction and 0.2 MPa and 28% in the other direction. These porous materials with mesostructures have high negative Poisson’s ratios, {\

  14. Fabrication of a porous membrane for the gas pre-combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuermann, Joerg; Boedecker, Andre; Splinter, Alexandra; Benecke, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a micro reactor, which consists of a permeable membrane fabricated by silicon micro machining technology. The fabrication process is a combination of anisotropic silicon etching (wet etching and dry etching) and porous silicon technology. To avoid a reaction chamber with a high dead volume, we have realised a permeable membrane in conjunction with porous silicon to achieve a high surface to volume ratio, impregnated with palladium or platinum. For the activation of the heterogeneous reaction on the surface of the catalytic material a heating element around the permeable membrane, which is thermally decoupled with a porous silicon well of the surrounding bulk material is realised. The gas flows through the membrane and reacts during the passing time. The reaction time for gases depends on the membrane thickness and the active surface of the porous silicon. The application is the integration into a gas analysing system combined with a gas sensor array, a gas chromatographic system, microvalves, and calibration units mounted all on a pneumatic motherboard.

  15. Continuum-mechanical, Anisotropic Flow model for polar ice masses, based on an anisotropic Flow Enhancement factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Placidi, Luca; Greve, Ralf; Seddik, Hakime; Faria, Sérgio H.

    2010-03-01

    A complete theoretical presentation of the Continuum-mechanical, Anisotropic Flow model, based on an anisotropic Flow Enhancement factor (CAFFE model) is given. The CAFFE model is an application of the theory of mixtures with continuous diversity for the case of large polar ice masses in which induced anisotropy occurs. The anisotropic response of the polycrystalline ice is described by a generalization of Glen’s flow law, based on a scalar anisotropic enhancement factor. The enhancement factor depends on the orientation mass density, which is closely related to the orientation distribution function and describes the distribution of grain orientations (fabric). Fabric evolution is governed by the orientation mass balance, which depends on four distinct effects, interpreted as local rigid body rotation, grain rotation, rotation recrystallization (polygonization) and grain boundary migration (migration recrystallization), respectively. It is proven that the flow law of the CAFFE model is truly anisotropic despite the collinearity between the stress deviator and stretching tensors.

  16. Anisotropic de Gennes Narrowing in Confined Fluids.

    PubMed

    Nygård, Kim; Buitenhuis, Johan; Kagias, Matias; Jefimovs, Konstantins; Zontone, Federico; Chushkin, Yuriy

    2016-04-22

    The collective diffusion of dense fluids in spatial confinement is studied by combining high-energy (21 keV) x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and small-angle x-ray scattering from colloid-filled microfluidic channels. We find the structural relaxation in confinement to be slower compared to the bulk. The collective dynamics is wave vector dependent, akin to the de Gennes narrowing typically observed in bulk fluids. However, in stark contrast to the bulk, the structure factor and de Gennes narrowing in confinement are anisotropic. These experimental observations are essential in order to develop a microscopic theoretical description of collective diffusion of dense fluids in confined geometries. PMID:27152823

  17. Translation correlations in anisotropically scattering media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judkewitz, Benjamin; Horstmeyer, Roarke; Vellekoop, Ivo M.; Papadopoulos, Ioannis N.; Yang, Changhuei

    2015-08-01

    Controlling light propagation across scattering media by wavefront shaping holds great promise for a wide range of communications and imaging applications. But, finding the right shape for the wavefront is a challenge when the mapping between input and output scattered wavefronts (that is, the transmission matrix) is not known. Correlations in transmission matrices, especially the so-called memory effect, have been exploited to address this limitation. However, the traditional memory effect applies to thin scattering layers at a distance from the target, which precludes its use within thick scattering media, such as fog and biological tissue. Here, we theoretically predict and experimentally verify new transmission matrix correlations within thick anisotropically scattering media, with important implications for biomedical imaging and adaptive optics.

  18. Adiabatic theory for anisotropic cold molecule collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Pawlak, Mariusz; Shagam, Yuval; Narevicius, Edvardas; Moiseyev, Nimrod

    2015-08-21

    We developed an adiabatic theory for cold anisotropic collisions between slow atoms and cold molecules. It enables us to investigate the importance of the couplings between the projection states of the rotational motion of the atom about the molecular axis of the diatom. We tested our theory using the recent results from the Penning ionization reaction experiment {sup 4}He(1s2s {sup 3}S) + HD(1s{sup 2}) → {sup 4}He(1s{sup 2}) + HD{sup +}(1s) + e{sup −} [Lavert-Ofir et al., Nat. Chem. 6, 332 (2014)] and demonstrated that the couplings have strong effect on positions of shape resonances. The theory we derived provides cross sections which are in a very good agreement with the experimental findings.

  19. Spin liquids on an anisotropic kagome lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffer, Robert; Hwang, Kyusung; Huh, Yejin; Kim, Yong Baek

    Much recent theoretical and experimental effort has been devoted to the search for quantum spin liquids, which arise in the presence of strong frustration of magnetic interactions. Motivated by recent experiments on the vanadium oxyfluoride material DQVOF, we examine possible spin liquid phases on an anisotropic kagome lattice of S = 1 / 2 spins, in which the C6 symmetry is broken to C3. Using the projective symmetry group analysis, we determine the possible phases for both bosonic and fermionic Z2 spin liquids on this lattice. Using VMC, we study the Heisenberg model on this lattice, and show that a Z2 spin liquid emerges as the ground state in the presence of this anisotropy.

  20. Anisotropic thermal conductivity of semiconducting graphene monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, H. H.; Rhim, S. H.; Hirschmugl, C. J.; Gajdardziska-Josifovska, M.; Weinert, M.; Chen, J. H.

    2013-06-01

    The intrinsic thermal conductivity of monolayer graphene monoxide is determined via first-principles calculations. The phonon transport in graphene monoxide is anisotropic, with the lattice thermal conductivity along the armchair direction (…C-2O-C…) about five times higher than that along the zigzag (…C-C…) direction. The predicted thermal conductivity (>3000 Wm-1K-1 at 300 K) of graphene monoxide is 80% of that of graphene along the armchair direction for large sample lateral sizes (>5 μm). In addition, heat is predominantly carried by longitudinal acoustic phonons along the armchair direction, while the contribution from the transverse acoustic phonon mode is prevalent along the zigzag direction.

  1. Surface phonon polaritons on anisotropic piezoelectric superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Yuanxi; Sheng, Jiteng; Sedlacek, Jonathon A.; Shaffer, James P.

    2016-01-01

    A theoretical study of surface phonon polaritons (SPhPs) on periodically poled lithium niobate and periodically poled lithium tantalate surfaces is presented. We calculate the dielectric response for six different superlattice orientations and the associated SPhP dispersion relations. Our study of SPhPs accounts for the anisotropic nature of the dielectric response of the semi-infinite piezoelectric superlattices. We find that two different types of SPhPs can be supported. The first type consists of real surface dipole oscillations coupled to photons. The second type consists of virtual surface dipole oscillations driven by the incident photons. The dependence of the SPhPs on temperature and superlattice geometry is addressed. The use of these metamaterial excitations is discussed in the context of hybrid quantum systems.

  2. Turbulent Output-Based Anisotropic Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Michael A.; Carlson, Jan-Renee

    2010-01-01

    Controlling discretization error is a remaining challenge for computational fluid dynamics simulation. Grid adaptation is applied to reduce estimated discretization error in drag or pressure integral output functions. To enable application to high O(10(exp 7)) Reynolds number turbulent flows, a hybrid approach is utilized that freezes the near-wall boundary layer grids and adapts the grid away from the no slip boundaries. The hybrid approach is not applicable to problems with under resolved initial boundary layer grids, but is a powerful technique for problems with important off-body anisotropic features. Supersonic nozzle plume, turbulent flat plate, and shock-boundary layer interaction examples are presented with comparisons to experimental measurements of pressure and velocity. Adapted grids are produced that resolve off-body features in locations that are not known a priori.

  3. Gauge field optics with anisotropic media.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fu; Li, Jensen

    2015-03-13

    By considering gauge transformations on the macroscopic Maxwell's equations, a two-dimensional gauge field, with its pseudomagnetic field in the real space, is identified as tilted anisotropy in the constitutive parameters. We show that the optical spin Hall effect with broadband response and one-way edge states become possible simply by using anisotropic media. The proposed gauge field also allows us to obtain unidirectional propagation for a particular pseudospin based on the Aharonov-Bohm effect. Our approach will be useful in spoof magneto-optics with arbitrary magnetic fields mimicked by metamaterials with subwavelength unit cells. It also serves as a generic way to design polarization-dependent devices. PMID:25815934

  4. Long-range interaction of anisotropic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.-Y.; Schwingenschlögl, U.

    2015-02-01

    The first-order electrostatic interaction energy between two far-apart anisotropic atoms depends not only on the distance between them but also on their relative orientation, according to Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory. Using the first-order interaction energy and the continuum model, we study the long-range interaction between a pair of parallel pristine graphene sheets at zero temperature. The asymptotic form of the obtained potential density, \\varepsilon(D) \\propto -D-3-O(D-4) , is consistent with the random phase approximation and Lifshitz theory. Accordingly, neglectance of the anisotropy, especially the nonzero first-order interaction energy, is the reason why the widely used Lennard-Jones potential approach and dispersion corrections in density functional theory give a wrong asymptotic form \\varepsilon(D) \\propto -D-4 .

  5. The anisotropic nanomovement of azo-polymers.

    PubMed

    Ishitobi, H; Tanabe, M; Sekkat, Z; Kawata, S

    2007-01-22

    Nanoscale polymer movement is induced by a tightly focused laser beam in an azo-polymer film just at the diffraction limit of light. The deformation pattern that is produced by photoisomerization of the azo dye is strongly dependent on the incident laser polarization and the longitudinal focus position of the laser beam along the optical axis. The anisotropic photo-fluidity of the polymer film and the optical gradient force played important roles in the light induced polymer movement. We also explored the limits of the size of the photo-induced deformation, and we found that the deformation depends on the laser intensity and the exposure time. The smallest deformation size achieved was 200 nm in full width of half maximum; a value which is nearly equal to the size of the diffraction limited laser spot. PMID:19532288

  6. Current collection in an anisotropic collisionless plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wei-Wei

    1992-01-01

    A general method is given to derive the current-potential relations in anisotropic plasmas. Orbit limit current is assumed. The collector is a conductive sphere or an infinite cylinder. Any distribution which is an arbitrary function of the velocity vector can be considered as a superposition of many mono-energetic beams whose current-potential relations are known. The results for two typical pitch angle distributions are derived and discussed in detail. The general properties of the current potential relations are very similar to that of a Maxwellian plasma except for an effective temperature which varies with the angle between the magnetic field and the charging surface. The conclusions are meaningful to generalized geometries.

  7. Constitutive modeling of inelastic anisotropic material response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stouffer, D. C.

    1984-01-01

    A constitutive equation was developed to predict the inelastic thermomechanical response of single crystal turbine blades. These equations are essential for developing accurate finite element models of hot section components and contribute significantly to the understanding and prediction of crack initiation and propagation. The method used was limited to unified state variable constitutive equations. Two approaches to developing an anisotropic constitutive equation were reviewed. One approach was to apply the Stouffer-Bodner representation for deformation induced anisotropy to materials with an initial anisotropy such as single crystals. The second approach was to determine the global inelastic strain rate from the contribution of the slip in each of the possible crystallographic slip systems. A three dimensional finite element is being developed with a variable constitutive equation link that can be used for constitutive equation development and to predict the response of an experiment using the actual specimen geometry and loading conditions.

  8. Transient motion of thick anisotropic plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayfeh, Adnan H.; Taylor, Timothy W.

    1991-01-01

    Analyses are developed for the response of anisotropic plate strips to a transient load. The load is taken in the form of a line load of normal stress on the surface or within the body of the strip. The characteristic free vibrational modes of the strip are derived and used to derive the secular equation for this case in closed form and to isolate the mathematical conditions for symmetric and antisymmetric wave mode propagation in completely separate terms. The applied loads are expanded in terms of these normal modes and the response of the plate is obtained by superposition of the appropriate components. Material systems of higher symmetry are contained implicitly in the analysis.

  9. Current collection in an anisotropic plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wei-Wei

    1990-01-01

    A general method is given to derive the current-potential relations in anisotropic plasmas. Orbit limit current is assumed. The collector is a conductive sphere or an infinite cylinder. Any distribution which is an arbitrary function of the velocity vector can be considered as a superposition of many mono-energetic beams whose current-potential relations are known. The results for two typical pitch angle distributions are derived and discussed in detail. The general properties of the current potential relations are very similar to that of a Maxwellian plasma except for an effective temperature which varies with the angle between the magnetic field and the charging surface. The conclusions are meaningful to generalized geometries.

  10. Effects of anisotropic heat conduction on solidification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, J. A.; Viskanta, R.

    1989-01-01

    Two-dimensional solidification influenced by anisotropic heat conduction has been considered. The interfacial energy balance was derived to account for the heat transfer in one direction (x or y) depending on the temperature gradient in both the x and y directions. A parametric study was made to determine the effects of the Stefan number, aspect ratio, initial superheat, and thermal conductivity ratios on the solidification rate. Because of the imposed boundary conditions, the interface became skewed and sometimes was not a straight line between the interface position at the upper and lower adiabatic walls (spatially nonlinear along the height). This skewness depends on the thermal conductivity ratio k(yy)/k(yx). The nonlinearity of the interface is influenced by the solidification rate, aspect ratio, and k(yy/k(yx).

  11. Quarkonium states in an anisotropic QCD plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Dumitru, Adrian; Guo Yun; Mocsy, Agnes; Strickland, Michael

    2009-03-01

    We consider quarkonium in a hot quantum chromodynamics (QCD) plasma which, due to expansion and nonzero viscosity, exhibits a local anisotropy in momentum space. At short distances the heavy-quark potential is known at tree level from the hard-thermal loop resummed gluon propagator in anisotropic perturbative QCD. The potential at long distances is modeled as a QCD string which is screened at the same scale as the Coulomb field. At asymptotic separation the potential energy is nonzero and inversely proportional to the temperature. We obtain numerical solutions of the three-dimensional Schroedinger equation for this potential. We find that quarkonium binding is stronger at nonvanishing viscosity and expansion rate, and that the anisotropy leads to polarization of the P-wave states.

  12. Anisotropic acoustic metafluid for underwater operation.

    PubMed

    Popa, Bogdan-Ioan; Wang, Wenqi; Konneker, Adam; Cummer, Steven A; Rohde, Charles A; Martin, Theodore P; Orris, Gregory J; Guild, Matthew D

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents a method to design and characterize mechanically robust solid acoustic metamaterials suitable for operation in dense fluids such as water. These structures, also called metafluids, behave acoustically as inertial fluids characterized by anisotropic mass densities and isotropic bulk modulus. The method is illustrated through the design and experimental characterization of a metafluid consisting of perforated steel plates held together by rubber coated magnetic spacers. The spacers are very effective at reducing the effective shear modulus of the structure, and therefore effective at minimizing the ensuing coupling between the shear and pressure waves inside the solid effective medium. Inertial anisotropy together with fluid-like acoustic behavior are key properties that bring transformation acoustics in dense fluids closer to reality. PMID:27369158

  13. Anisotropic Absorption of Pure Spin Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A. A.; Figueroa, A. I.; Love, C. J.; Cavill, S. A.; Hesjedal, T.; van der Laan, G.

    2016-01-01

    Spin transfer in magnetic multilayers offers the possibility of ultrafast, low-power device operation. We report a study of spin pumping in spin valves, demonstrating that a strong anisotropy of spin pumping from the source layer can be induced by an angular dependence of the total Gilbert damping parameter, α , in the spin sink layer. Using lab- and synchrotron-based ferromagnetic resonance, we show that an in-plane variation of damping in a crystalline Co50 Fe50 layer leads to an anisotropic α in a polycrystalline Ni81 Fe19 layer. This anisotropy is suppressed above the spin diffusion length in Cr, which is found to be 8 nm, and is independent of static exchange coupling in the spin valve. These results offer a valuable insight into the transmission and absorption of spin currents, and a mechanism by which enhanced spin torques and angular control may be realized for next-generation spintronic devices.

  14. Anisotropic Absorption of Pure Spin Currents.

    PubMed

    Baker, A A; Figueroa, A I; Love, C J; Cavill, S A; Hesjedal, T; van der Laan, G

    2016-01-29

    Spin transfer in magnetic multilayers offers the possibility of ultrafast, low-power device operation. We report a study of spin pumping in spin valves, demonstrating that a strong anisotropy of spin pumping from the source layer can be induced by an angular dependence of the total Gilbert damping parameter, α, in the spin sink layer. Using lab- and synchrotron-based ferromagnetic resonance, we show that an in-plane variation of damping in a crystalline Co_{50}Fe_{50} layer leads to an anisotropic α in a polycrystalline Ni_{81}Fe_{19} layer. This anisotropy is suppressed above the spin diffusion length in Cr, which is found to be 8 nm, and is independent of static exchange coupling in the spin valve. These results offer a valuable insight into the transmission and absorption of spin currents, and a mechanism by which enhanced spin torques and angular control may be realized for next-generation spintronic devices. PMID:26871353

  15. Adiabatic theory for anisotropic cold molecule collisions.

    PubMed

    Pawlak, Mariusz; Shagam, Yuval; Narevicius, Edvardas; Moiseyev, Nimrod

    2015-08-21

    We developed an adiabatic theory for cold anisotropic collisions between slow atoms and cold molecules. It enables us to investigate the importance of the couplings between the projection states of the rotational motion of the atom about the molecular axis of the diatom. We tested our theory using the recent results from the Penning ionization reaction experiment (4)He(1s2s (3)S) + HD(1s(2)) → (4)He(1s(2)) + HD(+)(1s) + e(-) [Lavert-Ofir et al., Nat. Chem. 6, 332 (2014)] and demonstrated that the couplings have strong effect on positions of shape resonances. The theory we derived provides cross sections which are in a very good agreement with the experimental findings. PMID:26298122

  16. Thermodynamics of anisotropic fluids using isotropic potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Bastea, S; Ree, F H

    1999-08-16

    We study the effectiveness and limitations of the median potential recipe for mixtures such as N{sub 2} + O{sub 2} and N{sub 2} + CO{sub 2}, that are important in detonation applications. Conversely, we treat effective spherical potentials extracted from Hugoniot experiments (e.g., N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}) as median potentials and invert them to extract atom-atom potentials. The resulting non-spherical potentials compare remarkably well with the atom - atom potentials used in studies of solid state properties. Finally, we propose a method to improve the median potential for stronger anisotropic fluids such as CO{sub 2} and its mixtures.

  17. Primordial power spectra from anisotropic inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Dulaney, Timothy R.; Gresham, Moira I.

    2010-05-15

    We examine cosmological perturbations in a dynamical theory of inflation in which an Abelian gauge field couples directly to the inflaton, breaking conformal invariance. When the coupling between the gauge field and the inflaton takes a specific form, inflation becomes anisotropic and anisotropy can persist throughout inflation, avoiding Wald's no-hair theorem. After discussing scenarios in which anisotropy can persist during inflation, we calculate the dominant effects of a small persistent anisotropy on the primordial gravitational wave and curvature perturbation power spectra using the ''in-in'' formalism of perturbation theory. We find that the primordial power spectra of cosmological perturbations gain significant direction dependence and that the fractional direction dependence of the tensor power spectrum is suppressed in comparison to that of the scalar power spectrum.

  18. Tunable anisotropic superfluidity in optical Kagome superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelster, Axel; Zhang, Xue-Feng; Wang, Tao; Eggert, Sebastian

    2015-03-01

    We study the extended Bose-Hubbard model for the optical Kagome superlattice which is generated by enhancing the long wavelength laser in one direction. By combining Quantum Monte Carlo simulations with the Generalized Effective Potential Landau Theory, we find not only the Mott insulator-superfluid quantum phase transition, but also striped solid phases with non-integer filling factors. Furthermore, we determine with high accuracy the quantum phase diagram for different trap potential offsets. Due to the delicate interplay between onsite repulsion and artificial symmetry breaking, the superfluid density turns out to be anisotropic which reveals its tensorial property. Counterintuitively, the bias of the anisotropy is alternating between x- and y-direction while tuning the particle number or the hopping strength. Finally, we discuss how to observe such phenomenon experimentally, in particular via time-of-flight absorption measurements. Supported by OPTIMAS and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft via the SFB/TR49

  19. A realizable EDQNM model for anisotropic scalars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Lance; Ulitsky, Mark

    1999-11-01

    As noted in the previous talk and abstract, the direct application of the edqnm formalism to two scalars with different diffusivities leads to a scalar covariance spectrum that violates the Cauchy-Schwartz inequality. This can be remedied by eliminating the explicit dependence of the eddy damping time scales on the molecular diffusivities, which can be shown to be unphysical at short times. Here we present an extension of this idea to anisotropic scalars. Anisotropy in this case results from uniform mean gradients of the scalar concentration in one direction. The approach we take is similar to the one described in Herr, Wang and Collins (Phys. Fluids 8:1588, 1996), except we substitute the modified eddy damping coefficients derived earlier for the isotropic scalar. The resulting edqnm model yields a realizable covariance spectrum for all times and for all combinations of the scalar diffusivities we considered. Several example calculations will be presented.

  20. Anisotropic star on pseudo-spheroidal spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratanpal, B. S.; Thomas, V. O.; Pandya, D. M.

    2016-02-01

    A new class of exact solutions of Einstein's field equations representing anisotropic distribution of matter on pseudo-spheroidal spacetime is obtained. The parameters appearing in the model are restricted through physical requirements of the model. It is found that the models given in the present work is compatible with observational data of a wide variety of compact objects like 4U 1820-30, PSR J1903+327, 4U 1608-52, Vela X-1, PSR J1614-2230, SMC X-4, Cen X-3. A particular model of pulsar PSR J1614-2230 is studied in detail and found that it satisfies all physical requirements needed for physically acceptable model.

  1. Anisotropic Cloth Modeling for Material Fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mingmin; Pan, Zhigengx; Mi, Qingfeng

    Physically based cloth simulation has been challenging the graphics community for more than three decades. With the developing of virtual reality and clothing CAD, it has become the key technique of virtual garment and try-on system. Although it has received considerable attention in computer graphics, due to its flexible property and realistic feeling that the textile engineers pay much attention to, there is not a successful methodology to simulate cloth both in visual realism and physical accuracy. We present a new anisotropic textile modeling method based on physical mass-spring system, which models the warps and wefts separately according to the different material fabrics. The simulation process includes two main steps: firstly the rigid object simulation and secondly the flexible mass simulation near to be equilibrium. A multiresolution modeling is applied to enhance the tradeoff fruit of the realistic presentation and computation cost. Finally, some examples and the analysis results show the efficiency of the proposed method.

  2. Isotropic and anisotropic surface wave cloaking techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McManus, T. M.; La Spada, L.; Hao, Y.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we compare two different approaches for surface waves cloaking. The first technique is a unique application of Fermat’s principle and requires isotropic material properties, but owing to its derivation is limited in its applicability. The second technique utilises a geometrical optics approximation for dealing with rays bound to a two dimensional surface and requires anisotropic material properties, though it can be used to cloak any smooth surface. We analytically derive the surface wave scattering behaviour for both cloak techniques when applied to a rotationally symmetric surface deformation. Furthermore, we simulate both using a commercially available full-wave electromagnetic solver and demonstrate a good level of agreement with their analytically derived solutions. Our analytical solutions and simulations provide a complete and concise overview of two different surface wave cloaking techniques.

  3. Anisotropic Magnetism in Field-Structured Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Robert A.; Martin, James E.; Odinek, Judy; Venturini, Eugene

    1999-06-24

    Magnetic field-structured-composites (FSCs) are made by structuring magnetic particle suspensions in uniaxial or biaxial (e.g. rotating) magnetic fields, while polymerizing the suspending resin. A uniaxial field produces chain-like particle structures, and a biaxial field produces sheet-like particle structures. In either case, these anisotropic structures affect the measured magnetic hysteresis loops, with the magnetic remanence and susceptibility increased significantly along the axis of the structuring field, and decreased slightly orthogonal to the structuring field, relative to the unstructured particle composite. The coercivity is essentially unaffected by structuring. We present data for FSCs of magnetically soft particles, and demonstrate that the altered magnetism can be accounted for by considering the large local fields that occur in FSCs. FSCS of magnetically hard particles show unexpectedly large anisotropies in the remanence, and this is due to the local field effects in combination with the large crystalline anisotropy of this material.

  4. Standing shear waves in anisotropic viscoelastic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krit, T.; Golubkova, I.; Andreev, V.

    2015-10-01

    We studied standing shear waves in anisotropic resonator represented by a rectangular parallelepiped (layer) fixed without slipping between two wooden plates of finite mass. The viscoelastic layer with edges of 70 mm × 40 mm × 15 mm was made of a rubber-like polymer plastisol with rubber bands inside. The bands were placed vertical between the top and the bottom plate. Mechanical properties of the plastisol itself were carefully measured previously. It was found that plastisol shows a cubic nonlinear behavior, i.e. the stress-strain curve could be represented as: σ = μɛ + βμɛ3, where ɛ stands for shear strain and σ is an applied shear stress. The value of shear modulus μ depends on frequency and was found to be several kilopascals which is common for such soft solids. Nonlinear parameter β is frequency dependent too and varies in range from tenths to unity at 1-100 Hz frequency range, decreasing with frequency growth. Stretching the rubber bands inside the layer leads to change of elastic properties in resonator. Such effect could be noticed due to frequency response of the resonator. The numerical model of the resonator was based on finite elements method (FEM) and performed in MatLab. The resonator was cut in hundreds of right triangular prisms. Each prism was provided with viscoelastic properties of the layer except for the top prisms provided with the wooden plate properties and the prisms at the site of the rubber bands provided with the rubber properties. The boundary conditions on each prism satisfied the requirements that resonator is inseparable and all its boundaries but bottom are free. The bottom boundary was set to move horizontally with constant acceleration amplitude. It was shown numerically that the resonator shows anisotropic behavior expressed in different frequency response to oscillations applied to a bottom boundary in different directions.

  5. Simple Models for Polymeric and Anisotropic Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kröger, Martin

    We hope that the complexity of the world is neither in contrast with the simplicity of the basic laws of physics [1] nor with the simple physical models to be reviewed or proposed in the following. However, physical phenomena occurring in complex materials cannot be encapsulated within a single numerical paradigm. In fact, they should be described within hierarchical, multi-level numerical models in which each sub-model is responsible for different spatio-temporal behavior and passes out the averaged parameters to the model, which is next in the hierarchy (Fig. 1.1). Polymeric liquids far from equilibrium belong to the class of anisotropic liquids.1 This monograph is devoted to the understanding of the anisotropic properties of polymeric and complex fluids such as viscoelastic and orientational behavior of polymeric liquids, the rheological properties of ferrofluids and liquid crystals subjected to external fields, based on the architecture of their molecular constituents. The topic is of considerable concern in basic research for which models should be as simple as possible, but not simpler. Certainly, it is also of technological relevance. Statistical physics and nonequilibrium thermodynamics are challenged by the desired structure-property relationships. Experiments such as static and dynamic light and neutron scattering, particle tracking, flow birefringence etc. together with rheological measurements have been essential to adjust or test basic theoretical concepts, such as a ‘linear stressoptic rule’ which connects orientation and stress, or the effect of molecular weight, solvent conditions, and external field parameters on shape, diffusion, degradation, and alignment of molecules.

  6. Highly anisotropic conductivity in organosiloxane liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiner, D. J.; Coles, H. J.

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, we present the conductivity and dielectric characterization of three homologous series of smectic A siloxane containing liquid crystals. The materials studied include one monomesogenic series, which consists of a 4-(ω-alkyloxy)-4'-cyanobiphenyl unit terminated by pentamethyldisiloxane, and two bimesogenic series, which consist of twin 4-(ω-alkyloxy)-4'-cyanobiphenyls joined via tetramethyldisiloxane or decamethylpentasiloxane. All of the compounds exhibit wide temperature range enantiotropic smectic A phases; the effect of the siloxane moiety is to suppress nematic morphology even in the short chain homologs. We find that these compounds exhibit a highly anisotropic conductivity: the value perpendicular to the director is to up to 200 times that parallel to the director. For the nonsiloxane analog 4-(ω-octyl)-4'-cyanobiphenyl (8CB), this value is approximately 2. It is also found that the dielectric anisotropy is reduced significantly; a typical value is ˜1 compared to 8.4 for 8CB. We propose that the origin of these unusual properties is in the smectic structure; the microphase separation of the bulky, globular siloxane moieties into liquidlike regions severely inhibits the mobility parallel to the director and across the smectic layers. Further, the inclusion of this unit acts to increase the antiparallel correlations of molecular dipoles in the aromatic and alkyloxy sublayers, reducing the dielectric anisotropy significantly compared to nonsiloxane analogs. The highly anisotropic conductivity suggests that these materials are particularly suitable for application in electro-optic effects which exploit this property, e.g., the bistable electro-optic effect in smectic A liquid crystals.

  7. Steady flow through porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Greenkorn, R.A.

    1981-07-01

    The movement of materials through porous media is of interest in many disciplines: in chemical engineering - adsorption, chromatography, filtration, flow in packed columns, ion exchange, reactor-engineering; in petroleum engineering - displacement of oil with gas, water and miscible solvents including surface-active agent solutions and description of reservoirs; in hydrology - movement of trace pollutants in water systems, recovery of water for drinking and irrigation, saltwater encroachment into freshwater reservoirs; in soil physics - movement of water, nutrients, and pollutants into plants; and in biophysics. This work reviews the fundamentals of steady flow through porous media. It discusses the pseudotransport coefficients permeability, capillary pressure, and dispersion and relates these coefficients to the geometry of porous media. It discusses single-fluid flow, multifluid immiscible flow, and multifluid miscible flow including the effects of heterogeneity, nonuniformity, and anisotropy of media. 104 references.

  8. Acoustic Absorption in Porous Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Johnston, James C.

    2011-01-01

    An understanding of both the areas of materials science and acoustics is necessary to successfully develop materials for acoustic absorption applications. This paper presents the basic knowledge and approaches for determining the acoustic performance of porous materials in a manner that will help materials researchers new to this area gain the understanding and skills necessary to make meaningful contributions to this field of study. Beginning with the basics and making as few assumptions as possible, this paper reviews relevant topics in the acoustic performance of porous materials, which are often used to make acoustic bulk absorbers, moving from the physics of sound wave interactions with porous materials to measurement techniques for flow resistivity, characteristic impedance, and wavenumber.

  9. Micromechanical analysis of porous SMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepe, V.; Auricchio, F.; Marfia, S.; Sacco, E.

    2015-08-01

    The present paper deals with computational micromechanical analyses of porous shape memory alloy (SMA). Porous SMAs are considered composite materials made of a dense SMA matrix including voids. A three-dimensional constitutive law is presented for the dense SMA able to reproduce the pseudo-elastic as well as the shape memory effects and, moreover, to account for the different elastic properties of the austenite and martensite phases. Furthermore, a numerical procedure is developed and the overall behavior of the porous SMA is recovered studying a representative volume element. Comparisons between the numerical results, recovered using the proposed modeling, and experimental data available in the literature are presented. The case of closed and open porosity is investigated. Parametric studies have been conducted in order to investigate the influence of the porosity, the shape and orientation of the pores on the overall mechanical response and, mainly, on the energy absorption dissipation capability.

  10. Metal recovery from porous materials

    DOEpatents

    Sturcken, Edward F.

    1992-01-01

    A method for recovering plutonium and other metals from materials by leaching comprising the steps of incinerating the materials to form a porous matrix as the residue of incineration, immersing the matrix into acid in a microwave-transparent pressure vessel, sealing the pressure vessel, and applying microwaves so that the temperature and the pressure in the pressure vessel increase. The acid for recovering plutonium can be a mixture of HBF.sub.4 and HNO.sub.3 and preferably the pressure is increased to at least 100 PSI and the temperature to at least 200.degree. C. The porous material can be pulverized before immersion to further increase the leach rate.

  11. Porous pseudoalloy electrode gap inserts

    SciTech Connect

    Pustogarov, A.V.; Chernyshev, L.I.; Kostornov, A.G.; Mel'nikov, G.N.

    1985-06-01

    The authors make a comparative assessment of the service characteristics of porous electrode gap inserts (EGI) made of tungsten, molybdenum, and W-Cu and Mo-Cu pseudoalloys, tested using a high pressure apparatus. Charts present the data gathered on maximum thermal flux entering the EGI wall with specific nitrogen flow rates; variation of temperature of the inner surface of the EGI wall with thermal conductivity of the material; and variation of viscous and inertia coefficients of hydraulic resistance of pseudoalloys with duration of EGI operation. The authors conclude that porous EGIs made of W-Cu and Mo-Cu pseudoalloys are characterized by the same operating performance.

  12. Enhancement of non-resonant dielectric cloaks using anisotropic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Takezawa, Akihiro Kitamura, Mitsuru

    2014-01-15

    Cloaking techniques conceal objects by controlling the flow of electromagnetic waves to minimize scattering. Herein, the effectiveness of homogenized anisotropic materials in non-resonant dielectric multilayer cloaking is studied. Because existing multilayer cloaking by isotropic materials can be regarded as homogenous anisotropic cloaking from a macroscopic view, anisotropic materials can be efficiently designed through optimization of their physical properties. Anisotropic properties can be realized in two-phase composites if the physical properties of the material are within appropriate bounds. The optimized anisotropic physical properties are identified by a numerical optimization technique based on a full-wave simulation using the finite element method. The cloaking performance measured by the total scattering width is improved by about 2.8% and 25% in eight- and three-layer cylindrical cloaking materials, respectively, compared with multilayer cloaking by isotropic materials. In all cloaking examples, the optimized microstructures of the two-phase composites are identified as the simple lamination of two materials, which maximizes the anisotropy. The same performance as published for eight-layer cloaking by isotropic materials is achieved by three-layer cloaking using the anisotropic material. Cloaking with an approximately 50% reduction of total scattering width is achieved even in an octagonal object. Since the cloaking effect can be realized using just a few layers of the laminated anisotropic dielectric composite, this may have an advantage in the mass production of cloaking devices.

  13. Anisotropic structures of some microorganisms studied by polarization microscopy.

    PubMed

    Žižka, Zdeněk

    2014-09-01

    Polarization microscopy has been used to study the internal structures of microbial cells and in terms of the birefringence of these structures and its possible relation to the cell function and composition. Cyanobacteria of the genus Phormidium were found to contain no anisotropic structures, while other microorganisms were found to contain them, albeit to a different extent, size, and number. The flagellate Euglena was found to contain two large anisotropic bodies, whereas the flagellate of the genus Phacus belonging to the same systematic group Euglenales was observed to contain only one large anisotropic body (storage substances--paramylon). On the other hand, green algae of the genus Scenedesmus, whose cells form four--celled coenobia, contained clusters of small anisotropic granules composed also of storage substances (volutin). Minute anisotropic granules (storage substances) in two smaller clusters were found also in diatoms of the genus Navicula, whereas the green alga of the genus Mougeotia was revealed to contain, in addition to minute anisotropic granules (storage substances) occurring in low numbers in the cytoplasm, also a strongly birefringent cell wall (shape birefringence). Cells of the amoeba of the genus Naegleria and heliozoans of the genus Heterophrys were observed to contain only isolated tiny anisotropic granules (storage substances). PMID:24557733

  14. Enhancement of non-resonant dielectric cloaks using anisotropic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takezawa, Akihiro; Kitamura, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    Cloaking techniques conceal objects by controlling the flow of electromagnetic waves to minimize scattering. Herein, the effectiveness of homogenized anisotropic materials in non-resonant dielectric multilayer cloaking is studied. Because existing multilayer cloaking by isotropic materials can be regarded as homogenous anisotropic cloaking from a macroscopic view, anisotropic materials can be efficiently designed through optimization of their physical properties. Anisotropic properties can be realized in two-phase composites if the physical properties of the material are within appropriate bounds. The optimized anisotropic physical properties are identified by a numerical optimization technique based on a full-wave simulation using the finite element method. The cloaking performance measured by the total scattering width is improved by about 2.8% and 25% in eight- and three-layer cylindrical cloaking materials, respectively, compared with multilayer cloaking by isotropic materials. In all cloaking examples, the optimized microstructures of the two-phase composites are identified as the simple lamination of two materials, which maximizes the anisotropy. The same performance as published for eight-layer cloaking by isotropic materials is achieved by three-layer cloaking using the anisotropic material. Cloaking with an approximately 50% reduction of total scattering width is achieved even in an octagonal object. Since the cloaking effect can be realized using just a few layers of the laminated anisotropic dielectric composite, this may have an advantage in the mass production of cloaking devices.

  15. Process of preparing tritiated porous silicon

    DOEpatents

    Tam, S.W.

    1997-02-18

    A process of preparing tritiated porous silicon is described in which porous silicon is equilibrated with a gaseous vapor containing HT/T{sub 2} gas in a diluent for a time sufficient for tritium in the gas phase to replace hydrogen present in the pore surfaces of the porous silicon. 1 fig.

  16. Renormalized anisotropic exchange for representing heat assisted magnetic recording media

    SciTech Connect

    Jiao, Yipeng; Liu, Zengyuan; Victora, R. H.

    2015-05-07

    Anisotropic exchange has been incorporated in a description of magnetic recording media near the Curie temperature, as would be found during heat assisted magnetic recording. The new parameters were found using a cost function that minimized the difference between atomistic properties and those of renormalized spin blocks. Interestingly, the anisotropic exchange description at 1.5 nm discretization yields very similar switching and magnetization behavior to that found at 1.2 nm (and below) discretization for the previous isotropic exchange. This suggests that the increased accuracy of anisotropic exchange may also reduce the computational cost during simulation.

  17. Anisotropic Nanomechanics of Boron Nitride Nanotubes: Nanostructured "Skin" Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Menon, Madhu; Cho, KyeongJae

    2000-01-01

    The stiffness and plasticity of boron nitride nanotubes are investigated using generalized tight-binding molecular dynamics and ab-initio total energy methods. Due to boron-nitride BN bond buckling effects, compressed zigzag BN nanotubes are found to undergo novel anisotropic strain release followed by anisotropic plastic buckling. The strain is preferentially released towards N atoms in the rotated BN bonds. The tubes buckle anisotropically towards only one end when uniaxially compressed from both. A "skin-effect" model of smart nanocomposite materials is proposed which will localize the structural damage towards the 'skin' or surface side of the material.

  18. Hydrostatic testing of porous assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigelow, W. L.

    1968-01-01

    Pores of the material were plugged with dust particles suspended in water. The plugging material used was a standard test dust prepared as a slurry in distilled water. This technique provides a permanent high-integrity seal for porous material without affecting its physical properties, yet permitting pressure testing to verify structural adequacy.

  19. Fabrication of porous electrospun nanofibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. Z.; Feng, Y.; Huang, Z.-M.; Ramakrishna, S.; Lim, C. T.

    2006-02-01

    Immiscible biopolymers of gelatin (Gt) and polycaprolactone (PCL) were first electrospun into a biomimicking composite fibre of Gt/PCL. Based on a phase separation study of the electrospun fibres, a leaching method was employed to generate 3D porous nanofibres by selectively removing the water soluble component of gelatin in a 37 °C aqueous solution of phosphate buffered saline. It was found that leaching treatment gave rise to a unique nanotopography containing grooves, ridges and elliptical pores on the surface as well as inside of the resultant individual nanofibres. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) area measurement indicated that the formed 3D porous fibres also brought in a pronounced increase of the surface area of fibres. The BET surface area of the porous fibres was observed to be about 2.4 times that of the precursor fibres, up to 15.84 m2 g-1 at its relatively large size of 800 nm diameter. The 3D porous fibres herein prepared could have considerable value for uses in developing highly integrated cell-scaffold tissue complexes and other industrial applications.

  20. Neural Tissue as Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Basser, Peter J.

    2008-12-05

    The fields of MR in Porous Media and Neuroradiology have largely developed separately during the past two decades with little appreciation of the problems, challenges and methodologies of the other. However, this trend is clearly changing and possibilities for significant cross-fertilization and synergies are now being realized.

  1. Metal recovery from porous materials

    DOEpatents

    Sturcken, E.F.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention relates to recovery of metals. More specifically, the present invention relates to the recovery of plutonium and other metals from porous materials using microwaves. The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC09-89SR18035 between the US Department of Energy and Westinghouse Savannah River Company.

  2. Whey drying on porous carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Mitura, E.; Kaminski, W.

    1996-05-01

    Whey is treated very often as a waste which pollutes the natural environment. Whey which is a valuable source of protein, lacrose, vitamins and mineral salts should be utilized completely. The present paper is a proposal of whey drying on porous carriers. It is proved experimentally that the proposed drying method guarantees good product quality.

  3. Anisotropic nature of radially strained metal tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, Julie N.

    Metal pipes are sometimes swaged by a metal cone to enlarge them, which increases the strain in the material. The amount of strain is important because it affects the burst and collapse strength. Burst strength is the amount of internal pressure that a pipe can withstand before failure, while collapse strength is the amount of external pressure that a pipe can withstand before failure. If the burst or collapse strengths are exceeded, the pipe may fracture, causing critical failure. Such an event could cost the owners and their customers millions of dollars in clean up, repair, and lost time, in addition to the potential environmental damage. Therefore, a reliable way of estimating the burst and collapse strength of strained pipe is desired and valuable. The sponsor currently rates strained pipes using the properties of raw steel, because those properties are easily measured (for example, yield strength). In the past, the engineers assumed that the metal would be work-hardened when swaged, so that yield strength would increase. However, swaging introduces anisotropic strain, which may decrease the yield strength. This study measured the yield strength of strained material in the transverse and axial direction and compared them to raw material, to determine the amount of anisotropy. This information will be used to more accurately determine burst and collapse ratings for strained pipes. More accurate ratings mean safer products, which will minimize risk for the sponsor's customers. Since the strained metal has a higher yield strength than the raw material, using the raw yield strength to calculate burst and collapse ratings is a conservative method. The metal has even higher yield strength after strain aging, which indicates that the stresses are relieved. Even with the 12% anisotropy in the strained and 9% anisotropy in the strain aged specimens, the raw yield strengths are lower and therefore more conservative. I recommend that the sponsor continue using the raw

  4. Fabrication of anisotropic multifunctional colloidal carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerri, Huda A.

    The field of colloidal assembly has grown tremendously in recent years, although the direct or template-assisted methods used to fabricate complex colloidal constructions from monodisperse micro- and nanoparticles have been generally demonstrated on model materials. In this work, novel core particle syntheses, particle functionalizations and bottom-up assembly techniques are presented to create functional colloidal devices. Using particle lithography, high-information colloidal vectors have been developed and modified with imaging and targeting agents. Localized nanoscale patches have been reliably positioned on microparticles to serve as foundations for further chemical or physical modifications. Site-specific placement of RGD targeting ligands has been achieved in these lithographed patches. Preferential uptake of these targeted vectors by RGD-specific 3T3 fibroblasts was verified using confocal laser scanning microscopy. A transition was made from the functionalization of model imaging core particles to the lithography of colloidal cartridges, in an effort to construct colloidal syringes with specialized, programmable release profiles. A variety of functional, pH-sensitive fluorescent cores were engineered to respond to solution conditions. When triggered, the diverse composite core microparticles and reservoir microcapsules released embedded fluorescent moieties such as dye molecules, and fluorophore-conjugated nanoparticles. The microcapsules, created using layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte deposition on sacrificial templates, were selectively modified with a robust coating. The pH-responsive anisotropic reservoir microcapsules were extremely stable in solution, and exhibited a "Lazarus" functionality of rehydrating to their original state following desiccation. A snapshot of focused-release of core constituents through the lone opening in colloidal monotremes has been obtained by anisotropically-functionalizing degradable cores with barrier shells. Additionally

  5. Porous medium convection at large Rayleigh number: Studies of coherent structure, transport, and reduced dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Baole

    Buoyancy-driven convection in fluid-saturated porous media is a key environmental and technological process, with applications ranging from carbon dioxide storage in terrestrial aquifers to the design of compact heat exchangers. Porous medium convection is also a paradigm for forced-dissipative infinite-dimensional dynamical systems, exhibiting spatiotemporally chaotic dynamics if not "true" turbulence. The objective of this dissertation research is to quantitatively characterize the dynamics and heat transport in two-dimensional horizontal and inclined porous medium convection between isothermal plane parallel boundaries at asymptotically large values of the Rayleigh number Ra by investigating the emergent, quasi-coherent flow. This investigation employs a complement of direct numerical simulations (DNS), secondary stability and dynamical systems theory, and variational analysis. The DNS confirm the remarkable tendency for the interior flow to self-organize into closely-spaced columnar plumes at sufficiently large Ra (up to Ra ≃ 105), with more complex spatiotemporal features being confined to boundary layers near the heated and cooled walls. The relatively simple form of the interior flow motivates investigation of unstable steady and time-periodic convective states at large Ra as a function of the domain aspect ratio L. To gain insight into the development of spatiotemporally chaotic convection, the (secondary) stability of these fully nonlinear states to small-amplitude disturbances is investigated using a spatial Floquet analysis. The results indicate that there exist two distinct modes of instability at large Ra: a bulk instability mode and a wall instability mode. The former usually is excited by long-wavelength disturbances and is generally much weaker than the latter. DNS, strategically initialized to investigate the fully nonlinear evolution of the most dangerous secondary instability modes, suggest that the (long time) mean inter-plume spacing in

  6. Anisotropic stress and stability in modified gravity models

    SciTech Connect

    Saltas, Ippocratis D.; Kunz, Martin

    2011-03-15

    The existence of anisotropic stress of a purely geometrical origin seems to be a characteristic of higher order gravity models, and has been suggested as a probe to test these models observationally, for example, in weak lensing experiments. In this paper, we seek to find a class of higher order gravity models of f(R,G) type that would give us a zero anisotropic stress and study the consequences for the viability of the actual model. For the special case of a de Sitter background, we identify a subclass of models with the desired property. We also find a direct link between anisotropic stress and the stability of the model as well as the presence of extra degrees of freedom, which seems to be a general feature of higher order gravity models. Particularly, setting the anisotropic stress equal to zero for a de Sitter background leads to a singularity that makes it impossible to reach the de Sitter evolution.

  7. An engineered anisotropic nanofilm with unidirectional wetting properties.

    PubMed

    Malvadkar, Niranjan A; Hancock, Matthew J; Sekeroglu, Koray; Dressick, Walter J; Demirel, Melik C

    2010-12-01

    Anisotropic textured surfaces allow water striders to walk on water, butterflies to shed water from their wings and plants to trap insects and pollen. Capturing these natural features in biomimetic surfaces is an active area of research. Here, we report an engineered nanofilm, composed of an array of poly(p-xylylene) nanorods, which demonstrates anisotropic wetting behaviour by means of a pin-release droplet ratchet mechanism. Droplet retention forces in the pin and release directions differ by up to 80 μN, which is over ten times greater than the values reported for other engineered anisotropic surfaces. The nanofilm provides a microscale smooth surface on which to transport microlitre droplets, and is also relatively easy to synthesize by a bottom-up vapour-phase technique. An accompanying comprehensive model successfully describes the film's anisotropic wetting behaviour as a function of measurable film morphology parameters. PMID:20935657

  8. Autofocus imaging: Experimental results in an anisotropic austenitic weld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Drinkwater, B. W.; Wilcox, P. D.; Hunter, A.

    2012-05-01

    The quality of an ultrasonic array image, especially for anisotropic material, depends on accurate information about acoustic properties. Inaccuracy of acoustic properties causes image degradation, e.g., blurring, errors in locating of reflectors and introduction of artifacts. In this paper, for an anisotropic austenitic steel weld, an autofocus imaging technique is presented. The array data from a series of beacons is captured and then used to statistically extract anisotropic weld properties by using a Monte-Carlo inversion approach. The beacon and imaging systems are realized using two separated arrays; one acts as a series of beacons and the other images these beacons. Key to the Monte-Carlo inversion scheme is a fast forward model of wave propagation in the anisotropic weld and this is based on the Dijkstra algorithm. Using this autofocus approach a measured weld map was extracted from an austenitic weld and used to reduce location errors, initially greater than 6mm, to less than 1mm.

  9. Simple recurrence matrix relations for multilayer anisotropic thin films.

    PubMed

    Cojocaru, E

    2000-01-01

    Generalized Abelès relations for one anisotropic thin film [E. Cojocaru, Appl. Opt. 36, 2825-2829 (1997)] are developed for light propagation from an isotropic medium of incidence (with refractive index n(0)) within a multilayer anisotropic thin film coated onto an anisotropic substrate. An immersion model is used for which it is assumed that each layer is imaginatively embedded between isotropic gaps of zero thickness and refractive index n(0). This model leads to simple expressions for the resultant transmitted and reflected electric field amplitudes at interfaces. They parallel the Abelès recurrence relations for layered isotropic media. These matrix relations include multiple reflections while they deal with total fields. They can be applied directly to complex stacks of isotropic and anisotropic thin films. PMID:18337882

  10. Porous silicon carbide (SIC) semiconductor device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shor, Joseph S. (Inventor); Kurtz, Anthony D. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    Porous silicon carbide is fabricated according to techniques which result in a significant portion of nanocrystallites within the material in a sub 10 nanometer regime. There is described techniques for passivating porous silicon carbide which result in the fabrication of optoelectronic devices which exhibit brighter blue luminescence and exhibit improved qualities. Based on certain of the techniques described porous silicon carbide is used as a sacrificial layer for the patterning of silicon carbide. Porous silicon carbide is then removed from the bulk substrate by oxidation and other methods. The techniques described employ a two-step process which is used to pattern bulk silicon carbide where selected areas of the wafer are then made porous and then the porous layer is subsequently removed. The process to form porous silicon carbide exhibits dopant selectivity and a two-step etching procedure is implemented for silicon carbide multilayers.

  11. On the electrodynamics of Josephson effect in anisotropic superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Mints, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    Specificities of Josephson effect electrodynamics in anisotropic superconductors are of considerable interest for the study of high temperature superconductors with strongly anisotropic layered structure. In this paper the authors give the calculation for the tunnel Josephson contact of an isolated vortex, the law of dispersion of its low-amplitude oscillations, the critical field H/sub cl/ for the penetration of magnetic flux, and the maximum current across a rectangular contact.

  12. Schwarz alternating methods for anisotropic problems with prolate spheroid boundaries.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhenlong; Du, Qikui; Liu, Baoqing

    2016-01-01

    The Schwarz alternating algorithm, which is based on natural boundary element method, is constructed for solving the exterior anisotropic problem in the three-dimension domain. The anisotropic problem is transformed into harmonic problem by using the coordinate transformation. Correspondingly, the algorithm is also changed. Continually, we analysis the convergence and the error estimate of the algorithm. Meanwhile, we give the contraction factor for the convergence. Finally, some numerical examples are computed to show the efficiency of this algorithm. PMID:27625977

  13. Effective Dirac Hamiltonian for anisotropic honeycomb lattices: Optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva-Leyva, M.; Naumis, Gerardo G.

    2016-01-01

    We derive the low-energy Hamiltonian for a honeycomb lattice with anisotropy in the hopping parameters. Taking the reported Dirac Hamiltonian for the anisotropic honeycomb lattice, we obtain its optical conductivity tensor and its transmittance for normal incidence of linearly polarized light. Also, we characterize its dichroic character due to the anisotropic optical absorption. As an application of our general findings, which reproduce the previous case of uniformly strained graphene, we study the optical properties of graphene under a nonmechanical distortion.

  14. Anisotropic Bianchi types VIII and IX locally rotationally symmetric cosmologies

    SciTech Connect

    Assad, M.J.D.; Soares, I.D.

    1983-10-15

    We present a class of exact cosmological solutions of Einstein-Maxwell equations, which are anisotropic and spatially homogeneous of Bianchi types VIII and IX, and class IIIb in the Stewart-Ellis classification of locally rotationally symmetric models. If we take the electromagnetic field equal to zero, a class of Bianchi types VIII/IX spatially homogeneous anisotropic cosmological solutions with perfect fluid is obtained.

  15. Anisotropic distributions in a multiphase transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, You; Xiao, Kai; Feng, Zhao; Liu, Feng; Snellings, Raimond

    2016-03-01

    With a multiphase transport (AMPT) model we investigate the relation between the magnitude, fluctuations, and correlations of the initial state spatial anisotropy ɛn and the final state anisotropic flow coefficients vn in Au+Au collisions at √{s NN}=200 GeV. It is found that the relative eccentricity fluctuations in AMPT account for the observed elliptic flow fluctuations, both are in agreement with the elliptic flow fluctuation measurements from the STAR collaboration. In addition, the studies based on two- and multiparticle correlations and event-by-event distributions of the anisotropies suggest that the elliptic-power function is a promising candidate of the underlying probability density function of the event-by-event distributions of ɛn as well as vn. Furthermore, the correlations between different order symmetry planes and harmonics in the initial coordinate space and final state momentum space are presented. Nonzero values of these correlations have been observed. The comparison between our calculations and data will, in the future, shed new insight into the nature of the fluctuations of the quark-gluon plasma produced in heavy ion collisions.

  16. Polarization dynamics in nonlinear anisotropic fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Komarov, Andrey; Komarov, Konstantin; Meshcheriakov, Dmitry; Amrani, Foued; Sanchez, Francois

    2010-07-15

    We give an extensive study of polarization dynamics in anisotropic fibers exhibiting a third-order index nonlinearity. The study is performed in the framework of the Stokes parameters with the help of the Poincare sphere. Stationary states are determined, and their stability is investigated. The number of fixed points and their stability depend on the respective magnitude of the linear and nonlinear birefringence. A conservation relation analogous to the energy conservation in mechanics allows evidencing a close analogy between the movement of the polarization in the Poincare sphere and the motion of a particle in a potential well. Two distinct potentials are found, leading to the existence of two families of solutions, according to the sign of the total energy of the equivalent mechanical system. The mechanical analogy allows us to fully characterize the solutions and also to determine analytically the associated beat lengths. General analytical solutions are given for the two families in terms of Jacobi's functions. The intensity-dependent transmission of a fiber placed between two crossed polarizers is calculated. Optimal conditions for efficient nonlinear switching compatible with mode-locking applications are determined. The general case of a nonlinear fiber ring with an intracavity polarizer placed between two polarization controllers is also considered.

  17. Polar motion under anisotropic random load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsurkis, I. Ya.; Kuchai, M. S.; Sinyukhina, S. V.

    2014-01-01

    The probabilistic approach to the description of the Chandler wobble is expanded to the case of anisotropic random load. The polar motion is treated as a two-dimensional (2D) Markov process—the solution of the Liouville equation—with discrete time. It is shown that with a sufficiently large time step Δ, the polar motion can be considered as an isotropic process irrespective of the particular ratio between the eigenvalues of the diffusion matrix, which characterizes the right-hand side of this equation (random load). The problem of reaching the boundary of the domain [ E min, E max] by the energy of the pole E( t) = x {1/2}+ x {2/2} is considered. With a time step Δ of 1 year and the length of the time series of the observations N = 150, the correction for anisotropy to the total probability P* of a drop by a factor of five in the amplitude of the Chandler wobble A = √ E does not exceed 10-2, and the probability P* is above 0.3 (if the Q-factor of the mantle is below 500). Thus, it is demonstrated that the observed variations in amplitude A( t) can be explained in the context of the probabilistic approach without hypothesizing the isotropy of the random load.

  18. Dislocation dynamics in an anisotropic stripe pattern.

    PubMed

    Kamaga, Carina; Ibrahim, Fatima; Dennin, Michael

    2004-06-01

    The dynamics of dislocations confined to grain boundaries in a striped system are studied using electroconvection in the nematic liquid crystal N4. In electroconvection, a striped pattern of convection rolls forms for sufficiently high driving voltages. We consider the case of a rapid change in the voltage that takes the system from a uniform state to a state consisting of striped domains with two different wave vectors. The domains are separated by domain walls along one axis and a grain boundary of dislocations in the perpendicular direction. The pattern evolves through dislocation motion parallel to the domain walls. We report on features of the dislocation dynamics. The kinetics of the domain motion is quantified using three measures: dislocation density, average domain wall length, and total domain wall length per area. All three quantities exhibit behavior consistent with power-law evolution in time, with the defect density decaying as t(-1/3), the average domain wall length growing as t(1/3), and the total domain wall length decaying as t(-1/5). The two different exponents are indicative of the anisotropic growth of domains in the system. PMID:15244714

  19. Neutron star recoils from anisotropic supernovae.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janka, H.-T.; Mueller, E.

    1994-10-01

    Refering to recent hydrodynamical computations (Herant et al. 1992; Janka & Mueller 1993a) it is argued that neutron star kicks up to a few hundred km/s might be caused by a turbulent overturn of the matter between proto-neutron star and supernova shock during the early phase of the supernova explosion. These recoil speeds ("kick velocities") may be of the right size to explain the measured proper motions of most pulsars and do not require the presence of magnetic fields in the star. It is also possible that anisotropic neutrino emission associated with convective processes in the surface layers of the nascent neutron star (Burrows & Fryxell 1992; Janka & Mueller 1993b; Mueller 1993) provides an acceleration mechanism (Woosley 1987), although our estimates indicate that the maximum attainable velocities are around 200km/s. Yet, it turns out to be very unlikely that the considered stochastic asymmetries of supernova explosions are able to produce large enough recoils to account for pulsar velocities in excess of about 500km/s, which can be found in the samples of Harrison et al. (1993) and Taylor et al. (1993). It is concluded that other acceleration mechanisms have to be devised to explain the fast motion of PSR 2224+65 (transverse speed >=800km/s Cordes et al. 1993) and the high-velocities deduced from associations between supernova remnants and nearby young pulsars (e.g., Frail & Kulkarni 1991; Stewart et al. 1993; Caraveo 1993).

  20. The anisotropic microwave electrodynamics of YBCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini-Gheinani, Ahmad Reza

    The anisotropic microwave surface impedance of the high temperature superconductor, YBa2Cu3O7-delta, has been investigated. Microwave spectroscopy using five microwave cavities has been used to show clearly the development of long lived quasiparticles (QP) in the ab-plane of YBa2Cu3O6.99. Two regimes of transport are found, one below 20 K where the quasiparticle (QP) dynamics is with residual impurities, and above 20 K where umklapp QP-QP interactions dictate the temperature dependence of the transport lifetimes. The C-axis microwave surface impedance of YBa2Cu 3O6.95 has been studied into the superconducting state. The long QP lifetimes found in the planes of this material are found to be absent in the conductivity observed along the c-axis, indicating that the confinement of carriers to the planes is an inherent feature of the cuprates. The highly underdoped superconducting state has also been investigated with microwave techniques. The temperature dependence of the c -axis superfluid stiffness is found to scale over a range of hole dopings, corresponding to Tc's in the range 9--19 K. We further find that the magnitude of the zero temperature c -axis superfluid stiffness grows rapidly with doping, initially as fast as T2c .

  1. Anisotropic multicluster model in light nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gijón, A.; Gálvez, F. J.; Arias de Saavedra, F.; Buendía, E.

    2016-06-01

    Multicluster models consider that the nucleons can be moving around different centers in the nuclei. These models have been widely used to describe light nuclei but always considering that the mean field is composed of isotropic harmonic oscillators with different centers. In this work, we propose an extension of these models by using anisotropic harmonic oscillators. The strengths of these oscillators, the distance among the different centers and the disposition of the nucleons inside every cluster are free parameters which have been fixed using the variational criterion. All the one-body and two-body matrix elements have been analytically calculated. Only a numerical integration on the Euler angles is needed to carry out the projection on the values of the total spin of the state and its third component. We have studied the ground state and the first excited states of 8Be, 12C and 10Be getting good results for the energies. The disposition of the nucleons in the different clusters have also been analyzed by using projection on the different Cartesian planes getting much more information than when the radial one-body density is used.

  2. Effective optical constants of anisotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aronson, J. R.; Emslie, A. G.

    1980-01-01

    The applicability of a technique for determining the optical constants of soil or aerosol components on the basis of measurements of the reflectance or transmittance of inhomogeneous samples of component material is investigated. Optical constants for a sample of very pure quartzite were obtained by a specular reflection technique and line parameters were calculated by classical dispersion theory. Predictions of the reflectance of powdered quartz were then derived from optical constants measured for the anisotropic quartz and for pure quartz crystals, and compared with experimental measurements. The calculated spectra are found to resemble each other moderately well in shape, however the reflectance level calculated from the psuedo-optical constants (quartzite) is consistently below that calculated from quartz values. The spectrum calculated from the quartz optical constants is also shown to represent the experimental nonrestrahlen features more accurately. It is thus concluded that although optical constants derived from inhomogeneous materials may represent the spectral features of a powdered sample qualitatively a quantitative fit to observed data is not likely.

  3. Self assembly of anisotropic colloidal particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florea, Daniel; Wyss, Hans

    2012-02-01

    Colloidal particles have been successfully used as ''model atoms'', as their behavior can be more directly studied than that of atoms or molecules by direct imaging in a confocal microscope. Most studies have focussed on spherical particles with isotropic interactions. However, a range of interesting materials such as many supramolecular polymers or biopolymers exhibit highly directional interactions. To capture their behavior in colloidal model systems, particles with anisotropic interactions are clearly required. Here we use a colloidal system of nonspherical colloids, where highly directional interactions can be induced via depletion. By biaxially stretching spherical PMMA particles we create oblate spheroidal particles. We induce attractive interactions between these particles by adding a non-adsorbing polymer to the background liquid. The resulting depletion interaction is stronger along the minor axis of the oblate spheroids. We study the phase behavior of these materials as a function of the ellipsoid aspect ratio, the strength of the depletion interactions, and the particle concentration. The resulting morphologies are qualitatively different from those observed with spherical particles. This can be exploited for creating new materials with tailored structures.

  4. Anisotropic universe with magnetized dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, G. K.; Dewangan, R. N.; Yadav, Anil Kumar

    2016-04-01

    In the present work we have searched the existence of the late time acceleration of the Universe filled with cosmic fluid and uniform magnetic field as source of matter in anisotropic Heckmann-Schucking space-time. The observed acceleration of universe has been explained by introducing a positive cosmological constant Λ in the Einstein's field equation which is mathematically equivalent to vacuum energy with equation of state (EOS) parameter set equal to -1. The present values of the matter and the dark energy parameters (Ωm)0 & (Ω_{Λ})0 are estimated in view of the latest 287 high red shift (0.3 ≤ z ≤1.4) SN Ia supernova data's of observed apparent magnitude along with their possible error taken from Union 2.1 compilation. It is found that the best fit value for (Ωm)0 & (Ω_{Λ})0 are 0.2820 & 0.7177 respectively which are in good agreement with recent astrophysical observations in the latest surveys like WMAP [2001-2013], Planck [latest 2015] & BOSS. Various physical parameters such as the matter and dark energy densities, the present age of the universe and deceleration parameter have been obtained on the basis of the values of (Ωm)0 & (Ω_{Λ})0. Also we have estimated that the acceleration would have begun in the past at z = 0.71131 ˜6.2334 Gyrs before from present.

  5. Anisotropic Expansion of the Black Hole Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tianxi

    2009-01-01

    Recently, Zhang proposed a new cosmological model called black hole universe. According to this model, the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole with several solar masses, and grew up through a supermassive black hole with billion solar masses to the present state of temperature and density with hundred billion-trillion solar masses due to continuously inhaling matter from its outside. The structure of the entire space is similarly hierarchical or layered and the evolution is iterative. In each of iteration a universe passes through birth, growth, and death. The entire life of a universe roughly divides into three periods with different rates of expansion: slowly growing child universe, fast expanding adult universe, and gradually dying aged universe. When one universe expands to die out, a new universe grows up from its inside. On the AAS 211th meeting, the black hole universe model was shown to be consistent with Mach's principle, observations, and Einstein's general relativity. This new cosmological model can explain the cosmic microwave background radiation, quasars, and element abundances with the well-developed physics. Dark energy is not required for the universe to accelerate. Inflation is not necessary because the black hole universe does not have the horizon problem. In this presentation, the author will explain why the expansion of the universe is anisotropic as shown by the observed anisotropy of the Hubble constant. He will also compare the significant differences between the black hole universe and the big bang cosmology.

  6. Anisotropic optical trapping of ultracold erbium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulieu, Olivier; Lepers, Maxence; Wyart, Jean-Francois

    2014-05-01

    We calculate the complex dynamic dipole polarizability of ground-state erbium, a rare-earth atom that was recently Bose-condensed. This quantity determines the trapping conditions of cold atoms in an optical trap. The polarizability is calculated with the sum-over-state formula inherent to second-order perturbation theory. The summation is performed on transition energies and transition dipole moments from ground-state erbium, which are computed using the Racah-Slater least-square fitting procedure provided by the Cowan codes. This allows us to predict several yet unobserved energy levels in the range 25000-31000 cm-1 above the ground state. Regarding the trapping potential, we find that ground-state erbium essentially behaves like a spherically-symmetric atom, in spite of its large electronic angular momentum. We find a mostly isotropic van der Waals interaction between two ground-state erbium atoms, with a coefficient C6iso= 1760 a.u.. On the contrary, the photon-scattering rate is strongly anisotropic with respect to the polarization of the trapping light. also at LERMA, UMR8112, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Meudon, France.

  7. Colloidal aggregation and dynamics in anisotropic fluids

    PubMed Central

    Mondiot, Frédéric; Botet, Robert; Snabre, Patrick; Mondain-Monval, Olivier; Loudet, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    We present experiments and numerical simulations to investigate the collective behavior of submicrometer-sized particles immersed in a nematic micellar solution. We use latex spheres with diameters ranging from 190 to 780 nm and study their aggregation properties due to the interplay of the various colloidal forces at work in the system. We found that the morphology of aggregates strongly depends on the particle size, with evidence for two distinct regimes: the biggest inclusions clump together within minutes into either compact clusters or V-like structures that are completely consistent with attractive elastic interactions. On the contrary, the smallest particles form chains elongated along the nematic axis, within comparable timescales. In this regime, Monte Carlo simulations, based on a modified diffusion-limited cluster aggregation model, strongly suggest that the anisotropic rotational Brownian motion of the clusters combined with short-range depletion interactions dominate the system coarsening; elastic interactions no longer prevail. The simulations reproduce the sharp transition between the two regimes on increasing the particle size. We provide reasonable estimates to interpret our data and propose a likely scenario for colloidal aggregation. These results emphasize the growing importance of the diffusion of species at suboptical-wavelength scales and raise a number of fundamental issues. PMID:24715727

  8. Dynamic wetting on anisotropic patterned surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do-Quang, Minh; Wang, Jiayu; Nita, Satoshi; Shiomi, Junichiro; Amberg, Gustav; Physiochemical fluid mechanics Team; Maruyama-Chiashi Laboratory Team

    2014-11-01

    Dynamic wetting, as occurs when a droplet of a wetting liquid is brought in contact with a dry solid, is important in various engineering processes, such as printing, coating, and lubrication. Our overall aim is to investigate if and how the detailed properties of the solid surface influence the dynamics of wetting. We have recently quantified the hindering effect of fairly isotropic micron-sized patterns on the substrate. Here we will study highly anisotropic surfaces, such as parallel grooves, either perpendicular or parallel to an advancing contact line. This is done by detailed phase field simulations and experiments on structured silicon surfaces. The dynamic wetting behavior of drops on the grooved surfaces is governed by the combined interplay of the wetting line friction and the internal viscous dissipation. Influence of roughness is quantified in terms of the energy dissipation rate at the contact line using the experiment-simulation combined analysis. The energy dissipation of the contact line at the different part of the groove will be discussed. The performance of the model is assessed by comparing its predictions with the experimental data. This work was financially supported in part by, the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (J.W., S.N., and J.S) and Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems (M.D.-Q. and G.A).

  9. Anisotropic model-based SAR processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Chad; Gunther, Jake; Moon, Todd

    2013-05-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) collections that integrate over a wide range of aspect angles hold the potentional for improved resolution and fosters improved scene interpretability and target detection. However, in practice it is difficult to realize the potential due to the anisotropic scattering of objects in the scene. The radar cross section (RCS) of most objects changes as a function of aspect angle. The isotropic assumption is tacitly made for most common image formation algorithms (IFA). For wide aspect scenarios one way to account for anistropy would be to employ a piecewise linear model. This paper focuses on such a model but it incorporates aspect and spatial magnitude filters in the image formation process. This is advantageous when prior knowledge is available regarding the desired targets' RCS signature spatially and in aspect. The appropriate filters can be incorporated into the image formation processing so that specific targets are emphasized while other targets are suppressed. This is demonstrated on the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) GOTCHA1 data set to demonstrate the utility of the proposed approach.

  10. Minkowski tensors of anisotropic spatial structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder-Turk, G. E.; Mickel, W.; Kapfer, S. C.; Schaller, F. M.; Breidenbach, B.; Hug, D.; Mecke, K.

    2013-08-01

    This paper describes the theoretical foundation of and explicit algorithms for a novel approach to morphology and anisotropy analysis of complex spatial structure using tensor-valued Minkowski functionals, the so-called Minkowski tensors. Minkowski tensors are generalizations of the well-known scalar Minkowski functionals and are explicitly sensitive to anisotropic aspects of morphology, relevant for example for elastic moduli or permeability of microstructured materials. Here we derive explicit linear-time algorithms to compute these tensorial measures for three-dimensional shapes. These apply to representations of any object that can be represented by a triangulation of its bounding surface; their application is illustrated for the polyhedral Voronoi cellular complexes of jammed sphere configurations and for triangulations of a biopolymer fibre network obtained by confocal microscopy. The paper further bridges the substantial notational and conceptual gap between the different but equivalent approaches to scalar or tensorial Minkowski functionals in mathematics and in physics, hence making the mathematical measure theoretic formalism more readily accessible for future application in the physical sciences.

  11. Nonlinear Eulerian thermoelasticity for anisotropic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, J. D.

    2013-10-01

    A complete continuum thermoelastic theory for large deformation of crystals of arbitrary symmetry is developed. The theory incorporates as a fundamental state variable in the thermodynamic potentials what is termed an Eulerian strain tensor (in material coordinates) constructed from the inverse of the deformation gradient. Thermodynamic identities and relationships among Eulerian and the usual Lagrangian material coefficients are derived, significantly extending previous literature that focused on materials with cubic or hexagonal symmetry and hydrostatic loading conditions. Analytical solutions for homogeneous deformations of ideal cubic crystals are studied over a prescribed range of elastic coefficients; stress states and intrinsic stability measures are compared. For realistic coefficients, Eulerian theory is shown to predict more physically realistic behavior than Lagrangian theory under large compression and shear. Analytical solutions for shock compression of anisotropic single crystals are derived for internal energy functions quartic in Lagrangian or Eulerian strain and linear in entropy; results are analyzed for quartz, sapphire, and diamond. When elastic constants of up to order four are included, both Lagrangian and Eulerian theories are capable of matching Hugoniot data. When only the second-order elastic constant is known, an alternative theory incorporating a mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian strain tensor provides a reasonable approximation of experimental data.

  12. Biomimetic collagen scaffolds with anisotropic pore architecture.

    PubMed

    Davidenko, N; Gibb, T; Schuster, C; Best, S M; Campbell, J J; Watson, C J; Cameron, R E

    2012-02-01

    Sponge-like matrices with a specific three-dimensional structural design resembling the actual extracellular matrix of a particular tissue show significant potential for the regeneration and repair of a broad range of damaged anisotropic tissues. The manipulation of the structure of collagen scaffolds using a freeze-drying technique was explored in this work as an intrinsically biocompatible way of tailoring the inner architecture of the scaffold. The research focused on the influence of temperature gradients, imposed during the phase of crystallisation of collagen suspensions, upon the degree of anisotropy in the microstructures of the scaffolds produced. Moulding technology was employed to achieve differences in heat transfer rates during the freezing processes. For this purpose various moulds with different configurations were developed with a view to producing uniaxial and multi-directional temperature gradients across the sample during this process. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of different cross-sections (longitudinal and horizontal) of scaffolds revealed that highly aligned matrices with axially directed pore architectures were obtained where single unidirectional temperature gradients were induced. Altering the freezing conditions by the introduction of multiple temperature gradients allowed collagen scaffolds to be produced with complex pore orientations, and anisotropy in pore size and alignment. PMID:22005330

  13. Details of tetrahedral anisotropic mesh adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjerg; Gorman, Gerard

    2016-04-01

    We have implemented tetrahedral anisotropic mesh adaptation using the local operations of coarsening, swapping, refinement and smoothing in MATLAB without the use of any for- N loops, i.e. the script is fully vectorised. In the process of doing so, we have made three observations related to details of the implementation: 1. restricting refinement to a single edge split per element not only simplifies the code, it also improves mesh quality, 2. face to edge swapping is unnecessary, and 3. optimising for the Vassilevski functional tends to give a little higher value for the mean condition number functional than optimising for the condition number functional directly. These observations have been made for a uniform and a radial shock metric field, both starting from a structured mesh in a cube. Finally, we compare two coarsening techniques and demonstrate the importance of applying smoothing in the mesh adaptation loop. The results pertain to a unit cube geometry, but we also show the effect of corners and edges by applying the implementation in a spherical geometry.

  14. THE ANISOTROPIC TRANSPORT EFFECTS ON DILUTE PLASMAS

    SciTech Connect

    Devlen, Ebru

    2011-04-20

    We examine the linear stability analysis of a hot, dilute, and differentially rotating plasma by considering anisotropic transport effects. In dilute plasmas, the ion Larmor radius is small compared with its collisional mean free path. In this case, the transport of heat and momentum along the magnetic field lines becomes important. This paper presents a novel linear instability that may be more powerful and greater than ideal magnetothermal instability and ideal magnetorotational instability in the dilute astrophysical plasmas. This type of plasma is believed to be found in the intracluster medium (ICM) of galaxy clusters and radiatively ineffective accretion flows around black holes. We derive the dispersion relation of this instability and obtain the instability condition. There is at least one unstable mode that is independent of the temperature gradient direction for a helical magnetic field geometry. This novel instability is driven by the gyroviscosity coupled with differential rotation. Therefore, we call it gyroviscous-modified magnetorotational instability (GvMRI). We examine how the instability depends on signs of the temperature gradient and the gyroviscosity and also on the magnitude of the thermal frequency and on the values of the pitch angle. We provide a detailed physical interpretation of the obtained results. The GvMRI is applicable not only to the accretion flows and ICM but also to the transition region between cool dense gas and the hot low-density plasma in stellar coronae, accretion disks, and the multiphase interstellar medium because it is independent of the temperature gradient direction.

  15. Anisotropic emission of neutral atoms: evidence of an anisotropic Rydberg sheath in nanoplasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajeev, R.; Madhu Trivikram, T.; Rishad, K. P. M.; Krishnamurthy, M.

    2015-02-01

    Intense laser-produced plasma is a complex amalgam of ions, electrons and atoms both in ground and excited states. Little is known about the spatial composition of the excited states that are an integral part of most gaseous or cluster plasma. In cluster-plasma, Rydberg excitations change the charge composition of the ions through charge transfer reactions and shape the angular distributions. Here, we demonstrate a non-invasive technique that reveals the anisotropic Rydberg excited cluster sheath by measuring anisotropy in fast neutral atoms. The sheath is stronger in the direction of light polarization and the enhanced charge transfer by the excited clusters results in larger neutralization.

  16. Enhanced Raman Scattering on In-plane Anisotropic Layered Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Liangbo; Meunier, Vincent; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Ling, Xi; Lin, Jingjing; Zhang, Shuqing; Mao, Nannan; Zhang, Na; Tong, Lianming; Zhang, Jin

    2015-11-19

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on two-dimensional (2D) layered materials has provided a unique platform to study the chemical mechanism (CM) of the enhancement due to its natural separation from electromagnetic enhancement. The CM stems from the basic charge interactions between the substrate and molecules. Despite the extensive studies of the energy alignment between 2D materials and molecules, an understanding of how the electronic properties of the substrate are explicitly involved in the charge interaction is still unclear. Lately, a new group of 2D layered materials with anisotropic structure, including orthorhombic black phosphorus (BP) and triclinic rhenium disulphide (ReS2), has attracted great interest due to their unique anisotropic electrical and optical properties. Herein, we report a unique anisotropic Raman enhancement on few-layered BP and ReS2 using copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecules as a Raman probe, which is absent on isotropic graphene and h-BN. According to detailed Raman tensor analysis and density functional theory calculations, anisotropic charge interactions due to the anisotropic carrier mobilities of the 2D materials are responsible for the angular dependence of the Raman enhancement. Our findings not only provide new insights into the CM process in SERS, but also open up new avenues for the exploration and application of the electronic properties of anisotropic 2D layered materials.

  17. Enhanced Raman Scattering on In-plane Anisotropic Layered Materials

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liang, Liangbo; Meunier, Vincent; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Ling, Xi; Lin, Jingjing; Zhang, Shuqing; Mao, Nannan; Zhang, Na; Tong, Lianming; Zhang, Jin

    2015-11-19

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on two-dimensional (2D) layered materials has provided a unique platform to study the chemical mechanism (CM) of the enhancement due to its natural separation from electromagnetic enhancement. The CM stems from the basic charge interactions between the substrate and molecules. Despite the extensive studies of the energy alignment between 2D materials and molecules, an understanding of how the electronic properties of the substrate are explicitly involved in the charge interaction is still unclear. Lately, a new group of 2D layered materials with anisotropic structure, including orthorhombic black phosphorus (BP) and triclinic rhenium disulphide (ReS2), has attractedmore » great interest due to their unique anisotropic electrical and optical properties. Herein, we report a unique anisotropic Raman enhancement on few-layered BP and ReS2 using copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecules as a Raman probe, which is absent on isotropic graphene and h-BN. According to detailed Raman tensor analysis and density functional theory calculations, anisotropic charge interactions due to the anisotropic carrier mobilities of the 2D materials are responsible for the angular dependence of the Raman enhancement. Our findings not only provide new insights into the CM process in SERS, but also open up new avenues for the exploration and application of the electronic properties of anisotropic 2D layered materials.« less

  18. a New Approach to Bulk Wave Propagation in Anisotropic Media.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tverdokhlebov, Andrey

    A new approach to a theoretical description of ultrasonic bulk wave propagation through anisotropic media is developed from the retarded potential representation which was obtained for the Green's function of the elastic wave equation in anisotropic media. The general formulation of the problem and the method of solution are presented. On the basis of the theoretical development, a quantitative model was obtained that yields and properly describes all major features of the phenomena of an anisotropic filter influence. A comparison with other contemporary methods and models for the quantitative evaluation of the bulk wave propagation in anisotropic media is outlined and briefly discussed. The experimental proof of principle was established by ultrasonic measurements performed on centrifugally cast stainless steel (CCSS) and unidirectional graphite fiber -epoxy composite specimens. The experimental technique used a skip-distance arrangement of the identical quasi -point probes serving as a sender and a receiver. Consistent experimental results were attained allowing us to consider the suggested experimental arrangements as a basis for the future development of NDE technique for anisotropic material characterization. Three different types of pilot computer software were developed from this generalized retarded potential model. The results of the simulation runs turn out to be self- and mutually consistent and supported by experiments. The phenomena, such as beam skewing, beam splitting, beam focusing, unsymmetrical beams and other anisotropic effects, some of which have been already known from earlier experimental observations, emerge as computational results of the software developed from the model.

  19. Modified anisotropic turbulence refractive-index fluctuations spectral model and its application in moderate-to-strong anisotropic turbulence.

    PubMed

    Cui, Linyan; Xue, Bindang; Zhou, Fugen

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the modified anisotropic turbulence refractive-index fluctuations spectral model is derived based on the extended Rytov approximation theory for the theoretical investigations of optical plane and spherical waves propagating through moderate-to-strong anisotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulence. The anisotropic factor which parameterizes the asymmetry of turbulence cells or eddies in the horizontal and vertical directions is introduced. The general spectral power law in the range of 3-4 is also considered compared with the conventional classic value of 11/3 for Kolmogorov turbulence. Based on the modified anisotropic turbulence refractive-index fluctuations spectrum, the analytic expressions of the irradiance scintillation index are also derived for optical plane and spherical waves propagating through moderate-to-strong anisotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulence. They are applicable in a wide range of turbulence strengths and can reduce correctly to the previously published results in the special cases of weak anisotropic turbulence and moderate-to-strong isotropic turbulence. Calculations are performed to analyze the derived models. PMID:27140754

  20. Advances in design and modeling of porous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayral, André; Calas-Etienne, Sylvie; Coasne, Benoit; Deratani, André; Evstratov, Alexis; Galarneau, Anne; Grande, Daniel; Hureau, Matthieu; Jobic, Hervé; Morlay, Catherine; Parmentier, Julien; Prelot, Bénédicte; Rossignol, Sylvie; Simon-Masseron, Angélique; Thibault-Starzyk, Frédéric

    2015-07-01

    This special issue of the European Physical Journal Special Topics is dedicated to selected papers from the symposium "High surface area porous and granular materials" organized in the frame of the conference "Matériaux 2014", held on November 24-28, 2014 in Montpellier, France. Porous materials and granular materials gather a wide variety of heterogeneous, isotropic or anisotropic media made of inorganic, organic or hybrid solid skeletons, with open or closed porosity, and pore sizes ranging from the centimeter scale to the sub-nanometer scale. Their technological and industrial applications cover numerous areas from building and civil engineering to microelectronics, including also metallurgy, chemistry, health, waste water and gas effluent treatment. Many emerging processes related to environmental protection and sustainable development also rely on this class of materials. Their functional properties are related to specific transfer mechanisms (matter, heat, radiation, electrical charge), to pore surface chemistry (exchange, adsorption, heterogeneous catalysis) and to retention inside confined volumes (storage, separation, exchange, controlled release). The development of innovative synthesis, shaping, characterization and modeling approaches enables the design of advanced materials with enhanced functional performance. The papers collected in this special issue offer a good overview of the state-of-the-art and science of these complex media. We would like to thank all the speakers and participants for their contribution to the success of the symposium. We also express our gratitude to the organization committee of "Matériaux 2014". We finally thank the reviewers and the staff of the European Physical Journal Special Topics who made the publication of this special issue possible.

  1. Porous-electrode preparation method

    DOEpatents

    Arons, R.M.; Dusek, J.T.

    1981-09-17

    A porous sintered plaque is provided with a bimodal porosity that is especially well suited for use as an electrode within a molten carbonate fuel cell. The coarse porosity is sufficient for admitting gases into contact with the reaction surfaces while the fine porosity is wetted with and retains molten electrolyte on the reaction sites. The electrode structure is prepared by providing a very fine powder such as nickel oxide and blending the powder with a suitable decomposable binder to form a solid mass. The mass is comminuted into agglomerate size particles substantially larger than the fine oxide particles and formed into a cohesive compact for subsequent sintering. Sintering is carried out at sufficient conditions to bind the agglomerates together into a porous structure having both coarse and fine porosity. Where lithiated nickel oxide cathodes are prepared, the sintering conditions can be moderate enough to retain substantial quantities of lithium within the electrode for adequate conductivity.

  2. Metal recovery from porous materials

    DOEpatents

    Sturcken, E.F.

    1992-10-13

    A method is described for recovering plutonium and other metals from materials by leaching comprising the steps of incinerating the materials to form a porous matrix as the residue of incineration, immersing the matrix into acid in a microwave-transparent pressure vessel, sealing the pressure vessel, and applying microwaves so that the temperature and the pressure in the pressure vessel increase. The acid for recovering plutonium can be a mixture of HBF[sub 4] and HNO[sub 3] and preferably the pressure is increased to at least 100 PSI and the temperature to at least 200 C. The porous material can be pulverized before immersion to further increase the leach rate.

  3. Novel hollow powder porous structures

    SciTech Connect

    Sypeck, D.J.; Parrish, P.A.; Wadley, H.N.G.

    1998-12-31

    Recent finite element calculations indicate that structures constructed from partially compacted hollow spheres exhibit a greater stiffness and strength than many other cellular structures at comparable density. It has been observed that gas atomization of metallic powders often leads to entrapment of the flow field gas. The resulting hollow powders are an unwanted by-product in the sense that they lead to porosity and future sites of defect in solid parts. Here a method is developed to separate the hollow powders according to their size, shape and density. They are then consolidated to a porous structure. Examples of this are given for both a titanium alloy and a nickel-base superalloy. The compressive mechanical properties are measured and compared to those of other porous structures.

  4. POROUS WALL, HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, W.

    2012-06-30

    Hollow Glass Microspheres (HGM) is not a new technology. All one has to do is go to the internet and Google{trademark} HGM. Anyone can buy HGM and they have a wide variety of uses. HGM are usually between 1 to 100 microns in diameter, although their size can range from 100 nanometers to 5 millimeters in diameter. HGM are used as lightweight filler in composite materials such as syntactic foam and lightweight concrete. In 1968 a patent was issued to W. Beck of the 3M{trademark} Company for 'Glass Bubbles Prepared by Reheating Solid Glass Particles'. In 1983 P. Howell was issued a patent for 'Glass Bubbles of Increased Collapse Strength' and in 1988 H. Marshall was issued a patent for 'Glass Microbubbles'. Now Google{trademark}, Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs), the key words here are Porous Wall. Almost every article has its beginning with the research done at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The Savannah River Site (SRS) where SRNL is located has a long and successful history of working with hydrogen and its isotopes for national security, energy, waste management and environmental remediation applications. This includes more than 30 years of experience developing, processing, and implementing special ceramics, including glasses for a variety of Department of Energy (DOE) missions. In the case of glasses, SRS and SRNL have been involved in both the science and engineering of vitreous or glass based systems. As a part of this glass experience and expertise, SRNL has developed a number of niches in the glass arena, one of which is the development of porous glass systems for a variety of applications. These porous glass systems include sol gel glasses, which include both xerogels and aerogels, as well as phase separated glass compositions, that can be subsequently treated to produce another unique type of porosity within the glass forms. The porous glasses can increase the surface area compared to 'normal glasses of a 1 to 2 order of

  5. Porous glasses for optical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorosz, Dominik; Procyk, Bernadeta

    2006-03-01

    Microporous glasses from the Na II0-B II0 3-Si0 II system can be obtained by appropriate thermal and chemical treatment. During the thermal treatment the separation of the borate phase from the silicon skeleton has been occurred. The borates are in the form small drops joined to each other. In the course of chemical treatment the borates become leached in water, water solutions of acids or basis and the glass becomes porous. Microporous glasses may find application in many branches of science and engineering. The applications depend on the internal arrangement, size and shape of pores. These parameters may be in a wide range modified by a change of the chemical composition. The received porous glass was used as an element in optical fibre NO II sensor. The specific coloration reaction between organic reagents and NO II in the pores was occurred. It is possible to detection of 10-50 ppm NO II level.

  6. Permeability of compacting porous lavas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashwell, P. A.; Kendrick, J. E.; Lavallée, Y.; Kennedy, B. M.; Hess, K.-U.; Aulock, F. W.; Wadsworth, F. B.; Vasseur, J.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2015-03-01

    The highly transient nature of outgassing commonly observed at volcanoes is in part controlled by the permeability of lava domes and shallow conduits. Lava domes generally consist of a porous outer carapace surrounding a denser lava core with internal shear zones of variable porosity. Here we examine densification using uniaxial compression experiments on variably crystalline and porous rhyolitic dome lavas from the Taupo Volcanic Zone. Experiments were conducted at 900°C and an applied stress of 3 MPa to 60% strain, while monitoring acoustic emissions to track cracking. The evolution of the porous network was assessed via X-ray computed tomography, He-pycnometry, and relative gas permeability. High starting connected porosities led to low apparent viscosities and high strain rates, initially accompanied by abundant acoustic emissions. As compaction ensued, the lavas evolved; apparent viscosity increased and strain rate decreased due to strain hardening of the suspensions. Permeability fluctuations resulted from the interplay between viscous flow and brittle failure. Where phenocrysts were abundant, cracks had limited spatial extent, and pore closure decreased axial and radial permeability proportionally, maintaining the initial anisotropy. In crystal-poor lavas, axial cracks had a more profound effect, and permeability anisotropy switched to favor axial flow. Irrespective of porosity, both crystalline samples compacted to a threshold minimum porosity of 17-19%, whereas the crystal-poor sample did not achieve its compaction limit. This indicates that unconfined loading of porous dome lavas does not necessarily form an impermeable plug and may be hindered, in part by the presence of crystals.

  7. Inertial Range Behavior of Anisotropic Magnetic Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terry, P. W.; Fernandez, Eduardo

    2001-10-01

    Toward the inner scale of turbulence in the warm diffuse component of the local interstellar medium, the electron density is expected to change from passive to active. Using an anisotropic reduced MHD model augmented with electron density evolution under advection and compression along the local field, we study the inertial range interactions of density, flow, and magnetic field in the long and short wavelength regimes of passive and active electron density evolution [1]. Employing numerical simulation and statistical closure theory we find that even for strong anisotropy, Alfvénic decorrelation alone mediates energy transfer in the equation for the magnetic field. Alfvénic interactions couple magnetic field to the flow at long wavelengths and magnetic field to density at short wavelengths. The coupling, which drives equipartition between the coupled fields, decorrelates on the Alfvén time scale. The fluid straining decorrelation, or eddy turnover rate, affects only the cascade of internal energy at long wavelengths, and the cascade of kinetic energy at short wavelengths. This interplay between Alfvénic and fluid straining decorrelations across a spectrum with long and short wavelength ranges indicates that a single decorrelation rate cannot apply to all interactions. The spectra associated with these processes have indices of -3/2 for magnetic and kinetic energy, and -7/4 for internal energy in the long wavelength regime; and -2 for magnetic and internal energy, and -5/3 for kinetic energy in the short wavelength regime. 1. P.W. Terry, et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 2707 (2001).

  8. MOSSFRAC: An anisotropic 3D fracture model

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, W C; Levatin, J L

    2006-08-14

    Despite the intense effort for nearly half a century to construct detailed numerical models of plastic flow and plastic damage accumulation, models for describing fracture, an equally important damage mechanism still cannot describe basic fracture phenomena. Typical fracture models set the stress tensor to zero for tensile fracture and set the deviatoric stress tensor to zero for compressive fracture. One consequence is that the simple case of the tensile fracture of a cylinder under combined compressive radial and tensile axial loads is not modeled correctly. The experimental result is a cylinder that can support compressive radial loads, but no axial load, whereas, the typical numerical result is a cylinder with all stresses equal to zero. This incorrect modeling of fracture locally also has a global effect, because material that is fracturing produces stress release waves, which propagate from the fracture and influence the surrounding material. Consequently, it would be useful to have a model that can describe the stress relief and the resulting anisotropy due to fracture. MOSSFRAC is a material model that simulates three-dimensional tensile and shear fracture in initially isotropic elastic-plastic materials, although its framework is also amenable to initially anisotropic materials. It differs from other models by accounting for the effects of cracks on the constitutive response of the material, so that the previously described experiment, as well as complicated fracture scenarios are simulated more accurately. The model is implemented currently in the LLNL hydrocodes DYNA3D, PARADYN, and ALE3D. The purpose of this technical note is to present a complete qualitative description of the model and quantitative descriptions of salient features.

  9. Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy of Anisotropic Shale Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, L. M.; van Wijk, K.

    2014-12-01

    Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS) is a technique that can be used to determine the elastic properties of geological core samples. The resonant frequencies of the sample are measured and the elastic tensor inverted for by the non-linear Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. It is a non-destructive method that allows the complete elastic tensor to be calculated from a single measurement and can provide important attenuation information. Many crustal rocks are anisotropic and can often be described by a hexagonal model of symmetry, where the sample has a single axis of rotational symmetry with perpendicular isotropic planes. Geological samples are often cylindrical and cut parallel or perpendicular to the layering (termed horizontal or vertical transverse isotropy respectively). The two situations cannot be treated by a single model and have substantially different resonant spectra. We have added functionality to existing forward and inverse codes to account for both situations. It is important to be able to deal with the two subsets of hexagonal symmetry because by using mutually perpendicular samples from the same rock complementary information can be obtained and more accurate results achieved than is possible with a single core. Shale formations consist of thin layered sequences of aligned microscopic clay platelets, which are responsible for the inherent anisotropy of shales, and can be described by a hexagonal symmetry model. RUS is used to determine the complete elastic tensor of two shale samples. When measured using RUS at frequencies on the order of 104 Hz and with time-of-flight methods with a dominant frequency an order of magnitude higher the elastic properties display frequency dispersion.

  10. Combustion synthesis of porous biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Ayers, Reed A; Burkes, Douglas E; Gottoli, Guglielmo; Yi, Hu-Chun; Zhim, Fouad; Yahia, L'hocine; Moore, John J

    2007-06-01

    This article discusses the unique material manufacturing process of self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS) as applied to the making of porous biomaterials. Porous materials have long been considered as the first step toward in-vivo bone tissue engineering and the creation of patient life-time implants. The authors have approached this challenge by utilizing combustion synthesis, to create novel materials such as NiTi + TiC as well as porous forms of materials that are commonly accepted for biomedical applications such as tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite. In the SHS product, physico-chemical properties are controlled by, but not limited to, reactant stoichiometry; green density; particle size of the reactant mix; use or presence of a gasifying agent; heating rate of the reactants and gravity. By balancing these parameters, the energy of the reaction is controlled to create the desired product stoichiometry, porosity, and mechanical properties. SHS provides a means to rapidly manufacture materials, saving time and production costs as well as enabling the synthesis of custom devices through the use of individual molds. Mold materials can range from graphite to paper or paper machete. Combustion synthesis offers a method for the rapid manufacture of affordable, individual biomedical devices that will reduce patient recovery time. PMID:17187390

  11. Microscale transport in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Rashidi, M.; Rinker, R.

    1996-04-01

    In-pore transport processes in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media have been investigated using novel 3D imaging techniques. The experimental system consists of a clear column packed with clear particles and a refractive index-matched fluid seeded with fluorescent tracers and an organic solute dye. By illuminating the porous regions within the column with a planar sheet of laser beam, flow and transport processes through the porous medium can be observed microscopically, and qualitative and quantitative in-pore transport information can be obtained at a good resolution and a high accuracy. Fluorescent images are captured and recorded at every vertical plane location while sweeping back and forth across the test section. These digitized transport images are then analyzed and accumulated over a 3D volume within the column. This paper reports on pore-scale observations of velocity, chemical concentration, and fluxes. Tests were undertaken with two separate columns. One is a rectangular column for chemical transport and bioremediation studies in aqueous heterogeneous systems and the other is a cylindrical column for flow and transport investigations in nonaqueous homogeneous systems.

  12. Porous heat-insulation material

    SciTech Connect

    Chentemirov, M.G.; Dyachkovsky, F.S.; Enikolopov, N.S.; Gavrilov, J.A.; Gorbachev, J.G.; Kudinova, O.I.; Lukienko, E.P.; Maklakova, T.A.; Novokshonova, L.A.; Parsamian, L.O.; Poluyanov, A.F.

    1980-12-23

    A porous heat-insulation material comprising blocks molded from granules of a porous mineral filler with a polyolefin coating is described. The coating thickness is 1/1000 to 1/25 of the average granule diameter; in contact regions, said granules are spaced from each other at a distance of from 0.5 to 2.0 of the coating thickness, and the mass ratio between said porous mineral filler and said polyolefin is 80-98:20-2, respectively. The material of this invention has a volume mass of from 60 to 250 kg/m/sup 3/. The material features a high plasticity (its flexural strength is as high as 3-4 kgf/cm/sup 2/). The compression strength of the material is 9-1 kgf/cm/sup 2/. The material also has a low thermal conductivity; its thermal conductivity coefficient is 0.03-0.04 kcal/M/h//sup 0/C. The material is substantially non-combustible.

  13. Photophysical ablation of porous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksenov, Valerii P.; Mikhailova, G. N.

    2004-07-01

    Laser ablation of porous silicon as a function of laser wavelength and width of silicon nanowires was studied in our experiments. The time-resolved evolution of the cloud of the porous silicon particles produced by laser ablation is studied in situ by the analysis of the kinetics of photoluminescence signal. The laser ablation of porous silicon produced by pulses of 532 nm or 337 nm radiation with addition of synchronized power pulses of 1064 nm radiation. The cloud of the nanometer-sized silicon crystallites had the high enhancement of luminescence quantum efficiency in the red region of spectra. The slow PL kinetics component, which is due to the localized carriers, decays on a millisecond time scale. The squeezed electron-hole plasma heating by IR-laser radiation may produce a damage of silicon nanowires. The fragments of nanowires in cloud must be smaller, than the critical length. The energy of excitation of e-h pair in fragment with contribution of longitude quantum modes must be lower than energy of the excited photons. Particles with lesser length don't absorb excited laser radiation and don't damage. For this case we may speak about the quantum mechanism of laser ablation of nanowires.

  14. Contaminant transport from an array of sources

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, C.L.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.; Pigford, T.H.

    1987-04-01

    This document shows analytic solutions to the problem of contaminant dispersion from an array of point sources in a waste disposal site. These solutions are for waste sources in a fluid-saturated porous medium, and may be for isotropic or anisotropic dispersion. The solutions are illustrated through isopleths of contaminants for a planar array of point sources perpendicular to ground-water flow. The concentration fields several meters away from this plane can be approximated by equivalent plane sources. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Breast ultrasound despeckling using anisotropic diffusion guided by texture descriptors.

    PubMed

    Gómez Flores, Wilfrido; Pereira, Wagner Coelho de Albuquerque; Infantosi, Antonio Fernando Catelli

    2014-11-01

    Breast ultrasound (BUS) is considered the most important adjunct method to mammography for diagnosing cancer. However, this image modality suffers from an intrinsic artifact called speckle noise, which degrades spatial and contrast resolution and obscures the screened anatomy. Hence, it is necessary to reduce speckle artifacts before performing image analysis by means of computer-aided diagnosis systems, for example. In addition, the trade-off between smoothing level and preservation of lesion contour details should be addressed by speckle reduction schemes. In this scenario, we propose a BUS despeckling method based on anisotropic diffusion guided by Log-Gabor filters (ADLG). Because we assume that different breast tissues have distinct textures, in our approach we perform a multichannel decomposition of the BUS image using Log-Gabor filters. Next, the conduction coefficient of anisotropic diffusion filtering is computed using texture responses instead of intensity values as stated originally. The proposed algorithm is validated using both synthetic and real breast data sets, with 900 and 50 images, respectively. The performance measures are compared with four existing speckle reduction schemes based on anisotropic diffusion: conventional anisotropic diffusion filtering (CADF), speckle-reducing anisotropic diffusion (SRAD), texture-oriented anisotropic diffusion (TOAD), and interference-based speckle filtering followed by anisotropic diffusion (ISFAD). The validity metrics are the Pratt's figure of merit, for synthetic images, and the mean radial distance (in pixels), for real sonographies. Figure of merit and mean radial distance indices should tend toward '1' and '0', respectively, to indicate adequate edge preservation. The results suggest that ADLG outperforms the four speckle removal filters compared with respect to simulated and real BUS images. For each method--ADLG, CADF, SRAD, TOAD and ISFAD--the figure of merit median values are 0.83, 0.40, 0.39, 0

  16. Fluid-dependent anisotropy and experimental measurements in synthetic porous rocks with controlled fracture parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Pinbo; Di, Bangrang; Wei, Jianxin; Li, Xiangyang; Deng, Yinghua

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we analyse the influence of fluid on P- and S-wave anisotropy in a fractured medium. Equivalent medium theories are used to describe the relationship between the fluid properties and the rock physics characteristics in fractured rocks, and P-wave and S-wave velocities and anisotropy are considered to be influenced by fluid saturation. However, these theoretical predictions require experimental measurement results for calibration. A new construction method was used to create synthetic rock samples with controlled fracture parameters. The new construction process provides synthetic rocks that have a more realistic mineral composition, porous structure, cementation and pressure sensitivity than samples used in previous research on fractured media. The synthetic rock samples contain fractures which have a controlled distribution, diameter, thickness and fracture density. In this study, the fracture diameter was about 4 mm, the thickness of fractures was about 0.06 mm, and the fracture density in the two fractured rock samples was about 3.45%. SEM images show well-defined penny-shaped fractures of 4 mm in length and 0.06 mm in width. The rock samples were saturated with air, water and oil, and P- and S-wave velocities were measured in an ultrasonic measurement system. The laboratory measurement results show that the P-wave anisotropy is strongly influenced by saturated fluid, and the P-wave anisotropy parameter, ɛ, has a much larger value in air saturation than in water and oil saturations. The S-wave anisotropy decreases when the samples are saturated with oil, which can be caused by high fluid viscosity. In the direction perpendicular to the fractures (the 0° direction), shear-wave splitting is negligible, and is similar to the blank sample without fractures, as expected. In the direction parallel to the fractures (the 90° direction) shear-wave splitting is significant. The fractured rock samples show significant P- and S-wave anisotropy caused by

  17. Advanced computational multi-fluid dynamics: a new model for understanding electrokinetic phenomena in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulamali, M. Y.; Saunders, J. H.; Jackson, M. D.; Pain, C. C.

    2009-04-01

    We present results from a new computational multi-fluid dynamics code, designed to model the transport of heat, mass and chemical species during flow of single or multiple immiscible fluid phases through porous media, including gravitational effects and compressibility. The model also captures the electrical phenomena which may arise through electrokinetic, electrochemical and electrothermal coupling. Building on the advanced computational technology of the Imperial College Ocean Model, this new development leads the way towards a complex multiphase code using arbitrary unstructured and adaptive meshes, and domains decomposed to run in parallel over a cluster of workstations or a dedicated parallel computer. These facilities will allow efficient and accurate modelling of multiphase flows which capture large- and small-scale transport phenomena, while preserving the important geology and/or surface topology to make the results physically meaningful and realistic. Applications include modelling of contaminant transport in aquifers, multiphase flow during hydrocarbon production, migration of carbon dioxide during sequestration, and evaluation of the design and safety of nuclear reactors. Simulations of the streaming potential resulting from multiphase flow in laboratory- and field-scale models demonstrate that streaming potential signals originate at fluid fronts, and at geologic boundaries where fluid saturation changes. This suggests that downhole measurements of streaming potential may be used to inform production strategies in oil and gas reservoirs. As water encroaches on an oil production well, the streaming-potential signal associated with the water front encompasses the well even when the front is up to 100 m away, so the potential measured at the well starts to change significantly relative to a distant reference electrode. Variations in the geometry of the encroaching water front could be characterized using an array of electrodes positioned along the well

  18. Seismic wave propagation in multiphasic complex porous media : upscaling and downscaling approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuy, B.; Garambois, S.; Virieux, J.

    2011-12-01

    Seismic wave propagation is often used for subsurface investigation, related either to reservoir issues (oil, gas or CO2 storage) or geotechnical problems (slope stability, water resources, territory management). Indeed, near surface media are rather heterogeneous, complex and partially fluid-filled. These characteristics are more or less sensitive to seismic waves. In order to interpret efficiently seismic attributes in these media, wave propagation may require complex poroelastic theories in multiphasic media as double porosity or patchy saturated cases. Thanks to upscaling techniques, we determine homogeneized parameters leading to a two-phases media described by complex and frequency dependent parameters. An effective generalized Biot-Gassmann theory allows wave propagation in 2D heterogeneous media through a Discontinuous Galerkin finite-element approach. Taking into account the rather complex frequency-dependent rheology of these porous media, wave propagation simulation is simpler in a frequency formulation than in a time formulation, at least for 2D geometries. We illustrate two features essential for an accurate characterization of the medium. On one hand, strong waveforms differences between the complex upscaled media (double porosity, unsaturated, squirt flow models) and the equivalent saturated Biot-Gassmann media (determined by arithmetic and harmonic averages) are underlined on simple examples. This may require the use of these theories for the characterization of these media. In the other hand, after the reconstruction of macro-scale parameters such as velocities and attenuations through seismic attributes (times, amplitudes and so on) using standard visco-elastic interpretation (first step of the downscaling procedure), we show that we recover micro-scale parameters (skeleton parameters such as porosity or dry moduli, fluid saturation...) using global search techniques (neighborhood algorithm) with some a priori information (second step of the

  19. Dynamic transverse shear modulus for a heterogeneous fluid-filled porous solid containing cylindrical inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yongjia; Hu, Hengshan; Rudnicki, John W.; Duan, Yunda

    2016-09-01

    An exact analytical solution is presented for the effective dynamic transverse shear modulus in a heterogeneous fluid-filled porous solid containing cylindrical inclusions. The complex and frequency-dependent properties of the dynamic shear modulus are caused by the physical mechanism of mesoscopic-scale wave-induced fluid flow whose scale is smaller than wavelength but larger than the size of pores. Our model consists of three phases: a long cylindrical inclusion, a cylindrical shell of poroelastic matrix material with different mechanical and/or hydraulic properties than the inclusion and an outer region of effective homogeneous medium of laterally infinite extent. The behavior of both the inclusion and the matrix is described by Biot's consolidation equations, whereas the surrounding effective medium which is used to describe the effective transverse shear properties of the inner poroelastic composite is assumed to be a viscoelastic solid whose complex transverse shear modulus needs to be determined. The determined effective transverse shear modulus is used to quantify the S-wave attenuation and velocity dispersion in heterogeneous fluid-filled poroelastic rocks. The calculation shows the relaxation frequency and relative position of various fluid saturation dispersion curves predicted by this study exhibit very good agreement with those of a previous 2-D finite-element simulation. For the double-porosity model (inclusions having a different solid frame than the matrix but the same pore fluid as the matrix) the effective shear modulus also exhibits a size-dependent characteristic that the relaxation frequency moves to lower frequencies by two orders of magnitude if the radius of the cylindrical poroelastic composite increases by one order of magnitude. For the patchy-saturation model (inclusions having the same solid frame as the matrix but with a different pore fluid from the matrix), the heterogeneity in pore fluid cannot cause any attenuation in the

  20. Dynamic transverse shear modulus for a heterogeneous fluid-filled porous solid containing cylindrical inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yongjia; Hu, Hengshan; Rudnicki, John W.; Duan, Yunda

    2016-06-01

    An exact analytical solution is presented for the effective dynamic transverse shear modulus in a heterogeneous fluid-filled porous solid containing cylindrical inclusions. The complex and frequency-dependent properties of the dynamic shear modulus are caused by the physical mechanism of mesoscopic-scale wave-induced fluid flow whose scale is smaller than wavelength but larger than the size of pores. Our model consists of three phases: a long cylindrical inclusion, a cylindrical shell of poroelastic matrix material with different mechanical and/or hydraulic properties than the inclusion and an outer region of effective homogeneous medium of laterally infinite extent. The behavior of both the inclusion and the matrix is described by Biot's consolidation equations, whereas the surrounding effective medium which is used to describe the effective transverse shear properties of the inner poroelastic composite is assumed to be a viscoelastic solid whose complex transverse shear modulus needs to be determined. The determined effective transverse shear modulus is used to quantify the S-wave attenuation and velocity dispersion in heterogeneous fluid-filled poroelastic rocks. The calculation shows the relaxation frequency and relative position of various fluid saturation dispersion curves predicted by this study exhibit very good agreement with those of a previous two-dimensional finite-element simulation. For the double-porosity model (inclusions having a different solid frame than the matrix but the same pore fluid as the matrix) the effective shear modulus also exhibits a size-dependent characteristic that the relaxation frequency moves to lower frequencies by two orders of magnitude if the radius of the cylindrical poroelastic composite increases by one order of magnitude. For the patchy-saturation model (inclusions having the same solid frame as the matrix but with a different pore fluid from the matrix), the heterogeneity in pore fluid cannot cause any attenuation in

  1. The effects of fracture permeability on acoustic wave propagation in the porous media: A microscopic perspective.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ding; Wang, Liji; Ding, Pinbo

    2016-08-01

    An illustrative theory is developed to analyze the acoustic wave propagation characteristics in the porous media with anisotropic permeability. We focus here on the role of fracture permeability in the unconsolidated porous media, looking in particular at the compressional P-wave phase velocity and attenuation. Two fluid pressure equilibration characteristic time factors are defined, which are corresponding to crack-pore system and crack-crack system, respectively. The theoretical results show that the dispersion and attenuation characteristics of acoustic wave are affected by porous matrix and fracture permeability simultaneously. Due to the fluid exchange that takes place between fractures and pores dominantly, the influence of the fracture connectivity on the wave propagation is very weak when the permeability of background medium is relatively high. However, correlation between wave propagation and fracture permeability is significant when the matrix permeability at a low level. A second attenuation peak occurs for the fluid flow within fractures in high-frequency region for more and more higher fracture permeability. The exact analytical solutions that are compared to numerical forward modeling of wave propagation in fractured media allow us to verify the correctness of the new model. If there exists another approach for obtaining the connectivity information of background media, we can use this model to analyze qualitatively the permeability of fractures or afford an indicator of in-situ permeability changes in a oil reservoir, for example, fracturing operations. PMID:27259119

  2. Porous titanium scaffolds fabricated using a rapid prototyping and powder metallurgy technique.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Garrett E; Pandit, Abhay S; Apatsidis, Dimitrios P

    2008-09-01

    One of the main issues in orthopaedic implant design is the fabrication of scaffolds that closely mimic the biomechanical properties of the surrounding bone. This research reports on a multi-stage rapid prototyping technique that was successfully developed to produce porous titanium scaffolds with fully interconnected pore networks and reproducible porosity and pore size. The scaffolds' porous characteristics were governed by a sacrificial wax template, fabricated using a commercial 3D-printer. Powder metallurgy processes were employed to generate the titanium scaffolds by filling around the wax template with titanium slurry. In the attempt to optimise the powder metallurgy technique, variations in slurry concentration, compaction pressure and sintering temperature were investigated. By altering the wax design template, pore sizes ranging from 200 to 400 microm were achieved. Scaffolds with porosities of 66.8 +/- 3.6% revealed compression strengths of 104.4+/-22.5 MPa in the axial direction and 23.5 +/- 9.6 MPa in the transverse direction demonstrating their anisotropic nature. Scaffold topography was characterised using scanning electron microscopy and microcomputed tomography. Three-dimensional reconstruction enabled the main architectural parameters such as pore size, interconnecting porosity, level of anisotropy and level of structural disorder to be determined. The titanium scaffolds were compared to their intended designs, as governed by their sacrificial wax templates. Although discrepancies in architectural parameters existed between the intended and the actual scaffolds, overall the results indicate that the porous titanium scaffolds have the properties to be potentially employed in orthopaedic applications. PMID:18556060

  3. Fabrication of alumina porous scaffolds with aligned oriented pores for bone tissue engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarhadi, Fatemeh; Shafiee Afarani, Mahdi; Mohebbi-Kalhori, Davod; Shayesteh, Masoud

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, porous alumina scaffolds with specific orientation and anisotropic properties are fabricated for application in bone tissue repair. The scaffolds with double shape pores, tubular oriented and isotropic rounded pores, were prepared using alumina and silica as starting materials by the slip casting route. Milled polyurethane foam and silk fibers were applied as replica materials as well. The effect of fiber types and diameter and number of fibers on the microstructure and pore size was studied. Moreover, different characteristics such as porosity, density, orientation, flexural strength and compressive strength of the samples were investigated. Results showed that various fibers with different diameters and numbers led to forming the pores with different pore sizes, microstructure and consequently changes in the physical and mechanical properties. In addition, the simultaneous presence of fibers and particles led to more porous scaffolds. The oriented tiny micro-tube and rounded pores were observed in all porous ceramic scaffolds. Mechanical testing showed an anisotropy in the mechanical behaviors such that higher strengths were observed in the oriented pore direction than that of transverse. With increasing the number and diameter of silk fibers, the scaffolds with a high porosity up to 68 vol% and proper flexural strength were obtained.

  4. Multiphase flow through porous media: an adaptive control volume finite element formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostaghimi, P.; Tollit, B.; Gorman, G.; Neethling, S.; Pain, C.

    2012-12-01

    Accurate modeling of multiphase flow in porous media is of great importance in a wide range of applications in science and engineering. We have developed a numerical scheme which employs an implicit pressure explicit saturation (IMPES) algorithm for the temporal discretization of the governing equations. The saturation equation is spatially discretized using a node centered control volume method on an unstructured finite element mesh. The face values are determined through an upwind scheme. The pressure equation is spatially discretized using a continuous control volume finite element method (CV-FEM) to achieve consistency with the discrete saturation equation. The numerical simulation is implemented in Fluidity, an open source and general purpose fluid simulator capable of solving a number of different governing equations for fluid flow and accompanying field equations on arbitrary unstructured meshes. The model is verified against the Buckley-Leverett problem where a quasi-analytical solution is available. We discuss the accuracy and the order of convergence of the scheme. We demonstrate the scheme for modeling multiphase flow in a synthetic heterogeneous porous medium along with the use of anisotropic mesh adaptivity to control local solution errors and increase computational efficiency. The adaptive method is also used to simulate two-phase flow in heap leaching, an industrial mining process, where the flow of the leaching solution is gravitationally dominated. Finally we describe the extension of the developed numerical scheme for simulation of flow in multiscale fractured porous media and its capability to model the multiscale characterization of flow in full scale.

  5. Porous Carbon Nanoparticle Networks with Tunable Absorbability

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Wei; Kim, Seong Jin; Seong, Won-Kyeong; Kim, Sang Hoon; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Kim, Ho-Young; Moon, Myoung-Woon

    2013-01-01

    Porous carbon materials with high specific surface areas and superhydrophobicity have attracted much research interest due to their potential application in the areas of water filtration, water/oil separation, and oil-spill cleanup. Most reported superhydrophobic porous carbon materials are fabricated by complex processes involving the use of catalysts and high temperatures but with low throughput. Here, we present a facile single-step method for fabricating porous carbon nanoparticle (CNP) networks with selective absorbability for water and oils via the glow discharge of hydrocarbon plasma without a catalyst at room temperature. Porous CNP networks were grown by the continuous deposition of CNPs at a relatively high deposition pressure. By varying the fluorine content, the porous CNP networks exhibited tunable repellence against liquids with various degrees of surface tension. These porous CNP networks could be applied for the separation of not only water/oil mixtures but also mixtures of liquids with different surface tension levels. PMID:23982181

  6. Nano-explosions in porous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    du Plessis, Monuko; Conradie, Corrie

    2006-01-01

    The explosive properties of porous-silicon, impregnated with an oxidant, were researched. The electrochemical etching of porous silicon layers was investigated, and a porous layer structural model is proposed to model the pore and crystallite dimensions of the porous layer. A gravimetric experimental technique is described whereby the pore dimensions and specific surface area can be determined. A new relationship between pore size and specific surface area was established. The types of oxidants and their properties, as well as the impregnation of the porous layers by different oxidants, were researched. It was observed that the filling of the pores by the oxidant is a function of pore diameter, specific surface area and type of oxidant used. The experimentally observed explosive properties are a function of silicon resistivity, porous layer porosity and pore dimensions. It was found that there is an optimum pore size for the most energetic explosion. Future applications for this new technology are proposed.

  7. Thermally conductive porous element-based recuperators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du, Jian Hua (Inventor); Chow, Louis C (Inventor); Lin, Yeong-Ren (Inventor); Wu, Wei (Inventor); Kapat, Jayanta (Inventor); Notardonato, William U. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A heat exchanger includes at least one hot fluid flow channel comprising a first plurality of open cell porous elements having first gaps there between for flowing a hot fluid in a flow direction and at least one cold fluid flow channel comprising a second plurality of open cell porous elements having second gaps therebetween for flowing a cold fluid in a countercurrent flow direction relative to the flow direction. The thermal conductivity of the porous elements is at least 10 W/mK. A separation member is interposed between the hot and cold flow channels for isolating flow paths associated these flow channels. The first and second plurality of porous elements at least partially overlap one another to form a plurality of heat transfer pairs which transfer heat from respective ones of the first porous elements to respective ones of the second porous elements through the separation member.

  8. Reactive solute transport in physically and chemically heterogeneous porous media with multimodal reactive mineral facies: the Lagrangian approach.

    PubMed

    Soltanian, Mohamad Reza; Ritzi, Robert W; Dai, Zhenxue; Huang, Chao Cheng

    2015-03-01

    Physical and chemical heterogeneities have a large impact on reactive transport in porous media. Examples of heterogeneous attributes affecting reactive mass transport are the hydraulic conductivity (K), and the equilibrium sorption distribution coefficient (Kd). This paper uses the Deng et al. (2013) conceptual model for multimodal reactive mineral facies and a Lagrangian-based stochastic theory in order to analyze the reactive solute dispersion in three-dimensional anisotropic heterogeneous porous media with hierarchical organization of reactive minerals. An example based on real field data is used to illustrate the time evolution trends of reactive solute dispersion. The results show that the correlation between the hydraulic conductivity and the equilibrium sorption distribution coefficient does have a significant effect on reactive solute dispersion. The anisotropy ratio does not have a significant effect on reactive solute dispersion. Furthermore, through a sensitivity analysis we investigate the impact of changing the mean, variance, and integral scale of K and Kd on reactive solute dispersion. PMID:25532767

  9. Weibel Instability Driven by Spatially Anisotropic Density Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Sara; Ohira, Yutaka

    2016-07-01

    Observations of afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) suggest that post-shock magnetic fields are strongly amplified to about 100 times the shock-compressed value. The Weibel instability appears to play an important role in generating the magnetic field. However, recent simulations of collisionless shocks in homogeneous plasmas show that the magnetic field generated by the Weibel instability rapidly decays. There must be some density fluctuations in interstellar and circumstellar media. The density fluctuations are anisotropically compressed in the downstream region of relativistic shocks. In this paper, we study the Weibel instability in electron–positron plasmas with spatially anisotropic density distributions by means of two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. We find that large magnetic fields are maintained for a longer time by the Weibel instability driven by spatially anisotropic density structure. Particles anisotropically escape from the high density region, so that a temperature anisotropy is generated and the Weibel instability becomes unstable. Our simulation results suggest that the Weibel instability driven by an anisotropic density structure can generate sufficiently large magnetic fields and they can cover sufficiently large regions to explain the afterglow emission of GRBs.

  10. Anisotropic Solution Adaptive Unstructured Grid Generation Using AFLR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcum, David L.

    2007-01-01

    An existing volume grid generation procedure, AFLR3, was successfully modified to generate anisotropic tetrahedral elements using a directional metric transformation defined at source nodes. The procedure can be coupled with a solver and an error estimator as part of an overall anisotropic solution adaptation methodology. It is suitable for use with an error estimator based on an adjoint, optimization, sensitivity derivative, or related approach. This offers many advantages, including more efficient point placement along with robust and efficient error estimation. It also serves as a framework for true grid optimization wherein error estimation and computational resources can be used as cost functions to determine the optimal point distribution. Within AFLR3 the metric transformation is implemented using a set of transformation vectors and associated aspect ratios. The modified overall procedure is presented along with details of the anisotropic transformation implementation. Multiple two-and three-dimensional examples are also presented that demonstrate the capability of the modified AFLR procedure to generate anisotropic elements using a set of source nodes with anisotropic transformation metrics. The example cases presented use moderate levels of anisotropy and result in usable element quality. Future testing with various flow solvers and methods for obtaining transformation metric information is needed to determine practical limits and evaluate the efficacy of the overall approach.

  11. Enhanced Raman Scattering on In-Plane Anisotropic Layered Materials.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jingjing; Liang, Liangbo; Ling, Xi; Zhang, Shuqing; Mao, Nannan; Zhang, Na; Sumpter, Bobby G; Meunier, Vincent; Tong, Lianming; Zhang, Jin

    2015-12-16

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on two-dimensional (2D) layered materials has provided a unique platform to study the chemical mechanism (CM) of the enhancement due to its natural separation from electromagnetic enhancement. The CM stems from the charge interactions between the substrate and molecules. Despite the extensive studies of the energy alignment between 2D materials and molecules, an understanding of how the electronic properties of the substrate are explicitly involved in the charge interaction is still unclear. Lately, a new group of 2D layered materials with anisotropic structures, including orthorhombic black phosphorus (BP) and triclinic rhenium disulfide (ReS2), has attracted great interest due to their unique anisotropic electrical and optical properties. Herein, we report a unique anisotropic Raman enhancement on few-layered BP and ReS2 using copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecules as a Raman probe, which is absent on isotropic graphene and h-BN. According to detailed Raman tensor analysis and density functional theory calculations, anisotropic charge interactions between the 2D materials and molecules are responsible for the angular dependence of the Raman enhancement. Our findings not only provide new insights into the CM process in SERS, but also open up new avenues for the exploration and application of the electronic properties of anisotropic 2D layered materials. PMID:26583533

  12. What is the Brillouin zone of an anisotropic photonic crystal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivarajah, P.; Maznev, A. A.; Ofori-Okai, B. K.; Nelson, K. A.

    2016-02-01

    The concept of the Brillouin zone (BZ) in relation to a photonic crystal fabricated in an optically anisotropic material is explored both experimentally and theoretically. In experiment we used femtosecond laser pulses to excite THz polaritons and image their propagation in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate photonic crystal (PhC) slabs. We directly measured the dispersion relation inside PhCs and observed that the lowest band gap expected to form at the BZ boundary forms inside the BZ in the anisotropic lithium niobate PhC. Our analysis shows that in an anisotropic material the BZ—defined as the Wigner-Seitz cell in the reciprocal lattice—is no longer bounded by Bragg planes and thus does not conform to the original definition of the BZ by Brillouin. We construct an alternative Brillouin zone defined by Bragg planes and show its utility in identifying features of the dispersion bands. We show that for an anisotropic two-dimensional PhC without dispersion, the Bragg plane BZ can be constructed by applying the Wigner-Seitz method to a stretched or compressed reciprocal lattice. We also show that in the presence of the dispersion in the underlying material or in a slab waveguide, the Bragg planes are generally represented by curved surfaces rather than planes. The concept of constructing a BZ with Bragg planes should prove useful in understanding the formation of dispersion bands in anisotropic PhCs and in selectively tailoring their optical properties.

  13. 2D seismic reflection tomography in strongly anisotropic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Guangnan; Zhou, Bing; Li, Hongxi; Zhang, Hua; Li, Zelin

    2014-12-01

    Seismic traveltime tomography is an effective method to reconstruct underground anisotropic parameters. Currently, most anisotropic tomographic methods were developed under the assumption of weak anisotropy. The tomographic method proposed here can be implemented for imaging subsurface targets in strongly anisotropic media with a known tilted symmetry axis, since the adopted ray tracing method is suitable for anisotropic media with arbitrary degree. There are three kinds of reflection waves (qP, qSV and qSH waves) that were separately used to invert the blocky abnormal body model. The reflection traveltime tomographiy is developed here because a surface observation system is the most economical and practical way compared with crosswell and VSP. The numerical examples show that the traveltimes of qP reflection wave have inverted parameters {{c}11},{{c}13},{{c}33} \\text{and} {{c}44} successfully. Traveltimes of qSV reflection wave have inverted parameters {{c}11},{{c}33} \\text{and} {{c}44} successfully, with the exception of the {{c}13}, since it is less sensitive than other parameters. Traveltimes of qSH reflection wave also have inverted parameters {{c}44} \\text{and} {{c}66} successfully. In addition, we find that the velocity sensitivity functions (derivatives of phase velocity with respect to elastic moduli parameters) and raypath illuminating angles have a great influence on the qualities of tomograms according to the inversion of theoretical models. Finally, the numerical examples confirm that the reflection traveltime tomography can be applied to invert strongly anisotropic models.

  14. Multiple anisotropic collisions for advection-diffusion Lattice Boltzmann schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginzburg, Irina

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops a symmetrized framework for the analysis of the anisotropic advection-diffusion Lattice Boltzmann schemes. Two main approaches build the anisotropic diffusion coefficients either from the anisotropic anti-symmetric collision matrix or from the anisotropic symmetric equilibrium distribution. We combine and extend existing approaches for all commonly used velocity sets, prescribe most general equilibrium and build the diffusion and numerical-diffusion forms, then derive and compare solvability conditions, examine available anisotropy and stable velocity magnitudes in the presence of advection. Besides the deterioration of accuracy, the numerical diffusion dictates the stable velocity range. Three techniques are proposed for its elimination: (i) velocity-dependent relaxation entries; (ii) their combination with the coordinate-link equilibrium correction; and (iii) equilibrium correction for all links. Two first techniques are also available for the minimal (coordinate) velocity sets. Even then, the two-relaxation-times model with the isotropic rates often gains in effective stability and accuracy. The key point is that the symmetric collision mode does not modify the modeled diffusion tensor but it controls the effective accuracy and stability, via eigenvalue combinations of the opposite parity eigenmodes. We propose to reduce the eigenvalue spectrum by properly combining different anisotropic collision elements. The stability role of the symmetric, multiple-relaxation-times component, is further investigated with the exact von Neumann stability analysis developed in diffusion-dominant limit.

  15. Bimodal porous gold opals for molecular sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Weon-Sik; Yu, Hyunung; Ham, Sung-Kyoung; Lee, Myung-Jin; Jung, Jin-Seung; Robinson, David B.

    2013-11-01

    We have fabricated bimodal porous gold skeletons by double-templating routes using poly(styrene) colloidal opals as templates. The fabricated gold skeletons show a bimodal pore-size distribution, with small pores within spheres and large pores between spheres. The templated bimodal porous gold skeletons were applied in Raman scattering experiments to study sensing efficiency for probe molecules. We found that the bimodal porous gold skeletons showed obvious enhancement of Raman scattering signals versus that of the unimodal porous gold which only has interstitial pores of several hundred nanometers.

  16. Foam drainage placed on a porous substrate.

    PubMed

    Arjmandi-Tash, O; Kovalchuk, N; Trybala, A; Starov, V

    2015-05-14

    A model for drainage/imbibition of a foam placed on the top of a porous substrate is presented. The equation of liquid imbibition into the porous substrate is coupled with a foam drainage equation at the foam/porous substrate interface. The deduced dimensionless equations are solved using a finite element method. It was found that the kinetics of foam drainage/imbibition depends on three dimensionless numbers and the initial liquid volume fraction. The result shows that there are three different regimes of the process. Each regime starts after initial rapid decrease of a liquid volume fraction at the foam/porous substrate interface: (i) rapid imbibition: the liquid volume fraction inside the foam at the foam/porous substrate interface remains constant close to a final liquid volume fraction; (ii) intermediate imbibition: the liquid volume fraction at the interface with the porous substrate experiences a peak point and imbibition into the porous substrate is slower as compared with the drainage; (iii) slow imbibition: the liquid volume fraction at the foam/porous substrate interface increases to a maximum limiting value and a free liquid layer is formed between the foam and the porous substrate. However, the free liquid layer disappears after some time. The transition points between these three different drainage/imbibition regimes were delineated by introducing two dimensionless numbers. PMID:25811970

  17. Porous media heat transfer for injection molding

    DOEpatents

    Beer, Neil Reginald

    2016-05-31

    The cooling of injection molded plastic is targeted. Coolant flows into a porous medium disposed within an injection molding component via a porous medium inlet. The porous medium is thermally coupled to a mold cavity configured to receive injected liquid plastic. The porous medium beneficially allows for an increased rate of heat transfer from the injected liquid plastic to the coolant and provides additional structural support over a hollow cooling well. When the temperature of the injected liquid plastic falls below a solidifying temperature threshold, the molded component is ejected and collected.

  18. Transpiration Control Of Aerodynamics Via Porous Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Daniel W.; Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    1993-01-01

    Quasi-active porous surface used to control pressure loading on aerodynamic surface of aircraft or other vehicle, according to proposal. In transpiration control, one makes small additions of pressure and/or mass to cavity beneath surface of porous skin on aerodynamic surface, thereby affecting rate of transpiration through porous surface. Porous skin located on forebody or any other suitable aerodynamic surface, with cavity just below surface. Device based on concept extremely lightweight, mechanically simple, occupies little volume in vehicle, and extremely adaptable.

  19. Anisotropic ferromagnetic polymer: A first step for their implementation in microfluidic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Roy, Damien; Dhungana, Daya; Ourry, Laurence; Faivre, Magalie; Ferrigno, Rosaria; Tamion, Alexandre; Dupuis, Véronique; Salles, Vincent; Deman, Anne-Laure

    2016-05-01

    Here we report on the influence of anisotropic microstructure on the performances of magnetically soft micro-patterns intended to integrate microfluidic systems. These micro-patterns are made of a composite obtained by mixing carbonyl iron particles with polydimethylsiloxane, which offers practical integration advantages. We investigated a wide range of magnetic particle loadings, from 10wt% to 83wt%, reaching magnetization as high as 630 kA/m. A homogeneous field was applied during the polymer's cross-linking phase so that to obtain a 1D arrangement of the particles in the solidified polymer, along the field direction. Here we present the results obtained for square-based micro-pillars prepared under a magnetic field applied along one of its diagonal. We assessed the magnetic anisotropy owing to the particles' spatial arrangement by comparing the magnetization processes along the two diagonals of the micro-pillar's base. The magnetic susceptibilities along the two directions differ from a factor greater than three. The results can be described in terms of high aspect ratio and porous magnetic agglomerates.

  20. Anisotropic viscoelastic-viscoplastic continuum model for high-density cellulose-based materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjahjanto, D. D.; Girlanda, O.; Östlund, S.

    2015-11-01

    A continuum material model is developed for simulating the mechanical response of high-density cellulose-based materials subjected to stationary and transient loading. The model is formulated in an infinitesimal strain framework, where the total strain is decomposed into elastic and plastic parts. The model adopts a standard linear viscoelastic solid model expressed in terms of Boltzmann hereditary integral form, which is coupled to a rate-dependent viscoplastic formulation to describe the irreversible plastic part of the overall strain. An anisotropic hardening law with a kinematic effect is particularly adopted in order to capture the complex stress-strain hysteresis typically observed in polymeric materials. In addition, the present model accounts for the effects of material densification associated with through-thickness compression, which are captured using an exponential law typically applied in the continuum description of elasticity in porous media. Material parameters used in the present model are calibrated to the experimental data for high-density (press)boards. The experimental characterization procedures as well as the calibration of the parameters are highlighted. The results of the model simulations are systematically analyzed and validated against the corresponding experimental data. The comparisons show that the predictions of the present model are in very good agreement with the experimental observations for both stationary and transient load cases.